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Sample records for normalized ree patterns

  1. Origin of dolomites in a downslope biostrome, Jefferson Formation (Frasnian), central Idaho: evidence from REE patterns, stable isotopes, and petrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorobek, S.L.

    1987-08-01

    A completely dolomitized coral-stromatoporoid biostrome occurs at the top of the Dark Dolomite member of the Jefferson Formation (Frasnian) at Grandview Canyon, Lost River Range, central Idaho. The biostrome overlies a thick sequence of dolostones that were deposited in slope to deep ramp settings. The biostrome, therefore, formed in an open marine setting after shallowing of deep water environments. Zoned dolospar cement fills dissolution vugs and tectonic fractures. Stable isotopes for zoned dolospar are -13.1 to -6.5 per thousand delta/sup 18/O (average - 11.5) and -1.5 to -0.1 per thousand delta/sup 13/C (average -0.4). REE patterns for zoned dolospar have positive Ce anomalies, but total REE abundance is similar to REE abundance for replacive dolomites. Stratigraphic occurrence in an open marine setting, stable isotopes, and REE patterns suggest replacive dolomite phases formed during shallow burial diagenesis with significant involvement of nonevaporated sea water. More negative Ce anomalies near the top of the biostrome suggest a diagenetic overprint by oxidizing meteoric waters. Zoned dolospar probably formed from warmer, reducing burial fluids. Carbon for zoned dolospar probably was recycled from preexisting dolomite. These data may be useful for interpreting the origin of other anomalous platform dolostones.

  2. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians.

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    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-06-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  3. Rare earth elements (REE) and yttrium in stream waters, stream sediments, and Fe Mn oxyhydroxides: Fractionation, speciation, and controls over REE + Y patterns in the surface environment

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    Leybourne, Matthew I.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2008-12-01

    We have collected ˜500 stream waters and associated bed-load sediments over an ˜400 km 2 region of Eastern Canada and analyzed these samples for Fe, Mn, and the rare earth elements (REE + Y). In addition to analyzing the stream sediments by total digestion (multi-acid dissolution with metaborate fusion), we also leached the sediments with 0.25 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride (in 0.05 M HCl), to determine the REE + Y associated with amorphous Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxide phases. We are thus able to partition the REE into "dissolved" (primary sources, the host lithologies (i.e., mechanical dispersion) and hydromorphically transported (the labile fraction). Furthermore, Eu appears to be more mobile than the other REE, whereas Ce is preferentially removed from solution and accumulates in the stream sediments in a less labile form than the other REEs + Y. Despite poor statistical correlations between the REEs + Y and Mn in either the total sediment or partial extractions, based on apparent distribution coefficients and the pH of the stream waters, we suggest that either sediment organic matter and/or possibly δ-MnO 2/FeOOH are likely the predominant sinks for Ce, and to a lesser extent the other REE, in the stream sediments.

  4. Reaction of seawater with fresh mid-ocean ridge gabbro creates ';atypical' REE pattern and high REE fluid fluxes: Experiments at 425 and 475 °C, 400 and 1000 bar

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    Beermann, O.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Holzheid, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    High-temperature MOR hydrothermalism significantly affects ocean chemistry. The Sisters Peak (SP) hydrothermal field at 5°S on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) emanates fluids >400°C [1] that have high concentrations of H2, transition metals, and rare earth elements (REE) exhibiting ';atypical' REE pattern characterized by depletions of LREE and HREE relative to MREE and no Eu anomaly [2]. This is in contrast to the ';typical' LREE enrichment and strong positive Eu anomaly known from many MOR vent fluids observed world-wide [e.g., 3]. Besides temperature, the seawater-to-rock ratio (w/r ratio) has significant control on the fluid chemistry [e.g., 4, 5]. To understand how vent fluid REE-signatures are generated during water-rock interaction processes we reacted unaltered gabbro with natural bottom seawater at 425 °C and 400 bar and at 425 and 475 °C at 1000 bar at variable w/r (mass) ratios ranging from 0.5-10 by using cold seal pressure vessels (CSPV). The run durations varied from 3-72 h. Reacted fluids were analysed for major and trace elements by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. In our experiments, ';atypical' REE fluid pattern similar to those of SP fluids were obtained at high w/r ratio (5 and 10) that might be characteristic for focused fluid-flow along e.g., detachment faults at slow-spreading MOR [6]. In contrast, more ';typical'-like REE pattern with elevated LREE and slightly positive Eu anomalies have been reproduced at low w/r ratio (0.5-1). Results of numerical simulations imply that strong positive Eu anomalies of fluids and altered gabbro from high temperature MOR hydrothermal systems can be created by intense rock leaching processes at high w/r ratio (5-10). This suggests that hydrothermal circulation through the ocean crust creates ';typical' REE fluid pattern with strong positive Eu anomalies if seawater reacts with gabbroic host rock that has been already leached in REE at high fluid fluxes. Simulations of the temporal chemical evolution of

  5. Assessment of bioaccumulation of REEs by plant species in a mining area by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain Md Anawar; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Nuno Canha; Isabel Dionisio; Ho Manh Dung; Catarina Galinha; Pacheco, A.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Native plant species, lichens and tailings, sampled from a copper-sulphide mining area located in southern-eastern Portugal, were analysed by neutron activation analysis (INAA) for determination of rare earth elements (REEs). Values of ΣREEs and individual REEs concentration of tailing samples are higher than those of natural background concentrations. The higher values of REEs are found in modern slags and the mixture of oxidized gossan and sulphide disseminated country rocks when compared with the alluvial sediments contaminated by mine tailings. The total concentrations of light REEs are higher than those of heavy REEs in all tailing samples. Distribution patterns of PAAS-normalized REEs in mine tailings show slightly LREE enriched and flat HREE pattern with negative Eu anomaly. Lichens accumulated higher concentration of lanthanides than vascular plants. The elevated levels of REEs in lichen, native plant species and tailing samples reflect the contamination of REEs in Sao Domingos mining area. The Carlina corymbosa, Erica australis and Lavandula luisierra accumulated the higher amounts of La, Ce and other REEs than the other plant species grown in this mining area. (author)

  6. REE enrichment in granite-derived regolith deposits of the southeast United States: Prospective source rocks and accumulation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Simandl, G.J.; Neetz, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Southeastern United States contains numerous anorogenic, or A-type, granites, which constitute promising source rocks for REE-enriched ion adsorption clay deposits due to their inherently high concentrations of REE. These granites have undergone a long history of chemical weathering, resulting in thick granite-derived regoliths, akin to those of South China, which supply virtually all heavy REE and Y, and a significant portion of light REE to global markets. Detailed comparisons of granite regolith profiles formed on the Stewartsville and Striped Rock plutons, and the Robertson River batholith (Virginia) indicate that REE are mobile and can attain grades comparable to those of deposits currently mined in China. A REE-enriched parent, either A-type or I-type (highly fractionated igneous type) granite, is thought to be critical for generating the high concentrations of REE in regolith profiles. One prominent feature we recognize in many granites and mineralized regoliths is the tetrad behaviour displayed in REE chondrite-normalized patterns. Tetrad patterns in granite and regolith result from processes that promote the redistribution, enrichment, and fractionation of REE, such as late- to post- magmatic alteration of granite and silicate hydrolysis in the regolith. Thus, REE patterns showing tetrad effects may be a key for discriminating highly prospective source rocks and regoliths with potential for REE ion adsorption clay deposits.

  7. U-Pb, Nd isotope and REE geochemistry in eclogites from the Cabo Ortegal Complex, Galicia, Spain: an example of REE immobility conserving MORB-like patterns during high-grade metamorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard-Griffiths, J.; Peucat, J.-J.; Cornichet, J.; Iglesias Ponce de Leon, M.; Gil Ibarguchi, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    REE abundances and Nd isotopic compositions were determined on representative samples of eclogite from the Cabo Ortegal Complex of northern Spain. Zircons were also separated from a whole-rock eclogite and analysed by the U-Pb radiometric method. Results indicate that eclogite facies metamorphism occurred between 480 and 420 Ma ago, but no precise constraint can be placed on the protolith age. The REE patterns observed suggest that there has been no significant alteration of the protolith whole-rock systems and that high-grade metamorphism has had little effect on the more mobile LREE. The eclogite protoliths were probably derived from ancient mantle sources with geochemical characteristics very similar to present-day MORB sources. This implies that LREE-depleted (N-type) tholeiites have been erupted at constructive plate margins since at least the early Palaeozoic and possibly long before. The Cabo Ortegal eclogites are allochthonous. They have been thrust up on to the continent and thus they can be compared to other eclogites which also show MORB-like characteristics (e.g., 90% of the eclogites of Vendee area of western France). (orig.)

  8. Determination of the contents and distribution characteristics of REE in natural plants by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Q.; Sun, J.X.; Chen, H.M.; Guo, F.Q.

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of 8 REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in 17 species of plants and their host soil, which were collected from a rare earth ore area located in the south of China, have been determined by INAA. The chondritic normalized REE patterns for different parts of plants (e.g., leaf, stem and root) and their host soils were studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of REE for most plants in the sampling area were elevated. Particularly, the leaves of the fern (Dicranopteris dichotoma) contain extremely high concentration of the total REE (675-3358 μg/g). Generally, these REE distribution patterns in every part of plants were very similar and reflected the characteristics of their host soils. However, the chondritic normalized REE patterns in some plants relative to the host soil revealed obvious fractionation, such as the depletion of the heavy REE (for fern, Citrus reticulata and Brassia campestris), the heavy REE enrichment (for Camellia sinensis, Camellia oleifera and Ziziphus) and the Ce positive anomaly (for Gardenia jasminoides). (author)

  9. Crystallization process of zircon and fergusonite during hydrothermal alteration in Nechalacho REE deposit, Thor Lake, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kon, Y.; Tsunematsu, M.

    2012-04-01

    The core samples of two drill holes, which penetrate sub-horizontal mineralized horizons at Nechalacho REE deposit in the Proterozoic Thor Lake syenite, Canada, were studied in order to clarify magmatic and hydrothermal processes that enriched HFSE (e.g. Zr, Nb, Y and REE). Zircon is the most common REE minerals in Nechalacho REE deposit. The zircon is divided into five types as follows: Type-1 zircon occurs as single grain in phlogopite and the chondrite-normalized REE pattern is characterized by a steeply-rising slope from the LREE to the HREE with a positive Ce-anomaly and negative Eu-anomaly. This chemical characteristic is similar to that of igneous zircon. Type-2 zircon consists of HREE-rich magmatic porous core and LREE-Nb-F-rich hydrothermal rim. This type zircon is mostly included in phlogopite and fluorite, and occasionally in microcline. Type-3 zircon is characterized by euhedral to anhedral crystal, occurring in a complex intergrowth with REE fluorocarbonates. Type-3 zircons have high contents of REE, Nb and fluorine. Type-4 zircon consists of porous-core and -rim zones, but their chemical compositions are similar to each other. This type zircon is a subhedral crystal rimmed by fergusonite. Type-5 zircon is characterized by smaller, porous and subhedral to anhedral crystals. The interstices between small zircons are filled by fergusonite. Type-4 and -5 zircons show low REE and Nb contents. Occurrences of these five types of zircon are different according to the depth and degree of the alteration by hydrothermal solutions rich in F- and CO3 of the two drill holes, which permit a model for evolution of the zircon crystallization in Nechalacho REE deposit as follows: (1) type-1 (single magmatic zircon) is formed in miaskitic syenite. (2) LREE-Nb-F-rich hydrothermal zircon formed around HREE-rich magmatic zircon (type-2 zircon); (3) type-3 zircon crystallized thorough F and CO3-rich hydrothermal alteration of type-2 zircon which formed the complex

  10. REE controls in ultramafic hosted MOR hydrothermal systems: An experimental study at elevated temperature and pressure

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    Allen, Douglas E.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2005-02-01

    A hydrothermal experiment involving peridotite and a coexisting aqueous fluid was conducted to assess the role of dissolved Cl - and redox on REE mobility at 400°C, 500 bars. Data show that the onset of reducing conditions enhances the stability of soluble Eu +2 species. Moreover, Eu +2 forms strong aqueous complexes with dissolved Cl - at virtually all redox conditions. Thus, high Cl - concentrations and reducing conditions can combine to reinforce Eu mobility. Except for La, trivalent REE are not greatly affected by fluid speciation under the chemical and physical condition considered, suggesting control by secondary mineral-fluid partitioning. LREE enrichment and positive Eu anomalies observed in fluids from the experiment are remarkably similar to patterns of REE mobility in vent fluids issuing from basalt- and peridotite-hosted hydrothermal systems. This suggests that the chondrite normalized REE patterns are influenced greatly by fluid speciation effects and secondary mineral formation processes. Accordingly, caution must be exercised when using REE in hydrothermal vent fluids to infer REE sources in subseafloor reaction zones from which the fluids are derived. Although vent fluid patterns having LREE enrichment and positive Eu anomalies are typically interpreted to suggest plagioclase recrystallization reactions, this need not always be the case.

  11. Rare earth elements (REEs in vertebrate microremains from the upper Pridoli Ohesaare beds of Saaremaa Island, Estonia: geochemical clues to palaeoenvironment c

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    Živilė Žigaitė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth element (REE compositions of Nostolepis sp. scales, spines, plates and tesserae from Ohesaare bone beds were measured by in situ microsampling using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. The obtained REE concentrations, normalized to Post-Archean Australian Shale concentrations, were evaluated using basic geochemical calculations and quantifications. The REE compositions were nearly identical across all the morphotypes and histologies of Nostolepis microremains, showing flat REE patterns with slight depletion in heavy REEs. There was no visible enrichment in middle REEs, indicating good geochemical preservation of bioapatite and absence of any pronounced fractionated REE incorporation during later stages of diagenesis. The shale-normalized (La/YbSN and (La/SmSN REE ratio compilations indicated adsorption as the dominating REE uptake mechanism across all datapoints. The absence of well-defined Ce anomaly suggested oxic palaeoseawater conditions, which agrees with the existing interpretations of the Ohesaare sequence as high-energy shoal and regressive open ocean sedimentary environments.

  12. High contents of rare earth elements (REEs) in stream waters of a Cu-Pb-Zn mining area.

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    Protano, G; Riccobono, F

    2002-01-01

    Stream waters draining an old mining area present very high rare earth element (REE) contents, reaching 928 microg/l as the maximum total value (sigmaREE). The middle rare earth elements (MREEs) are usually enriched with respect to both the light (LREEs) and heavy (HREEs) elements of this group, producing a characteristic "roof-shaped" pattern of the shale Post-Archean Australian Shales-normalized concentrations. At the Fenice Capanne Mine (FCM), the most important base metal mine of the study area, the REE source coincides with the mine tailings, mostly the oldest ones composed of iron-rich materials. The geochemical history of the REEs released into Noni stream from wastes in the FCM area is strictly determined by the pH, which controls the REE speciation and in-stream processes. The formation of Al-rich and mainly Fe-rich flocs effectively scavenges the REEs, which are readily and drastically removed from the solution when the pH approaches neutrality. Leaching experiments performed on flocs and waste materials demonstrate that Fe-oxides/oxyhydroxides play a key role in the release of lanthanide elements into stream waters. The origin of the "roof-shaped" REE distribution pattern as well as the peculiar geochemical behavior of some lanthanide elements in the aqueous system are discussed.

  13. Normal hepatic vein patterns on ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Jin; Chae, Yoo Soon; Park, Hea Yeoung; Park, Bok Hwan; Kim, Yang Sook

    1987-01-01

    Understanding of the anatomy of the hepatic vein is important in manipulation for transplantation of the liver, hepatectomy and the treatment of hepatic trauma with avulsion of the hepatic vein. Demonstrated of the inferior right hepatic vein (IRHV) is also important; in some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, thrombus can be seen in the IRHV; in primary Budd-Chiari syndrome, the IRHV is main draining vein; during hepatectomy, the postero-inferior segment of the right lobe and draining IRHV can be preserved. For some 10 months ultrasound examination was done in a total of 124 patients with normal liver function with special emphasis on the hepatic vein, their branches, and the IRHV, and analysed in terms of branching pattern and relative size of the hepatic vein and the detection rate of the IRHV.

  14. Normalized GNSS Interference Pattern Technique for Altimetry

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    Miguel Angel Ribot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that reflected signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS can be used for altimetry applications, such as monitoring of water levels and determining snow height. Due to the interference of these reflected signals and the motion of satellites in space, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR measured at the receiver slowly oscillates. The oscillation rate is proportional to the change in the propagation path difference between the direct and reflected signals, which depends on the satellite elevation angle. Assuming a known receiver position, it is possible to compute the distance between the antenna and the surface of reflection from the measured oscillation rate. This technique is usually known as the interference pattern technique (IPT. In this paper, we propose to normalize the measurements in order to derive an alternative model of the SNR variations. From this model, we define a maximum likelihood estimate of the antenna height that reduces the estimation time to a fraction of one period of the SNR variation. We also derive the Cramér–Rao lower bound for the IPT and use it to assess the sensitivity of different parameters to the estimation of the antenna height. Finally, we propose an experimental framework, and we use it to assess our approach with real GPS L1 C/A signals.

  15. Distinct 238U/235U ratios and REE patterns in plutonic and volcanic angrites: Geochronologic implications and evidence for U isotope fractionation during magmatic processes

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    Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-09-01

    Angrites are differentiated meteorites that formed between 4 and 11 Myr after Solar System formation, when several short-lived nuclides (e.g., 26Al-26Mg, 53Mn-53Cr, 182Hf-182W) were still alive. As such, angrites are prime anchors to tie the relative chronology inferred from these short-lived radionuclides to the absolute Pb-Pb clock. The discovery of variable U isotopic composition (at the sub-permil level) calls for a revision of Pb-Pb ages calculated using an ;assumed; constant 238U/235U ratio (i.e., Pb-Pb ages published before 2009-2010). In this paper, we report high-precision U isotope measurement for six angrite samples (NWA 4590, NWA 4801, NWA 6291, Angra dos Reis, D'Orbigny, and Sahara 99555) using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry and the IRMM-3636 U double-spike. The age corrections range from -0.17 to -1.20 Myr depending on the samples. After correction, concordance between the revised Pb-Pb and Hf-W and Mn-Cr ages of plutonic and quenched angrites is good, and the initial (53Mn/55Mn)0 ratio in the Early Solar System (ESS) is recalculated as being (7 ± 1) × 10-6 at the formation of the Solar System (the error bar incorporates uncertainty in the absolute age of Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions - CAIs). An uncertainty remains as to whether the Al-Mg and Pb-Pb systems agree in large part due to uncertainties in the Pb-Pb age of CAIs. A systematic difference is found in the U isotopic compositions of quenched and plutonic angrites of +0.17‰. A difference is also found between the rare earth element (REE) patterns of these two angrite subgroups. The δ238U values are consistent with fractionation during magmatic evolution of the angrite parent melt. Stable U isotope fractionation due to a change in the coordination environment of U during incorporation into pyroxene could be responsible for such a fractionation. In this context, Pb-Pb ages derived from pyroxenes fraction should be corrected using the U isotope composition

  16. Rare earth elements (REE) as natural and applied tracers in the catchment area of Gessental valley, former uranium mining area of Eastern Thuringia, Germany

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    Buechel, G.; Merten, D.; Geletneky, J. W.; Kothe, E.

    2003-04-01

    Between 1947 and 1990 about 113.000 t of uranium were excavated at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg (Eastern Thuringia, Germany). The legacy consists of more than 200 million m^3 of metasedimentary rocks rich in organic matter, sulfides and heavy metals originally deposited in mining heaps at the surface. The metasedimentary rocks formed under anoxic conditions about a 400 Mio. years ago are now exposed to oxic conditions. The oxidation of markasite and pyrite results in the formation of H_2SO_4. The formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) leads to high concentrations of uranium, rare earth elements (REE) and other heavy metals in surface water, seepage water and groundwater. This mobilization is due to alteration enhanced by high microbial activity and low pH. The tolerance mechanisms towards heavy metal pollution of soil substrate and surface/groundwater has allowed the selection of microbes which have, e.g. specific transporter genes and which are associated to plants in symbiotic interactions like mycorrhiza. In order to follow the processes linking alteration of metasedimentary rocks to biological systems the use of tracers is needed. One group of such tracers occuring in high concentrations in the water phase at the Ronneburg mining site are the REE (La-Lu) which are featured by very similar chemical behaviour. They show smooth but continuous variations of their chemical behaviour as a function of atomic number. For seepage water of the waste rock dump Nordhalde - sampled over a period of two years - the shale normalized REE patterns show enrichment of heavy REE and only minor variations, although the concentration differs. At sampling points in the surface water and in groundwater rather similar REE patterns were observed. Thus, REE can be used as tracers to identify diffuse inflow of REE-rich acid mine drainage of the dumps into the creek and the sediments. The absolute concentrations of REE in the creek and in ground water are up to 1000 times

  17. Tinjauan Kemungkinan Sebaran Unsur Tanah Jarang (REE di Lingkungan Panas Bumi

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    Danny Zulkifli Herman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20091Geothermal areas occur mainly in an environment of volcanic/magmatic arc where magma chambers play a role as heat sources. The environment is situated within the convergent plate boundaries. A variety of igneous rocks is associated with this environment ranging from basalt (gabbro to rhyolite (granite but andesite is normally the most abundant igneous rock. The most obvious geothermal indications are exhibited by some surface manifestations comprising hot water seepage, fumaroles, hot spring, geyser, and hydrotermal alteration zones which are being evidences of an active hydrothermal system beneath the surface as a part of volcanism. Despite being a causal factor for alteration of country rocks, most hydrothermal fluids enable to change distribution pattern and content of rare earth elements (REE for instance Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Sm, Nd, and Y particularly during a reaction process. This may have a connection with development of element mobility rates, whilst the characteristics of REE pattern within hydrothermal fluid would have a high variable due to dependency of their original magma source. Considering the important role of hydrothermal fluid in REE mobility development, it is inspired to review the possible relationship of active hydrothermal system and potency of REE distribution pattern in areas of geothermal manifestation.  

  18. Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization

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    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

  19. Evaluation of corneal higher order aberrations in normal topographic patterns

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    Ali Mirzajani

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Based on results in this study, there were a good correlation between corneal topographic pattern and corneal HOAs in normal eyes. These results indicate that the corneal HOAs values are largely determined by the topographic patterns. A larger sample size would perhaps have been beneficial to yield in more accurate outcomes.

  20. REE partitioning between apatite and melt in a peralkaline volcanic suite, Kenya Rift Valley

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    Macdonald, R.; Baginski, B.; Belkin, H.E.; Dzierzanowski, P.; Jezak, L.

    2009-01-01

    Electron microprobe analyses are presented for fluorapatite phenocrysts from a benmoreite-peralkaline rhyolite volcanic suite from the Kenya Rift Valley. The rocks have previously been well characterized petrographically and their crystallization conditions are reasonably well known. The REE contents in the M site increase towards the rhyolites, with a maximum britholite component of ~35 mol.%. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are rather flat between La and Sm and then decrease towards Yb. Sodium and Fe occupy up to 1% and 4%, respectively, of the M site. The major coupled substitution is REE3+ + Si4+ ??? Ca2+ + P5+. The substitution REE3+ + Na+ ??? 2Ca2+ has been of minor importance. The relatively large Fe contents were perhaps facilitated by the low fo2 conditions of crystallization. Zoning is ubiquitous and resulted from both fractional crystallization and magma mixing. Apatites in some rhyolites are relatively Y-depleted, perhaps reflecting crystallization from melts which had precipitated zircon. Mineral/glass (melt) ratios for two rhyolites are unusually high, with maxima at Sm (762, 1123). ?? 2008 The Mineralogical Society.

  1. Study on geochemical occurrences of REE in Wangqing oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jing-ru; Wang, Qing; Liu, Tong; Wei, Yan-zhen; Bai, Zhang [Northeast Dianli Univ., Jilin (China). Engineering Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Sequential chemical extraction experiment (SCEE) and Float- sink experiment (FSE) have been employed on oil shale research from Wangqing, Jilin province China, in order to determine the binding forms of rare earth elements (REE) in oil shale. The REE contents were determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Wangqing oil shale was screened into specific gravity density level: <1.5g/cm{sup 3}, 1.5-1.6g/cm{sup 3}, 1.6-2.0g/cm{sup 3}, 2.0-2.4g/cm{sup 3}, >2.4g/cm{sup 3}. The mode of occurrences of rare earth elements in Wangqing oil shale was studied by six-step SCEE. FSE results show that REEs in Wangqing oil shale exist mainly in inorganic minerals and more in excluded mineral, while SCEE results show that REEs of Wangqing oil shale is primarily occurred in minerals, including carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, sulfide, and Si-minerals. FSE and SCEE results fully illustrate excluded mineral is mainly mode of occurrence of REEs in Wangqing oil shale, whereas inorganic minerals and organic matter is not that. The REE distribution pattern curves of FSE density and SCEE fraction products are similar with that of raw oil shale. The REE in different densities products has a close connection with terrigenous clastic rock, and the supply of terrestrial material is stable.

  2. REE geochemistry and genesis of Daxin uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhixing; Qi Fucheng; He Zhongbo; Zhang Zilong

    2011-01-01

    Through the analysis on typical REE parameters,chondrite-normalized REE patterns and hierarchical cluster analysis of rocks in the structural-geochemical zonation in Daxin uranium deposit, the paper discusses the uranium source and genesis. The study shows that the uranium source mainly came from Cambrian System. The Devonian System is maily as the favorable room for saving ores in addition to pre-concentrated room for uranium. Underground water resulted from early and late Yanshanian movement and the heating of volcanic rock was turned into geothermal water and it was moved upward by the force of tectonic movement. The geothermal water mainly extracted active uranium from the Cambrian rocks, then moved upward along main regional fault (F2) connecting the Cambrian rocks and the Devonian rocks until it arrived in structural fracture zone which was controlled by secondary faults (F13, F23, F33). At last, the uranium element in geothermal water was precipitated and concentrated into the uranium deposit in reducing environment of enriched organic material and pyrite. (authors)

  3. Petrological significance of REE in uraninite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue; Li Yuexiang; Xu Zhan.

    1992-01-01

    According to the petrological study of Zhuguangshan and Huanglongmiao granites and REE in uraninite from these granites, it can be concluded that REE contents in uraninite and granites are positively correlative; the partition characteristics of REE in uraninite are related to the acidity of initial rocks; and the fractionation degree of REE in uraninite reflects the differentiation degree of initial rocks

  4. Petrological significance of REE in uraninite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng; Yuexiang, Li; Zhan, Xu

    1992-09-01

    According to the petrological study of Zhuguangshan and Huanglongmiao granites and REE in uraninite from these granites, it can be concluded that REE contents in uraninite and granites are positively correlative; the partition characteristics of REE in uraninite are related to the acidity of initial rocks; and the fractionation degree of REE in uraninite reflects the differentiation degree of initial rocks.

  5. Cognition of normal pattern of myocardial polar map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Yasuo; Sasaki, Jiro; Kashima, Kenji; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    1989-01-01

    When we diagnose the presence of ischemic heart disease by the diagrams of computer-generated polar map of exercised thallium images, the estimation of the presence of the deficit is not sufficient, because many normal subjects are considered as abnormal. The mean+2SD of defect severity index (DSI) of 118 normal subjects was 120, and we defined the patients with DSI≤120 as normal. But in 139 patients with their DSI≤120, 28 patients had significant coronary stenosis (>75%) and this means that false negative was 20%. We estimated the pattern of the deficit and found that in 109 of 111 subjects with normal coronary arteries, and 16 of 28 patients with ischemic heart disease, the patterns of the diagrams of polar map were patchy. This means that the diagram of the polar map show patchy pattern more frequently in normal subjects. In 125 patients whose diagrams of polar map were patchy, 16 patients with ischemic heart disease were included (false negative was 13%). We conclude that the estimation of DSI and the pattern of the diagram of polar map should be simultaneously considered and this makes the more accurate diagnosis possible. (author)

  6. Nature of parent rocks, mineralization styles and ore genesis of regolith-hosted REE deposits in South China: An integrated genetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan Hei Martin; Zhao, Wen Winston; Zhou, Mei-Fu

    2017-10-01

    Regolith-hosted rare earth element (REE) deposits, also called ion-adsorption or weathered crust elution-deposited REE deposits are distributed over Jiangxi, Guangdong, Fujian, Hunan, Guangxi and Yunnan provinces in South China. In general, these deposits can be categorized into the HREE-dominated type, for example the famous Zudong deposit in southern Jiangxi province and the LREE-dominated type, such as the Heling and Dingnan deposits in southern Jiangxi province. Most of these deposits form from weathering of biotite and muscovite granites, syenites, monzogranites, granodiorites, granite porphyries, and rhyolitic tuffs. The parent rocks are generally peraluminous, siliceous, alkaline and contain a variety of REE-bearing minerals. Mostly, REE patterns of regolith are inherited from the parent rocks, and therefore, characteristics of the parent rocks impose a significant control on the ore formation. Data compilation shows that autometasomatism during the latest stage of granite crystallization is likely essential in forming the HREE-enriched granites, whereas LREE-enriched granites could form through magmatic differentiation. These deposits are normally two- to three-fold, but could be up to ten-fold enrichment in REE compared to the parent granites, where the maximum enrichment usually occurs from the lower B to the upper C horizon. Ce shows different behavior with the other REEs. Strongly positive Ce anomalies commonly occur at the upper part of weathering profiles, likely due to oxidation of Ce3+ to Ce4+ and removal of Ce from soil solutions through precipitation of cerianite. Vertical pH and redox gradients in weathering crusts facilitate dissolution of REE-bearing minerals at shallow level and fixation of REE at depth through either adsorption on clay minerals or precipitation of secondary minerals. At the same time, mass removal of major elements plays an important role in concentrating REE in regolith. Combination of mass removal and eluviation

  7. Vocal fold contact patterns based on normal modes of vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Simeon L; Titze, Ingo R

    2018-05-17

    The fluid-structure interaction and energy transfer from respiratory airflow to self-sustained vocal fold oscillation continues to be a topic of interest in vocal fold research. Vocal fold vibration is driven by pressures on the vocal fold surface, which are determined by the shape of the glottis and the contact between vocal folds. Characterization of three-dimensional glottal shapes and contact patterns can lead to increased understanding of normal and abnormal physiology of the voice, as well as to development of improved vocal fold models, but a large inventory of shapes has not been directly studied previously. This study aimed to take an initial step toward characterizing vocal fold contact patterns systematically. Vocal fold motion and contact was modeled based on normal mode vibration, as it has been shown that vocal fold vibration can be almost entirely described by only the few lowest order vibrational modes. Symmetric and asymmetric combinations of the four lowest normal modes of vibration were superimposed on left and right vocal fold medial surfaces, for each of three prephonatory glottal configurations, according to a surface wave approach. Contact patterns were generated from the interaction of modal shapes at 16 normalized phases during the vibratory cycle. Eight major contact patterns were identified and characterized by the shape of the flow channel, with the following descriptors assigned: convergent, divergent, convergent-divergent, uniform, split, merged, island, and multichannel. Each of the contact patterns and its variation are described, and future work and applications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rees, Prof. Lord Martin (John)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1991 Honorary. Rees, Prof. Lord Martin (John) FRS. Date of birth: 23 June 1942. Address: Emeritus professor of Cosmology & Astrophysics, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, U.K.. Contact: Office: (+44-1223) 33 7548

  9. Incorporation of REE into leucophanite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Henrik Friis; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Williams, C.T.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structures of nine, and the chemical compositions of ten, natural samples of leucophanite, ideally NaCaBeSi2O6F, were investigated. The analysed samples display a large compositional variation with trace-element abundances >50,000 ppm, primarily due to rare earth elements (REE). Fromt...

  10. Patterns of pulmonary maturation in normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldkrand, J W; Slattery, D S

    1979-03-01

    Fetal pulmonary maturation may be a variable event depending on various feto-maternal environmental and biochemical influences. The patterns of maturation were studied in 211 amniotic fluid samples from 123 patients (normal 55; diabetes 23; Rh sensitization 19; preeclampsia 26). The phenomenon of globule formation from the amniotic fluid lipid extract and is relation to pulmonary maturity was utilized for this analysis. Validation of this technique is presented. A normal curve was constructed from 22 to 42 weeks; gestation and compared to the abnormal pregnancies. Patients with class A, B, and C diabetes and Rh-sensitized pregnancies had delayed pulmonary maturation. Patients with class D diabetes and preclampsia paralleled the normal course of maturation. A discussion of these results and their possible cause is presented.

  11. Reproducible pattern of microRNA in normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Line; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Gniadecki, Robert

    2010-01-01

    RNA expression pattern in normal human skin. Here we investigated miRNA expression profiles from skin biopsies of 8 healthy volunteers taken from sun protected and mildly photo damaged skin using the modified protocol for miRNA extraction. We were able to show a constant pattern of miRNA expression between......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis via specific targeting of messenger RNA (mRNA). Aberrant mRNA expression contributes to pathological processes such as carcinogenesis. To take advantage of miRNA profiling in skin disease it is essential to investigate mi...... different individuals. We did not find any significant differences in miRNA expression between sun protected and mildly photodamaged skin. These results may be valuable for future design of studies on miRNA expression in skin disease....

  12. Reproducible pattern of microRNA in normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Line; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Gniadecki, Robert

    2010-01-01

    RNA expression pattern in normal human skin. Here we investigated miRNA expression profiles from skin biopsies of 8 healthy volunteers taken from sun protected and mildly photo damaged skin using the modified protocol for miRNA extraction. We were able to show a constant pattern of miRNA expression between...... different individuals. We did not find any significant differences in miRNA expression between sun protected and mildly photodamaged skin. These results may be valuable for future design of studies on miRNA expression in skin disease.......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis via specific targeting of messenger RNA (mRNA). Aberrant mRNA expression contributes to pathological processes such as carcinogenesis. To take advantage of miRNA profiling in skin disease it is essential to investigate mi...

  13. Towards the challenging REE exploration in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Iwan

    2018-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are the seventeen elements, including fifteen from 57La to 71Lu, in addition to 21Sc and 39Y. In rock-forming minerals, rare earth elements typically occur in compounds as trivalent cations in carbonates, oxides, phosphates, and silicates. The REE occur in a wide range of rock types: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. REE are one of the critical metals in the world. Their occurrences are important to supply the world needs on high technology materials. Indonesia has a lot of potential sources of REE that are mainly from residual tin mining processes in Bangka islands, which are associated with radioactive minerals e.g. monazite and xenotime. However, the REE from monazite and xenotime are difficult to extract and contain high radioactivity. Granitoids are widely distributed in Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua. They also have a very thick weathering crusts. Important REE-bearing minerals are allanite and titanite. Their low susceptibilities during weathering result an economically potential REE concentration. I-/A- type granitoids and their weathered crusts are important REE sources in Indonesia. Unfortunately, their distribution and genesis have not been deeply studied. Future REE explorations challenge are mainly of the granitoids their weathered crusts. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of type of granitoids and their weathered crusts, the hydrothermally altered rocks, and clear REE regulation will help discover REE deposits in Indonesia.

  14. REE-substituted Ca-free zirconolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovsky, S.V.; Chernyavskaya, N.E.; Ochkin, A.V.; Yudintsev, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Previously we found zirconolite with composition (Gd 0.90 La 0.10 )(Zr 0.91 Ce 0.13 ) (Ti 1.20 Al 0.69 )O 7 in one of the ceramics designed for immobilization of REE-actinide HLW fraction. In this work we studied REEZrTiAlO 7 zirconolites with REE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, and Y. To obtain the samples, the oxide mixtures were milled, compacted into pellets at 200 MPa and sintered at 1450 deg C or melted at 1550 deg C in air. To convert Ce (IV) to Ce (III), one test was performed in reducing conditions (carbon was introduced in batches). The ceramics were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The XRD data revealed that the La-, Ce-, Pr-, and Nd-bearing samples were not single-phase ceramics. The La-bearing sample was composed of a major perovskite-type phase and a minor baddeleyite. The Ce-bearing samples consisted of major pyrochlore, cerianite-zirconia based cubic solid solution as a second in abundance phase, and minor zirconolite. The Pr-bearing ceramic contained major baddeleyite and a perovskite-type phase, and minor pyrochlore. In the Nd-, Sm-, Gd-, Tb-, and Y-bearing samples, zirconolite was predominant. Rare grains of REE-stabilized zirconia (fianite) were found by SEM in the Nd-, Sm, and Y-bearing ceramics. The Gd- and Tb-bearing samples were single phase. The average zirconolite formulas were Sm 1.06 Zr 1.07 Ti 1.00 Al 0.86 O 7 , Gd 1.01 Zr 1.05 Ti 0.98 Al 0.95 O 7 , Tb 0.93 Zr 1.09 Ti 1.08 Al 0.85 O 7 , and Y 1.05 Zr 1.03 Ti 1.03 Al 0.87 O 7 , hence, close to the specified zirconolite formula within the experimental error. XRD patterns of the Tb- and Y-bearing zirconolites are typical of zirconolite-2M variety. XRD patterns of the Nd-, Sm-, and Gd-bearing zirconolites differ from patterns typical of 2M, 3T, and 3O varieties known from reference data. The TEM study revealed a probable tetragonal symmetry of the zirconolite lattice on electron diffraction pattern

  15. Variation of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) in the Sulu and Celebes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study provides a dataset of rare earth elements (REEs) in the seawater of Sulu and Celebes Seas of Malaysian waters during the PMSE 09' expedition, which was conducted to define the pattern of REEs in both seas. Samples were collected, filtered and pre-concentrated on-board ship then analyzed by using ICP-MS.

  16. Mineralogy and REE geochemistry at Gomish-Tappeh Zn-Pb-Cu (Ag deposit, southwest of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Salehi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gomish-Tappeh Zn-Pb-Cu (Ag deposit is located 90 km southwest of Zanjan, in northwestern part of Urumieh-Dokhtar volcano-plutonic zone. Exposed rocks at the area include Oligo-Miocene volcano-sedimentary and sedimentary sequences as well as Pliocene volcano-plutonic sequence (andesite porphyry dykes, dacitic subvolcanic dome and rhyodacitic volcanics. Alteration in the deposit developed as silicic, silicic-sulfidic, sericitic, carbonate, argillic and propylitic. Main mineralization at the Gomish-Tappeh deposit is observed as veins occurring in a steeply-deeping normal fault defined by an NE-SW trend in host rocks such as dacitic crystal litic tuff, dacitic subvolcanic dome, specifically the rhyolitic tuff. Paragenetic minerals in the ore veins consist of pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, low-Fe sphalerite, galena, tetrahedrite and specularite. Gangue minerals accompanying the ores include quartz, calcite, chlorite, sericite and clay minerals. Based on geochemical data, average grades for samples from the ore veins at the Gomish-Tappeh deposit are: 4% Pb, 6% Zn, 2% Cu and 88 ppm Ag. Moreover, REE distribution patterns for altered samples of the dacitic subvolcanic dome and acidic tuff when compared with fresh samples, show enrichment in LREE, while HREE demonstrate various bahaviours. The negative Eu anomaly in chondrite-normalized REE patterns for these rocks is related to the increase in fluid/rock ratio and destruction of those grains of plagioclase enriched in Eu. REE distribution patterns for the silty tuff (footwall to the ore compared with acidic tuff represent enrichment in all REE as well as positive Eu anomalies. However, the ore samples indicate more enrichment in LREE/HREE ratios and higher Eu contents when compared with wallrock of the ore veins (silty tuff. This is due to the influence of chloric magmatic-hydrothermal fluids that caused alteration along the ore zone, releasing LREE and Eu from the host rocks and finally

  17. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  18. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000 and men (p = 0.000, and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000 and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021 than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  19. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-09-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  20. Zircon U-Pb ages and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of the highly fractionated granite with tetrad REE patterns in the Shamai tungsten deposit in eastern Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for the timing of mineralization and ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Si-Hong; Bagas, Leon; Hu, Peng; Han, Ning; Chen, Chun-Liang; Liu, Yuan; Kang, Huan

    2016-09-01

    The Shamai tungsten deposit is located in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Tungsten mineralization is closely related to the emplacement of fine- to medium-grained biotite monzogranite (G1) and porphyritic biotite monzogranite (G2) in the Shamai Granite. NW-trending joints and faults host orebodies in the Shamai Granite and Devonian hornfels. The mineralization is characterized by a basal veinlet zone progressing upwards to a thick vein zone followed by a mixed zone, a veinlet zone, and a thread vein zone at the top. The ore-related alteration typically consists of muscovite, greisen, and hornfels. In order to constrain the timing of the Shamai mineralization and discuss the ore genesis, muscovite Ar-Ar, molybdenite Re-Os, and zircon U-Pb geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic studies were completed on the deposit. The U-Pb zircon dating yielded weighted mean ages of 153 ± 1 Ma for G1 and 146 ± 1 Ma for G2. Muscovite from a wolframite-bearing quartz vein yielded an Ar-Ar plateau age of 140 ± 1 Ma, whereas two molybdenite samples yielded identical Re-Os model ages of 137 ± 2 Ma. These two ages are younger than the two monzogranites, suggesting a prolonged magmatic-hydrothermal interaction during tungsten mineralization. Major and trace element geochemistry shows that both G1 and G2 are characterized by high SiO2 and K2O contents, high A/CNK values (1.08-1.40), a spectacular tetrad effect in their REE distribution patterns, and non-CHARAC (charge-and-radius-controlled) trace element behavior. This suggests that both G1 and G2 are highly differentiated peraluminous rocks with strong hydrothermal interaction. The Nd-Hf isotope data for the Shamai Granite (εNd(t) between - 1.9 and + 7.4, ɛHf(t) from 5.2 to 12.8) are largely compatible with the general scenario for much of the Phanerozoic granite emplaced in the CAOB. It is here suggested that the Shamai Granite originated from partial melting of a juvenile lower crust with

  1. Ion-adsorption REEs in regolith of the Liberty Hill pluton, South Carolina, USA: An effect of hydrothermal alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Yesavage, Tiffany; Foley, Nora K.

    2017-01-01

    Ion-adsorbed rare earth element (REE) deposits supply the majority of world heavy REE production and substantial light REE production, but relatively little is known of their occurrence outside Southeast Asia. We examined the distribution and forms of REEs on a North American pluton located in the highly weathered and slowly eroding South Carolina Piedmont. The Hercynian Liberty Hill pluton experiences a modern climate that includes ~ 1500 mm annual rainfall and a mean annual temperature of 17 °C. The pluton is medium- to coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite with minor biotite granite facies. REE-bearing phases are diverse and include monazite, zircon, titanite, allanite, apatite and bastnäsite. Weathered profiles were sampled up to 7 m-deep across the ~ 400 km2 pluton. In one profile, ion-adsorbed REEs plus yttrium (REE + Y) ranged up to 581 mg/kg and accounted for up to 77% of total REE + Y in saprolite. In other profiles, ion-adsorbed REE + Y ranged 12–194 mg/kg and only accounted for 3–37% of totals. The profile most enriched in ion-adsorbed REEs was located along the mapped boundary of two granite facies and contained trioctahedral smectite in the saprolite, evidence suggestive of hydrothermal alteration of biotite at that location. Post-emplacement deuteric alteration can generate easily weathered REE phases, particularly fluorocarbonates. In the case of Liberty Hill, hydrothermal alteration may have converted less soluble to more soluble REE minerals. Additionally, regolith P content was inversely correlated with the fraction ion-adsorbed REEs, and weathering related secondary REE-phosphates were found in some regolith profiles. Both patterns illustrate how low P content aids in the accumulation of ion-adsorbed REEs. The localized occurrence at Liberty Hill sheds light on conditions and processes that generate ion-adsorbed REEs.

  2. Pattern visual evoked potentials in dyslexic versus normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Heravian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The sensitivity of PVEP has high validity to detect visual deficits in children with dyslexic problem. However, no significant difference was found between dyslexia and normal children using high contrast stimuli.

  3. Circadian pattern of blood pressure in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hem Prabha; Singh, R K; Singh, Urmila; Mehrotra, Seema; Verma, N S; Baranwal, Neelam

    2011-08-01

    AIMS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; To find out the circadian pattern of blood pressure in normotensive pregnant women and in women with preeclampsia. A cross-sectional prospective observational case control study. Blood pressure was sampled in thirty-five normotensive pregnant women (control) and thirty five preeclamptic women (study group) by using non-invasive automatic ambulatory blood pressure monitoring machine for 72 h. Blood pressure (BP) was not constant over 24 h period and it oscillated from time to time in control group. BP was maximum during early part of afternoon. However, in preeclampsia besides quantitative increase in BP, circadian BP oscillations were less pronounced and in around 50% subjects BP was maximum during evening and night hours. Both systolic and diastolic BP showed definite reproducible circadian pattern in both preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. This pattern both quantitatively and qualitatively was different in preeclamptic women. Standardized 24 h BP monitoring allows quantitative and qualitative evaluation of hypertensive status and is important for timing and dosing of antihypertensive medications.

  4. REE Distribution in Cultivated and No Cultivated Soils in Two Viticultural Areas of Central Chile: Mineralogical, Pedological and Anthropic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, P.; Townley, B.; Aburto, F.

    2017-12-01

    Within the scope of a Corfo-Innova Project (I+D Wines of Chile-University of Chile) we have recognized remarkable REE patterns in soils of two vineyards located in traditional vinicultural areas: Casablanca and Santa Cruz. Both vineyards have granitic parent rock, with similar petrographic features and REE patterns. We studied REE distribution on twelve cultivated soil profiles at each vineyard, where a full mineralogical, geochemical and pedogenic sampling and characterization was performed. To establish the effect of management no cultivated soil profiles were included from each vineyard location. REE in soil samples were measured by ICP-MS using two digestion methods: lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion to obtain REE contents in total soil and MMI® partial extraction technique for REE contents on bioavailable phases.Soils display similar signatures of REEs respect to the rock source at both vineyards, but showing relative enrichments in soils of Casablanca and depletion in soils of Santa Cruz. Bioavailable phase data indicates a relative depletion of LREEs compared to HREEs and different anomalies for Ce (positive vs negative) in different areas of the same vineyard. Similar patterns of soils and parent rock suggest that REEs are adequate tracers of lithological source. Enrichments and/or depletions of REE patterns in soils respect to the rock source and Ce anomalies, evidence differential pedogenetic processes occurring at each sampled site. Results of bioavailable phase are coherent with the immobilization and fractionation of LREEs by stable minerals within soils as clays and Fe oxides. Mineralogical results in soil thin sections of Casablanca evidence the occurrence of Ti phases as sphene, ilmenite and rutile, which probably control the relative REE enrichment, since these minerals are considered more stable under pedogenic conditions.Finally, cultivated soils show a depleted but analogous pattern of REE regarding to no cultivated soil, indicating the

  5. The giant Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit, China: Controversy and ore genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Rui Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bayan Obo ore deposit is the largest rare-earth element (REE resource, and the second largest niobium (Nb resource in the world. Due to the complicated element/mineral compositions and involving several geological events, the REE enrichment mechanism and genesis of this giant deposit still remains intense debated. The deposit is hosted in the massive dolomite, and nearly one hundred carbonatite dykes occur in the vicinity of the deposit. The carbonatite dykes can be divided into three types from early to late: dolomite, co-existing dolomite-calcite and calcite type, corresponding to different evolutionary stages of carbonatite magmatism based on the REE and trace element data. The latter always has higher REE content. The origin of the ore-hosting dolomite at Bayan Obo has been addressed in various models, ranging from a normal sedimentary carbonate rocks to volcano-sedimentary sequence, and a large carbonatitic intrusion. More geochemical evidences show that the coarse-grained dolomite represents a Mesoproterozoic carbonatite pluton and the fine-grained dolomite resulted from the extensive REE mineralization and modification of the coarse-grained variety. The ore bodies, distributed along an E–W striking belt, occur as large lenses and underwent more intense fluoritization and fenitization. The first episode mineralization is characterized by disseminated mineralization in the dolomite. The second or main-episode is banded and/or massive mineralization, cut by the third episode consisting of aegirine-rich veins. Various dating methods gave different mineralization ages at Bayan Obo, resulting in long and hot debates. Compilation of available data suggests that the mineralization is rather variable with two peaks at ∼1400 and 440 Ma. The early mineralization peak closes in time to the intrusion of the carbonatite dykes. A significant thermal event at ca. 440 Ma resulted in the formation of late-stage veins with coarse crystals of REE

  6. Determination of REE in urban park soils from Sao Paulo city for fingerprint of traffic emission contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Sigolo, Joel B.

    2009-01-01

    The study of rare earth elements (REE) distribution in urban environments has become very interesting in the last years, due to the increasing industrial use of these elements. The REE La, Ce and Nd are used in automobile converter catalysts to stabilize the catalyst support and to enhance the oxidation of pollutants. The honeycomb structure has a typical association of a high Ce (and often also La) concentration combined with high concentrations of Platinum Group Elements. Due to thermal and mechanical wear of catalysts, fine particles enriched in REE are released to the environment. These catalyst particles can accumulate in urban soils, mainly in soils located near high density traffic roads. The aim of this paper was to study the REE distribution and ratios in surface soil samples collected in fourteen urban public parks of Sao Paulo city, to assess the influence of vehicular emissions. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for the REE analysis. The diagrams normalized to chondrite values showed an enrichment of the light REE (La to Sm), in contrast to the heavy REE (Eu to Lu), with a negative anomaly of Eu. The results obtained indicated that the enrichment in REE is not clearly attributed to vehicular traffic, because of high background values associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  7. Homology and cohomology of Rees semigroup algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Niels; Gourdeau, Frédéric; White, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Let S by a Rees semigroup, and let 1¹(S) be its convolution semigroup algebra. Using Morita equivalence we show that bounded Hochschild homology and cohomology of l¹(S) is isomorphic to those of the underlying discrete group algebra....

  8. Illumination normalization based on simplified local binary patterns for a face verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Illumination normalization is a very important step in face recognition. In this paper we propose a simple implementation of Local Binary Patterns, which effectively reduces the variability caused by illumination changes. In combination with a likelihood ratio classifier, this illumination

  9. Rare earth element and strontium isotopic study of seamount-type limestones in Mesozoic accretionary complex of Southern Chichibu Terrane, central Japan. Implication for incorporation process of seawater REE into limestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Miura, Noriko; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Kawabe, Iwao

    2003-01-01

    Ishimaki and Tahara limestones occur as exotic blocks juxtaposed in the Mesozoic (Jurassic) accretionary complex of Southern Chichibu Terrane in eastern Aichi Prefecture, central Japan. They are supposed to be of the seamount-type limestone, since they have no terrigenous materials and are intimately associated with greenstones. REE (rare earth elements) and Sr isotopic studies for the limestones have been made in order to know their geochemical characteristics, ages and origins. Their 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, when referred to the seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve and relevant geological data, suggest that Ishimaki and Tahara limestones are the late Permian and the Carboniferous to the Early Permian, respectively. Two greenstone fragments found inside the Ishimaki limestone block and one greenstone sample associated with Tahara limestone block, resemble the Hawaiian alkali basalt in the their REE and Y patterns. This is supporting the idea that the limestone blocks may be parts of reef limestones on ancient volcanic seamounts. All the limestone samples, except three unusual Tahara ones, show seawater REE and Y signatures in their chondrite-normalized patterns. Their REE/Ca ratios, however, are 10 2 -10 4 times as high as those ratios of modern biogenic carbonates like corals and the seawater. Accordingly, seawater REE and Y were incorporated into the limestones, when originally biogenic carbonates transformed into inorganic calcite and its secondary growths occurred in diagenesis in contact with sufficient seawater. This view is favored by the reported REE partition experiment between calcite overgrowths and seawater solution. The seawater Ce anomaly as a function of water depth in the modern ocean is a key to infer the water depth of the REE and Y incorporation. The Ce anomalies given by log (Ce/Ce*) for about a half of Ishimaki samples and most of Tahara ones are between -0.5 and -0.2, which are compatible with the shallow water origin. Another half of Ishimaki samples

  10. Trace element and REE composition of five samples of the Yucca Mountain calcite-silica deposits. Special report No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, D.

    1993-07-01

    The attached materials document the results of part of a recent effort of geochemical sampling and analysis at Yucca Mountain and nearby regions. The efforts come as a result of interest in comprehensive analyses of rare earth elements (REE), lanthanum (La) through lutecium (Lu). Several additional, non-REE analyses were obtained as well. Commercially available REE analyses have proved to be insufficiently sensitive for geochemical purposes. Dr. Roman Schmitt at the Radiation Center at Oregon State University in Corvallis was sent five samples as a trial effort. The results are very encouraging. The purpose of compiling Dr. Schmitt's report and the other materials is to inform the sponsor of his independent observations of these results and other information that sent to him. To provide a more complete appreciation of the utility of REE analyses a copy of Dave Vaniman's recent article is included in which he notes that REE analyses from Yucca Mountain indicate the occurrence of two distinctly different REE patterns as do several other chemical parameters of the calcite-silica deposits. Our four samples with high equivalent CaCO 3 were collected from sites we believe to be spring deposits. One sample, 24D, is from southern Crater Flat which is acknowledged by U.S.G.S. investigators to be a spring deposit. All four of these samples have REE patterns similar to those from the saturated zone reported by Vaniman

  11. Petrography and Geochemistry (Trace, Ree and Pge of Pedda Cherlo Palle Gabbro-Diorite Pluton, Prakasam Igneous Province, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam K.S.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prakasam Igneous Province (PIP is an important geological domain in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC, found in the junction zone between the EDC and Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB. The Pedda Cherlo Palle (PCP gabbros are massive, leucocratic-mesocractic, and show cumulus textures with minerals plagioclase, cpx, and amphiboles. Compositionally, plagioclase is a labradorite-bytownite, cpx is diopside to augite, olivines are hyalosiderites and amphiboles are magnesiohornblendes. PCP gabbros have normal SiO2, high Al2O3, moderate to high TiO2, Na2O and medium Fe2O3, so, classified as subalkaline tholeiitic gabbros. Fractionated rare earth element (REE patterns, high abundance of large ion lithofile elements (LILE and transitional metals coupled with light REE (LREE relative enrichment over heavy REE (HREE and Nb are characteristics of partial melting of depleted mantle and melts that have undergone fractional crystalisation. These partial melts are enriched in LREE and LILE, due to the addition of slab derived sediment and fluids. PCP gabbros contain low abundance (5.1 to 24.6 ng/g of platinum group elements (PGE, and show an increase in the order Ir>Os>Pt>Ru»Pd>Rh. We propose that the subduction related intraoceanic island arc might have accreted to the southeastern margin of India to the east of Cuddapah basin in a collisional regime that took place during Ur to Rodinia amalgamations.

  12. Normal cranial bone marrow MR imaging pattern with age-related ADC value distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Pan Shinong; Yin Yuming; Li Wei; Chen Zhian; Liu Yunhui; Wu Zhenhua; Guo Qiyong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine MRI appearances of normal age-related cranial bone marrow and the relationship between MRI patterns and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Methods: Five hundred subjects were divided into seven groups based on ages. Cranial bone marrow MRI patterns were performed based on different thickness of the diploe and signal intensity distribution characteristics. ADC values of the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal bones on DWI were measured and calculated. Correlations between ages and ADC values, between patterns and ADC values, as well as the distribution of ADC values were analyzed. Results: Normal cranial bone marrow was divided into four types and six subtypes, Type I, II, III and IV, which had positive correlation with age increasing (χ 2 = 266.36, P 0.05). In addition, there was significant negative correlation between the ADC values and MRI patterns in the normal parietal and occipital bones (r = -0.691 and -0.750, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The combination of MRI features and ADC values changes in different cranial bones showed significant correlation with age increasing. Familiar with the MRI appearance of the normal bone marrow conversion pattern in different age group and their ADC value will aid the diagnosis and differential of the cranial bone pathology.

  13. Physical activity patterns in morbidly obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soyang; Mohammad, Jamal; Samuel, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    To compare physical activity patterns between morbidly obese and normal-weight women. Daily physical activity of 18 morbidly obese and 7 normal-weight women aged 30-58 years was measured for 2 days using the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) device. The obese group spent about 2 hr/day less standing and 30 min/day less walking than did the normal-weight group. Time spent standing (standing time) was positively associated with time spent walking (walking time). Age- and walking time-adjusted standing time did not differ according to weight status. Promoting standing may be a strategy to increase walking.

  14. Rees Coextensions of Finite, Negative Tomonoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrík, Milan; Vetterlein, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2017), s. 337-356 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP201/12/P055 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0051 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : totally ordered monoids * tomonoid partition * Rees coextension Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2016

  15. Normal Patterns of Deja Experience in a Healthy, Blind Male: Challenging Optical Pathway Delay Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old healthy, blind male, MT, who experiences normal patterns of deja vu. The optical pathway delay theory of deja vu formation assumes that neuronal input from the optical pathways is necessary for the formation of the experience. Surprisingly, although the sensation of deja vu is known to be experienced by blind…

  16. Geochemistry of trace elements and REE in phosphate deposits of el Sibaiya west AREA, nile valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.M.; Hussein, H.A.; Elkammar, A.A.; Mahdy, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The present work deals essentially with the study of the geochemistry of trace elements and rare earth elements (REE s) patterns in the upper cretaceous phosphate deposit in El Sibaiya west area located on the western side of the River Nile. About 20 Km south from Esna town, upper Egypt. It was evident throughout this study that the average shale normalized pattern of six analyzed rare earth elements indicates that the phosphate deposits under study were deposited under marine environment. In addition some geochemical ratios such as Cl/Br and Na/Br have been proposed as indicators of the paleosalinity of the upper cretaceous tethys compared with the nowadays sea. Uranium equilibrium status of the studied phosphate deposits suggests a remarkably secondary enrichment at the lower horizon at the expense of the upper one due to downward leaching. Such secondary enrichment of uranium is thought to take place under oxidizing vadose conditions by the action of descending meteoric water. 6 fig., 4 tab

  17. Lymphoscintigraphy in paediatric patients for suspected lymphoedema: normal variants, abnormal and syndromic patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, T.; Howman-Giles, R.; Martin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Background: Lymphoscintigraphy (LS) is the diagnostic test of choice differentiating lymphoedema from other causes of extremity swelling. The LS patterns in normal and congenital lymphoedema in the paediatric population are not well defined. The impact of LS on clinical decision making is also not well reported. Aims: 1. define normal LS patterns in the pediatric population 2. describe types of abnormality (aplasia, hypoplasia, hyperplasia/dilated system) 3. describe LS patterns in syndromic lymphatic vascular disease 4. correlate LS with clinical impact on patient management. Methods: Retrospective review of all paediatric patients who had LS from July 1996-April 2008 was undertaken. Indications, sites of abnormality, LS patterns and clinical outcome were reviewed. Results: 118 patients (3mths-21yrs, mean 6 yrs) underwent LS. Normal LS patterns and variations were identified in 57 pts (48%). Sixty-one scans (52%) were abnormal showing lymph node aplasia (11%), hypoplasia (17%), mixed-pattern (8%), hyperplasia/dilated system (4%) and other patterns ie intestinal/pulmonary lymphangiectasia and vascual lymphatic malformations (11%). Patients with no signs of lymphoedema may still have aplasia or hypoplasia on LS. Dermal back flow is not always seen in lymphoedema. Management impact related to diagnosis and potential for development of lymphoedema in other limbs, differentiation of lymphoedema in patients with other vascular anomalies, stratification for lymphoedema therapy or referral to the dysmorphology clinic. Conclusion: LS is a valuable tool in the evaluation of lymphoedema in pediatric patients. Recognition of scan patterns in patients with suspected lymphoedema or lymphatic vascular diseases is essential as it plays a major role in the clinical management.

  18. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the normal human eye and its expression pattern in selected eye tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinmei; Wu, Yazhen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme involved in neoplastic processes. The purpose of the present study is to investigate COX-2 expression in the normal human eye and the expression pattern in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining...... using antibodies against COX-2 was performed on paraffin sections of normal human eyes and selected eye tumours arising from cells expressing COX-2. Results: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression was found in various structures of the normal eye. Abundant expression was seen in the cornea, iris, ciliary body...... and retina. The COX-2 expression was less in tumours deriving from the ciliary epithelium and also in retinoblastoma. Conclusion: Cyclooxygenase-2 is constitutively expressed in normal human eyes. The expression of COX-2 is much lower in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells....

  19. Differences in dietary patterns between overweight and normal-weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Tabak, Izabela; Radiukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the differences in the dietary patterns of Polish overweight and normal weight adolescents. The study was carried out on a group of 1906 pupils from gymnasium (lower secondary school) aged 13-15 years, of whom 953 were overweight and 953 had normal body mass. The sample was taken from a representative group of 8386 pupils. Their height and body weight were measured, and their BMI was calculated. Overweight was defined as BMI ł85 percentile for gender and age. Using the method of "selection in pairs", each overweight pupil was paired with a pupil with normal body weight. The research tool was a self-reported questionnaire, containing questions regarding how often selected food products were usually consumed during the week, how regularly basic meals (breakfast, lunch, supper) were eaten, and data on snacking. Overweight adolescents consumed unhealthy products such as sweets and crisps significantly less often than their peers with appropriate body mass. Overweight girls ate dark bread significantly more often, and consumed soft drinks less often than their peers with normal weight. Overweight adolescents had more irregular meals than those with normal weight: only 44% overweight adolescents had breakfast every day, significantly less than adolescents with normal weight. Nevertheless, overweight teenagers snacked significantly less often than young people with normal body mass. The overweight teenagers also less often chose snacks with high fat content, sugar and salt, and more often vegetables, fruits, as well as yoghurt and kefir. 1. Our study shows that compliance of low energy diet alone does not ensure the maintenance of normal body weight. Irregularity of meals and breakfast skipping play an important role in developing overweight and obesity in adolescents. 2. In future studies on dietary patterns in a larger sample of adolescents, emphasis should be placed on adding questions about portion size, food preparation and meal time. Eating

  20. Molecular signatures in childhood acute leukemia and their correlations to expression patterns in normal hematopoietic subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Anna; Olofsson, Tor; Lindgren, David; Nilsson, Björn; Ritz, Cecilia; Edén, Patrik; Lassen, Carin; Råde, Johan; Fontes, Magnus; Mörse, Helena; Heldrup, Jesper; Behrendtz, Mikael; Mitelman, Felix; Höglund, Mattias; Johansson, Bertil; Fioretos, Thoas

    2005-12-27

    Global expression profiles of a consecutive series of 121 childhood acute leukemias (87 B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias, 11 T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and 23 acute myeloid leukemias), six normal bone marrows, and 10 normal hematopoietic subpopulations of different lineages and maturations were ascertained by using 27K cDNA microarrays. Unsupervised analyses revealed segregation according to lineages and primary genetic changes, i.e., TCF3(E2A)/PBX1, IGH@/MYC, ETV6(TEL)/RUNX1(AML1), 11q23/MLL, and hyperdiploidy (>50 chromosomes). Supervised discriminatory analyses were used to identify differentially expressed genes correlating with lineage and primary genetic change. The gene-expression profiles of normal hematopoietic cells were also studied. By using principal component analyses (PCA), a differentiation axis was exposed, reflecting lineages and maturation stages of normal hematopoietic cells. By applying the three principal components obtained from PCA of the normal cells on the leukemic samples, similarities between malignant and normal cell lineages and maturations were investigated. Apart from showing that leukemias segregate according to lineage and genetic subtype, we provide an extensive study of the genes correlating with primary genetic changes. We also investigated the expression pattern of these genes in normal hematopoietic cells of different lineages and maturations, identifying genes preferentially expressed by the leukemic cells, suggesting an ectopic activation of a large number of genes, likely to reflect regulatory networks of pathogenetic importance that also may provide attractive targets for future directed therapies.

