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Sample records for normalized ratio inr

  1. Gene polymorphisms and the risk of warfarin-induced bleeding complications at therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR)

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    Pourgholi, Leyla [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 1411713138, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 7616911319, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza [Department of Cardiac Research, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 1411713138, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mandegary, Ali [Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 7616911319, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Afzalipour' s Hospital, Imam Highway, P.O. Box 7616913911, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaee, Shayan [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 1411713138, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Talasaz, Azita Hajhosseini [Department of Cardiac Research, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 1411713138, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalali, Arash [Department of Cardiac Research, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 1411713138, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Boroumand, Mohammadali, E-mail: maboroumand@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 1411713138, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Bleeding episodes commonly occur in patients on warfarin treatment even in those within therapeutic range of international normalized ratio (INR). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the 8 examined polymorphisms on the risk of bleeding complications in a sample of Iranian patients. Methods: A total of 552 warfarin treated patients who maintained on a target INR level of 2.0–3.5 for at least three consecutive intervals were enrolled from those attended our anticoagulation clinics. Ninety-two bleeding events were observed in 87 patients. The presences of the examined polymorphisms were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: Patients with the T allele in NQO1*2 (CT or TT genotypes) had a higher risk of bleeding than patients with the CC genotype (adjusted OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.37 to 3.70, P = 0.001). Those who were carriers of CYP2C9 one-variant haplotypes (*1/*2 or *1/*3) were also found to be associated with the higher risk of bleeding events. Compared to reference group (*1/*1), the odds of bleeding increased for carriers of one variant allele (*1/*2 or *1/*3) (adjusted OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.97, P = 0.039). Variant VKORC1, Factor VII, and EPHX1 genotypes were not significantly associated with the risk of bleeding events. Conclusion: The SNP C609T within NQO1 and haplotypes of CYP2C9 (1*2 or 1*3) are independently associated to bleeding complications of warfarin at normal INR. Further studies are required to confirm such associations in diverse racial and ethnic populations. - Highlights: • NQO1 C609T variant is associated with warfarin induced bleeding at therapeutic INR. • Haplotypes of CYP2C9 (1*2 or 1*3) are also associated with bleeding events. • VKORC1, Factor VII, and EPHX1 genotypes were not associated with bleeding risk.

  2. Gene polymorphisms and the risk of warfarin-induced bleeding complications at therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourgholi, Leyla; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Mandegary, Ali; Ziaee, Shayan; Talasaz, Azita Hajhosseini; Jalali, Arash; Boroumand, Mohammadali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bleeding episodes commonly occur in patients on warfarin treatment even in those within therapeutic range of international normalized ratio (INR). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the 8 examined polymorphisms on the risk of bleeding complications in a sample of Iranian patients. Methods: A total of 552 warfarin treated patients who maintained on a target INR level of 2.0–3.5 for at least three consecutive intervals were enrolled from those attended our anticoagulation clinics. Ninety-two bleeding events were observed in 87 patients. The presences of the examined polymorphisms were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: Patients with the T allele in NQO1*2 (CT or TT genotypes) had a higher risk of bleeding than patients with the CC genotype (adjusted OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.37 to 3.70, P = 0.001). Those who were carriers of CYP2C9 one-variant haplotypes (*1/*2 or *1/*3) were also found to be associated with the higher risk of bleeding events. Compared to reference group (*1/*1), the odds of bleeding increased for carriers of one variant allele (*1/*2 or *1/*3) (adjusted OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.97, P = 0.039). Variant VKORC1, Factor VII, and EPHX1 genotypes were not significantly associated with the risk of bleeding events. Conclusion: The SNP C609T within NQO1 and haplotypes of CYP2C9 (1*2 or 1*3) are independently associated to bleeding complications of warfarin at normal INR. Further studies are required to confirm such associations in diverse racial and ethnic populations. - Highlights: • NQO1 C609T variant is associated with warfarin induced bleeding at therapeutic INR. • Haplotypes of CYP2C9 (1*2 or 1*3) are also associated with bleeding events. • VKORC1, Factor VII, and EPHX1 genotypes were not associated with bleeding risk.

  3. The international normalized ratio (INR as seen in a population of patients with atrial fibrillation and cerebral infarction undergoing long-term treatment with vitamin K antagonists

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    Szczepańska-Szerej Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that nearly 20% of all cerebral infarctions in the total population are the result of a complication of atrial fibrillation (AF. While oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (AVKs substantially reduces this risk, this requires regular monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR in order to achieve therapeutic levels (2,0-3,0. The aim of this study was to evaluate a group at high risk of cerebral infarction, among patients with AF undergoing long-term treatment with VKAs, taking into account the significance of therapeutic INR values. The analysed group consisted of 90 acute ischaemic stroke patients with paroxysmal or chronic “non-valvular” AF, receiving treatment with VKAs. As a result of the study, therapeutic INR values (≥ 2 were seen in thirty-five of these individuals (38,8%, while 55 (61,2% showed non-therapeutic INR values. Moreover, there were no differences in demographics, vascular risk factors, biochemical and morphological blood parameters, mean CHA2DS2-VASc score and TOAST classification between either of the two groups. Furthermore, no additional factor that would increase their risk of cerebral infarction during the adequate treatment with VKAs was found. However, patients with non-therapeutic INR values had a statistically significantly higher frequency of concomitant moderate pathology of the bicuspid valve, p<0.05. Hence, a lack of proper control of INR can proved to be particularly dangerous for this subgroup of patients. Hence, this is a group with an elevated risk of cerebral infarction and therefore requires special oversight of VKA treatment or NOA treatment.

  4. Guidelines for certification of International Normalized Ratio (INR) for vitamin K antagonists monitoring according to the EN ISO 22870 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brionne-François, Marie; Bauters, Anne; Mouton, Christine; Voisin, Sophie; Flaujac, Claire; Le Querrec, Agnès; Lasne, Dominique

    2018-06-01

    Point of care testing (POCT) must comply with regulatory requirements according to standard EN ISO 22870, which identify biologists as responsible for POCT. INR for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) monitoring is a test frequently performed in haemostasis laboratories. Bedside INR is useful in emergency room, in particular in case of VKAs overdosage but also for specific populations of patients like paediatrics or geriatrics. INR POCT devices are widely used at home by the patients for self-testing, but their use in the hospital by the clinical staff for bedside measurement is growing, with devices which now comply with standard for POCT accreditation for hospital use. The majority of point of care devices for INR monitoring has shown a good precision and accuracy with results similar to those obtained in laboratory. With the aim to help the multidisciplinary groups for POCT supervision, the medical departments and the biologists to be in accordance with the standard, we present the guidelines of the GFHT (Groupe français d'étude sur l'hémostase et la thrombose, subcommittee "CEC et biologie délocalisée") for the certification of POCT INR. These guidelines are based on the SFBC guidelines for the certification of POCT and on the analysis of the literature to ascertain the justification of clinical need and assess the analytical performance of main analysers used in France, as well as on a survey conducted with biologists.

  5. INR calibration of Owren-type prothrombin time based on the relationship between PT% and INR utilizing normal plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas L; Egberg, Nils; Hillarp, Andreas; Ødegaard, Ole R; Edlund, Bror; Svensson, Jan; Sandset, Per M; Rånby, Mats

    2004-06-01

    Prothrombin time (PT) is clinically important and is used to monitor oral anticoagulant therapy. To obtain PT results in international normalized ratio (INR), the current standardization procedure is complex and involves reference reagents. The PT of diluted plasma samples can be determined with a combined thromboplastin (the Owren-type procedure), but not necessarily with a plain thromboplastin (the Quick-type procedure). Owren-type PT procedures can therefore, as an alternative to the INR calibration, be calibrated with diluted normal plasma to give PT results in percent of normal PT activity (PT%). The present study explored if a plasma-based calibration of an Owren-type PT procedure can be used to obtain results in INR. The approach was to establish a relationship between PT% and INR by multi-center analysis of 365 samples from healthy individuals and patients on warfarin treatment. INR values were obtained by manual Quick-type reference procedure and PT% values by various automated Owren-type procedures. A relationship INR = (1/PT% + 0.018)/0.028 was found. A calibration procedure, based on the relationship, was investigated. Calibrators were the median PT of 21 normal plasma at dilutions representing 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% of normal PT activity. These were assigned INR values of 1.00, 1.36, 2.07, 3.05 and 6.36. Calibration of various Owren-type assays was repeatedly performed by 5 expert laboratories during 3 consecutive years. The INR values of certain lyophilised or frozen control plasmas were determined. The frozen control plasmas had externally assigned INR values according to WHO guide-lines. Within the laboratory, CV was typically below 3%. No appreciable difference among the results of the different laboratories or the three assay occasions was found. Externally assigned and INR values were essentially identical to those found. These and other results indicated that the calibration procedure was reproducible, precise and accurate. Thus, an

  6. Practicability of patient self-testing of oral anticoagulant therapy by the international normalized ratio (INR) using a portable whole blood monitor. A pilot investigation.