  1. Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) using REE geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Mir Ali Asghar; Zadeh, Ghader Hossein; Emami, Mohamad Hashem

    2013-06-01

    Rare earth elements in apatites of different ore types show characteristic patterns which are related to different modes of formation of the ores. Most of the apatite-bearing iron ores are associated with alkaline magmas with LREE/HREE fractionation varying from moderate to steep. Iron-apatite deposits in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) have a high concentration of REE (more than 1000 ppm up to 2.5%), and show a strong LREE/HREE ratio with a pronounced negative Eu anomaly. This REE pattern is typical of magmatic apatite and quiet distinct from sedimentary apatites (phosphorites) which have a low REE contents and Ce negative anomalies. On the other hand, they are comparable to the REE patterns of apatites in Kiruna-type iron ores in different parts of the world. The REE patterns of apatites, iron-apatite ores and iron ores are similar and only have different REE contents. This similarity indicates a genetic relation for these rocks. Most of the iron-apatite deposits in Central Iran have similar REE patterns too, which in turn show a genetic relation for all of these deposits. This similarity indicates a similar origin and processes in their genesis. There are some small intrusions around some of the iron-apatite deposits that are petrographically identified as syenite and gabbro. These intrusions also have REE patterns similar to that of iron-apatite ores. This demonstrates a genetic relation between these intrusions and iron-apatite ores. The REE patterns of apatites in different deposits of Posht-e-Badam Block iron-apatite ores show an affinity to alkaline to sub-alkaline magmas and rifting environment. The alkaline host rocks of Central Iran iron-apatite ores are clearly related to an extensional setting where rifting was important (SSE-NNW fault lines). A probable source for this large scale ore forming processes is relatively low partial melting of mantle rocks. The ores have originated by magmatic differentiation as a late phase in the volcanic cycle

  2. Perception of Gait Patterns that Deviate from Normal and Symmetric Biped Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet eHandzic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the range of gait patterns that are perceived as healthy and human-like with the goal of understanding how much asymmetry is allowable in a gait pattern before other people start to notice a gait impairment. Specifically, this study explores if certain abnormal walking patterns can be dismissed as unimpaired or not uncanny. Altering gait biomechanics is generally done in the fields of prosthetics and rehabilitation, however the perception of gait is often neglected. Although a certain gait can be functional, it may not be considered as normal by observers. On the other hand, an abnormally perceived gait may be more practical or necessary in some situations, such as limping after an injury or stroke and when wearing a prosthesis. This research will help to find the balance between the form and function of gait. Gait patterns are synthetically created using a passive dynamic walker (PDW model that allows gait patterns to be systematically changed without the confounding influence from human sensorimotor feedback during walking. This standardized method allows the perception of specific changes in gait to be studied. The PDW model was used to produce walking patterns that showed a degree of abnormality in gait cadence, knee height, step length, and swing time created by changing the foot roll-over-shape, knee damping, knee location, and leg masses. The gait patterns were shown to participants who rated them according to separate scales of impairment and uncanniness. The results indicate that some pathological and asymmetric gait patterns are perceived as unimpaired and normal. Step time and step length asymmetries less than 5%, small knee location differences, and gait cadence changes of 25% do not result in a change in perception. The results also show that the parameters of a pathologically or uncanny perceived gait can be beneficially altered by increasing other independent parameters, in some sense masking the initial

  3. Physical activity patterns and estimated daily energy expenditures in normal and overweight tunisian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Fayçal; Bouhlel, Ezdine; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed; Shephard, Roy J

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the normality of physical activity patterns and energy expenditures in normal weight and overweight primary school students. Heart rate estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TEE), active energy expenditure (AEE), and activity patterns were made over 3 consecutive school days in healthy middle-class Tunisian children (46 boys, 44 girls, median age (25(th)-75(th)) percentile, 9.2 (8.8-9.9) years. Our cross-section included 52 students with a normal body mass index (BMI) and 38 who exceeded age-specific BMI limits. TEE, AEE and overall physical activity level (PAL) were not different between overweight children and those with a normal BMI [median values (25(th)-75(th)) 9.20 (8.20-9.84) vs. 8.88 (7.42-9.76) MJ/d; 3.56 (2.59-4.22) vs. 3.85 (2.77-4.78) MJ/d and 1.74 (1.54-2.04) vs. 1.89 (1.66-2.15) respectively]. Physical activity intensities (PAI) were expressed as percentages of the individual's heart rate reserve (%HRR). The median PAI for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals [16.3 (14.2-18.9) vs. 20.6 (17.9-22.3) %HRR, p spend more time in moderate activity and less time in sedentary pursuits than overweight children.

  4. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Van Horn, John D; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42 morphological features, achieved 69

  5. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A.; Sanmiguel, Claudia P.; Van Horn, John D.; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. Aim To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Methods Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. Results 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42

  6. Pattern Matching Framework to Estimate the Urgency of Off-Normal Situations in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Park, Sang Jun; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo Jin; Park, Soon Yeol [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Yeonggwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    According to power plant operators, it was said that they could quite well recognize off-normal situations from an incipient stage and also anticipate the possibility of upcoming trips in case of skilled operators, even though it is difficult to clarify the cause of the off-normal situation. From the interview, we could assure the feasibility of two assumptions for the diagnosis of off-normal conditions: One is that we can predict whether an accidental shutdown happens or not if we observe the early stage when an off-normal starts to grow. The other is the observation at the early stage can provide the remaining time to a trip as well as the cause of such an off-normal situation. For this purpose, the development of on-line monitoring systems using various data processing techniques in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been the subject of increasing attention and becomes important contributor to improve performance and economics. Many of studies have suggested the diagnostic methodologies. One of representative methods was to use the distance discrimination as a similarity measure, for example, such as the Euclidean distance. A variety of artificial intelligence techniques such as a neural network have been developed as well. In addition, some of these methodologies were to reduce the data dimensions for more effectively work. While sharing the same motivation with the previous achievements, this study proposed non-parametric pattern matching techniques to reduce the uncertainty in pursuance of selection of models and modeling processes. This could be characterized by the following two aspects: First, for overcoming considering only a few typical scenarios in the most of the studies, this study is getting the entire sets of off-normal situations which are anticipated in NPPs, which are created by a full-scope simulator. Second, many of the existing researches adopted the process of forming a diagnosis model which is so-called a training technique or a parametric

  7. Pattern Matching Framework to Estimate the Urgency of Off-Normal Situations in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Park, Sang Jun; Heo, Gyun Young; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jin; Park, Soon Yeol

    2010-01-01

    According to power plant operators, it was said that they could quite well recognize off-normal situations from an incipient stage and also anticipate the possibility of upcoming trips in case of skilled operators, even though it is difficult to clarify the cause of the off-normal situation. From the interview, we could assure the feasibility of two assumptions for the diagnosis of off-normal conditions: One is that we can predict whether an accidental shutdown happens or not if we observe the early stage when an off-normal starts to grow. The other is the observation at the early stage can provide the remaining time to a trip as well as the cause of such an off-normal situation. For this purpose, the development of on-line monitoring systems using various data processing techniques in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been the subject of increasing attention and becomes important contributor to improve performance and economics. Many of studies have suggested the diagnostic methodologies. One of representative methods was to use the distance discrimination as a similarity measure, for example, such as the Euclidean distance. A variety of artificial intelligence techniques such as a neural network have been developed as well. In addition, some of these methodologies were to reduce the data dimensions for more effectively work. While sharing the same motivation with the previous achievements, this study proposed non-parametric pattern matching techniques to reduce the uncertainty in pursuance of selection of models and modeling processes. This could be characterized by the following two aspects: First, for overcoming considering only a few typical scenarios in the most of the studies, this study is getting the entire sets of off-normal situations which are anticipated in NPPs, which are created by a full-scope simulator. Second, many of the existing researches adopted the process of forming a diagnosis model which is so-called a training technique or a parametric

  8. Palaeoenvironmental signatures revealed from rare earth element (REE compositions of vertebrate microremains of the Vesiku Bone Bed (Homerian, Wenlock, Saaremaa Island, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fadel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs have been analysed from fossil vertebrate microremains (thelodont scales from the Vesiku Bone Bed, Saaremaa, Estonia, using in situ microsampling by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. Well-preserved scales of three species of the genus Thelodus (T. carinatus, T. laevis and Thelodus sp. show very uniform REE patterns with slightly lower overall REE concentrations in enameloid than in dentine, with enrichment in middle REEs, depletion in heavy REEs and pronounced negative europium anomaly, but no cerium anomaly. The results of this study suggest a similar diagenetic history and possibly contemporaneous habitats for all three Thelodus species, as well as possible suboxic to anoxic conditions of the bottom and pore waters during the formation of the Vesiku Bone Bed.

  9. Behaviour of REEs in a tropical estuary and adjacent continental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    total organic carbon, U/Th ratio, authigenic U, Cu/Zn, V/Cr ratios revealed the oxic environment and thus the ... tions due to depletion by sorption onto particles. .... trace elements (Cr, Ni, Co, Zn) were analysed along ... Results. The concentration of REE and trace elements ..... This effect causes a split of the normalised REE.

  10. Esophageal Clearance Patterns in Normal Older Adults as Documented with Videofluoroscopic Esophagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Jou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal esophageal bolus transport in asymptomatic healthy older adults has not been well defined, potentially leading to ambiguity in differentiating esophageal swallowing patterns of dysphagic and healthy individuals. This pilot study of 24 young (45–64 years and old (65+years men and women was designed to assess radiographic esophageal bolus movement patterns in healthy adults using videofluoroscopic recording. Healthy, asymptomatic adults underwent videofluoroscopic esophagram to evaluate for the presence of ineffective esophageal clearance, namely, intraesophageal stasis and intraesophageal reflux. Intraesophageal stasis and intraesophageal reflux were visualized radiographically in these normal subjects. Intraesophageal stasis occurred significantly more frequently with semisolid (96% compared with liquid (16% barium, suggesting that a variety of barium consistencies, as opposed to only the traditional fluids, would better define the spectrum of esophageal transport. Intraesophageal reflux was observed more frequently in older males than in their younger counterparts. The rates of intraesophageal stasis and intraesophageal reflux were potentially high given that successive bolus presentations were spaced 10 seconds apart. These findings suggest a need for a more comprehensive definition regarding the range of normal esophageal bolus transport to (a prevent misdiagnosis of dysphagia and (b to enhance generalization to functional eating, which involves solid foods in addition to liquids.

  11. Normal human gait patterns in Peruvian individuals: an exploratory assessment using VICON motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, R.; Moscoso, M.; Callupe, R.; Pajaya, J.; Elías, D.

    2017-11-01

    Gait analysis is of clinical relevance for clinicians. However, normal gait patterns used in foreign literature could be different from local individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the normal gait patterns and parameters of Peruvian individuals in order to have a local referent for clinical assessments and making diagnosis and treatment Peruvian people with lower motor neuron injuries. A descriptive study with 34 subjects was conducted to assess their gait cycle. VICON® cameras were used to capture body movements. For the analyses, we calculated spatiotemporal gait parameters and average angles of displacement of the hip, knee, and ankle joints with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The results showed gait speed was 0.58m/s, cadence was 102.1steps/min, and the angular displacement of the hip, knee and ankle joints were all lower than those described in the literature. In the graphs, gait cycles were close to those reported in previous studies, but the parameters of speed, cadence and angles of displacements are lower than the ones shown in the literature. These results could be used as a better reference pattern in the clinical setting.

  12. Major, trace and REE geochemistry of recent sediments from lower Catumbela River (Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinha, Manuela; Silva, M. G.; Cabral Pinto, Marina M. S.; Carvalho, Paula Cristina S.

    2016-03-01

    The mineralogy, texture, major, trace and rare earth elements, from recent sediment samples collected in the lower Catumbela River, were analysed in this study to characterize and discuss the factors controlling its geochemistry and provide data that can be used as tracers of Catumbela River inputs to the Angolan continental shelf. The sediments are mainly sands and silty-sands, but sandy-silt also occurs and the mineralogy is composed of quartz, feldspar, phyllosilicates, magnetite, ilmenite and also carbonates when the river crosses limestones and marls in the downstream sector. The hydraulic sorting originates magnetite-ilmenite and REE-enriched minerals placers. The mineralogy of the sediments is controlled by the source rocks and the degree of chemical weathering is lower than erosion. The texture is mainly controlled by location. There is enrichment in all the analysed trace elements in the fine grained, clay minerals and Fe-oxy-hydroxides rich sediments, compared to the coarse grained and quartz plus feldspar rich ones. The coarse grained sediments (without the placers) are impoverished in ΣREE when compared with UCC and NASC compositions, while the fine grained sediments have ΣREE contents similar to UCC and NASC. The placers have ΣREE contents up to 959.59 mg/kg. The source composition is the dominant factor controlling the REE geochemistry of the analysed sediments as there is no difference in the (La/Yb)N, (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios in coarse and fine grained sediments. The sorting of magnetite, ilmenite, zircon, throrite, thorianite, rutile and titanite explain the HREE/LREE enriched patterns of the coarse grained sediments.

  13. Homing pattern of indium-111 T-lymphocytes in normal and tumor bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasi, L.P.; Glenn, H.J.; Mehta, K.; Teckemeyer, I.C.; Wong, W.; Haynie, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    T-lymphocytes play an important role in tumor immunology and possess cytotoxic capabilities. Purified T-lymphocytes were obtained by incubating mononuclear cells separated from peripheral blood of Fisher 344 rats in a nylon wool column at 37 0 C. The non-adherent T-lymphocytes which were eluted from the column had > 95% viability. About 1 x 10/sup 7/ purified T-lymphocytes were labeled with 30 μCi In-111 oxine (Labeling yield: 75 +-5%, viability >95%). The function of the labeled cells as estimated by their graft versus host reaction ability remained unaltered. To evaluate the distribution pattern, 1 x 10/sup 6/ In-111 T-lymphocytes (per 100g wt) were injected via tail vein in normal and in transplanted (right flank) solid hepatoma bearing Fisher 344 rats, and the percent uptake of activity of the total injected dose per organ and per gm tissue was estimated at 2, 24 and 48 hours post injection. In normal rats maximum uptakes were in the liver (24%-33%) with increasing uptakes in the spleen (6.8%-11%) and minimum uptakes in the kidneys, lungs, muscles, and blood from 2 to 48 hours after injection. The uptake pattern in tumor bearing rats were significantly different during the same time period: lower in the liver (17%-19%) and a decrease in the spleen (9%-0.4%). All other tissues displayed similar uptake patterns as in normal animals. Maximum tumor:muscle ratio (18.4) was found at 48 hours post injection. Further studies are indicated for the possible use of In-111 T-lymphocytes in T-lymphocyte disorders, inflammations, and as an additional tool in the diagnosis of tumors

  14. Normalized burn ratios link fire severity with patterns of avian occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.; Klein, Rob; McKerrow, Alexa

    2016-01-01

    ContextRemotely sensed differenced normalized burn ratios (DNBR) provide an index of fire severity across the footprint of a fire. We asked whether this index was useful for explaining patterns of bird occurrence within fire adapted xeric pine-oak forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains.ObjectivesWe evaluated the use of DNBR indices for linking ecosystem process with patterns of bird occurrence. We compared field-based and remotely sensed fire severity indices and used each to develop occupancy models for six bird species to identify patterns of bird occurrence following fire.MethodsWe identified and sampled 228 points within fires that recently burned within Great Smoky Mountains National Park. We performed avian point counts and field-assessed fire severity at each bird census point. We also used Landsat™ imagery acquired before and after each fire to quantify fire severity using DNBR. We used non-parametric methods to quantify agreement between fire severity indices, and evaluated single season occupancy models incorporating fire severity summarized at different spatial scales.ResultsAgreement between field-derived and remotely sensed measures of fire severity was influenced by vegetation type. Although occurrence models using field-derived indices of fire severity outperformed those using DNBR, summarizing DNBR at multiple spatial scales provided additional insights into patterns of occurrence associated with different sized patches of high severity fire.ConclusionsDNBR is useful for linking the effects of fire severity to patterns of bird occurrence, and informing how high severity fire shapes patterns of bird species occurrence on the landscape.

  15. The Influence of Basaltic Islands on the Oceanic REE Distribution: A Case Study From the Tropical South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Molina-Kescher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rare Earth Elements (REEs have been widely used to investigate marine biogeochemical processes as well as the sources and mixing of water masses. However, there are still important uncertainties about the global aqueous REE cycle with respect to the contributions of highly reactive basaltic minerals originating from volcanic islands and the role of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD. Here we present dissolved REE concentrations obtained from waters at the island-ocean interface (including SGD, river, lagoon and coastal waters from the island of Tahiti and from three detailed open ocean profiles on the Manihiki Plateau (including neodymium (Nd isotope compositions, which are located in ocean currents downstream of Tahiti. Tahitian fresh waters have highly variable REE concentrations that likely result from variable water–rock interaction and removal by secondary minerals. In contrast to studies on other islands, the SGD samples do not exhibit elevated REE concentrations but have distinctive REE distributions and Y/Ho ratios. The basaltic Tahitian rocks impart a REE pattern to the waters characterized by a middle REE enrichment, with a peak at europium similar to groundwaters and coastal waters of other volcanic islands in the Pacific. However, the basaltic island REE characteristics (with the exception of elevated Y/Ho ratios are lost during transport to the Manihiki Plateau within surface waters that also exhibit highly radiogenic Nd isotope signatures. Our new data demonstrate that REE concentrations are enriched in Tahitian coastal water, but without multidimensional sampling, basaltic island Nd flux estimates range over orders of magnitude from relatively small to globally significant. Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW loses its characteristic Nd isotopic signature (−6 to −9 around the Manihiki Plateau as a consequence of mixing with South Equatorial Pacific Intermediate Water (SEqPIW, which shows more positive values (−1 to

  16. Three dimensional analysis of histone methylation patterns in normal and tumor cell nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cremer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifications represent an important epigenetic mechanism for the organization of higher order chromatin structure and gene regulation. Methylation of position-specific lysine residues in the histone H3 and H4 amino termini has been linked with the formation of constitutive and facultative heterochromatin as well as with specifically repressed single gene loci. Using an antibody, directed against dimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 and several other lysine methylation sites, we visualized the nuclear distribution pattern of chromatin flagged by these methylated lysines in 3D preserved nuclei of normal and malignant cell types. Optical confocal serial sections were used for a quantitative evaluation. We demonstrate distinct differences of these histone methylation patterns among nuclei of different cell types after exit of the cell cycle. Changes in the pattern formation were also observed during the cell cycle. Our data suggest an important role of methylated histones in the reestablishment of higher order chromatin arrangements during telophase/early G1. Cell type specific histone methylation patterns are possibly causally involved in the formation of cell type specific heterochromatin compartments, composed of (pericentromeric regions and chromosomal subregions from neighboring chromosome territories, which contain silent genes.

  17. Fractionation of chemical elements including the REEs and 226Ra in stream contaminated with coal-mine effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno, L.M.; Faure, G.; Lee, G.; Talnagi, J.

    2004-01-01

    Water draining from abandoned open-pit coal mines in southeastern Ohio typically has a low pH and high concentrations of Fe, Al and Mn, as well as of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, etc.) and of the rare earth elements (REEs). The cations of different elements are sorbed selectively by Fe and Al hydroxide precipitates which form with increasing pH. As a result, the trace elements are separated from each other when the hydroxide precipitates are deposited in the channel of a flowing stream. Therefore, the low-energy environment of a stream contaminated by mine effluent is a favorable site for the chemical fractionation of the REEs and of other groups of elements with similar chemical properties. The interpretation of chemical analyses of water collected along a 30-km-stretch of Rush Creek near the town of New Lexington, Perry County, Ohio, indicates that the abundances of the REEs in the water appear to change downstream when they are normalized to the REE concentrations of the mine effluent. In addition, the Ce/La ratios (and those of all REEs) in the water decrease consistently downstream. The evidence indicates that the REEs which remain in solution are enriched La and Ce because the other REEs are sorbed more efficiently. The solid Fe(OH) 3 precipitates in the channel of Rush Creek upstream of New Lexington also contain radioactive 226 Ra that was sorbed from the water. This isotope of Ra is a decay product of 238 U which occurs in the Middle Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) coal and in the associated shale of southeastern Ohio. The activity of 226 Ra of the Fe(OH) 3 precipitates increases with rising pH, but then declines farther downstream as the concentration of Ra remaining in the water decreases

  18. Normal patterns of 18F-FDG appendiceal uptake in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavey, Hamilton E. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine Molecular Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Alazraki, Adina L.; Simoneaux, Stephen F. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Division of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Prior to interpreting PET/CT, it is crucial to understand the normal biodistribution of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). It is also important to realize that the normal biodistribution can vary between adults and children. Although many studies have defined normal patterns of pediatric FDG uptake in structures like the thymus, brown fat and bone marrow, patterns of normal pediatric bowel activity, specifically uptake within the appendix, have not been well described. Active lymphoid tissue has increased FDG uptake when compared with inactive tissue. Since children have more active lymphoid tissue than adults, and because the appendix contains aggregated lymphoid tissue, we postulated that appendiceal uptake may be increased in pediatric patients. To define the normal level of appendiceal FDG activity in children by evaluating a series of consecutive FDG PET/CT scans performed for other indications. After obtaining IRB approval, we retrospectively reviewed 128 consecutive whole-body pediatric FDG PET/CT examinations obtained for a variety of clinical indications. CT scans on which the appendix could not be visualized were excluded from analysis. CT scans on which the appendix could be visualized were evaluated for underlying appendiceal pathology. Studies with appendiceal or periappendiceal pathology by CT criteria were excluded. A region of interest (ROI) was placed over a portion of each appendix and appendiceal maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was calculated. If an adjacent loop of bowel activity interfered with accurate measurements of the appendix SUVmax, the scan was excluded from the analysis. A chart review was performed on patients with elevated appendiceal SUVmax values to ensure that the patients did not have clinical symptomatology suggestive of acute appendicitis. When the appendix or a portion of the appendix could be visualized and accurately measured, the SUVmax was determined. SUVmax of the appendix was compared to the SUVmax of normal liver and

  19. A Cancer-Indicative microRNA Pattern in Normal Prostate Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schlomm

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the levels of selected micro-RNAs in normal prostate tissue to assess their potential to indicate tumor foci elsewhere in the prostate. Histologically normal prostate tissue samples from 31 prostate cancer patients and two cancer negative control groups with either unsuspicious or elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA levels (14 and 17 individuals, respectively were analyzed. Based on the expression analysis of 157 microRNAs in a pool of prostate tissue samples and information from data bases/literature, we selected eight microRNAs for quantification by real-time polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs. Selected miRNAs were analyzed in histologically tumor-free biopsy samples from patients and healthy controls. We identified seven microRNAs (miR-124a, miR-146a & b, miR-185, miR-16 and let-7a & b, which displayed significant differential expression in normal prostate tissue from men with prostate cancer compared to both cancer negative control groups. Four microRNAs (miR-185, miR-16 and let-7a and let-7b remained to significantly discriminate normal tissues from prostate cancer patients from those of the cancer negative control group with elevated PSA levels. The transcript levels of these microRNAs were highly indicative for the presence of cancer in the prostates, independently of the PSA level. Our results suggest a microRNA-pattern in histologically normal prostate tissue, indicating prostate cancer elsewhere in the organ.

  20. Pressure-flow characteristics of normal and disordered esophageal motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singendonk, Maartje M J; Kritas, Stamatiki; Cock, Charles; Ferris, Lara F; McCall, Lisa; Rommel, Nathalie; van Wijk, Michiel P; Benninga, Marc A; Moore, David; Omari, Taher I

    2015-03-01

    To perform pressure-flow analysis (PFA) in a cohort of pediatric patients who were referred for diagnostic manometric investigation. PFA was performed using purpose designed Matlab-based software. The pressure-flow index (PFI), a composite measure of bolus pressurization relative to flow and the impedance ratio, a measure of the extent of bolus clearance failure were calculated. Tracings of 76 pediatric patients (32 males; 9.1 ± 0.7 years) and 25 healthy adult controls (7 males; 36.1 ± 2.2 years) were analyzed. Patients mostly had normal motility (50%) or a category 4 disorder and usually weak peristalsis (31.5%) according to the Chicago Classification. PFA of healthy controls defined reference ranges for PFI ≤142 and impedance ratio ≤0.49. Pediatric patients with pressure-flow (PF) characteristics within these limits had normal motility (62%), most patients with PF characteristics outside these limits also had an abnormal Chicago Classification (61%). Patients with high PFI and disordered motor patterns all had esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction. Disordered PF characteristics are associated with disordered esophageal motor patterns. By defining the degree of over-pressurization and/or extent of clearance failure, PFA may be a useful adjunct to esophageal pressure topography-based classification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Age-related pattern of normal cranial bone marrow: MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Shinong; Li Qi; Li Wei; Chen Zhian; Wu Zhenhua; Guo Qiyong; Liu Yunhui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the age-related pattern of normal skull bone marrow with 3.0 T MR T 1 WI. Methods: Cranial MR T 1 WI images which were defined to be normal were retrospectively reviewed in 360 cases. Patients with known diffuse bone marrow disease, focal lesions, history of radiation treatment or steroid therapy were excluded, while patients whose cranial MRI and follow-up visits were all normal were included in this study. All the subjects were divided into 7 groups according to the age: 50 years group. Mid- and para- sagittal T 1 WI images were used to be analyzed and the type of cranial bone marrow was classified according to the thickness of diploe and the pattern of the signal characteristics. Statistical analysis was conducted to reveal the relationship between the age and the type. Results: The normal skull bone marrow could be divided into four types as follows: (1) Type-I: 115 cases, 47 of which appeared type- Ia and the mean thickness was (1.24±0.31) mm; 68 of which appeared type-Ib and the mean thickness was (1.76±0.37) mm. Type-II: 57 cases and the mean thickness was (2.78 ± 0.69) mm. Type-III: 148 cases, 18 of which appeared type-IIIa and the mean thickness was (2.33 ± 0.65) mm; 88 of which appeared type-IIIb and the mean thickness was (4.01± 0.86) mm; 42 of which appeared type-IIIc and the mean thickness was (4.31±0.73) mm. Type-IV: 40 cases, 25 of which appeared type-IVa and the mean thickness was (5.17±1.02) mm; 15 of which appeared type-IVb and the mean thickness was (5.85±1.45) mm. (2) 2 =266.36, P<0.01). Conclusion: There is characteristic in the distribution of normal skull bone marrow with age growing. And skull bone marrow transforms gradually from type-I to IV with aging. (authors)

  2. Study on REE bound water-soluble polysaccharides in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuqi; Guo Fanqing; Xu Lei; Chen Hongmin; Sun Jingxin; Cao Guoyin

    1999-01-01

    The binding of REE with water-soluble polysaccharides (PSs) in leaves of fern Dicranopteris Dichotoma (DD) has been studied by molecular activation analysis. The cold-water-soluble and hot-water-soluble PSs in leaves of DD were obtained by using biochemical separation techniques. The PSs of non-deproteinization and deproteinization, were separated on Sephadex G-200 gel permeation chromatography. The absorption curves of elution for the PSs were obtained by colorimetry, and the proteins were detected using Coomassic brilliant G-250. Eight REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in these PSs were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained show that the REEs are bound firmly with the water-soluble PSs in the plant. A measurement demonstrates that the PSs bound with REEs are mainly of smaller molecular weight (10,000 to 20,000 Dalton)

  3. Railroad Engineering Education Symposium (REES) 2012 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-25

    Since its initial offering in 2008, the objective of the Railroad Engineering Education Symposium (REES) has been to develop interest among university faculty in railroad transportation engineering, with the goal of facilitating and supporting their ...

  4. Motion Normalized Proportional Control for Improved Pattern Recognition-Based Myoelectric Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheme, Erik; Lock, Blair; Hargrove, Levi; Hill, Wendy; Kuruganti, Usha; Englehart, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes two novel proportional control algorithms for use with pattern recognition-based myoelectric control. The systems were designed to provide automatic configuration of motion-specific gains and to normalize the control space to the user's usable dynamic range. Class-specific normalization parameters were calculated using data collected during classifier training and require no additional user action or configuration. The new control schemes were compared to the standard method of deriving proportional control using a one degree of freedom Fitts' law test for each of the wrist flexion/extension, wrist pronation/supination and hand close/open degrees of freedom. Performance was evaluated using the Fitts' law throughput value as well as more descriptive metrics including path efficiency, overshoot, stopping distance and completion rate. The proposed normalization methods significantly outperformed the incumbent method in every performance category for able bodied subjects (p < 0.001) and nearly every category for amputee subjects. Furthermore, one proposed method significantly outperformed both other methods in throughput (p < 0.0001), yielding 21% and 40% improvement over the incumbent method for amputee and able bodied subjects, respectively. The proposed control schemes represent a computationally simple method of fundamentally improving myoelectric control users' ability to elicit robust, and controlled, proportional velocity commands.

  5. Pattern of somatostatin receptors expression in normal and bladder cancer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavitakis, Markos; Msaouel, Pavlos; Michalopoulos, Vassilis; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Known risks factors for bladder cancer progression and recurrence are limited regarding their prognostic ability. Therefore identification of molecular determinants of disease progression could provide with more specific prognostic information and could be translated into new approaches for biomarker development. In the present study we evaluated, the expression patterns of somatostatin receptors 1-5 (SSTRs) in normal and tumor bladder tissues. The expression of SSTR1-5 was characterized in 45 normal and bladder cancer tissue samples using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). SSTR1 was expressed in 24 samples, SSTR2 in 15, SSTR3 in 23, SSTR4 in 16 and SSTR5 in all but one sample. Bladder cancer tissue samples expressed lower levels of SSTR3. Co-expression of SSTRs was associated with superficial disease. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that there is expression of SSTR in normal and bladder cancer urothelium. Further studies are required to evaluate the prognostic and therapeutic significance of these findings. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. 18F-FDG PET-CT pattern in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Townley

    Full Text Available Background: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is an important and treatable cause of neurologic impairment. Diagnosis is complicated due to symptoms overlapping with other age related disorders. The pathophysiology underlying iNPH is not well understood. We explored FDG-PET abnormalities in iNPH patients in order to determine if FDG-PET may serve as a biomarker to differentiate iNPH from common neurodegenerative disorders. Methods: We retrospectively compared 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging patterns from seven iNPH patients (mean age 74 ± 6 years to age and sex matched controls, as well as patients diagnosed with clinical Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD, Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB and Parkinson's Disease Dementia (PDD, and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD. Partial volume corrected and uncorrected images were reviewed separately. Results: Patients with iNPH, when compared to controls, AD, DLB/PDD, and bvFTD, had significant regional hypometabolism in the dorsal striatum, involving the caudate and putamen bilaterally. These results remained highly significant after partial volume correction. Conclusions: In this study, we report a FDG-PET pattern of hypometabolism in iNPH involving the caudate and putamen with preserved cortical metabolism. This pattern may differentiate iNPH from degenerative diseases and has the potential to serve as a biomarker for iNPH in future studies. These findings also further our understanding of the pathophysiology underlying the iNPH clinical presentation. Keywords: FDG-PET, Normal pressure hydrocephalus, Hypometabolism, Caudate, Biomarker

  7. Dynamic lymph flow scintigraphy in lymphoedema: Description of a new procedure and normal and abnormal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, K.; Hamad, M.M.; Sadek, S.; Awdeh, M.; Eklof, B.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    A dynamic study of lymphatic flow was performed in 23 patients complaining of lymphoedema of the lower limbs. All were injected intradermally with 1 mCi (37 MBq) of 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled human serum albumin (HSA) in the medial web on the dorsum of each foot. Image acquisition for the lower pelvis and both thighs was started within 5 min. A GE 500A gamma camera with an extra-large field of view and a low energy, all purpose collimator interfaced with a GE Star computer was used. Images were acquired in the dynamic mode with a 128x128 matrix every minute up to 40 min. Delayed images for the same region and for both legs were taken at 90 min. Time-activity curves for equal regions of interest over the inguinal regions on both sides were generated. Three patterns were recognized. (1) Normal flow (12 patients) with symmetrical or slightly increased or decreased flow on one side compared with the other, characterized by early appearance of medial bands and inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes in the early and delayed images. (2) An obstructed pattern (5 patients) characterized by subcutaneous pooling, absent medial bands in the dynamic part of the study, a flat curve on the affected side representing background activity, and absent inguinal and pelvic nodes in the delayed images. Occasionally the obstruction was incomplete and there was a delayed appearance of the nodes, which were less in number and smaller in size than on the normal side. (3) An enhanced pattern (6 patients) characterized by fast flow of lymph through the dilated lymphatics, occasionally subcutaneous pooling and an increase in the number and size of inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes on the affected side. The authors conclude that intradermal injection of 99 Tcsup(m)-HSA can be used to study the pathophysiology of lymphatic flow in the most difficult group of patients suffering from chronic lymphoedema of the lower limbs

  8. 18F-FDG PET-CT pattern in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Ryan A; Botha, Hugo; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Boeve, Bradley F; Petersen, Ronald C; Senjem, Matthew L; Knopman, David S; Lowe, Val; Jack, Clifford R; Jones, David T

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is an important and treatable cause of neurologic impairment. Diagnosis is complicated due to symptoms overlapping with other age related disorders. The pathophysiology underlying iNPH is not well understood. We explored FDG-PET abnormalities in iNPH patients in order to determine if FDG-PET may serve as a biomarker to differentiate iNPH from common neurodegenerative disorders. We retrospectively compared 18 F-FDG PET-CT imaging patterns from seven iNPH patients (mean age 74 ± 6 years) to age and sex matched controls, as well as patients diagnosed with clinical Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's Disease Dementia (PDD), and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Partial volume corrected and uncorrected images were reviewed separately. Patients with iNPH, when compared to controls, AD, DLB/PDD, and bvFTD, had significant regional hypometabolism in the dorsal striatum, involving the caudate and putamen bilaterally. These results remained highly significant after partial volume correction. In this study, we report a FDG-PET pattern of hypometabolism in iNPH involving the caudate and putamen with preserved cortical metabolism. This pattern may differentiate iNPH from degenerative diseases and has the potential to serve as a biomarker for iNPH in future studies. These findings also further our understanding of the pathophysiology underlying the iNPH clinical presentation.

  9. Axial flow velocity patterns in a normal human pulmonary artery model: pulsatile in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, H W; Yoganathan, A P

    1990-01-01

    It has been clinically observed that the flow velocity patterns in the pulmonary artery are directly modified by disease. The present study addresses the hypothesis that altered velocity patterns relate to the severity of various diseases in the pulmonary artery. This paper lays a foundation for that analysis by providing a detailed description of flow velocity patterns in the normal pulmonary artery, using flow visualization and laser Doppler anemometry techniques. The studies were conducted in an in vitro rigid model in a right heart pulse duplicator system. In the main pulmonary artery, a broad central flow field was observed throughout systole. The maximum axial velocity (150 cm s-1) was measured at peak systole. In the left pulmonary artery, the axial velocities were approximately evenly distributed in the perpendicular plane. However, in the bifurcation plane, they were slightly skewed toward the inner wall at peak systole and during the deceleration phase. In the right pulmonary artery, the axial velocity in the perpendicular plane had a very marked M-shaped profile at peak systole and during the deceleration phase, due to a pair of strong secondary flows. In the bifurcation plane, higher axial velocities were observed along the inner wall, while lower axial velocities were observed along the outer wall and in the center. Overall, relatively low levels of turbulence were observed in all the branches during systole. The maximum turbulence intensity measured was at the boundary of the broad central flow field in the main pulmonary artery at peak systole.

  10. Mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of Zafarabad iron deposit based on REE and trace elements of magnetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zafarabad iron deposit is located northwest of Divandareh, in the northern margin of Sanandaj-Sirjan plutonic-metamorphic zone. The deposit is in lentoid to tubular shape, within a shear zone and occrrued in host rocks of calc-schist and limestone. Magnetite with massive, cataclastic and replacement textures are the main phases, while pyrite and other sulfide minerals are found. Major and trace elements are measured by ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Based on some ratios of trace elements in the ore samples and (Ti+V vs. Cal+Al+Mn and Ti+V vs. Ni/(Cr+Mn diagrams which are used for classification of iron deposit types, Zafarabad iron deposit fall in the range of skarn deposits. Spider diagrams show a steady decline from LREE to HREE elements with Eu (mean value of 0.06 ppm and Ce (mean value of 0.94 ppm negative anomalies. Comparing the distribution patterns of REE for the Zafarabad magnetites with those of various types of iron deposits shows that the REE pattern for Zafarabad is similar to these deposits. Analysis of calculated parameters for REE shows that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for mineralization are mainly of magmatic origin through fractionation and crystallization processes of a deep iron rich fluid phase and its emplacement within the carbonate rocks, forming iron skarn.

  11. Strain Map of the Tongue in Normal and ALS Speech Patterns from Tagged and Diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangxu; Prince, Jerry L; Stone, Maureen; Reese, Timothy G; Atassi, Nazem; Wedeen, Van J; El Fakhri, Georges; Woo, Jonghye

    2018-02-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurological disease that causes death of neurons controlling muscle movements. Loss of speech and swallowing functions is a major impact due to degeneration of the tongue muscles. In speech studies using magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used to capture internal tongue muscle fiber structures in three-dimensions (3D) in a non-invasive manner. Tagged magnetic resonance images (tMRI) are used to record tongue motion during speech. In this work, we aim to combine information obtained with both MR imaging techniques to compare the functionality characteristics of the tongue between normal and ALS subjects. We first extracted 3D motion of the tongue using tMRI from fourteen normal subjects in speech. The estimated motion sequences were then warped using diffeomorphic registration into the b0 spaces of the DTI data of two normal subjects and an ALS patient. We then constructed motion atlases by averaging all warped motion fields in each b0 space, and computed strain in the line of action along the muscle fiber directions provided by tractography. Strain in line with the fiber directions provides a quantitative map of the potential active region of the tongue during speech. Comparison between normal and ALS subjects explores the changing volume of compressing tongue tissues in speech facing the situation of muscle degradation. The proposed framework provides for the first time a dynamic map of contracting fibers in ALS speech patterns, and has the potential to provide more insight into the detrimental effects of ALS on speech.

  12. SignalSpider: Probabilistic pattern discovery on multiple normalized ChIP-Seq signal profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Kachun

    2014-09-05

    Motivation: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) measures the genome-wide occupancy of transcription factors in vivo. Different combinations of DNA-binding protein occupancies may result in a gene being expressed in different tissues or at different developmental stages. To fully understand the functions of genes, it is essential to develop probabilistic models on multiple ChIP-Seq profiles to decipher the combinatorial regulatory mechanisms by multiple transcription factors. Results: In this work, we describe a probabilistic model (SignalSpider) to decipher the combinatorial binding events of multiple transcription factors. Comparing with similar existing methods, we found SignalSpider performs better in clustering promoter and enhancer regions. Notably, SignalSpider can learn higher-order combinatorial patterns from multiple ChIP-Seq profiles. We have applied SignalSpider on the normalized ChIP-Seq profiles from the ENCODE consortium and learned model instances. We observed different higher-order enrichment and depletion patterns across sets of proteins. Those clustering patterns are supported by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment, evolutionary conservation and chromatin interaction enrichment, offering biological insights for further focused studies. We also proposed a specific enrichment map visualization method to reveal the genome-wide transcription factor combinatorial patterns from the models built, which extend our existing fine-scale knowledge on gene regulation to a genome-wide level. Availability and implementation: The matrix-algebra-optimized executables and source codes are available at the authors\\' websites: http://www.cs.toronto.edu/∼wkc/SignalSpider. Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Comparative study between Steiner's cephalometric-radiographic patterns and the ones of Brazilian's, white teenagers, who present normal occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, A.P. de.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study comparatively the cephalometric-radiographic patterns of Steiner's analysis and the ones of Brazilians, white teenagers, who present normal occlusions. The sample was composed of fifty seven teleradiographies on lateral pattern from Brazilian teenagers. Those teenagers are white and their parents are Brazilian, descended from Mediterraneans. Also the examined teenagers had not undergone previous orthodontic treatment and as it was said above, present normal occlusion. (author) [pt

  14. Study of REE behaviors, fluid inclusions, and O, S stable Isotopes in Zafar-abad iron skarn deposit, NW Divandarreh, Kordestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barati

    2014-10-01

    interfinger with meta-sedimentary and fragmental wall-rock. The thickness of the ore body is 25 to 35 m with 40 m wide and around 130 m in elongate. The chondrite normalized REE distribution pattern of Zafar-abad magnetite shows V shape. The analyzed samples display similar patterns. The average (La/Ybcn ratio of 6.8 indicates a high degree of fractionation. The fractionation is more pronounced in HREE part of diagram, where the average (Gd/Ybcn ratio is 1.07, whereas the average (La/Smcn ratio in the LREE part of the diagram is only 5.9. This indicates that the REE content in Zafar-abad magnetite is not affected by hydrothermal alteration. The ΣREE content varies between 2.09 and 15.02 ppm with an average of 8.4 ppm. These REE values are equal to those reported for the type of Skarn- type iron deposits (Bowman et al., 1985. Other features include pronounced negative Eu and Ce and positive Pr and Gd anomalies. Six purified magnetite samples used for Isotope Studies and δ18O values are measured in them. The units of results are permil (‰ relative to SMOW for oxygen. The δ18O values content varies between -5.93 and -0.28 ‰ with an average of -2.26 ‰. Considering that the magnetites formed at two stages (Meinert, 1995, the first one about 370 °C, and the second one about 240°C which is a reasonable guess bearing in mind that they are associated with intrusive and extrusive granitoids, then the fluid from which they formed, would yield δ18O values that range from 4.1 to 8.1 ‰ which will fall in the boundary of magmatic water box and hence provide further support for a mixed magmatic and meteoric origins of Zafar-abad magnetite deposit. In the Zafar-abad deposit, sulfur isotope composition was studied on six pyrite samples. The δ34S values for this mineral in Zafar-abad vary from +1.2 to +1.9 ‰, with an average value of +1.61‰. Zafar-abad isotopic temperatures have been determined from the δ34S values in pyrite. This temperature range is from 204 to 350

  15. Nerve ultrasound normal values - Readjustment of the ultrasound pattern sum score UPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alexander; Axer, Hubertus; Heiling, Bianka; Winter, Natalie

    2018-07-01

    Reference values are crucial for nerve ultrasound. Here, we reevaluated normal nerve and fascicle cross-sectional area (CSA) values in humans and compared them to published values. Based on these data, ultrasound pattern sum score (UPSS) boundary values were revisited and readjusted. Ultrasound of different peripheral nerves was performed in 100 healthy subjects at anatomically defined landmarks. Correlations with age, gender, height and weight were calculated. Overall, correspondence to other published reference values was high. Gender-dependency was found for the proximal median nerve. Dependency from height occurred in the tibial nerve (TN). Weight-dependency was not found. However, the most obvious differences were found in the TN between men >60 years and women values were defined using the mean plus the twofold standard deviation for all subjects and nerve segments except for the TN, in which different cut-offs were proposed for elder men. Accordingly, the cut-offs for the UPSS were re-adjusted, none of the individuals revealed more than 2 points at maximum. The influence of distinct epidemiological factors on nerve size is most prominent in the TN, for which thus several normal values are useful. Adjusted reference values improve the accuracy of the UPSS. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Normal parenchymal enhancement patterns in women undergoing MR screening of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Sanaz A.; Lin, Vicky C.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Newstead, Gillian M.

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the kinetic and morphological presentation of normal breast tissue on DCE-MRI in a large cohort of asymptomatic women, and to relate these characteristics to breast tissue density. 335 consecutive breast MR examinations in 229 asymptomatic women undergoing high-risk screening evaluations based on recommendations from the American Cancer Society including strong family history and genetic predisposition were selected for IRB-approved review (average age 49.2 ± 10.5 years). Breast tissue density was assessed on precontrast T 2 -weighted images. Parenchymal enhancement pattern (PEP) was qualitatively classified as minimal, homogeneous, heterogeneous or nodular. Quantitative analysis of parenchymal enhancement kinetics (PEK) was performed, including calculation of initial and peak enhancement percentages (E 1 , E peak ), the time to peak enhancement (T peak ) and the signal enhancement ratio (SER). 41.8% of examinations were classified as minimal, 13.7% homogeneous, 23.9% heterogeneous and 21.2% nodular PEP. Women with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts exhibited a higher proportion of nodular PEP (44.2% (27/61)) and significantly higher E 1 , and E peak (p < 0.003) compared with those with less dense breasts. Qualitative and quantitative parenchymal enhancement characteristics vary by breast tissue density. In future work, the association between image-derived MR features of the normal breast and breast cancer risk should be explored. (orig.)

  17. PREDICTION OF BLOOD PATTERN IN S-SHAPED MODEL OF ARTERY UNDER NORMAL BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletes are susceptible to a wide variety of traumatic and non-traumatic vascular injuries to the lower limb. This paper aims to predict the three-dimensional flow pattern of blood through an S-shaped geometrical artery model. This model has created by using Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI software. The modeling of the geometrical S-shaped artery is suitable for understanding the pattern of blood flow under constant normal blood pressure. In this study, a numerical method is used that works on the assumption that the blood is incompressible and Newtonian; thus, a laminar type of flow can be considered. The authors have compared the results with a previous study with FSI validation simulation. The validation and verification of the simulation studies is performed by comparing the maximum velocity at t = 0.4 s, because at this time, the blood accelerates rapidly. In addition, the resulting blood flow at various times, under the same boundary conditions in the S-shaped geometrical artery model, is presented. The graph shows that velocity increases linearly with time. Thus, it can be concluded that the flow of blood increases with respect to the pressure inside the body.

  18. Relationship between eye dominance and pattern electroretinograms in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Umit; Gunduz, Kemal; Okudan, Nilsel; Gokbel, Hakki; Bodur, Sait; Tan, Uner

    2005-02-01

    The authors conducted a study in 100 non-smoker healthy normal human subjects to find a relationship between eye dominance and macular function as tested by using transient stimulus and electroretinography. Eye preference procedure was carried out using two reference points and pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) were recorded using black and white checks, each check subtending 23'. Trace averager was retriggered every 300 milliseconds (ms) with data collection time of 150 ms. The difference in PERG P50 amplitudes between right and left eyes was analyzed using Student's t test. There was no significant difference in PERG P50 amplitudes between the right and left eye dominant subjects as well as no significant differences between the right and left eyes in right eye dominants and left eye dominants, but in the left-eye dominant group the left eye PERG P50 amplitudes were significantly higher in females than males. Although pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials of healthy subjects provide electrophysiological evidence of lateralization in the nervous system, sensory eye dominance seems to have no correlation with macular function.

  19. Evaluation of early systolic flow pattern in left ventricle by tagging cine MRI in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakura, Kazuyoshi; Anno, Naoko; Kondo, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    The tagging method is a new technique, which permits to apply discretionary lines (tags) on MR images. To evaluate intra left ventricular (LV) flow pattern, we performed ECG-gated gradient field echo cine MRI using tagging method in five normal male volunteers, aged 22-42 years. The horizontal long axis view of LV was imaged by multiphasic field echo pulse sequence. The three parallel tags (basal, middle and apical portion) were established on the horizontal long axis view of LV just after the triggered QRS waves. And the initial two images (70 ms and 120 ms after the triggered QRS waves) were analyzed. On the two tags (middle and apical portion) of these three tags, we measured the distance of displacement of the tags on three points (the near site of IVS, middle portion and the near site of free wall) respectively. At 70 ms after the trigger point, the only tagged blood at the near site of free wall flowed toward the apex. At 120 ms after the trigger point, all the tagged blood flowed toward the outflow tract of LV. And the maximum blood flow velocity was observed at the near site of IVS on middle portion of LV (166.0 mm/s). These results coincided with earlier studies by Doppler echocardiography. But we could not observe intra LV blood flow patterns throughout one cardiac cycle in this pulse sequence, because the tags had flowed out from LV and had become unclear due to spin relaxation and mixing. We concluded that the tagging method was useful to evaluate intra left ventricular blood flow patterns in early systolic phase. (author)

  20. Labor Patterns in Women Attempting Vaginal Birth After Cesarean With Normal Neonatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRANTZ, Katherine L.; GONZALEZ-QUINTERO, Victor; TROENDLE, James; REDDY, Uma M.; HINKLE, Stefanie N.; KOMINIAREK, Michelle A.; LU, Zhaohui; ZHANG, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe labor patterns in women with a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) with normal neonatal outcomes. Study Design In a retrospective observational study at 12 U.S. centers (2002–2008), we examined time interval for each centimeter of cervical dilation and compared labor progression stratified by spontaneous or induced labor in 2,892 multiparous women with TOLAC (second delivery) and 56,301 nulliparous women at 37 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed including women with intrapartum cesarean delivery, and then repeated limiting only to women who delivered vaginally. Results Labor was induced in 23.4% of TOLAC and 44.1% of nulliparous women (Plabor (Plabor (P=.099); however, TOLAC had lower maximum doses of oxytocin compared to nulliparous women: median (90th percentile): 6 (18) mU/min versus 12 (28) mU/min, respectively (Plabor duration for TOLAC versus nulliparous women with spontaneous labor from 4–10cm was 0.9 (2.2) hours longer (P=.007). For women who entered labor spontaneously and achieved vaginal delivery, labor patterns for TOLAC were similar to nulliparous women. For induced labor, labor duration for TOLAC versus nulliparous women from 4–10cm was 1.5 (4.6) hours longer (Plabor patterns were slower for induced TOLAC compared to nulliparous women. Conclusions Labor duration for TOLAC was slower compared to nulliparous labor, particularly for induced labor. By improved understanding of the rates of progress at different points in labor, this new information on labor curves in women undergoing TOLAC, particularly for induction, should help physicians when managing labor. PMID:25935774

  1. Novel matrix for REEs recovery from waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareendran, K.; Singha, Mousumi; Roy, S.B.; Pal, Sangita

    2014-01-01

    Sorption of lanthanides (98%-99%) onto a novel matrix (polyacrylamide-carboxylate hydroxamate-PAMCHO) not only remove REE's before effluent disposal but also reduces the chance of contamination of potable water, nuclear plant generated shut down or gadolinium containing effluent during controlled fission reaction, in pharmaceutical diagnosis (MRI) and many other useful process effluents. By using such sorbent, 88% of the lanthanides can be recovered using HCl solution less than pH 1 from the laden matrix and can be concentrated more than 5 times. However, sorption into the interlayer's and diffusion of the REE's during leaching depends on the cross-linked structure of the gel matrix and tortuous path of the porous micro-channel (using scanning electron microscope-SEM study). The sequestration of matrix with REE's has been well established by using instrument FT-IR and gadolinium (cation-lanthanide) exchange method. To understand interaction of REE with sorbent, matrix have been prepared with cross-linking amount variation, such as 85:15, 90:10, 95:05 and 98:02 (matrix: cross-linker). A detailed sorption study of cross-linked matrix with gadolinium in feed solution (184 ppm), filtrate, leached and laden sorbent establishes mass balance (using ICP-AES for quantitative determination). This optimized sorbent (PAMCHO) indicates recovery of valuable REEs with elution factor of more than 0.9 when HCl solution of pH1.5 was used. (author)

  2. SU-E-J-178: A Normalization Method Can Remove Discrepancy in Ventilation Function Due to Different Breathing Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, H; Yu, N; Stephans, K; Xia, P [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a normalization method to remove discrepancy in ventilation function due to different breathing patterns. Methods: Twenty five early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients were included in this study. For each patient, a ten phase 4D-CT and the voluntarily maximum inhale and exhale CTs were acquired clinically and retrospectively used for this study. For each patient, two ventilation maps were calculated from voxel-to-voxel CT density variations from two phases of the quiet breathing and two phases of the extreme breathing. For the quiet breathing, 0% (inhale) and 50% (exhale) phases from 4D-CT were used. An in-house tool was developed to calculate and display the ventilation maps. To enable normalization, the whole lung of each patient was evenly divided into three parts in the longitude direction at a coronal image with a maximum lung cross section. The ratio of cumulated ventilation from the top one-third region to the middle one-third region of the lung was calculated for each breathing pattern. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated on the ratios of the two breathing patterns for the group. Results: For each patient, the ventilation map from the quiet breathing was different from that of the extreme breathing. When the cumulative ventilation was normalized to the middle one-third of the lung region for each patient, the normalized ventilation functions from the two breathing patterns were consistent. For this group of patients, the correlation coefficient of the normalized ventilations for the two breathing patterns was 0.76 (p < 0.01), indicating a strong correlation in the ventilation function measured from the two breathing patterns. Conclusion: For each patient, the ventilation map is dependent of the breathing pattern. Using a regional normalization method, the discrepancy in ventilation function induced by the different breathing patterns thus different tidal volumes can be removed.

  3. SU-E-J-178: A Normalization Method Can Remove Discrepancy in Ventilation Function Due to Different Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H; Yu, N; Stephans, K; Xia, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a normalization method to remove discrepancy in ventilation function due to different breathing patterns. Methods: Twenty five early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients were included in this study. For each patient, a ten phase 4D-CT and the voluntarily maximum inhale and exhale CTs were acquired clinically and retrospectively used for this study. For each patient, two ventilation maps were calculated from voxel-to-voxel CT density variations from two phases of the quiet breathing and two phases of the extreme breathing. For the quiet breathing, 0% (inhale) and 50% (exhale) phases from 4D-CT were used. An in-house tool was developed to calculate and display the ventilation maps. To enable normalization, the whole lung of each patient was evenly divided into three parts in the longitude direction at a coronal image with a maximum lung cross section. The ratio of cumulated ventilation from the top one-third region to the middle one-third region of the lung was calculated for each breathing pattern. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated on the ratios of the two breathing patterns for the group. Results: For each patient, the ventilation map from the quiet breathing was different from that of the extreme breathing. When the cumulative ventilation was normalized to the middle one-third of the lung region for each patient, the normalized ventilation functions from the two breathing patterns were consistent. For this group of patients, the correlation coefficient of the normalized ventilations for the two breathing patterns was 0.76 (p < 0.01), indicating a strong correlation in the ventilation function measured from the two breathing patterns. Conclusion: For each patient, the ventilation map is dependent of the breathing pattern. Using a regional normalization method, the discrepancy in ventilation function induced by the different breathing patterns thus different tidal volumes can be removed

  4. NERBio: using selected word conjunctions, term normalization, and global patterns to improve biomedical named entity recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Hsieh-Chuan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical named entity recognition (Bio-NER is a challenging problem because, in general, biomedical named entities of the same category (e.g., proteins and genes do not follow one standard nomenclature. They have many irregularities and sometimes appear in ambiguous contexts. In recent years, machine-learning (ML approaches have become increasingly common and now represent the cutting edge of Bio-NER technology. This paper addresses three problems faced by ML-based Bio-NER systems. First, most ML approaches usually employ singleton features that comprise one linguistic property (e.g., the current word is capitalized and at least one class tag (e.g., B-protein, the beginning of a protein name. However, such features may be insufficient in cases where multiple properties must be considered. Adding conjunction features that contain multiple properties can be beneficial, but it would be infeasible to include all conjunction features in an NER model since memory resources are limited and some features are ineffective. To resolve the problem, we use a sequential forward search algorithm to select an effective set of features. Second, variations in the numerical parts of biomedical terms (e.g., "2" in the biomedical term IL2 cause data sparseness and generate many redundant features. In this case, we apply numerical normalization, which solves the problem by replacing all numerals in a term with one representative numeral to help classify named entities. Third, the assignment of NE tags does not depend solely on the target word's closest neighbors, but may depend on words outside the context window (e.g., a context window of five consists of the current word plus two preceding and two subsequent words. We use global patterns generated by the Smith-Waterman local alignment algorithm to identify such structures and modify the results of our ML-based tagger. This is called pattern-based post-processing. Results To develop our ML

  5. NERBio: using selected word conjunctions, term normalization, and global patterns to improve biomedical named entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Sung, Cheng-Lung; Dai, Hong-Jie; Hung, Hsieh-Chuan; Sung, Ting-Yi; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2006-12-18

    Biomedical named entity recognition (Bio-NER) is a challenging problem because, in general, biomedical named entities of the same category (e.g., proteins and genes) do not follow one standard nomenclature. They have many irregularities and sometimes appear in ambiguous contexts. In recent years, machine-learning (ML) approaches have become increasingly common and now represent the cutting edge of Bio-NER technology. This paper addresses three problems faced by ML-based Bio-NER systems. First, most ML approaches usually employ singleton features that comprise one linguistic property (e.g., the current word is capitalized) and at least one class tag (e.g., B-protein, the beginning of a protein name). However, such features may be insufficient in cases where multiple properties must be considered. Adding conjunction features that contain multiple properties can be beneficial, but it would be infeasible to include all conjunction features in an NER model since memory resources are limited and some features are ineffective. To resolve the problem, we use a sequential forward search algorithm to select an effective set of features. Second, variations in the numerical parts of biomedical terms (e.g., "2" in the biomedical term IL2) cause data sparseness and generate many redundant features. In this case, we apply numerical normalization, which solves the problem by replacing all numerals in a term with one representative numeral to help classify named entities. Third, the assignment of NE tags does not depend solely on the target word's closest neighbors, but may depend on words outside the context window (e.g., a context window of five consists of the current word plus two preceding and two subsequent words). We use global patterns generated by the Smith-Waterman local alignment algorithm to identify such structures and modify the results of our ML-based tagger. This is called pattern-based post-processing. To develop our ML-based Bio-NER system, we employ conditional

  6. MR of normal pancreas : comparison of five pulse sequences and enhancing patterns on dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Hong, Sung Hwan; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    1997-01-01

    To compare T1-weighted FLASH and turbo spin echo (SE) T2-weighted sequences with conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences in imaging normal pancreas and to describe the enhancing patterns on dynamic MR imging. Forty-four patients with presumed hepatic hemangiomas were studied at 1.0T or 1.5T by using conventional SE sequences (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and heavily T2-weighted), turbo-SE T2-weighted sequences, and breath-hold T1-weighted FLASH sequences acquired before, immediately on, and at 1, 2, 3, and 5 or 10 minutes after injection of a bolus of gadopentetate dimeglumine. No patients had either a history or its clinical features of pancreatic disease. Images were quantitatively analyzed for signal-difference-to noise ratios (SD/Ns) between the pancreas and peripancreatic fat. Percentage enhancement of the pancreas was measured on each dynamic MR image. Conspicuity of the pancreatic border was qualitatively evaluated according to a consensus, reached by three radiologists. Turbo-SE T2-weighted images had a significantly higher SD/N ratio (p<0.001) and better conspicuity of the pancreatic border (p<0.001) than SE T2- and heavily T2-weighted images;T1-weighted SE images had a significantly higher SD/N ratio than T1-weighted FLASH images (p<0.001), but there was no significant difference between tham in qualitative analysis (p=0.346). Percentage enhancement immediately on and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 minutes after administration of contrast material was 39.9%, 44.5%, 42.9%, 40.8%, 36.3%, 29.9%, respectively, with peak enhancement at 1 minute. In MR imaging of normal pancreas, turbo-SE T2-weighted imaging is superior to SE T2- and heavily T2- weighted imaging, and SE T1-weighted imaging is superior to T1-weighted FLASH imaging. On serial gadolinium-enhanced FLASH imaging, normal pancreas shows peak enhancement at 1 minute

  7. REE interactions with hydroxyapatite. Formation of secondary solid phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seco, F.; Pablo, J. de; Bruno, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Lighter rare earth elements (REE) commonly occur in nature as the phosphate mineral monazite, while the heavier REE and Yttrium occur as the phosphate mineral xenotime, which has a similar composition, but different coordination environment of the cation. The geochemical behaviour of REE is mainly controlled by their interactions with phosphate minerals such as hydroxyapatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH, which is a very common phosphate phase in subsurface environments. Furthermore, is a material considered to be used in a High Level Nuclear Waste repository due to its high capacity in the retention of radionuclides. The objective of this work has been to study the reaction mechanisms and thermodynamics of the interaction of La(III) and Yb(III) with hydroxyapatite as a model for general Ln(III) and Ac(III) behaviour. The surface interaction of La(III) and Yb(III) with synthetic hydroxyapatite has been investigated in batch experiments with low REE 3+ initial concentrations in constant 0.1 M NaClO 4 , at room temperature and in N 2 (g) atmosphere to avoid carbonate complex formation. The initial kinetic experiments indicated that a short contact time is needed to reach equilibrium ( 4 .nH 2 O, where a 0.83 4 .nH 2 O with 1.78 4 medium and under N 2 (g) atmosphere. The experimental data indicate that the solubility equilibria is mainly controlled by the aqueous species REE 3+ until approximately pH=5 where the formation of aqueous complexes of the form REEHPO 4 + , REEPO 4 and REE(PO 4 ) 2 3- must be considered. (authors)

  8. Ecstasy and new patterns of drug use: a normal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, W; Skrondal, A

    1999-11-01

    (i) To describe illegal drug use patterns in an adolescent normal population sample with special emphasis on MDMA, ecstasy; (ii) to investigate where ecstasy is introduced in a hypothesized drug use sequence, and (iii) to contrast the predictors of ecstasy use with those of other illegal substances. Special attention was given to the relationship to subcultural music preferences and house-party-going. A school-based survey of the total cohort of adolescents enrolled in the school system in a city. 10,812 adolescents, age 14-17 years, response rate 94.3%. Oslo, the capital and only metropolitan town in Norway. Social class was measured by the occupation standard ISCO 88, questions were posed as regards frequency of alcohol use and alcohol intoxication, cigarette smoking and use of cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy and heroin. Alcohol problems were measured by a shortened version of Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI), conduct problems were measured according to the four categories of acts forming the basis of the diagnosis conduct disorder in DSM-IV, internalizing mental health problems were measured using items from Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HCL). A number of questions were asked as regards subcultural music preferences and house-party-going. STATISTICAL MODELS: A hypothesized cumulative sequence in drug use was investigated by means of latent class analysis, and the predictors of the various patterns of drug use were estimated and compared by means of multinominal logistic regression analysis. The use of ecstasy was often intermingled with the use of cannabis, amphetamines and heroin, in a pattern of polydrug use. The latent class analysis revealed the following drug use sequence: (1) alcohol, (2) cigarettes, (3) cannabis, (4) amphetamines, (5) ecstasy and (6) heroin. There was no significant association between ecstasy use and parental social class or residential area of the town. All patterns of illegal drug use were highly associated with cigarette smoking

  9. Brain perfusion SPECT in the mouse: normal pattern according to gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Wunder, Andreas; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Michel, Roger; Stemmer, Nina; Lukas, Mathias; Derlin, Thorsten; Gregor-Mamoudou, Betina; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is a useful surrogate marker of neuronal activity and a parameter of primary interest in the diagnosis of many diseases. The increasing use of mouse models spawns the demand for in vivo measurement of rCBF in the mouse. Small animal SPECT provides excellent spatial resolution at adequate sensitivity and is therefore a promising tool for imaging the mouse brain. This study evaluates the feasibility of mouse brain perfusion SPECT and assesses the regional pattern of normal Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake and the impact of age and gender. Whole-brain kinetics was compared between Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-ECD using rapid dynamic planar scans in 10 mice. Assessment of the regional uptake pattern was restricted to the more suitable tracer, HMPAO. Two HMPAO SPECTs were performed in 18 juvenile mice aged 7.5 ± 1.5weeks, and in the same animals at young adulthood, 19.1 ± 4.0 weeks (nanoSPECT/CTplus, general purpose mouse apertures: 1.2kcps/MBq, 0.7mm FWHM). The 3-D MRI Digital Atlas Database of an adult C57BL/6J mouse brain was used for region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. SPECT images were stereotactically normalized using SPM8 and a custom made, left-right symmetric HMPAO template in atlas space. For testing lateral asymmetry, each SPECT was left-right flipped prior to stereotactical normalization. Flipped and unflipped SPECTs were compared by paired testing. Peak brain uptake was similar for ECD and HMPAO: 1.8 ± 0.2 and 2.1 ± 0.6 %ID (p=0.357). Washout after the peak was much faster for ECD than for HMPAO: 24 ± 7min vs. 4.6 ± 1.7h (p=0.001). The general linear model for repeated measures with gender as an intersubject factor revealed an increase in relative HMPAO uptake with age in the neocortex (p=0.018) and the hippocampus (p=0.012). A decrease was detected in the midbrain (p=0.025). Lateral asymmetry, with HMPAO uptake larger in the left hemisphere, was detected primarily in the neocortex, both at juvenile age (asymmetry index AI=2.7 ± 1

  10. Towards an Explanation of Overeating Patterns Among Normal Weight College Women: Development and Validation of a Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Russ, Christine Runyan II

    1998-01-01

    Although research describing relationships between psychosocial factors and various eating patterns is growing, a model which explains the mechanisms through which these factors may operate is lacking. A model to explain overeating patterns among normal weight college females was developed and tested. The model contained the following variables: global adjustment, eating and weight cognitions, emotional eating, and self-efficacy. Three hundred ninety-o...

  11. Modeling the geochemical distribution of rare earth elements (REEs using multivariate statistics in the eastern part of Marvast placer, the Yazd province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Hossein Morshedy

    2017-07-01

    is to maximize both the similarity within each cluster and the difference between clusters, and finally find the structure in the data. Nowadays, cluster analysis is applied in many disciplines: biology, botany, medicine, psychology, geography, marketing, image processing, psychiatry, archaeology, etc. (Everitt et al., 2011. To execute a partitioning algorithm, the principal components analysis (PCA algorithm is applied for feature selection, feature extraction and dimension reduction. Hierarchical clustering can be utilized to provide a nested sequence of partitions with bottom-up or top-down methods based on similarity. The single linkage and complete linkage are the most popular hierarchical algorithms (Jain et al., 1999; Ji et al., 2007. Results and discussion The REE chondrite-normalized pattern for the eastern area in the Marvast placer represents a high match to the standard pattern of monazite. This pattern shows the positive anomaly of Ce and the negative anomaly of Eu. To determine the distribution of REEs concentration, 2D interpolation maps were plotted in three groups of light, middle, and heavy REEs (LREE, MREE, and HREE, which were indicated in the geochemical anomaly at the south and south-west of the area. The relative ratios of (LREE/HREE and (Ce/Eu exposed the high proportion of LREEs to HREEs. In the next section, the hierarchical clustering algorithm was employed to partition the data in the feature and sample levels. The elements portioning demonstrated four separated groups, which can be related to atomic and chemical structures. The studied region was divided into four zones by the clustering approach. The fourth zone confine coincided with the REE anomaly area. Finally, PCA was applied as the multivariate statistical tool to this dataset. Hence three principal components modeled over 90% of the variance. For the first component, the distribution map of load factor has a good agreement with anomaly area. References Alipour-Asll, M., Mirnejad

  12. Language Patterns Discriminate Mild Depression From Normal Sadness and Euthymic State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Daria; Cumming, Paul; Sloeva, Elena; Kuvshinova, Natalia; Romanov, Dmitry; Nosachev, Gennadii

    2018-01-01

    Deviations from typical word use have been previously reported in clinical depression, but language patterns of mild depression (MD), as distinct from normal sadness (NS) and euthymic state, are unknown. In this study, we aimed to apply the linguistic approach as an additional diagnostic key for understanding clinical variability along the continuum of affective states. We studied 402 written reports from 124 Russian-speaking patients and 77 healthy controls (HC), including 35 cases of NS, using hand-coding procedures. The focus of our psycholinguistic methods was on lexico-semantic [e.g., rhetorical figures (metaphors, similes)], syntactic [e.g., predominant sentence type (single-clause and multi-clause)], and lexico-grammatical [e.g., pronouns (indefinite, personal)] variables. Statistical evaluations included Cohen's kappa for inter-rater reliability measures, a non-parametric approach (Mann-Whitney U -test and Pearson chi-square test), one-way ANOVA for between-group differences, Spearman's and point-biserial correlations to analyze relationships between linguistic and gender variables, discriminant analysis (Wilks' λ) of linguistic variables in relation to the affective diagnostic types, all using SPSS-22 (significant, p  language, single-clause sentences domination over multi-clause, atypical word order, increased use of personal and indefinite pronouns, and verb use in continuous/imperfective and past tenses. In NS, as compared with HC, we found greater use of lexical repetitions, omission of words, and verbs in continuous and present tenses. MD was significantly differentiated from NS and euthymic state by linguistic variables [98.6%; Wilks' λ(40) = 0.009; p  language use distinguishing depression from NS and euthymic state, which points to a potential role of linguistic indicators in diagnosing affective states.

  13. Patterns of international normalized ratio values among new warfarin patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Winnie W; Milentijevic, Dejan; Wang, Li; Baser, Onur; Damaraju, C V; Schein, Jeffrey R

    2016-12-01

    Limited information exists regarding the relationship between international normalized ratio (INR) control/stability and the discontinuation of warfarin therapy among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). This study evaluated the association between INR stabilization and warfarin discontinuation and assessed INR patterns before and after INR stabilization among patients (≥18 years) with NVAF who newly initiated warfarin (Veterans Health Administration datasets; October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2012). Achievement of INR stabilization (≥3 consecutive in-range therapeutic INR measurements ≥7 days apart) was examined from warfarin initiation through the end of warfarin exposure. Proportion of time in therapeutic range during warfarin exposure was calculated (Rosendaal method) and categorized as at least 60% or less than 60%. Among 34 346 patients, 49.4% achieved INR stabilization (mean time to stabilization, 98 days). Approximately 40% of INR values were out-of-range, even after achieving stabilization. During 30 days following an INR 4.0 or higher, patients had more INR testing than the overall mean (2.51 vs. 1.67 tests). Warfarin discontinuation was 4.2 times more likely among patients without INR stabilization versus those with INR stabilization (P < 0.00001). Patients with poor INR control (time in therapeutic range <60%) were 1.76 times more likely to discontinue warfarin within 1 year (P < 0.0001). INR stabilization is a better predictor of warfarin discontinuation than poor INR control. Improved approaches are necessary to maintain appropriate anticoagulation levels among patients with NVAF.

  14. Control-group feature normalization for multivariate pattern analysis of structural MRI data using the support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Kristin A; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Doshi, Jimit; Davatzikos, Christos; Shinohara, Russell T

    2016-05-15

    Normalization of feature vector values is a common practice in machine learning. Generally, each feature value is standardized to the unit hypercube or by normalizing to zero mean and unit variance. Classification decisions based on support vector machines (SVMs) or by other methods are sensitive to the specific normalization used on the features. In the context of multivariate pattern analysis using neuroimaging data, standardization effectively up- and down-weights features based on their individual variability. Since the standard approach uses the entire data set to guide the normalization, it utilizes the total variability of these features. This total variation is inevitably dependent on the amount of marginal separation between groups. Thus, such a normalization may attenuate the separability of the data in high dimensional space. In this work we propose an alternate approach that uses an estimate of the control-group standard deviation to normalize features before training. We study our proposed approach in the context of group classification using structural MRI data. We show that control-based normalization leads to better reproducibility of estimated multivariate disease patterns and improves the classifier performance in many cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rare earth elements in sedimentary phosphate deposits: Solution to the global REE crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsbo, Poul; McLaughlin, Patrick I.; Breit, George N.; du Bray, Edward A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    The critical role of rare earth elements (REEs), particularly heavy REEs (HREEs), in high-tech industries has created a surge in demand that is quickly outstripping known global supply and has triggered a worldwide scramble to discover new sources. The chemical analysis of 23 sedimentary phosphate deposits (phosphorites) in the United States demonstrates that they are significantly enriched in REEs. Leaching experiments using dilute H2SO4 and HCl, extracted nearly 100% of their total REE content and show that the extraction of REEs from phosphorites is not subject to the many technological and environmental challenges that vex the exploitation of many identified REE deposits. Our data suggest that phosphate rock currently mined in the United States has the potential to produce a significant proportion of the world's REE demand as a byproduct. Importantly, the size and concentration of HREEs in some unmined phosphorites dwarf the world's richest REE deposits. Secular variation in phosphate REE contents identifies geologic time periods favorable for the formation of currently unrecognized high-REE phosphates. The extraordinary endowment, combined with the ease of REE extraction, indicates that such phosphorites might be considered as a primary source of REEs with the potential to resolve the global REE (particularly for HREE) supply shortage.

  16. Rare earth element patterns in biotite, muscovite and tourmaline minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.; Lepel, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Rare earth element concentrations in the minerals biotite and muscovite from the mica schist country rocks of the Etta pegmatite and tourmalines from the Bob Ingersoll pegmatite have been measured by INAA and CNAA. The concentrations range from 10 -4 g/g to 10/sup -10g//sub g/. The REE patterns of biotite, muscovite and tourmaline reported herein are highly fractionated from light to heavy REE. The REE concentrations in biotite and muscovite are high and indigenous. The pegmatite tourmalines contain low concentrations of REE. Variations in tourmaline REE patterns reflect the geochemical evolution of pegmatite melt/fluid system during crystallization

  17. Normal and abnormal electrical activation of the heart. Imaging patterns obtained by phase analysis of equilibrium cardiac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.; Byrom, E.; Swiryn, S.; Meyer-Pavel, C.; Rosen, K.

    1981-01-01

    By using a temporal Fourier analysis of gated equilibrium cardiac studies, phase images were obtained. These functional images were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively to determine if specific patterns can be found for normal versus abnormal electrical activation of the heart. The study included eight subjects with normal cardiac function and 24 patients with abnormal electrical activation: eight with left bundle branch block (LBBB), two with right bundle branch block (RBBB), six with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), one with junctional rhythm, one with spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (all with normal wall motion), two with chronic transvenous pacemakers, and four with induced sustained VT (all with regional wall motion abnormalities). The results show that the two ventricals have the same mean phase (within +-9 0 ) in normals, but significantly different mean phases in all patients with bundle branch blocks. Of the six WPW patients, three had a distinctive abnormal pattern. The patient with junctional rhythm, those with transvenous pacemakers, and those with VT all had abnormal patterns on the phase image. The phase image is capable of showing differences between patients with electrical activation and a variety of electrical abnormalities. Within the latter category distinct patterns can be associated with each type of abnormality. (author)

  18. Language Patterns Discriminate Mild Depression From Normal Sadness and Euthymic State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Smirnova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesDeviations from typical word use have been previously reported in clinical depression, but language patterns of mild depression (MD, as distinct from normal sadness (NS and euthymic state, are unknown. In this study, we aimed to apply the linguistic approach as an additional diagnostic key for understanding clinical variability along the continuum of affective states.MethodsWe studied 402 written reports from 124 Russian-speaking patients and 77 healthy controls (HC, including 35 cases of NS, using hand-coding procedures. The focus of our psycholinguistic methods was on lexico-semantic [e.g., rhetorical figures (metaphors, similes], syntactic [e.g., predominant sentence type (single-clause and multi-clause], and lexico-grammatical [e.g., pronouns (indefinite, personal] variables. Statistical evaluations included Cohen’s kappa for inter-rater reliability measures, a non-parametric approach (Mann–Whitney U-test and Pearson chi-square test, one-way ANOVA for between-group differences, Spearman’s and point-biserial correlations to analyze relationships between linguistic and gender variables, discriminant analysis (Wilks’ λ of linguistic variables in relation to the affective diagnostic types, all using SPSS-22 (significant, p < 0.05.ResultsIn MD, as compared with healthy individuals, written responses were longer, demonstrated descriptive rather than analytic style, showed signs of spoken and figurative language, single-clause sentences domination over multi-clause, atypical word order, increased use of personal and indefinite pronouns, and verb use in continuous/imperfective and past tenses. In NS, as compared with HC, we found greater use of lexical repetitions, omission of words, and verbs in continuous and present tenses. MD was significantly differentiated from NS and euthymic state by linguistic variables [98.6%; Wilks’ λ(40 = 0.009; p < 0.001; r = 0.992]. The highest predictors in discrimination between

  19. Effects of rare earth elements and REE-binding proteins on physiological responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongwu; Wang, Xue; Chen, Zhiwei

    2012-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), which include 17 elements in the periodic table, share chemical properties related to a similar external electronic configuration. REEs enriched fertilizers have been used in China since the 1980s. REEs could enter the cell and cell organelles, influence plant growth, and mainly be bound with the biological macromolecules. REE-binding proteins have been found in some plants. In addition, the chlorophyll activities and photosynthetic rate can be regulated by REEs. REEs could promote the protective function of cell membrane and enhance the plant resistance capability to stress produced by environmental factors, and affect the plant physiological mechanism by regulating the Ca²⁺ level in the plant cells. The focus of present review is to describe how REEs and REE-binding proteins participate in the physiological responses in plants.

  20. The recovery of rare earth elements (REE) from beach sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrache, Cristina A.; Santos, Gabriel P. Jr.; Fernandez, Lourdes G.; Castillo, Marilyn K.; Tabora, Estrellita U; Intoy, Socorro P.; Reyes, Rolando Y.

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary study describes a metallurgical process that will extract, recover and produce REE oxides from beach sands obtained from Ombo, San Vicente, northern Palawan. The beach sands contain REE minerals of allanite and small amounts of monazite. Allanite is a sorosilicate mineral containing rare earths, thorium and uranium. Monazite is the anhydrous phosphate of cerium and the lanthanum group of rare earths with thorium commonly present in replacement for cerium and lanthanum. Collected beach sand were first pan-concentrated in-situ to produce heavy mineral concentrates. Screening using a 32 mesh (0.500 mm) sieve was done at the Nuclear Materials Research Laboratory to remove oversize sand particles. The -32 mesh fraction was treated with bromoform (sp. gr. 2.89) to separate the heavy minerals from siliceous gangue. Grinding to -325 mesh size (0.044mm) followed to liberate the minerals prior to leaching. Two acids leachants were used - concentrated HCl for the first trial and a mixture of concentrated HCl and HNO 3 (10:1 volume ratio) for the second trial. Both leaching trials were carried out at 180 o C for 7 hours or until dry. The resulting leached residues were re-dissolved in concentrated HCl and filtered. Ionquest R 801, an organophosphorous extractant, was added to the filtrate to separate the radioactive thorium from REE. Sodium hydroxide was added to the aqueous phase to precipitate the REE. After filtering the precipitate, it was dissolved in HCl. The acid solution was repeatedly extracted three (3) times with Ionquest R 801 to remove iron and other contaminants. Ammonium hydroxide was added to the final solution to precipitate the REE, which was then dried in the oven. The precipitate was calcined/roasted in the furnace at two different temperatures for different periods of time to burn off the organic matter and to form oxides. Results of the XRD analysis showed peaks of the calcined precipitate matching with the peaks of lanthanum oxide

  1. miREE: miRNA recognition elements ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Computational methods for microRNA target prediction are a fundamental step to understand the miRNA role in gene regulation, a key process in molecular biology. In this paper we present miREE, a novel microRNA target prediction tool. miREE is an ensemble of two parts entailing complementary but integrated roles in the prediction. The Ab-Initio module leverages upon a genetic algorithmic approach to generate a set of candidate sites on the basis of their microRNA-mRNA duplex stability properties. Then, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning module evaluates the impact of microRNA recognition elements on the target gene. As a result the prediction takes into account information regarding both miRNA-target structural stability and accessibility. Results The proposed method significantly improves the state-of-the-art prediction tools in terms of accuracy with a better balance between specificity and sensitivity, as demonstrated by the experiments conducted on several large datasets across different species. miREE achieves this result by tackling two of the main challenges of current prediction tools: (1) The reduced number of false positives for the Ab-Initio part thanks to the integration of a machine learning module (2) the specificity of the machine learning part, obtained through an innovative technique for rich and representative negative records generation. The validation was conducted on experimental datasets where the miRNA:mRNA interactions had been obtained through (1) direct validation where even the binding site is provided, or through (2) indirect validation, based on gene expression variations obtained from high-throughput experiments where the specific interaction is not validated in detail and consequently the specific binding site is not provided. Conclusions The coupling of two parts: a sensitive Ab-Initio module and a selective machine learning part capable of recognizing the false positives, leads to an improved balance between

  2. Increased daytime somnolence despite normal sleep patterns in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van Kralingen, Klaas W.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2007-01-01

    In patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA), increased fatigue scores on quality of life (QoL) have been reported. Because this may be related to altered sleep patterns, we evaluated daytime sleepiness and sleep patterns in patients successfully treated for NFMA in our

  3. Distinct p53 genomic binding patterns in normal and cancer-derived human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botcheva K.; McCorkle S. R.; McCombie W. R.; Dunn J. J.; Anderson C. W.

    2011-12-15

    We report here genome-wide analysis of the tumor suppressor p53 binding sites in normal human cells. 743 high-confidence ChIP-seq peaks representing putative genomic binding sites were identified in normal IMR90 fibroblasts using a reference chromatin sample. More than 40% were located within 2 kb of a transcription start site (TSS), a distribution similar to that documented for individually studied, functional p53 binding sites and, to date, not observed by previous p53 genome-wide studies. Nearly half of the high-confidence binding sites in the IMR90 cells reside in CpG islands, in marked contrast to sites reported in cancer-derived cells. The distinct genomic features of the IMR90 binding sites do not reflect a distinct preference for specific sequences, since the de novo developed p53 motif based on our study is similar to those reported by genome-wide studies of cancer cells. More likely, the different chromatin landscape in normal, compared with cancer-derived cells, influences p53 binding via modulating availability of the sites. We compared the IMR90 ChIPseq peaks to the recently published IMR90 methylome1 and demonstrated that they are enriched at hypomethylated DNA. Our study represents the first genome-wide, de novo mapping of p53 binding sites in normal human cells and reveals that p53 binding sites reside in distinct genomic landscapes in normal and cancer-derived human cells.

  4. Quantification of differences between nailfold capillaroscopy images with a scleroderma pattern and normal pattern using measures of geometric and algorithmic complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwin, Samuel George; Griffiths, Bridget; Allen, John

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to quantify and investigate differences in the geometric and algorithmic complexity of the microvasculature in nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) images displaying a scleroderma pattern and those displaying a 'normal' pattern. 11 NFC images were qualitatively classified by a capillary specialist as indicative of 'clear microangiopathy' (CM), i.e. a scleroderma pattern, and 11 as 'not clear microangiopathy' (NCM), i.e. a 'normal' pattern. Pre-processing was performed, and fractal dimension (FD) and Kolmogorov complexity (KC) were calculated following image binarisation. FD and KC were compared between groups, and a k-means cluster analysis (n  =  2) on all images was performed, without prior knowledge of the group assigned to them (i.e. CM or NCM), using FD and KC as inputs. CM images had significantly reduced FD and KC compared to NCM images, and the cluster analysis displayed promising results that the quantitative classification of images into CM and NCM groups is possible using the mathematical measures of FD and KC. The analysis techniques used show promise for quantitative microvascular investigation in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  5. Normal and abnormal patterns of cerebrovascular reserve tested by 133 Xe inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Sakai, F.; Naritomi, H.; Grant, P.

    1978-01-01

    Cerebrovascular functional reserve was tested by noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (nrCBF) at rest in quiet darkness and when repeated during standard multiple psychophysiologic activation. The test was applied to normal volunteers and patients with different neurologic disorders. The test included counting, conversation, music, and observing movements, while rCBF was measured over both cerebral hemispheres, brain stem, and cerebellum. In normal persons at rest, mean gray matter flow (Fg) values were the same for each hemisphere. Highest Fg values were observed in brain stem and both frontal regions. During activation in normal persons, there was a significant increase in Fg values over both hemispheres and in brain stem. During activation, three types of abnormal rCBF responses were seen: Demented patients showed no change, patients with vascular occlusion showed little or no increase over the ischemic hemisphere, and some patients with epilepsy showed excessive increases

  6. Patterns of DNA methylation in the normal colon vary by anatomical location, gender, and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaz, Andrew M; Wong, Chao-Jen; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Luo, Yanxin; Schoen, Robert E; Grady, William M

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in DNA methylation have been proposed to create a field cancerization state in the colon, where molecular alterations that predispose cells to transformation occur in histologically normal tissue. However, our understanding of the role of DNA methylation in field cancerization is limited by an incomplete characterization of the methylation state of the normal colon. In order to determine the colon’s normal methylation state, we extracted DNA from normal colon biopsies from the rectum, sigmoid, transverse, and ascending colon and assessed the methylation status of the DNA by pyrosequencing candidate loci as well as with HumanMethylation450 arrays. We found that methylation levels of repetitive elements LINE-1 and SAT-α showed minimal variability throughout the colon in contrast to other loci. Promoter methylation of EVL was highest in the rectum and progressively lower in the proximal segments, whereas ESR1 methylation was higher in older individuals. Genome-wide methylation analysis of normal DNA revealed 8388, 82, and 93 differentially methylated loci that distinguished right from left colon, males from females, and older vs. younger individuals, respectively. Although variability in methylation between biopsies and among different colon segments was minimal for repetitive elements, analyses of specific cancer-related genes as well as a genome-wide methylation analysis demonstrated differential methylation based on colon location, individual age, and gender. These studies advance our knowledge regarding the variation of DNA methylation in the normal colon, a prerequisite for future studies aimed at understanding methylation differences indicative of a colon field effect. PMID:24413027

  7. Blink patterns and lid-contact times in dry-eye and normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousler GW 3rd

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available George W Ousler 3rd,1 Mark B Abelson,1,2 Patrick R Johnston,1 John Rodriguez,1 Keith Lane,1 Lisa M Smith11Ora, Andover, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: To classify blinks in dry eye and normal subjects into six subtypes, and to define the blink rate and duration within each type of blink, as well as the total lid-contact time/minute.Materials and methods: This was a single-centered, prospective, double-blind study of eleven dry-eye and ten normal subjects. Predefined subjects watched a video while blinks were recorded for 10 minutes. Partial blinks were classified by percentage closure of maximal palpebral fissure opening: 25%, 50%, 75%. Complete blinks were characterized as full (>0 seconds, extended (>0.1 seconds, or superextended (>0.5 seconds. The mean duration of each type of blink was determined and standardized per minute as total lid-contact time.Results: Total blinks observed were 4,990 (1,414 normal, 3,756 dry eye: 1,809 (50.59% partial and 1,767 (49.41% complete blinks among dry-eye subjects versus 741 (52.90% partial and 673 (47.60% complete blinks among normal subjects. Only superextended blinks of ≥0.5-second duration were significantly more frequent in dry-eye subjects than normals (2.3% versus 0.2%, respectively; P=0.023. Total contact time was seven times higher in dry-eye subjects than normals (0.565 versus 0.080 seconds, respectively; P<0.001. Isolating only extended blinks (>0.1 second, the average contact time (seconds was four times longer in dry-eye versus normal subjects (2.459 in dry eye, 0.575 in normals; P=0.003. Isolating only superextended blinks (>0.5 seconds, average contact time was also significantly different (7.134 in dry eye, 1.589 in normals; P<0.001. The contact rate for all full closures was 6.4 times longer in dry-eye (0.045 versus 0.007, P<0.001 than normal subjects.Conclusion: Dry-eye subjects spent 4.5% of a

  8. Physical Activity Patterns in Normal-Weight and Overweight/Obese Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bacchi

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess the volume of physical activity (PA throughout pregnancy in normal-weight vs overweight/obese women, and to investigate which factors may predict compliance to PA recommendations in these women throughout gestation. In 236 pregnant women, 177 normal-weight and 59 overweight/obese (median[IQR] BMI 21.2[19.9-22.8] vs 26.5[25.5-29.0] kg/m2, respectively, medical history, anthropometry and clinical data, including glucose tolerance, were recorded. In addition, pre-pregnancy PA was estimated by the Kaiser questionnaire, while total, walking and fitness/sport PA during pregnancy were assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE modified questionnaire, at 14-16, 24-28 and 30-32 weeks of gestation. PA volume was very low in the first trimester of pregnancy in both groups of women. However, it increased in the second and third trimester in normal-weight, but not in overweight/obese subjects. Higher pre-pregnancy PA was a statistically significant predictor of being physically active (>150 minutes of PA per week during all trimesters of gestation. In conclusion, physical activity volume is low in pregnant women, especially in overweight/obese subjects. PA volume increases during pregnancy only in normal-weight women. Pre-pregnancy PA is an independent predictor of achieving a PA volume of at least 150 min per week during pregnancy.

  9. Peer Popularity and Peer Communication Patterns: Hyperactive versus Active but Normal Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; Young, Richard David

    1981-01-01

    Classroom peer perceptions of 18 teacher-nominated hyperactive and 18 teacher-nominated active but normal elementary school-age boys were compared. Results indicated that hyperactives were significantly different from actives on all sociometric measures in that they were perceived more negatively. (Author/SB)

  10. REE Comparison Between Muncung Granite Samples and their Weathering Products, Lingga Regency, Riau Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Irzon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.3.149-161The increasing demand for Rare Earth Elements (REE is related to the continous development of technology, and these elements are used in modern equipments. REE can occur in igneous and sedimentary rocks in significant amounts as primary deposits, whereas the secondary REE deposit can be produced by intensive lateritic weathering of bedrocks under the tropical or subtropical climate. Lateritic process can increase REE concentration from sub-economic levels in host rocks to be more valuable. Muncung Granite is located in a tropical area of Lingga Regency, Riau Islands Province. REE occurs in the Muncung Granite and in weathered layers (saprolite, laterite, and soil. ICP-MS was applied to measure the REE content in all samples of this study. The average REE content of the Muncung Granite is 265 ppm with Eu anomaly in REE’s spider diagrams. Lateritization process has increased REE content by more than four times compared to that in the Muncung Granite. Ce and Eu anomalies in weathered layers can be associated with weathering process and initial REE contents in the host rock. Ce anomaly in a laterite layer is found to have a negative correlation to REE total enrichment. The REE level in the Muncung Granite is higher than the content in the soil and saprolite layers, but lower than that in the laterite.

  11. Origin of convex tetrads in rare earth element patterns of hydrothermally altered siliceous igneous rocks from the Zinnwald Sn W deposit, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, T.; Dulski, P.; Kempe, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of whole rock samples from evolved granitic systems hosting rare metal deposits sometimes show a split into four consecutive curved segments, referred to as tetrads. In the present contribution, a rigorous statistical method is proposed that can be used to test whether geological significance should be attributed to tetrads that are only of limited size. The method involves a detailed evaluation of element and sample specific random and systematic errors that are constrained on the basis of independent repeated preparations and analyses of sample and reference materials. Application of the proposed method to samples from the granite-hosted Zinnwald Sn-W deposit, Germany, revealed that at least two tetrads in normalized whole rock REE patterns have to be analytically significant to rule out that fractional crystallization led to the unusual behavior of the REEs. Based on the analysis of altered albite granite and greisen samples from the endocontact of the Zinnwald granite massif, it is demonstrated that the lanthanide tetrad effect is responsible for the formation of the convex tetrads. Geological and petrological evidence suggests that the tetrads in the samples developed prior to greisenization and related cassiterite precipitation. In contrast to the endocontact samples, the rhyolitic wall rocks are typified by normalized REE patterns having tetrads that are variable in size and frequently close to the limit of analytical significance. The sizes of the tetrads apparently correlate with the intensity of albitization, but show no relation to subsequent alteration processes including greisenization and low-temperature argillization. This observation proves that curved segments in normalized whole rock REE patterns can be introduced during hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction.

  12. Audre's daughter: Black lesbian steganography in Dee Rees' Pariah and Audre Lorde's Zami: A New Spelling of My Name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that African-American director Dee Rees' critically acclaimed debut Pariah (2011) is a rewriting of lesbian poet-activist Audre Lorde's iconic "bio-mythography" Zami: A New Spelling of My Name (1982). The article examines how Rees' work creatively and subtly re-envisions Lorde's Zami by way of deeply rooted and often cleverly camouflaged patterns, resonances, and contrasts. Shared topics include naming, mother-daughter bonds, the role of clothing in identity formation, domestic abuse, queer time, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender legacy discourse construction. What emerges between the visual and written texts is a hidden language of connection--what may be termed Black lesbian steganography--which proves thought-provoking to viewers and readers alike.

  13. Muscle Activation Pattern during Selected Functional Task in Shoulder Impingement Syndrome vs. Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Kajbaf-Vala

    2009-10-01

    Conclusion: Changes in muscle recruitment pattern are task dependent that this may be due to direction of movement and axial compression loading in subacromial space. Among all selected exercises in D2E (Diagonal 2 Extension minimum changes and in tripod maximum changes (in time domain were seen.

  14. The dentate nucleus in children: normal development and patterns of disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McErlean, Aoife; Abdalla, Khaled; Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    The dentate nuclei lie deep within the cerebellum and play a vital role in the pathways involved in fine motor control and coordination. They are susceptible to a variety of diseases. Some pathological processes preferentially affect the dentate nuclei, while concomitant basal ganglia or white matter involvement can be a striking finding in others. A familiarity with the normal appearance of the dentate nuclei at different ages in combination with the radiological distribution of pathology in the brain allows the paediatric radiologist to develop a logical approach to the interpretation of MR imaging of these deep cerebellar nuclei. In this article we review the normal appearance and MR features of the dentate nuclei, including changes that are seen with myelination. We describe the specific imaging characteristics of childhood diseases that involve the dentate nuclei, and develop a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of dentate nucleus abnormalities on MR imaging. (orig.)

  15. The dentate nucleus in children: normal development and patterns of disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McErlean, Aoife; Abdalla, Khaled; Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    The dentate nuclei lie deep within the cerebellum and play a vital role in the pathways involved in fine motor control and coordination. They are susceptible to a variety of diseases. Some pathological processes preferentially affect the dentate nuclei, while concomitant basal ganglia or white matter involvement can be a striking finding in others. A familiarity with the normal appearance of the dentate nuclei at different ages in combination with the radiological distribution of pathology in the brain allows the paediatric radiologist to develop a logical approach to the interpretation of MR imaging of these deep cerebellar nuclei. In this article we review the normal appearance and MR features of the dentate nuclei, including changes that are seen with myelination. We describe the specific imaging characteristics of childhood diseases that involve the dentate nuclei, and develop a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of dentate nucleus abnormalities on MR imaging. (orig.)

  16. Patterns of brain activity in normals and schizophrenics with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Brodie, J.D.; Canero, R.; Van Gelder, P.; Russell, J.A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The authors investigated the functional interaction among brain areas under baseline and upon activation by a visual task to compare the response of normal subjects from the ones of chronic schizophrenics. Cerebral metabolic images were obtained on twelve healthy volunteers an eighteen schizophrenics with positron emission tomography and 11-C-Deoxyglucose. Correlation coefficients among the relative metabolic values (region of interest divided by the average of whole brain gray matter) of 11 brain regions; frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital left and right lobes, left and right basal ganglia and thalamus were computed for the baseline and for the task. Under baseline, normals showed more functional correlations than schizophrenics. Both groups showed a thalamo-occipital (positive) and thalamo-frontal (negative) interaction. The highest correlations among homologous brain areas were the frontal, occipital and basal ganglia

  17. Usual normalization strategies for gene expression studies impair the detection and analysis of circadian patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Diego de Siqueira; Barbosa, Mayara Rodrigues; Coimbra, Daniel Gomes; Dos Santos, José Luiz Araújo; Costa, Ellyda Fernanda Lopes; Koike, Bruna Del Vechio; Alexandre Moreira, Magna Suzana; de Andrade, Tiago Gomes

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that transcriptomes from different tissues present circadian oscillations. Therefore, the endogenous variation of total RNA should be considered as a potential bias in circadian studies of gene expression. However, normalization strategies generally include the equalization of total RNA concentration between samples prior to cDNA synthesis. Moreover, endogenous housekeeping genes (HKGs) frequently used for data normalization may exhibit circadian variation and distort experimental results if not detected or considered. In this study, we controlled experimental conditions from the amount of initial brain tissue samples through extraction steps, cDNA synthesis, and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) to demonstrate a circadian oscillation of total RNA concentration. We also identified that the normalization of the RNA's yield affected the rhythmic profiles of different genes, including Per1-2 and Bmal1. Five widely used HKGs (Actb, Eif2a, Gapdh, Hprt1, and B2m) also presented rhythmic variations not detected by geNorm algorithm. In addition, the analysis of exogenous microRNAs (Cel-miR-54 and Cel-miR-39) spiked during RNA extraction suggests that the yield was affected by total RNA concentration, which may impact circadian studies of small RNAs. The results indicate that the approach of tissue normalization without total RNA equalization prior to cDNA synthesis can avoid bias from endogenous broad variations in transcript levels. Also, the circadian analysis of 2 -Cycle threshold (Ct) data, without HKGs, may be an alternative for chronobiological studies under controlled experimental conditions.

  18. [Nutritional analysis of dietary patterns in students of primary education with normal nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Gúrpide, Beatriz; Durá-Travé, Teodoro

    2014-06-01

    To perform a nutritional assessment of the dietary model in a group of primary school students (9-12 years) with a normal nutritional status. Recording of food consumption of two consecutive school days in a sample of 353 primary school students (188 boys and 165 girls) with normal nutritional situation. The intake of energy, macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins was calculated and compared with the recommended intakes. The mean value of daily caloric intake was 2,066.9 kcal. Grains (33%), dairy products (19%) and meats (17%) represented 70% of the total caloric intake. Proteins contributed with 20.3% of the caloric intake, sugars 48.8%, lipids 30.9%, and saturated fats 12.6%. Cholesterol intake was excessive and 2/3 of the caloric intake was of animal origin. The mean intake of calcium, iodine and A, D and E vitamins were lower than de recommended dietary intakes. The dietary model of the primary school students with normal nutritional status varies from the Mediterranean prototype, with an excessive intake of meats, limited intake of grains and dairy products, and deficient intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, and fishes. This leads to an increase in the intake of proteins and fats from animals with a detriment of complex carbohydrates and a deficient intake of calcium, iodine, and vitamins A, D y E. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Commingling effect of gynoid and android fat patterns on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, I S; Seale, J P; Lyn, R

    2015-05-18

    To determine the independent and commingling effect of android and gynoid percent fat (measured using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry) on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults. The 2005-2006 data (n=1802) from the United States National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used in this study. Associations of android percent fat, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence with risks of cardiometabolic risk factors were estimated using prevalence odds ratios from logistic regression analyses. Android-gynoid percent fat ratio was more highly correlated with cardiometabolic dysregulation than android percent fat, gynoid percent fat or body mass index. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with much greater odds of cardiometabolic risk factors than either android or gynoid adiposities. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.42-2.93), 1.48 (95% CI=1.32-1.91), 1.61 (95% CI=1.50-1.89), 3.56 (95% CI=2.91-4.11) and 1.86 (95% CI=1.49-1.96) increased odds of elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, respectively. Normal weight subjects who present with both android and gynoid adiposities should be advised of the associated health risks. Both android and gynoid fat accumulations should be considered in developing public health strategies for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in normal weight subjects.

  20. Differences in aortic vortex flow pattern between normal and patients with stroke: qualitative and quantitative assessment using transesophageal contrast echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jang-Won; Hong, Geu-Ru; Hong, Woosol; Kim, Minji; Houle, Helene; Vannan, Mani A; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Chung, Namsik

    2016-06-01

    The flow in the aorta forms a vortex, which is a critical determinant of the flow dynamics in the aorta. Arteriosclerosis can alter the blood flow pattern of the aorta and cause characteristic alterations of the vortex. However, this change in aortic vortex has not yet been studied. This study aimed to characterize aortic vortex flow pattern using transesophageal contrast echocardiography in normal and stroke patients. A total of 85 patients who diagnosed with ischemic stroke and 16 normal controls were recruited for this study. The 16 normal control subjects were designated as the control group, and the 85 ischemic stroke patients were designated as the stroke group. All subjects underwent contrast transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and particle image velocimetry was used to assess aortic vortex flow. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of vortex flow morphology, location, phasic variation, and pulsatility were undertaken and compared between the groups. In the control group, multiple irregularly-shaped vortices were observed in a peripheral location in the descending thoracic aorta. In contrast, the stroke group had a single, round, merged, and more centrally located aortic vortex flow. In the quantitative analysis of vortex, vortex depth, which represents the location of the major vortex in the aorta, was significantly higher in the control group than in the stroke group (0.599 ± 0.159 vs. 0.522 ± 0.101, respectively, P = 0.013). Vortex relative strength, which is the pulsatility parameter of the vortex itself, was significantly higher in the stroke group than in the control group (0.367 ± 0.148 vs. 0.304 ± 0.087, respectively, P = 0.025). It was feasible to visualize and quantify the characteristic morphology and pulsatility of the aortic vortex flow using contrast TEE, and aortic vortex pattern significantly differed between normal and stroke patients.

  1. A Comparison of the Eating and Exercise Patterns of Normal Weight and Overweight Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-23

    eating disorders: Physiology, psychology, and treatment of obesity. anorexia . and bulimia (pp. 63-87). New York: Basic Books. Kovvrygo, B., Gorska...children, and older adults and 2,200 kilocalories for older children, teen girls, active women, and most men (USDA, :2000). Interestingly, individuals who...major medical problems that could impact eating patterns andlor weight (e.g., hypertension, diabetes, bulimia , thyroid disease, etc.) and could not have

  2. The patterning of retinal horizontal cells: normalizing the regularity index enhances the detection of genomic linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Keeley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neurons are often arranged as non-random distributions called mosaics, as their somata minimize proximity to neighboring cells of the same type. The horizontal cells serve as an example of such a mosaic, but little is known about the developmental mechanisms that underlie their patterning. To identify genes involved in this process, we have used three different spatial statistics to assess the patterning of the horizontal cell mosaic across a panel of genetically distinct recombinant inbred strains. To avoid the confounding effect cell density, which varies two-fold across these different strains, we computed the real/random regularity ratio, expressing the regularity of a mosaic relative to a randomly distributed simulation of similarly sized cells. To test whether this latter statistic better reflects the variation in biological processes that contribute to horizontal cell spacing, we subsequently compared the genetic linkage for each of these two traits, the regularity index and the real/random regularity ratio, each computed from the distribution of nearest neighbor (NN distances and from the Voronoi domain (VD areas. Finally, we compared each of these analyses with another index of patterning, the packing factor. Variation in the regularity indexes, as well as their real/random regularity ratios, and the packing factor, mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL to the distal ends of Chromosomes 1 and 14. For the NN and VD analyses, we found that the degree of linkage was greater when using the real/random regularity ratio rather than the respective regularity index. Using informatic resources, we narrow the list of prospective genes positioned at these two intervals to a small collection of six genes that warrant further investigation to determine their potential role in shaping the patterning of the horizontal cell mosaic.

  3. Trace element mobility in mine waters from granitic pegmatite U–Th–REE deposits, Bancroft area, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbarats, A.J.; Percival, J.B.; Venance, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    Small, low-grade, granitic pegmatite U–Th–REE deposits are found throughout the Grenville geological province of eastern Canada. Groundwater quality at historical mining properties in the Bancroft area was investigated in order to better understand the mobility of trace elements that may pose health risks if there is renewed development of this class of mineral deposit. Groundwater samples were obtained from diamond drill holes, flowing adits and flooded mine shafts. Uranium occurs almost entirely in the dissolved (<0.45 μm) phase and is found at concentrations reaching 2579 μg/L. The Canadian maximum acceptable concentration for U in drinking water (0.02 mg/L) was exceeded in 70% of samples. Regulatory limits for 226 Ra (0.5 Bq/L) and for 210 Pb (0.2 Bq/L) were generally exceeded in these samples as well. Speciation modeling indicates that over 98% of dissolved U is in the form of highly mobile uranyl-Ca–carbonate complexes known to inhibit U adsorption. Uranium concentrations in groundwater appear to be correlated with the uranothorite content of the deposits rather than with their U grade. Uranothorite may be more soluble than uraninite, the other ore mineral, because of its non-ideal composition and metamict structure. Thorium, released concomitantly with U during the dissolution of uranothorite and thorian uraninite, exhibits median and maximum total concentrations of only 0.1 and 11 μg/L, respectively. Mass balance and stoichiometric considerations indicate that almost all Th is immobilized very close to its source. The sums of total light REE (La–Gd) concentrations have median and maximum values of 6 and 117 μg/L, respectively. The sums of total heavy REE (Tb–Lu) concentrations have median and maximum values of 0.8 and 21 μg/L, respectively. Light REE are derived mainly from the dissolution of metamict allanite whereas the sources of heavy REE are widely dispersed among accessory minerals. Fractionation patterns of REE in the dissolved

  4. Dietary patterns of obese and normal-weight women of reproductive age in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulia; Khusun, Helda; Fahmida, Umi

    2016-07-01

    Developing countries including Indonesia imperatively require an understanding of factors leading to the emerging problem of obesity, especially within low socio-economic groups, whose dietary pattern may contribute to obesity. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the dietary patterns and food consumption of 103 obese and 104 normal-weight women of reproductive age (19-49 years) in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta. A single 24-h food recall was used to assess energy and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat) and calculate energy density. A principal component analysis was used to define the dietary patterns from the FFQ. Obese women had significantly higher intakes of energy (8436·6 (sd 2358·1) v. 7504·4 (sd 1887·8) kJ (2016·4 (sd 563·6) v. 1793·6 (sd 451·2) kcal)), carbohydrate (263·9 (sd 77·0) v. 237·6 (sd 63·0) g) and fat (83·11 (sd 31·3) v. 70·2 (sd 26·1) g) compared with normal-weight women; however, their protein intake (59·4 (sd 19·1) v. 55·9 (sd 18·5) g) and energy density (8·911 (sd 2·30) v. 8·58 (sd 1·88) kJ/g (2·13 (sd 0·55) v. 2·05 (sd 0·45) kcal/g)) did not differ significantly. Two dietary patterns were revealed and subjectively named 'more healthy' and 'less healthy'. The 'less healthy' pattern was characterised by the consumption of fried foods (snacks, soyabean and roots and tubers) and meat and poultry products, whereas the more healthy pattern was characterised by the consumption of seafood, vegetables, eggs, milk and milk products and non-fried snacks. Subjects with a high score for the more healthy pattern had a lower obesity risk compared with those with a low score. Thus, obesity is associated with high energy intake and unhealthy dietary patterns characterised by consumption of oils and fats through fried foods and snacks.

  5. Apparently abnormal Wechsler Memory Scale index score patterns in the normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Roman Marcus; Grups, Josefine; Evans, Brittney; Simco, Edward; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition may involve examination of multiple memory index score contrasts and similar comparisons with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition ability indexes. Standardization sample data suggest that 15-point differences between any specific pair of index scores are relatively uncommon in normal individuals, but these base rates refer to a comparison between a single pair of indexes rather than multiple simultaneous comparisons among indexes. This study provides normative data for the occurrence of multiple index score differences calculated by using Monte Carlo simulations and validated against standardization data. Differences of 15 points between any two memory indexes or between memory and ability indexes occurred in 60% and 48% of the normative sample, respectively. Wechsler index score discrepancies are normally common and therefore not clinically meaningful when numerous such comparisons are made. Explicit prior interpretive hypotheses are necessary to reduce the number of index comparisons and associated false-positive conclusions. Monte Carlo simulation accurately predicts these false-positive rates.

  6. Aeromagnetic expression of rare earth element (REE) deposits in New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.

    2016-12-01

    With the development of high-tech devices and the expanding demands in industrial production, rare earth elements(REE) has been playing an increasingly important role in the global economy in the past several decades. Different types of REE serve irreplaceable functions in high-tech industry, as well as for developing sustainable energy and catalysis of manufacturing. Given that the global supply of REE has become strained since 2009 and no known substitutes for REE have been found, exploration for new REE deposits is imperative for economic sustainability. Ten main regions have REE deposits in New Mexico, some of which have not been exploited, while some sites such as Gallinas mountains vein deposits are in early exploration stage. Exploration for the reserves and quantization of mineral compositions of New Mexico's REE depositional districts can have economic benefits in general. In this study, high-resolution airborne magnetic and gravity data were used for studying the Gallinas mountains REE deposit. The purposes of this study are to: (1) characterize specific aeromagnetic anomaly and gravity features from the REE deposits, and (2) apply the characterized features to suggest other areas among the ten REE depositional regions for further exploration. All REE deposits in the study area are found associated with alkaline to alkali-calcic volcanic rocks. A quantitative modeling based on aeromagnetic and gravity anomaly mapping was constructed with an assumption of three units: carbonatites, alkaline volcanic intrusions and REE-concentrated minerals (barite, bastnaesite, etc.). The results of this study show that alkaline deposit is characterized by negative magnetic anomalies and carbonatite is associated with gravity anomaly and vertical gravity gradient high. The area with significantly high aeromagnetic anomaly area and also gravity anomaly high supposed to reflect REE-concentrated minerals such as bastnaesite. For further research, hyperspectral information and

  7. Pattern-mixture models for analyzing normal outcome data with proxy respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardell, Michelle; Hicks, Gregory E; Miller, Ram R; Langenberg, Patricia; Magaziner, Jay

    2010-06-30

    Studies of older adults often involve interview questions regarding subjective constructs such as perceived disability. In some studies, when subjects are unable (e.g. due to cognitive impairment) or unwilling to respond to these questions, proxies (e.g. relatives or other care givers) are recruited to provide responses in place of the subject. Proxies are usually not approached to respond on behalf of subjects who respond for themselves; thus, for each subject, data from only one of the subject or proxy are available. Typically, proxy responses are simply substituted for missing subject responses, and standard complete-data analyses are performed. However, this approach may introduce measurement error and produce biased parameter estimates. In this paper, we propose using pattern-mixture models that relate non-identifiable parameters to identifiable parameters to analyze data with proxy respondents. We posit three interpretable pattern-mixture restrictions to be used with proxy data, and we propose estimation procedures using maximum likelihood and multiple imputation. The methods are applied to a cohort of elderly hip-fracture patients. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal marrow: Basic understanding of the normal marrow pattern and its variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab; Eid, Ahmed Fathi

    2015-01-01

    For now, magnetic resonance (MR) is the best noninvasive imaging modality to evaluate vertebral bone marrow thanks to its inherent soft-tissue contrast and non-ionizing nature. A daily challenging scenario for every radiologist interpreting MR of the vertebral column is discerning the diseased from normal marrow. This requires the radiologist to be acquainted with the used MR techniques to judge the spinal marrow as well as its normal MR variants. Conventional sequences used basically to image marrow include T1W, fat-suppressed T2W and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging provides gross morphological data. Interestingly, using non-routine MR sequences; such as opposed phase, diffusion weighted, MR spectroscopy and contrasted-enhanced imaging; may elucidate the nature of bone marrow heterogeneities; by inferring cellular and chemical composition; and adding new functional prospects. Recalling the normal composition of bone marrow elements and the physiologic processes of spinal marrow conversion and reconversion eases basic understanding of spinal marrow imaging. Additionally, orientation with some common variants seen during spinal marrow MR imaging as hemangiomas and bone islands is a must. Moreover, awareness of the age-associated bone marrow changes as well as changes accompanying different variations of the subject’s health state is essential for radiologists to avoid overrating normal MR marrow patterns as pathologic states and metigate unnecessary further work-up. PMID:26753060

  9. Chaos emerging in soil failure patterns observed during tillage: Normalized deterministic nonlinear prediction (NDNP) and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kenshi; Upadhyaya, Shrinivasa K; Andrade-Sanchez, Pedro; Sviridova, Nina V

    2017-03-01

    Real-world processes are often combinations of deterministic and stochastic processes. Soil failure observed during farm tillage is one example of this phenomenon. In this paper, we investigated the nonlinear features of soil failure patterns in a farm tillage process. We demonstrate emerging determinism in soil failure patterns from stochastic processes under specific soil conditions. We normalized the deterministic nonlinear prediction considering autocorrelation and propose it as a robust way of extracting a nonlinear dynamical system from noise contaminated motion. Soil is a typical granular material. The results obtained here are expected to be applicable to granular materials in general. From a global scale to nano scale, the granular material is featured in seismology, geotechnology, soil mechanics, and particle technology. The results and discussions presented here are applicable in these wide research areas. The proposed method and our findings are useful with respect to the application of nonlinear dynamics to investigate complex motions generated from granular materials.

  10. Growing into obesity: patterns of height growth in those who become normal weight, overweight, or obese as young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovitz, Steven D; Demerath, Ellen W; Hannan, Peter J; Lytle, Leslie A; Himes, John H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether patterns of height growth differ by adult obesity status, and determine the contribution of subcutaneous fatness as an explanatory variable for any differences. A multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort assessed in 3rd grade (8.8 years), 5th grade (11.1 years), 8th grade (14.1 years), and 12th grade (18.3 years). Exposures were young adult obesity status classified by CDC adult BMI categories at 12th grade. Skinfolds were measured in third, fifth, and eighth grades. Outcome was mean height (cm) at the four measurements using repeated-measures ANCOVA for young adult obesity status, and height increments between grades by adult obesity status in sequential models including initial height and, secondarily, initial skinfolds. Adjusted for age, and race/ethnicity, young adult obesity status explained a small, but statistically significant amount of height growth among both females and males within each of the three intervals. Compared with normal weight young adults, overweight or obese young adults stood taller in childhood, but had relatively less growth in height throughout the teenage years. There was no association between adult height and weight status. Skinfolds explained only a small amount of the height patterns in the three weight groups. Childhood and adolescent height growth patterns differ between those who become young adults who are normal weight and those who become overweight or obese. Since differences in fatness explain only a small amount of these height growth patterns, research is needed to identify other determinants. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. REE compositions in fossil vertebrate dental tissues indicate biomineral preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigaite, Ž.; Kear, B.; Pérez-Huerta, A.; Jeffries, T.; Blom, H.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth element (REE) abundances have been measured in a number of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic dental tissues using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Fossil vertebrates analysed comprise scales and tesserae of Silurian and Devonian acanthodians, chondrichthyans, galeaspids, mongolepids, thelodonts, as well as teeth of Cretaceous lungfish and marine reptiles. The evaluation of fossil preservation level has been made by semi-quantitative spot geochemistry analyses on fine polished teeth and scale thin sections, using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Fossil teeth and scales with significant structure and colour alteration have shown elevated heavy element concentrations, and the silicification of bioapatite has been common in their tissues. Stable oxygen isotope measurements (δ18O) of bulk biomineral have been conducted in parallel, and showed comparatively lower heavy oxygen values in the same fossil tissues with stronger visible alteration. Significant difference in REE concentrations has been observed between the dentine and enamel of Cretaceous plesiosaurs, suggesting the enamel to be more geochemically resistant to diagenetic overprint.

  12. Detecting brain growth patterns in normal children using tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Levitt, Jennifer G; Caplan, Rochelle; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W

    2009-01-01

    Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetric studies have shown age-related increases in the volume of total white matter and decreases in the volume of total gray matter of normal children. Recent adaptations of image analysis strategies enable the detection of human brain growth with improved spatial resolution. In this article, we further explore the spatio-temporal complexity of adolescent brain maturation with tensor-based morphometry. By utilizing a novel non-linear elastic intensity-based registration algorithm on the serial structural MRI scans of 13 healthy children, individual Jacobian growth maps are generated and then registered to a common anatomical space. Statistical analyses reveal significant tissue growth in cerebral white matter, contrasted with gray matter loss in parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. In addition, a linear regression with age and gender suggests a slowing down of the growth rate in regions with the greatest white matter growth. We demonstrate that a tensor-based Jacobian map is a sensitive and reliable method to detect regional tissue changes during development. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Enhancer of the rudimentary gene homologue (ERH expression pattern in sporadic human breast cancer and normal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knüchel Ruth

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human gene ERH (Enhancer of the Rudimentary gene Homologue has previously been identified by in silico analysis of four million ESTs as a gene differentially expressed in breast cancer. The biological function of ERH protein has not been fully elucidated, however functions in cell cycle progression, pyrimidine metabolism a possible interaction with p21(Cip1/Waf1 via the Ciz1 zinc finger protein have been suggested. The aim of the present study was a systematic characterization of ERH expression in human breast cancer in order to evaluate possible clinical applications of this molecule. Methods The expression pattern of ERH was analyzed using multiple tissue northern blots (MTN on a panel of 16 normal human tissues and two sets of malignant/normal breast and ovarian tissue samples. ERH expression was further analyzed in breast cancer and normal breast tissues and in tumorigenic as well as non-tumorigenic breast cancer cell lines, using quantitative RT-PCR and non-radioisotopic in situ hybridization (ISH. Results Among normal human tissues, ERH expression was most abundant in testis, heart, ovary, prostate, and liver. In the two MTN sets of malignant/normal breast and ovarian tissue,ERH was clearly more abundantly expressed in all tumours than in normal tissue samples. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that ERH expression was significantly more abundant in tumorigenic than in non-tumorigenic breast cancer cell lines (4.5-fold; p = 0.05, two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test; the same trend was noted in a set of 25 primary invasive breast cancers and 16 normal breast tissue samples (2.5-fold; p = 0.1. These findings were further confirmed by non-radioisotopic ISH in human breast cancer and normal breast tissue. Conclusion ERH expression is clearly up-regulated in malignant as compared with benign breast cells both in primary human breast cancer and in cell models of breast cancer. Since similar results were obtained for ovarian

  14. Contemporary second stage labor patterns in Taiwanese women with normal neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tai-Ho; Chen, Szu-Fu; Lo, Liang-Ming; Hsieh, T'sang-T'ang

    2015-08-01

    To compare the duration of second stage labor among modern Taiwanese women who achieved vaginal delivery without adverse neonatal outcomes and women who delivered during the early 1990 s. Data were collected from women who underwent spontaneous labor and vaginally delivered cephalic singleton fetuses with normal neonatal outcomes at the Taipei Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan from 1991-1995 (Cohort 1, n = 10,721) and 2010-2014 (Cohort 2, n = 3734). We calculated the median duration and 95th percentiles of second stage labor. The women were stratified according to analgesia and parity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between the maternal/pregnancy characteristics and second stage labor duration. The median second stage labor duration was significantly longer for Cohort 2 than for Cohort 1. For nulliparous women, the 95th percentile second stage labor thresholds were 255 minutes and 152 minutes (Cohort 2) and 165 minutes and 107 minutes (Cohort 1) for women with and without epidural analgesia, respectively. For multiparous women, the 95th percentile second stage labor thresholds were 136 minutes and 43 minutes (Cohort 2) and 125 minutes and 39 minutes (Cohort 1) for women with and without epidural analgesia, respectively. Birth weight, maternal age at delivery, and time period (2010-2014 vs. 1991-1995) were significant factors associated with the duration of second stage labor. Modern Taiwanese women who achieved vaginal delivery without adverse neonatal outcomes experienced longer second stage labors than women 25 years ago. The 95th percentile thresholds differed between nulliparous and multiparous women with and without epidural analgesia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Study of Normal Branching Pattern of the Coeliac Trunk and its Variations Using CT Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Lakshana; Sundaramurthi, Indumathi

    2015-09-01

    Blood vessel anomalies are always interesting from embryological view and of considerable significance from a clinical or a surgical standpoint. Vascular anomalies are usually asymptomatic; they may cause problems in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography or any operative procedure. The length and course of the coeliac artery are variable and its branches frequently arise separately from the main trunk. Several other branches may additionally arise from the coeliac trunk, for example, inferior phrenic arteries, the dorsal pancreatic artery, and the middle colic artery. The present study was undertaken to analyse the vertebral level of origin of coeliac artery, its branching pattern and the associated variations using computed tomographic angiography in 75 subjects. The results obtained were analysed and classified based on Adachi's and Lipshutz's classification method. The results were also compared with various other studies cited in the literature. The level of origin was found to be at the inter-vertebral disc between T12 and L1 in a majority of the cases (70.6%). It was also found that the coeliac trunk trifurcates in majority of the cases i.e. 90.6%. Trifurcation was of two types, classical and non-classical, the classical trunk being the commonest type. Variations included bifurcation of the trunk (8%) with Left gastric artery arising directly from the aorta, in a few cases (1.3%) Common hepatic artery arose as a separate trunk from the aorta. A comprehensive knowledge of this arterial anatomy and variations will be very useful when planning abdominal surgeries and image-guided interventions. The success of procedures such as liver transplantation, intestinal anastomosis, intra-arterial chemotherapy, chemo-embolization, and radio-embolization requires a detailed knowledge of the coeliac artery and its anatomical variants, which are extremely common, to avoid iatrogenic injuries and to prevent complications.

  16. REE potential of the Nordkinn Peninsula, North Norway: A comparison of soil and bedrock composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, Julian; Reimann, Clemens; Roberts, David

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Soil geochemistry outlines an extensive REE anomaly on the Nordkinn Peninsula, North Norway. • Soil and bedrock geochemistry are compared with respect to REE and other HFSE. • Petrology of soil and rock samples reveals that the economic potential is limited. • Poor condition of REE minerals causes elevated REE concentrations in AR-digested soil samples. - Abstract: Regional-scale, low-density sampling, geochemical surveys using a variety of different sample materials have repeatedly indicated the Nordkinn Peninsula (northern Norway) as a substantial rare earth element (REE) anomaly. Recently, a more detailed soil geochemical survey, covering about 2000 km 2 at a sample density of 1 site per 2 km 2 , was carried out in the area. The new geochemical survey outlined a large area (several hundred km 2 ) where the soil samples contained several hundred and up to over 2000 mg/kg aqua regia extractable REE. In the surroundings of the highest soil anomalies, bedrock samples were collected for a mineralogical and compositional characterisation of the metasedimentary bedrock with focus on the possible economic potential. The REE concentrations obtained for aliquots of bedrock following aqua regia extraction, 4-Acid digestion and Li-borate fusion/decomposition closely match the results from soil pulps after an aqua regia extraction. Total contents for the REE determined in bedrock using the above methods range between 19 and 429 mg/kg, indicating an overall limited economic REE potential and the predominance of the light REE over the heavy REE. In terms of petrography, essentially all the bedrock samples are characterised by the presence of detrital, altered and locally even decomposed allanite (a LREE-incorporating, epidote-group mineral) and minor xenotime (a HREE-incorporating phosphate) while texturally stable REE phases are scarce. It is the poor condition of the REE minerals that makes them prone towards acidic leaching and, given similar results

  17. Characteristics and genesis of Rare Earth Element (REE) in western Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoko, A. D.; Sanjaya, E.

    2018-02-01

    Rare Earth Element (REE) has unique properties that have been used in many hightech applications. The demand of REE increased recently in the world due to its special properties. Although REE concentration in the crust is higher than gold, economically viable deposits are still rare. Reduction of REE exports by China cause increased prices of REE. Due to this condition, exploration of potential REE mines emerged. Indonesia also participates in this phenomenon, and explore the possibility of REE mines in its area. This review will discuss the characteristics and genesis of REE and its occurrence in western Indonesia; focused in Sumatera, Tin Island, and Kalimantan. The review is done based on literature research from several resources about characteristics of rare earth element in general and in the given area. The research shows that the potential REE mines can be found in several different locations in Indonesia, such as Tin Island, Sumatera, and Kalimantan. Most of them are composed of monazite, zircon, and xenotime as rare earth minerals. Monazite iss known for its elevated number of radioactive elements, so study about radioactive content and more environment friendly ore processing becomes compulsory.

  18. Leachability of rare earth elements (REEs) from solid wastes generated during chemical processing of monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Sujata; Pillai, P.M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Studies have been carried out to assess the leachability of REEs from solid wastes generated in monazite processing. Leachability of REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd) and Y from PbS-Ba(Ra)SO 4 (Mixed cake) and Effluent Treatment Plant cake (calcium hydroxy apatite) has been studied using rain water as the leachant. Studies indicate that 23 -60 % of the REEs gets leached out from the mixed cake in the first 24 hours. From the ETP cake, the percentage of REEs leached out were negligible. The results provide inputs for hazards evaluation in accidental situations resulting in breach of integrity of the waste storages. (author)

  19. Obese motorcycle riders have a different injury pattern and longer hospital length of stay than the normal-weight patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang-Tsung; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-04-14

    The adverse effects of obesity on the physical health have been extensively studied in the general population, but not in motorcycle riders (includes both drivers and pillions). The aim of this study was to compare injury patterns, injury severities, mortality rates, and in-hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) between obese and normal-weight patients who were hospitalized for the treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents in a level I trauma center. Detailed data of 466 obese adult patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and 2701 normal-weight patients (25 > BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2)) who had sustained motorcycle accident-related injuries were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. We used the Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and independent Student's t-test to analyze differences between the two groups. Compared to normal-weight motorcycle riders, more obese riders were men and drivers as opposed to pillions. In addition, fewer obese motorcycle riders showed alcohol intoxication. Analyses of the patients' Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores revealed that obese motorcycle riders presented with a higher rate of injury to the thorax, but a lower rate of injury to the face than normal-weight patients. In addition, obese motorcycle riders had a 2.7-fold greater incidence of humeral, 1.9-fold greater incidence of pelvic, and 1.5-fold greater incidence of rib fractures. In contrast, normal-weight motorcycle riders sustained a significantly higher rate of maxillary and clavicle fractures. Obese motorcycle riders had a significant longer in-hospital LOS than normal-weight motorcycle riders did (10.6 days vs. 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.044), with an increase in in-hospital LOS of 0.82 days associated with every 10-unit increase in BMI. No statistically significant differences in Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Trauma

  20. Mandibulary dental arch form differences between level four polynomial method and pentamorphic pattern for normal occlusion sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yuliana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of an orthodontic treatment is to achieve aesthetic, dental health and the surrounding tissues, occlusal functional relationship, and stability. The success of an orthodontic treatment is influenced by many factors, such as diagnosis and treatment plan. In order to do a diagnosis and a treatment plan, medical record, clinical examination, radiographic examination, extra oral and intra oral photos, as well as study model analysis are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in dental arch form between level four polynomial and pentamorphic arch form and to determine which one is best suitable for normal occlusion sample. This analytic comparative study was conducted at Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran on 13 models by comparing the dental arch form using the level four polynomial method based on mathematical calculations, the pattern of the pentamorphic arch and mandibular normal occlusion as a control. The results obtained were tested using statistical analysis T student test. The results indicate a significant difference both in the form of level four polynomial method and pentamorphic arch form when compared with mandibular normal occlusion dental arch form. Level four polynomial fits better, compare to pentamorphic arch form.