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    Hasenkam, J M; Knudsen, L; Kimose, H H; Grønnesby, H; Attermann, J; Andersen, N T; Pilegaard, H K

    1997-01-01

    The prophylactic efficacy of long-term oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) has been demonstrated in a number of clinical conditions with increased tendency to thromboembolism, and the number of individuals subjected to OAT in the industrialised world has increased substantially in recent years. Since this therapy requires considerable resources from both the health care system and the patients, the feasibility of patients' self-monitoring and self-management of OAT has been investigated (1,2,3). The anticipated advantages of this approach include improved convenience and compliance for the patient, who may increase his apprehension for managing the treatment. In addition, self-testing allows for more frequent control compared to the conventional out-patient approach. Importantly, a prerequisite for conceiving a safe and operational concept for patient self-management (PSM) is the availability of a portable INR monitoring system with an accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and long-term reliability comparable to standard coagulometric equipment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a commercially available INR-monitor. CoaguChek, for patient self-testing, through a step-wise investigation of the performance characteristics of the equipment in the laboratory, in command of the patient, and during self-testing and self-adjustment of treatment at home. Laboratory INR values were used as reference.

  7. Comparison of local International Sensitivity Index calibration and 'Direct INR' methods in correction of locally reported International Normalized Ratios: an international study. On behalf of the European Action of Anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poller, L; Keown, M; Ibrahim, S

    2007-01-01

    collaborative study at 77 centers has compared local INR correction using the two alternative methods recommended in the Scientific and Standardization Committee of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis guidelines: local ISI calibration and 'Direct INR'. METHODS: Success of INR correction...

  8. International normalized ratio stability in warfarin-experienced patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

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    Nelson, Winnie W; Desai, Sunita; Damaraju, Chandrasekharrao V; Lu, Lang; Fields, Larry E; Wildgoose, Peter; Schein, Jeffery R

    2015-06-01

    Maintaining stable levels of anticoagulation using warfarin therapy is challenging. Few studies have examined the stability of the international normalized ratio (INR) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) who have had ≥6 months' exposure to warfarin anticoagulation for stroke prevention. Our objective was to describe INR control in NVAF patients who had been receiving warfarin for at least 6 months. Using retrospective patient data from the CoagClinic™ database, we analyzed data from NVAF patients treated with warfarin to assess the quality of INR control and possible predictors of poor INR control. Time within, above, and below the recommended INR range (2.0-3.0) was calculated for patients who had received warfarin for ≥6 months and had three or more INR values. The analysis also assessed INR patterns and resource utilization of patients with an INR >4.0. Logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with poor INR control. Patients (n = 9433) had an average of 1.6 measurements per 30 days. Mean follow-up time was 544 days. Approximately 39% of INR values were out of range, with 23% of INR values being 3.0. Mean percent time with INR in therapeutic range was 67%; INR 3.0 was 14%. Patients with more than one reading of INR >4.0 (~39%) required an average of one more visit and took 3 weeks to return to an in-range INR. Male sex and age >75 years were predictive of better INR control, whereas a history of heart failure or diabetes were predictive of out-of-range INR values. However, patient characteristics did not predict the likelihood of INR >4.0. Out-of-range INR values remain frequent in patients with NVAF treated with warfarin. Exposure to high INR values was common, resulting in increased resource utilization.

  9. Influence of kidney function on risk of supratherapeutic international normalized ratio-related hemorrhage in warfarin users: a prospective cohort study

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    Background: Anticoagulation management is difficult in chronic kidney disease, with frequent supratherapeutic international normalized ratios (INRs >/= 4) increasing hemorrhagic risk. We evaluated whether the interaction of INR and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) increases hemorrha...

  10. The prothrombin time/international normalised ratio (PT/INR) line: derivation of local INR with commercial thromboplastins and coagulometers – two independent studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poller, Leon; Ibrahim, S.; Keown, M.

    2011-01-01

    reagents, and from 7.0% to 2.6% with rabbit reagents. In the second study, deviation was reduced from 11.2% to 0.4% with human reagents by both local ISI calibration and the PT/INR Line. With rabbit reagents, 10.4% deviation was reduced to 1.1% with both procedures; 4.9% deviation was reduced to 0.5......Background: The WHO scheme for prothrombin time (PT) standardization has been limited in application, because of its difficulties in implementation, particularly the need for mandatory manual PT testing and for local provision of thromboplastin international reference preparations (IRP). Methods...... thromboplastins and coagulometers. INRs were compared with manual certified values with thromboplastin IRP from expert centres and in the second study also with INRs from local ISI calibrations. Results: In the first study with the PT/INR Line, 8.7% deviation from certified INRs was reduced to 1.1% with human...

  11. Patterns of international normalized ratio values among new warfarin patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

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    Nelson, Winnie W; Milentijevic, Dejan; Wang, Li; Baser, Onur; Damaraju, C V; Schein, Jeffrey R

    2016-12-01

    Limited information exists regarding the relationship between international normalized ratio (INR) control/stability and the discontinuation of warfarin therapy among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). This study evaluated the association between INR stabilization and warfarin discontinuation and assessed INR patterns before and after INR stabilization among patients (≥18 years) with NVAF who newly initiated warfarin (Veterans Health Administration datasets; October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2012). Achievement of INR stabilization (≥3 consecutive in-range therapeutic INR measurements ≥7 days apart) was examined from warfarin initiation through the end of warfarin exposure. Proportion of time in therapeutic range during warfarin exposure was calculated (Rosendaal method) and categorized as at least 60% or less than 60%. Among 34 346 patients, 49.4% achieved INR stabilization (mean time to stabilization, 98 days). Approximately 40% of INR values were out-of-range, even after achieving stabilization. During 30 days following an INR 4.0 or higher, patients had more INR testing than the overall mean (2.51 vs. 1.67 tests). Warfarin discontinuation was 4.2 times more likely among patients without INR stabilization versus those with INR stabilization (P < 0.00001). Patients with poor INR control (time in therapeutic range <60%) were 1.76 times more likely to discontinue warfarin within 1 year (P < 0.0001). INR stabilization is a better predictor of warfarin discontinuation than poor INR control. Improved approaches are necessary to maintain appropriate anticoagulation levels among patients with NVAF.

  12. Comparison of International Normalized Ratio Measurement between CoaguChek XS Plus and STA-R Coagulation Analyzers

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    Mina Hur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Point-of-care testing (POCT coagulometers are increasingly being used in the hospital setting. We investigated whether the prothrombin time international normalized ratio (INR results by CoaguChek XS Plus (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany can be used reliably without being confirmed with the INR results by STA-R system (Diagnostica Stago S.A.S, Asnières sur Seine, France. Methods. A total of 118 INR measurements by CoaguChek XS Plus and STA-R were compared using Passing/Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman plot. Agreement of the INR measurements was further assessed in relation to dosing decision. Results. The correlation of INR measurements between CoaguChek XS Plus and STA-R was excellent (correlation coefficient = 0.964. The mean difference tended to increase as INR results increased and was 0.25 INR in the therapeutic range (2.0-3.0 INR. The overall agreement was fair to good (kappa = 0.679, and 21/118 (17.8% INR measurements showed a difference in dosing decision. Conclusion. The positive bias of CoaguChek XS Plus may be obvious even in the therapeutic INR range, and dosing decision based on the CoaguChek XS Plus INR results would be different from that based on the STA-R results. The INR measurements by POCT coagulometers still need to be confirmed with the laboratory INR measurements.

  13. Vitamin K antagonist use: evidence of the difficulty of achieving and maintaining target INR range and subsequent consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Schein, Jeff R.; White, C. Michael; Nelson, Winnie W.; Kluger, Jeffrey; Mearns, Elizabeth S.; Coleman, Craig I.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are effective oral anticoagulants that are titrated to a narrow therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) range. We reviewed published literature assessing the impact of INR stability - getting into and staying in target INR range - on outcomes including thrombotic events, major bleeding, and treatment costs, as well as key factors that impact INR stability. A time in therapeutic range (TTR) of ?65?% is commonly accepted as the definition of INR stability. ...