  1. The effect of the water-to-rock ratio on REE distribution in hydrothermal fluids: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, Oliver; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Holzheid, Astrid

    2013-04-01

    High-temperature submarine MOR hydrothermalism creates high elemental fluxes into, and out of, oceanic lithosphere significantly affecting ocean chemistry. The Turtle Pits hydrothermal system discovered at 5° S on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in water depths of ~3000 m (~300 bar) emanates 'ultrahot' fluids > 400 ° C [1] with high concentrations of dissolved gases (e.g., H2), transition metals, and rare earth elements (REE). The normalised REE patterns of these 'ultrahot' fluids are uncommon as they exhibit depletions of LREE and no Eu-anomaly ('special' REE-signature in [2]), which is in contrast to the "typical" LREE enrichment and pronounced positive Eu-anomaly known from many MOR vent fluids observed world-wide [e.g., 3]. Although hydrothermal fluid REE-signatures may play a key role in understanding processes during water-rock interaction, only few experimental data have been published on REE distribution in seawater-like fluids reacted with rocks from the ocean crust [e.g., 4, 5]. Besides temperature, the seawater-to-rock ratio (w/r ratio) strongly affects water-rock reaction processes and, thus, has significant control on the fluid chemistry [e.g., 6, 7]. To understand how vent fluid REE-signatures are generated during water-rock interaction processes we designed a series of experiments reacting different fluid types with mineral assemblages from fresh, unaltered gabbro at 425 ° C and 400 bar using cold seal pressure vessels (CSPV). Mixtures of 125-500 μm-sized hand-picked plagioclase and clinopyroxene grains separated from unaltered gabbro reacted in gold capsules with 3.2 wt.% NaCl(aq) fluid (similar to seawater salinity), or with natural seawater. The w/r (mass) ratio ranged from 1 to 100 and the run durations were varied from 3 to 30 d in the NaCl(aq) experiments, and was 3 d in the seawater experiments. The reacted fluids were extracted after quenching and analysed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Only in the seawater experiments, the gabbro

  2. Erythropoietin improves place learning in fimbria-fornix-transected rats and modifies the search pattern of normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2004-01-01

    administration of EPO significantly improves the posttraumatic functional recovery of the presently studied place learning task after transections of the fimbria-fornix. Additionally, administration of EPO influences the strategy, although not quality, of task solution in normal (sham-operated) rats.......The acquisition of a water-maze-based allocentric place learning task was studied in four groups of rats: two groups subjected to bilateral transections of the fimbria-fornix and two groups undergoing a sham control operation. At the moment of surgery all animals were given one systemic......-associated impairment. The two sham-operated groups did not differ with respect to the proficiency of task acquisition. But administration of EPO to intact animals caused a significant modification of swim patterns-apparently reflecting a somewhat modified strategy of task solution. It is concluded that systemic...

  3. Selective electrochemical extraction of REEs from NdFeB magnet waste at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venkatesan, P.; Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Hennebel, Tom; Binnemans, Koen; Sietsma, J.; Yang, Y.

    2018-01-01

    NdFeB magnet waste is one of the important secondary resources from which rare-earth elements (REEs) can be recovered. Herein we present an electrochemical route to selectively extract REEs from the magnet waste at room temperature. First, the magnet waste was partially leached with HCl. The

  4. Rare earth elements determination and distribution patterns in sediments of a polluted marine environment by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Results obtained from the analysis of sediment core samples taken from a fairly polluted marine environment were analyzed for the REE contents to determine the concentrations of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Core samples were divided into strata of between 2 to 3 cm intervals and prepared in the powdered form before irradiating them in a neutron flux of about 5.0 x 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 in a Triga Mark II reactor. Down-core concentration profiles of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb in 3 core sediments from three sites are obtained. The shale-normalized REE pattern from each site was examined and later used to explain the history of sedimentation by natural processes such as shoreline erosion and weathering products deposited on the seabed and furnishing some baseline data and/or pollution trend occurring within the study area. The shale-normalized REE patterns also showed that LREE in the sediment samples exhibit enrichment relative to HREE particularly, La and Sm showing enrichment compared to the ratios in shale. REE concentrations of 124 μg/g at the surface of sediment collected at two of the three sites were found to decrease to 58 and 95 μg/g, respectively. This was of particular interest when it is used to explain the anomalies occurring in the marine sediment as a result of geochemical processes over a long period of time. Changes in concentrations from surface to bottom of the sediments ratioed to Sm concentrations and the correlation between concentrations of Sm and these elements were also investigated and correlation coefficients were calculated for all REEs and sites. Validation of the method used was done using a Soil-7 SRM. (author)

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow pattern in normal young and aged volunteers: a 99mTc-HMPAO SPET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catafau, A.M.; Lomena, J.; Pavia, J.; Parellada, E.; Bernardo, M.; Setoain, J.; Tolosa, E.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the normal pattern of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in normal young and aged volunteers using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m -Tc-HMPAO) as a tracer. The region brain perfusion of young and aged subjects was compared, especially regarding rCBF differences due to age and gender, and interhemispheric rCBF asymmetries. Sixty-eight right-handed normal volunteers -40 young (mean age 29.5±6.3 years) and 28 aged (mean age 71.2±4.3 years) - were included in the study. rCBF was estimated on the basis of a semiquantitative approach by means of a left-right index and two region/reference ratios, using the cerebellum and the whole brain activity as references. A good correlation between these two region/reference ratios was found (P<0.005 in all cerebral regions). The highest rCBF ratios corresponded to the cerebellum, followed by the occipital lobe. The remaining cortical regions (temporal, parietal, frontal and basal ganglia) showed slightly lower values. The white matter showed rCBF ratios substantially lower than the grey matter. In neighter young nor aged subjects were significant rCBF differences between the genders found in any of the two region/reference indices employed. Aged sugjects showed significantly lower rCBF ratios than young subjects in the left frontal lobe and in the posterior region of the left temporal lobe. In both young and aged subjects, lower perfusion was found in the left hemisphere, except for the white matter region in both age groups and the frontal lobe in the young subjects. Aged subjects presented a slightly higher interhemispheric asymmetry in the frontal lobe. However, interhemispheric asymmetry was minimal (-1.01% to 3.14%). Consequently, a symmetrical rCBF distribution can be assumed between homologous regions, independent of age. (orig.)

  6. Off-line separation and determination of rare earth elements associated with chloroplast pigments of hyperaccumulator Dicranopteris dichotoma by normal-phase liquid chromatography and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z G; Hong, F S; Yin, M; Li, H X; Hu, F; Zhao, G W; Wong, J W C

    2004-10-01

    An off-line normal-phase liquid chromatography-ICP-MS method has been used for separation and determination of the rare earth elements (REE) associated with chloroplast pigments of Dicranopteris dichotoma. The stability of REE-bound pigments was tested, and almost no destruction of REE-bound pigments occurred during the so-called normal-phase liquid chromatography. The accumulated free REE ions on the microcrystalline cellulose column were cleaned by elution with 5 mmol L(-1) 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen 2-ethylhexylphosphonate (P507), to avoid exchange of these free ions with metals from the pigments. When these precautions were taken, the method was applied to the study of REE-bound pigments in D. dichotoma. ICP-MS results showed REE were present in chlorophylls and lutein, although REE concentrations in carotene and pheophytin were both below procedural blank levels. By careful analysis of the eluate fractions containing chlorophyll a it was found that REE-bound chlorophyll a in D. dichotoma was slightly enriched in the fractions with relatively short retention time. Results indicated that the retention time of REE-bound chlorophyll a might be slightly less than that of magnesium chlorophyll a, and REE-bound chlorophylls might be of relatively low polarity in comparison with magnesium bound chlorophylls. This phenomenon could be explained by the special double-decker sandwich-structure of REE-bound chlorophylls, as was reported by us and other authors. On the basis of these results we preferred to consider that REE can replace magnesium in chlorophyll a of D. dichotoma, and that the role of REE-bound chlorophylls in photosynthesis cannot be neglected. These data might be useful for understanding of both the properties of REE-bound pigments and the effect of REE on plant photosynthesis.

  7. Bannatyne-Recategorized WISC-R Patterns of Mentally Retarded, Learning Disabled, Normal, and Intellectually Superior Children: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Horst H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Metaanalytical procedures examined the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Revised subtest performance patterns of 36 samples of below average, normal average, learning disabled average, and above average IQ children from research. Relative patterning of WISC-R subtests as reflected in children's Bannatyne-recategorized performance profiles appeared to be…

  8. Geochemistry of REE in Acid Mine Drainage: Sorption onto Basaluminite and Schwertmannite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Letellier, A.; Ayora, C.; Fernandez-Martinez, A.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements (REE) has been investigated in natural streams and in mine areas during the last decades. Most of these studies agree that REE are mobile in acidic waters and they transferred to a solid phase when pH increases. However, there is no agreement on the pH range, on which precipitates can retain REE and the mechanisms responsible for the retention. Thus, whereas some authors determined that hydrous ferric oxides (HFOs) scavenge REE from pH 3, other authors observed REE retention by hydrous aluminum oxides (HAOs) from pH 4 to 6.1. A field survey conducted in the Odiel River in the SW Spain showed that pH values higher than 5, REE, Cu, Al and Fe concentrations in the river were lower than expected from a theoretical mixture because they were trapped in the precipitates. For pH below 4, however, only schwertmannite (Fe8O8OH6SO4) and no basaluminite (Al4SO4OH10·5H2O) precipitated. Then, REE, Cu and Al behaved conservatively and Fe does not, indicating that REE are trapped in the Al but not in the Fe solid phase. These observations are perfectly consistent with the REE accumulation in the Al-rich precipitates in the AMD treatment systems. Taking into account these observations, sorption experiments with synthetic basaluminite and schwertmannite at different pH were performed in the laboratory. For Lanthanides and Yttrium, sorption edge took place at pH higher than 5, whereas Sc sorption started at pH 4. A surface complexation model is proposed to explain the retention mechanism onto these two precipitates. Both minerals, schwertmannite and basaluminite showed similar sorption behavior. However, as schwertmannite formation occurs at pH lower than 4, no REE elements are sorbed on it.

  9. Formation of patterned arrays of Au nanoparticles on SiC surface by template confined dewetting of normal and oblique deposited nanoscale films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffino, F., E-mail: francesco.ruffino@ct.infn.it; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2013-06-01

    We report on the formation of patterned arrays of Au nanoparticles (NPs) on 6H SiC surface. To this end, we exploit the thermal-induced dewetting properties of a template confined deposited nanoscale Au film. In this approach, the Au surface pattern order, on the SiC substrate, is established by a template confined deposition using a micrometric template. Then, a dewetting process of the patterned Au film is induced by thermal processes. We compare the results, about the patterns formation, obtained for normal and oblique deposited Au films. We show that the normal and oblique depositions, through the same template, originate different patterns of the Au film. As a consequence of these different starting patterns, after the thermal processes, different patterns for the arrays of NPs originating from the dewetting mechanisms are obtained. For each fixed deposition angle α, the pattern evolution is analyzed, by scanning electron microscopy, as a function of the annealing time at 1173 K (900 °C). From these analyses, quantitative evaluations on the NPs size evolution are drawn. - Highlights: • Micrometric template-confined nanoscale gold films are deposited on silicon carbide. • The dewetting process of template-confined gold films on silicon carbide is studied. • Comparison of dewetting process of normal and oblique deposited gold films is drawn. • Patterned arrays of gold nanoparticles on silicon carbide surface are produced.

  10. Formation of patterned arrays of Au nanoparticles on SiC surface by template confined dewetting of normal and oblique deposited nanoscale films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffino, F.; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the formation of patterned arrays of Au nanoparticles (NPs) on 6H SiC surface. To this end, we exploit the thermal-induced dewetting properties of a template confined deposited nanoscale Au film. In this approach, the Au surface pattern order, on the SiC substrate, is established by a template confined deposition using a micrometric template. Then, a dewetting process of the patterned Au film is induced by thermal processes. We compare the results, about the patterns formation, obtained for normal and oblique deposited Au films. We show that the normal and oblique depositions, through the same template, originate different patterns of the Au film. As a consequence of these different starting patterns, after the thermal processes, different patterns for the arrays of NPs originating from the dewetting mechanisms are obtained. For each fixed deposition angle α, the pattern evolution is analyzed, by scanning electron microscopy, as a function of the annealing time at 1173 K (900 °C). From these analyses, quantitative evaluations on the NPs size evolution are drawn. - Highlights: • Micrometric template-confined nanoscale gold films are deposited on silicon carbide. • The dewetting process of template-confined gold films on silicon carbide is studied. • Comparison of dewetting process of normal and oblique deposited gold films is drawn. • Patterned arrays of gold nanoparticles on silicon carbide surface are produced

  11. Apoptosis patterns in eutopic and ectopic endometrium, adhesions and normal-looking peritoneum from women with or without endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassa, H; Tanir, H Mete; Tekin, B; Artan, S; Dundar, E; Kirilmaz, S D; Sahin Mutlu, F

    2009-08-01

    To assess the apoptosis rate in eutopic and ectopic endometrial stromal and glandular cells, normal peritoneum and adhesions in women with endometriosis. A total number of 97 women with (n:60) and without (n:37) histopathologically confirmed endometriosis who underwent laparoscopy or laparotomy in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycles for pain and infertility were included in this study. Stage I/II and stage III/IV were categorized as early staged and late-staged endometriosis. The endometrial samples were obtained with a Novack cannula from the corpus of the uterus. Normal-looking peritoneum, peritoneal implants and adhesions were sampled and fixed in formaldehyde for immunohistochemical staining with Bcl-2 and Bax. Tissue samples were fixed in formaldehyde for the assessment of apoptosis via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) and M30 cytoDEATH antibody. The intensity of Bax staining of normal-looking peritoneum in early staged endometriosis was higher, compared to women with late-staged and women without endometriosis (P = 0.03). However, degree of Bcl-2 staining did not differ among early and late-staged endometriosis and women without endometriosis (P = 0.1). In terms of Bcl-2 and Bax staining in the stromal and glandular parts of the eutopic endometria, no significant differences were detected among three groups. In cases with early- and late-staged endometriosis the intensity of Bax and Bcl-2 stainings did not differ in both stromal and glandular parts of ectopic endometria. Number of cells with positive apoptotic signals assessed via TUNEL (P = 1.0) and M30 cytoDEATH antibody (P = 0.59) in normal-looking peritoneum did not differ between three groups. In addition, no difference in term of numbers of apoptotic cells obtained from adhesions was observed between three groups (for TUNEL, P = 0.29, for M30, P = 0.19). Apoptosis patterns did not differ in the eutopic and ectopic

  12. Origin of convex tetrads in rare earth element patterns of hydrothermally altered siliceous igneous rocks from the Zinnwald Sn–W deposit, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    T. Monecke; Peter Dulski; U. Kempe

    2007-01-01

    The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of whole rock samples from evolved granitic systems hosting rare metal deposits sometimes show a split into four consecutive curved segments, referred to as tetrads. In the present contribution, a rigorous statistical method is proposed that can be used to test whether geological significance should be attributed to tetrads that are only of limited size. The method involves a detailed evaluation of element and sample specific random a...

  13. Relationships of risk factors for pre-eclampsia with patterns of occurrence of isolated gestational proteinuria during normal term pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrie Macdonald-Wallis

    Full Text Available Isolated gestational proteinuria may be part of the pre-eclampsia disease spectrum. Confirmation of its association with established pre-eclampsia risk factors and higher blood pressure in uncomplicated pregnancies would support this concept.Data from 11,651 women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who had a term live birth but did not have pre-existing hypertension or diabetes or develop gestational diabetes or preeclampsia were used. Proteinuria was assessed repeatedly (median 12 measurements per woman by dipstick and latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of the population with different patterns of proteinuria in pregnancy.Higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, younger age, nulliparity and twin pregnancy were independently associated with increased odds of any proteinuria in pregnancy. Women who experienced proteinuria showed five patterns: proteinuria in early pregnancy only (≤ 20 weeks gestation, and onset at 21-28 weeks, 29-32 weeks, 33-36 weeks and ≥ 37 weeks gestation. There were higher odds of proteinuria onset after 33 weeks in obese women and after 37 weeks in nulliparous women compared with normal weight and multiparous women respectively. Smoking in pregnancy was weakly negatively associated with odds of proteinuria onset after 37 weeks. Twin pregnancies had higher odds of proteinuria onset from 29 weeks. In women with proteinuria onset after 33 weeks blood pressure was higher in early pregnancy and at the end of pregnancy.Established pre-eclampsia risk factors were related to proteinuria occurrence in late gestation in healthy term pregnancies, supporting the hypothesis that isolated gestational proteinuria may represent an early manifestation of pre-eclampsia.

  14. Similarities and differences between eating disorders and obese patients in a virtual environment for normalizing eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñá, Conxa; Roncero, María

    2016-05-01

    Virtual reality has demonstrated promising results in the treatment of eating disorders (ED); however, few studies have examined its usefulness in treating obesity. The aim of this study was to compare ED and obese patients on their reality judgment of a virtual environment (VE) designed to normalize their eating pattern. A second objective was to study which variables predicted the reality of the experience of eating a virtual forbidden-fattening food. ED patients, obese patients, and a non-clinical group (N=62) experienced a non-immersive VE, and then completed reality judgment and presence measures. All participants rated the VE with similar scores for quality, interaction, engagement, and ecological validity; however, ED patients obtained the highest scores on emotional involvement, attention, reality judgment/presence, and negative effects. The obese group gave the lowest scores to reality judgment/presence, satisfaction and sense of physical space, and they held an intermediate position in the attribution of reality to virtually eating a "fattening" food. The palatability of a virtual food was predicted by attention capturing and belonging to the obese group, while the attribution of reality to the virtual eating was predicted by engagement and belonging to the ED group. This study offers preliminary results about the differential impact on ED and obese patients of the exposure to virtual food, and about the need to implement a VE that can be useful as a virtual lab for studying eating behavior and treating obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cancer vaccines: looking to the future. Interview by Jenaid Rees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Vasso

    2013-10-01

    Interview by Jenaid Rees (Commissioning Editor) Vasso Apostolopoulos has been working in the field of cancer vaccines since 1991, and human clinical trials on her work have been conducted since 1994. Her work has been at the forefront of scientific research into the development of a vaccine for cancer and she has received over 90 awards and honours in recognition of her achievements. Some notable awards include, the Premier's Award for medical research, was named Young Australian of the Year (Victoria), recipient of the Channel 10/Herald Sun Young Achiever of the Year Award as well as being awarded the Order of Brigadier General of the Phoenix Battalion by the Greek President. In 1998 Apostolopoulos received the NHMRC CJ Martin Research Fellowship and worked at the Scripps Research Institute in California, USA, for 3.5 years and returned to the Austin Research Institute (VIC, Australia), and headed the Immunology and Vaccine Laboratory receiving the NHMRC RD Wright Fellowship. Upon her return to Australia, Apostolopoulos received the Victorian Tall Poppy Award, the Bodossaki Foundation Academic Prize, was inducted into the Victorian Honour roll of Women, was a torchbearer for the Melbourne leg of the International Athens 2004 Olympic Torch Relay, was named Woman of the Year, and is an Australia Day Ambassador. Her contribution into cancer research, vaccines and immunology has been extensive - publishing over 200 scientific papers and books, an inventor on 14 patents and collaborates with over 50 national and international Research Institutes and Universities. Her current research interests are in the development of new improved cancer vaccines and new modes of antigen delivery for immune stimulation. She is also interested in chronic diseases treatment and prevention through immunotherapy. She serves on the Editorial Board for Expert Review of Vaccines.

  16. REE and Isotopic Compositions of Lunar Basalts Demonstrate Partial Melting of Hybridized Mantle Sources after Cumulate Overturn is Required

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygert, N. J.; Liang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Lunar basalts maintain an important record of the composition of the lunar interior. Much of our understanding of the Moon's early evolution comes from studying their petrogenesis. Recent experimental work has advanced our knowledge of major and trace element fractionation during lunar magma ocean (LMO) crystallization [e.g., 1-3], which produced heterogeneous basalt sources in the Moon's mantle. With the new experimental constraints, we can evaluate isotopic and trace element signatures in lunar basalts in unprecedented detail, refining inferences about the Moon's dynamic history. Two petrogenetic models are invoked to explain the compositions of the basalts. The assimilation model argues they formed as primitive melts of early LMO cumulates that assimilated late LMO cumulates as they migrated upward. The cumulate overturn model argues that dense LMO cumulates sank into the lunar interior, producing hybridized sources that melted to form the basalts. Here we compare predicted Ce/Yb and Hf and Nd isotopes of partial melts of LMO cumulates with measured compositions of lunar basalts to evaluate whether they could have formed by end-member petrogenetic models. LMO crystallization models suggest all LMO cumulates have chondrite normalized Ce/Yb 1.5; these could not have formed by assimilation of any LMO cumulate or residual liquid (or KREEP basalt, which has isotopically negative ɛNd and ɛHf). In contrast, basalt REE patterns and isotopes can easily be modeled assuming partial melting of hybridized mantle sources, indicating overturn may be required. A chemical requirement for overturn independently confirms that late LMO cumulates are sufficiently low in viscosity to sink into the lunar interior, as suggested by recent rock deformation experiments [4]. Overturned, low viscosity late LMO cumulates would be relatively stable around the core [5]. High Ce/Yb basalts require that overturned cumulates were mixed back into the overlying mantle by convection within a few

  17. REE characteristics and uranium metallogenesis of sandstone-type uranium deposits in northern Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiyang; Wang Yunliang; Wang Zhichang; Zhang Chengjiang

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of a large number of samples at sandstone-type uranium deposits in northern Sichuan, this paper analyses the REE composition of country rocks, ores, calcite-veins and uranium minerals, and systematically summarizes their REE geochemical characteristics, and discusses variation regularity of REE during depositional and diagenetic processes. By comparing these characteristics with those of typical hydrothermal volcanics-type and metamorphic rock type uranium deposits both at home and abroad, authors suggest that sandstone-type uranium deposits in northern Sichuan are characterized by REE geochemical features of hydrothermal reworking metallogenesis, the uranium mineralization has experienced two stages: the diagenetic preconcentration and the concentration of hydrothermal reworking

  18. A selected thermodynamic database for REE to be used in HLNW performance assessment exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahiu, K; Bruno, J [MBT Tecnologia Ambiental, Cerdanyola (Spain)

    1995-01-01

    A selected thermodynamic database for the Rare Earth Elements (REE) to be used in the safety assessment of high-level nuclear waste deposition has been compiled. Thermodynamic data for the aqueous species of the REE with the most important ligands relevant for granitic groundwater conditions have been selected and validated. The dominant soluble species under repository conditions are the carbonate complexes of REE. The solubilities of the oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, hydroxycarbonates, phosphates and other important solids have been selected and validated. Solubilities and solubility limiting solids in repository conditions have been estimated with the selected database. At the initial stages of fuel dissolution, the UO{sub 2} matrix dissolution will determine the concentrations of REE. Later on, solid phosphates, hydroxycarbonates and carbonates may limit their solubility. Recommendations for further studies on important systems in repository conditions have been presented. 136 refs, 13 figs, 16 tabs.

  19. A selected thermodynamic database for REE to be used in HLNW performance assessment exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahiu, K.; Bruno, J.

    1995-01-01

    A selected thermodynamic database for the Rare Earth Elements (REE) to be used in the safety assessment of high-level nuclear waste deposition has been compiled. Thermodynamic data for the aqueous species of the REE with the most important ligands relevant for granitic groundwater conditions have been selected and validated. The dominant soluble species under repository conditions are the carbonate complexes of REE. The solubilities of the oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, hydroxycarbonates, phosphates and other important solids have been selected and validated. Solubilities and solubility limiting solids in repository conditions have been estimated with the selected database. At the initial stages of fuel dissolution, the UO 2 matrix dissolution will determine the concentrations of REE. Later on, solid phosphates, hydroxycarbonates and carbonates may limit their solubility. Recommendations for further studies on important systems in repository conditions have been presented. 136 refs, 13 figs, 16 tabs

  20. Adipokine pattern in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in comparison to normal glucose tolerance and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Tönjes

    Full Text Available AIM: Altered adipokine serum concentrations early reflect impaired adipose tissue function in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. It is not entirely clear whether these adipokine alterations are already present in prediabetic states and so far there is no comprehensive adipokine panel available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess distinct adipokine profiles in patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or T2D. METHODS: Based on 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, 124 individuals were divided into groups of IFG (n = 35, IGT (n = 45, or NGT (n = 43. Furthermore, 56 subjects with T2D were included. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, chemerin, fetuin-A, leptin, interleukin (IL-6, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, vaspin, progranulin, and soluble leptin receptor (sOBR were measured by ELISAs. RESULTS: Chemerin, progranulin, fetuin-A, and RBP4, IL-6, adiponectin and leptin serum concentrations were differentially regulated among the four investigated groups but only circulating chemerin was significantly different in patients with IGT compared to those with IFG. Compared to T2D the IFG subjects had higher serum chemerin, progranulin, fetuin-A and RBP4 levels which was not detectable in the comparison of the T2D and IGT group. CONCLUSION: Alterations in adipokine serum concentrations are already detectable in prediabetic states, mainly for chemerin, and may reflect adipose tissue dysfunction as an early pathogenetic event in T2D development. In addition, distinct adipokine serum patterns in individuals with IFG and IGT suggest a specific role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of these prediabetic states.

  1. The Relationship Between Tear Ferning Patterns and Non-invasive Tear Break-up Time in Normal Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharanjeet-Kaur; Ho, Chien Yee; Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between tear ferning patterns (TFP) and non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT) in normal Asian subjects. One hundred and forty-five adults with no ocular surface disorders were recruited. TFP and NIBUT were determined. Tears were collected using a capillary tube and allowed to air dry at room temperature for 10min. TFP was later observed using a light microscope and classified according to Rolando's classification. Measurement for NIBUT was obtained using a Tearscope with the slit lamp magnification. It was found that there is no significant difference between gender in TFP (Z=-1.77, P>.05) and NIBUT (Z=-1.475, P>.05). There is also no significant difference between Malay, Chinese, Indian, and other races in TFP, (H(3)=4.85, P>.05) and NIBUT (H(3)=2.18, P>.05). However, there is a significant difference between age groups of 20-29, 30-39, 40-49,and 50-60 years old in both TFP (H(3)=28.25, P<.01) and NIBUT (H(3)=36.50, P<.001). Spearman's correlation showed there was a significant relationship between TFP and NIBUT (r=-0.55, P<.001), age and NIBUT (r=-0.50, P<.001), age and TFP (r=0.41, P<.001), McMonnies score and NIBUT (r=-0.40, P<.001), McMonnies score and TFP (r=0.31, P<.001), as well as age and McMonnies score (r=0.52, P<.001). TFP and NIBUT was age dependent but not gender and race dependent. Older subjects had higher grade of TFP and McMonnies questionnaire score but lower NIBUT value. TFP and NIBUT can be used to assess the tear film quality. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel approach in k0-NAA for highly concentrated REE Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi Neisiani, M; Latifi, M; Chaouki, J; Chilian, C

    2018-04-01

    The present paper presents a new approach for k 0 -NAA for accurate quantification with short turnaround analysis times for rare earth elements (REEs) in high content mineral matrices. REE k 0 and Q 0 values, spectral interferences and nuclear interferences were experimentally evaluated and improved with Alfa Aesar Specpure Plasma Standard 1000mgkg -1 mono-rare earth solutions. The new iterative gamma-ray self-attenuation and neutron self-shielding methods were investigated with powder standards prepared from 100mg of 99.9% Alfa Aesar mono rare earth oxide diluted with silica oxide. The overall performance of the new k 0 -NAA method for REEs was validated using a certified reference material (CRM) from Canadian Certified Reference Materials Project (REE-2) with REE content ranging from 7.2mgkg -1 for Yb to 9610mgkg -1 for Ce. The REE concentration was determined with uncertainty below 7% (at 95% confidence level) and proved good consistency with the CRM certified concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Keihani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects.Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25 and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35 were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate (<0.1% was designed to present these patterns on LED. Twenty two normal subjects (aged 23–30 (25 ± 2.1 yrs were enrolled. Visual analog scale (VAS was used for subjective fatigue evaluation after presentation of each stimulus pattern. PSD, CCA, and LASSO methods were employed to analyze SSVEP responses. The data including SSVEP features and fatigue rate for different visual stimuli patterns were statistically evaluated.Results: All 9 visual stimuli patterns elicited SSVEP responses. Overall, obtained accuracy rates were 88.35% for PSD and > 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s. High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24% than simple patterns group (98.48%. Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features (P < 0.0005. Overall, there was no significant difference between the VAS of rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], (P = 0.63. Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65] as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25

  4. Expression-robust 3D face recognition via weighted sparse representation of multi-scale and multi-component local normal patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2014-06-01

    In the theory of differential geometry, surface normal, as a first order surface differential quantity, determines the orientation of a surface at each point and contains informative local surface shape information. To fully exploit this kind of information for 3D face recognition (FR), this paper proposes a novel highly discriminative facial shape descriptor, namely multi-scale and multi-component local normal patterns (MSMC-LNP). Given a normalized facial range image, three components of normal vectors are first estimated, leading to three normal component images. Then, each normal component image is encoded locally to local normal patterns (LNP) on different scales. To utilize spatial information of facial shape, each normal component image is divided into several patches, and their LNP histograms are computed and concatenated according to the facial configuration. Finally, each original facial surface is represented by a set of LNP histograms including both global and local cues. Moreover, to make the proposed solution robust to the variations of facial expressions, we propose to learn the weight of each local patch on a given encoding scale and normal component image. Based on the learned weights and the weighted LNP histograms, we formulate a weighted sparse representation-based classifier (W-SRC). In contrast to the overwhelming majority of 3D FR approaches which were only benchmarked on the FRGC v2.0 database, we carried out extensive experiments on the FRGC v2.0, Bosphorus, BU-3DFE and 3D-TEC databases, thus including 3D face data captured in different scenarios through various sensors and depicting in particular different challenges with respect to facial expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed approach consistently achieves competitive rank-one recognition rates on these databases despite their heterogeneous nature, and thereby demonstrates its effectiveness and its generalizability. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  5. US patterns of the diaphragmatic crura. Normal anatomy and its variants; Aspetti ecografici dei pilastri diaframmatici. Anatomia normale e sue varianti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, G.; Martinoli, C.; Cicio, G.R. [Genua Univ., Genua (Italy). Cattedra R di Radiologia DICMI; Zappasodi, F. [Sobborgo Valzania, Cesena, FO (Italy); Valle, M. [Istituto Gaslini, Genua (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia

    2000-06-01

    Purpose of this work is to report the various US patterns of the diaphragmatic crura and the changes occurring during the different phases of respirations. The diaphragm has two US patterns: the central membranous part appears highly reflective while the posterior, upper and lateral muscular portions are hypoechoic and thick. The crura can sometimes appear quite bulky, which appearance is easy to misinterpret. It was carried out a three-stage work: first it was reviewed the US examinations of 23 subjects with a nodular appearance of the posteromedial bundles and studied the changes in thickness during respiration. Second it was studied the diaphragmatic crura in 30 subjects aged 18-71 years, 15 men and 15 women. It was used a commercially available unit with sector and convex 3.5 MHz probes at baseline and during breath hold and acquired multiple parasaggittal and transverse scans. The crura thickness was measured in all patients. Last, it was studied the diaphragmatic regions of 10 patients with right pleural effusion and of 8 patients with associated ascites and pleural effusion using 2.0-5.0 MHz convex phased-array transducers. It was found that focal thickening of the crura in 11 of 23 patients with US findings of diaphragmatic nodules, but only in deep inspiration. The thickening was 1.5-2.2 cm long and maximum thickness was 10 mm. In the other 12 subjects it was found 9 small lobules in the right and 3 in the left crus. In the anatomic study, it was observed a 3-band appearance of the diaphragmatic crura, probably referable to muscle bundles, in 30 subjects on sagittal images, in 12 on coronal images and in 28 on anterior transverse images. The diaphragmatic crura were identified in 26 subjects only. The left posterior crus was identified in 29 subjects on left coronal images and in 15 on anterior transverse images; it was demonstrated on anterior sagittal images in close proximity to the aorta in only 4 subjects. Right crus thickness, measured on sagittal

  6. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihani, Ahmadreza; Shirzhiyan, Zahra; Farahi, Morteza; Shamsi, Elham; Mahnam, Amin; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Haidari, Mohsen R; Jafari, Amir H

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD) has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects. Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz) to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25) and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35) were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate ( 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s). High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24%) than simple patterns group (98.48%). Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features ( P rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], ( P = 0.63). Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65]) as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25-30-35). Discussion and Conclusion: Overall, rhythmic and simple pattern groups had higher and similar accuracy rates. Rhythmic stimuli patterns showed insignificantly lower fatigue rate than simple patterns. We conclude that both rhythmic and simple visual high frequency sine wave stimuli require further research for human subject SSVEP-BCI studies.

  7. Rare earth elements determination and distribution patterns in sediments of polluted marine environment by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyil, S.; Yusof, A.M.; Wood, A.K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Results obtained from the analysis of sediment core samples taken from a fairly polluted marine environment were analyzed for the REE contents to determine the concentrations of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Core samples were divided into strata of between 2 to 3 cm intervals and prepared in the powdered form before irradiating them in a TRIGA Mk.II reactor. Down-core concentration profiles of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb in 3 core sediments from three sites are obtained. The shale-normalized REE pattern from each site was examined and later used to explain the history of sedimentation by natural processes such as shoreline erosion and weathering products deposited on the seabed and furnishing some baseline data and/or pollution trend occurring within the study area

  8. Uranium and REE recovery from Florida phosphates – Looking back and going forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Birky, B.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium recovered during the production of phosphoric acid represents a significant source of nuclear fuel as the gap between uranium supply and demand is expected to grow. The phosphate industry in Florida supplied uranium to both the defense and energy sectors in the past, but market conditions ended the recovery process. Currently, the uranium is retained in the phosphoric acid and the granulated fertilizer products, diammonium and monoammonium phosphate, and dispersed on farm fields as a trace element in blended fertilizers. This represents a loss to the nuclear fuel cycle that will never be recovered. In an era of heightened awareness of sustainability and increasing pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, market conditions and social factors may converge to create favorable conditions for uranium recovery to resume. However, the future may not resemble the past as uranium concentrations are lower in the newer mining areas and ion exchange challenges solvent extraction for the extraction technology of choice. New factors will also influence both the economic decision to resume recovery operations, as well as the recovery technology. Rare earth elements (REE) are also present in the processing streams at recoverable levels, and can be co-extracted with uranium using the proven solvent extraction method. REE are vital to the phosphor industry, green energy development, and technology advances in many fields. However, the world has limited REE resources, and the recovery of REE from many of these resources is both economically challenging and environmentally troublesome. Phosphate as a secondary REE resource has a great potential to fill this gap. World annual phosphate rock production has surpassed 200 million tons, representing 60,000 tons of unrecovered REE assuming an average concentration of 300 ppm. In the case of Florida, REE in the phosphate ore reports to four mining and processing streams, with approximately 10% to flotation tailings, 30-40% to

  9. Padrão citológico de punção aspirativa do tecido tireoidiano morfologicamente normal Cytologic pattern for fine-needle aspiration among morphologically normal thyroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daysi Maria de Alcântara Jones

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Nódulos tireoidianos pequenos com diagnóstico citológico de padrão folicular causam muita inquietação porque, se por um lado podem representar uma lesão que exige muito rigor no acompanhamento, por outro poderão representar material aspirado do tecido tireoidiano normal. OBJETIVO: Verificar o padrão citológico do tecido tireoidiano normal obtido através de punções aspirativa e não-aspirativa em cadáveres. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional em que se procedeu a dissecção anatômica da tireóide normal e se efetuou a citoaspiração da glândula, em 38 casos. Dois patologistas cegos para a metodologia do estudo, sem conhecer a correspondência entre citologia e histologia, analisaram os esfregaços e os cortes histológicos. RESULTADOS: As tireóides normais forneceram diagnóstico citológico de bócio adenomatoso em 70,4% das vezes para um observador e 92,6% para o outro. Houve uma concordância regular entre os observadores, com kappa de 0,51 (p Small thyroid nodules, which are diagnosed as follicular pattern for fine-needle aspiration, are a cause of great worry. They may present a lesion requiring rigorous follow up, or on other hand, there is a risk that some normal thyroid tissue is removed during the procedure. OBJECTIVE: To verify the cytology of a normal thyroid tissue, for aspiration and non-aspiration puncture, in autopsy material. METHODS: Observational study involving the anatomical dissection and cytoaspiration of normal thyroid glands in 38 cadavers. Two blind pathologists, unaware of the cytology and histology, analyzed the smears and the histological cuts. RESULTS: One of pathologists identified a diagnostic cytology of adenomatous goiter in 70.4% of the 38 normal glands found, while the other observed it in 92.4%. There was regular agreement between them, with Kappa of 0.51 (p < 0.0001. Contrary to what was expected, follicular patterns were not found among the cytological samples. RESULTS: The cytological aspect of

  10. Microbial mobilization of rare earth elements (REE from mineral solids—A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Barmettler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the light of an expected supply shortage of rare earth elements (REE measures have to be undertaken for an efficient use in all kinds of technical, medical, and agricultural applications as well as—in particular—in REE recycling from post-use goods and waste materials. Biologically- based methods might offer an alternative and supplement to physico-chemical techniques for REE recovery and recycling. A wide variety of physiologically distinct microbial groups have the potential to be applied for REE bioleaching form solid matrices. This source is largely untapped until today. Depending of the type of organism, the technical process (including a series of influencing factors, the solid to be treated, and the target element, leaching efficiencies of 80 to 90% can be achieved. Bioleaching of REEs can help in reducing the supply risk and market dependency. Additionally, the application of bioleaching techniques for the treatment of solid wastes might contribute to the conversion towards a more sustainable and environmental friendly economy.

  11. Average sedimentary rock rare Earth element patterns and crustal evolution: Some observations and implications from the 3800 Ma ISUA supracrustal belt, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymek, R. F.; Boak, J. L.; Gromet, L. P.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) data is given on a set of clastic metasediments from the 3800 Ma Isua Supracrustal belt, West Greenland. Each of two units from the same sedimentary sequence has a distinctive REE pattern, but the average of these rocks bears a very strong resemblance to the REE pattern for the North American Shale Composite (NASC), and departs considerably from previous estimates of REE patterns in Archaean sediments. The possibility that the source area for the Isua sediments resembled that of the NASC is regarded as highly unlikely. However, REE patterns like that in the NASC may be produced by sedimentary recycling of material yielding patterns such as are found at Isua. The results lead to the following tentative conclusions: (1) The REE patterns for Isua Seq. B MBG indicate the existence of crustal materials with fractionated REE and negative Eu anomalies at 3800 Ma, (2) The average Seq. B REE pattern resembles that of the North American Shale Composite (NASC), (3) If the Seq. B average is truly representative of its crustal sources, then this early crust could have been extensively differentiated. In this regard, a proper understanding of the NASC pattern, and its relationship to post-Archaean crustal REE reservoirs, is essential, (4) The Isua results may represent a local effect.

  12. Solubilities of some hydrous REE phosphates with implications for diagenesis and sea water concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonasson, R.G.; Bancroft, G.M.; Nesbitt, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Solubility product determinations suggest that the hydrous phosphates of the rare earths, REPO 4 .xH 2 O, are important in controlling the sea water REE concentrations. Two of these solids, rhabdophane, (P6 2 22) and 'hydrous xenotime', (I4 1 /amd), have been synthesized at 100 C via the acid hydrolysis of the respective REE pyrophosphate. The solubility products at infinite dilution were determined to be pK 0 = 24.5, (La at 25 C); 26.0, (Pr at 100 C); 25.7, (Nd at 100 C); and 25.5, (Er at 100 C). On the basis of calculations involving the reaction of Re 3+ with apatite to form the hydrous phosphate, the lanthanum concentration in sea water is predicted to be about 140 pmol/L. Laboratory experiments support the hypothesis that apatite is a substrate for reactions with dissolved REE. (author)

  13. REE bound proteins in natural plant fern Dicranopteris dichitoma by MAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, F.Q.; Wang, Y.Q.; Sun, J.X.; Chen, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Biochemical techniques, including pH variation, outsalting, ultracentrifugation, gel filtration chromatography and electrophoresis, etc., have been employed together with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to study the rare earth elements (REE) bound proteins in the natural plant fern, Dicranopteris dichitoma. INAA was also used to identify whether the proteins were bound firmly with REE. The results obtained show that two REE bound proteins (RBP-I and RBP-II) have been separated. The molecular weight of RBP-I on Sephadex G-200 gel column is about 8 x 10 5 Daltons and that of RBP-II is less than 12,400 Daltons, respectively. However, SDS-PAGE of the two proteins shows that they mainly have two protein subunits with MW 14,100 and 38,700 Daltons. They are probably conjugated proteins, glycoproteins with different glyco-units. (author). 22 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. Study on REE bound proteins in natural plant fern dicranopteris dichotomy by MAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Fanqing; Wang Yuqi; Sun Jingxing; Chen Hongmin; Xu Lei; Cao Guoyin

    1997-01-01

    Biochemical techniques, including pH variation, outsalting, ultracentrifugation, gel filtration chromatography and electrophoresis, etc., have been employed together with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to study the rare earth elements (REE) bound proteins in the natural plant fern, Dicranopteris dichotomy. INAA was also used to identify whether the proteins were bound firmly with REE. The results obtained show that two REE bound proteins (RBP-I and RBP-II) have been separated. The molecular mass (molecular weight, MW) of RBP-I on Sephadex G-200 gel column is about 8 x 10 5 and that of RBP-II is less than 12400, respectively. However, SDS-PAGE of the two proteins shows that they mainly have two protein subunits with MW 14100 and 38700. They are probably conjugated proteins, glycoproteins with different glycol-units

  15. Using REE tracers to measure sheet erosion changing to rill erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Puling; Xue Yazhou; Song Wei; Wang Mingyi; Ju Tongjun

    2004-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) tracer method was used to study sheet erosion changing to rill erosion on slope land. By placing different rare earth elements of different soil depth across a slope in an indoor plot, two simulated rainfalls were applied to study the change of erosion type and the rill erosion process. The results indicate that the main erosion type is sheet erosion at the beginning of the rainfalls, and serious erosion happens after rill erosion appears. Accumulated sheet and rill erosion amounts increase with the rainfalls time. The percentage of sheet erosion amount decreases and rill erosion percentage increases with time. At the end of the rainfalls, the total rill erosion amounts are 4-5 times more than sheet erosion. In this paper, a new REE tracer method was used to quantitatively distinguish sheet and rill erosion amounts. The new REE tracer method should be useful to future studying of erosion processes on slope lands. (authors)

  16. Th, U, REE Backgrounds and Phytoavailability in Soils of the Padanian Plain (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Di Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present ICP-MS analyses carried out on agricultural soils from the eastern-most part of the Padanian plain (Ferrara Province and on the related crop products. The aim is to provide, for the first time, backgrounds for some trace elements such as rare earth elements (REE, thorium (Th, uranium (U and to understand the related phytoavailability. In particular, detailed analyses have been done on Sorghum Vulgare plants, analyzing distinct plant parts in different vegetative periods. Results indicate that a REE concentration in plant tissues is always lower than in the related soils, precluding the occurrence of bioaccumulation and b no preferential elemental uptake and REE fractionation. In this light, the observed soil/plant relationships could be used in the definition of markers of territoriality (provenance fingerprint for agricultural products.

  17. A comparative study of deficit pattern in theory of mind and emotion regulation methods in evaluating patients with bipolar disorder and normal individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Fakhari; Khalegh Minashiri; Abolfazl Fallahi; Mohammad Taher Panah

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compared patterns of deficit in "theory of mind" and "emotion regulation" in patientswith bipolar disorder and normal individuals. METHODS: In this causal-comparative study, subjects were 20 patients with bipolar disorder and 20 normalindividuals. Patients were selected via convenience sampling method among hospitalized patients at Razi hospital ofTabriz, Iran. The data was collected through two scales: Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and Emotion RegulationQuestionnai...

  18. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Geochemical pattern of rare-earth elements from ore deposits of Sete Barras and Volta Grande-PR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, L.H.; Dardenne, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fluorite ore deposits of Volta Grande and Sete Barras in Parana show similar REE distribution patterns. Fluorite ores from other regions in Parana e Santa Catarina show marked differences in the REE pattern which suggest different modes of origin. (author) [pt

  20. REE behavior during weathering of basaltic rocks from the Lisbon Volcanic Complex (Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudencio, M.I.; Cabral, J.M.P.; Sequeira Braga, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Two weathering profiles developed in alkali basalts from the Lisbon Volcanic Complex were chosen for a REE behavior study. Profile 1 consists of a lava flow with porphyritic texture. Olivine and clinopyroxene are set in a groundmass which mainly comprises plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine, biotite, glass and Fe-Ti oxides. X-ray diffraction analysis of the 0 < 2μm fraction revealed: 45-95% smectites and 5-40% halloysite (7.3 angstrom), and Fe and/or Ti oxides. Profile 2 consists of a lava flow with an intergranular texture, where olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel grains are surrounded by large feldspars laths. The 0 < 2μ fraction consists of 80-100% halloysite (7.3 angstrom), < 20% micas and < 10% palygorskite and Fe and/or Ti oxides. The REE were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The clay-sized fractions of the more weathered samples were separated and analyzed too. For the whole samples it was observed that: (1) when halloysites are the dominant clay-minerals (profile 2), REE are more retained in the profile and (2) in general the light REE are less concentrated in the profiles than the intermediate or even the heavy REE. In most weathered samples of profile 1 a significant loss of Ce was found. The REE in the 0 < 2μm fractions are in general enriched relative to the whole samples. In profile 1, where smectites dominate, a significant negative Ce anomaly is also present except for one sample collected at an intermediate level. Among the REE analyzed, Nd is the most enriched compared to the whole samples. In profile 2, where halloysites dominate and micas are present mainly at the bottom of the profile, it was observed that: (a) REE are less fractionated than in profile 1, (b) Ce is depleted at the bottom of the profile but increases upwards, so that at the top the 0 < 2μm fraction reveals a small positive anomaly relative to whole sample

  1. 4D flow MRI assessment of right atrial flow patterns in the normal heart - influence of caval vein arrangement and implications for the patent foramen ovale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehill D Parikh

    Full Text Available To investigate atrial flow patterns in the normal adult heart, to explore whether caval vein arrangement and patency of the foramen ovale (PFO may be associated with flow pattern.Time-resolved, three-dimensional velocity encoded magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow was employed to assess atrial flow patterns in thirteen healthy subjects (6 male, 40 years, range 25-50 and thirteen subjects (6 male, 40 years, range 21-50 with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (CS-PFO. Right atrial flow was defined as vortical, helico-vortical, helical and multiple vortices. Time-averaged and peak systolic and diastolic flows in the caval and pulmonary veins and their anatomical arrangement were compared.A spectrum of right atrial flow was observed across the four defined categories. The right atrial flow patterns were strongly associated with the relative position of the caval veins. Right atrial flow patterns other than vortical were more common (p = 0.015 and the separation between the superior and inferior vena cava greater (10±5mm versus 3±3mm, p = 0.002 in the CS-PFO group. In the left atrium all subjects except one had counter-clockwise vortical flow. Vortex size varied and was associated with left lower pulmonary vein flow (systolic r = 0.61, p = 0.001, diastolic r = 0.63 p = 0.002. A diastolic vortex was less common and time-averaged left atrial velocity was greater in the CS-PFO group (17±2cm/sec versus 15±1, p = 0.048. One CS-PFO subject demonstrated vortical retrograde flow in the descending aortic arch; all other subjects had laminar descending aortic flow.Right atrial flow patterns in the normal heart are heterogeneous and are associated with the relative position of the caval veins. Patterns, other than 'typical' vortical flow, are more prevalent in the right atrium of those with cryptogenic stroke in the context of PFO. Left atrial flow patterns are more homogenous in normal hearts and show a relationship with flow arising from the left

  2. Patterns of proliferation and differentiation of irradiated haemopoietic stem cells cultured on normal 'stromal' cell colonies in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were designed to elucidate whether or not the irradiated bone marrow cells receive any stimulation for the self-replication and differentiation from normal 'stromal' cell colonies in the bone marrow cell culture in vitro. When irradiated or unirradiated bone marrow cells were overlaid on the normal adherent cell colonies, the proliferation of haemopoietic stem cells was supported, the degree of the stimulation depending on the starting cellular concentration. There was, however, no significant changes in the concentration of either CFUs or CFUc regardless of the dose of irradiation on the bone marrow cells overlaid. This was a great contrast to the dose-dependent decrease of CFUs or CFUc within the culture in which both the stem cells and stromal cells were simultaneously irradiated. These results suggest that the balance of self-replication and differentiation of the haemopoietic stem cells is affected only when haemopoietic microenvironment is perturbed. (author)

  3. DENBRAN: A basic program for a significance test for multivariate normality of clusters from branching patterns in dendrograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneath, P. H. A.

    A BASIC program is presented for significance tests to determine whether a dendrogram is derived from clustering of points that belong to a single multivariate normal distribution. The significance tests are based on statistics of the Kolmogorov—Smirnov type, obtained by comparing the observed cumulative graph of branch levels with a graph for the hypothesis of multivariate normality. The program also permits testing whether the dendrogram could be from a cluster of lower dimensionality due to character correlations. The program makes provision for three similarity coefficients, (1) Euclidean distances, (2) squared Euclidean distances, and (3) Simple Matching Coefficients, and for five cluster methods (1) WPGMA, (2) UPGMA, (3) Single Linkage (or Minimum Spanning Trees), (4) Complete Linkage, and (5) Ward's Increase in Sums of Squares. The program is entitled DENBRAN.

  4. Chromosome-wide mapping of DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells reveals pervasive methylation of gene-associated and conserved intergenic sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Marzo Angelo M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation has been linked to genome regulation and dysregulation in health and disease respectively, and methods for characterizing genomic DNA methylation patterns are rapidly emerging. We have developed/refined methods for enrichment of methylated genomic fragments using the methyl-binding domain of the human MBD2 protein (MBD2-MBD followed by analysis with high-density tiling microarrays. This MBD-chip approach was used to characterize DNA methylation patterns across all non-repetitive sequences of human chromosomes 21 and 22 at high-resolution in normal and malignant prostate cells. Results Examining this data using computational methods that were designed specifically for DNA methylation tiling array data revealed widespread methylation of both gene promoter and non-promoter regions in cancer and normal cells. In addition to identifying several novel cancer hypermethylated 5' gene upstream regions that mediated epigenetic gene silencing, we also found several hypermethylated 3' gene downstream, intragenic and intergenic regions. The hypermethylated intragenic regions were highly enriched for overlap with intron-exon boundaries, suggesting a possible role in regulation of alternative transcriptional start sites, exon usage and/or splicing. The hypermethylated intergenic regions showed significant enrichment for conservation across vertebrate species. A sampling of these newly identified promoter (ADAMTS1 and SCARF2 genes and non-promoter (downstream or within DSCR9, C21orf57 and HLCS genes hypermethylated regions were effective in distinguishing malignant from normal prostate tissues and/or cell lines. Conclusions Comparison of chromosome-wide DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells revealed significant methylation of gene-proximal and conserved intergenic sequences. Such analyses can be easily extended for genome-wide methylation analysis in health and disease.

  5. Response Pattern Based on the Amplitude of Ear Canal Recorded Cochlear Microphonic Waveforms across Acoustic Frequencies in Normal Hearing Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Low-frequency otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are often concealed by acoustic background noise such as those from a patient’s breathing and from the environment during recording in clinics. When using electrocochleaography (ECochG or ECoG), such as cochlear microphonics (CMs), acoustic background noise do not contaminate the recordings. Our objective is to study the response pattern of CM waveforms (CMWs) to explore an alternative approach in assessing cochlear functions. In response to a 14-mse...

  6. Distribution pattern of urine albumin creatinine ratio and the prevalence of high-normal levels in untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmaru, Natsuki; Nakatsu, Takaaki; Izumi, Reishi; Mashima, Keiichi; Toki, Misako; Kobayashi, Asako; Ogawa, Hiroko; Hirohata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Satoru; Kusachi, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Even high-normal albuminuria is reportedly associated with cardiovascular events. We determined the urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in spot urine samples and analyzed the UACR distribution and the prevalence of high-normal levels. The UACR was determined using immunoturbidimetry in 332 untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic Japanese patients with hypertension and in 69 control subjects. The microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels were defined as a UCAR ≥30 and creatinine and a UCAR ≥300 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. The distribution patterns showed a highly skewed distribution for the lower levels, and a common logarithmic transformation produced a close fit to a Gaussian distribution with median, 25th and 75th percentile values of 22.6, 13.5 and 48.2 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. When a high-normal UACR was set at >20 to creatinine, 19.9% (66/332) of the hypertensive patients exhibited a high-normal UACR. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were observed in 36.1% (120/336) and 2.1% (7/332) of the patients, respectively. UACR was significantly correlated with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the pulse pressure. A stepwise multivariate analysis revealed that these pressures as well as age were independent factors that increased UACR. The UACR distribution exhibited a highly skewed pattern, with approximately 60% of untreated, non-diabetic hypertensive patients exhibiting a high-normal or larger UACR. Both hypertension and age are independent risk factors that increase the UACR. The present study indicated that a considerable percentage of patients require anti-hypertensive drugs with antiproteinuric effects at the start of treatment.

  7. Regional Variations of REE Patterns in Sediments from Active Plate Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, H.; Stoffers, P.; Gwozdz, R.

    1988-01-01

    About 150 sediment samples from mid-ocean ridges (East Pacific Rise, Central Indian Ocean Ridge, Carlsberg Ridge and the Red Sea) and from a back-arc spreading environment (Lau Basin) were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation. A ratio method for rare-earth elements involving a plot...... of elemental ratios of Ce/La and Ce/Yb is proposed to characterize marine sediments. In the characterization plot East Pacific Rise and Lau Basin sediments occupy distinct fields in the plot suggesting hydrothermal overprint, while sediments from the Central Indian Ocean and the Carlsberg Ridge plot...

  8. Rare-earth elements in granites: concentration and distribution pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    The geochemistry of rare earth elements in granites is studied. The rare earth element (REE) distribution pattern in granites is characterized by a smooth curve with decreasing concentrations from La to Lu, and frequently a marked Eu negative anomaly. It seems to exist relationship between granite genesis and its REE pattern, in that bodies of primary (magmatic differentiation) origin always show this negative Eu anomaly, while those bodies generated by crustal anatexis do not show this anomaly. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Uranium and REE potential of the albitite-pyroxenite-microclinite belt of Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Govind; Sharma, D.K.; Yadav, O.P.; Jain, Rajan B.; Singh, Rajendra

    1998-01-01

    A number of radioactive albitite, pyroxenite and microclinite occurrences have been identified in north and central Rajasthan, along or in close proximity to major lineaments, from Dancholi - Mewara in the NE to Tal in the SW. With these new findings the total extent of Albitite belt of Rajasthan now stands at over 320 km. These occurrences have been evaluated on the basis of their U, Th and REE content to identify the potential areas for the second phase of uranium exploration programme. Further, based on the various characteristic features of radioactive host rocks, the Albitite Belt has been divided into five sectors. The U 3 O 8 content of albitites varies from 0.008 to 0.44% and of pyroxenites from 0.022 to 2.0% whereas ThO 2 varies from < 0.005 to 0.83% in albitites and <0.005 to 0.033% in pyroxenities. These albitites, microclinites and pyroxenites are also characterised by anomalous concentration of REEs. Uranium and REE bearing phases are represented by uraninite, brannerite, davidite, fergusonite, monazite, anatase, rutile, zircon, allanite and britholite. The data accrued so far suggest that U and REE potential of the Mewara-Maonda and Hurra Ki Dhani-Rohil sectors are very high and hence needs further detailed integrated exploration. (author)

  10. Discrete event simulation of NASA's Remote Exploration and Experimentation Project (REE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, J.; Rogstad, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Remote Exploration and Experimentation Project (REE) is a new initiative at JPL to be able to place a supercomputer on board a spacecraft and allow large amounts of data reduction and compression to be done before science results are returned to Earth.

  11. TPE/REE separation with the use of zirconium salt of HDBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glekov, R. G.; Shmidt, O. V.; Palenik, Yu. V.; Goletsky, N. D.; Sukhareva, S. Yu.; Fedorov, Yu. S.; Zilberman, B. Ya.

    2003-01-01

    Partitioning of long-lived radionuclides (minor actinides, fission products) is considered as TBP-compatible ZEALEX-process for extraction separation of transplutonium elements (TPE) and rare-earth elements (REE), as well as Y, Mo, Fe and residual amounts of Np, Pu, U. Zirconium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid (ZS-HDBP) dissolved in 30 % TBP is used as a solvent. The process was tested in multistage centrifugal contactors. Lanthanides, Y and TPE, as well as Mo, Fe were extracted from high-level Purex raffinate, Am and ceric subgroup of REE being separated from the polyvalent elements by stripping with HNO3. TPE/REE partitioning was achieved in the second cycle of the ZEALEX-process using DTPA in formic acid media. The integral decontamination factor of Am from La and Ce after both cycles is >200, from Pr and Nd 20-30 and from Sm and Eu 3.6; REE strips in both cycles contained <0,1% of the initial amount of TPE.

  12. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of REE in granite-derived regolith: a model for the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Bern, Carleton R.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) ion-adsorption clay deposits are of global economic importance because they currently supply a significant portion of the world’s annual production of both light (LREE) and heavy REE (HREE). There is considerable ambiguity regarding the origin of

  13. Comparison of the aerodynamics of bridge cables with helical fillets and a pattern-indented surface in normal flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Over the last two decades, several bridge cable manufacturers have introduced surface modi-fications on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheathing that is often installed for the protection of inner strands. The main goal of this is rain rivulet impedance, leading to the suppression of rain......-wind induced vibrations (RWIVs). The modifications are based on re-search undertaken predominantly in Europe and Japan, with two different systems prevailing; HDPE tubing fitted with helical surface fillets and HDPE tubing with pattern-indented sur-faces. In the US and Europe, helical fillets dominate, whilst...

  14. What concentration of actinides can be packed into calcite? Hints from rare earth element (REE) composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.; Stipp, S.L.S.; Waight, T.; Baker, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: For reliable modelling of actinide mobility in the event of spent fuel repository failure, we need data describing the uptake capacity of the minerals likely to find themselves in the transport path. Calcite (CaCO 3 ) is a common secondary mineral in fractures and pore fillings, especially downstream from degrading concrete facilities, so it is a likely candidate for incorporation. Investigations made under ACTAF, a 5. Framework EURATOM integrated project, as well as some other research studies, have shown that actinides are successfully incorporated as substituting ions within the calcite mineral structure. The question remaining, is how much can calcite take up. Geologists routinely use relative concentrations of rare Earth elements (REE's), the lanthanides, for interpreting rock genesis and history. One can also adopt them as analogues for the radioactive elements because their f-orbital electron configuration makes them behave very much like actinides. We collected and analysed a suite of 70 calcite samples from a great number of possible formation environments, geological ages and geographical locations, for the purpose of finding the range and maximum of total f-orbital substitution possible in calcite, under natural conditions. We analysed them using Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The maximum concentration found was about 5 x 10 -3 mole/kg total REE in a sample that had a geological history of formation where REE fluids played a role. Over the whole suite, total REE ranged from less than 10 -4 moles/kg for limestone samples formed from biogenic calcite where REE-enriched fluids would have played a negligible role. Thus, in natural calcite, REE's are present and all evidence points to a structural incorporation within the mineral rather than as a separate REE-rich phase. These data compare favourably with mole fractions from calcite grown synthetically, where as much as 6 x 10 -3

  15. Serum estradiol levels associated with specific gene expression patterns in normal breast tissue and in breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakensen, Vilde D; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Helland, Åslaug; Bjøro, Trine; Lüders, Torben; Riis, Margit; Bukholm, Ida K; Kristensen, Vessela N; Troester, Melissa A; Homen, Marit M; Ursin, Giske

    2011-01-01

    High serum levels of estradiol are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Little is known about the gene expression in normal breast tissue in relation to levels of circulating serum estradiol. We compared whole genome expression data of breast tissue samples with serum hormone levels using data from 79 healthy women and 64 breast cancer patients. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) was used to identify differentially expressed genes and multivariate linear regression was used to identify independent associations. Six genes (SCGB3A1, RSPO1, TLN2, SLITRK4, DCLK1, PTGS1) were found differentially expressed according to serum estradiol levels (FDR = 0). Three of these independently predicted estradiol levels in a multivariate model, as SCGB3A1 (HIN1) and TLN2 were up-regulated and PTGS1 (COX1) was down-regulated in breast samples from women with high serum estradiol. Serum estradiol, but none of the differentially expressed genes were significantly associated with mammographic density, another strong breast cancer risk factor. In breast carcinomas, expression of GREB1 and AREG was associated with serum estradiol in all cancers and in the subgroup of estrogen receptor positive cases. We have identified genes associated with serum estradiol levels in normal breast tissue and in breast carcinomas. SCGB3A1 is a suggested tumor suppressor gene that inhibits cell growth and invasion and is methylated and down-regulated in many epithelial cancers. Our findings indicate this gene as an important inhibitor of breast cell proliferation in healthy women with high estradiol levels. In the breast, this gene is expressed in luminal cells only and is methylated in non-BRCA-related breast cancers. The possibility of a carcinogenic contribution of silencing of this gene for luminal, but not basal-like cancers should be further explored. PTGS1 induces prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production which in turn stimulates aromatase expression and hence increases the

  16. Marrow pattern in the proximal femoral metaphysis of patients with osteonecrosis of femoral head and normal subjects: comparison on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ho Jong; Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Jee Young; Lim, Gye Yeon; Yang, Po Song; Kim, Euy Neyong; Kim, Choon Yul; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1996-01-01

    To predict early risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head by comparison of the bone marrow pattern of the proximal femoral metaphysis(PFM) in normal subjects and patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head on T1-weighted magnetic resonance(MR) images. The authors retrospectively reviewed T1(TR 525/TE 25 msec) weighted coronal MR images of 67 hips with osteonecrosis and 65 normal hips in 39 patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head and in 27 normal subjects. On the basis of bright signal intensity of fat, the proportion of remaining hematopoietic marrow in PFM was subdivided into 4 grades (0 to 3) by two radiologists. No evidence of remaining hematopoietic marrow was assigned grade 0, and grades 1, 2 and 3 represented scanty, moderate, and prominent hematopoietic marrow, respectively. Grades 0 and 1 were collectively defined as 'predominantly fatty', grades 2 and 3 as 'predominantly hematopoietic'. The frequency of the predominantly fatty marrow in PFM was analyzed in relation to three age groups (<25, 25-50, 50<) and both sexes. The overall frequency of predominantly fatty marrow in PFM was higher in hips with osteonecrosis than in normal hips (p<0.001). Especially in the male population under the age of 50, the frequency was apparently higher in hips with osteonecrosis, compared with normal hips (p<0.0001). However, the male population aged over 50 or female population showed no statistically significant difference in our series. In proximal femoral metaphysis with osteonecrosis of the femoral head, fatty marrow conversion occurs apparently earlier than in normal subject. T1-weighted MR imaging could therefore be useful in predicting early risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head because of early fatty marrow conversion of the proximal femoral metaphysis

  17. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluid Distribution Pattern in Adult-Onset Congenital, Idiopathic, and Secondary Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus: Implications for Clinical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Masatsune; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    In spite of growing evidence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), a viewpoint about clinical care for idiopathic NPH is still controversial. A continuous divergence of viewpoints might be due to confusing classifications of idiopathic and adult-onset congenital NPH. To elucidate the classification of NPH, we propose that adult-onset congenital NPH should be explicitly distinguished from idiopathic and secondary NPH. On the basis of conventional CT scan or MRI, idiopathic NPH was defined as narrow sulci at the high convexity in concurrent with enlargement of the ventricles, basal cistern and Sylvian fissure, whereas adult-onset congenital NPH was defined as huge ventricles without high-convexity tightness. We compared clinical characteristics and cerebrospinal fluid distribution among 85 patients diagnosed with idiopathic NPH, 17 patients with secondary NPH, and 7 patients with adult-onset congenital NPH. All patients underwent 3-T MRI examinations and tap-tests. The volumes of ventricles and subarachnoid spaces were measured using a 3D workstation based on T2-weighted 3D sequences. The mean intracranial volume for the patients with adult-onset congenital NPH was almost 100 mL larger than the volumes for patients with idiopathic and secondary NPH. Compared with the patients with idiopathic or secondary NPH, patients with adult-onset congenital NPH exhibited larger ventricles but normal sized subarachnoid spaces. The mean volume ratio of the high-convexity subarachnoid space was significantly less in idiopathic NPH than in adult-onset congenital NPH, whereas the mean volume ratio of the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure in idiopathic NPH was >2 times larger than that in adult-onset congenital NPH. The symptoms of gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence in patients with adult-onset congenital NPH tended to progress more slowly compared to their progress in patients with idiopathic NPH. Cerebrospinal fluid distributions and

  19. Distribution of REEs and yttrium among major geochemical phases of marine Fe–Mn-oxides: Comparative study between hydrogenous and hydrothermal deposits

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SuryaPrakash, L.; Ray, D.; Paropkari, A.L.; Mudholkar, A.V.; Satyanarayanan, M.; Sreenivas, B.; Chandrasekharam, D.; Kota, D.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Kaisary, S.; Balaram, V.; Gurav, T.