  14. Establishing an external quality assessment scheme for point-of-care international normalized ratio in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tientadakul, P; Chuntarut, A

    2015-08-01

    Effective warfarin therapy management has gained national interest, resulting in the increased use of point-of-care testing (POCT) for international normalized ratio (INR). External quality assessment (EQA) is recommended to ensure quality of the testing. CoaguChek XS and CoaguChek XS Plus are the only commonly available POCT INR monitors in Thailand. Therefore, Thailand NEQAS for Blood Coagulation initiated the scheme for POCT INR in 2013, including only hospitals using these devices. Questionnaires were sent to the hospitals, enquiring about their interest in EQA participation. Two surveys were distributed; each included five certified European Concerted Action on Anticoagulation (ECAA) INR plasma sets. Unsatisfactory performance was indicated by a 15% deviation from the certified mean INR value. There were 156 hospitals using the devices. Thirty-five hospitals responded to the questionnaires. Medical personnel undertaking POCT INR were limited to laboratory staff in 29 (83%) of these centers, and 31 hospitals actually participated. The medians of results from participants were the same or nearly the same as the certified mean INRs. External quality assessment for POCT INR in Thailand is feasible using the ECAA plasmas as control materials. The results therefore appear encouraging to other developing countries to establish their own EQA schemes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Monitoring of international normalized ratios: comparison of community nurses with family physicians.

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    Levine, Max A; Shao, Wei; Klein, Douglas

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether community-based, nurse-led monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR) in patients requiring long-term warfarin therapy was comparable to traditional physician monitoring. A retrospective cohort analysis of patients taking long-term warfarin therapy. The study used data gathered from 3 family medicine clinics in a primary care network in Edmonton, Alta. Medical records of patients currently taking warfarin were examined. Implementation of nurse-led monitoring in a primary care network in place of standard family physician INR monitoring. The degree of INR control before and after the implementation of nurse-run INR monitoring was assessed. The average proportion of time spent outside of therapeutic INR ranges, as well as the average number of days between successive INR readings, was calculated and compared. The degree of control placed patients into either a good-control group (out of range ≤ 25% of the time) or a moderate-control group (out of range > 25% of the time) and these groups were compared. Before nurse monitoring, INR values were out of range 20.4% of the time; after nurse monitoring they were out of range 19.2% of the time (P = .115); the time between sequential INR readings also did not differ before and after implementation of nurse monitoring (23.9 vs 21.6 days, P = .789). Nurse-led monitoring of INR is as effective as traditional physician monitoring. Advantages of nurse-led monitoring might include freeing family physicians to see more patients or to spend less time at work. It might also represent potential cost savings.

  16. Contribution of rivaroxaban to the international normalized ratio when switching to warfarin for anticoagulation as determined by simulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Hans-Ulrich; Burghaus, Rolf; Kubitza, Dagmar; Coboeken, Katrin

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily on international normalized ratio (INR) during the co-administration period when switching from rivaroxaban to warfarin. We developed a calibrated coagulation model that was qualified with phase I clinical data. Prothrombin time and INR values were simulated by use of phospholipid concentrations that matched Neoplastin Plus® and Innovin® reagents. To simulate the combined effects of rivaroxaban and warfarin on INR during switching, warfarin initiation was simulated by adjusting the magnitude of the warfarin effect to reach the desired target INRs over the course of 21 days. The warfarin effect values (obtained every 6 h) and the desired rivaroxaban plasma concentrations were used. Nomograms were generated from rivaroxaban induced increases in INR. The simulation had good prediction quality. Rivaroxaban induced increases in the total INR from the warfarin attributed INR were seen, which increased with rivaroxaban plasma concentration. When the warfarin only INR was 2.0-3.0, the INR contribution of rivaroxaban with Neoplastin Plus® was 0.5-1.2, decreasing to 0.3-0.6 with Innovin® at median trough rivaroxaban plasma concentrations (38 μg l(-1) ). The data indicate that measuring warfarin induced changes in INR are best performed at trough rivaroxaban concentrations (24 h after rivaroxaban dosing) during the co-administration period when switching from rivaroxaban to warfarin. Furthermore, Innovin® is preferable to Neoplastin Plus® because of its substantially lower sensitivity to rivaroxaban, thereby reducing the influence of rivaroxaban on the measured INR. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. The relation between international normalized ratio and mortality in acute pulmonary embolism: A retrospective study.

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    Kırış, Tuncay; Yazıcı, Selcuk; Durmuş, Gündüz; Çanga, Yiğit; Karaca, Mustafa; Nazlı, Cem; Dogan, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious clinical disease characterized by a high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of international normalized ratio (INR) in acute PE patients not on anticoagulant therapy. The study included 244 hospitalized acute PE patients who were not receiving previous anticoagulant therapy. Based on their 30-day mortality, patients were categorized as survivors or non-survivors. INR was measured during the patients' admission, on the same day as the diagnosis of PE but before anticoagulation started. Thirty-day mortality occurred in 39 patients (16%). INR was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (1.3±0.4 vs 1.1±0.3, P=.003). In multivariate analysis, INR (HR: 3.303, 95% CI: 1.210-9.016, P=.020) was independently associated with 30-day mortality from PE. Inclusion of INR in a model with simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) score improved the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve from 0.736 (95% CI: 0.659-0.814) to 0.775 (95% CI: 0.701-0.849) (P=.028). Also, the addition of INR to sPESI score enhanced the net reclassification improvement (NRI=8.8%, P<.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI=0.043, P=.027). Elevated INR may have prognostic value for 30-day mortality in acute PE patients not on anticoagulation. Combining INR with sPESI score improved the predictive value for all-cause mortality. However, further large-scale studies are needed to confirm it's prognostic role. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Is Endoscopic Therapy Safe for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Anticoagulated Patients With Supratherapeutic International Normalized Ratios?

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    Shim, Choong Nam; Chung, Hyun Soo; Park, Jun Chul; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Ha Yan; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in anticoagulated patients with supratherapeutic international normalized ratios (INRs) presents a challenge. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety of endoscopic therapy for UGIB in anticoagulated patients with supratherapeutic INR in terms of rebleeding and therapeutic outcomes. One hundred ninety-two anticoagulated patients who underwent endoscopic treatment for UGIB were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the occurrence of rebleeding within 30 days of the initial therapeutic endoscopy: no-rebleeding group (n = 168) and rebleeding group (n = 24). The overall rebleeding rate was 12.5%. Bleeding from gastric cancer and bleeding at the duodenum were significantly related to rebleeding in a univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis determined that presenting symptoms other than melena (hematemesis, hematochezia, or others) (odds ratio, 3.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-10.76) and bleeding from gastric cancer (odds ratio, 6.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-29.25) were significant factors predictive of rebleeding. Supratherapeutic INR at the time of endoscopic therapy was not significantly associated with rebleeding in either univariate or multivariate analysis. Significant differences in bleeding-related mortality, additional intervention to control bleeding, length of hospital stay, and transfusion requirements were revealed between the rebleeding and no-rebleeding groups. There were no significant differences in therapeutic outcomes between patients with INR within the therapeutic range and those with supratherapeutic INR. Supratherapeutic INR at the time of endoscopic therapy did not change rebleeding and therapeutic outcomes. Thus, we should consider endoscopic therapy for UGIB in anticoagulated patients, irrespective of INR at the time of endoscopic therapy.

  19. International normalized ratio self-management lowers the risk of thromboembolic events after prosthetic heart valve replacement.

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    Eitz, Thomas; Schenk, Soren; Fritzsche, Dirk; Bairaktaris, Andreas; Wagner, Otto; Koertke, Heinrich; Koerfer, Reiner

    2008-03-01

    Although prosthetic valves are durable and easy to implant, the need for lifetime warfarin-based anticoagulation restricts their exclusive usage. We investigated if anticoagulation self-management improves outcome in a single-center series. Between 1994 and 1998, 765 patients with prosthetic valve replacements were prospectively enrolled and randomized to receive conventional anticoagulation management by their primary physician (group 1, n = 295) or to pursue anticoagulation self-management (group 2, n = 470). A study head office was implemented to coordinate and monitor anticoagulation protocols, international normalized ratios (INR), and adverse events. Patients were instructed on how to obtain and test their own blood samples and to adjust warfarin dosages according to the measured INR (target range, 2.5 to 4). Mean INR values were slightly yet significantly smaller in group 1 than in group 2 (2.8 +/- 0.7 vs 3.0 +/- .6, p events were similar in both groups. Time-related multivariate analysis identified INR self-management and higher INR as independent predictors for better outcome. Anticoagulation self-management can improve INR profiles up to 2 years after prosthetic valve replacement and reduce adverse events. Current indications of prosthetic rather than biologic valve implantations may be extended if the benefit of INR self-management is shown by future studies with longer follow-up.

  20. International normalized ratio self-testing and self-management: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzi M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Pozzi,1 Julia Mitchell,2 Anna Maria Henaine,3 Najib Hanna,4 Ola Safi,4 Roland Henaine2 1Department of Adult Cardiac Surgery, “Louis Pradel” Cardiologic Hospital, Lyon, France; 2Department of Congenital Cardiac Surgery, “Louis Pradel” Cardiologic Hospital, Lyon, France; 3Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Pediatric Unit, “Hotel Dieu de France” Hospital, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon Abstract: Long term oral anti-coagulation with vitamin K antagonists is a risk factor of hemorrhagic or thromebomlic complications. Periodic laboratory testing of international normalized ratio (INR and a subsequent dose adjustment are therefore mandatory. The use of home testing devices to measure INR has been suggested as a potential way to improve the comfort and compliance of the patients and their families, the frequency of monitoring and, finally, the management and safety of long-term oral anticoagulation. In pediatric patients, increased doses to obtain and maintain the therapeutic target INR, more frequent adjustments and INR testing, multiple medication, inconstant nutritional intake, difficult venepunctures, and the need to go to the laboratory for testing (interruption of school and parents’ work attendance highlight those difficulties. After reviewing the most relevant published studies of self-testing and self-management of INR for adult patients and children on oral anticoagulation, it seems that these are valuable and effective strategies of INR control. Despite an unclear relationship between INR control and clinical effects, these self-strategies provide a better control of the anticoagulant effect, improve patients and their family quality of life, and are an appealing solution in term of cost-effectiveness. Structured education and knowledge evaluation by trained health care professionals is required for children, to be able to adjust their dose treatment safely and accurately. However

  1. Elevated International Normalized Ratio in a Patient Taking Warfarin and Mauby: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbera, Maria; Joseph, Tina; DiGregorio, Robert V

    2017-10-01

    We describe a 70-year-old Haitian man who had been taking warfarin for 5 years for atrial fibrillation and pulmonary hypertension. This patient had his international normalized ratio (INR) checked in the pharmacist-run anticoagulation clinic and was followed monthly. Prior to the interaction, his INR was therapeutic for 5 months while taking warfarin 10.5 mg/d. The patient presented with an INR > 8.0. Patient held 4 days of warfarin and restarted on warfarin 8.5 mg/d. Two weeks later, his INR was 2.5. After continuing dose, patient presented 2 weeks later and INR was 4.8. Upon further questioning, the patient stated he recently began ingesting mauby. Mauby is a bitter dark liquid extracted from the bark of the mauby tree that is commonly used in the Caribbean population as a folk remedy with many health benefits. This case report illustrates that mauby may have a probable drug-herb interaction (Naranjo Algorithm Score of 6) when given with warfarin. There is a lack of published literature and unclear information on the Internet describing the interaction of mauby and warfarin. Health professionals should be cautious regarding interactions between warfarin and mauby until the interaction is fully elucidated.

  2. International normalized ratio stabilization in newly initiated warfarin patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Winnie W; Desai, Sunita; Damaraju, C V; Lu, Lang; Fields, Larry E; Wildgoose, Peter; Schein, Jeff R

    2014-12-01

    Warfarin is effective for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but international normalized ratio (INR) levels fluctuate and frequent monitoring is necessary. This study used data from a large anticoagulation management service database to analyze the relationship between INR stabilization and warfarin utilization for >1 year in patients with nonvalvular AF (NVAF). Anticoagulation records from a large US electronic database collected from 2006 to 2010 were analyzed. Patients with NVAF and ≥ 3 INR values in the dataset were identified (n = 15,276). INR stabilization was defined as the first three consecutive INR values between 2.0 and 3.0 after warfarin initiation. One quarter of patients (n = 3809) failed to reach INR stabilization. After initial stabilization, 30% of subsequent INR values were out of range. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) follow-up time from stabilization to the end of study for these patients was 494.2 ± 418.1 days. Age ≥ 75 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-1.27), hypertension (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.10-1.29), or prior stroke (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.04-1.61) were positively associated with achieving stabilization; heart failure was negatively associated with stabilization (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.70-0.87). Male gender (p < 0.0001) and hypertension were associated with earlier stabilization (p = 0.0013); heart failure was associated with later stabilization (p = 0.0098). Patients who achieved INR stabilization within 1 year were 10 times more likely to remain on warfarin than patients who did not achieve it. Observational data may contain incomplete records. Data on adherence, concurrent medications, vitamin K intake, genotype, reasons for discontinuation of monitoring, and patient outcomes were not available in the dataset. The study findings were generalizable only to patients with AF who were managed by anticoagulation clinics. Given the importance of stroke prevention among

  3. Relation of psychological distress to the international normalized ratio in patients with venous thromboembolism with and without oral anticoagulant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Känel, R; Vökt, F; Biasiutti, F Demarmels; Stauber, S; Wuillemin, W A; Lukas, P S

    2012-08-01

    Psychological distress might affect the international normalized ratio (INR), but effects might vary depending on oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy. To investigate the association of psychological distress with INR and clotting factors of the extrinsic pathway in patients with and without OAC therapy. We studied 190 patients with a previous venous thromboembolism (VTE); 148 had discontinued OAC therapy and 42 had ongoing OAC therapy. To assess psychological distress, all patients completed validated questionnaires to measure symptoms of depression, anxiety, worrying, anger and hostility. INR, fibrinogen, factor (F)II:C, FV:C, FVII:C and FX:C were measured as part of outpatient thrombophilia work-up. In VTE patients without OAC therapy, the odds of a reduced INR (therapy, INR was unrelated to a negative affect; however, lower FVII:C related to anxiety and worrying as well as lower FX:C related to anger and hostility were observed in patients with OAC therapy compared with those without OAC therapy. Psychological distress was associated with a reduced INR in VTE patients without OAC therapy. The direction of the association between psychological distress and activity in some clotting factors of the extrinsic coagulation pathway might differ depending on whether VTE patients are under OAC therapy or not. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  4. Telemedicine-guided, very low-dose international normalized ratio self-control in patients with mechanical heart valve implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koertke, Heinrich; Zittermann, Armin; Wagner, Otto; Secer, Songuel; Sciangula, Alfonso; Saggau, Werner; Sack, Falk-Udo; Ennker, Jürgen; Cremer, Jochen; Musumeci, Francesco; Gummert, Jan F

    2015-06-01

    To study in patients performing international normalized ratio (INR) self-control the efficacy and safety of an INR target range of 1.6-2.1 for aortic valve replacement (AVR) and 2.0-2.5 for mitral valve replacement (MVR) or double valve replacement (DVR). In total, 1304 patients undergoing AVR, 189 undergoing MVR and 78 undergoing DVR were randomly assigned to low-dose INR self-control (LOW group) (INR target range, AVR: 1.8-2.8; MVR/DVR: 2.5-3.5) or very low-dose INR self-control once a week (VLO group) and twice a week (VLT group) (INR target range, AVR: 1.6-2.1; MVR/DVR: 2.0-2.5), with electronically guided transfer of INR values. We compared grade III complications (major bleeding and thrombotic events; primary end-points) and overall mortality (secondary end-point) across the three treatment groups. Two-year freedom from bleedings in the LOW, VLO, and VLT groups was 96.3, 98.6, and 99.1%, respectively (P = 0.008). The corresponding values for thrombotic events were 99.0, 99.8, and 98.9%, respectively (P = 0.258). The risk-adjusted composite of grade III complications was in the per-protocol population (reference: LOW-dose group) as follows: hazard ratio = 0.307 (95% CI: 0.102-0.926; P = 0.036) for the VLO group and = 0.241 (95% CI: 0.070-0.836; P = 0.025) for the VLT group. The corresponding values of 2-year mortality were = 1.685 (95% CI: 0.473-5.996; P = 0.421) for the VLO group and = 4.70 (95% CI: 1.62-13.60; P = 0.004) for the VLT group. Telemedicine-guided very low-dose INR self-control is comparable with low-dose INR in thrombotic risk, and is superior in bleeding risk. Weekly testing is sufficient. Given the small number of MVR and DVR patients, results are only valid for AVR patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. INR targets and site-level anticoagulation control: results from the Veterans AffaiRs Study to Improve Anticoagulation (VARIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A J; Berlowitz, D R; Miller, D R; Hylek, E M; Ozonoff, A; Zhao, S; Reisman, J I; Ash, A S