    REEs. Thermodynamic calculations (Hass et al., 1995) as well as laboratory experiments (Lewis et al., 1998; Douville et al., 1999) show that dissolved REEs in geothermal fluid mostly occur as fluoride, chloride, sulfate complexes or free...

  20. Normal anatomy and abnormal patterns of the supraspinatus muscle: Ultrasound versus surgery. Analysis of the possible sources of misdiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montrucchio, Edgardo; Iovane, Angelo; Midiri, Massimo; Finazzo, Mario; La Tona, Giuseppe; Lagalla, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    The supraspinatus muscle performs about 60 % of the elevation-abduction motion of the arm; it has a prominent functional role among the extra rotational muscles of the shoulder and is the most injured in subacromial space conditions. Seventy-four patients, aged 21-64 years, were examined to compare ultrasonography (US) results with surgical findings in supraspinatus conditions and to analyze the possible pitfalls in US diagnosis. All the patients underwent conventional X-ray US and then surgery or arthroscopy. The following criteria were considered: morphology, thickness, echotexture, the convexity of the superior border of supraspinatus tendon, the relationships with the subacromial bursa and the tendon of the biceps long head, the regularity of the bone cortex of the humeral head. US showed: perforating focal injuries in 21 patients; deep focal injuries in 10 patients; intramural focal injuries in 6 patients; superficial focal injuries in 8 patients; complete tendon tear with detachment in 19 cases. 62/74 US diagnoses were surgically confirmed, with a specificity of 83.7 %. In their experience, US provided very useful information about the pattern, size and site of the injuries and was very helpful in the surgical planning

  1. Examination of rare earth element concentration patterns in freshwater fish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, David B; Fairbrother, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) were measured in ten freshwater fish species from a reservoir in Washington State (United States). The REE distribution patterns were examined within fillet and whole body tissues for three size classes. Total concentrations (ΣREE) ranged from 0.014 to 3.0 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) and averaged 0.243 mg kg(-1) (dry weight). Tissue concentration patterns indicated that REEs accumulated to a greater extent in organs, viscera, and bone compared to muscle (fillet) tissues. Benthic feeding species (exposed to sediments) exhibited greater concentrations of REEs than pelagic omnivorous or piscivorous fish species. Decreasing REE concentrations were found with increasing age, total length or weight for largescale and longnose suckers, smallmouth bass, and walleye. Concentration patterns in this system were consistent with natural conditions without anthropogenic sources of REEs. These data provide additional reference information with regard to the fate and transport of REEs in freshwater fish tissues in a large aquatic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mild cognitive disorders are associated with different patterns of brain asymmetry than normal ageing: the PATH through life study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Cherbuin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Defining how brain structures differ in pre-clinical dementia is important to better understand the pathological processes involved and to inform clinical practice. The aim of this study was to identify significant brain correlates (volume and asymmetry in volume of mild cognitive disorders when compared to normal controls in a large community-based sample of young-old individuals who were assessed for cognitive impairment. Methods: Cortical and sub-cortical volumes were measured using a semi-automated method in 398 participants aged 65-70 years who were selected from a larger randomly sampled cohort and who agreed to undergo an MRI scan. Diagnoses were reached based on established protocols for MCI and a more inclusive category of any Mild Cognitive Disorder (any-MCD: which includes AAMI, AACD, OCD, MNC, CDR, MCI. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between volume and asymmetry of theoretically relevant cerebral structures (predictors and MCI or any-MCD while controlling for age, sex, and intra-cranial volume. Results: The main correlates of cognitive impairment assessed in multivariate analyses were hippocampal asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.71-0.96, p = .013; MCD: OR 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.97, p = .011, lateral ventricle asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99, p = .009; MCD: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.92-0.98, p = .004, and cerebellar cortex asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.13-2.01, p = .005. Conclusions: In this population-based cohort stronger associations were found between asymmetry measures, rather than raw volumes in cerebral structures, and mild cognitive disorders.

  3. Ventromedial hypothalamic expression of Bdnf is required to establish normal patterns of afferent GABAergic connectivity and responses to hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kamitakahara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH controls energy and glucose homeostasis through direct connections to a distributed network of nuclei in the hypothalamus, midbrain, and hindbrain. Structural changes in VMH circuit morphology have the potential to alter VMH function throughout life, however, molecular signals responsible for specifying its neural connections are not fully defined. The VMH contains a high density of neurons that express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a potent neurodevelopmental effector known to regulate neuronal survival, growth, differentiation, and connectivity in a number of neural systems. In the current study, we examined whether BDNF impacts the afferent and efferent connections of the VMH, as well as energy homeostatic function. Methods: To determine if BDNF is required for VMH circuit formation, a transgenic mouse model was used to conditionally delete Bdnf from steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1 expressing neurons of the VMH prior to the onset of establishing neural connections with other regions. Projections of SF1 expressing neurons were visualized with a genetically targeted fluorescent label and immunofluorescence was used to measure the density of afferents to SF1 neurons in the absence of BDNF. Physiological changes in body weight and circulating blood glucose were also evaluated in the mutant mice. Results: Our findings suggest that BDNF is required to establish normal densities of GABAergic afferents onto SF1 neurons located in the ventrolateral part of the VMH. Furthermore, loss of BDNF from VMH SF1 neurons results in impaired physiological responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that BDNF is required for formation and/or maintenance of inhibitory inputs to SF1 neurons, with enduring effects on glycemic control. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus

  4. Evaluation of CD307a expression patterns during normal B-cell maturation and in B-cell malignancies by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auat, Mariangeles; Cardoso, Chandra Chiappin; Santos-Pirath, Iris Mattos; Rudolf-Oliveira, Renata Cristina Messores; Matiollo, Camila; Lange, Bárbara Gil; da Silva, Jessica Pires; Dametto, Gisele Cristina; Pirolli, Mayara Marin; Colombo, Maria Daniela Holthausen Perico; Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia

    2018-02-24

    Flow cytometric immunophenotyping is deemed a fundamental tool for the diagnosis of B-cell neoplasms. Currently, the investigation of novel immunophenotypic markers has gained importance, as they can assist in the precise subclassification of B-cell malignancies by flow cytometry. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the expression of CD307a during normal B-cell maturation and in B-cell malignancies as well as to investigate its potential role in the differential diagnosis of these entities. CD307a expression was assessed by flow cytometry in normal precursor and mature B cells and in 115 samples collected from patients diagnosed with precursor and mature B-cell neoplasms. CD307a expression was compared between neoplastic and normal B cells. B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases exhibited minimal expression of CD307a, displaying a similar expression pattern to that of normal B-cell precursors. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cases showed the lowest levels of CD307a among mature B-cell neoplasms. CD307a expression was statistically lower in MCL cases than in chronic B lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases. No statistical differences were observed between CD307a expression in neoplastic and normal plasma cells. These results indicate that the assessment of CD307a expression by flow cytometry could be helpful to distinguish CLL from MCL, and the latter from MZL. Although these results are not entirely conclusive, they provide a basis for further studies in a larger cohort of patients. © 2018 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2018 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  5. Semantic error patterns on the Boston Naming Test in normal aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer's disease: is there semantic disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Marcio Luiz Figueredo; Cendes, Fernando; Damasceno, Benito Pereira

    2008-11-01

    Naming difficulty is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the nature of this problem is not well established. The authors investigated the presence of semantic breakdown and the pattern of general and semantic errors in patients with mild AD, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and normal controls by examining their spontaneous answers on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and verifying whether they needed or were benefited by semantic and phonemic cues. The errors in spontaneous answers were classified in four mutually exclusive categories (semantic errors, visual paragnosia, phonological errors, and omission errors), and the semantic errors were further subclassified as coordinate, superordinate, and circumlocutory. Patients with aMCI performed normally on the BNT and needed fewer semantic and phonemic cues than patients with mild AD. After semantic cues, subjects with aMCI and control subjects gave more correct answers than patients with mild AD, but after phonemic cues, there was no difference between the three groups, suggesting that the low performance of patients with AD cannot be completely explained by semantic breakdown. Patterns of spontaneous naming errors and subtypes of semantic errors were similar in the three groups, with decreasing error frequency from coordinate to superordinate to circumlocutory subtypes.

  6. Uptake and Effects of Six Rare Earth Elements (REEs on Selected Native and Crop Species Growing in Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carpenter

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs have become increasingly important metals used in modern technology. Processes including mining, oil refining, discarding of obsolete equipment containing REEs, and the use of REE-containing phosphate fertilizers may increase the likelihood of environmental contamination. However, there is a scarcity of information on the toxicity and accumulation of these metals to terrestrial primary producers in contaminated soils. The objective of this work was to assess the phytotoxicity and uptake from contaminated soil of six REEs (chloride forms of praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, terbium, dysprosium, and erbium on three native plants (Asclepias syriaca L., Desmodium canadense (L. DC., Panicum virgatum L. and two crop species (Raphanus sativus L., Solanum lycopersicum L. in separate dose-response experiments under growth chamber conditions. Limited effects of REEs were found on seed germination and speed of germination. Effects on aboveground and belowground biomass were more pronounced, especially for the three native species, which were always more sensitive than the crop species tested. Inhibition concentrations (IC25 and IC50 causing 25 or 50% reductions in plant biomass respectively, were measured. For the native species, the majority of aboveground biomass IC25s (11 out of 18 fell within 100 to 300 mg REE/kg dry soil. In comparison to the native species, IC25s for the crops were always greater than 400 mg REE/kg, with the majority of results (seven out of 12 falling above 700 mg REE/kg. IC50s were often not detected for the crops. Root biomass of native species was also affected at lower doses than in crops. REE uptake by plants was higher in the belowground parts than in the above-ground plant tissues. Results also revealed that chloride may have contributed to the sensitivity of the native species, Desmodium canadense, one of the most sensitive species studied. Nevertheless, these results demonstrated that

  7. Anatomy of Atrioventricular Node Artery and Pattern of Dominancy in Normal Coronary Subject: A Comparison between Individuals with and without Isolated Right Bundle Branch Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemisaeid, Ali; Pakbaz, Marziyeh; Yaminisharif, Ahmad; Davoodi, Gholamreza; Lotfi Tokaldany, Masoumeh; Hakki Kazazi, Elham

    2012-11-01

    Isolated right bundle branch block (RBBB) is a common finding in the general population. The atrioventricular node (AVN) artery contributes to the blood supply of the right bundle branch. Our hypothesis was that the anatomy of the AVN artery and the pattern of dominancy differ between subjects with and without RBBB. We retrospectively studied the coronary angiography of 92 patients with RBBB and 184 age- and gender-matched controls without RBBB. All the subjects had angiographically proven normal coronary arteries. The dominant circulation and precise origin of the AVN artery were determined in each subject. Obtained data were compared between the two study groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of dominancy (p value = 0.200). Origination of the AVN artery from the right circulatory system was more common in both groups, but this pattern was more prevalent in the cases than in the controls (p value = 0.021). There was a great variation of the AVN artery origin. In the total study population, the AVN artery was more commonly separated from a non crux origin than from the crux area. The prevalence of the non-crux origination of the AVN artery was significantly higher in the cases than in the controls (p value AVN artery from the right circulatory system was more common in both groups, the prevalence of the right origin of the AVN artery was significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. We observed that the AVN artery most commonly originated from the dominant artery but not necessarily from the crux. The anatomy of the AVN artery but not the pattern of dominancy is somewhat different in subjects with RBBB compared with normal individuals.

  8. Environmental impact assessment on the radioactive of a REE separation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nana; Zhu Yucheng; Cai Minqi

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of field actual environment and analysis of radioactive sources, and industrial process techniques, environmental impact of the radioactive from a REE separation project has been analyzed, assessed and forecasted. The investigation and monitoring of actual radioactive in the environment indicated that value of assessment factors remained within the range of natural background level as a whole. The maximum annual individual effective dose for occupational worker and the public were forecasted and were found to be 1.622 mSv/a and 0.029 mSv/a respectively. Both of the values are lower than annual dose limit respectively. The radioactive impact of this project on the environment will comply with the standard limit of law and requirements after the reservation measures are carried out to REE. (authors)

  9. Determination of Th and REE in columbite - tantalite samples by ICP-OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanuman, V.V.; Khorge, C.R.; Radhamai, R.; Nair, Sajitha; Srivastava, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    A simple method of decomposition and separation of Th and REE in columbite- tantalite is developed for determination by ICP- OES. The sample is decomposed with hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid in presence of little sulphuric acid to avoid drying on water bath. Th and rare earths are separated as fluoride together with undecomposed sample. The residue is fused with a 1: 1 mixture of sodium di hydrogen orthophosphate and sodium pyrophosphate. The melt is dissolved in water for measurement. Nitric acid is found unsuitable due to loss in Ce in some of the samples. Matrix elements (more than 97.5) are removed in single step by both the treatments. The free cassiterite present in samples is not attacked during acid digestion. However, the same is easily decomposed in fusion. U (IV) is also precipitated along with Th and REE when hydrochloric acid is used. As expected uranium is lost when nitric acid is used. The results are compared with existing well-established procedure involving peroxide fusion for decomposition; hydroxide and fluoride precipitation separation. Both the methods yielded comparable result. The method is simple, comparatively rapid and suitable for routine application for determination of REE , Th and U(IV) content. The RSD of the method was found to be in the range of 1- 1.5% for various elements. (author)

  10. Petrology and geochemistry of REE-rich Mafé banded iron formations (Bafia group, Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkoumbou, Charles; Gentry, Fuh Calistus; Tchakounte Numbem, Jacqueline; Belle Ekwe Lobé, Yolande Vanessa; Nwagoum Keyamfé, Christin Steve

    2017-07-01

    Archaean-Paleoproterozoic foliated amphibole-gneisses and migmatites interstratified with amphibolites, pyroxeno-amphibolites and REE-rich banded-iron formations outcrop at Mafé, Ndikinimeki area. The foliation is nearly vertical due to tight folds. Flat-lying quartz-rich mica schists and quartzites, likely of Pan-African age, partly cover the formations. Among the Mafé BIFs, the oxide BIF facies shows white layers of quartz and black layers of magnetite and accessory hematite, whereas the silicate BIF facies is made up of thin discontinuous quartz layers alternating with larger garnet (almandine-spessartine) + chamosite + ilmenite ± Fe-talc layers. REE-rich oxide BIFs compositions are close to the East Pacific Rise (EPR) hydrothermal deposit; silicate BIFs plot midway between EPR and the associated amphibolite, accounting for a contamination by volcanic materials, in addition to the hydrothermal influence during their oceanic deposition. The association of an oceanic setting with alkaline and tholeiitic magmatism is typical of the Algoma-type BIF deposit. The REE-rich BIFs indices recorded at Mafé are interpreted as resulting from an Archaean-Paleoproterozoic mineralization.

  11. Prevalence, clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of various flow and gradient patterns in mild or moderate aortic stenosis with normal left ventricular ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong-Qiang Benjamin; Ngiam, Jinghao Nicholas; Kong, William K F; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2016-10-15

    Paradoxical low-flow aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has only been described in severe AS. Controversy surrounds prognosis and management but no studies have reported this phenomenon in mild or moderate AS. We investigated the prevalence of flow and gradient patterns in this population, characterising their clinical and echocardiographic profile. Consecutive subjects (n=1362) with isolated AS: mild (n=462, aortic valve area≥1.5cm(2), 2.5m/snormal LVEF (≥50%) were studied. Subjects with low-flow (stroke volume index<35ml/m(2)) were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed to compare the flow and gradient patterns. In mild AS, 130 (28%) had low-flow. Lower left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (97.0±28.5vs116.4±2.3g/m(2),p<0.001), higher percentage of concentric remodelling (40%vs6%,p<0.001) and hypertrophy (43%vs40%,p<0.001) and lower end-systolic wall stress (ESWS) (57.6±1.60vs67.7±19.6dyn/cm(2),p=0.014) were independently associated with low-flow. Similarly, in moderate AS, 297 (33%) had low-flow. Older age (73.4±14.8vs69.5±16.5,p=0.027), lower LVMI (88.6±25.9vs118.0±36.5,p<0.001), higher percentage of concentric remodelling (46%vs8%,p<0.001) and lower ESWS (59.9±18.3vs70.5±19.7,p<0.001) were independently associated with low-flow. Despite moderate AS, most had lower mean pressure gradients, especially subjects with concentric remodelling. In the entire cohort, low-flow patients had more concentric remodelling (43%vs7%,p<0.001) and less eccentric hypertrophy (2%vs27%,p<0.001) compared to normal flow. Low-flow AS with normal LVEF is observed in mild or moderate AS, in up to a third of the cases. These patients had different LV structure compared to normal-flow, with more concentric remodelling. Further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Unravelling the sulphur isotope systematics of an alkaline magmatic province: implications for REE mineralization and exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, W.; Finch, A.; Boyce, A.; Friis, H.; Borst, A. M.; Horsburgh, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    Some of the world's best alkaline rare earth element (REE) deposits are formed in magmatic systems that are sealed (i.e., those that are autometasomatised and maintain reducing conditions). Conversely, in open systems where oxidizing fluids infiltrate, it is commonly assumed that REE are redistributed over a wider (less concentrated) zone. Sulphur isotope fractionation is sensitive to variations in temperature and redox, and, although sulphide minerals are relatively abundant in alkaline systems, there have been few attempts to test these hypotheses and develop a sulphur isotope proxy for alkaline metasomatism and formation of associated REE deposits. The Gardar Rift Province in southern Greenland was volcanically active in two periods between 1300 and 1100 Ma and is an ideal natural laboratory to explore sulphur isotope systematics because a near-complete alkaline magmatic lineage is exposed. We present new δ34S from across the province with a particular focus on three alkaline systems (Ilímaussaq, Motzfeldt and Ivigtût) that also host major REE deposits. Primitive mafic rocks from regional Gardar dykes and lavas have a restricted range of δ34S between 0 and 3 ‰ and fractional crystallization imparts no observable change in δ34S. In a few cases high-δ34S rocks (>15 ‰) occur when intrusive units have assimilated local sedimentary crust (δ34S = 25 ‰). Most δ34S variation takes place in the roof zones of alkaline intrusions during late-magmatic and hydrothermal stages, and we identify clear differences between the complexes. At Ilímaussaq, where the magmatic series is exceptionally reduced (below QFM buffer), roof zone δ34S remains narrow (0-3 ‰). At Motzfeldt, a more open oxidizing roof zone (MH buffer), δ34S ranges from -12 ‰ in late-stage fluorite veins to +12 ‰ where local crust has been assimilated. Ivigtût is intermediate between these end-members varying between -5 to +5 ‰. The δ34S variations primarily relate to temperature and

  13. The influence of fluorine on phase relations and REE enrichment in alkaline magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, C. D.; van Hinsberg, V.; Stix, J.; Wilke, M.

    2017-12-01

    Fluorine is a minor element in most magmas, but higher concentrations to wt% levels have been reported in alkaline systems, including those which host economic deposits of REE + HFSE1. Despite low abundance in most natural melts, fluorine has received great attention from the experimental community because it has a strong influence on melt structure, lowering melting points and drastically reducing viscosity. The effect of fluorine on element speciation has important implications for phase relations and the partitioning of trace elements between minerals and melts, thus metal enrichment processes in alkaline magmas. We have experimentally investigated the impact of fluorine on phase relations and partitioning of rare metals, the REE in particular, in evolved alkaline melts. Synthetic glasses of tephriphonolite to phonolite composition were doped with a wide range of elements at trace levels, and fluorine contents were varied from fluorine-free to 2.5 wt%. Experiments were performed water-saturated in an internally heated pressure vessel at 200 MPa with log fO2 at ca. QFM+1, which represents the intrinsic redox conditions of the setup. Charges were heated to super-liquidus conditions for 16 hours, cooled slowly (1˚C/min) to run temperature and subsequently equilibrated for at least 40 hours. Run products were analysed by EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. The experiments produce an equilibrium assemblage of sodic pyroxene, biotite, Fe-oxide, melt, fluid, ±K-feldspar, ±titanite, ±fluorite. Addition of fluorine markedly increases the mode of biotite, which initially buffers melt F content at low levels (< 0.2 wt%). Only in experiments with more than 0.6 wt% F do we observe a significant increase in the melt F-content. Here, fluorine decreases pyroxene/melt partitioning coefficients equally for all REE where pyroxene composition and P-T conditions are equivalent (ca. 1/2 with 0.6% F). We suggest that the formation of REE-F complexes in the melt2 lowers the availability of metals

  14. CLINICAL STUDY OF THE CHRONOLOGICAL CHANGES IN KNEE ALIGNMENT PATTERN IN NORMAL SOUTH-EAST NIGERIAN CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 0 AND 5 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeuko V.C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the chronological changes in knee alignment pattern in normal South-East Nigerian children aged between 0 and 5 years. A total number of 1450 subjects (680 males and 770 females were used for the study. The intercondylar/intermalleolar distances were measured using a vernier caliper with the subjects standing erect in anatomical position to determine straight knee, genu valgum and genu varum. The data was analysed with Microsoft Excel version 2007. The prevalence was presented as percentage (%.The result showed that the subjects have varum by the first year of life, prevalently genu valgum in type by the second year, valgum by the third year, neutral by the fourth and fifth year.

  15. Geochemistry of U-Th- REE bearing minerals, in radioactive pegmatite in Um Swassi-Dara area, north eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, B. H.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the pegmatites in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt have high radioactive values, between them the studied radioactive pegmatites which are clustered just in the western margin of Um Swassi-Dara hosted monzogranites. In zoned pegmatite the alteration zones locate between quartz core and intermediate zone are characterizing with the abundance of rare-earth minerals, anderbergite, cenosite, Y-allanite and uranium, thorium minerals such as euxenite, ferro-columbite and complex titanium-yetrum oxides (Kobbite). This zone is a result of many alteration processes developed from volatile-rich magmatic fluids and/or hydrothermal solution which evolved from late differentiated magmatic fluid and lead to increase of U, Th, Zr, Nb, Ti and REE bearing minerals. Such a distinctive alkaline mineralization suite, possibly related to an alkali fluid phase, is superimposed on a more normal, less alkaline group of minerals such as cassiterite, chalcopyrite, and galena. Nb-Ta-Ti minerals bearing U and Th, define a sequence of oxide, cyclosilicate and silicate minerals, showing the effect of hydrothermal overprinting with extreme REE enrichment of the fluids. It can be concluded that the studied mineralization took place in three overlapping stages

  16. Rees valuations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the above phrase 'give rise to', we are trying to mimic Max Noether's ...... posia in Pure Mathematics, American Mathematical Society (1983) vol 40, ... [23] Le D T and Weber C, A geometrical approach to the Jacobian conjecture for n = 2,.

  17. Deciphering human-climate interactions in an ombrotrophic peat record: REE, Nd and Pb isotope signatures of dust supplies over the last 2500 years (Misten bog, Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagel, N.; Allan, M.; Le Roux, G.; Mattielli, N.; Piotrowska, N.; Sikorski, J.

    2014-06-01

    A high-resolution peat record from Eastern Belgium reveals the chronology of dust deposition for the last 2500 years. REE and lithogenic elements in addition to Nd and Pb isotopes were measured in a 173 cm age-dated peat profile and provide a continuous chronology of dust source and intensity. Calculated dust flux show pronounced increases c. 300 BC, 600 AD, 1000 AD, 1200 AD and from 1700 AD, corresponding to local and regional human activities combined with climate change. The Industrial Revolution samples (1700-1950 AD) are characterised by a significant enrichment in Sc-normalised REE abundance (sum REE/Sc > 25) due to intensive coal combustion. For the pre-Industrial Revolution samples, the Sc-normalised REE abundance (10 climate. Combining REE abundance, fractionation between Light REE and Heavy REE and Nd isotope data in ombrotrophic peat allows one to distinguish between dust flux changes related to human and climate forcings.

  18. The criteria for the Cohen-Macaulayness and Gorensteiness of Rees algebras of ideals having positive analytic deviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Quoc Viet.

    1994-06-01

    This paper investigates the relationships between the maximal reduction number and q-invariant of a graded ring in the case of Rees ring being a Cohen-Macaulay or Gorenstein ring. From these relationships we give the criteria for Rees algebra of the ideal I having arbitrary analytic deviation to be Cohen-Macaulay and Gorenstein in terms of associated graded ring and maximal reduction number of I. (author). 16 refs

  19. [Nutritional contribution of snacks to food patterns in school children who are overweight or obese compared to school children who are of normal weight in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra López, Marianela; Llobet León, Laia; Fernández Rojas, Xinia

    2012-12-01

    In order to assess the nutritional contribution of snacks to food patterns in school children, a sample of 80 Costa Rican elementary schoolchildren: 40 children who were overweight or obese (the case group) and 40 children with normal weight (the control group) were evaluated. The anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and triceps skinfold thickness. Food patterns were determined using a 3-day food diary. Snacks consumed throughout the day were classified and analyzed according to their place of preparation and location of consumption and to the time of the day in which they were consumed. The results of this study revealed that "afternoon snacks" and "snacks prepared and eaten at home" were the most frequently consumed snacks by both case and control groups. The girls in the case group had a significantly larger intake of energy and carbohydrates in their "afternoon snacks" and the "snacks prepared and eaten at home" as compared to girls in the control group. Boys in the case group showed a significantly greater consumption of saturated fat in the "snacks prepared and eaten at home" as compared to boys in the control group. It was concluded that the intake of "afternoon snacks" and of those "prepared and eaten at home" could be related with the incidence of overweight/obesity in the sample of study and therefore nutrition education aimed at parents and children is crucial and could play an important role in its prevention.

  20. U-TH-REE mobility and diffusion in granitic environments during alteration of accessory minerals and U-ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathelineau, M.; Vergneaud, M.

    1989-01-01

    U, Th and REE concentrations and distributions have been studied in granitic rocks, using a multidisciplinary approach involving micromapping of cracks in oriented samples, together with mineralogical and geochemical studies of the different U-Th-REE bearing phases. The behavior of U, Th and Nd, considered as chemical analogue elements of the radiotoxic nuclides, was investigated either in the vicinity of microsites (accessory mineral enviornment) or along plurimetric sections around U-ore bodies. The different granite minerals, especially the accessory minerals (uraninite, monazite, thorite, apatite, xeonotime), as well as U-ores, present different initial concentrations of U, Th and REE. Limitations to the analogy between these U-Th-REE concentrations and the radwastes is discussed as a function of their mineralogical features, chemical compostion, size and solubilities. These primary concentrations present different behavior when subjected to hydrothermal alteration, such as propylitization, phyllite type alteration, or clay alteration. Results show that in reduced media, in the temperature range 80-2000 0 C, the rate of mobilization of U, Th, REE is relatively moderate. However, fluids enriched in flourides, phosphates or carbonates may significantly solubilize and transport U and REE under specific conditions. In addition, the degree of opening of the microcracks and faults, as well as the oxidation-reduction processes, are critical parameters for the efficiency of the granitic geological barrier

  1. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E; Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G; Epstein, H E; Yu, Q; Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E; Comiso, J C; Jia, G J; Kaplan, J O; Kumpula, T; Kuss, P; Matyshak, G

    2009-01-01

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G [Earth Cryosphere Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Epstein, H E; Yu, Q [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E [Arctic Center, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (Finland); Comiso, J C [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD (United States); Jia, G J [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Kaplan, J O [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kumpula, T [University of Joensuu, Joensuu (Finland); Kuss, P [University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland); Matyshak, G [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  3. Rare earth element patterns in nigerian coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewa, I.O.B.; Elegba, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE's) retain group coherence in their environment and are therefore useful geochemical markers. We report the pattern of ten REE's (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu) determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for coals obtained from eight mines in Nigeria, namely, Okaba, Enugu, Ogbete, Onyeama, Gombe, Lafia, Asaba and Afikpo. Our results show the existence of fractionations with the highest index of 13.19 for Lafia coal, depletion in HREE, negative Eu anomaly for most of the coals, REE patterns that are consistent with chondritic trends; prominent (Eu/Eu * ) cn for Okaba and Gombe coals. Variations in geochemical data observed could suggest strong departures from band metamorphism during the coalification events of the Benue Trough geosynclines, where the coal deposits are all located. (author) 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Stages of weathering mantle formation from carbonate rocks in the light of rare earth elements (REE) and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Weathering mantles are widespread and include lateritic, sandy and kaolinite-rich saprolites and residuals of partially dissolved rocks. These old regolith systems have a complex history of formation and may present a polycyclic evolution due to successive geological and pedogenetic processes that affected the profile. Until now, only few studies highlighted the unusual high content of associated trace elements in weathering mantles originating from carbonate rocks, which have been poorly studied, compared to those developing on magmatic bedrocks. For instance, these enrichments can be up to five times the content of the underlying carbonate rocks. However, these studies also showed that the carbonate bedrock content only partially explains the soil enrichment for all the considered major and trace elements. Up to now, neither soil, nor saprolite formation has to our knowledge been geochemically elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine more closely the soil forming dynamics and the relationship of the chemical soil composition to potential sources. REE distribution patterns and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios have been used because they are particularly well suited to identify trace element migration, to recognize origin and mixing processes and, in addition, to decipher possible anthropogenic and/or "natural" atmosphere-derived contributions to the soil. Moreover, leaching experiments have been applied to identify mobile phases in the soil system and to yield information on the stability of trace elements and especially on their behaviour in these Fe-enriched carbonate systems. All these geochemical informations indicate that the cambisol developing on such a typical weathering mantle ("terra fusca") has been formed through weathering of a condensed Bajocian limestone-marl facies. This facies shows compared to average world carbonates important trace element enrichments. Their trace element distribution patterns are similar to those of the soil

  5. Irregular meal-pattern effects on energy expenditure, metabolism, and appetite regulation: a randomized controlled trial in healthy normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhussain, Maha H; Macdonald, Ian A; Taylor, Moira A

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is increasing in parallel with greater all-day food availability. The latter may promote meal irregularity, dysregulation of the energy balance, and poor metabolic health. We investigated the effect of meal irregularity on the thermic effect of food (TEF), lipid concentrations, carbohydrate metabolism, subjective appetite, and gut hormones in healthy women. Eleven normal-weight women (18-40 y of age) were recruited in a randomized crossover trial with two 14-d isoenergetic diet periods (identical foods provided and free living) that were separated by a 14-d habitual diet washout period. In period 1, participants followed a regular meal pattern (6 meals/d) or an irregular meal pattern (3-9 meals/d), and in period 2, the alternative meal pattern was followed. Before and after each period, when participants were fasting and for 3 h after intake of a test drink, measurements were taken of energy expenditure, circulating glucose, lipids (fasting only), insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin. An ad libitum test meal was offered. Subjective appetite ratings were assessed while fasting, after the test drink, after the ad libitum meal, and during the intervention. Continuous interstitial glucose monitoring was undertaken for 3 consecutive days during each intervention, and the ambulatory activity pattern was recorded (ambulatory energy expenditure estimation). Regularity was associated with a greater TEF (P breakfast; day 9: after lunch and dinner). There was no difference between treatments for the test-drink gut hormone response. A time effect was noted for fasting GLP-1, fasting PYY, PYY responses, and hunger-rating responses to the test drink (P < 0.05). Lower hunger and higher fullness ratings were seen premeal and postmeal during the regular period while subjects were free living. Meal regularity appears to be associated with greater TEF and lower glucose responses, which may favor weight management and metabolic health. This

  6. Release of U, Th, and REE from granitic rock: A mineralogical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovaara-Koivisto, M.

    2006-01-01

    Finland plans to dispose of its spent nuclear fuel deep in the bedrock, and comprehensive assessment of the potential risks is required. One risk is glaciations induced by climate change, which might eventually cause malfunction of the engineered barrier system and breakdown of the copper-iron canisters containing the spent fuel. The fuel might then come into contact with groundwater. This groundwater might be acidic rain water, or oxygenated glacial melt water, which intrudes into the bedrock with hydrostatic pressure under the ice sheet. In this study, behaviour of uranium and rare earth elements was investigated in the Palmottu uranium deposit. Studies in the Palmottu deposit provide an indication of how uranium and other harmful elements could migrate from the repository to the surrounding bedrock in the event the canisters were breached. The spent fuel contains uranium and other actinides. The possible release of these elements and their behaviour after release in bedrock and groundwater were studied by means of chemical analogues occurring in nature, namely uranium (U), thorium (Th) and rare earth elements (REE). The study was focused on the mode of occurrence of these elements in granitic rocks. The chemistry of the mineral phases was explored by scanning electron microscopy and wavelength dispersive spectrometry, while the release of the elements was investigated with leaching experiments. In the first phase the samples were leached with artificial groundwater. In the second phase a HNO 3 solution of pH 5 was used, and in the final step a solution of pH 3. The U, Th and REE phases after each leaching were studied by fieldemission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive XRay microanalysis (EDAX), and the leachates were analysed by mass spectrometry (ICPMS and ICPAES). The aim of this study was to clarify how U, Th and REEs behave in the leaching processes associated with solutions simulating possible natural water conditions in the bedrock and to

  7. Endoscopy and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in MHD radiative peristaltic activity of Ree-Eyring fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Akram, Javaria; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Zahir, Hina

    2018-03-01

    Endoscopic and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in MHD peristalsis of Ree-Eyring fluid are addressed. Mathematical modeling and analysis have been performed by utilizing cylindrical coordinates. Nonlinear thermal radiation is present. Impact of slip boundary conditions on temperature and velocity on outer tube are taken into consideration. Lubrication approach is employed. The nonlinear system is executed numerically for solutions of velocity, temperature and concentration. Graphical results are obtained to predict physical interpretation of various embedded parameters. It is noted that homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions affect the concentration alternatively. Moreover Brinkman number rises the temperature and heat transfer coefficient whereas thermal slip drops temperature and heat transfer rate.

  8. Environmental Characteristics of Carbonatite and Alkaline Intrusion-related Rare Earth Element (REE) Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, R. R., II; Piatak, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonatites and alkaline intrusions are important sources of REEs. Environmental risks related to these deposit types have been assessed through literature review and evaluation of the geochemical properties of representative samples of mill tailings and their leachates. The main ore mineral in carbonatite deposits is bastnasite [(Ce,La)(CO3)F], which is found with dolomite and calcite ( 65 %), barite (20 - 25 %), plus a number of minor accessory minerals including sulfides such as galena and pyrite. Generally, alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits either occur in layered complexes or with dikes and veins cutting alkaline intrusions. Such intrusions have a more diverse group of REE ore minerals that include fluorcarbonates, oxides, silicates, and phosphates. Ore also can include minor calcite and iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) sulfides. The acid-generating potential of both deposit types is low because of a predominance of carbonate minerals in the carbonatite deposits, the presence of feldspars and minor calcite in alkaline intrusion-related deposits, and to only minor to trace occurrence of potentially acid-generating sulfide minerals. Both deposit types, however, are produced by igneous and hydrothermal processes that enrich high-field strength, incompatible elements, which typically are excluded from common rock-forming minerals. Elements such as yttrium (Y), niobium Nb), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), scandium (Sc), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) can be characteristic of these deposits and may be of environmental concern. Most of these elements, including the REEs, but with the exception of U, have low solubilities in water at the near-neutral pH values expected around these deposits. Mill tailings from carbonatite deposits can exceed residential soil and sediment criteria for Pb, and leachates from mill tailings can exceed drinking water guidelines for Pb. The greatest environmental challenges, however, are

  9. Using the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to explain ranging patterns in a lek-breeding antelope: the importance of scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Brown, Molly E; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2008-11-01

    Lek-breeding species are characterized by a negative association between territorial resource availability and male mating success; however, the impact of resources on the overall distribution patterns of the two sexes in lek systems is not clear. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has recently emerged as a powerful proxy measure for primary productivity, allowing the links between the distributions of animals and resources to be explored. Using NDVI at four spatial resolutions, we here investigate how the distribution of the two sexes in a lek-breeding population of topi antelopes relates to resource abundance before and during the rut. We found that in the dry season preceding the rut, topi density correlated positively with NDVI at the large, but not the fine, scale. This suggests that before the rut, when resources were relatively scant, topi preferred pastures where green grass was widely abundant. The pattern was less pronounced in males, suggesting that the need for territorial attendance prevents males from tracking resources as freely as females do. During the rut, which occurs in the wet season, both male and female densities correlated negatively with NDVI at the fine scale. At this time, resources were generally plentiful and the results suggest that, rather than by resource maximization, distribution during the rut was determined by benefits of aggregating on relatively resource-poor leks for mating, and possibly antipredator, purposes. At the large scale, no correlation between density and NDVI was found during the rut in either sex, which can be explained by leks covering areas too small to be reflected at this resolution. The study illustrates that when investigating spatial organization, it is important: (1) to choose the appropriate analytic scale, and (2) to consider behavioural as well as strictly ecological factors.

  10. REE and Y in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of Proterozoic granitoids (Eastern Sweden) - Assessing the role of composition and origin of groundwaters, geochemistry of fractures, and organic/inorganic aqueous complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathurin, Frédéric A.; Åström, Mats E.; Drake, Henrik; Maskenskaya, Olga M.; Kalinowski, Birgitta E.

    2014-11-01

    Yttrium and rare earth elements (YREEs) are studied in groundwater in the shallow regolith aquifer and the fracture networks of the upper 1.2 km of Paleoproterozoic granitoids in boreal Europe (Laxemar and Forsmark areas, Sweden). The study includes groundwater sampled via a total of 34 shallow boreholes reaching the bottom of the regolith aquifer, and 72 deep boreholes with equipment designed for retrieval of representative groundwater at controlled depths in the fractured bedrock. The groundwater composition differs substantially between regolith and fracture groundwater and between areas, which affects the dissolved YREE features, including concentrations and NASC normalized patterns. In the fresh groundwater in the regolith aquifers, highest YREE concentrations occur (10th and 90th percentile; Laxemar: 4.4-82 μg L-1; Forsmark: 1.9-19 μg L-1), especially in the slightly acidic groundwater (pH: 6.3-7.2 - Laxemar), where the normalized YREE patterns are slightly enriched in light REEs (LaNASC/YNASC: 1.1-2.4). In the recharge areas, where redox potentials of the regolith groundwater is more moderate, negative Ce anomaly (Laxemar: 0.37-0.45; Forsmark: 0.15-0.92) and positive Y anomaly (mainly in Forsmark: 1.0-1.7) are systematically more pronounced than in discharge areas. The significant correlations between the YREE features and dissolved organic carbon, minor elements, and somewhat pH suggest a strong control of humic substances (HSs) together with Al rich colloids and redox sensitive Fe-Mn hydrous precipitates on the dissolved YREE pools. In the bedrock fractures, the groundwater is circumneutral to slightly basic and displays YREE concentrations that are at least one order of magnitude lower than the regolith groundwater, and commonly below detection limit in the deep brackish and saline groundwater, with some exceptions such as La and Y. At intermediate depth (>50 m), where groundwater of meteoric origin percolates, the LaNASC/YNASC values moderately to

  11. The development of a speech act coding scheme to characterize communication patterns under an off-normal situation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hwan; Park, Jin Kyun

    2009-01-01

    Since communication is an important means to exchange information between individuals/teams or auxiliary means to share resources and information given in the team and group activity, effective communication is the prerequisite for construct powerful teamwork by a sharing mental model. Therefore, unless communication is performed efficiently, the quality of task and performance of team lower. Furthermore, since communication is highly related to situation awareness during team activities, inappropriate communication causes a lack of situation awareness and tension and stress are intensified and errors are increased. According to lesson learned from several accidents that have actually occurred in nuclear power plant (NPP), consequence of accident leads most critical results and is more dangerous than those of other industries. In order to improve operator's cope ability and operation ability through simulation training with various off-normal condition, the operation groups are trained regularly every 6 months in the training center of reference NPP. The objective of this study is to suggest modified speech act coding scheme and to elucidate the communication pattern characteristics of an operator's conversation during an abnormal situation in NPP

  12. The development of a speech act coding scheme to characterize communication patterns under an off-normal situation in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hwan; Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Since communication is an important means to exchange information between individuals/teams or auxiliary means to share resources and information given in the team and group activity, effective communication is the prerequisite for construct powerful teamwork by a sharing mental model. Therefore, unless communication is performed efficiently, the quality of task and performance of team lower. Furthermore, since communication is highly related to situation awareness during team activities, inappropriate communication causes a lack of situation awareness and tension and stress are intensified and errors are increased. According to lesson learned from several accidents that have actually occurred in nuclear power plant (NPP), consequence of accident leads most critical results and is more dangerous than those of other industries. In order to improve operator's cope ability and operation ability through simulation training with various off-normal condition, the operation groups are trained regularly every 6 months in the training center of reference NPP. The objective of this study is to suggest modified speech act coding scheme and to elucidate the communication pattern characteristics of an operator's conversation during an abnormal situation in NPP.

  13. REE in some tertiary volcanic complexes in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasev, Goran; Serafimovski, Todor

    2009-01-01

    Petrological and geochemical features of the Tertiary magmatic rocks from the Republic of Macedonia were subject of study in this paper. The latest K-Ar, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, and REE data for samples from Kratovo- Zletovo, Sasa-Toranica and Damjan-Buchim ore districts are presented. Whole rock XRF analyses confirmed host rock composition as dacites, quartz-latites, trachyandesites, rhyolites and rhyodacites. Absolute age determinations by the K-Ar dating method have shown ages range from 31 to 14 Ma confirming Oligocene-Miocene age as previously determined by relative methods. Determinations of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (0.70504 to 0.71126) suggest material is sourced from the contact zone between the lower crust and upper mantle where contamination of primary melt occurred. New REE data including negative Eu anomalies along with previously determined La/Yb ratios ranging from 13.3 to 43.0 (Serafimovski 1990) confirm inferred material source. These new data reconfirm previous results, provide insight into the Tertiary magmatic history of the district, and suggest the exact origin of the material that produced the Tertiary magmatic rocks.

  14. Magmatic evolution and REE mineralization in the early Cambrian Jbel Boho igneous complex in the Bou Azzer inlier (Anti-Atlas/Morocco)

    OpenAIRE

    Benaouda, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    The igneous rocks of Jbel Boho emerged in three phases: an initial phase with alkaline volcanism followed by the intrusion of a syenitic pluton and later the emplacement of a dyke swarm. The Jbel Boho alkaline complex shows some interesting aspects of hydrothermal REE mineralization in the late differentiation stage. REE mineralization is found in a rhyolitic dyke and some late hydrothermal veins. Synchysite-(Ce), which was identified by EPMA analysis, is the main REE mineral.

  15. Petrogenesis of Alta'ameem meteorite (Iraq) inferred from major, trace, REE and PGE+Au content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettanah, Yawooz A.; Ismail, Sabah A.

    2018-03-01

    Alta'ameem Meteorite (AM) is an unaltered ordinary LL chondrite that hit an area near Kirkuk City in northern Iraq on 1977. It has an ash-gray colour with a thin black fusion crust, and consists of spheroidal chondrules and variously shaped clasts aggregated together by a fine grained matrix. The chondrules of Alta'ameem Meteorite include all known types in similar meteorites elsewhere. Mineralogically, the AM consists of silicates (olivine - Fa27.7; pyroxene - Fs23.2 (Opx) and 20.5 (Cpx); plagioclase - Ab73.5An22.1Or4.7), alloys and metals (taenite, tetrataenite, kamacite, and native copper), oxides (ilmenite and chromite), sulfides (troilite), and phosphates (apatite) as well as few unidentified minerals including a Fe-Ti-Cr oxide and Fe-Ni sulfide. The chemistry of AM is dominated by SiO2, MgO, and FeOt accounting for >91 wt% of the bulk composition with minor amounts of Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, S, Ni and Cr. It contains 3675 ppb REE which is within the range of most chondrites, with a negative (-0.8) Sm- and positive (+1.2) Tb-anomalies and a near flat normalized trend (LaN/YbN = 1.16). The concentration of PGEs and Au, Ni, Co, and Cr is low in comparison to most chondrites. The K/La, Ru/Rh vs. Pt/Pd, and Pd/Ir ratio (1.85), and low PGE indicates that the AM is somewhat distinct from other meteorites. The AM has W0 weathering grade and very weak (S2) shock metamorphism. Although the AM has some petrographical and geochemical differences with other chondrites, it still can be considered as LL5 chondrite.

  16. Comparative study cephalometric-radiographic of the cephalo-facio-dental patterns in patients who presented normal occlusion and class II, division 1 malocclusions, considering variations of the FMA angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.M.N.

    1986-01-01

    The proposal of this job was to study cephalo-facio-dental patterns comparatively in patients who presented normal occlusion and Class II, division 1 malocclusions, considering variations of the FMA angle. The sample was composed of seventy-five telerradiographies on lateral pattern, obtained from Brazilian teenagers students of the ABC area (Santo Andre, Sao Bernardo do Campo and Sao Caetano do Sul), 'whites', who presented normal occlusion and Class II, division 1 malocclusions, without previous orthodontic treatment: their parents were Brazilian. (author) [pt

  17. Spectral response of REE{sup 3+} doped LaAlO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boronat, C.; Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia G, J. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Morales, A.; Zarate, J. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidaldo, Instituto de Investigacion en Metalurgia y Materiales, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rivera, T., E-mail: Cecilia.Boronat@ciemat.es [IPN, Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    This paper reports on the preliminary results obtained from the cathodoluminescence (Cl) and thermoluminescence (Tl) properties of undoped LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) and LaAlO{sub 3}: REE (REE=Dy{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}) to be potentially employed for dosimetric purposes. The samples were synthesized by a sol-gel process based on the Pechini 's method with a spray-drying technique and, subsequently, characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectrometry. Cl spectra display sharp and narrow wavebands that could specifically be associated with structural (in the range of 300-450 nm) and point defects (from 450 to 800 nm). The observed wavebands could be assigned as follows: (i) 480 and 570 from the Dy-doped LAO should corresponding respectively to {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions, (II) 490-638 from the Pr-doped LAO is linked to {sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}H{sub 4}, {sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} transitions and (III) 590 and 620 where the dopant Eu{sup 3+} gives rise to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions and (IV) a UV-blue broad band is associated with NBOHC in undoped LAO. Such emissions are due to the presence of the 4f electrons of rare earth ions that are shielded by the outer 5s and 5p electrons, the intra-4f emission spectra of REE. Furthermore, the study performed on the Tl emission of LaAlO{sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+} displays (i) two maxima centred at 150 and 240 degrees Celsius (ratio 1:2) similarly to the Pr{sup 3+} doped sample but with 7:5 of ratio. And (II) the highest radiation sensitivity, allowing us to think on the potential use of this material for dosimetric purposes, however further works are necessary to confirm such assertion. (Author)

  18. Grow your own REE deposits: Novel observations from the soils of Southern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Liam; Smith, Martin; Boyce, Adrian; McDonald, Alison; Heller, Shaun; Bamberger, Axel; Blum, Astrid; Hood, Leo

    2017-04-01

    Industrialised eucalyptus farming in Serra de Monchique has been well documented for its regional impacts on water flow, for its destructive centralisation of local economics (Jenkins, 1979) and for its derogatory impacts on local ecology (Brito, 1999) (Matias & Lamberts, 2011), it is another story of cash cropping for short term gain in an area of sensitive environmental balance which had previously been suitably subsistence farmed for some 700 years with no outside influence until the early 1950s (Jenkins, 1979). The farming has irreversibly changed local customs, soil and water systems, but formed new and intricate relationships between the troposol, oxisol and latosol formations and plants which have not previously been studied in this region in terms of soil geochemistry. During research in the region (as part of the SoS Rare/NERC-UK program) into metal and clay interactions in the troposol formations of Monchique, it was noted that rare earth elements (REEs) and other soluble ions were being mobilised in the upper half of the profiles by some seasonal cycle other than the natural meteoric input/leaching expected during classical lateritisation (Tardy, 1997). It was observed that some 40% of Fe and some 30% of Y were leaving the profile during wet season and concentrating at specific depths during dry seasons to a grade of some 160ppm Y and were thus, potentially viable as an economic resource of Heavy REEs. This PICO presentation discusses the proposed anthropogenic/biogenic mechanism for this concentration and how you too could potentially grow an economically viable REE enriched garden. References: Brito, J. G. (1999). Management strategies for conservation of the lizard Lacerta schreiberi in Portugal. Biological conservation, 311-319. Jenkins, R. (1979). The Road to Alto: An account of peasants, capitalists and their soil in the mountains of Southern Portugal. London: Pluto, ISBN: 0861040767. Matias, M., & Lamberts, P. (2011, May 26). Parliamentary

  19. Spectral response of REE3+ doped LaAlO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boronat, C.; Correcher, V.; Garcia G, J.; Morales, A.; Zarate, J.; Rivera, T.

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports on the preliminary results obtained from the cathodoluminescence (Cl) and thermoluminescence (Tl) properties of undoped LaAlO 3 (LAO) and LaAlO 3 : REE (REE=Dy 3+ , Pr 3+ and Eu 3+ ) to be potentially employed for dosimetric purposes. The samples were synthesized by a sol-gel process based on the Pechini 's method with a spray-drying technique and, subsequently, characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectrometry. Cl spectra display sharp and narrow wavebands that could specifically be associated with structural (in the range of 300-450 nm) and point defects (from 450 to 800 nm). The observed wavebands could be assigned as follows: (i) 480 and 570 from the Dy-doped LAO should corresponding respectively to 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 and 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 13/2 transitions, (II) 490-638 from the Pr-doped LAO is linked to 3 P 0 → 3 H 4 , 1 D 2 → 3 H 4 transitions and (III) 590 and 620 where the dopant Eu 3+ gives rise to 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 and 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transitions and (IV) a UV-blue broad band is associated with NBOHC in undoped LAO. Such emissions are due to the presence of the 4f electrons of rare earth ions that are shielded by the outer 5s and 5p electrons, the intra-4f emission spectra of REE. Furthermore, the study performed on the Tl emission of LaAlO 3 :Dy 3+ displays (i) two maxima centred at 150 and 240 degrees Celsius (ratio 1:2) similarly to the Pr 3+ doped sample but with 7:5 of ratio. And (II) the highest radiation sensitivity, allowing us to think on the potential use of this material for dosimetric purposes, however further works are necessary to confirm such assertion. (Author)

  20. Normalized rare earth elements in water, sediments, and wine: identifying sources and environmental redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David Z.; Bau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters and sediments, when normalized on an element-by-element basis to one of several rock standards and plotted versus atomic number, yield curves that reveal their partitioning between different sediment fractions and the sources of those fractions, for example, between terrestrial-derived lithogenous debris and seawater-derived biogenous detritus and hydrogenous metal oxides. The REE of ancient sediments support their partitioning into these same fractions and further contribute to the identification of the redox geochemistry of the sea water in which the sediments accumulated. The normalized curves of the REE that have been examined in several South American wine varietals can be interpreted to reflect the lithology of the bedrock on which the vines may have been grown, suggesting limited fractionation during soil development.

  1. ``From Fundamental Motives to Rational Expectation Equilibrium[REE, henceworth] of Indeterminacy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksoed, Ssi, Wh-

    For ``Principle of Indeterminacy''from Heisenberg states: ``one of the fundamental cornerstone of quantum mechanics is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle''.whereas canonically conjugate quantities can be determined simultaneously only with a characteristic indeterminacy[M. Arevalo Aguilar, et.al]. Accompanying Alfred North Whitehead conclusion in ``The Aims of Education''that mathematical symbols are artificial before new meanings given, two kinds of fundamental motives: (i) expectation-expectation, (ii) expectation-certainty inherently occurs with determinacy properties of rational expectation equilibrium(REE, henceworth)- Guido Ascari & Tizano Ropele:''Trend inflation, Taylor principle & Indeterminacy'', Kiel Institute, June 2007. Furthers, relative price expression can be compare of their α and (1 - α) configurations in the expression of possible activity. Acknowledgment to Prof[asc]. Dr. Bobby Eka Gunara for ``made a rank through physics'' denotes...

  2. Thermal decomposition of agardites (REE) - relationship between dehydroxylation temperature and electronegativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Erickson, Kristy L.; Weier, Matt L.; McKinnon, Adam R.; Williams, Peter A.; Leverett, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of a suite of synthetic agardites of formula ACu 6 (AsO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 ·3H 2 O where A is given by a rare earth element has been studied using thermogravimetric analysis techniques. Dehydration of the agardites occurs at low temperatures and over an extended temperature range from ambient to around 60 deg. C. This loss of water is attributed to the loss of zeolitic water. The mass loss of water indicates 3 mol of zeolitic water in the structure. Dehydroxylation occurs in steps over a wide range of temperatures from 235 to 456 deg. C. The mass loss during dehydroxylation shows the number of moles of hydroxyl units is six. There is a linear relationship between the first dehydroxylation temperature and the electronegativity of the agardites (REE)

  3. Carbonatites of the World, Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vladimir I.; Singer, Donald A.; Orris, Greta J.

    2009-01-01

    This report is based on published tonnage and grade data on 58 Nb- and rare-earth-element (REE)-bearing carbonatite deposits that are mostly well explored and are partially mined or contain resources of these elements. The deposits represent only a part of the known 527 carbonatites around the world, but they are characterized by reliable quantitative data on ore tonnages and grades of niobium and REE. Grade and tonnage models are an important component of mineral resource assessments. Carbonatites present one of the main natural sources of niobium and rare-earth elements, the economic importance of which grows consistently. A purpose of this report is to update earlier publications. New information about known deposits, as well as data on new deposits published during the last decade, are incorporated in the present paper. The compiled database (appendix 1; linked to right) contains 60 explored Nb- and REE-bearing carbonatite deposits - resources of 55 of these deposits are taken from publications. In the present updated grade-tonnage model we have added 24 deposits comparing with the previous model of Singer (1998). Resources of most deposits are residuum ores in the upper part of carbonatite bodies. Mineral-deposit models are important in exploration planning and quantitative resource assessments for two reasons: (1) grades and tonnages among deposit types vary significantly, and (2) deposits of different types are present in distinct geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral-deposit models combine the diverse geoscience information on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, and geochemistry used in resource assessments and mineral exploration. Globally based deposit models allow recognition of important features and demonstrate how common different features are. Well-designed deposit models allow geologists to deduce possible mineral-deposit types in a given geologic environment, and the grade and tonnage models allow economists to

  4. The rare earth element (REE) lanthanum (La) induces hormesis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathokleous, Evgenios; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Calabrese, Edward J

    2018-07-01

    Lanthanum is a rare earth element (REE) which has been extensively studied due to its wide application in numerous fields with a potential accumulation in the environment. It has long been known for its potential to stimulate plant growth within a hormetic-biphasic dose response framework. This article provides evidence from a series of high resolution studies published within the last two decades demonstrating a substantial and significant occurrence of lanthanum-induced hormesis in plants. These findings suggest that hormetic responses should be built into the study design of hazard assessment study protocols and included in the risk assessment process. Hormesis also offers the opportunity to substantially improve cost benefit estimates for environmental contaminants, which have the potential to induce beneficial/desirable effects at low doses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rare Earth Element Concentrations and Fractionation Patterns Along Groundwater Flow Paths in Two Different Aquifer Types (i.e., Sand vs. Carbonate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, K. H.; Tang, J.

    2003-12-01

    Groundwater samples were collected in two different types of aquifer (i.e., Carrizo Sand Aquifer, Texas and Upper Floridan carbonate Aquifer, west-central Florida) to study the concentrations, fractionation, and speciation of rare earth elements (REE) along groundwater flow paths in each aquifer. Major solutes and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were also measured in these groundwaters. The Carrizo Sand aquifer was sampled in October 2002 and June 2003, whereas, to date, we have only sampled the Floridan once (i.e., June 2003). The data reveal no significant seasonal differences in major solute and REE concentrations for the Carrizo. In Carrizo sand aquifer, groundwaters from relatively shallow wells (i.e., less than 167 m) in the recharge zone are chiefly Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl type waters. With flow down-gradient the groundwaters shift composition to the Na-HCO3 waters. pH and alkalinity initially decrease with flow away from the recharge zone before increasing again down-gradient. DOC is generally low (0.65 mg/L) along the flow path. REE concentrations are highest in groundwaters from the recharge zone (Nd 40.5 pmol/kg), and decrease substantially with flow down-gradient reaching relatively low and stable values (Nd 4.1-8.6 pmol/kg) roughly 10 km from the recharge zone. Generally, Carrizo groundwaters exhibit HREE-enriched shale-normalized patterns. The HREE enrichments are especially strong for waters from the recharge zone [(Yb/Nd)SN =1.7-5.6], whereas down-gradient (deep) groundwaters have flatter patterns [(Yb/Nd)SN =0.7-2.5]. All groundwaters have slightly positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* 0.09-0.14) and negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* -0.85 - -0.07). In the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Ca, Mg, SO4, and Cl concentrations generally increase along groundwater flow path, whereas pH and alkalinity generally decrease. DOC is higher (0.64 - 2.29 mg/L) than in the Carrizo and initially increases along the flow path and then decreases down-gradient. LREE (Nd) concentrations generally

  6. Possible Involvement of Permian Phosphoria Formation Oil as a Source of REE and Other Metals Associated with Complex U-V Mineralization in the Northern Bighorn Basin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Moore-Nall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The origin of V, U, REE and other metals in the Permian Phosphoria Formation have been speculated and studied by numerous scientists. The exceptionally high concentrations of metals have been interpreted to reflect fundamental transitions from anoxic to oxic marine conditions. Much of the oil in the Bighorn Basin, is sourced by the Phosphoria Formation. Two of the top 10 producing oil fields in Wyoming are located approximately 50 km west of two abandoned U-V mining districts in the northern portion of the basin. These fields produce from basin margin anticlinal structures from Mississippian age reservoir rock. Samples collected from abandoned U-V mines and prospects hosted in Mississippian aged paleokarst in Montana and Wyoming have hydrocarbon residue present and contain anomalous high concentrations of many metals that are found in similar concentrations in the Phosphoria Formation. As, Hg, Mo, Pb, Tl, U, V and Zn, often metals of environmental concern occur in high concentrations in Phosphoria Formation samples and had values ranging from 30–1295 ppm As, 0.179–12.8 ppm Hg, 2–791 ppm Mo, <2–146 ppm Pb, 10–490 ppm Tl, 907–86,800 ppm U, 1240–18,900 ppm V, and 7–2230 ppm Zn, in mineralized samples from this study. The REE plus Y composition of Madison Limestone- and limestone breccia hosted-bitumen reflect similar patterns to both mineralized samples from this study and to U.S. Geological Survey rock samples from studies of the Phosphoria Formation. Geochemical, mineralogical and field data were used to investigate past theories for mineralization of these deposits to determine if U present in home wells and Hg content of fish from rivers on the proximal Crow Indian Reservation may have been derived from these deposits or related to their mode of mineralization.

  7. Normal Lung Quantification in Usual Interstitial Pneumonia Pattern: The Impact of Threshold-based Volumetric CT Analysis for the Staging of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotsugu Ohkubo

    Full Text Available Although several computer-aided computed tomography (CT analysis methods have been reported to objectively assess the disease severity and progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, it is unclear which method is most practical. A universal severity classification system has not yet been adopted for IPF.The purpose of this study was to test the correlation between quantitative-CT indices and lung physiology variables and to determine the ability of such indices to predict disease severity in IPF.A total of 27 IPF patients showing radiological UIP pattern on high-resolution (HR CT were retrospectively enrolled. Staging of IPF was performed according to two classification systems: the Japanese and GAP (gender, age, and physiology staging systems. CT images were assessed using a commercially available CT imaging analysis workstation, and the whole-lung mean CT value (MCT, the normally attenuated lung volume as defined from -950 HU to -701 Hounsfield unit (NL, the volume of the whole lung (WL, and the percentage of NL to WL (NL%, were calculated.CT indices (MCT, WL, and NL closely correlated with lung physiology variables. Among them, NL strongly correlated with forced vital capacity (FVC (r = 0.92, P <0.0001. NL% showed a large area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detecting patients in the moderate or advanced stages of IPF. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that NL% is significantly more useful than the percentages of predicted FVC and predicted diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (Japanese stage II/III/IV [odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence intervals (CI, 0.48 to 0.92; P < 0.01]; III/IV [odds ratio. 0.80; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.96; P < 0.01]; GAP stage II/III [odds ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.97; P < 0.05].The measurement of NL% by threshold-based volumetric CT analysis may help improve IPF staging.

  8. Normal Lung Quantification in Usual Interstitial Pneumonia Pattern: The Impact of Threshold-based Volumetric CT Analysis for the Staging of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Hirotsugu; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Uemura, Takehiro; Takakuwa, Osamu; Takemura, Masaya; Maeno, Ken; Ito, Yutaka; Oguri, Tetsuya; Kazawa, Nobutaka; Mikami, Ryuji; Niimi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Although several computer-aided computed tomography (CT) analysis methods have been reported to objectively assess the disease severity and progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), it is unclear which method is most practical. A universal severity classification system has not yet been adopted for IPF. The purpose of this study was to test the correlation between quantitative-CT indices and lung physiology variables and to determine the ability of such indices to predict disease severity in IPF. A total of 27 IPF patients showing radiological UIP pattern on high-resolution (HR) CT were retrospectively enrolled. Staging of IPF was performed according to two classification systems: the Japanese and GAP (gender, age, and physiology) staging systems. CT images were assessed using a commercially available CT imaging analysis workstation, and the whole-lung mean CT value (MCT), the normally attenuated lung volume as defined from -950 HU to -701 Hounsfield unit (NL), the volume of the whole lung (WL), and the percentage of NL to WL (NL%), were calculated. CT indices (MCT, WL, and NL) closely correlated with lung physiology variables. Among them, NL strongly correlated with forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = 0.92, P <0.0001). NL% showed a large area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detecting patients in the moderate or advanced stages of IPF. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that NL% is significantly more useful than the percentages of predicted FVC and predicted diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (Japanese stage II/III/IV [odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.48 to 0.92; P < 0.01]; III/IV [odds ratio. 0.80; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.96; P < 0.01]; GAP stage II/III [odds ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.97; P < 0.05]). The measurement of NL% by threshold-based volumetric CT analysis may help improve IPF staging.