    2012-04-01

    Not all clinicians target the same International Normalized Ratio (INR) for patients with a guideline-recommended target range of 2-3. A patient's mean INR value suggests the INR that was actually targeted. We hypothesized that sites would vary by mean INR, and that sites of care with mean values nearest to 2.5 would achieve better anticoagulation control, as measured by per cent time in therapeutic range (TTR). To examine variations among sites in mean INR and the relationship with anticoagulation control in an integrated system of care. We studied 103,897 patients receiving oral anticoagulation with an expected INR target between 2 and 3 at 100 Veterans Health Administration (VA) sites from 1 October 2006 to 30 September 2008. Key site-level variables were: proportion near 2.5 (that is, percentage of patients with mean INR between 2.3 and 2.7) and mean risk-adjusted TTR. Site mean INR ranged from 2.22 to 2.89; proportion near 2.5, from 30 to 64%. Sites' proportions of patients near 2.5, below 2.3 and above 2.7 were consistent from year to year. A 10 percentage point increase in the proportion near 2.5 predicted a 3.8 percentage point increase in risk-adjusted TTR (P < 0.001). Proportion of patients with mean INR near 2.5 is a site-level 'signature' of care and an implicit measure of targeted INR. This proportion varies by site and is strongly associated with site-level TTR. Our study suggests that sites wishing to improve TTR, and thereby improve patient outcomes, should avoid the explicit or implicit pursuit of non-standard INR targets. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  6. Vitamin K antagonist use: evidence of the difficulty of achieving and maintaining target INR range and subsequent consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeff R; White, C Michael; Nelson, Winnie W; Kluger, Jeffrey; Mearns, Elizabeth S; Coleman, Craig I

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are effective oral anticoagulants that are titrated to a narrow therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) range. We reviewed published literature assessing the impact of INR stability - getting into and staying in target INR range - on outcomes including thrombotic events, major bleeding, and treatment costs, as well as key factors that impact INR stability. A time in therapeutic range (TTR) of ≥65 % is commonly accepted as the definition of INR stability. In the real-world setting, this is seldom achieved with standard-of-care management, thus increasing the patients' risks of thrombotic or major bleeding events. There are many factors associated with poor INR control. Being treated in community settings, newly initiated on a VKA, younger in age, or nonadherent to therapy, as well as having polymorphisms of CYP2C9 or VKORC1, or multiple physical or mental co-morbid disease states have been associated with lower TTR. Clinical prediction tools are available, though they can only explain <10 % of the variance behind poor INR control. Clinicians caring for patients who require anticoagulation are encouraged to intensify diligence in INR management when using VKAs and to consider appropriate use of newer anticoagulants as a therapeutic option.

  7. Inaccuracy of INR measurements and suggestions for improved WHO guidelines for calibration of reference preparations – a statistical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies show that the accuracy of international normalized ratio (INR) measurements is unsatisfactory and worse than generally expected. We demonstrate that a plausible reason for this large inaccuracy is a conventional calibration procedure of reference preparations with (i...... procedure also results in serious overestimation of the accuracy of INR measurements, thus leading to a false sense of security in oral anticoagulant therapy. In an example with data from WHO guidelines, we show that the systematic overprediction of INR (which is believed to be 0) may be as large as 5...

  8. Safety and Outcomes of Transradial Access in Patients with International Normalized Ratio 1.5 or above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titano, Joseph J; Biederman, Derek M; Zech, John; Korff, Ricki; Ranade, Mona; Patel, Rahul; Kim, Edward; Nowakowski, Francis; Lookstein, Robert; Fischman, Aaron M

    2018-03-01

    To examine the safety and outcomes for patients undergoing transradial noncoronary interventions with international normalized ratio (INR) ≥1.5. A retrospective review of 2,271 transradial access (TRA) cases performed from July 2012 to July 2016 was conducted. Criteria for inclusion were moderate bleeding risk cases with preprocedure INR ≥1.5. Within the study period, there were 176 moderate bleeding risk procedures (transarterial chemoembolization: 70/176 [39.8%]; Barbeau B: 121/176 [68.8%]; 5-F sheath: 157/176 [89.2%]) performed on 122 patients (age 61.6 ± 12.1 years, 68.9% male, body mass index 28.0 kg/m 2 ) with INR ≥1.5. Technical success was achieved in 98.9% of cases. Grade 1/2 hematomas developed in 10 cases (5.7%). Age ≥65 years (P = .042) and female sex (P = .046) were predictive of access site bleeding complications. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion was administered in 11.4% of cases (n = 20). Baseline INR and creatinine were significantly different between transfused and nontransfused cases (P values .006 and .028, respectively). Minor access site bleeding occurred in 3/20 cases (15%) receiving prior FFP transfusion and 7/156 nontransfused cases (4.5%), with no significant difference between these 2 groups (P = .072). TRA in patients with elevated INR appears to be safe in our experience. Age ≥65 years and female sex were associated with increased incidence of access site bleeding. Although INR correction was not standardized in this cohort, preprocedure FFP transfusion did not decrease bleeding complications. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multivariate relationships between international normalized ratio and vitamin K-dependent coagulation-derived parameters in normal healthy donors and oral anticoagulant therapy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golanski Jacek

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives International Normalized Ratio (INR is a world-wide routinely used factor in the monitoring of oral anticoagulation treatment (OAT. However, it was reported that other factors, e. g. factor II, may even better reflect therapeutic efficacy of OAT and, therefore, may be potentialy useful for OAT monitoring. The primary purpose of this study was to characterize the associations of INR with other vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins in a heterogenous group of individuals, including healthy donors, patients on OAT and patients not receiving OAT. The study aimed also at establishing the influence of co-morbid conditions (incl. accompanying diseases and co-medications (incl. different intensity of OAT on INR. Design and Methods Two hundred and three subjects were involved in the study. Of these, 35 were normal healthy donors (group I, 73 were patients on medication different than OAT (group II and 95 were patients on stable oral anticoagulant (acenocoumarol therapy lasting for at least half a year prior to the study. The values of INR and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT ratio, as well as activities of FII, FVII, FX, protein C, and concentration of prothrombin F1+2 fragments and fibrinogen were obtained for all subjects. In statistical evaluation, the uni- and multivariate analyses were employed and the regression equations describing the obtained associations were estimated. Results Of the studied parameters, three (factors II, VII and X appeared as very strong modulators of INR, protein C and prothrombin fragments F1+2 had moderate influence, whereas both APTT ratio and fibrinogen had no significant impact on INR variability. Due to collinearity and low tolerance of independent variables included in the multiple regression models, we routinely employed a ridge multiple regression model which compromises the minimal number of independent variables with the maximal overall determination coefficient. The best

  10. Initiation of glucose-lowering treatment decreases international normalized ratio levels among users of vitamin K antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Pottegård, Anton; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard

    2016-01-01

    -lowering treatment affects international normalized ratio (INR) and dose requirements of the anticoagulant VKAs warfarin and phenprocoumon. PATIENTS/METHODS: We performed a self-controlled retrospective register-based study. A total of 118 patients initiating glucose-lowering treatment while being treated......-lowering treatment reduces the anticoagulant effect of VKA to an extent that is likely to be clinically relevant. This finding needs confirmation and mechanistic explanation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  11. Assessing Clinical Laboratory Quality: A College of American Pathologists Q-Probes Study of Prothrombin Time INR Structures, Processes, and Outcomes in 98 Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howanitz, Peter J; Darcy, Theresa P; Meier, Frederick A; Bashleben, Christine P

    2015-09-01

    The anticoagulant warfarin has been identified as the second most frequent drug responsible for serious, disabling, and fatal adverse drug events in the United States, and its effect on blood coagulation is monitored by the laboratory test called international normalized ratio (INR). To determine the presence of INR policies and procedures, INR practices, and completeness and timeliness of reporting critical INR results in participants' clinical laboratories. Participants reviewed their INR policies and procedure requirements, identified their practices by using a questionnaire, and studied completeness of documentation and timeliness of reporting critical value INR results for outpatients and emergency department patients. In 98 participating institutions, the 5 required policies and procedures were in place in 93% to 99% of clinical laboratories. Fifteen options for the allowable variations among duplicate results from different analyzers, 12 different timeliness goals for reporting critical values, and 18 unique critical value limits were used by participants. All required documentation elements were present in 94.8% of 192 reviewed INR validation reports. Critical value INR results were reported within the time frame established by the laboratory for 93.4% of 2604 results, but 1.0% of results were not reported. Although the median laboratories successfully communicated all critical results within their established time frames and had all the required validation elements based in their 2 most recent INR calculations, those participants at the lowest 10th percentile were successful in 80.0% and 85.7% of these requirements, respectively. Significant opportunities exist for adherence to INR procedural requirements and for practice patterns and timeliness goals for INR critical results' reporting.

  12. Out-of-range international normalized ratio values and healthcare cost among new warfarin patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Winnie W; Wang, Li; Baser, Onur; Damaraju, C V; Schein, Jeffrey R

    2015-05-01

    Patients with out-of-range international normalized ratio (INR) values 3.0 have been associated with increased risk of thromboembolic and bleeding events. INR monitoring is costly, because of associated physician and nurse time, laboratory resource use, and dose adjustments. This study assessed the healthcare cost burden associated with out-of-range INR among warfarin initiator patients diagnosed with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) population. Adult NVAF patients (≥18 years) initiating warfarin were selected from the VHA dataset for the study period October 1, 2007-September 30, 2012. Only valid INR measurements (0.5 ≤ INR ≤ 20) were examined for the follow-up period, from the index date (warfarin initiation date) until the end of warfarin exposure or death. All-cause healthcare costs within 30 days were measured starting from the second month (31 days post-index date) to the end of the study period. Costs for inpatient stays, emergency room, outpatient facility, physician office visits, and other services were computed separately. Multiple regression was performed using the generalized linear model for overall cost analysis. In total, 29,463 patients were included in the study sample. Mean costs for out-of-range INR ranged from $3419 to $5126. Inpatient, outpatient, outpatient pharmacy, and total costs were significantly higher after patients experienced out-of-range results (INR  3), compared with in-range INR (2 ≤ INR ≤ 3). When exposed to out-of-range INR, patients also incurred higher mean total costs within 2-6 months ($3840-$5820) than after the first 6 months ($2789-$3503) of warfarin therapy. In the VHA population, INR measures outside of the 2-3 range were associated with significantly higher healthcare costs. Increased costs were especially apparent when INR values were below 2, although INR measures above 3 were also associated with higher costs relative to in

  13. Hilar height ratio in normal Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kyung Ho; Lee, Nam Joon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung

    1979-01-01

    Hilar displacement is one of the significant sign of pulmonary volume change. The hilar height ratio (HHR) is a value that express the normal position of hilum in its hemithorax, and it is calculated by dividing the distance from the hilum to the lung apex by the distance from the hilum to the diaphragm. Displacement of one hilum is usually easy to detect but both are displaced in the same direction especially, recognition is more difficult. Knowledge of normal HHR allows evaluation of hilar positional change even when the relative hilar position are not altered. Normal chest PA views of 275 cases taken at Korea University Hospital during the period of April 1978 to Jun 1979 were analyzed. The right hilum is positioned in lower half of the right hemithorax, while the left hilum is situated in the upper half of left hemithorax. The difference of hilar ratio according to age group is slight, but there is significant difference between right-HHR and left-HHR. The value of right-HHR is 1.28 ± 0.14, the value of left-HHR is 0.88 ± 0.09.

  14. Contributions of procoagulants and anticoagulants to the international normalized ratio and thrombin generation assay in patients treated with warfarin: potential role of protein Z as a powerful determinant of coagulation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Qute; Kim, Ji-Eun; Hyun, Jungwon; Han, Kyou-Sup; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2013-07-01

    The effects of warfarin are measured with the international normalized ratio (INR). However, the thrombin generation assay (TGA) may offer more information about global coagulation. We analyzed the monitoring performance of the TGA and INR and investigated the impact of procoagulants (fibrinogen, factor (F)II, FVII, FIX, and FX) and anticoagulants (proteins C, S, and Z) on them. The TGA was performed on a calibrated automated thrombogram, producing lag time, endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), and peak thrombin in 239 patients treated with warfarin. Pro- and anticoagulant levels were also measured. The INR was significantly and inversely correlated with ETP. The therapeutic range of ETP comparable to an INR range of 2.0-3.0 was 290.1-494.6. ETP showed comparable performance to the INR as a warfarin-monitoring parameter with respect to clinical complication rate. The median levels of FII, FVII, FIX, and FX and proteins C and Z tended to decrease gradually with increasing anticoagulation intensity according to the INR or ETP. Of note, protein Z levels decreased dramatically with increasing anticoagulation status. INRs were significantly determined by FII, FVII, and protein Z. ETP was significantly dependent on FVII, and proteins C and Z concentration. Protein Z significantly reduced the total amount of thrombin generation and prolonged PT value in vitro. The INR and ETP exhibit similar efficacy for warfarin monitoring according to the clinical complication rate. Protein Z is considered to be a significant determinant of INR and ETP in patients on warfarin therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of home testing of international normalized ratio on clinical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchar, David B; Jacobson, Alan; Dolor, Rowena; Edson, Robert; Uyeda, Lauren; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Vertrees, Julia E; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Holodniy, Mark; Lavori, Philip

    2010-10-21

    Warfarin anticoagulation reduces thromboembolic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation or mechanical heart valves, but effective management is complex, and the international normalized ratio (INR) is often outside the target range. As compared with venous plasma testing, point-of-care INR measuring devices allow greater testing frequency and patient involvement and may improve clinical outcomes. We randomly assigned 2922 patients who were taking warfarin because of mechanical heart valves or atrial fibrillation and who were competent in the use of point-of-care INR devices to either weekly self-testing at home or monthly high-quality testing in a clinic. The primary end point was the time to a first major event (stroke, major bleeding episode, or death). The patients were followed for 2.0 to 4.75 years, for a total of 8730 patient-years of follow-up. The time to the first primary event was not significantly longer in the self-testing group than in the clinic-testing group (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.04; P=0.14). The two groups had similar rates of clinical outcomes except that the self-testing group reported more minor bleeding episodes. Over the entire follow-up period, the self-testing group had a small but significant improvement in the percentage of time during which the INR was within the target range (absolute difference between groups, 3.8 percentage points; P<0.001). At 2 years of follow-up, the self-testing group also had a small but significant improvement in patient satisfaction with anticoagulation therapy (P=0.002) and quality of life (P<0.001). As compared with monthly high-quality clinic testing, weekly self-testing did not delay the time to a first stroke, major bleeding episode, or death to the extent suggested by prior studies. These results do not support the superiority of self-testing over clinic testing in reducing the risk of stroke, major bleeding episode, and death among patients taking warfarin

  16. Colloid normalizes resuscitation ratio in pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraklas, Iris; Lam, Uyen; Cochran, Amalia; Stoddard, Gregory; Saffle, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burned children is challenging because of their small size and intolerance to over- or underresuscitation. Our American Burn Association-verified regional burn center has used colloid "rescue" as part of our pediatric resuscitation protocol. With Institutional Review Board approval, the authors reviewed children with ≥15% TBSA burns admitted from January 1, 2004, to May 1, 2009. Resuscitation was based on the Parkland formula, which was adjusted to maintain urine output. Patients requiring progressive increases in crystalloid were placed on a colloid protocol. Results were expressed as an hourly resuscitation ratio (I/O ratio) of fluid infusion (ml/kg/%TBSA/hr) to urine output (ml/kg/hr). We reviewed 53 patients; 29 completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone (lactated Ringer's solution [LR]), and 24 received colloid supplementation albumin (ALB). Groups were comparable in age, gender, weight, and time from injury to admission. ALB patients had more inhalation injuries and larger total and full-thickness burns. LR patients maintained a median I/O of 0.17 (range, 0.08-0.31), whereas ALB patients demonstrated escalating ratios until the institution of albumin produced a precipitous return of I/O comparable with that of the LR group. Hospital stay was lower for LR patients than ALB patients (0.59 vs 1.06 days/%TBSA, P = .033). Twelve patients required extremity or torso escharotomy, but this did not differ between groups. There were no decompressive laparotomies. The median resuscitation volume for ALB group was greater than LR group (9.7 vs 6.2 ml/kg/%TBSA, P = .004). Measuring hourly I/O is a helpful means of evaluating fluid demands during burn shock resuscitation. The addition of colloid restores normal I/O in pediatric patients.

  17. Comparison of the CoaguChek XS handheld coagulation analyzer and conventional laboratory methods measuring international normalised ratio (INR) values during the time to therapeutic range after mechanical valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakci, Hasmet; Altıntaş, Garip; Çiçek, Omer Faruk; Kervan, Umit; Yilmaz, Sevinc; Kaplan, Sadi; Birincioglu, Cemal Levent

    2013-05-01

    To compare the international normalised ratio (INR) value of patients evaluated using the CoaguChek XS versus conventional laboratory methods, in the period after open-heart surgery for mechanical valve replacement until a therapeutic range is achieved using vitamin K antagonists (VKA) together with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). One hundred and five patients undergoing open-heart surgery for mechanical valve replacement were enrolled. Blood samples were collected from patients before surgery, and on the second and fifth postoperative days, simultaneously for both the point of care device and conventional laboratory techniques. Patients were administered VKA together with LMWH at therapeutic doses (enoxaparin 100 IU/kg twice daily) subcutaneously, until an effective range was achieved on approximately the fifth day after surgery. The mean INR values using the CoaguChek XS preoperatively and on the second and fifth days postoperatively were 1.20 (SD ± 0.09), 1.82 (SD ± 0.45), and 2.55 (SD ± 0.55), respectively. Corresponding results obtained using conventional laboratory techniques were 1.18 (SD ± 0.1), 1.81 (SD ± 0.43), and 2.51 (SD ± 0.58). The correlation coefficient was r = 0.77 preoperatively, r = 0.981 on postoperative day 2, and r = 0.983 on postoperative day 5. Results using the CoaguChek XS Handheld Coagulation Analyzer correlated strongly with conventional laboratory methods, in the bridging period between open-heart surgery for mechanical valve replacement and the achievement of a therapeutic range on warfarin and LMWH. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The use of vitamin K supplementation to achieve INR stability: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramps, Melissa; Flanagan, Abigail; Smaldone, Arlene