  9. Cathodoluminescence and LA-ICP-MS chemistry of silicified wood enclosing wakefieldite - REEs and V migration during complex diagenetic evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matysová, Petra; Götze, J.; Leichmann, J.; Škoda, R.; Strnad, L.; Drahota, P.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 5 (2016), s. 869-887 ISSN 0935-1221 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : wakefieldite * xenotime * silicified wood * quartz * trace elements * REE * vanadium Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry; DD - Geochemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  10. Rare earth element exchange through the Bosporus : The Black Sea as a net source of REEs to the Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; German, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Bosporus is the only source of seawater to the Black Sea and helps to maintain the basin-wide salinity gradient that caused the Black Sea to become the largest permanently anoxic basin in the world, some 3000 years ago. Concentrations of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) in each of the three

  11. Leaching kinetics of neodymium in sulfuric acid of rare earth elements (REE) slag concentrated by pyrometallurgy from magnetite ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ho-Sung; Kim, Chul-Joo; Chung, Kyung Woo; Lee, Jin-Young; Shin, Shun Myung; Lee, Su-Jeong; Joe, A-Ram; Lee, Se-Il; Yoo, Seung-Joon

    2014-01-01

    We studied the leaching kinetics of recovering neodymium in sulfuric acid from the rare earth elements (REE) slag concentrated by smelting reduction from a magnetite ore containing monazite. The leaching kinetics on neodymium was conducted at a reactant concentration of 1.5 g REE slag per L of 0.3M H 2 SO 4 , agitation of 750 rpm and temperature ranging from 30 to 80 .deg. C. Neodymium oxide included in the REE slag was completely converted into neodymium sulfate phase (Nd 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ) in H 2 SO 4 after the leaching of 5 h, 80 .deg. C. As a result, the leaching mechanism was determined in a two-stage model based on the shrinking core model with spherical particles. The first step was determined by chemical reaction, and the second step was determined by ash layer diffusion because the leaching of REEs by the first chemical reaction increases the formation of the ash layer affecting as a resistance against the leaching. By using the Arrhenius expression, the apparent activation energy of the first chemical reaction step was found to be 9 kJmol -1 . After the first chemical reaction, leaching reaction rate was determined by the ash layer diffusion. The apparent activation energy of ash layer diffusion was found to be 32 kJmol -1

  12. Leaching kinetics of neodymium in sulfuric acid of rare earth elements (REE) slag concentrated by pyrometallurgy from magnetite ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ho-Sung; Kim, Chul-Joo; Chung, Kyung Woo; Lee, Jin-Young; Shin, Shun Myung [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jeong; Joe, A-Ram; Lee, Se-Il; Yoo, Seung-Joon [Seonam University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    We studied the leaching kinetics of recovering neodymium in sulfuric acid from the rare earth elements (REE) slag concentrated by smelting reduction from a magnetite ore containing monazite. The leaching kinetics on neodymium was conducted at a reactant concentration of 1.5 g REE slag per L of 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, agitation of 750 rpm and temperature ranging from 30 to 80 .deg. C. Neodymium oxide included in the REE slag was completely converted into neodymium sulfate phase (Nd{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}) in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} after the leaching of 5 h, 80 .deg. C. As a result, the leaching mechanism was determined in a two-stage model based on the shrinking core model with spherical particles. The first step was determined by chemical reaction, and the second step was determined by ash layer diffusion because the leaching of REEs by the first chemical reaction increases the formation of the ash layer affecting as a resistance against the leaching. By using the Arrhenius expression, the apparent activation energy of the first chemical reaction step was found to be 9 kJmol{sup -1}. After the first chemical reaction, leaching reaction rate was determined by the ash layer diffusion. The apparent activation energy of ash layer diffusion was found to be 32 kJmol{sup -1}.

  13. Mineralogy and geochemistry of REE-Zr-Nb mineralised nepheline syenites in the peralkaline Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borst, Anouk Margaretha

    Summary: The rare earth elements (REE) share unique physical, chemical and light-emitting properties that are of great importance to the high-tech industry. Among the many rocks containing appreciable amounts of REE, alkaline igneous rocks and carbonatites provide important resources for these el...

  14. Effects of organic ligands on fractionation of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic plants: an application to the determination of binding capacities by humic acid for modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, ShiMing; Liang, Tao; Zhang, ChaoSheng; Yan, JunCai; Zhang, ZiLi

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed the fractionation processes of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic plants, with a heavy REE (HREE, the elements from Gd to Lu) enrichment in leaves. In this study, effects on the HREE enrichment in soybean leaves with additions of carboxylic acids (acetate, malate, citrate, NTA, EDTA and DTPA) and two soil humic acids (HAs) were investigated. REE speciation in carboxylic acid and HA solutions was simulated using Visual MINTEQ and Model V, respectively. The results showed that the effects caused by carboxylic acids were strongly dependent on the differences between their binding strengths for light REEs (LREEs, the elements from La to Eu) and those for HREEs. A good correlation existed between these effects and the changes of free REE ions in solutions. This relationship was also observed for the HA treatments, provided that the intrinsic equilibrium constants of REEs for cation-proton exchange with HA (i.e., pK(MHA)) in Model V were estimated using a free-energy relationship with the stability constants for REE complexation with lactic acid. It is suggested that this set of pK(MHA) values is more suitable for use in Model V for the simulation of REE complexation with HA.

  15. The role of pegmatites and acid fluids for REE/HFSE mobilization in the Strange Lake peralkaline granitic pluton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysi, A. P.; Williams-Jones, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Strange Lake pluton in Canada is a mid-Proterozoic peralkaline granitic intrusion that is host to a world-class rare earth element (REE), yttrium (Y) and high-field strength element (HFSE) deposit containing more than 50 Mt ore at >1.5 wt.% REE and >3 wt.% Zr. The highest REE/HFSE concentrations are found in pegmatite-rich zones characterized by intense alteration. Previous studies of Strange Lake and other peralkaline and alkaline intrusions, such as Khan Bogd (Mongolia) and Tamazeght (Morocco) plutons have shown that hydrothermal alteration may play an important role in the mobility of the REE/HFSE. However, the fluid chemistry and conditions of alteration (i.e., P, T, pH, fO2, ligand activity) in these systems still need to be constrained to evaluate the importance and scale of such hydrothermal mobilization. We present new data from the B-zone, a pegmatite-rich zone located in NW Strange Lake. The pegmatites are generally zoned and form two main types. The border-type pegmatites consist of quartz, K-feldspar and hematized aegirine, whereas volatile-rich pegmatites consist of hydrothermal quartz and fluorite. Transitions between both types were also observed, with the K-feldspar being partly altered and replaced by Al-Si-rich phyllosilicates. The heavy (H)REE and Zr were primarily concentrated in zirconosilicates such as elpidite, now pseudomorphed by zircon or gittinsite, whereas light (L)REE and Y were concentrated in REE-F-(CO2)-minerals such as fluocerite and bastnäsite. Textural and mineralogical observations indicate that these minerals are primary and were partly to completely leached upon fluid-rock interaction in the pegmatites. Secondary phases include Ca-F-Y-rich minerals, mainly hydrothermal fluorite, that fill vugs and replaced primary REEHFSE minerals. The presence of hydrothermal fluorite veins, micro-veins, vugs and micro-breccia in the most altered parts of the B-zone are interpreted to reflect interaction of the rocks with a F-rich fluid

  16. Determination of the REE in environmental samples near a coal power station based on k0-standardized NAA with counting in a LEPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.; Gouveia, M.A.; Prudencio, M.I.; Cabral, J.M.P.; Corte, F. de

    1993-01-01

    The REE contents in lichens and plants determined by k 0 -standardized NAA with LEPD and HPGe are compared. Similar values were obtained for Sm, Eu, Tb and Yb and better values for Ce and Nd by using LEPD Besides, LEPD allows the determination of Gd, Tm and Lu. The study of REE concentrations in the neighbourhood of two coal power stations show that in the station under construction (C.T. Pego), the index of accumulation of each REE by the lichens and olive tree leaves is identical in two sampling loci where the soils have different REE concentrations; and in the station in operation (C.T. Sines), the REE contents in the soils is identical and the differences observed in the lichens and wild terrestrial plants are most probably due to the fly-ashes emission from the station. (author) 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 6 tabs

  17. Association between uncoupling protein 2, adiponectin and resting energy expenditure in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghadomi Masoumi, Zahra; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mahdi; Pishva, Hamideh

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is recognized as the most prevalent metabolic disease worldwide. Decreases in energy expenditure may increase risk of obesity. One of the key regulators of energy balance is uncoupling protein2 (UCP2), a transporter protein presents in mitochondrial inner membrane. Moreover, adiponectin is the most abundant adipocytokine, it may play a role in energy metabolism and gene expression of UCP2. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between the level of uncoupling protein 2 and adiponectin and their relationship with REE (Resting Energy Expenditure) in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure. A total of 49 subjects (women, 25-50 years old), were included in current study, 16 subjects with BMI > 30 and low resting energy expenditure, 17 subjects with BMI > 30 and normal resting energy expenditure and 16 non-obese subjects as a control group. Anthropometric, body composition parameters and resting energy expenditure were measured. Plasma adiponectin, UCP2 protein and total protein in PBMC were determined. Measured resting energy expenditure in obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower than other groups. Plasma adiponectin in the obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower compared to normal weight group. There was a significant relationship between 'UCP2 protein/Total protein' ratio and plasma adiponectin in obese group with low REE and in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between REE and plasma adiponectin in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between plasma adiponectin and REE. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between UCP2 and REE.

  18. Patients cured from craniopharyngioma or nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA) suffer similarly from increased daytime somnolence despite normal sleep patterns compared to healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van Kralingen, Klaas W.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Rabe, Klaus F.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Adults patients previously treated for craniopharyngioma have increased general and physical fatigue compared to healthy controls. This could be related to disturbed sleep patterns. The aim of this study was to compare sleepiness and sleep patterns in those patients to healthy controls and to

  19. Hydrothermal mobilization of pegmatite-hosted REE and Zr at Strange Lake, Canada: A reaction path model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysi, Alexander P.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2013-12-01

    Petrological and geochemical observations of pegmatites in the Strange Lake pluton, Canada, have been combined with numerical simulations to improve our understanding of fluid-rock interaction in peralkaline granitic systems. In particular, they have made it possible to evaluate reaction paths responsible for hydrothermal mobilization and mineralization of rare earth elements (REE) and Zr. The focus of the study was the B-Zone in the northwest of the pluton, which contains a pegmatite swarm and is the target of exploration for an economically exploitable REE deposit. Many of the pegmatites are mineralogically zoned into a border consisting of variably altered primary K-feldspar, arfvedsonite, quartz, and zirconosilicates, and a core rich in quartz, fluorite and exotic REE minerals. Textural relationships indicate that the primary silicate minerals in the pegmatites were leached and/or replaced during acidic alteration by K-, Fe- and Al-phyllosilicates, aegirine, hematite, fluorite and/or quartz, and that primary zirconosilicates (e.g., elpidite) were replaced by gittinsite and/or zircon. Reaction textures recording coupled dissolution of silicate minerals and crystallization of secondary REE-silicates indicate hydrothermal mobilization of the REE. The mobility of the light (L)REE was limited by the stability of REE-F-(CO2)-minerals (basnäsite-(Ce) and fluocerite-(Ce)), whereas zirconosilicates and secondary gadolinite-group minerals controlled the mobility of Zr and the heavy (H)REE. Hydrothermal fluorite and fluorite-fluocerite-(Ce) solid solutions are interpreted to indicate the former presence of F-bearing saline fluids in the pegmatites. Numerical simulations show that the mobilization of REE and Zr in saline HCl-HF-bearing fluids is controlled by pH, ligand activity and temperature. Mobilization of Zr is significant in both saline HF- and HCl-HF-bearing fluids at low temperature (250 °C). In contrast, the REE are mobilized by saline HCl-bearing fluids

  20. Expression-robust 3D face recognition via weighted sparse representation of multi-scale and multi-component local normal patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin; Huang, Di; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Chen, Liming; Wang, Yunhong

    2014-01-01

    In the theory of differential geometry, surface normal, as a first order surface differential quantity, determines the orientation of a surface at each point and contains informative local surface shape information. To fully exploit this kind

  1. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  2. A comparison of the analysis of REE-bearing phosphates by standardless EDS and standardised EDS and WDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, B.J.; Hancock, R.C.; Trautman, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Current generation energy dispersive X-ray analysis systems EDS on SEM are user-friendly with 'simple' software interfaces. Minimal training is considered necessary for operation. One aim of this study was to test this hypothesis. The second aim, as a part of other studies, was to compare the results of the x-ray microanalysis of a suite of rare earth element (REE) bearing standard glasses and also a suite of rare earth element (REE) bearing phosphate mineral grains using different analytical systems. Our results from the same sample mounts have been obtained using three analytical systems: an Oxford Instruments ISIS EDS on a JEOL 6400 SEM, a Noran Voyager EDS on a JEOL 6400 SEM and a Moran Scientific WDS package on a JEOL 6400 SEM. A total of forty nine natural mineral grains have been analysed for twenty-two elements, including the REE, Ca, P and F (where possible) by each analytical system. Additional analyses were obtained from simple REE-bearing glass standards, each containing only one REE at around 11 wt %. The natural mineral grain results obtained from the different analytical systems show a number of significant variations. The two EDS datasets are comparable in terms of total REE but generally are a factor of two less than the WDS dataset. Internally the EDS datasets differ in that one set shows consistently a strong negative yttrium oxide result (typically -1 wt %) due to an excessive correction for a strong phosphorus overlap (Ka on La) whereas the second dataset shows the reverse with typically 1 wt % yttrium oxide reported, as a result of inadequate correction of the phosphorus overlap. Major elements are comparable between the standard-based datasets but not with the standardless dataset although all show similar reproducibility. The standard glass results are more coherent and consistent, as would be expected from the simpler composition and higher abundances. One clear outcome from these data is that complex compositions where

  3. Komatiites of the Onverwacht Group, S. Africa: REE geochemistry, Sm/Nd age and mantle evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Bor-Ming; Gruau, G.; Glikson, A. Y.

    1982-08-01

    Komatiites of the Tjakastad Subgroup of the Onverwacht Group (S. Africa) were dated by the Sm/Nd method. A whole-rock isochron yields an age of 3.56±0.24 (2 σ) AE, with initial 143Nd/144Nd ratio of 0.50818±23 (2 σ), corresponding to ɛ Nd( T)= + 1.9±4.5. This age is interpreted as the time of initial Onverwacht volcanism. This result agrees with earlier Sm/Nd data of Hamilton et al. (1979) and is consistent with the Rb-Sr result of Jahn and Shih (1974). Komatiites may be divided into 3 groups based on the typology of heavy REE distributions (Jahn and Gruau 1981). According to this scheme, the Onverwacht komatiites of the present study belong to two groups: the predominant Group II rocks showing (Gd/Yb)N≃1.4, CaO/Al2O3 = 1.33, Al2O3/TiO2≃10.6; and the subordinate Group III rocks with (Gd/Yb)Nconnotation of the chemical parameters, such as CaO/Al2O3, (Gd/Yb)N or Al2O3/TiO2 ratio has not been firmly established. The characteristic “high” CaO/Al2O3 or (Gd/Yb)N ratios in many Onverwacht Group rocks can also be explained as a result of local short-term mantle heterogeneity.

  4. How lithology and climate affect REE mobility and fractionation along a shale weathering transect of the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Jin, L.; Dere, A. L.; White, T.; Mathur, R.; Brantley, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Shale weathering is an important process in global elemental cycles. Accompanied by the transformation of bedrock into regolith, many elements including rare earth elements (REE) are mobilized primarily by chemical weathering in the Critical Zone. Then, REE are subsequently transported from the vadose zone to streams, with eventual deposition in the oceans. REE have been identified as crucial and strategic natural resources; and discovery of new REE deposits will be facilitated by understanding global REE cycles. At present, the mechanisms and environmental factors controlling release, transport, and deposition of REE - the sources and sinks - at Earth's surface remain unclear. Here, we present a systematic study of soils, stream sediments, stream waters, soil water and bedrock in six small watersheds that are developed on shale bedrock in the eastern USA to constrain the mobility and fractionation of REE during early stages of chemical weathering. The selected watersheds are part of the shale transect established by the Susquehanna Shale Hills Observatory (SSHO) and are well suited to investigate weathering on shales of different compositions or within different climate regimes but on the same shale unit. Our REE study from SSHO, a small gray shale watershed in central Pennsylvania, shows that up to 65% of the REE (relative to parent bedrock) is depleted in the acidic and organic-rich soils due to chemical leaching. Both weathering soil profiles and natural waters show a preferential removal of middle REE (MREE: Sm to Dy) relative to light REE (La to Nd) and heavy REE (Ho to Lu) during shale weathering, due to preferential release of MREE from a phosphate phase (rhabdophane). Strong positive Ce anomalies observed in the regolith and stream sediments point to the fractionation and preferential precipitation of Ce as compared to other REE, in the generally oxidizing conditions of the surface environments. One watershed developed on the Marcellus black shale in

  5. Principal component analysis of normalized full spectrum mass spectrometry data in multiMS-toolbox: An effective tool to identify important factors for classification of different metabolic patterns and bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejnar, Pavel; Kuckova, Stepanka; Prochazka, Ales; Karamonova, Ludmila; Svobodova, Barbora

    2018-06-15

    Explorative statistical analysis of mass spectrometry data is still a time-consuming step. We analyzed critical factors for application of principal component analysis (PCA) in mass spectrometry and focused on two whole spectrum based normalization techniques and their application in the analysis of registered peak data and, in comparison, in full spectrum data analysis. We used this technique to identify different metabolic patterns in the bacterial culture of Cronobacter sakazakii, an important foodborne pathogen. Two software utilities, the ms-alone, a python-based utility for mass spectrometry data preprocessing and peak extraction, and the multiMS-toolbox, an R software tool for advanced peak registration and detailed explorative statistical analysis, were implemented. The bacterial culture of Cronobacter sakazakii was cultivated on Enterobacter sakazakii Isolation Agar, Blood Agar Base and Tryptone Soya Agar for 24 h and 48 h and applied by the smear method on an Autoflex speed MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. For three tested cultivation media only two different metabolic patterns of Cronobacter sakazakii were identified using PCA applied on data normalized by two different normalization techniques. Results from matched peak data and subsequent detailed full spectrum analysis identified only two different metabolic patterns - a cultivation on Enterobacter sakazakii Isolation Agar showed significant differences to the cultivation on the other two tested media. The metabolic patterns for all tested cultivation media also proved the dependence on cultivation time. Both whole spectrum based normalization techniques together with the full spectrum PCA allow identification of important discriminative factors in experiments with several variable condition factors avoiding any problems with improper identification of peaks or emphasis on bellow threshold peak data. The amounts of processed data remain still manageable. Both implemented software utilities are available

  6. Modification of REE distribution of ordinary chondrites from Atacama (Chile) and Lut (Iran) hot deserts: Insights into the chemical weathering of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkhorsandi, Hamed; D'Orazio, Massimo; Rochette, Pierre; Valenzuela, Millarca; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Mirnejad, Hassan; Sutter, Brad; Hutzler, Aurore; Aboulahris, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) during hot desert weathering of meteorites is investigated. Ordinary chondrites (OCs) from Atacama (Chile) and Lut (Iran) deserts show different variations in REE composition during this process. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data reveal that hot desert OCs tend to show elevated light REE concentrations, relative to OC falls. Chondrites from Atacama are by far the most enriched in REEs and this enrichment is not necessarily related to their degree of weathering. Positive Ce anomaly of fresh chondrites from Atacama and the successive formation of a negative Ce anomaly with the addition of trivalent REEs are similar to the process reported from Antarctic eucrites. In addition to REEs, Sr and Ba also show different concentrations when comparing OCs from different hot deserts. The stability of Atacama surfaces and the associated old terrestrial ages of meteorites from this region give the samples the necessary time to interact with the terrestrial environment and to be chemically modified. Higher REE contents and LREE-enriched composition are evidence of contamination by terrestrial soil. Despite their low degrees of weathering, special care must be taken into account while working on the REE composition of Atacama meteorites for cosmochemistry applications. In contrast, chondrites from the Lut desert show lower degrees of REE modification, despite significant weathering signed by Sr content. This is explained by the relatively rapid weathering rate of the meteorites occurring in the Lut desert, which hampers the penetration of terrestrial material by forming voluminous Fe oxide/oxyhydroxides shortly after the meteorite fall.

  7. Selective Recovery of Yttrium and Ytterbium Oxides from Abu Rusheid REEs Concentrate via Alkaline Leaching and Solvent Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    The REEs concentrate prepared from Abu Rusheid lamprophyre ore material is found to assay 44.65% Y_2O_3 and 13.87% Yb_2O_3 together with less amounts of 10 other REEs. This concentrate has been subjected to alkaline leaching process using seven different alkali reagents (single or mixed). From the obtained results, the mixed Na_2CO_3/(NH_4)HCO_3 reagent has been able to leach up to 87.32 % of Yb and 98.73% of Y together with a minor amount of Eu( 1.44)%. Finally, TBP extractant has been used to separate highly pure Yb and Y concentrate oxides from the nitrate solution

  8. Story Themes from the Family Distance Doll Placement Technique: A Method for Assessing Patterns of Closeness and Distance in Families of Disturbed and Normal Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Gwendolyn L.

    The diagnosis and evaluation of families applying for family therapy is necessary to identify problems in their relationships that can be effectively integrated into treatment. In the Family Distance Doll Placement technique, a diagnostic tool for assessing patterns of closeness and distance within the family, parents are asked to make up stories…

  9. On L^1-Convergence Of Rees-Stanojević's Sums With Coefficients From The Class K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhevat Z. Krasniqi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are considered the modified cosine sums introduced by Rees and Stanojević  with coefficients from the class K. In addition, it is proved that the condition $\\lim_{n\\to \\infty}|a_{n+1}|\\log n= 0$ is a necessary and sufficient condition for the $L^{1}$-convergence of the cosine series. Also, an open problem about $L^{1}$-convergence for the $r-th$ derivative  of the cosine series is presented.

  10. Leaching Kinetics of Praseodymium in Sulfuric Acid of Rare Earth Elements (REE) Slag Concentrated by Pyrometallurgy from Magnetite Ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul-Joo; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Chung, Kyung Woo; Lee, Jin-Young; Kim, Sung-Don; Shin, Shun Myung; Kim, Hyung-Seop; Cho, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Eun-Ji; Lee, Se-Il; Yoo, Seung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    A leaching kinetics was conducted for the purpose of recovery of praseodymium in sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) from REE slag concentrated by the smelting reduction process in an arc furnace as a reactant. The concentration of H 2 SO 4 was fixed at an excess ratio under the condition of slurry density of 1.500 g slag/L, 0.3 mol H 2 SO 4 , and the effect of temperatures was investigated under the condition of 30 to 80 .deg. C. As a result, praseodymium oxide (Pr 6 O 1 1) existing in the slag was completely converted into praseodymium sulfate (Pr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ·8H 2 O) after the leaching of 5 h. On the basis of the shrinking core model with a shape of sphere, the first leaching reaction was determined by chemical reaction mechanism. Generally, the solubility of pure REEs decreases with the increase of leaching temperatures in sulfuric acid, but REE slag was oppositely increased with increasing temperatures. It occurs because the ash layer included in the slag is affected as a resistance against the leaching. By using the Arrhenius expression, the apparent activation energy of the first chemical reaction was determined to be 9.195 kJmol -1 . In the second stage, the leaching rate is determined by the ash layer diffusion mechanism. The apparent activation energy of the second ash layer diffusion was determined to be 19.106 kJmol -1 . These relative low activation energy values were obtained by the existence of unreacted ash layer in the REE slag

  11. Leaching Kinetics of Praseodymium in Sulfuric Acid of Rare Earth Elements (REE) Slag Concentrated by Pyrometallurgy from Magnetite Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul-Joo; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Chung, Kyung Woo; Lee, Jin-Young; Kim, Sung-Don; Shin, Shun Myung [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Seop; Cho, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Eun-Ji; Lee, Se-Il; Yoo, Seung-Joon [Seonam University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    A leaching kinetics was conducted for the purpose of recovery of praseodymium in sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) from REE slag concentrated by the smelting reduction process in an arc furnace as a reactant. The concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was fixed at an excess ratio under the condition of slurry density of 1.500 g slag/L, 0.3 mol H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and the effect of temperatures was investigated under the condition of 30 to 80 .deg. C. As a result, praseodymium oxide (Pr{sub 6}O{sub 1}1) existing in the slag was completely converted into praseodymium sulfate (Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}·8H{sub 2}O) after the leaching of 5 h. On the basis of the shrinking core model with a shape of sphere, the first leaching reaction was determined by chemical reaction mechanism. Generally, the solubility of pure REEs decreases with the increase of leaching temperatures in sulfuric acid, but REE slag was oppositely increased with increasing temperatures. It occurs because the ash layer included in the slag is affected as a resistance against the leaching. By using the Arrhenius expression, the apparent activation energy of the first chemical reaction was determined to be 9.195 kJmol{sup -1}. In the second stage, the leaching rate is determined by the ash layer diffusion mechanism. The apparent activation energy of the second ash layer diffusion was determined to be 19.106 kJmol{sup -1}. These relative low activation energy values were obtained by the existence of unreacted ash layer in the REE slag.

  12. Normal anatomy and abnormal patterns of the supraspinatus muscle: Ultrasound versus surgery. Analysis of the possible sources of misdiagnosis; Anatomia normale e quadri patologici del muscolo sovraspinato: Confronto tra ecografia e chirurgia. Analisi delle possibili fonti di errore diagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montrucchio, Edgardo [Ospedale S. Andrea, La Spezia (Italy); Iovane, Angelo; Midiri, Massimo; Finazzo, Mario; La Tona, Giuseppe; Lagalla, Roberto [Palermo, Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia ``Piero Cignolini``

    1997-04-01

    The supraspinatus muscle performs about 60 % of the elevation-abduction motion of the arm; it has a prominent functional role among the extra rotational muscles of the shoulder and is the most injured in subacromial space conditions. Seventy-four patients, aged 21-64 years, were examined to compare ultrasonography (US) results with surgical findings in supraspinatus conditions and to analyze the possible pitfalls in US diagnosis. All the patients underwent conventional X-ray US and then surgery or arthroscopy. The following criteria were considered: morphology, thickness, echotexture, the convexity of the superior border of supraspinatus tendon, the relationships with the subacromial bursa and the tendon of the biceps long head, the regularity of the bone cortex of the humeral head. US showed: perforating focal injuries in 21 patients; deep focal injuries in 10 patients; intramural focal injuries in 6 patients; superficial focal injuries in 8 patients; complete tendon tear with detachment in 19 cases. 62/74 US diagnoses were surgically confirmed, with a specificity of 83.7 %. In their experience, US provided very useful information about the pattern, size and site of the injuries and was very helpful in the surgical planning.

  13. Determination of REE and U in agricultural soils from Jaguari River basin, Sao Paulo, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, E.C.; Modesto, R.P.; Lemos, M.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the naturally occurring elements. It is weakly radioactive and occurs naturally in low concentrations (a few parts per million) in soil, rock and water. The rare earth elements (REE) form the largest chemically coherent group in the periodic table. The versatility and specificity of the REE have given them a level of technological, environmental, and economic importance considerably greater than might be expected. The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of the lanthanides (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu), and U, considering the soil use and occupation from the Jaguari river basin, Sao Paulo. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for the REE and U analysis The study area is located in a traditional agricultural area which is nowadays one of the main industrial regions of Brazil. In order to evaluate the quality of these soils in relation to lanthanides and U levels, the obtained concentrations were compared to guiding values reported by environmental protection agencies. The 75th percentile for U in agricultural soils (2.76 mg kg- 1 ) was higher than in the control areas (1.61 mg kg -1 ), but much lower than the maximum allowed concentration for soils in The Netherlands (28.3 mg kg -1 ). The lanthanides presented concentration levels higher than the guiding values of the RIVM - -National Institute for Public Health and the Environment guidelines. (author)

  14. Irregular meal pattern-effects on energy expenditure, metabolism and appetite regulation: a randomized controlled trial in healthy normal-weight women

    OpenAIRE

    Alhussain, Maha H; Macdonald, Ian A.; Taylor, Moira A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is increasing in parallel with greater all-day food availability. The latter may promote meal irregularity, dysregulation of the energy balance, and poor metabolic health.\\ud Objective: We investigated the effect of meal irregularity on the thermic effect of food (TEF), lipid concentrations, carbohydrate metabolism, subjective appetite, and gut hormones in healthy women.\\ud Design: Eleven normal-weight women (18–40 y of age) were recruited in a randomized crossover trial w...

  15. Monoclonal antibodies to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 reveal differential expression patterns in cancer and low antigen expression in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujak, Emil; Pretto, Francesca; Ritz, Danilo; Gualandi, Laura; Wulhfard, Sarah; Neri, Dario

    2014-01-01

    There is a considerable interest for the discovery and characterization of tumor-associated antigens, which may facilitate antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies. Thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 are homologous secreted proteins, which have previously been reported to be overexpressed during remodeling typical for wound healing and tumor progression and to possibly play a functional role in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. To our knowledge, a complete immunohistochemical characterization of thrombospondins levels in normal rodent tissues has not been reported so far. Using antibody phage technology, we have generated and characterized monoclonal antibodies specific to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2, two antigens which share 62% aminoacid identity. An immunofluorescence analysis revealed that both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues, except for a weak staining of heart tissue by antibodies specific to thrombospondin-1. The analysis also showed that thrombospondin-1 was strongly expressed in 5/7 human tumors xenografted in nude mice, while it was only barely detectable in 3/8 murine tumors grafted in immunocompetent mice. By contrast, a high-affinity antibody to thrombospondin-2 revealed a much lower level of expression of this antigen in cancer specimens. Our analysis resolves ambiguities related to conflicting reports on thrombosponding expression in health and disease. Based on our findings, thrombospondin-1 (and not thrombospondin-2) may be considered as a target for antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies, in consideration of its low expression in normal tissues and its upregulation in cancer. - Highlights: • High affinity monoclonal antibodies to murine and human TSP1 and 2 were raised. • Both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues. • Strong positivity of human tumor xenografts for TSP1 was detected. • Study revealed much lower level of TSP2 expression in cancer specimens

  16. Monoclonal antibodies to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 reveal differential expression patterns in cancer and low antigen expression in normal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujak, Emil [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Pretto, Francesca; Ritz, Danilo; Gualandi, Laura; Wulhfard, Sarah [Philochem AG, Libernstrasse 3, CH-8112 Otelfingen (Switzerland); Neri, Dario, E-mail: neri@pharma.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-10

    There is a considerable interest for the discovery and characterization of tumor-associated antigens, which may facilitate antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies. Thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 are homologous secreted proteins, which have previously been reported to be overexpressed during remodeling typical for wound healing and tumor progression and to possibly play a functional role in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. To our knowledge, a complete immunohistochemical characterization of thrombospondins levels in normal rodent tissues has not been reported so far. Using antibody phage technology, we have generated and characterized monoclonal antibodies specific to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2, two antigens which share 62% aminoacid identity. An immunofluorescence analysis revealed that both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues, except for a weak staining of heart tissue by antibodies specific to thrombospondin-1. The analysis also showed that thrombospondin-1 was strongly expressed in 5/7 human tumors xenografted in nude mice, while it was only barely detectable in 3/8 murine tumors grafted in immunocompetent mice. By contrast, a high-affinity antibody to thrombospondin-2 revealed a much lower level of expression of this antigen in cancer specimens. Our analysis resolves ambiguities related to conflicting reports on thrombosponding expression in health and disease. Based on our findings, thrombospondin-1 (and not thrombospondin-2) may be considered as a target for antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies, in consideration of its low expression in normal tissues and its upregulation in cancer. - Highlights: • High affinity monoclonal antibodies to murine and human TSP1 and 2 were raised. • Both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues. • Strong positivity of human tumor xenografts for TSP1 was detected. • Study revealed much lower level of TSP2 expression in cancer specimens

  17. Determination of REEs in agricultural soils of Pernambuco by the Neutron Activation Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Fernanda Cláudia S.S.; Ticianelli, Regina Beck; Moreira, Edson Gonçalves; Genezini, Frederico Antonio; Albuquerque, Adriana Muniz de Almeida; Silveira, Patrícia Brandão da; Barbosa, Jonnas Thiago de Lima; Almeida, Amanda Correia de; Honorato, Eliane Valentim; Hazin, Clovis Abrahão, E-mail: nanda_lq@hotmail.com, E-mail: valentim@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The indiscriminate use of phosphate fertilizers causes adverse effects on biota, mainly due to the contaminants present in the rocks used in their manufacture. Among these contaminants, stand out the Rare Earth Elements (REEs) because of the significant increase in the use in several technological areas, such as in vehicle catalysts and also in fertilizer enrichment. In order to evaluate the levels of La, Sm, Nd, Yb and Lu by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), the present study aims to survey the ETRs in agricultural soils in Pernambuco/Brazil. For this study, 120 soil samples with a depth of 20 cm were collected in the main vegetable producing regions of the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR), evaluating organic and conventional crops with and without influenced by automotive vehicles. The results obtained when compared to the Netherlands reference values defined by the National Institute of Health and Environment (RIVM). The results were higher in all points for La (35 mg.kg-¹ at 85 mg.kg-¹) Yb, (4 mg.kg-¹ at 11 mg.kg-¹) and Lu (0.3 mg.kg-¹ at 0.7 mg.kg-¹ at 4 mg.kg-¹). For Nd (9 mg.kg-¹ at 137 mg.kg-¹) the concentrations were above the values reported by RIVM in 4 points. Comparing the types of crops evaluated with the literature, the results are found was above for all elements analyzed. It may be related to the increase in the use of phosphate fertilizers. However, in environments using smaller amounts of additives, the results were also significant and the more detailed studies are needed to evaluate other possible contamination pathways. (author)

  18. Determination of REEs in agricultural soils of Pernambuco by the Neutron Activation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Fernanda Cláudia S.S.; Ticianelli, Regina Beck; Moreira, Edson Gonçalves; Genezini, Frederico Antonio; Albuquerque, Adriana Muniz de Almeida; Silveira, Patrícia Brandão da; Barbosa, Jonnas Thiago de Lima; Almeida, Amanda Correia de; Honorato, Eliane Valentim; Hazin, Clovis Abrahão

    2017-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of phosphate fertilizers causes adverse effects on biota, mainly due to the contaminants present in the rocks used in their manufacture. Among these contaminants, stand out the Rare Earth Elements (REEs) because of the significant increase in the use in several technological areas, such as in vehicle catalysts and also in fertilizer enrichment. In order to evaluate the levels of La, Sm, Nd, Yb and Lu by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), the present study aims to survey the ETRs in agricultural soils in Pernambuco/Brazil. For this study, 120 soil samples with a depth of 20 cm were collected in the main vegetable producing regions of the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR), evaluating organic and conventional crops with and without influenced by automotive vehicles. The results obtained when compared to the Netherlands reference values defined by the National Institute of Health and Environment (RIVM). The results were higher in all points for La (35 mg.kg-¹ at 85 mg.kg-¹) Yb, (4 mg.kg-¹ at 11 mg.kg-¹) and Lu (0.3 mg.kg-¹ at 0.7 mg.kg-¹ at 4 mg.kg-¹). For Nd (9 mg.kg-¹ at 137 mg.kg-¹) the concentrations were above the values reported by RIVM in 4 points. Comparing the types of crops evaluated with the literature, the results are found was above for all elements analyzed. It may be related to the increase in the use of phosphate fertilizers. However, in environments using smaller amounts of additives, the results were also significant and the more detailed studies are needed to evaluate other possible contamination pathways. (author)

  19. The association between Western and Prudent dietary patterns and fasting blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes and normal glucose metabolism in older Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin I; Jacka, Felice N; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    High blood glucose and type 2 diabetes are associated with a range of adverse health and cognitive outcomes. One factor that contributes to high blood glucose and type 2 diabetes is dietary intake. This study investigated the relationship between dietary patterns, fasting blood glucose and diabetes status in a sample of 209 participants aged 60-65. Blood plasma glucose was measured from venous blood samples. Individual Prudent and Western dietary patterns were estimated from a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. The relationship between dietary patterns, diabetes, and blood glucose was assessed via general linear model analyses controlling for age, sex, height, and total caloric intake. Results indicated that there was no association between Prudent diet and fasting blood glucose levels, or type 2 diabetes. In contrast, an individual in the upper tertile for Western dietary score had a significantly higher risk of having diabetes than an individual in the lower tertile for Western dietary score. However, there was no significant association between Western diet and fasting blood glucose. Western diet may be associated with type 2 diabetes through mechanisms beyond impacting blood plasma glucose directly. The fact that the association between Western diet and type 2 diabetes remained even when total caloric intake was controlled for highlights the need for policy and population health interventions targeting the reduction of unhealthy food consumption.

  20. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  1. Geochemical and rare earth elements distribution pattern in gaiman F M.phosphatic levels, Chubu t, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, L.; Fazio, A.; Tourn, S.; Scasso, R.

    2004-01-01

    Phosphatic concretions in the Early Miocene marine sediments of the Gaiman Formation (Miocene) were analyzed for rare earth elements (REE), in order to discuss their pattern in the context of paleoenvironmental interpretations. P2O5 in concretions is between 15,61 to 21,82%. Two types of concretions are found: Type 1 represented by in situ ones developed within transgressive-early highstand system tracts which shows little evidence for significant transportation, and Type 2 related to reworking, winnowing and mechanical concentration of resistant particles. Type 1 exhibits higher REE/P ratios and a significant enrichment in HREE than Type 2. The REE pattern in both shows a slight depletion in LREE with a weak Ce anomaly (-0.08 to 0.04), and an enrichment in high rare earth elements, in comparison to the a verage shale. Their mean content in REE (915 ppm) and Y (500 ppm) doubles the worldwide phosphorite average (462 ppm and 275 ppm). No significant correlation is found between REEs and P2O5. On the other hand, HREE enrichment (Lu/Ce) increases with the REEs bulk content. The pattern is consistent with shallow water inner shelf marine environment which is also suggested by sedimentological and paleontological evidence [es

  2. Changes in depositional environment for the past 35 years in the Thane Creek, central west coast of India: Inferences from REEs, metals and magnetic properties

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.L.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Parthiban, G.; Rao, V.P.

    The role of diagenetic processes in influencing the behaviour of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn), rare earth elements (REEs) and environmental magnetic parameters in two sediment cores from a polluted creek environment (the Thane Creek, Mumbai...

  3. Expression patterns of DLK1 and INSL3 identify stages of Leydig cell differentiation during normal development and in testicular pathologies, including testicular cancer and Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, G; Nielsen, J E; Maroun, L L

    2014-01-01

    , and in the majority of LCs, it was mutually exclusive of DLK1. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The number of samples was relatively small and no true normal adult controls were available. True stereology was not used for LC counting, instead LCs were counted in three fields of 0.5 µm(2) surface for each sample...... in adult men with testicular pathologies including testis cancer and Klinefelter syndrome. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This work was funded by Rigshospitalet's research funds, the Danish Cancer Society and Kirsten and Freddy Johansen's foundation. The authors have no conflicts of interest....

  4. Identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways using high frequency sampling, REE aqueous sampling and soil characterization at Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatory, Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraetis, Daniel, E-mail: moraetis@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Stamati, Fotini; Kotronakis, Manolis; Fragia, Tasoula; Paranychnianakis, Nikolaos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Identification of hydrological and geochemical pathways within a complex watershed. > Water increased N-NO{sub 3} concentration and E.C. values during flash flood events. > Soil degradation and impact on water infiltration within the Koiliaris watershed. > Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in water bodies for identification of karstic water. - Abstract: Koiliaris River watershed is a Critical Zone Observatory that represents severely degraded soils due to intensive agricultural activities and biophysical factors. It has typical Mediterranean soils under the imminent threat of desertification which is expected to intensify due to projected climate change. High frequency hydro-chemical monitoring with targeted sampling for Rare Earth Elements (REE) analysis of different water bodies and geochemical characterization of soils were used for the identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways. The high frequency monitoring of water chemical data highlighted the chemical alterations of water in Koiliaris River during flash flood events. Soil physical and chemical characterization surveys were used to identify erodibility patterns within the watershed and the influence of soils on surface and ground water chemistry. The methodology presented can be used to identify the impacts of degraded soils to surface and ground water quality as well as in the design of methods to minimize the impacts of land use practices.

  5. A Normalization-Free and Nonparametric Method Sharpens Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis and Reveals Common Gene Alteration Patterns in Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi-Gang; He, Yong-Han; Wu, Huan; Yang, Cui-Ping; Pu, Shao-Yan; Fan, Song-Qing; Jiang, Li-Ping; Shen, Qiu-Shuo; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Chen, Xiao-Qiong; Yu, Qin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang; Wang, Xiangting; Zhou, Jumin; Li, Hai-Peng; Chen, Yong-Bin; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneity in transcriptional data hampers the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and understanding of cancer, essentially because current methods rely on cross-sample normalization and/or distribution assumption-both sensitive to heterogeneous values. Here, we developed a new method, Cross-Value Association Analysis (CVAA), which overcomes the limitation and is more robust to heterogeneous data than the other methods. Applying CVAA to a more complex pan-cancer dataset containing 5,540 transcriptomes discovered numerous new DEGs and many previously rarely explored pathways/processes; some of them were validated, both in vitro and in vivo , to be crucial in tumorigenesis, e.g., alcohol metabolism ( ADH1B ), chromosome remodeling ( NCAPH ) and complement system ( Adipsin ). Together, we present a sharper tool to navigate large-scale expression data and gain new mechanistic insights into tumorigenesis.

  6. External validation of equations to estimate resting energy expenditure in 14952 adults with overweight and obesity and 1948 adults with normal weight from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Giorgio; Bertoli, Simona; Leone, Alessandro; De Amicis, Ramona; Lucchetti, Elisa; Agosti, Fiorenza; Marazzi, Nicoletta; Battezzati, Alberto; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2017-11-24

    We cross-validated 28 equations to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) in a very large sample of adults with overweight or obesity. 14952 Caucasian men and women with overweight or obesity and 1498 with normal weight were studied. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry and estimated using two meta-regression equations and 26 other equations. The correct classification fraction (CCF) was defined as the fraction of subjects whose estimated REE was within 10% of measured REE. The highest CCF was 79%, 80%, 72%, 64%, and 63% in subjects with normal weight, overweight, class 1 obesity, class 2 obesity, and class 3 obesity, respectively. The Henry weight and height and Mifflin equations performed equally well with CCFs of 77% vs. 77% for subjects with normal weight, 80% vs. 80% for those with overweight, 72% vs. 72% for those with class 1 obesity, 64% vs. 63% for those with class 2 obesity, and 61% vs. 60% for those with class 3 obesity. The Sabounchi meta-regression equations offered an improvement over the above equations only for class 3 obesity (63%). The accuracy of REE equations decreases with increasing values of body mass index. The Henry weight & height and Mifflin equations are similarly accurate and the Sabounchi equations offer an improvement only in subjects with class 3 obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Rare Earth Elements (REE Deposits Associated with Great Plain Margin Deposits (Alkaline-Related, Southwestern United States and Eastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia T. McLemore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available W.G. Lindgren in 1933 first noted that a belt of alkaline-igneous rocks extends along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains and Basin and Range provinces from Alaska and British Columbia southward into New Mexico, Trans-Pecos Texas, and eastern Mexico and that these rocks contain relatively large quantities of important commodities such as, gold, fluorine, zirconium, rare earth elements (REE, tellurium, gallium, and other critical elements. In New Mexico, these deposits were called Great Plain Margin (GPM deposits, because this north-south belt of alkaline-igneous rocks roughly coincides with crustal thickening along the margin between the Great Plains physiographic province with the Basin and Range (including the Rio Grande rift and Rocky Mountains physiographic provinces, which extends into Trans-Pecos Texas and eastern Mexico. Since 1996, only minor exploration and development of these deposits in New Mexico, Texas, and eastern Mexico has occurred because of low commodity prices, permitting issues, and environmental concerns. However, as the current demand for gold and critical elements, such as REE and tellurium has increased, new exploration programs have encouraged additional research on the geology of these deposits. The lack of abundant quartz in these systems results in these deposits being less resistant to erosion, being covered, and not as well exposed as other types of quartz-rich deposits, therefore additional undiscovered alkaline-related gold and REE deposits are likely in these areas. Deposits of Th-REE-fluorite (±U, Nb epithermal veins and breccias are found in the several GPM districts, but typically do not contain significant gold, although trace amounts of gold are found in most GPM districts. Gold-rich deposits in these districts tend to have moderate to low REE and anomalously high tungsten and sporadic amounts of tellurium. Carbonatites are only found in New Mexico and Mexico. The diversity of igneous rocks, including

  8. Auditory Discrimination of Lexical Stress Patterns in Hearing-Impaired Infants with Cochlear Implants Compared with Normal Hearing: Influence of Acoustic Cues and Listening Experience to the Ambient Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Osnat; Houston, Derek; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2016-01-01

    To assess discrimination of lexical stress pattern in infants with cochlear implant (CI) compared with infants with normal hearing (NH). While criteria for cochlear implantation have expanded to infants as young as 6 months, little is known regarding infants' processing of suprasegmental-prosodic cues which are known to be important for the first stages of language acquisition. Lexical stress is an example of such a cue, which, in hearing infants, has been shown to assist in segmenting words from fluent speech and in distinguishing between words that differ only the stress pattern. To date, however, there are no data on the ability of infants with CIs to perceive lexical stress. Such information will provide insight to the speech characteristics that are available to these infants in their first steps of language acquisition. This is of particular interest given the known limitations that the CI device has in transmitting speech information that is mediated by changes in fundamental frequency. Two groups of infants participated in this study. The first group included 20 profoundly hearing-impaired infants with CI, 12 to 33 months old, implanted under the age of 2.5 years (median age of implantation = 14.5 months), with 1 to 6 months of CI use (mean = 2.7 months) and no known additional problems. The second group of infants included 48 NH infants, 11 to 14 months old with normal development and no known risk factors for developmental delays. Infants were tested on their ability to discriminate between nonsense words that differed on their stress pattern only (/dóti/ versus /dotí/ and /dotí/ versus /dóti/) using the visual habituation procedure. The measure for discrimination was the change in looking time between the last habituation trial (e.g., /dóti/) and the novel trial (e.g., /dotí/). (1) Infants with CI showed discrimination between lexical stress pattern with only limited auditory experience with their implant device, (2) discrimination of stress

  9. Formation of fast-spreading lower oceanic crust as revealed by a new Mg-REE coupled geospeedometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chenguang; Lissenberg, C. Johan

    2018-04-01

    A new geospeedometer is developed based on the differential closures of Mg and rare earth element (REE) bulk-diffusion between coexisting plagioclase and clinopyroxene. By coupling the two elements with distinct bulk closure temperatures, this speedometer can numerically solve the initial temperatures and cooling rates for individual rock samples. As the existing Mg-exchange thermometer was calibrated for a narrow temperature range and strongly relies on model-dependent silica activities, a new thermometer is developed using literature experimental data. When the bulk closure temperatures of Mg and REE are determined, respectively, using this new Mg-exchange thermometer and the existing REE-exchange thermometer, this speedometer can be implemented for a wide range of compositions, mineral modes, and grain sizes. Applications of this new geospeedometer to oceanic gabbros from the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise at Hess Deep reveal that the lower oceanic crust crystallized at temperatures of 998-1353 °C with cooling rates of 0.003-10.2 °C/yr. Stratigraphic variations of the cooling rates and crystallization temperatures support deep hydrothermal circulations and in situ solidification of various replenished magma bodies. Together with existing petrological, geochemical and geophysical evidence, results from this new speedometry suggest that the lower crust formation at fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges involves emplacement of primary mantle melts in the deep section of the crystal mush zone coupled with efficient heat removal by crustal-scale hydrothermal circulations. The replenished melts become chemically and thermally evolved, accumulate as small magma bodies at various depths, feed the shallow axial magma chamber, and may also escape from the mush zone to generate off-axial magma lenses.

  10. Modelling normal tissue isoeffect distribution in conformal radiotherapy of glioblastoma provides an alternative dose escalation pattern through hypofractionation without reducing the total dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangel, L.; Skriba, Z.; Major, T.; Polgar, C.; Fodor, J.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove that by using conformal external beam radiotherapy (RT) normal brain structures can be protected even when applying an alternative approach of biological dose escalation: hypofractionation (HOF) without total dose reduction (TDR). Traditional 2-dimensional (2D) and conformal 3-dimensional (3D) treatment plans were prepared for 10 gliomas representing the subanatomical sites of the supratentorial brain. Isoeffect distributions were generated by the biologically effective dose (BED) formula to analyse the effect of conventionally fractionated (CF) and HOF schedules on both the spatial biological dose distribution and biological dose-volume histograms. A comparison was made between 2D-CF (2.0 Gy/day) and 3D-HOF (2.5 Gy/day) regimens, applying the same 60 Gy total doses. Integral biologically effective dose (IBED) and volumes received biologically equivalent to a dose of 54 Gy or more (V-BED54) were calculated for the lower and upper brain stem as organs of risk. The IBED values were lower with the 3D-HOF than with the 2D-CF schedule in each tumour location, means 22.7±17.1 and 40.4±16.9 in Gy, respectively (p<0.0001). The V-BED54 values were also smaller or equal in 90% of the cases favouring the 3D-HOF scheme. The means were 2.7±4.8 ccm for 3D-HOF and 10.7±12.7 ccm for 2D-CF (p=0.0006). Our results suggest that with conformal RT, fraction size can gradually be increased. HOF radiotherapy regimens without TDR shorten the treatment time and seem to be an alternative way of dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma

  11. Modelling normal tissue isoeffect distribution in conformal radiotherapy of glioblastoma provides an alternative dose escalation pattern through hypofractionation without reducing the total dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangel, L.; Skriba, Z.; Major, T.; Polgar, C.; Fodor, J.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G. [National Research Inst. for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove that by using conformal external beam radiotherapy (RT) normal brain structures can be protected even when applying an alternative approach of biological dose escalation: hypofractionation (HOF) without total dose reduction (TDR). Traditional 2-dimensional (2D) and conformal 3-dimensional (3D) treatment plans were prepared for 10 gliomas representing the subanatomical sites of the supratentorial brain. Isoeffect distributions were generated by the biologically effective dose (BED) formula to analyse the effect of conventionally fractionated (CF) and HOF schedules on both the spatial biological dose distribution and biological dose-volume histograms. A comparison was made between 2D-CF (2.0 Gy/day) and 3D-HOF (2.5 Gy/day) regimens, applying the same 60 Gy total doses. Integral biologically effective dose (IBED) and volumes received biologically equivalent to a dose of 54 Gy or more (V-BED54) were calculated for the lower and upper brain stem as organs of risk. The IBED values were lower with the 3D-HOF than with the 2D-CF schedule in each tumour location, means 22.7{+-}17.1 and 40.4{+-}16.9 in Gy, respectively (p<0.0001). The V-BED54 values were also smaller or equal in 90% of the cases favouring the 3D-HOF scheme. The means were 2.7{+-}4.8 ccm for 3D-HOF and 10.7{+-}12.7 ccm for 2D-CF (p=0.0006). Our results suggest that with conformal RT, fraction size can gradually be increased. HOF radiotherapy regimens without TDR shorten the treatment time and seem to be an alternative way of dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  12. A study on mineralization U,REE and related processes in anomaly No.6 Khoshomy area central Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidaryan, F.

    2005-01-01

    Uranium mineralization in Khoshomy prospect, located in central. part of Iran, with 303-15000 (cps) and 14 to 4000 (ppm) released, The main rock types include: gneiss, granite, pegmatite and migmatite, that influenced by pegmatite-albitic vines (quartz-heldespatic). Acidic and basic dykes, granodioritic, units and dolomite and marble have been seen. The alteration associated with the mineralization is potassic, argillic, propylitic, carbonization, silisificaition and hematitizaition. Uranium mineralization occurred in a hydrothermal phase with Cu, Mo, Ni and Au elements. Uranium primary minerals include pitchblende, coffinite, uraninite; and uranium secondary minerals include uranophane and . boltwoodite. REE mineralization occurred by the potassic phase in peginatitization process

  13. Applying a new understanding of supergene REE deposit formation to global exploration initiatives for environmentally sustainable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Liam; Smith, Martin; Hood, Leo; Heller, Shaun; Faltyn, Rowan; Blum, Astrid; Bamberger, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Two new models have recently been proposed for the formation of REE ion-adsorption deposits and it is likely that they are both active in their related study profiles described in the Ambohimirahavavy Complex in Madagascar (Marquis et al, 2016) and the Serra de Monchique (SDM) complex in Portugal (Hardy et al, 2016). These are two separate environments presenting two different soil systems in terms of flora, protolith and structure. In the latosol profiles of SDM the natural sweating cycle of eucalyptus trees is proposed as the main geochemical cycling control for some 40% of Fe and 30% of Y, which have been observed migrating up and down profile seasonally between upper horizons and the rooting depths of these intensively farmed trees. If, through their natural cycle, eucalyptus trees in SDM are capable of concentrating depleted protolithic Y contents of 4-10ppm to some 140-160ppm in their enriched 150-200cm deep E horizons in only the 40 years since they were introduced to the region (Jenkins, 1979), then what potential deposits and concentrations may lay underneath older plantations across Brazil, Chile, China and most importantly, Australia, where these trees naturally cover some 16% of the entire continent. Eucalyptus is mostly farmed as pulp for paper mills and has lost its market value with the demand for paper decreasing, as the demand for REEs increases, ironically driven by the demand for the accessible technology to replace paper (EPA, 2012). Not only might there be great resources below these forests, but the removal of the aggressive intrusive species would be welcomed across Southern Europe and South America where they have limited market value and have destroyed local ecosystems and water supplies (Brito, 1999), where local people are actively seeking an alternative use of their lands. References: Brito, J. G. (1999). Management strategies for conservation of the lizard Lacerta schreiberi in Portugal. Biological conservation, 311-319. EPA. (2012

  14. Hf and Nd Isotopic and REE Investigations of Magnetite in a Proterozoic IOCG system: Fingerprinting Sources and Timing of Mineralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, B. F.

    2016-12-01

    The Stuart Shelf on the margin of the Gawler Craton, South Australia, contains numerous economic and sub-econmic IOCG mineralised systems, including the giant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit. Hematite and magnetite have played a critical in the genesis of all of these deposits, and increasingly it appears that magnetite has been in equilibrium with either the final mineralised assemblage or was critical in transporting metals during the ore forming event. 14 magnetites and one hematite from three separate styles of iron oxide mineralisation associated with the Prominent Hill Cu-Au deposit were selected for detailed analysis. The REE and isotopic separations were all conducted by low blank wet chemistry and isotopes determined by TIMS (Nd) and MC-ICPMS (Hf). Magnetites associated with skarn style mineralsiation proximal to the ore body are unformly depleted in REE, whereas hematite within the ore and magmatic magmatites and whole rock gabbros from the nearby 1590Ma White Hill Gabbro intrusion are all relatively LREE enriched and display a comparable range in REE. Significantly however, magnetite separates almost invariably display more evolved Hf isotopic signatures than the host lithologies adjacent the economic mineralisation (dacites and metasediments at Prominent Hill mine) implying that the magnetites were sourcing their REE inventory dominantly from the local crust rather than a mantle derived source. In contrast, the magmatic magnetites from the White Hill Complex display Nd and Hf isotopes which are slightly more primitive, recording a greater relative mantle component, however still requiring a significant crustal input. Significantly, the hematite which contains the Au mineralisation preserves ɛNd (1590) = -4.04 and ɛHf (1590) = -6.05 essentially identical to the magmatic magnetites and their host gabbros in the White Hill complex and the basalts and dacites of the host Gawler Range Volcanics (ɛNd (1590) = -7.10 - -3.72 and ɛHf (1590) = -7.69 - -1

  15. Proton-MR-spectroscopy of vertebral bone marrow: normal age- and sex-related patterns; Protonen-MR-Spektroskopie des Wirbelkoerpermarks. Analyse des physiologischen Signalverhaltens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, C.M.; Kugel, H.; Schulte, O.; Heindel, W. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2000-08-01

    Background. Magnetic resonance imaging has shown to be a sensitive method for diagnostics of the red bone marrow, the composition of which changes physiologically and during pathological processes. However, the interpretation of MRI in patients with disorders of the red bone marrow is very difficult. The aim of this study was the characterization of the proton spectrum of healthy bone marrow and its age- and sex-dependent changes to obtain a data basis for measurements in patients. Methods. 154 healthy volunteers have been examined. After imaging, a spectroscopic measurement was performed to determine the relative intensities of fat and water, and their respective T2 times. Results. While T2 (water: 46.9 ms and fat: 75.4 ms) does not depend on age or sex, the relative signal intensity of fat increases by about 6% per decade. In the age groups between 31 and 50 years it diverses significantly between men (43.5%) and woman (32.5%) (p{<=}0.01, Mann-Whitney-Test). Conclusions. Proton spectroscopy can increase the reliability of diagnosis by offering information on composition of the marrow. The analysis of spectroscopic measurements requires exact knowledge about normal physiological values. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund. Die Magnetresonanztomographie ist ein sensitives bildgebendes Verfahren zur Beurteilung des roten Knochenmarkraums. Die Zusammensetzung des Knochenmarks aendert sich mit zunehmenden Alter, aber auch bei krankhaften Prozessen. Als Basis fuer die Interpretation von Patientenuntersuchungen bei Erkrankungen des haematopoetischen Systems wurden im Rahmen der vorliegenden Studie an Probanden die alters- und geschlechtsabhaengigen Veraenderungen des Protoenenspektrums aus dem Knochenmarkraum analysiert. Methode. Bei 154 gesunden Probanden wurde nach einer MR-Bildgebung eine spektroskopische Messung des Lendenwirbelkoerpermarks zur Bestimmung der relativen Fett- und Wasseranteile sowie der T2-Relaxationszeiten durchgefuehrt. Ergebnis. Die T2-Zeiten (46,9 ms

  16. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xuming Liu,1 Zhihan Yan,2 Tingyu Wang,1 Xiaokai Yang,1 Feng Feng,3 Luping Fan,1 Jian Jiang4 1Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Department of Radiology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Peking Union Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL after normal sleep (NS and after sleep deprivation (SD. Methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results: Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL, left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the

  17. Distribution and origin of major and trace elements (particularly REE, U and Th) into labile and residual phases in an acid soil profile (Vosges Mountains, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, D.; Probst, A.; Stille, P.

    2003-04-01

    Physical and chemical weathering of rocks and minerals lead to soil formation and allow the removal of chemical elements from these systems to ground- or surface waters. But most of the time the determination of element concentrations in soils is not sufficient to estimate whether they are being accumulated or what is their ability to be released in the environment. Thus, the distribution and chemical binding for a given element is very important because it determines its mobility and potential bioavailability throughout a soil profile. Heavy metals and REE (Rare Earth Elements) are particularly of environmental concern because of their potential toxicity. For most of them, their chemical form strongly depends on the evolution of physico-chemical parameters like pH or redox conditions that will induce adsorption-desorption, complexation or co-precipitation phenomena in the material. The purpose of this study is to determine the distribution of several major and trace elements (especially REE, Th and U) in an acidic forested podzolic soil profile from the Vosges Mountains (France). To achieve this goal we use a 7 step sequential extraction procedure that allows determining precisely the origin and the behaviour of particular elements in the environment (Leleyter et al., 1999). In addition we performed leaching experiments using very dilute acetic and hydrochloric acid in order to establish the origin of REE in this soil. The results of the sequential extraction indicate that most of the metals, Th and U are mainly bound to Fe oxides. Organic matter appears also to be a great carrier of P, Ca, Fe and REE even if its content is very low in the deep horizons of the soil. Moreover, we show that in each soil horizon, middle REE (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) are more labile than light REE (LREE). Leaching experiments using dilute acid solution further suggest that in the shallowest horizons REE largely derive from atmospheric deposition whereas at greater depth, weathering

  18. Experimental study of REE, Ba, Sr, Mo and W partitioning between carbonatitic melt and aqueous fluid with implications for rare metal mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, WenLei; Xu, Cheng; Veksler, Ilya V.; Kynicky, Jindrich

    2016-01-01

    Carbonatites host some unique ore deposits, especially rare earth elements (REE). Hydrothermal fluids have been proposed to play a significant role in the concentration and transport of REE and other rare metals in carbonatites, but experimental constraints on fluid-melt equilibria in carbonatitic systems are sparse. Here we present an experimental study of trace element (REE, Ba, Sr, Mo and W) partitioning between hydrous fluids and carbonatitic melts, bearing on potential hydrothermal activity associated with carbonatite ore-forming systems. The experiments were performed on mixtures of synthetic carbonate melts and aqueous fluids at 700-800 °C and 100-200 MPa using rapid-quench cold-seal pressure vessels and double-capsule assemblages with diamond traps for analyzing fluid precipitates in the outer capsule. Starting mixtures were composed of Ca, Mg and Na carbonates spiked with trace elements. Small amounts of F or Cl were added to some of the mixtures to study the effects of halogens on the element distribution. The results show that REE, Ba, Sr, Mo and W all preferentially partition into carbonatite melt and have fluid-melt distribution coefficients ( D f/m) below unity. The REE partitioning is slightly dependent on the major element (Ca, Mg and Na) composition of the starting mixtures, and it is influenced by temperature, pressure, and the presence of halogens. The fluid-melt D values of individual REE vary from 0.02 to 0.15 with D_{Lu}^{f} / {fm}{m} being larger than D_{La}^{f} / {fm}{m} by a factor of 1.1-2. The halogens F and Cl have strong and opposite effects on the REE partitioning. Fluid-melt D REE are about three times higher in F-bearing compositions and ten times lower in Cl-bearing compositions than in halogen-free systems. D_{W}^{f} / {fm}{m} and D_{Mo}^{f} / {fm}{m} are the highest among the studied elements and vary between 0.6 and 0.7; D_{Ba}^{f} / {fm}{m} is between 0.05 and 0.09, whereas D_{Sr}^{f} / {fm}{m} is at about 0.01-0.02. The

  19. Donnan membrane speciation of Al, Fe, trace metals and REEs in coastal lowland acid sulfate soil-impacted drainage waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adele M; Xue, Youjia; Kinsela, Andrew S; Wilcken, Klaus M; Collins, Richard N

    2016-03-15

    Donnan dialysis has been applied to forty filtered drainage waters collected from five coastal lowland acid sulfate soil (CLASS) catchments across north-eastern NSW, Australia. Despite having average pH values70%) as negatively-charged complexes. In contrast, the speciation of the divalent trace metals Co, Mn, Ni and Zn was dominated by positively-charged complexes and was strongly correlated with the alkaline earth metals Ca and Mg. Thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations indicated that natural organic matter (NOM) complexes dominated Fe(III) speciation in agreement with that obtained by Donnan dialysis. In the case of Fe(II), however, the free cation was predicted to dominate under thermodynamic equilibrium, whilst our results indicated that Fe(II) was mainly present as neutral or negatively-charged complexes (most likely with sulfate). For all other divalent metals thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations agreed well with the Donnan dialysis results. The proportion of Al and REEs predicted to be negatively-charged was also grossly underestimated, relative to the experimental results, highlighting possible inaccuracies in the stability constants developed for these trivalent Me(SO4)2(-) and/or Me-NOM complexes and difficulties in modeling complex environmental samples. These results will help improve metal mobility and toxicity models developed for CLASS-affected environments, and also demonstrate that Australian CLASS environments can discharge REEs at concentrations an order of magnitude greater than previously reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  1. A rapid sample decomposition procedure for bromo-heavies containing ferruginous material: determination of REEs and thorium by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorge, C.R.; Murugesan, P.; Chakrapani, G.