    2013-10-01

    Systematically review and quantitatively synthesize evidence on use of oral vitamin K supplementation in reducing international normalized ratio (INR) variability. PubMed, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Turning Research Into Practice (TRIP), Web of Science were searched for studies meeting predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Five studies meeting criteria (three randomized trials, one quasi-experimental pre-post study, one retrospective case series) were appraised for quality and data synthesized by two reviewers. Pooled effect size of time in INR therapeutic range (TTR) was estimated using random effects meta-analysis. Pooled effect size representing data from four studies (678 subjects) was 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.59 (Cochran Q = 7.1; p = .07; I(2) = 57.8) and favored vitamin K supplementation. Given wide variability among individual studies, there is not enough evidence to advise for or against the routine use of vitamin K supplementation to achieve INR stability. However, evidence does suggest that it may be of some benefit for some patients with INR instability. There is insufficient evidence to support routine supplementation with vitamin K in patients on chronic anticoagulation therapy but select patients, particularly those with persistent INR instability despite known adherence to regimen and no dietary or drug-drug interactions, may benefit from the intervention. Future research is warranted. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. The reliability of point-of-care prothrombin time testing. A comparison of CoaguChek S and XS INR measurements with hospital laboratory monitoring.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, F

    2010-02-01

    The development of point-of-care (POC) testing devices enables patients to test their own international normalized ratio (INR) at home. However, previous studies have shown that when compared with clinical laboratory values, statistically significant differences may occur between the two methods of INR measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the CoaguChek S and XS POC meters relative to clinical laboratory measurements. As part of a randomized, crossover patient self-testing (PST) study at Cork University Hospital, patients were randomized to 6 months PST or 6 months routine care by the anticoagulation management service. During the PST arm of the study, patients measured their INR at home using the CoaguChek S or XS POC meter. External quality control was performed at enrollment, 2 months and 4 months by comparing the POC measured INR with the laboratory determined value. One hundred and fifty-one patients provided 673 paired samples. Good correlation was shown between the two methods of determination (r = 0.91), however, statistically significant differences did occur. A Bland-Altman plot illustrated good agreement of INR values between 2.0 and 3.5 INR units but there was increasing disagreement as the INR rose above 3.5. Eighty-seven per cent of all dual measurements were within the recommended 0.5 INR units of each other. This study adds to the growing evidence that POC testing is a reliable and safe alternative to hospital laboratory monitoring but highlights the importance of external quality control when these devices are used for monitoring oral anticoagulation.

  20. Effect of olanzapine treatment on INR of a patient receiving warfarin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Arslan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug, commonly used in the management of psychotic symptoms in patients with schizoprenia and bipolar affective disorder. Deep venous thrombosis is a manifestation of venous thromboembolism. It is very well known that use of antipsychotic drugs increase the risk of thrombosis in a patient with schizophrenia. It has been reported in many studies the effects of olanzapine on thrombosis but there isn't any report about the effect of olanzapine on international normalized ratio (INR. in the medical literature. In this paper, a patient with schizophrenia and also family history of deep venous thrombosis who emerged deep venous thrombosis after being started on olanzapine treatment and effect of olanzapine treatment on INR has been reported. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 370-373

  1. Explorations in Statistics: The Analysis of Ratios and Normalized Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores the analysis of ratios and normalized--or standardized--data. As researchers, we compute a ratio--a numerator divided by a denominator--to compute a…

  2. Explorations in statistics: the analysis of ratios and normalized data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the analysis of ratios and normalized-or standardized-data. As researchers, we compute a ratio-a numerator divided by a denominator-to compute a proportion for some biological response or to derive some standardized variable. In each situation, we want to control for differences in the denominator when the thing we really care about is the numerator. But there is peril lurking in a ratio: only if the relationship between numerator and denominator is a straight line through the origin will the ratio be meaningful. If not, the ratio will misrepresent the true relationship between numerator and denominator. In contrast, regression techniques-these include analysis of covariance-are versatile: they can accommodate an analysis of the relationship between numerator and denominator when a ratio is useless.

  3. Performance evaluation of the microINR® point-of-care INR-testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, J; van Zyl, M C; Raubenheimer, J

    2018-04-01

    Point-of-care International Normalised Ratio (INR) testing is used frequently. We evaluated the microINR ® POC system for accuracy, precision and measurement repeatability, and investigated instrument and test chip variability and error rates. Venous blood INRs of 210 patients on warfarin were obtained with Thromborel ® S on the Sysmex CS-2100i ® analyser and compared with capillary blood microINR ® values. Precision was assessed using control materials. Measurement repeatability was calculated on 51 duplicate finger-prick INRs. Triplicate finger-prick INRs using three different instruments (30 patients) and three different test chip lots (29 patients) were used to evaluate instrument and test chip variability. Linear regression analysis of microINR ® and Sysmex CS2100i ® values showed a correlation coefficient of 0.96 (P < .0001) and a positive proportional bias of 4.4%. Dosage concordance was 93.8% and clinical agreement 95.7%. All acceptance criteria based on ISO standard 17593:2007 system accuracy requirements were met. Control material coefficients of variation (CV) varied from 6.2% to 16.7%. The capillary blood measurement repeatability CV was 7.5%. No significant instrument (P = .93) or test chip (P = .81) variability was found, and the error rate was low (2.8%). The microINR ® instrument is accurate and precise for monitoring warfarin therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Clinical factors influencing normalization of prothrombin time after stopping warfarin: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zondag Michelle

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anticoagulation with warfarin should be stopped 4–6 days before invasive procedures to avoid bleeding complications. Despite this routine, some patients still have high International Normalized Ratio (INR values on the day of surgery and the procedure may be cancelled. We sought to identify easily available clinical characteristics that may influence the rate of normalization of prothrombin time when warfarin is stopped before surgery or invasive procedures. Methods Clinical data were collected retrospectively from consecutive cases from two cohorts, who stopped warfarin 6 days before surgery. An INR value of 1.6 or higher on the day of surgery or requirement for reversal with vitamin K the day before surgery were criteria for slow return (S to normal INR. Results Of 202 patients, 14 (7% were classified as S. Eight of the S-patients required reversal with vitamin K one day before surgery and in another case surgery was cancelled due to high INR. Baseline INR was the only variable significantly associated with classification as S in stepwise logistic regression analysis (p = 0.003. The odds ratio for being in the normal group was 0.27 (95% confidence interval 0.12–0.62 for each unit baseline INR increased. The positive predictive value of baseline INR with a cut off at > 3.0 was only 15% and for INR > 3.5 it was 33%. Conclusion Baseline INR, but not the size of the maintenance dose, is associated with the rate of normalization of prothrombin time after stopping warfarin, but it has limited utility as predictor in clinical practice. Whenever normal hemostasis is considered crucial for the safety, the INR should be checked again before the invasive procedure.

  5. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Yield of Endoscopy in Patients with Elevated INR and Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloquin, Joanna M; Seraj, Siamak M; King, Lindsay Y; Campbell, Emily J; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Richter, James M

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a well-known risk of systemic anticoagulation. However, bleeding in the setting of supratherapeutic anticoagulation may have a milder natural history than unprovoked bleeding. It is a common clinical gestalt that endoscopy is common, but bleeding source identification or intervention is uncommon, yet few data exist to inform this clinical impression. Consequently, we sought to examine our institutional experience with gastrointestinal bleeding in the setting of supratherapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) with the aim of identifying predictors of endoscopically identifiable lesions, interventions, and outcomes. A retrospective review was conducted at a tertiary referral academic medical center to identify patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding in the setting of warfarin and a supratherapeutic INR (>3.5) who underwent an endoscopic procedure. Relevant clinical covariates, endoscopic findings, need for intervention, and outcomes were collected by review of the medical record. Logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders identified predictors of endoscopically significant lesions as well as intervention and outcomes. A total of 134 patients with INR 3.5 or greater (mean 5.5, range 3.5-17.1) presented with symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding, most commonly as melena or symptomatic anemia. Antiplatelet agents were used by 54% of patients, and 60% of patients were on concomitant acid suppression on admission. Procedures included esophagogastroduodenoscopy (upper endoscopy; EGD) (n = 128), colonoscopy (n = 73), and video capsule endoscopy (n = 32). Active bleeding at first EGD or colonoscopy was found in only 19 patients (18%), with endoscopic intervention in only 26 patients (25%). At a critical threshold of INR 7.5 at presentation, the likelihood of finding an endoscopically significant lesion fell to therapy (odds ratio [OR] 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-5.94), timing of EGD within 12 hours of

  6. The frontal ventriculocerebral ratio no normal computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Yeon Jung; Hah, Hae Koo [College of Medicine, Han Yang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    From the Hanyng University hospital's computer memory bank containing the CT scans of over 3000 patients, 400 normal patients between age of 1 to 69 years were selected at random. These scans were performed as a screening test in patient with minimal, vague neurologic manifestations such as headache, dizziness, convulsion and depression or suffering the traffic accident. Determination of ventridulocerebral ratio between the width of brain and dimension representing the distance between the outer border of the lateral ventricle was made at the two sites, using the image 4 or 5 at the demonstrating the level of Monro's formen.