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method of sample decomposition and dissolution for bromoform heavies is described for the determination of REEs and thorium by inductively coupled plasma- optical emission spectrometry. For application to geochemical exploration to achieve the high sample throughput; a simple and rapid analytical procedure is a prerequisite. In order to speed-up the existing methodology, phosphate fusion was introduced for decomposition of samples. In the proposed method, bromoform-heavies material are fused with 1:1 mixture of sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate and tetra-sodium pyrophosphate and dissolved in distilled water. After disintegration of melt, the solution was subjected to oxalate precipitation followed by R 2 O 3 separation for separating the REEs from major matrix interfering elements. The rare earth elements and thorium in the resultant solution were determined by ICP-OES. The results are compared with the results obtained by well-established existing dissolution procedures involving HF-HCl-HClO 4 acid treatment and NaF/KHF 2 fusion followed by H 2 SO 4 acid fuming. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by doping the phosphate blank with known amount of REEs and comparing the recoveries obtained using the present method. The method is simple, rapid and is suitable for the routine determination of REEs and Th in bromoform-heavies. The RSD of the method was found to be within 1-3% for Th and REEs by ICP-AES. (author)

  2. Expression patterns of regulatory RNAs, including lncRNAs and tRNAs, during postnatal growth of normal and dystrophic (mdx) mouse muscles, and their response to taurine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Lauren C; Terrill, Jessica R; Rossetti, Giulia; White, Robert; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Grounds, Miranda D

    2018-06-01

    Post-natal skeletal muscle growth in mice is very rapid and involves complex changes in many cells types over the first 6 weeks of life. The acute onset of dystropathology also occurs around 3 weeks of age in the mdx mouse model of the human disease Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). This study investigated (i) alterations in expression patterns of regulatory non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in vivo, including miRNAs, lncRNAs and tRNAs, during early growth of skeletal muscles in normal control C57Bl/10Scsn (C57) compared with dystrophic mdx mice from 2 to 6 weeks of postnatal age, and revealed inherent differences in vivo for levels of 3 ncRNAs between C57 and mdx muscles before the onset of dystropathology. Since the amino acid taurine has many benefits and reduces disease severity in mdx mice, this study also (ii) determined the impact of taurine treatment on these expression patterns in mdx muscles at the onset of dystropathology (3 weeks) and after several bouts of myonecrosis and regeneration (6 weeks). Taurine treatment of mdx mice only altered ncRNA levels when administered from 18 days to 6 weeks of age, but a deficiency in tRNA levels was rectified earlier in mdx skeletal muscles treated from 14 days to 3 weeks. Myogenesis in tissue culture was also used to (iii) compare ncRNA expression patterns for both strains, and (iv) the response to taurine treatment. These analyses revealed intrinsic differences in ncRNA expression patterns during myogenesis between strains, as well as increased sensitivity of mdx ncRNA levels to taurine treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Behaviour of major, minor and trace elements (including REEs during kaolinization processes at Zonouz deposit, northeast of Marand, East Azarbaidjan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Alipour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Zonouz kaolin deposit is located ~15 km northeast of Marand, East-Azarbaidjan province. Based on physical features in field investigations, such as color, five distinct kaolin types including (1 white, (2 lemon, (3 gray, (4 brown, and (5 yellow are distinguished in the deposit. Field evidence and petrographic studies indicate that the deposit is genetically close to trachy-andesite rocks. According to mineralogical data, the deposit contains quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite, pyrophyllite, chlorite, muscovite-illite, dolomite, hematite, and anatase minerals. Geochemical data indicate that function of alteration processes on trachy-andesite rocks during development of Zonouz ore deposit was accompanied by leaching of elements such as Al, Na, K, Rb, Ba, V, Hf, Cu, Zr, Tm, Yb, and Lu, enrichment of elements such as U, Nb, and Ta, and leaching-fixation of elements such as Si, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ti, Mn, P, Cs, Sr, Th, Co, Cr, Ni, Y, Ga, LREE, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er. Incorporation of obtained results from mineralogical and geochemical studies show that physico-chemical conditions of alteration environment, the relative stability of primary minerals, surface adsorption, preferential sorption by metallic oxides, existing of organic matters, scavenging and concentration processes, and fixation in neomorphic mineralogical phases played important role in distribution of elements in the deposit. Geochemical studies show that development of the deposit is relative to two types of processes, (1 hypogene and (2 supergene. The distribution pattern of REEs indicates that differentiation degree of LREEs from HREEs in supergene kaolins is more than hypogene kaolins. Geochemical studies indicate that minerals such as Mn-oxides, zircon, anatase, hematite, cerianite, and secondary phosphates (monazite, rhabdophane, churchite, and zenotime are the potential hosts for rare earth elements in this deposit.

  5. Rare Earth element (REE) incorporation in natural calcite. Upper limits for actinide uptake in a secondary phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipp, S.L.S.; Christensen, J.T.; Waight, T.E.; Lakshtanov, L.Z.; Baker, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Secondary minerals have the potential to sequester escaped actinides in the event of a radioactive waste repository failure, but currently, data to define their maximum uptake capacity are generally lacking. To estimate a maximum limit for solid solution in calcite, we took advantage of the behavioural similarities of the 4f-orbital lanthanides with some of the 5f-orbital actinides and used rare Earth element (REE) concentration as an analogue. A suite of 65 calcite samples, mostly pure single crystals, was assembled from a range of geological settings, ages and locations and analysed by isotope dilution MC-ICP-MS (multiple-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy). All samples were shown to contain significant lanthanide concentrations. The highest were in calcite formed from hydrothermal solutions and from carbonatite magma. Maximum total mole fraction of REE was 4.72 x 10 -4 , which represents one substituted atom for about 2000 Ca sites. In comparison, synthetic calcite, precipitated at growth rates slow enough to insure solid solution formation, incorporated 7.5 x 10 -4 mole fraction Eu(III). For performance assessment, we propose that 7.5 mmole substitution/kg calcite should be considered the upper limit for actinide incorporation in secondary calcite. The largest source of uncertainty in this estimate results from extrapolating lanthanide data to actinides. However, the data offer confidence that for waters in the hydrothermal temperature range, such as in the near-field, or at groundwater temperatures, such as in the far-field, if calcite formation is favoured and actinides are present, those with behaviour like the trivalent lanthanides, especially Am 3+ and Cm 3+ , will be incorporated. REE are abundant and widely distributed, and they have remained in calcite for millions of years. Thus, one can be certain that incorporated actinides will also remain immobilised in calcite formed in fractures and pore spaces, as long as solution conditions

  6. Donnan membrane speciation of Al, Fe, trace metals and REEs in coastal lowland acid sulfate soil-impacted drainage waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Adele M.; Xue, Youjia [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Kinsela, Andrew S. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Wilcken, Klaus M. [Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Collins, Richard N., E-mail: richard.collins@unsw.edu.au [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Donnan dialysis has been applied to forty filtered drainage waters collected from five coastal lowland acid sulfate soil (CLASS) catchments across north-eastern NSW, Australia. Despite having average pH values < 3.9, 78 and 58% of Al and total Fe, respectively, were present as neutral or negatively-charged species. Complementary isotope dilution experiments with {sup 55}Fe and {sup 26}Al demonstrated that only soluble (i.e. no colloidal) species were present. Trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) were also mainly present (> 70%) as negatively-charged complexes. In contrast, the speciation of the divalent trace metals Co, Mn, Ni and Zn was dominated by positively-charged complexes and was strongly correlated with the alkaline earth metals Ca and Mg. Thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations indicated that natural organic matter (NOM) complexes dominated Fe(III) speciation in agreement with that obtained by Donnan dialysis. In the case of Fe(II), however, the free cation was predicted to dominate under thermodynamic equilibrium, whilst our results indicated that Fe(II) was mainly present as neutral or negatively-charged complexes (most likely with sulfate). For all other divalent metals thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations agreed well with the Donnan dialysis results. The proportion of Al and REEs predicted to be negatively-charged was also grossly underestimated, relative to the experimental results, highlighting possible inaccuracies in the stability constants developed for these trivalent Me(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup −} and/or Me–NOM complexes and difficulties in modeling complex environmental samples. These results will help improve metal mobility and toxicity models developed for CLASS-affected environments, and also demonstrate that Australian CLASS environments can discharge REEs at concentrations an order of magnitude greater than previously reported. - Highlights: • CLASS discharge large amounts of metals and their speciation is poorly

  7. REE in suspended particulate matter and sediment of the Zuari estuary and adjacent shelf, western India: Influence of mining and estuarine turbidity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Parthiban, G.; Balakrishnan, S.; Narvekar, T.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    in the development of ETM in the lower estuary (Rao et al., 2011). As a consequence bottom sediment may have been re-suspended, thereby increasing SPM and REE in the water column and mixed up with the sediment brought by the river. In other words, the REE.... Seminar Volume on Earth Resources for Goa’s Development. Geological Survey of India, pp. 1-13. Goldstein, S.J., Jacobsen, S.B., 1988. Rare earth elements in river waters. Earth Planetary Science Letters 89, 35-47. Govindaraju, K., 1994. Compilation...

  8. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  9. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  10. Tensor GSVD of Patient- and Platform-Matched Tumor and Normal DNA Copy-Number Profiles Uncovers Chromosome Arm-Wide Patterns of Tumor-Exclusive Platform-Consistent Alterations Encoding for Cell Transformation and Predicting Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E.; Aiello, Katherine A.; Alter, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient’s prognosis, is independent of the tumor’s stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell’s immortality, and a patient’s shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq

  11. Tensor GSVD of patient- and platform-matched tumor and normal DNA copy-number profiles uncovers chromosome arm-wide patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent alterations encoding for cell transformation and predicting ovarian cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Sankaranarayanan

    Full Text Available The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD, which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs. We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient's prognosis, is independent of the tumor's stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell's immortality, and a patient's shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival

  12. Multistage hydrothermal silicification and Fe-Tl-As-Sb-Ge-REE enrichment in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district, northern Alaska: Geochemistry, origin, and exploration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Kelley, K.D.; Anderson, V.M.; Clark, J.L.; Ayuso, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical analyses of major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE) in more than 200 samples of variably silicified and altered wall rocks, massive and banded sulfide, silica rock, and sulfide-rich and unmineralized barite were obtained from the Main, Aqqaluk, and Anarraaq deposits in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district of northern Alaska. Detailed lithogeochemical profiles for two drill cores at Aqqaluk display an antithetic relationship between SiO2/Al2O3 and TiO2/Zr which, together with textural information, suggest preferential silicification of carbonate-bearing sediments. Data for both drill cores also show generally high Tl, Sb, As, and Ge and uniformly positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* > 1.0). Similar high Tl, Sb, As, Ge, and Eu/Eu* values are present in the footwall and shallow hanging wall of Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide intervals at Anarraaq but are not as widely dispersed. Net chemical changes for altered wall rocks in the district, on the basis of average Al-normalized data relative to unaltered black shales of the host Kuna Formation, include large enrichments (>50%) of Fe, Ba, Eu, V, S, Co, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, Sb, and Ge at both Red Dog and Anarraaq, Si at Red Dog, and Sr, U, and Se at Anarraaq. Large depletions (>50%) are evident for Ca at both Red Dog and Anarraaq, for Mg, P, and Y at Red Dog, and for Na at Anarraaq. At both Red Dog and Anarraaq, wall-rock alteration removed calcite and minor dolomite during hydrothermal decarbonation reactions and introduced Si, Eu, and Ge during silicification. Sulfidation reactions deposited Fe, S, Co, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, and Sb; barite mineralization introduced Ba, S, and Sr. Light REE and U were mobilized locally. This alteration and mineralization occurred during Mississippi an hydrothermal events that predated the Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous Brookian orogeny. Early hydrothermal silicification at Red Dog took place prior to or during massive sulfide mineralization, on the basis of the dominantly planar nature of Zn-Pb veins, which suggests

  13. An overview of uranium, rare metal and REE mineralisation in the crystallines of Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parihar, P.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium and REE mineralisation hosted by the Proterozoic migmatites and younger intrusives is identified over 350 km"2 in Son Valley area, Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, which forms the northwestern extension of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The rocks exposed include banded gneisses and metasedimentary enclaves, overlain by the Mahakoshal supracrustals and sediments of the Vindhyan Supergroup in the north and Gondwana Supergroup in the south. The craton had undergone repeated rifting, giving rise to intracratonic rift basins for the development of cover rock sequences of arkosic to psammo-pelitic metasediments, which now occur as migmatites comprising pegmatoid leucosomes and biotite melanosomes and associated mesosomes. These intracratonic zones are parallel to the Lower Proterozoic Mahakoshal supracrustals. Anorogenic, rift related plutons of alkali granite of middle Proterozoic age are seen emplaced within Mahakoshal supracrustals, which at places like Kundabhati and Sonwani are episyenitised.

  14. Physico-chemical control on the REE minerals in chloritoid-grade metasediments from a single outcrop (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janots, Emilie; Berger, Alfons; Engi, Martin

    2011-01-01

    minerals record fluid/ rock interaction that occurred at different deformation stages. Arsenic concentrations in REE phosphates appear to reflect conditions of elevated oxygen fugacity. In cases where such conditions are not inherited from the sedimentary protolith, the oxidation reflects a hydrothermal......). Allanite formation is texturally coeval with apatite, chloritoid and xenotime, during the main tectono-metamorphic stage. Allanite formation implies significant mass transfer of Ca and P via a fluid phase, which is not clearly related to advective transport. In Ga06, elongate monazite grains have...... a detrital core rimmed by newly formed monazite. Significant arsenic contents are found in newly formed monazite, xenotime and apatite. Monazite texture and composition suggest (re)crystallization by pressure solution, at an oxygen fugacity sufficient to partly oxidize As, S, U, and Fe. Whether...

  15. Alteration of Eudialyte and implications for the REE, ZR, and NB resources of the layered Kakortokites in the ILÍMAUSSAQ intrusion, South West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borst, Anouk Margaretha; Waight, Tod Earle; Smit, Matthijs Arjen

    2014-01-01

    The layered kakortokites in the southern part of the Ilímaussaq Intrusion are of great economic interest due to their high concentrations of REE, Zr, Nb and Ta. The prospective metals are largely contained in eudialyte, a complex sodium‐zirconosilicate and one of the major cumulus phases. Eudialyte...

  16. Determination of normal expression patterns of CD86, CD210a, CD261, CD262, CD264, CD358, and CD361 in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf-Oliveira, Renata Cristina Messores; Auat, Mariangeles; Cardoso, Chandra Chiappin; Santos-Pirath, Iris Mattos; Lange, Barbara Gil; Pires-Silva, Jéssica; Moraes, Ana Carolina Rabello de; Dametto, Gisele Cristina; Pirolli, Mayara Marin; Colombo, Maria Daniela Holthausen Périco; Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia

    2018-02-01

    In 2010, new monoclonal antibodies were submitted to the 9th International Workshop on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens, and there are few studies demonstrating normal expression patterns of these markers. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the normal patterns of cell expression of CD86, CD210a, CD261, CD262, CD264, CD358, and CD361 in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples by flow cytometry. In the present study, CD86 was expressed only in monocytes and B lymphocytes in PB and in monocytes and plasma cells in BM. Regarding CD210a expression, in PB samples, monocytes and NK cells showed weak expression, while neutrophils, B and T lymphocytes, and basophils showed weak and partial expression. In BM samples, expression of CD210a was observed in eosinophils, monocytes, and B and T/NK lymphocytes. Weak expression of CD210a was also observed in neutrophilic cells and plasma cells. All B cell maturation stages had weak expression of CD210a except for immature B cells, which did not express this marker. In the present study, no cell type in PB samples showed positivity for CD261 and, in BM samples, there was very weak expression in neutrophilic series, monocytes, and B lymphocytes. Conversely, plasma cells showed positivity for CD261 with a homogeneous expression. For CD262, there was weak expression in monocytes, neutrophils, and B lymphocytes in PB samples and weak expression in monocytes, B lymphocytes, and plasma cells in BM samples. The evaluation of CD264 showed very weak expression in B cells in PB samples and no expression in BM cells. Very weak expression of CD358 was observed in neutrophils, monocytes, and B lymphocytes in PB and BM samples. In addition, in BM samples, plasma cells and T lymphocytes showed weak expression of CD358. In relation to the maturation stages of B cells, there was weak expression in pro-B cel, pre-B cell, and mature B cell. In the present study, it was possible to observe expression of CD361 in all

  17. Different patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial penetration by the G3 PAMAM dendrimer and its biotin–pyridoxal bioconjugate BC-PAMAM in normal and cancer cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uram Ł

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Łukasz Uram,1 Magdalena Szuster,1 Aleksandra Filipowicz,2 Krzysztof Gargasz,3 Stanisław Wołowiec,3 Elżbieta Wałajtys-Rode4 1Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, Rzeszow University of Technology, 2Cosmetology Department, University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszow, 3Institute of Nursery and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow, 4Department of Drug Technology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: The intracellular localization and colocalization of a fluorescently labeled G3 amine-terminated cationic polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer and its biotin–pyridoxal (BC-PAMAM bioconjugate were investigated in a concentration-dependent manner in normal human fibroblast (BJ and squamous epithelial carcinoma (SCC-15 cell lines. After 24 hours treatment, both cell lines revealed different patterns of intracellular dendrimer accumulation depending on their cytotoxic effects. Cancer cells exhibited much higher (20-fold tolerance for native PAMAM treatment than fibroblasts, whereas BC-PAMAM was significantly toxic only for fibroblasts at 50 µM concentration. Fibroblasts accumulated the native and bioconjugated dendrimers in a concentration-dependent manner at nontoxic range of concentration, with significantly lower bioconjugate loading. After reaching the cytotoxicity level, fluorescein isothiocyanate-PAMAM accumulation remains at high, comparable level. In cancer cells, native PAMAM loading at higher, but not cytotoxic concentrations, was kept at constant level with a sharp increase at toxic concentration. Mander’s coefficient calculated for fibroblasts and cancer cells confirmed more efficient native PAMAM penetration as compared to BC-PAMAM. Significant differences in nuclear dendrimer penetration were observed for both cell lines. In cancer cells, PAMAM signals amounted to ~25%–35% of the total nuclei area at all

  18. Different patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial penetration by the G3 PAMAM dendrimer and its biotin–pyridoxal bioconjugate BC-PAMAM in normal and cancer cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uram, Łukasz; Szuster, Magdalena; Filipowicz, Aleksandra; Gargasz, Krzysztof; Wołowiec, Stanisław; Wałajtys-Rode, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular localization and colocalization of a fluorescently labeled G3 amine-terminated cationic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and its biotin–pyridoxal (BC-PAMAM) bioconjugate were investigated in a concentration-dependent manner in normal human fibroblast (BJ) and squamous epithelial carcinoma (SCC-15) cell lines. After 24 hours treatment, both cell lines revealed different patterns of intracellular dendrimer accumulation depending on their cytotoxic effects. Cancer cells exhibited much higher (20-fold) tolerance for native PAMAM treatment than fibroblasts, whereas BC-PAMAM was significantly toxic only for fibroblasts at 50 µM concentration. Fibroblasts accumulated the native and bioconjugated dendrimers in a concentration-dependent manner at nontoxic range of concentration, with significantly lower bioconjugate loading. After reaching the cytotoxicity level, fluorescein isothiocyanate-PAMAM accumulation remains at high, comparable level. In cancer cells, native PAMAM loading at higher, but not cytotoxic concentrations, was kept at constant level with a sharp increase at toxic concentration. Mander’s coefficient calculated for fibroblasts and cancer cells confirmed more efficient native PAMAM penetration as compared to BC-PAMAM. Significant differences in nuclear dendrimer penetration were observed for both cell lines. In cancer cells, PAMAM signals amounted to ~25%–35% of the total nuclei area at all investigated concentrations, with lower level (15%–25%) observed for BC-PAMAM. In fibroblasts, the dendrimer nuclear signal amounted to 15% at nontoxic and up to 70% at toxic concentrations, whereas BC-PAMAM remained at a lower concentration-dependent level (0.3%–20%). Mitochondrial localization of PAMAM and BC-PAMAM revealed similar patterns in both cell lines, depending on the extracellular dendrimer concentration, and presented significantly lower signals from BC-PAMAM, which correlated well with the cytotoxicity. PMID:26379435

  19. Golan Heights Groundwater Systems: Separation By REE+Y And Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, C.; Geyer, S.; Knoeller, K.; Roediger, T.; Weise, S.; Dulski, P.; Moeller, P.; Guttman, J.

    2008-12-01

    In a semi-arid to arid country like Israel, all freshwater resources are under (over-) utilization. Particularly, the Golan Heights rank as one of the most important extraction areas of groundwater of good quality and quantity. Additionally the mountain range feed to a high degree the most important freshwater reservoir of Israel, the Sea of Galilee. Hence, knowing the sources and characters of the Golan Heights groundwater systems is an instantaneous demand regarding sustainable management and protection. Within the "German-Israeli-Jordanian-Palestinian Joint Research Program for the Sustainable Utilisation of Aquifer Systems", hundreds of water samples were taken from all over the Jordan-Dead Sea rift-system to understand groundwater flow-systems and salinisation. For that purpose, each sample was analysed for major and minor ions, rare earth elements including yttrium (REY) and stable isotopes of water (d18O, d2H). The REY distribution in groundwater is established during infiltration by the first water-rock interaction and consequently reflects the leachable components of sediments and rocks of the recharge area. In well- developed flow-systems, REY are adsorbed onto pore surfaces are in equilibrium with the percolating groundwater, even if the lithology changes (e.g. inter-aquifer flow). Thus, groundwater sampled from wells and springs still show the REY distribution pattern established in the recharge area. Since high temperatures do not occur in Golan Heights, d2H and d18O are less controlled by water-rock interaction than by climatic and geomorphological factors at the time of replenishment. Applying the REY signature as a grouping criterion of groundwaters, d18O vs. d2H plots yield a new dimension in interpreting isotope data. The combined use of hydrochemical and isotopic methods enabled us to contain the areas of replenishment and the flow-paths of all investigated groundwater in the Golan Heights. Despite location, salinity or temperature of spring or

  20. Origin of heavy REE mineralisation in carbonatites: Constraints form the Huanglongpu Mo-HREE deposit, Qinling, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin; Cheng, Xu; Kynicky, Jindrich; Cangelosi, Delia; Wenlei, Song

    2017-04-01

    The carbonatite dykes of the Huanglongpu area, Lesser Qinling, China, are unusual in that they are quartz-bearing, Mo-mineralised and enriched in the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) relative to typical carbonatites. Carbonatite monazite (208.9±4.6 Ma to 213.6±4.0; Song et al., 2016) gives a comparable U-Pb radiometric age to molybdenite (220Ma; Stein et al., 1997), confirming interpretations that Mo is derived from the carbonatite, and not a subsequent overprint from regional porphyry-style mineralisation ( 141Ma). The sulphides in the carbonatites have mantle-like 34S ( 1‰) and low δ26Mg values (-1.89 to -1.07‰), similar to sedimentary carbonates, suggesting a recycled sediment contribution in their mantle sources that may be responsible for the Mo and HREE enrichment (Song et al., 2016). The textures of REE minerals indicate crystallisation of monazite-(Ce), bastnäsite-(Ce), parisite-(Ce) and aeschynite-(Ce) as magmatic phases. Monazite-(Ce) was subsequently altered to produce apatite, which was in turn replaced by britholite-(Ce), accompanied by the formation of allanite-(Ce). The REE-fluorcarbonates where replaced by synchysite-(Ce) and röntgenite-(Ce). Aeschynite-(Ce) was altered initially to uranopyrochlore and then pyrochlore with uraninite inclusions. The mineralogical evolution reflects the evolution from magmatic carbonatite, through to more silica-rich conditions during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition, to fully hydrothermal conditions accompanied by the formation of sulphate minerals. Each alteration stage resulted in the preferential leaching of the LREE and enrichment in the HREE. Mass balance considerations indicate that the HREE enrichment could not be a passive process, and that hydrothermal fluids must have contributed HREE to the system. The evolution of the fluorcarbonate mineral assemblage requires an increase in aCa2+ and aCO32- in the metasomatic fluid, and so breakdown of HREE-enriched calcite may have been the HREE source

  1. Clustering of housing and household patterns using 2011 population census

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available the clusters to measure the effects of urban growth boundaries on land development patterns. Vickers and Rees (2007) clustered the 2001 census data from the UK National Statistics Office to provide area classifications that could be distributed by the Office... of National Statistics via their website. Cluster analysis is also commonly applied inter- nationally to land-use data for many different types of studies, including: to derive landscape ty- pologies (Van Eetvelde and Antrop, 2009), to differentiate between...

  2. Nutritional status and dietary patterns in disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, S; Battezzati, A; Merati, G; Margonato, V; Maggioni, M; Testolin, G; Veicsteinas, A

    2006-03-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and osteoporosis are the most frequent pathologies among people with a severe reduction of physical activity. The impairment in nutritional status, consequent to quantitative and qualitative inadequacy of diet, could be one of the first steps in the development of co-morbidities in disabled subjects. In order to evaluate this hypothesis we investigated the nutritional status and the food intake in patients with physical or mental disabilities. Thirty-seven disabled subjects (24 with exclusively physical inactivity and 13 with mental retardation and physical inactivity) mean age 33.5+/-9.2 years and 25 healthy subjects (mean age 31.0+/-9.3 years) were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements, indirect calorimetry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, dietary intake and biochemical parameters were collected for each subject. Forty percent of disabled were overweight and 14% were obese. Fat free mass (FFM) and bone mineral content (BMC) was lower and fat mass (FM) was higher than able-bodied control. Absolute resting energy expenditure (REE) was lower in disabled subjects, but this difference disappeared when REE was normalized to FFM. Dietary intake resulted unbalanced (16%, 31%, 50% of total daily energy intake derived from protein, lipid and carbohydrate respectively) with a distribution of dietary fatty acid quite far from the recommended ratio [3.1(SFA):4.1(MUFA):1.0(PUFA)] and an excessive consumption of simple carbohydrates (mean intake 17.5+/-4.9%). Insufficient intake of fibre, iron, calcium, potassium and zinc was also found. Finally, alterations in the cholesterol profile were evident in more than one third of the disabled subjects, whereas fasting glucose intolerance was evident in one fourth. This study shows a consistent nutritional status impairment in disabled patients resulting in an reduction of FFM and BMC, in an over-representation of FM and in a number of biochemical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The

  3. Normatização do eletrorretinograma por reversão alternada de padrões em voluntários normais Standardization of pattern electroretinograms by alternate reversion in normal volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Mara Simões Torigoe

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar a normatização do eletrorretinograma por reversão alternada em indivíduos oftalmologicamente normais e sem doenças neurológicas associadas, determinando a faixa de normalidade estratificada por sexo, faixa etária e estímulo utilizado. MÉTODOS: A padronização seguiu o modelo proposto pela Organização Internacional de Eletrorretinografia e a normatização foi específica para o laboratório de potenciais evocados do Departamento de Neurologia da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas - Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Dois tipos de estímulos foram utilizados: o denominado estímulo 16, que proporciona ângulo visual de 60 minutos de arco e o de 32, que proporciona ângulo visual de 30. RESULTADOS: Em todos os pacientes obteve-se uma onda positiva, definida internacionalmente como P50 e uma negativa, chamada N95, sem a presença de artefatos. Foram observados intervalos de normalidade que continham a média das latências, amplitudes e durações das curvas positiva e negativa, internacionalmente aceitas. As ondas P50 e N95 apresentaram diferenças significativas na amplitude, latência e duração quando comparadas às diversas faixas etárias, ocorrendo diminuição na amplitude das ondas e aumento na latência total do eletrorretinograma com o aumento da idade. Construíram-se tabelas com intervalo de predição de 95% em relação à idade para a amplitude, latência e duração das curvas P50 e N95. CONCLUSÕES: A normatização do eletrorretinograma por reversão alternada proporciona a reprodutibilidade dos resultados e a possibilidade de estudos comparativos.PURPOSE: To standardize recordings of pattern electroretinograms (PERG in normal human subjects. METHODS: The standardization followed the model proposed by the International Organization of Eletroretinography and was specific for the laboratory of evoked potentials of the Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas

  4. Structural controls and evolution of gold-, silver-, and REE-bearing copper-cobalt ore deposits, Blackbird district, east-central Idaho: Epigenetic origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K.; Tysdal, Russell G.; Evans, Karl V.; Kunk, Michael J.; Pillers, Renee M.

    2011-01-01

    The Cu-Co ± Au (± Ag ± Ni ± REE) ore deposits of the Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, have previously been classified as Besshi-type VMS, sedex, and IOCG deposits within an intact stratigraphic section. New studies indicate that, across the district, mineralization was introduced into the country rocks as a series of structurally controlled vein and alteration systems. Quartz-rich and biotite-rich veins (and alteration zones) and minor albite and siderite veinlets maintain consistent order and sulfide mineral associations across the district. Both early and late quartz veins contain chalcopyrite and pyrite, whereas intermediate-stage tourmaline-biotite veins host the cobaltite. Barren early and late albite and late carbonate (generally siderite) form veins or are included in the quartz veins. REE minerals, principally monazite, allanite, and xenotime, are associated with both tourmaline-biotite and late quartz veins. The veins are in mineralized intervals along axial planar cleavage, intrafolial foliation, and shears.

  5. Signature of breccia complex/iron oxide- type U-REE mineralisation in the Khairagarh basin with special reference to Dongargaon- Lohara area, central India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansoti, S K; Sinha, D K [Department of Atomic Energy, Nagpur (India). Atomic Minerals Div.

    1995-10-01

    The Khairagarh basin having late Archaean- early Proterozoic basement is filled up by middle Proterozoic Khairagarh group volcano - sedimentary sequence, laid in the Kotri rift zone (KRZ) with imprints of repetitive volcanic, plutonic and tectonic activities. A strong thermal imprint of {approx} 1.5 Ga has been recorded in rocks of the basin that could be an effect of copious outpouring of basalts, dacites, ignimbrites, together with the emplacements of stocks of gabbros, gabbroic dolerites, dolerites, granites, granophyres, felsites, aplites, and quartz veins. Some of the basement rocks are enriched in Fe, Cu and other base metals and have been emplaced and assimilated by the volcano- plutonic rocks of the Nandgaon group and Malanjkhand granitoids. The Nandgaon group rocks and the Malanjkhand granitoids have anomalous intrinsic abundance of U, REE, Cu, Fe and quite a few metals in different sectors. Thermo-tectonic ({approx} 1.5 Ga) reactivation event(s) along the KRZ apart from facilitating formation of agglomerates, ignimbrites and tectonic breccias has promoted emplacement of plutonic and subvolcanic phases and their metasomatising and hydrothermal metal bearing fluids. In the Malanjkhand complex sector Cu{+-}Mo{+-}Fe{+-}Ag{+-}Au{+-}REE{+-}Zn metallisation and in the Dongargarh Massif sector U{+-}Th{+-}F{+-}Fe{+-}Pb{+-}Zn{+-}Cu{+-}REE{+-}Zr metallisation are manifested. The detection of Fe+U+REE {+-}Cu{+-}Ni metallisation in the Bortalao sandstones of the Dongargaon - Lohara area, located in between Malanjkhand ore zone and the Chandidongri (Dongargarh granite hosted) fluorite-rich and Pb{+-}Zn{+-}Cu{+-}U - bearing ore zone, considered to lie on the same (Malanjkhand - Chandidongri) fault/shear lineament is rated highly significant. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. Metasomatized granulites of the Mozambique belt: consequences for lithospheric U, Th, REE fertilisation and metallogenesis in the ancient Gondwanaland supercontinent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, M.A.G.; Hart, R.J.

    1988-02-01

    The 1,0 Ga old Lurio belt extends for ca. 1 000 km from Nsanje (S Malawi) through NE Mozambique to the Indian ocean. Lower crustal levels are locally exposed along its southern tectonic front. In this article mineralogical and geochemical data for an andesinite-mafic-ultramafic suite from Nsanje were reported.The results indicate that this complex terrane equilibrated first at P ∼ 13 kbr and T ∼ 900 0 C and subsequently cooled under an eclogite-garnet granulite georem. During a later event (P ∼ 7-10 kbar, T ∼ 650 - 800 0 C) distinctive metasomatic mica, amphibole, scapolite, apatite, diopsidic pyroxene (MASAD)-bearing assemblages and pegmatoids were formed by CO 2 , Cl, H 2 O, S and F rich fluids with higher REE, U, Th and Zr concentrations than the high-grade precursors. MASAD and older high-pressure granulite parageneses underwent subsequent dehydratation and reequilibration under medium-pressure granulite facies conditions perhaps during the Lurio orogenic event. MASAD-like assemblages are relatively common within the late Proterozoic medium- and high-pressure granulite terranes of Central Gondwana, especially in the newly defined Lurio-Zambezi Eclogite Province. The data provide indicate that the metasomatizing, MASAD-forming fluids had crypto-carbonatitic affinities and were introduced into the crust from the upper mantle during protorifting episodes between ca. 1,1 and 0,5 Ga ago. The MASAD assemblages may therefore represent the crustal equivalent of the metasomatic and MARID suites discovered in mantle xenoliths

  7. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  8. Sedimentary carbonate-hosted giant Bayan Obo REE-Fe-Nb ore deposit of Inner Mongolia, China; a cornerstone example for giant polymetallic ore deposits of hydrothermal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; Back, J.M.; Minkin, J.A.; Tatsumoto, M.; Junwen, Wang; Conrad, J.E.; McKee, E.H.; Zonglin, Hou; Qingrun, Meng; Shengguang, Huang

    1997-01-01

    Detailed, integrative field and laboratory studies of the textures, structures, chemical characteristics, and isotopically determined ages and signatures of mineralization of the Bayan Obo deposit provided evidence for the origin and characteristics favorable for its formation and parameters necessary for defining giant polymetallic deposits of hydrothermal origin. Bayan Obo is an epigenetic, metasomatic, hydrothermal rare earth element (REE)-Fe-Nb ore deposit that is hosted in the metasedimentary H8 dolostone marble of the Middle Proterozoic Bayan Obo Group. The metasedimentary sequence was deposited on the northern continental slope of the North China craton. The mine area is about 100 km south of the suture marking Caledonian subduction of the Mongolian oceanic plate from the north beneath the North China craton. The mineralogy of the deposit is very complex, consisting of more than 120 different minerals, some of which are epigenetic minerals introduced by hydrothermal solutions, and some of which are primary and secondary metamorphic minerals. The major REE minerals are monazite and bastnaesite, whereas magnetite and hematite are the dominant Fe-ore minerals, and columbite is the most abundant Nb mineral. Dolomite, alkali amphibole, fluorite, barite, aegirine augite, apatite, phlogopite, albite, and microcline are the most widespread gangue minerals. Three general types of ores occur at Bayan Obo: disseminated, banded, and massive ores. Broad zoning of these ore types occurs in the Main and East Orebodies. Disseminated ores are in the outermost zone, banded ores are in the intermediate zone, and massive ores are in the cores of the orebodies. On the basis of field relations, host rocks, textures, structures, and mineral assemblages, many varieties of these three types of ores have been recognized and mapped. Isotopic dating of monazite, bastnaesite, aeschynite, and metamorphic and metasomatic alkali amphiboles associated with the deposit provides constraints

  9. Validade da equação de Henry e Rees que estima a taxa metabólica de repouso em adolescentes masculinos Validez de la ecuación de Henry y Rees que estima la tasa metabólica de reposo en adolescentes masculinos Validity of the equation of Henry and Rees that estimates the resting metabolic rate in male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique S. Fonseca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a validade da equação de predição da taxa metabólica de repouso proposta por Henry e Rees (1991 em adolescentes do sexo masculino. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com amostra de conveniência constituída de 52 meninos, entre dez e 17 anos, sendo mensuradas a massa corporal e a calorimetria indireta. A massa corporal foi substituída na equação de Henry e Rees para determinar a taxa metabólica de repouso predita. A calorimetria indireta foi determinada pelos valores do consumo de O2 e produção de CO2, e usada na equação de Weir (1949, considerada método padrão para o cálculo da taxa metabólica de repouso. Todas as medidas foram realizadas pela manhã, com o indivíduo em jejum de seis horas, em posição supina e em repouso muscular. Realizaram-se os seguintes procedimentos estatísticos: teste t pareado; erro constante (com diferença aceita entre as médias OBJETIVO: Analizar la validez de la ecuación de predicción de la tasa metabólica de reposo (TMR propuesta por Henry y Rees (1991 en adolescentes del sexo masculino. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, con muestra de conveniencia constituida por 52 niños, entre 10 y 17 años, siendo medidas las variables a continuación: masa corporal y calorimetría indirecta (CI. La masa corporal fue sustituida en la ecuación de Henry y Rees (1991 para determinar la TMR predicha. La CI fue determinada por los valores del consumo de O2 y producción de CO2 y usada en la ecuación de Weir (1949, considerada como método estándar de la TMR. Todas las medidas fueron realizadas por la mañana, con el individuo en ayuno de 6 horas, en posición supina y en reposo muscular. Se realizaron los siguientes procedimientos estadísticos: prueba “t” pareada; error constante (EC - con diferencia aceptada entre los promedios menor que 5% y, para análisis de la concordancia entre los dos métodos, el procedimiento gráfico de Bland y Altman. RESULTADOS: La ecuación propuesta por

  10. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  11. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  12. Petrological mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the granitoids and fracture fillings developed in Ratones Mines (Spain); Caracterizacion petrologica, mineralogica, geoquimica y evaluacion del comportamiento geoquimico de las REE en la fase solida (granitoides y rellenos fisurales) del sistema de interaccion agua-roca delentorno de la Mina Ratones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buil Gutierrez, B [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The petrological, mineralogical and geochemical characterisation of the granitoids and fracture fillings developed in the Ratones Mine (Caceres, Spain) has been done in order to understand rock-water interaction processes which control water geochemical parameters. Special interest has been devoted to the analysis and interpretation of REE patterns in the solid phase (granitoids and fracture fillings) because they constitute geochemical tracers in water-rock interaction process. Moreover, REE are considered as actinide analogues. In order to characterise the solid phase (granitoids and fracture fillings) several investigation scales (system, outcrop, whole rock, mineral and geochemical components) have been considered and different types of samples have been analysed. These factors control the methodological approach used in this investigation. The analytical methods we have used in this investigation are microscope, qualitative and semi-quantitative methods (XRD, SEM,EDAX) and quantitative methods (ICP-MS, XRF, EM, LAM-IC-MS). The bulk of the granitoids located around the Ratones Mine Belongs to the alkaline feldspar granite-sienogranite lihotype and they show a peraluminous and subalkaline pattern. From the mineralogical point of view, they are composed by quartz, K-feldspar (Or>90%), showing sericitation, moscovitization and turmolinization altherations, alkaline plagioclase (An-=-3%), usually altered to sericite, saussirite and less frequently affected by moscovitization processes, Fe-Al biotite, frequently affected by chloritization processes and sometimes replaced by muscovite, and finally muscovite (>2% celadonite and <4% paragonite) both of primary and secondary origin. The differences observed between the different lithotypes are related with the modal proportion of the principal minerals,with the presence or absence of certain accessory minerals ( turmaline, cordierite), with specific textural patterns, grain size and also with the richness in specific

  13. A precise 232Th-208Pb chronology of fine-grained monazite: Age of the Bayan Obo REE-Fe-Nb ore deposit, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyuan; Tatsumoto, M.; Li, X.; Premo, W.R.; Chao, E.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained precise Th-Pb internal isochron ages on monazite and bastnaesite for the world's largest known rare earth elements (REE)-Fe-Nb ore deposit, the Bayan Obo of Inner Mongolia, China. The monazite samples, collected from the carbonate-hosted ore zone, contain extremely small amounts of uranium (less than 10 ppm) but up to 0.7% ThO2. Previous estimates of the age of mineralization ranged from 1.8 to 0.255 Ga. Magnetic fractions of monazite and bastnaesite samples (<60-??m size) showed large ranges in 232Th 204Pb values (900-400,000) and provided precise Th-Pb internal isochron ages for paragenetic monazite mineralization ranging from 555 to 398 Ma within a few percent error (0.8% for two samples). These results are the first indication that REE mineralization within the giant Bayan Obo ore deposit occurred over a long period of time. The initial lead isotopic compositions (low 206Pb 204Pb and high 208Pb 204Pb) and large negative ??{lunate}Nd values for Bayan Obo ore minerals indicate that the main source(s) for the ores was the lower crust which was depleted in uranium, but enriched in thorium and light rare earth elements for a long period of time. Zircon from a quartz monzonite, located 50 km south of the ore complex and thought to be related to Caledonian subduction, gave an age of 451 Ma, within the range of monazite ages. Textural relations together with the mineral ages favor an epigenetic rather than a syngenetic origin for the orebodies. REE mineralization started around 555 Ma (disseminated monazite in the West, the Main, and south of the East Orebody), but the main mineralization (banded ores) was related to the Caledonian subduction event ca. 474-400 Ma. ?? 1994.

  14. A comparative study of sample dissolution techniques and plasma-based instruments for the precise and accurate quantification of REEs in mineral matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Turgeon, Keven [Département de génie des mines, de la métallurgie et des matériaux, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Département de chimie, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Bazin, Claude [Département de génie des mines, de la métallurgie et des matériaux, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Larivière, Dominic, E-mail: dominic.lariviere@chm.ulaval.ca [Département de chimie, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada)

    2017-04-08

    The recent commercialisation of inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometric (ICP-MS/MS) instruments has provided analytical chemists with a new tool to properly quantify atomic composition in a variety of matrices with minimal sample preparation. In this article, we report on our assessment of the compatibility of 3 sample preparation techniques (open-vessel acid digestion, microwave digestion and alkaline fusion) for the quantification of rare earth elements (REEs) in mineral matrices. The combination of the high digestion temperatures (1050 °C) and using LiBO{sub 2} as a flux was the most effective strategy for the digestion of all rare earth elements in mineral matrices and was compatible with ICP-MS/MS measurements. We also assessed the analytical performances of ICP-MS/MS against other plasma-based instrumentation (microwave induced plasma and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MIP-AES and ICP-AES, respectively) and single quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The comparative study showed that the concentrations obtained by ICP-MS/MS are in excellent agreement with the certified reference material values, and much more suited than the other analytical techniques tested for the quantification of REEs, which exhibited low detectability and/or spectral interferences for some elements/isotopes. Finally, the ruggedness of the analytical protocol proposed which combines a rapid sample dissolution step performed by an automated fusion unit and an ICP-MS/MS as a detector was established using various certified mineral matrices containing variable levels of REEs. - Highlights: • Three types of digestion methods were tested. • Four types of analytical techniques were compared. • Elimination of the spectral interferences encountered in ICP-MS was achieved by the use of Tandem ICP-MS. • Robustness of the analytical procedure was successfully evaluate on four types of certified reference material.

  15. A comparative study of sample dissolution techniques and plasma-based instruments for the precise and accurate quantification of REEs in mineral matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Turgeon, Keven; Bazin, Claude; Larivière, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    The recent commercialisation of inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometric (ICP-MS/MS) instruments has provided analytical chemists with a new tool to properly quantify atomic composition in a variety of matrices with minimal sample preparation. In this article, we report on our assessment of the compatibility of 3 sample preparation techniques (open-vessel acid digestion, microwave digestion and alkaline fusion) for the quantification of rare earth elements (REEs) in mineral matrices. The combination of the high digestion temperatures (1050 °C) and using LiBO_2 as a flux was the most effective strategy for the digestion of all rare earth elements in mineral matrices and was compatible with ICP-MS/MS measurements. We also assessed the analytical performances of ICP-MS/MS against other plasma-based instrumentation (microwave induced plasma and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MIP-AES and ICP-AES, respectively) and single quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The comparative study showed that the concentrations obtained by ICP-MS/MS are in excellent agreement with the certified reference material values, and much more suited than the other analytical techniques tested for the quantification of REEs, which exhibited low detectability and/or spectral interferences for some elements/isotopes. Finally, the ruggedness of the analytical protocol proposed which combines a rapid sample dissolution step performed by an automated fusion unit and an ICP-MS/MS as a detector was established using various certified mineral matrices containing variable levels of REEs. - Highlights: • Three types of digestion methods were tested. • Four types of analytical techniques were compared. • Elimination of the spectral interferences encountered in ICP-MS was achieved by the use of Tandem ICP-MS. • Robustness of the analytical procedure was successfully evaluate on four types of certified reference material.

  16. Simultaneous determinations of U-Pb age and REE abundances for zircons using AfF excimer laser ablation-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Takafumi

    2004-01-01

    Using a laser-ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICPMS), U-Pb age and rare earth element (REE) abundances have been determined simultaneously from a single 20 μm ablation pit of zircon. The laser ablation system utilizing 193 nm wave-length ArF excimer laser produces stable and reproducible signal intensities resulted in good precisions on measurements of element concentrations and isotopic ratios. Because of the higher energy density of the deep ultra-violet laser beam, ablation fractionation between Pb and U were reduced even with the prolonged ablation, and thus accuracy of Pb-U age was improved significantly. A chicane-type ion lens system was applied to a quadrupole-based ICPMS instrument. With the chicane ion lens, higher elemental sensitivity (4 times or light mass range and 3 times for mid to heavy mass range) and lower white background ( 238 U- 206 Pb ages for Nancy standard zircon (Nancy 91500), SHRIMP calibration standard zircon (SL13) and Antarctic zircon (PMA7) obtained in this study were 1064 ± 24 Ma, 569 ± 78 Ma and 2438 ± 101 Ma (2-sigma), respectively. Relative age differences from previous reports were 0.2%, 0.4% and 3.2% respectively, demonstrative of high reliability of the method. The REE abundances in zircon samples were calibrated using a NIST 610 glass standard reference material. The resulting REE abundance data for zircons (Nancy 91500 and SL13) show good agreement with those for literature values within the analytical precision of ∼20%. The matrix effect that may occur between the synthetic glass standard and zircon crystals is obviously smaller than the precision and thus negligible for this precision levels. The data presented here demonstrate clearly that the combination of ArF excimer laser an ICPMS equipped with the chicane ion lens has a potential to become a significant tool for zircon geochemistry. (author)

  17. U-Pb, Re-Os, and Ar/Ar geochronology of rare earth element (REE)-rich breccia pipes and associated host rocks from the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge Fe-REE-Au deposit, St. Francois Mountains, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Selby, David; Slack, John F.; Day, Warren C.; Pillers, Renee M.; Cosca, Michael A.; Seeger, Cheryl; Fanning, C. Mark; Samson, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE)-rich breccia pipes (600,000 t @ 12% rare earth oxides) are preserved along the margins of the 136-million metric ton (Mt) Pea Ridge magnetite-apatite deposit, within Mesoproterozoic (~1.47 Ga) volcanic-plutonic rocks of the St. Francois Mountains terrane in southeastern Missouri, United States. The breccia pipes cut the rhyolite-hosted magnetite deposit and contain clasts of nearly all local bedrock and mineralized lithologies.Grains of monazite and xenotime were extracted from breccia pipe samples for SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology; both minerals were also dated in one polished thin section. Monazite forms two morphologies: (1) matrix granular grains composed of numerous small (minerals includes Re-Os on fine-grained molybdenite and 40Ar/39Ar on muscovite, biotite, and K-feldspar.Ages (±2σ errors) obtained by SHRIMP U-Pb analysis are as follows: (1) zircon from the two host rhyolite samples have ages of 1473.6 ± 8.0 and 1472.7 ± 5.6 Ma; most zircon in late felsic dikes is interpreted as xenocrystic (age range ca. 1522–1455 Ma); a population of rare spongy zircon is likely of igneous origin and yields an age of 1441 ± 9 Ma; (2) pale-yellow granular monazite—1464.9 ± 3.3 Ma (no dated xenotime); (3) reddish matrix granular monazite—1462.0 ± 3.5 Ma and associated xenotime—1453 ± 11 Ma; (4) coarse glassy-yellow monazite—1464.8 ± 2.1, 1461.7 ± 3.7 Ma, with rims at 1447.2 ± 4.7 Ma; and (5) matrix monazite (in situ)—1464.1 ± 3.6 and 1454.6 ± 9.6 Ma, and matrix xenotime (in situ)—1468.0 ± 8.0 Ma. Two slightly older ages of cores are about 1478 Ma. The young age of rims on the coarse glassy monazite coincides with an Re-Os age of 1440.6 ± 9.2 Ma determined in this study for molybdenite intergrown with quartz and allanite, and with the age of monazite inclusions in apatite from the magnetite ore (Neymark et al., 2016). A 40Ar/39Ar age of 1473 ± 1 Ma was obtained for muscovite from a breccia pipe sample.Geochronology and

  18. A Crystallization-Temperature Profile Through Paleo-Oceanic Crust (Wadi Gideah Transect, Oman Ophiolite): Application of the REE-in-Plagioclase-Clinopyroxene Partitioning Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S.; Hasenclever, J.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Koepke, J.; Hoernle, K.

    2017-12-01

    The accretion mechanisms forming oceanic crust at fast spreading ridges are still under controversial discussion. Thermal, petrological, and geochemical observations predict different end-member models, i.e., the gabbro glacier and the sheeted sill model. They all bear implications for heat transport, temperature distribution, mode of crystallization and hydrothermal heat removal over crustal depth. In a typical MOR setting, temperature is the key factor driving partitioning of incompatible elements during crystallization. LA-ICP-MS data for co-genetic plagioclase and clinopyroxene in gabbros along a transect through the plutonic section of paleo-oceanic crust (Wadi Gideah Transect, Oman ophiolite) reveal that REE partitioning coefficients are relatively constant in the layered gabbro section but increase for the overlying foliated gabbros, with an enhanced offset towards HREEs. Along with a systematic enrichment of REE's with crustal height, these trends are consistent with a system dominated by in-situ crystallization for the lower gabbros and a change in crystallization mode for the upper gabbros. Sun and Liang (2017) used experimental REE partitioning data for calibrating a new REE-in-plagioclase-clinopyroxene thermometer that we used here for establishing the first crystallization-temperature depth profile through oceanic crust that facilitates a direct comparison with thermal models of crustal accretion. Our results indicate crystallization temperatures of about 1220±8°C for the layered gabbros and lower temperatures of 1175±8°C for the foliated gabbros and a thermal minimum above the layered-to-foliated gabbro transition. Our findings are consistent with a hybrid accretion model for the oceanic crust. The thermal minimum is assumed to represent a zone where the descending crystal mushes originating from the axial melt lens meet with mushes that have crystallized in situ. These results can be used to verify and test thermal models (e.g., Maclennan et al

  19. The emplacement and crystallization of the U-Th-REE-rich agpaitic and hyperagpaitic lujavrites at Kvanefjeld, Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, H.; Bailey, J.C.; Rose-Hansen, J.

    2011-01-01

    The U-Th-REE deposit located at the Kvanefjeld plateau in the north-west corner of the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland, consists of lujavrites which are melanocratic agpaitic nepheline syenites. The fine-grained lujavrites of the Kvanefjeld plateau can be divided into a northern and a southern part with an intermediate zone between them. The northern part is situated along the north contact of the Ilimaussaq complex and continues east of the Kvanefjeld plateau as a lujavrite belt along the contact. This part has relatively 'low' contents of U, Th, and REE, and hyperagpaitic mineralogy is restricted to its highest-lying parts. The fine-grained lujavrites of the intermediate and southern part of the Kvanefjeld plateau occur between and below huge masses of country rocks which we show are practically in situ remnants of the roof of the lujavrite magma chamber. These lujavrites have high contents of U, Th, and REE, and hyperagpaitic varieties with naujakasite, steenstrupine and villiaumite are widespread. We present a model for the formation of the fine-grained lujavrites of the Kvanefjeld plateau. In this model, an off-shoot from the large lujavrite magma body in the central part of the complex intruded into a fracture zone along the north contact of the Ilimaussaq complex and was forcefully emplaced from north-west to south-east. The intruding lujavrite magma was bounded to the west, north, and at its roof by strong volcanic country rocks, and to the south by the weaker, earlier rocks of the complex. The magma stored in the fracture crystallized, squeezing volatile and residual ele-ments upwards. A subsequent violent explosion opened up fractures in the weaker southern rocks, and the residual volatile-enriched magma was squeezed into fractures in augite syenite, naujaite, and also in the overlying volcanic roof rocks. The removal of the volatile-rich lujavrite magma in the upper part of the fracture-bounded magma chamber made room for the rise of

  20. Una nova aproximació a la pobresa infantil. Aplicació de l'indicador europeu "reference budgets" a Catalunya per a àrees densament poblades

    OpenAIRE

    Cussó Parcerisas, Irene Maria

    2017-01-01

    Aquesta investigació presenta la construcció de pressupostos de referència – “reference budgets”, els quals il·lustren cistelles de béns i serveis per assolir un nivell de vida acceptable per a diferents tipologies de família en àrees densament poblades de Catalunya, prenent Barcelona com a ciutat de referència. Aquest nivell de vida acceptable reflecteix el mínim de recursos necessaris perquè les persones puguin desenvolupar les diverses posicions i rols socials pertinents. Per elaborar aque...

  1. A model for Nb-Zr-REE-Ga enrichment in Lopingian altered alkaline volcanic ashes: Key evidence of H-O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shifeng; Nechaev, Victor P.; Chekryzhov, Igor Yu.; Zhao, Lixin; Vysotskiy, Sergei V.; Graham, Ian; Ward, Colin R.; Ignatiev, Alexander V.; Velivetskaya, Tatyana A.; Zhao, Lei; French, David; Hower, James C.

    2018-03-01

    Clay-altered volcanic ash with highly-elevated concentrations of Nb(Ta), Zr(Hf), rare earth elements (REE), and Ga, is a new type of critical metal deposit with high commercial prospects that has been discovered in Yunnan Province, southwest China. Previous studies showed that the volcanic ashes had been subjected to hydrothermal fluids, the nature of which, however, is not clear. Here we show that the volcanic ashes were originated from alkaline magmatism, followed by a continuous hydrothermal-weathering process. Heated meteoric waters, which were sourced from acidic rains and mixed with CO2 from degassing of the Emeishan plume, have caused partial, but widespread, acidic leaching of Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, REE, and Ga into ground water and residual enrichment of these elements, along with Al and Ti, in the deeply altered rocks. Subsequent alteration occurring under cooler, neutral or alkaline conditions, caused by water-rock interaction, resulted in precipitation of the leached critical metals in the deposit. Polymetallic mineralization of similar origin may be found in other continental regions subjected to explosive alkaline volcanism associated with deep weathering in humid conditions.

  2. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  3. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Rare Earth Elements Pattern in Weathered Japanese Soil Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Hosoda, M.; Takahashi, H.; Sorimachi, A.; Ishikawa, T.; Tokonami, S.; Uchida, S.

    2011-01-01

    From the viewpoint of radiation protection, determination of natural radionuclides e.g. thorium and uranium in soil samples are important. Accurate methods for determination of Th and U is gaining importance. The geochemical behavior of Th, U and rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively close to one another while compared to other elements in geological environment. Radioactive elements like 232 Th and 238 U along with their decay products (e.g. 226 Ra) are present in most of the environmental matrices and can be transferred to living bodies by different pathways that can lead to sources of exposure of man. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor these natural radionuclides in weathered soil samples to assess the possible hazards. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K in soils have been measured using a g γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The thorium, uranium and REEs were determined from the same sample using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Granitic rocks contain higher amounts of Th, U and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils, as soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water and gases. In this paper, we have discussed about distribution pattern of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite and ryolite) collected from two prefectures in Japan: 1. Gifu and 2. Okinawa. (author)

  4. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  5. REE distributions in a high-grade Archaean gneiss complex in Scotland: Implications for the genesis of ancient sialic crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Seventeen rocks from the Lewisian Gneiss of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, which represent three distinct lithological types at granulite to greenschist facies of metamorphism show rare-earth element patterns which seem not to have been disturbed by their complex metamorphic history. Some indication of their origin can be obtained by simple geochemical models. (Auth.)

  6. Uranium-lead dating of hydrothermal zircon and monazite from the Sin Quyen Fe-Cu-REE-Au-(U) deposit, northwestern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Chun; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Chen, Wei Terry; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Tran, MyDung

    2018-03-01

    The Sin Quyen deposit in northwestern Vietnam contains economic concentrations of Cu, Au and LREE, and sub-economic concentration of U. In this deposit, massive and banded replacement ores are hosted in Neoproterozoic metapelite. The paragenetic sequence includes sodic alteration (stage I), calcic-potassic alteration and associated Fe-REE-(U) mineralization (stage II), Cu-Au mineralization (stage III), and sulfide-(quartz-carbonate) veins (stage IV). The Sin Quyen deposit experienced an extensive post-ore metamorphic overprint, which makes it difficult to precisely determine the mineralization age. In this study, zircon and monazite U-Pb geochronometers and the Rb-Sr isochron method are used to constrain the timing of mineralization. Zircon grains in the ore are closely intergrown or texturally associated with hydrothermal minerals of stage II (e.g., garnet, allanite, and hedenbergite). They may contain primary fluid inclusions and display irregular zoning in cathodoluminescence (CL) images. Zircon grains are rich in U (688 to 2902 ppm) and poor in Th (0.2 to 2.9 ppm). Their δ18OV-SMOW values range from 11.9 to 14.0‰, higher than those of typical magmatic zircon. These textural and compositional features imply that zircon precipitated from 18O- and U-rich hydrothermal fluids, coeval with the minerals of stage II. Monazite occurs in close association with stage II magnetite and allanite and has low contents of Th (<2700 ppm), indicative of a hydrothermal origin. Hydrothermal zircon and monazite have indistinguishable U-Pb ages of 841 ± 12 and 836 ± 18 Ma, respectively, representing the timing of Fe-REE mineralization. There is no direct isotopic constraint on the timing of the Cu-Au mineralization, but geological observations suggest that the Cu-Au and Fe-REE ores most likely formed within a single evolved hydrothermal process. In the plot of 87Rb/86Sr vs. 87Sr/86Sr, the composition of bulk-ore and biotite separates from ore lie along a reference line for 30 Ma

  7. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  8. Epigenetic Loss of MLH1 Expression in Normal Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Clones is Defined by the Promoter CpG Methylation Pattern Observed by High-Throughput Methylation Specific Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Jonathan; Nickel-Meester, Gabrielle; Qing, Yulan; Santos-Guasch, Gabriela; Drake, Ellen; PingfuFu; Sun, Shuying; Bai, Xiaodong; Wald, David; Arts, Eric; Gerson, Stanton L

    Normal human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC) lose expression of MLH1 , an important mismatch repair (MMR) pathway gene, with age. Loss of MMR leads to replication dependent mutational events and microsatellite instability observed in secondary acute myelogenous leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. Epigenetic CpG methylation upstream of the MLH1 promoter is a contributing factor to acquired loss of MLH1 expression in tumors of the epithelia and proximal mucosa. Using single molecule high-throughput bisulfite sequencing we have characterized the CpG methylation landscape from -938 to -337 bp upstream of the MLH1 transcriptional start site (position +0), from 30 hematopoietic colony forming cell clones (CFC) either expressing or not expressing MLH1 . We identify a correlation between MLH1 promoter methylation and loss of MLH1 expression. Additionally, using the CpG site methylation frequencies obtained in this study we were able to generate a classification algorithm capable of sorting the expressing and non-expressing CFC. Thus, as has been previously described for many tumor cell types, we report for the first time a correlation between the loss of MLH1 expression and increased MLH1 promoter methylation in CFC derived from CD34 + selected hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

  9. A new type of Nb (Ta)-Zr(Hf)-REE-Ga polymetallic deposit in the late Permian coal-bearing strata, eastern Yunnan, southwestern China: Possible economic significance and genetic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shifeng; Wang, Xibo; Luo, Yangbing; Song, Zhentao; Ren, Deyi [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou, Yiping; Zhang, Mingquan; Wang, Jumin; Song, Xiaolin; Yang, Zong [Yunnan Institute of Coal Geology Prospection, Kunming 650218 (China); Jiang, Yaofa [Xuzhou Institute of Architectural Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes a new type of Nb(Ta)-Zr(Hf)-REE-Ga polymetallic deposit of volcanic origin in the late Permian coal-bearing strata of eastern Yunnan, southwestern China. Well logging data (especially natural gamma-ray), geochemical data (high concentrations of Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, REE, and Ga) and mineralogical compositions (Nb(Ta)-, Zr(Hf)-, or REE-bearing minerals rarely observed), together with the volcanic lithological characteristics indicate that there are thick (1-10 m, mostly 2-5 m) ore beds in the lower Xuanwei Formation (late Permian) in eastern Yunann of southwestern China. The ore beds are highly enriched in (Nb,Ta){sub 2}O{sub 5} (302-627 ppm), (Zr,Hf)O{sub 2} (3805-8468 ppm), REE (oxides of La-Lu + Y) (1216-1358 ppm), and Ga (52.4-81.3 ppm). The ore beds are mainly composed of quartz, mixed-layer illite-smectite, kaolinite, berthierine, and albite. Four types of ore beds in the study area were identified, namely, clay altered volcanic ash, tuffaceous clay, tuff, and volcanic breccia. Preliminary studies suggest that the high concentrations of otherwise rare metals were mainly derived from the alkalic pyroclastic rocks. The modes of occurrence, spatial distribution, and enrichment mechanism of the rare metals, however, require further study. (author)

  10. Aqueous speciation and the importance of particulate phase in hydro-geochemistry behaviour of U,Th and REE from uranium mine and Morro do Ferro, Pocos de Caldas - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Honerio Coutinho de

    1996-04-01

    This work, which was realized within the Natural Analogue Project Pocos de Caldas, had as its main objective the study of the colloidal behavior of U, Th, REE and some other elements of geochemical interest, in surface and groundwaters from the Osamu Utsumi mine and the Morro do ferro in Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais. Ultrafiltration techniques with flat membranes of different molecular mass exclusion limits (100 K, 10 K e 1K daltons) were used for this purpose. In addition, suspended matter (>0,45 μm), retained during pre-filtering of the waters, was analysed mineralogically and chemically (U, Th, REE, isotopic composition of U and Th, etc). Studies of the chemical composition of colloidal particles (<0,45 μm) and their size distributions were performed using ESCA and SEM, respectively. In addition, speciation studies by means of the MINEQL computation program were made to obtain information about the principal complexed species of relevant elements and the formation of solid phases. All the above mentioned investigations were aimed at better understanding of the migration and sorption behavior of U, Th and REE in both environments. The data obtained in this work indicate a low importance of particulate phases (colloids or suspended particles) for the migration behavior of U, Th and REE in waters from the Osumu Utsumi uranium mine and the Morro do ferro. However, these particles, composed mainly of ferric oxyhydrates and humic compounds, play an important role in sorption and immobilization processes. (author)

  11. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  12. 正常人音乐欣赏的脑功能磁共振激活模式研究%The study of fMRI activation pattern of normal brain music appreciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明; 赵晶; 和清源; 庞冉; 陈云翔; 王志群

    2016-01-01

    目的:采用血氧水平依赖的脑功能磁共振成像技术( BOLD-fMRI)技术,研究正常人欣赏欢快音乐时的脑功能区定位,探讨可能的神经网络调节机制。方法选择15例正常健康受试者,年龄25~50岁,在欣赏欢快音乐同时,用BOLD-fMRI技术进行脑功能磁共振成像检查,采用SPM软件对原始数据进行统计学处理,获得平均激活图,分析激活增高的脑区。结果15例受试者在欣赏欢快音乐时大脑显著激活了视觉注意网络、默认网络、运动感觉网络、认知记忆网络的相关脑区,这些脑区可能参与了音乐的感知、注意、记忆、情绪反应等过程。结论功能磁共振成像技术在音乐欣赏的功能定位方面具有独特的价值,欢快音乐欣赏可激活大脑多种功能神经网络参与处理。%Objective By using the blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging ( BOLD-fMRI ) technique, to study the normal brain function localization when listening cheerful music , and then to explore the possible neural network adjustment mechanism .Methods We selected 15 volunteers with normal mental health , age between 25~50 .While listening the cheerful music , BOLD-fMRI examinations were performed and the original image data were obtained for statistical processing by using SPM software .And then, the average activation graph was analyzed to acquire the activated brain regions . Results While the subjects listening the cheerful music , several brain networks were activated including visual attention net-work, default mode network , sensorimoter network and cognitive network .These brain regions probably involved in the Music per-ception, attention, memory, and emotional reaction process .Conclusion The application of fMRI technique in music apprecia-tion has unique value in the respect of functional localization , cheerful music can activate the brain functions involved in several neural networks .

  13. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  14. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  15. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  16. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Vaxman, Amir; Wonka, Peter; Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical

  17. Magmatic evolution of the Jbel Boho alkaline complex in the Bou Azzer inlier (Anti-Atlas/Morocco) and its relation to REE mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaouda, Rachid; Holzheid, Astrid; Schenk, Volker; Badra, Lakhlifi; Ennaciri, Aomar

    2017-05-01

    The Jbel Boho complex (Anti-Atlas/Morocco) is an alkaline magmatic complex that was formed during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition, contemporaneous with the lower early Cambrian dolomite sequence. The complex consists of a volcanic sequence comprising basanites, trachyandesites, trachytes and rhyolites that is intruded by a syenitic pluton. Both the volcanic suite and the pluton are cut by later microsyenitic and rhyolitic dykes. Although all Jbel Boho magmas were probably ultimately derived from the same, intraplate or plume-like source, new geochemical evidence supports the concept of a minimum three principal magma generations having formed the complex. Whereas all volcanic rocks (first generation) are LREE enriched and appear to be formed by fractional crystallization of a mantle-derived magma, resulting in strong negative Eu anomalies in the more evolved rocks associated with low Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta values, the younger syenitic pluton displays almost no negative Eu anomaly and very high Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta. The syenite is considered to be formed by a second generation of melt and likely formed through partial melting of underplated mafic rocks. The syenitic pluton consists of two types of syenitic rocks; olivine syenite and quartz syenite. The presence of quartz and a strong positive Pb anomaly in the quartz syenite contrasts strongly with the negative Pb anomaly in the olivine syenite and suggests the latter results from crustal contamination of the former. The late dyke swarm (third generation of melt) comprises microsyenitic and subalkaline rhyolitic compositions. The strong decrease of the alkali elements, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta and the high SiO2 contents in the rhyolitic dykes might be the result of mineral fractionation and addition of mineralizing fluids, allowing inter-element fractionation of even highly incompatible HFSE due to the presence of fluorine. The occurrence of fluorite in some volcanic rocks and the Ca-REE-F carbonate mineral synchysite in the dykes

  18. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  19. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  20. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  1. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  2. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  3. Signature of breccia complex/iron oxide- type U-REE mineralisation in the Khairagarh basin with special reference to Dongargaon- Lohara area, central India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansoti, S.K.; Sinha, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Khairagarh basin having late Archaean- early Proterozoic basement is filled up by middle Proterozoic Khairagarh group volcano - sedimentary sequence, laid in the Kotri rift zone (KRZ) with imprints of repetitive volcanic, plutonic and tectonic activities. A strong thermal imprint of ∼ 1.5 Ga has been recorded in rocks of the basin that could be an effect of copious outpouring of basalts, dacites, ignimbrites, together with the emplacements of stocks of gabbros, gabbroic dolerites, dolerites, granites, granophyres, felsites, aplites, and quartz veins. Some of the basement rocks are enriched in Fe, Cu and other base metals and have been emplaced and assimilated by the volcano- plutonic rocks of the Nandgaon group and Malanjkhand granitoids. The Nandgaon group rocks and the Malanjkhand granitoids have anomalous intrinsic abundance of U, REE, Cu, Fe and quite a few metals in different sectors. Thermo-tectonic (∼ 1.5 Ga) reactivation event(s) along the KRZ apart from facilitating formation of agglomerates, ignimbrites and tectonic breccias has promoted emplacement of plutonic and subvolcanic phases and their metasomatising and hydrothermal metal bearing fluids. In the Malanjkhand complex sector Cu±Mo±Fe±Ag±Au±REE±Zn metallisation and in the Dongargarh Massif sector U±Th±F±Fe±Pb±Zn±Cu±REE±Zr metallisation are manifested. The detection of Fe+U+REE ±Cu±Ni metallisation in the Bortalao sandstones of the Dongargaon - Lohara area, located in between Malanjkhand ore zone and the Chandidongri (Dongargarh granite hosted) fluorite-rich and Pb±Zn±Cu±U - bearing ore zone, considered to lie on the same (Malanjkhand - Chandidongri) fault/shear lineament is rated highly significant. This observation supports the prognosis that the terrain lying in between the Dongargarh Massif and the Malanjkhand Granitoid complex should be the locus for the mixing of the respective metal bearing fluids and such a terrain therefore should be considered as a first order

  4. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd for disentangling anthropogenic and natural REE contributions in river water during flood events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter; Pfister, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The sustainable management of water resources is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Water is a vital resource that is increasingly put under pressure from multiple perspectives. While the global population is on the rise, socio-economic development makes equally rapid progress - eventually compromising access to clean water bodies. Multiple pollution sources constitute an immediate threat to aquatic ecosystems and are likely to cause long lasting contaminations of water bodies that are critical for drinking and/or irrigation water production. There is a pressing need for an adequate quantification of anthropogenic impacts on the critical zone of river basins and the identification of the temporal dynamics of these impacts. As an example, despite the work done to assess the environmental impact of REE pollutions in larger river systems, we are still lacking information on the dynamics of these anthropogenic compounds in relation to rapid hydrological changes. Filling these knowledge gaps is a pre-requisite for the design and implementation of sustainable water resources management strategies. In order to better constrain the relative contributions of both anthropogenic and geogenic trace element sources we propose using a multitracer approach combining elemental and 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, and 206Pb/207Pb isotopic ratios. The use of these three separate isotopic systems together with REE concentrations is new in the field of anthropogenic source identification in river systems. We observed enrichments in Anthropogenic Rare Earth Elements (AREE) for dissolved Gd and suspended Nd loads of river water. With increasing discharge, AREE anomalies progressively disappeared and gave way to the geogenic chemical signature of the basin in both dissolved and suspended loads. The isotopic data confirm these observations and shed new light on the trace elements sources. On the one hand, dissolved loads have peculiar isotopic characteristics and carry mainly

  5. Normal sleep and its neurophysiological regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.F.; Talamini, L.M.; Watson, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Normal sleep consists of two states: NREM (light and deep sleep) and REM, alternating in a cyclical pattern. The sleep/wake rhythm is regulated by two processes: the sleep propensity, building up during wake, and the circadian rhythm, imposed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The arousal pathways in

  6. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  7. Distribution of rare earth elements in marine sediments from the Strait of Sicily (western Mediterranean Sea): Evidence of phosphogypsum waste contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranchida, G.; Oliveri, E.; Angelone, M.; Bellanca, A.; Censi, P.; D'Elia, M.; Neri, R.; Placenti, F.; Sprovieri, M.; Mazzola, S.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Coastal recent sediments from the Strait of Sicily showed elevated concentrations of REE associated to high Th concentrations. The shale-normalized REE + Y patterns are characterized by MREE enrichments relative to HREE and LREE, manifested with a convexity along the patterns. Sm n /La n ratio, indicative of MREE enrichments, showed a significant correlation with the Th concentration. This positive correlation supports the origin of these elements by phosphogypsum-contaminated effluents from an industrial plant, located in the southern Sicilian coast. Research highlights: → REE + Y contents are higher in onshore than offshore sediments. → Anomaly in sediments near southwestern Sicilian coast (site 134): high REE + Y. → REE + Y patterns show Middle REE enrichments (convexity around Sm-Gd-Eu elements). → Sm n /La n, measure of MREE enrichments, is correlated with high Th concentrations. → Anomalies are associated with the input of phosphogypsum-contaminated effluents. - Abstract: Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Y, Th and Sc were recently determined in marine sediments collected using a box corer along two onshore-offshore transects located in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). The REE + Y were enriched in offshore fine-grained sediments where clay minerals are abundant, whereas the REE + Y contents were lower in onshore coarse-grained sediments with high carbonate fractions. Considering this distribution trend, the onshore sediments in front of the southwestern Sicilian coast represent an anomaly with high REE + Y concentrations (mean value 163.4 μg g -1 ) associated to high Th concentrations (mean value 7.9 μg g -1 ). Plot of shale-normalized REE + Y data of these coastal sediments showed Middle REE enrichments relative to Light REE and Heavy REE, manifested by a convexity around Sm-Gd-Eu elements. These anomalies in the fractionation patterns of the coastal sediments were attributed to phosphogypsum

  8. Creació automàtica de diccionaris multilingües especialitzats en noves àrees temàtiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Moré

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En aquest article presentem una eina que genera automàticament diccionaris d'equivalències multilingües especialitzats en noves àrees temàtiques. L'eina explota recursos presents a la xarxa per a cercar les equivalències i verificar-ne la idoneïtat. Aquests recursos són, d'una banda, les viquipèdies, que es poden baixar i processar de manera lliure, i, de l'altra, els materials que institucions terminològiques de referència deixen disponibles. Aquesta eina pot ser útil per als docents que elaboren materials didàctics i per als investigadors que preparen tesis, articles o manuals de referència. També pot ser útil per als traductors i per als terminòlegs que s'ocupen de la normalització terminològica d'una nova àrea temàtica en una llengua determinada, els quals estan interessats a conèixer els conceptes que encara no tenen una denominació normalitzada.

  9. Molybdenite Re-Os dating of Mo-Th-Nb-REE rich marbles: pre-Variscan processes in Moldanubian Variegated Group (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drábek Milan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to contribute to the discussion concerning the age of rocks of the Moldanubian Variegated Group, we have undertaken Re-Os dating of molybdenite of banded carbonatite-like marbles (CLM from the graphite mine Václav at Bližná (Southern Bohemia, which belong to the metamorphic sequence of this group. The Re-Os model ages for the molybdenites range between 493 and 497 Ma and apparently correspond to the early stages of metamorphism connected with pre-Variscan rift-related tectono-metamorphic events, which affected and recrystallized sedimentary CLM material rich in Mo-Th-Nb-REE. The molybdenite bearing carbonatite like marbles situated in the footwall of Bližná graphite mine have been interpreted as carbonates with a large share of volcano-detritic material derived from contemporaneous primitive alkaline (carbonatite-like volcanism deposited in a shallow marine lagoonal environment. There is no geological evidence for the participation of fluids mobilized from host rocks in the formation of the CLM. Because the Re-Os chronometer in molybdenite is demonstrably stable through later Variscan facies metamorphism, the molybdenite chronometer has not been affected by subsequent thermal overprints associated with the Variscan orogeny.

  10. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  11. Patterns - "A crime solver".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasupriya, A; Dhanapal, Raghu; Reena, K; Saraswathi, Tr; Ramachandran, Cr

    2011-01-01

    This study is intended to analyze the predominant pattern of lip and finger prints in males and females and to correlate lip print and finger print for gender identity. The study sample comprised of 200 students of Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, 100 males and 100 females aged between 18 to 27 years. Brown/pink colored lip stick was applied on the lips and the subject was asked to spread it uniformly over the lips. Lip prints were traced in the normal rest position of the lips with the help of cellophane tape. The imprint of the left thumb was taken on a white chart sheet and visualized using magnifying lens. While three main types of finger prints are identified, the classification of lip prints is simplified into branched, reticular, and vertical types. Association between lip prints and finger prints was statistically tested using Chi-square test. This study showed that lip and finger patterns did not reveal statistically significant results within the gender. The correlation between lip and finger patterns for gender identification, was statistically significant. In males, branched type of lip pattern associated with arch, loop, and whorl type of finger pattern was most significant. In females, vertical lip pattern associated with arch finger pattern and reticular lip pattern associated with whorl finger patterns were most significant. We conclude that a correlative study between the lip print and finger print will be very useful in forensic science for gender identification.

  12. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  13. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  14. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  15. Analyzing Solutions High in Total Dissolved Solids for Rare Earth Elements (REEs) Using Cation Exchange and Online Pre-Concentration with the seaFAST2 Unit; NETL-TRS-7-2017; NETL Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Albany, OR, 2017; p 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Science; Torres, M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Science; Verba, C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Hakala, A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The accurate quantification of the rare earth element (REE) dissolved concentrations in natural waters are often inhibited by their low abundances in relation to other dissolved constituents such as alkali, alkaline earth elements, and dissolved solids. The high abundance of these constituents can suppress the overall analytical signal as well as create isobaric interferences on the REEs during analysis. Waters associated with natural gas operations on black shale plays are characterized by high salinities and high total dissolved solids (TDS) contents >150,000 mg/L. Methods used to isolate and quantify dissolved REEs in seawater were adapted in order to develop the capability of analyzing REEs in waters that are high in TDS. First, a synthetic fluid based on geochemical modelling of natural brine formation fluids was created within the Marcellus black shale with a TDS loading of 153,000 mg/L. To this solution, 1,000 ng/mL of REE standards was added based on preliminary analyses of experimental fluids reacted at high pressure and temperature with Marcellus black shale. These synthetic fluids were then run at three different dilution levels of 10, 100, and 1,000–fold dilutions through cation exchange columns using AG50-X8 exchange resin from Eichrom Industries. The eluent from the cation columns were then sent through a seaFAST2 unit directly connected to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to analyze the REEs. Percent recoveries of the REEs ranged from 80–110% and fell within error for the external reference standard used and no signal suppression or isobaric interferences on the REEs were observed. These results demonstrate that a combined use of cation exchange columns and seaFAST2 instrumentation are effective in accurately quantifying the dissolved REEs in fluids that are >150,000 mg/L in TDS and have Ba:Eu ratios in excess of 380,000.

  16. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  17. Medically-enhanced normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To consider public perspectives on the use of medicines for non-medical purposes, a usage called medically-enhanced normality (MEN). Method: Examples from the literature were combined with empirical data derived from two Danish research projects: a Delphi internet study and a Telebus...

  18. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2015-10-27

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.

  20. Tc and R M encephalic: normal and pathological patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servente, L.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about the basic concepts of CT and MR encephalic: The physical principles and the use of iodine allow to detect neoplasms, infections, vascular alterations and inflammation. CT is essential in traumatic pathology to discard possible bleeding, CT angiography, tumor pathology and infections, calcifications and osseous lesions, secondary indications, pathology of cranial pairs, epilepsy, encephalitis, etc.

  1. Standardization of pattern electroretinograms by alternate reversion in normal volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Torigoe, Andréa Mara Simões; Quagliato, Elizabeth M. A. B.; Torigoe, Marcelo; Carvalho, Keila Mirian Monteiro de

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Realizar a normatização do eletrorretinograma por reversão alternada em indivíduos oftalmologicamente normais e sem doenças neurológicas associadas, determinando a faixa de normalidade estratificada por sexo, faixa etária e estímulo utilizado. MÉTODOS: A padronização seguiu o modelo proposto pela Organização Internacional de Eletrorretinografia e a normatização foi específica para o laboratório de potenciais evocados do Departamento de Neurologia da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas - U...

  2. The Redox Dynamics of Iron in a Seasonally Waterlogged Forest Soil (Chaux Forest, Eastern France) Traced with Rare Earth Element Distribution Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, M.; Floch, A. L.; Lucot, E.; Badot, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The oxyhydroxides of iron are common soil minerals and known to control the availability of various major and trace elements essential for biogeochemical processes. We present a study from acidic natural forest soils, where reducing redox conditions due to seasonal waterlogging lead to the dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxides, and to the release of Fe to soil water. In order to study in detail the mechanism of redox cycling of Fe, we used Rare Earth Element (REE) distribution patterns, because an earlier study has shown that they are a suitable tool to identify trace metal sources during soil reduction in wetland soils (Davranche et al., 2011). The REE patterns of soil leachates obtained with the modified 3-step BCR extraction scheme of Rauret et al., (1999) were compared with those of natural soil water. The adsorbed fractions (F1 leach), the reducible fraction of the deepest soil horizon H4 (F2 leach, 50-120 cm), and the oxidizable fractions of horizons H2 to H4 (F3 leachs, 24-120 cm) yielded REE patterns almost identical to soil water (see figure), showing that the REE and trace metal content of soil water was mainly derived from the F1 pool, and from the F2 and F3 pools of the clay mineral-rich deep soil horizons. In contrast, the F2 leach mobilized mainly Fe-oxyhydroxides associated with organic matter of the surface soil and yielded REE patterns significantly different from those of soil water. These results suggest that the trace metal content of soil water in hydromorphic soils is primarily controlled by the clay fraction of the deeper soil horizons and not by organic matter and related Fe-oxyhydroxides of the surface soil. Additional analyses are in progress in order to verify whether the REE and trace metals of the deeper soil horizons were directly derived from clay minerals or from associated Fe-oxyhydroxide coatings. Refs cited: Davranche et al. (2011), Chem. Geol. 284; Rauret et al. (1999), J. Environ. Monit. 1.

  3. Right thoracic curvature in the normal spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda Keigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry and vertebral rotation, at times observed in the normal spine, resemble the characteristics of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Right thoracic curvature has also been reported in the normal spine. If it is determined that the features of right thoracic side curvature in the normal spine are the same as those observed in AIS, these findings might provide a basis for elucidating the etiology of this condition. For this reason, we investigated right thoracic curvature in the normal spine. Methods For normal spinal measurements, 1,200 patients who underwent a posteroanterior chest radiographs were evaluated. These consisted of 400 children (ages 4-9, 400 adolescents (ages 10-19 and 400 adults (ages 20-29, with each group comprised of both genders. The exclusion criteria were obvious chest and spinal diseases. As side curvature is minimal in normal spines and the range at which curvature is measured is difficult to ascertain, first the typical curvature range in scoliosis patients was determined and then the Cobb angle in normal spines was measured using the same range as the scoliosis curve, from T5 to T12. Right thoracic curvature was given a positive value. The curve pattern was organized in each collective three groups: neutral (from -1 degree to 1 degree, right (> +1 degree, and left ( Results In child group, Cobb angle in left was 120, in neutral was 125 and in right was 155. In adolescent group, Cobb angle in left was 70, in neutral was 114 and in right was 216. In adult group, Cobb angle in left was 46, in neutral was 102 and in right was 252. The curvature pattern shifts to the right side in the adolescent group (p Conclusions Based on standing chest radiographic measurements, a right thoracic curvature was observed in normal spines after adolescence.

  4. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  5. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  6. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  7. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. REE, Sm-Nd and U-Pb zircon study of eclogites from the Alpine External Massifs (Western Alps): Evidence for crustal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, J.L.; Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich; Menot, R.P.; Peucat, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    A geochemical and geochronological study of the Alpine External Crystalline Massifs (AECM) of Aiguilles Rouges, Belledonne and Argentera was undertaken in order to constrain the geodynamic evolution of this segment of the Variscan foldbelt. Another aim of the study is to characterize the behaviour of isotopic markers, in particular the U-Pb zircon system, under high-grade metamorphic conditions. The whole-rock geochemistry of eclogites and amphibolites was investigated using major and trace element (including the REE) analytical techniques; isotopic studies were performed by application of the Sm-Nd whole-rock and U-Pb zircon methods. In terms of regional geological history, the early development of metamorphic and magmatic activity in the AECM is typical of the extensional tectonic regime observed throughout the Variscan foldbelt during the Cambro-Ordovician (i.e. basic magmatism dated at 475-450 Ma). The composition of the metabasic rocks is closely similar to tholeiites emplaced into thinned continental crust which are generally associated with the initial stages of oceanic rifting. The source regions for these metabasics are characterized by initial ε Nd values between +6 and +8, suggesting depleted mantle sources influenced by a weak crustal component and/or the existence of a metasomatised lithosphere. The multi-stage eclogite-facies metamorphism is dated at 425-395 Ma (i.e. Silurian). An application of the U-Pb method, associated with the artificial abrasion of zircon grains, has led to the recognition of a weak crustal contamination in the metabasic protoliths. This is implied by the Archaean and Lower Proterozoic upper intercepts on Concordia - devoid of geological significance - which reflect the presence of a pre-existing basement to the AECM. (orig./WL)

  9. Development of a versatile sample preparation method and its application for rare-earth pattern and Nd isotope ratio analysis in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajko, J.

    2015-01-01

    An improved sample preparation procedure for trace-levels of lanthanides in uranium-bearing samples was developed. The method involves a simple co-precipitation using Fe(III) carrier in ammonium carbonate medium to remove the uranium matrix. The procedure is an effective initial pre-concentration step for the subsequent extraction chromatographic separations. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the measurement of REE pattern and 143 Nd/ 144 Nd isotope ratio in uranium ore concentrate samples. (author)

  10. Normal anatomy of lung perfusion SPECT scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, G.W.; Levy, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Ten patients studies for possible pulmonary embolic disease had normal lung perfusion planar and SPECT scintigraphy. A computer program was developed to superimpose the CT scans on corresponding SPECT images. Superimposition of CT scans on corresponding SPECT transaxial cross-sectional images, when available, provides the needed definition and relationships of adjacent organs. SPECT transaxial sections provide clear anatomic definition of perfusion defects without foreground and background lung tissue superimposed. The location, shape, and size of the perfusion defects can be readily assessed by SPECT. An algorithm was developed for the differentiation of abnormal pulmonary perfusion patterns from normal structures on variation

  11. Normal human bone marrow and its variations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Schmidt, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Physiology and age dependant changes of human bone marrow are described. The resulting normal distribution patterns of active and inactive bone marrow including the various contrasts on different MR-sequences are discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. The variability problem of normal human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have suggested considerable inter-individual variability in the time course pattern of net joint moments during normal human walking, although the limited sample sizes precluded statistical analyses. The purpose of the present study was to obtain joint moment patterns from...... a group of normal subjects and to test whether or not the expected differences would prove to be statistically significant. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recorded on video while they walked across two force platforms. Ten kinematic and kinetic parameters were selected and input to a statistical...... cluster analysis to determine whether or not the 15 subjects could be divided into different 'families' (clusters) of walking strategy. The net joint moments showed a variability corroborating earlier reports. The cluster analysis showed that the 15 subjects could be grouped into two clusters of 5 and 10...

  13. Research on Normal Human Plantar Pressure Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available FSR400 pressure sensor, nRF905 wireless transceiver and MSP40 SCM are used to design the insole pressure collection system, LabVIEW is used to make HMI of data acquisition, collecting a certain amount of normal human foot pressure data, statistical analysis of pressure distribution relations about five stages of swing phase during walking, using the grid closeness degree to identify plantar pressure distribution pattern recognition, and the algorithm simulation, experimental results demonstrated this method feasible.

  14. Specialization Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  15. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  16. Normal distal pulmonary vein anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that the pulmonary veins (PVs, especially their myocardial sleeves play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Understanding the PV anatomy is crucial for the safety and efficacy of all procedures performed on PVs. The aim of this study was to present normal distal PV anatomy and to create a juxtaposition of all PV ostium variants.Methods. A total of 130 randomly selected autopsied adult human hearts (Caucasian were examined. The number of PVs ostia was evaluated and their diameter was measured. The ostium-to-last-tributary distance and macroscopic presence of myocardial sleeves were also evaluated.Results. Five hundred forty-one PV ostia were identified. Four classical PV ostia patterns (two left and two right PVs were observed in 70.8% of all cases. The most common variant was the classical pattern with additional middle right PV (19.2%, followed by the common ostium for the left superior and the inferior PVs (4.44%. Mean diameters of PV ostia (for the classical pattern were: left superior = 13.8 ± 2.9 mm; left inferior = 13.3 ± 3.4 mm; right superior = 14.3 ± 2.9 mm; right inferior = 13.7 ± 3.3 mm. When present, the additional middle right PV ostium had the smallest PV ostium diameter in the heart (8.2 ± 4.1 mm. The mean ostium-to-last-tributary (closest to the atrium distances were: left superior = 15.1 ± 4.6 mm; left inferior = 13.5 ± 4.0 mm; right superior = 11.8 ± 4.0 mm; right inferior = 11.0 ± 3.7 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes in ostia diameters and ostium-to-last-tributary distances.Conclusion. Only 71% of the cases have four standard pulmonary veins. The middle right pulmonary vein is present in almost 20% of patients. Presented data can provide useful information for the clinicians during interventional procedures or radiologic examinations of PVs.

  17. Theory of normal metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The organizers requested that I give eight lectures on the theory of normal metals, ''with an eye on superconductivity.'' My job was to cover the general properties of metals. The topics were selected according to what the students would need to known for the following lectures on superconductivity. My role was to prepare the ground work for the later lectures. The problem is that there is not yet a widely accepted theory for the mechanism which pairs the electrons. Many mechanisms have been proposed, with those of phonons and spin fluctuations having the most followers. So I tried to discuss both topics. I also introduced the tight-binding model for metals, which forms the basis for most of the work on the cuprate superconductors

  18. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence

  19. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Huang, Qixing; Deng, Bailin; Schiftner, Alexander; Kilian, Martin; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Wallner, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  20. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  1. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  2. Fuel pattern recognition device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomomi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention monitors normal fuel exchange upon fuel exchanging operation carried out in a reactor of a nuclear power plant. Namely, a fuel exchanger is movably disposed to the upper portion of the reactor and exchanges fuels. An exclusive computer receives operation signals of the fuel exchanger during operation as inputs, and outputs reactor core fuel pattern information signals to a fuel arrangement diagnosis device. An underwater television camera outputs image signals of a fuel pattern in the reactor core to an image processing device. If there is any change in the image signals for the fuel pattern as a result of the fuel exchange operation of the fuel exchanger, the image processing device outputs the change as image signals to the fuel pattern diagnosis device. The fuel pattern diagnosis device compares the pattern information signals from the exclusive computer with the image signals from the image processing device, to diagnose the result of the fuel exchange operation performed by the fuel exchanger and inform the diagnosis by means of an image display. (I.S.)

  3. Search Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  4. A group of facial normal descriptors for recognizing 3D identical twins

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin; Huang, Di; Chen, Liming; Wang, Yunhong; Morvan, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, to characterize and distinguish identical twins, three popular texture descriptors: i.e. local binary patterns (LBPs), gabor filters (GFs) and local gabor binary patterns (LGBPs) are employed to encode the normal components (x, y

  5. Application of unsupervised pattern recognition approaches for exploration of rare earth elements in Se-Chahun iron ore, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarparandeh, Mohammadali; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2017-12-01

    The use of efficient methods for data processing has always been of interest to researchers in the field of earth sciences. Pattern recognition techniques are appropriate methods for high-dimensional data such as geochemical data. Evaluation of the geochemical distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) requires the use of such methods. In particular, the multivariate nature of REE data makes them a good target for numerical analysis. The main subject of this paper is application of unsupervised pattern recognition approaches in evaluating geochemical distribution of REEs in the Kiruna type magnetite-apatite deposit of Se-Chahun. For this purpose, 42 bulk lithology samples were collected from the Se-Chahun iron ore deposit. In this study, 14 rare earth elements were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Pattern recognition makes it possible to evaluate the relations between the samples based on all these 14 features, simultaneously. In addition to providing easy solutions, discovery of the hidden information and relations of data samples is the advantage of these methods. Therefore, four clustering methods (unsupervised pattern recognition) - including a modified basic sequential algorithmic scheme (MBSAS), hierarchical (agglomerative) clustering, k-means clustering and self-organizing map (SOM) - were applied and results were evaluated using the silhouette criterion. Samples were clustered in four types. Finally, the results of this study were validated with geological facts and analysis results from, for example, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ICP-MS and optical mineralogy. The results of the k-means clustering and SOM methods have the best matches with reality, with experimental studies of samples and with field surveys. Since only the rare earth elements are used in this division, a good agreement of the results with lithology is considerable. It is concluded that the combination of the proposed

  6. Análise comparativa dos padrões de deglutição de crianças com paralisia cerebral e crianças normais Comparative analysis of swallowing patterns between children with cerebral palsy and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Aurélio

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: o propósito desse estudo foi comparar os padrões de deglutição em crianças com paralisia cerebral (PC e crianças sem distúrbios neurológicos, relacionando a disfunção motora oral, a quadriplegia e a consistência dos alimentos com o tempo de deglutição. Material e método: Setenta e seis crianças participaram desse estudo, com idades variando de 1 a 5 anos, sendo 57 com paralisia cerebral e 19 sem distúrbios neurológicos. Três consistências de alimentos foram examinadas: líquida (suco, pastosa (iogurte e sólida (bolacha, sendo cronometrado o tempo gasto para deglutir cada uma delas, durante o horário normal de lanche das mesmas. Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que: 1 o grupo com PC levou até 14,2 vezes mais tempo para deglutir os alimentos que o outro grupo; 2 quanto maior era a disfunção motora oral das crianças, maior era o tempo gasto para deglutir os alimentos e, 3 das três consistências pesquisadas, o alimento pastoso foi aquele, em que os tempos de deglutição obtidos de cada grupo estiveram mais próximos.Aim: the purpose of this study is to compare deglutition patterns in children with cerebral palsy and children without neurological problems and to investigate the influence of oral motor dysfunction, quadriplegia and food texture, in the time spent for swallowing. Material and method: Seventy-six children aged 1-5 years participated in the study (57 with cerebral palsy and 19 without neurological problems. Three food textures were examined during children’s snack time: liquid (juice, paste (yogurt and solid (cracker. Result: The result demonstrates, for the cerebral palsy group, their feeding took up to 15 times longer than normal. The more severe the degree of oral motor dysfunction, the longer was the time spent for swallowing. From the textures studied, paste was the one in which children with cerebral palsy were closer in time to the group without neurological problems. It suggests that

  7. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  8. Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Osamu; Shimazu, Hideki

    1985-03-01

    We previously reported basic and clinical evaluation of aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-millimicrosphere albumin (milli MISA) and concluded aerosol inhalation scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-milli MISA was useful for routine examination. But central airway deposit of aerosol particles was found in not only the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but also normal subjects. So we performed aerosol inhalation scintigraphy in normal subjects and evaluated their scintigrams. The subjects had normal values of FEVsub(1.0)% (more than 70%) in lung function tests, no abnormal findings in chest X-ray films and no symptoms and signs. The findings of aerosol inhalation scintigrams in them were classified into 3 patterns; type I: homogeneous distribution without central airway deposit, type II: homogeneous distribution with central airway deposit, type III: inhomogeneous distribution. These patterns were compared with lung function tests. There was no significant correlation between type I and type II in lung function tests. Type III was different from type I and type II in inhomogeneous distribution. This finding showed no correlation with %VC, FEVsub(1.0)%, MMF, V radical50 and V radical50/V radical25, but good correlation with V radical25 in a maximum forced expiratory flow-volume curve. Flow-volume curve is one of the sensitive methods in early detection of COPD, so inhomogeneous distribution of type III is considered to be due to small airway dysfunction.

  9. Normal and abnormal aging in bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ardila

    Full Text Available Abstract Bilinguals use two different language systems to mediate not only social communication, but also cognitive processes. Potential differences between bilinguals and monolinguals in task-solving strategies and patterns of cognitive decline during normal and abnormal aging have been suggested. Main contribution: A research review of the area suggests that normal aging is associated with increased interference between the two languages and tendency to retreat to a single language. General cognitive functioning has been found to be higher in demented bilingual patients if communication is carried out in L1 rather than in L2. Recent research has reported that bilingualism can have a protective effect during aging, attenuating the normal cognitive decline associated with aging, and delaying the onset of dementia. Conclusions: Regardless of the significant heterogeneity of bilingualism and the diversity of patterns in language use during life-span, current research suggests that bilingualism is associated with preserved cognitive test performance during aging, and potentially can have some protective effect in dementia.

  10. Normal people working in normal organizations with normal equipment: system safety and cognition in a mid-air collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues; Gomes, José Orlando; Huber, Gilbert Jacob; Vidal, Mario Cesar

    2009-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in improving the safety of complex systems is to understand how accidents emerge in normal working situations, with equipment functioning normally in normally structured organizations. We present a field study of the en route mid-air collision between a commercial carrier and an executive jet, in the clear afternoon Amazon sky in which 154 people lost their lives, that illustrates one response to this challenge. Our focus was on how and why the several safety barriers of a well structured air traffic system melted down enabling the occurrence of this tragedy, without any catastrophic component failure, and in a situation where everything was functioning normally. We identify strong consistencies and feedbacks regarding factors of system day-to-day functioning that made monitoring and awareness difficult, and the cognitive strategies that operators have developed to deal with overall system behavior. These findings emphasize the active problem-solving behavior needed in air traffic control work, and highlight how the day-to-day functioning of the system can jeopardize such behavior. An immediate consequence is that safety managers and engineers should review their traditional safety approach and accident models based on equipment failure probability, linear combinations of failures, rules and procedures, and human errors, to deal with complex patterns of coincidence possibilities, unexpected links, resonance among system functions and activities, and system cognition.

  11. Padrões de deficiência hídrica para a cultura de milho (safra normal e safrinha no estado de Goiás e suas conseqüencias para o melhoramento genético Water stress pattern for corn (first and second crop in the Goiás State and their consequences for the breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bryan Heinemann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Deficiência hídrica é considerada a maior restrição na produção e estabilidade da produtividade de culturas em muitas regiões do mundo. No Estado de Goiás, região na qual predomina a produção em sequeiro, para a cultura do milho (Zea mays L. implantada na safra normal e na safrinha, é comum sofrer períodos de estresse por deficiência hídrica intermitente ou terminal, que reduzem o rendimento de grãos. No processo de desenvolvimento de novos híbridos e variedades cultivadas, genótipos são selecionados em função de sua adaptabilidade em um determinado ambiente alvo. Assim, programas de melhoramento vegetal, com o objetivo de desenvolver híbridos e variedades cultivadas mais adaptados a um determinado ambiente, requerem informações sob a probabilidade de ocorrência dos diferentes tipos de deficiência hídrica, como também, suas características, intensidade e tempo, em função da fase fenológica da cultura. Um modelo de simulação de culturas foi utilizado para determinar os padrões de deficiência hídrica no estado de Goiás, considerando 12 locais e 6 diferentes datas de semeadura para a cultura do milho semeada na safra normal e na safrinha. Para a cultura do milho semeado na safra normal, a perda na produtividade decorrente do estresse por deficiência hídrica foi menor que 50%, sendo que os tipos de deficiência hídrica que provocam um maior impacto na produtividade iniciam-se no começo do período reprodutivo. Para o milho semeado na safrinha, a perda na produtividade é superior a 50%, sendo mais comum o estresse terminal, que tem sua maior intensidade no enchimento de grãos.Water stress is a major constraint to crop production and yield stability in many regions of the world. The cultivation of corn (Zea mays L. in the Brazilian State of Goiás, is frequent affected by periods of water stress resulting in yield reduction. During the process of developing new hybrids and cultivated varieties, new

  12. Clay Mineralogy of Coal-Hosted Nb-Zr-REE-Ga Mineralized Beds from Late Permian Strata, Eastern Yunnan, SW China: Implications for Paleotemperature and Origin of the Micro-Quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The clay mineralogy of pyroclastic Nb(Ta-Zr(Hf-REE-Ga mineralization in Late Permian coal-bearing strata from eastern Yunnan Province; southwest China was investigated in this study. Samples from XW and LK drill holes in this area were analyzed using XRD (X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electronic microscope. Results show that clay minerals in the Nb-Zr-REE-Ga mineralized samples are composed of mixed layer illite/smectite (I/S; kaolinite and berthierine. I/S is the major component among the clay assemblages. The source volcanic ashes controlled the modes of occurrence of the clay minerals. Volcanic ash-originated kaolinite and berthierine occur as vermicular and angular particles, respectively. I/S is confined to the matrix and is derived from illitization of smectite which was derived from the original volcanic ashes. Other types of clay minerals including I/S and berthierine precipitated from hydrothermal solutions were found within plant cells; and coexisting with angular berthierine and vermicular kaolinite. Inferred from the fact that most of the I/S is R1 ordered with one case of the R3 I/S; the paleo-diagenetic temperature could be up to 180 °C but mostly 100–160 °C. The micro-crystalline quartz grains (<10 µm closely associated with I/S were observed under SEM and were most likely the product of desiliconization during illitization of smectite.

  13. Application of stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle inventory (LCI) of the rare earth elements (REEs) in beneficiation rare earth waste from the gold processing: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Bogusław; Grzesik, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The study proposes an stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle assessment (LCA) method limited to life cycle inventory (LCI) study for rare earth elements (REEs) recovery from the secondary materials processes production applied to the New Krankberg Mine in Sweden. The MC method is recognizes as an important tool in science and can be considered the most effective quantification approach for uncertainties. The use of stochastic approach helps to characterize the uncertainties better than deterministic method. Uncertainty of data can be expressed through a definition of probability distribution of that data (e.g. through standard deviation or variance). The data used in this study are obtained from: (i) site-specific measured or calculated data, (ii) values based on literature, (iii) the ecoinvent process "rare earth concentrate, 70% REO, from bastnäsite, at beneficiation". Environmental emissions (e.g, particulates, uranium-238, thorium-232), energy and REE (La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Dy, Eu, Tb, Y, Sc, Yb, Lu, Tm, Y, Gd) have been inventoried. The study is based on a reference case for the year 2016. The combination of MC analysis with sensitivity analysis is the best solution for quantified the uncertainty in the LCI/LCA. The reliability of LCA results may be uncertain, to a certain degree, but this uncertainty can be noticed with the help of MC method.

  14. On the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, M.A.; Kinoshenko, Yu.T.

    1982-01-01

    The notions ''normal'' and ''pathologically altered pulmonary pattern'' are specified. A grouping of lung pattern alterations based on morphopathogenetic features is provided: blood and lymphatic vascular alterations, changes in the bronchi, lung stroma, and combined alterations. Radiologic appearance of the altered pulmonary pattern is classified in keeping with the basic principles of an X-ray shade examination. The terms, such as ''enriching'', ''strengthening'', ''deformation'', etc., used for describing the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern are defined

  15. A group of facial normal descriptors for recognizing 3D identical twins

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, to characterize and distinguish identical twins, three popular texture descriptors: i.e. local binary patterns (LBPs), gabor filters (GFs) and local gabor binary patterns (LGBPs) are employed to encode the normal components (x, y and z) of the 3D facial surfaces of identical twins respectively. A group of facial normal descriptors are thus achieved, including Normal Local Binary Patterns descriptor (N-LBPs), Normal Gabor Filters descriptor (N-GFs) and Normal Local Gabor Binary Patterns descriptor (N-LGBPs). All these normal encoding based descriptors are further fed into sparse representation classifier (SRC) for identification. Experimental results on the 3D TEC database demonstrate that these proposed normal encoding based descriptors are very discriminative and efficient, achieving comparable performance to the best of state-of-the-art algorithms. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Rare earth element patterns of the Central Indian Basin sediments related to their lithology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Roelandts, I.; Sudhakar, M.; Pluger, W.L.

    Rare earth element (REE) concentration have been determined in terrigenous, siliceous (nodule barren and nodule bearing), calcareous, and red clay from the Central Indian Basin. The bulk distribution of REE, and in particular the relative cerium...

  17. Geochemical characteristics of dissolved rare earth elements in acid mine drainage from abandoned high-As coal mining area, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuexian; Wu, Pan

    2017-09-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) represents a major source of water pollution in the small watershed of Xingren coalfield in southwestern Guizhou Province. A detailed geochemical study was performed to investigate the origin, distribution, and migration of REEs by determining the concentrations of REEs and major solutes in AMD samples, concentrations of REEs in coal, bedrocks, and sediment samples, and modeling REEs aqueous species. The results highlighted that all water samples collected in the mining area are identified as low pH, high concentrations of Fe, Al, SO 4 2- and distinctive As and REEs. The spatial distributions of REEs showed a peak in where it is nearby the location of discharging of AMD, and then decrease significantly with distance away from the mining areas. Lots of labile REEs have an origin of coal and bedrocks, whereas the acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite is a prerequisite to cause the dissolution of coal and bedrocks, and then promoting REEs release in AMD. The North American Shale Composite (NASC)-normalized REE patterns of coal and bedrocks are enriched in light REEs (LREEs) and middle REEs (MREEs) relative to heavy REEs (HREEs). Contrary to these solid samples, AMD samples showed slightly enrichment of MREEs compared with LREEs and HREEs. This behavior implied that REEs probably fractionate during acid leaching, dissolution of bedrocks, and subsequent transport, so that the MREEs is primarily enriched in AMD samples. Calculation of REEs inorganic species for AMD demonstrated that sulfate complexes (Ln(SO 4 ) + and Ln(SO 4 ) 2 - ) predominate in these species, accounting for most of proportions for the total REEs species. The high concentrations of dissolved SO 4 2- and low pH play a decisive role in controlling the presence of REEs in AMD, as these conditions are necessary for formation of stable REEs-sulfate complexes in current study. The migration and transportation of REEs in AMD are more likely constrained by adsorption and co

  18. Strata-bound Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE deposits of the Idaho Cobalt Belt: Multistage hydrothermal mineralization in a magmatic-related iron oxide copper-gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical studies of strata-bound Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-rare-earth element (REE) deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt in east-central Idaho provide evidence of multistage epigenetic mineralization by magmatic-hydrothermal processes in an iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) system. Deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt comprise three types: (1) strata-bound sulfide lenses in the Blackbird district, which are cobaltite and, less commonly, chalcopyrite rich with locally abundant gold, native bismuth, bismuthinite, xenotime, allanite, monazite, and the Be-rich silicate gadolinite-(Y), with sparse uraninite, stannite, and Bi tellurides, in a gangue of quartz, chlorite, biotite, muscovite, garnet, tourmaline, chloritoid, and/or siderite, with locally abundant fluorapatite or magnetite; (2) discordant tourmalinized breccias in the Blackbird district that in places have concentrations of cobaltite, chalcopyrite, gold, and xenotime; and (3) strata-bound magnetite-rich lenses in the Iron Creek area, which contain cobaltiferous pyrite and locally sparse chalcopyrite or xenotime. Most sulfide-rich deposits in the Blackbird district are enclosed by strata-bound lenses composed mainly of Cl-rich Fe biotite; some deposits have quartz-rich envelopes.Whole-rock analyses of 48 Co- and/or Cu-rich samples show high concentrations of Au (up to 26.8 ppm), Bi (up to 9.16 wt %), Y (up to 0.83 wt %), ∑REEs (up to 2.56 wt %), Ni (up to 6,780 ppm), and Be (up to 1,180 ppm), with locally elevated U (up to 124 ppm) and Sn (up to 133 ppm); Zn and Pb contents are uniformly low (≤821 and ≤61 ppm, respectively). Varimax factor analysis of bulk compositions of these samples reveals geochemically distinct element groupings that reflect statistical associations of monazite, allanite, and xenotime; biotite and gold; detrital minerals; chalcopyrite and sparse stannite; quartz; and cobaltite with sparse selenides and tellurides. Significantly, Cu is statistically separate from Co and As

  19. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  20. Granular patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Aranson, Igor S

    2009-01-01

    This title presents a review of experiments and novel theoretical concepts needed to understand the mechanisms of pattern formation in granular materials. An effort is made to connect concepts and ideas developed in granular physics with new emergent fields, especially in biology, such as cytoskeleton dynamics.

  1. Bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina | Okeke | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior‑posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events ...

  2. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mahmoud; Beer, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN), to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  3. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghandi

    Full Text Available Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN, to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  4. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; univariate study; normalization models; stainless steel; standard error of prediction. Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their ...

  5. Origin of middle rare earth element enrichments in acid waters of a Canadian high Arctic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kevin H.; Zhou, Xiaoping

    1999-01-01

    -Middle rare earth element (MREE) enriched rock-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of a dilute acidic lake (Colour Lake) in the Canadian High Arctic, were investigated by quantifying whole-rock REE concentrations of rock samples collected from the catchment basin, as well as determining the acid leachable REE fraction of these rocks. An aliquot of each rock sample was leached with 1 N HNO 3 to examine the readily leachable REE fraction of each rock, and an additional aliquot was leached with a 0.04 M NH 2OH · HCl in 25% (v/v) CH 3COOH solution, designed specifically to reduce Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides. Rare earth elements associated with the leachates that reacted with clastic sedimentary rock samples containing petrographically identifiable Fe-Mn oxide/oxyhydroxide cements and/or minerals/amorphous phases, exhibited whole-rock-normalized REE patterns similar to the lake waters, whereas whole-rock-normalized leachates from mafic igneous rocks and other clastic sedimentary rocks from the catchment basin differed substantially from the lake waters. The whole-rock, leachates, and lake water REE data support acid leaching or dissolution of MREE enriched Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides contained and identified within some of the catchment basin sedimentary rocks as the likely source of the unique lake water REE patterns. Solution complexation modelling of the REEs in the inflow streams and lake waters indicate that free metal ions (e.g., Ln 3+, where Ln = any REE) and sulfate complexes (LnSO 4+) are the dominant forms of dissolved REEs. Consequently, solution complexation reactions involving the REEs during weathering, transport to the lake, or within the lake, cannot be invoked to explain the MREE enrichments observed in the lake waters.

  6. Radiologic study of patellofemoral congruence in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diedrichs, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to establish the normal position of the patella, in relation to the intercondilar sulcus, we have evaluated 72 adults patients, making use of the FICAT view in axial radiographys at 30 0 : a simple and accurate technique adopted to measure the congrunce angle in the detection of sub-luxation of the patella. The value of +9 0 was used as the normal pattern for the maximal lateral position of the patella in the intercondilar sulcus. (Author) [pt

  7. Proof patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook introduces a new pattern-based approach to learning proof methods in the mathematical sciences. Readers will discover techniques that will enable them to learn new proofs across different areas of pure mathematics with ease. The patterns in proofs from diverse fields such as algebra, analysis, topology and number theory are explored. Specific topics examined include game theory, combinatorics, and Euclidean geometry, enabling a broad familiarity. The author, an experienced lecturer and researcher renowned for his innovative view and intuitive style, illuminates a wide range of techniques and examples from duplicating the cube to triangulating polygons to the infinitude of primes to the fundamental theorem of algebra. Intended as a companion for undergraduate students, this text is an essential addition to every aspiring mathematician’s toolkit.

  8. Pattern classification

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Richard O; Stork, David G

    2001-01-01

    The first edition, published in 1973, has become a classic reference in the field. Now with the second edition, readers will find information on key new topics such as neural networks and statistical pattern recognition, the theory of machine learning, and the theory of invariances. Also included are worked examples, comparisons between different methods, extensive graphics, expanded exercises and computer project topics. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

  9. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  10. The N'ormal Distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An optimal way of choosing sample size in an opinion poll is indicated using the normal distribution. Introduction. In this article, the ubiquitous normal distribution is intro- duced as a convenient approximation for computing bino- mial probabilities for large values of n. Stirling's formula. • and DeMoivre-Laplace theorem ...

  11. Muscle protein analysis. II. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of normal and diseased human skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giometti, C.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Barany, M.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.

    1980-07-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to analyze the major proteins of normal and pathological human-muscle samples. The normal human-muscle pattern contains four myosin light chains: three that co-migrate with the myosin light chains from rabbit fast muscle (extensor digitorum longus), and one that co-migrates with the light chain 2 from rabbit slow muscle (soleus). Of seven Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples, four yielded patterns with decreased amounts of actin and myosin relative to normal muscle, while three samples gave patterns comparable to that for normal muscle. Six samples from patients with myotonic dystrophy also gave normal patterns. In nemaline rod myopathy, in contrast, the pattern was deficient in two of the fast-type myosin light chains.

  12. Rare Earth Element Behavior During Incongruent Weathering and Varying Discharge Conditions in Silicate Dominated River Systems: The Australian Victorian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, K. B.; Cartwright, I.

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements was measured by ICP-MS on fresh, slightly weathered and weathered granite and surface water samples from a network of 11 pristine rivers draining the Australian Victorian Alps during (i) high and (ii) low discharge conditions. River water REE concentrations are largely derived from atmospheric precipitation (rain, snow), as indicated by similar Chondrite normalized REE patterns (higher LREE over HREE; negative Ce anomalies, positive Eu anomalies) and similar total REE concentrations during both dry and wet seasons. Calculations based on the covariance between REE and Cl concentrations and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes indicate precipitation input coupled with subsequent evaporation may account for 30% o 100% of dissolved REE in stream waters. The dissolved contribution to the granitic substratum to stream water comes mainly from the transformation of plagioclase to smectite, kaolinite and gibbsite and minor apatite dissolution. However, since most REE of the regional granite are present in accessory minerals (titanite, zircon, etc.) they do not significantly contribute to the river REE pool. REE concentrations drop sharply downstream as a result of dilution and chemical attenuation. A trend of downstream enrichment of the heavier REE is due to selective partitioning of the lighter REE (as both free REE or REECO3 complexes) to hydrous oxides of suspended Al which, in turn, is controlled by a downstream increase of pH to values > 6.1 (for free REE) and > 7.3 (for REECO3 complexes). Although most circumneutral waters were supersaturated with REE phosphate compounds, precipitation of LnPO4 is not believed to have been a dominant process because the predicted phosphate fractionation pattern is inconsistent with the observed trends. Negative saturation indices of hydrous ferric oxides also militate against surface complexation onto goethite. Instead, REE attenuation most likely resulted from adsorption onto

  13. Glymphatic MRI in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringstad, Geir; Vatnehol, Svein Are Sirirud; Eide, Per Kristian

    2017-10-01

    The glymphatic system has in previous studies been shown as fundamental to clearance of waste metabolites from the brain interstitial space, and is proposed to be instrumental in normal ageing and brain pathology such as Alzheimer's disease and brain trauma. Assessment of glymphatic function using magnetic resonance imaging with intrathecal contrast agent as a cerebrospinal fluid tracer has so far been limited to rodents. We aimed to image cerebrospinal fluid flow characteristics and glymphatic function in humans, and applied the methodology in a prospective study of 15 idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (mean age 71.3 ± 8.1 years, three female and 12 male) and eight reference subjects (mean age 41.1 + 13.0 years, six female and two male) with suspected cerebrospinal fluid leakage (seven) and intracranial cyst (one). The imaging protocol included T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with equal sequence parameters before and at multiple time points through 24 h after intrathecal injection of the contrast agent gadobutrol at the lumbar level. All study subjects were kept in the supine position between examinations during the first day. Gadobutrol enhancement was measured at all imaging time points from regions of interest placed at predefined locations in brain parenchyma, the subarachnoid and intraventricular space, and inside the sagittal sinus. Parameters demonstrating gadobutrol enhancement and clearance in different locations were compared between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and reference subjects. A characteristic flow pattern in idiopathic normal hydrocephalus was ventricular reflux of gadobutrol from the subarachnoid space followed by transependymal gadobutrol migration. At the brain surfaces, gadobutrol propagated antegradely along large leptomeningeal arteries in all study subjects, and preceded glymphatic enhancement in adjacent brain tissue, indicating a pivotal role of intracranial pulsations for glymphatic function. In

  14. Determination of rare earth elements in seawater by ICP-MS after preconcentration with a chelating resin-packed minicolumn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yanbei; Itoh, Akihide; Fujimori, Eiji; Umemura, Tomonari; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) in seawater were preconcentrated 20-fold (from 50 to 2.5 ml) by a chelating resin-packed minicolumn device and determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The recoveries for REEs were in the range from 90% for Eu and Dy to 98% for Yb, and their standard deviations were less than 4%. The lower detection limits for REEs ranged from 0.06 ng l -1 for Lu to 0.5 ng l -1 for Sm. The analytical results for REEs in seawater reference materials (NASS-5, CASS-3, and CASS-4), the Take Island coastal seawater, and the Ise Bay coastal seawater were evaluated as the REE distribution patterns with shale-normalization and deep seawater-normalization. Slight relative enrichments of heavy REEs were observed in the Take Island coastal seawater and the Ise Bay coastal seawater, which might be attributed to the input from the river flows containing more dissolved heavy REEs. In addition, positive anomalies of Sm were found in the normalized REE distribution patterns for NASS-5, CASS-3, and CASS-4, which would be attributed to the contamination in the preparation process of reference materials by NRC

  15. Immunolocalization of transforming growth factor alpha in normal human tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    anchorage-independent growth of normal cells and was, therefore, considered as an "oncogenic" growth factor. Later, its immunohistochemical presence in normal human cells as well as its biological effects in normal human tissues have been demonstrated. The aim of the present investigation was to elucidate...... the distribution of the growth factor in a broad spectrum of normal human tissues. Indirect immunoenzymatic staining methods were used. The polypeptide was detected with a polyclonal as well as a monoclonal antibody. The polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies demonstrated almost identical immunoreactivity. TGF......-alpha was found to be widely distributed in cells of normal human tissues derived from all three germ layers, most often in differentiated cells. In epithelial cells, three different kinds of staining patterns were observed, either diffuse cytoplasmic, cytoplasmic in the basal parts of the cells, or distinctly...

  16. Ligand extraction of rare earth elements from aquifer sediments: Implications for rare earth element complexation with organic matter in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianwu; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2010-12-01

    complexation with organic matter in natural waters is dominated by REE binding to weak sites on dissolved organic matter, which subsequently leads to a middle REE (MREE: Sm-Ho)-enriched fractionation pattern. The experiments also indicate that carbonate ions may effectively compete with fulvic acid in binding with dissolved REEs, but cannot out compete humic acids for REEs. Therefore, in natural waters where low molecular weight (LMW) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the predominant form of DOC (e.g., lower Mississippi River water), REEs occur as "truly" dissolved species by complexing with carbonate ions as well as FA, resulting in heavy REE (HREE: Er-Lu)-enriched shale-normalized fractionation patterns. Whereas, in natural terrestrial waters where REE speciation is dominated by organic complexes with high molecular weight DOC (e.g., "colloidal" HA), only MREE-enriched fractionation patterns will be observed because the more abundant, weak sites preferentially complex MREEs relative to HREEs and light REEs (LREEs: La-Nd).

  17. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  18. The normal and pathological language

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Luis D.

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary development of normal and pathological psychology has achieved in recent decades, thanks to the dual method of objective observation and oral survey enabled the researcher spirit of neuro-psychiatrist penetrate the intimate mechanism of the nervous system whose supreme manifestation is thought. It is normal psychology explaining the complicated game of perceptions: their methods of transmission, their centers of projection, its transformations and its synthesis to construct ...

  19. The classification of normal screening mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Zoey Z. Y.; Rawashdeh, Mohammad A.; Heard, Robert; Brennan, Patrick C.; Lee, Warwick; Lewis, Sarah J.

    2016-03-01

    Rationale and objectives: To understand how breast screen readers classify the difficulty of normal screening mammograms using common lexicon describing normal appearances. Cases were also assessed on their suitability for a single reader strategy. Materials and Methods: 15 breast readers were asked to interpret a test set of 29 normal screening mammogram cases and classify them by rating the difficulty of the case on a five-point Likert scale, identifying the salient features and assessing their suitability for single reading. Using the False Positive Fractions from a previous study, the 29 cases were classified into 10 "low", 10 "medium" and nine "high" difficulties. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics. Spearman's correlation was used to test the strength of association between the difficulty of the cases and the readers' recommendation for single reading strategy. Results: The ratings from readers in this study corresponded to the known difficulty level of cases for the 'low' and 'high' difficulty cases. Uniform ductal pattern and density, symmetrical mammographic features and the absence of micro-calcifications were the main reasons associated with 'low' difficulty cases. The 'high' difficulty cases were described as having `dense breasts'. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the difficulty of the cases and readers' recommendation for single reading (r = -0.475, P = 0.009). Conclusion: The findings demonstrated potential relationships between certain mammographic features and the difficulty for readers to classify mammograms as 'normal'. The standard Australian practice of double reading was deemed more suitable for most cases. There was an inverse moderate association between the difficulty of the cases and the recommendations for single reading.

  20. Is normal science good science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Kępińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Normal science” is a concept introduced by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962. In Kuhn’s view, normal science means “puzzle solving”, solving problems within the paradigm—framework most successful in solving current major scientific problems—rather than producing major novelties. This paper examines Kuhnian and Popperian accounts of normal science and their criticisms to assess if normal science is good. The advantage of normal science according to Kuhn was “psychological”: subjective satisfaction from successful “puzzle solving”. Popper argues for an “intellectual” science, one that consistently refutes conjectures (hypotheses and offers new ideas rather than focus on personal advantages. His account is criticized as too impersonal and idealistic. Feyerabend’s perspective seems more balanced; he argues for a community that would introduce new ideas, defend old ones, and enable scientists to develop in line with their subjective preferences. The paper concludes that normal science has no one clear-cut set of criteria encompassing its meaning and enabling clear assessment.

  1. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  2. Principal oscillation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, H. von; Buerger, G.; Storch, J.S. von

    1993-01-01

    The Principal Oscillation Pattern (POP) analysis is a technique which is used to simultaneously infer the characteristic patterns and time scales of a vector time series. The POPs may be seen as the normal modes of a linearized system whose system matrix is estimated from data. The concept of POP analysis is reviewed. Examples are used to illustrate the potential of the POP technique. The best defined POPs of tropospheric day-to-day variability coincide with the most unstable modes derived from linearized theory. POPs can be derived even from a space-time subset of data. POPs are successful in identifying two independent modes with similar time scales in the same data set. The POP method can also produce forecasts which may potentially be used as a reference for other forecast models. The conventional POP analysis technique has been generalized in various ways. In the cyclostationary POP analysis, the estimated system matrix is allowed to vary deterministically with an externally forced cycle. In the complex POP analysis not only the state of the system but also its ''momentum'' is modeled. Associated correlation patterns are a useful tool to describe the appearance of a signal previously identified by a POP analysis in other parameters. (orig.)

  3. Deformation associated with continental normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resor, Phillip G.

    Deformation associated with normal fault earthquakes and geologic structures provide insights into the seismic cycle as it unfolds over time scales from seconds to millions of years. Improved understanding of normal faulting will lead to more accurate seismic hazard assessments and prediction of associated structures. High-precision aftershock locations for the 1995 Kozani-Grevena earthquake (Mw 6.5), Greece image a segmented master fault and antithetic faults. This three-dimensional fault geometry is typical of normal fault systems mapped from outcrop or interpreted from reflection seismic data and illustrates the importance of incorporating three-dimensional fault geometry in mechanical models. Subsurface fault slip associated with the Kozani-Grevena and 1999 Hector Mine (Mw 7.1) earthquakes is modeled using a new method for slip inversion on three-dimensional fault surfaces. Incorporation of three-dimensional fault geometry improves the fit to the geodetic data while honoring aftershock distributions and surface ruptures. GPS Surveying of deformed bedding surfaces associated with normal faulting in the western Grand Canyon reveals patterns of deformation that are similar to those observed by interferometric satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) for the Kozani Grevena earthquake with a prominent down-warp in the hanging wall and a lesser up-warp in the footwall. However, deformation associated with the Kozani-Grevena earthquake extends ˜20 km from the fault surface trace, while the folds in the western Grand Canyon only extend 500 m into the footwall and 1500 m into the hanging wall. A comparison of mechanical and kinematic models illustrates advantages of mechanical models in exploring normal faulting processes including incorporation of both deformation and causative forces, and the opportunity to incorporate more complex fault geometry and constitutive properties. Elastic models with antithetic or synthetic faults or joints in association with a master

  4. Systemic sclerosis with normal or nonspecific nailfold capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichel, Fanny; Baudot, Nathalie; Gaitz, Jean-Pierre; Trad, Salim; Barbe, Coralie; Francès, Camille; Senet, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In systemic sclerosis (SSc), a specific nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) pattern is observed in 90% of cases and seems to be associated with severity and progression of the disease. To describe the characteristics of SSc patients with normal or nonspecific (normal/nonspecific) NVC. In a retrospective cohort study, clinical features and visceral involvements of 25 SSc cases with normal/nonspecific NVC were compared to 63 SSc controls with the SSc-specific NVC pattern. Normal/nonspecific NVC versus SSc-specific NVC pattern was significantly associated with absence of skin sclerosis (32 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.004), absence of telangiectasia (47.8 vs. 17.3%, p = 0.006) and absence of sclerodactyly (60 vs. 25.4%, p = 0.002), and less frequent severe pulmonary involvement (26.3 vs. 58.2%, p = 0.017). Normal/nonspecific NVC in SSc patients appears to be associated with less severe skin involvement and less frequent severe pulmonary involvement. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Precaval retropancreatic space: Normal anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Myung Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    The authors defined precaval retropancreatic space as the space between pancreatic head with portal vein and IVC and analyzed the CT findings of this space to know the normal structures and size in this space. We evaluated 100 cases of normal abdominal CT scan to find out normal anatomic structures of precaval retropancreatic space retrospectively. We also measured the distance between these structures and calculated the minimum, maximum and mean values. At the splenoportal confluence level, normal structures between portal vein and IVC were vessel (21%), lymph node (19%), and caudate lobe of liver (2%) in order of frequency. The maximum AP diameter of portocaval lymph node was 4 mm. Common bile duct (CBD) was seen in 44% and the diameter was mean 3 mm and maximum 11 mm. CBD was located in extrapancreatic (75%) and lateral (60.6%) to pancreatic head. At IVC-left renal vein level, the maximum distance between CBD and IVC was 5 mm and the structure between posterior pancreatic surface and IVC was only fat tissue. Knowledge of these normal structures and measurement will be helpful in differentiating pancreatic mass with retropancreatic mass such as lymphadenopathy.