  7. Magnetization transfer ratio relates to cognitive impairment in normal elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSeiler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI can detect microstructural brain tissue changes and may be helpful in determining age-related cerebral damage. We investigated the association between the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR in gray and white matter and cognitive functioning in 355 participants of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study (ASPS-Fam aged 38 to 86 years. MTR maps were generated for the neocortex, deep gray matter structures, white matter hyperintensities, and normal appearing white matter. Adjusted mixed models determined whole brain and lobar cortical MTR to be directly and significantly related to performance on tests of memory, executive function and motor skills. There existed an almost linear dose-effect relationship. MTR of deep gray matter structures and normal appearing white matter correlated to executive functioning. All associations were independent of demographics, vascular risk factors, focal brain lesions and cortex volume.Further research is needed to understand the basis of this association at the tissue level, and to determine the role of MTR in predicting cognitive decline and dementia.

  8. Impact of INR monitoring, reversal agent use, heparin bridging, and anticoagulant interruption on rebleeding and thromboembolism in acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyoshi Nagata

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB during the pre-endoscopic period has not been fully addressed in American, European, or Asian guidelines. This study sought to evaluate the risks of rebleeding and thromboembolism in anticoagulated patients with acute GIB.Baseline, endoscopy, and outcome data were reviewed for 314 patients with acute GIB: 157 anticoagulant users and 157 age-, sex-, and important risk-matched non-users. Data were also compared between direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs and warfarin users.Between anticoagulant users and non-users, of whom 70% underwent early endoscopy, no endoscopy-related adverse events or significant differences were found in the rate of endoscopic therapy need, transfusion need, rebleeding, or thromboembolism. Rebleeding was associated with shock, comorbidities, low platelet count and albumin level, and low-dose aspirin use but not HAS-BLED score, any endoscopic results, heparin bridge, or international normalized ratio (INR ≥ 2.5. Risks for thromboembolism were INR ≥ 2.5, difference in onset and pre-endoscopic INR, reversal agent use, and anticoagulant interruption but not CHA2DS2-VASc score, any endoscopic results, or heparin bridge. In patients without reversal agent use, heparin bridge, or anticoagulant interruption, there was only one rebleeding event and no thromboembolic events. Warfarin users had a significantly higher transfusion need than DOACs users.Endoscopy appears to be safe for anticoagulant users with acute GIB compared with non-users. Patient background factors were associated with rebleeding, whereas anticoagulant management factors (e.g. INR correction, reversal agent use, and drug interruption were associated with thromboembolism. Early intervention without reversal agent use, heparin bridge, or anticoagulant interruption may be warranted for acute GIB.

  9. Status of neutron complex of INR RAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grachev, M I; Koptelov, E A; Kravchuk, L V; Matveev, V A; Perekrestenko, A D; Sidorkin, S F [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stavissky, Y Y

    2001-03-01

    The neutron complex of INR RAS consists of two sources of neutrons, beam stop, lead slowing down spectrometer and solid state spectrometers. The description of objects and their condition, the program of planned researches, co-operation with other institutes of the Moscow Region, progress reached for last two years are introduced in the article. (author)

  10. Status of neutron complex of INR RAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, M.I.; Koptelov, E.A.; Kravchuk, L.V.; Matveev, V.A.; Perekrestenko, A.D.; Sidorkin, S.F.; Stavissky, Y.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The neutron complex of INR RAS consists of two sources of neutrons, beam stop, lead slowing down spectrometer and solid state spectrometers. The description of objects and their condition, the program of planned researches, co-operation with other institutes of the Moscow Region, progress reached for last two years are introduced in the article. (author)

  11. Theory‐based pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of S‐ and R‐warfarin and effects on international normalized ratio: influence of body size, composition and genotype in cardiac surgery patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Holford, Nick; Ding, Xiao‐liang; Shen, Zhen‐ya; Huang, Chen‐rong; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Jing‐jing; Guo, Zhe‐ning; Xie, Cheng; Zhou, Ling; Chen, Zhi‐yao; Liu, Lin‐sheng

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study are to apply a theory‐based mechanistic model to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of S‐ and R‐warfarin. Methods Clinical data were obtained from 264 patients. Total concentrations for S‐ and R‐warfarin were measured by ultra‐high performance liquid tandem mass spectrometry. Genotypes were measured using pyrosequencing. A sequential population PK parameter with data method was used to describe the international normalized ratio (INR) time course. Data were analyzed with NONMEM. Model evaluation was based on parameter plausibility and prediction‐corrected visual predictive checks. Results Warfarin PK was described using a one‐compartment model. CYP2C9 *1/*3 genotype had reduced clearance for S‐warfarin, but increased clearance for R‐warfarin. The in vitro parameters for the relationship between prothrombin complex activity (PCA) and INR were markedly different (A = 0.560, B = 0.386) from the theory‐based values (A = 1, B = 0). There was a small difference between healthy subjects and patients. A sigmoid Emax PD model inhibiting PCA synthesis as a function of S‐warfarin concentration predicted INR. Small R‐warfarin effects was described by competitive antagonism of S‐warfarin inhibition. Patients with VKORC1 AA and CYP4F2 CC or CT genotypes had lower C50 for S‐warfarin. Conclusion A theory‐based PKPD model describes warfarin concentrations and clinical response. Expected PK and PD genotype effects were confirmed. The role of predicted fat free mass with theory‐based allometric scaling of PK parameters was identified. R‐warfarin had a minor effect compared with S‐warfarin on PCA synthesis. INR is predictable from 1/PCA in vivo. PMID:27763679

  12. LEPI - INR Pitesti. Achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentea, Cristian; Parvan, Marcel; Tuturici, Ioan Liviu

    2002-01-01

    The Post-Irradiation Examination Laboratory, LEPI, of the Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti, Romania was designed and realized in the period 1977 - 1984. It is devoted to the nuclear activities of reception, manipulation, storing, processing, and examination of the radiation sources of high intensities, particularly irradiated nuclear materials and spent nuclear fuels. These materials result from the irradiation process taking place in the INR materials testing reactors and/or from the Cernavoda NPP. The examination implies nondestructive and destructive testing, followed by mechanical or chemical processing and allows physico-chemical and mechanical characterization, information needed to determine the behavior and operational performance in normal a hypothetically accidental operation conditions. The laboratory is provided with a set of hot chambers, transfer and examination cells suitable for working high activities, up to 1 MCi (37 PBq). The transfer cell is equipped with to working stations while the examinations cell has seven working stations. Each working station is equipped with a SOVIS window, a pair of HWM-A100 remote manipulators and several ducts for int/ext connections. The underpressurized inner air is filtered by a double battery of absolute serial filters with a 99.9% retaining efficiency for radioactive air sols with particles of sizes larger then 0.3 μm. The post irradiation examination comprises the following operations: transport; reception; visual inspection; dimensional control; high resolution gamma spectrometry; inflammable element marking; mounting and processing of the samples, mechanical testing to stretching; ceramographic and/or metallographic analysis by optical microscopy; radiochemical analysis, collecting, conditioning and intermediate storage of the process waste (residuals from spent fuel or irradiate materials); collecting, sorting and conditioning of the technological wastes (decontaminations materials, maintenance

  13. Nuclear fuel manufacturing. Current activities and prospects at INR Pitesti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horhoianu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    enriched uranium were developed. The principal advantages of using SEU43 in CANDU reactors are presented. This activity was developed in the frame of a research project, ROM/6197/RB, developed with IAEA Vienna. A new original probabilistic analysis was worked out particularly useful in designing and evaluating advanced fuel of high burnup degree. Fuel bundles with 43 elements were manufactured and partially tested off-reactor. An IAEA technical assistance project, ROM/4/025/B1, will allow finalizing both the design and manufacturing technology as well as the irradiation test in reactor. Parallel preparations are under way to study in the future the behaviour of fuel in normal and accident regime. In cooperation with AECL Canada irradiation tests will be effected with the C9 devices of the TRIGA reactor. The test has the goal of analyzing the behaviour of CANDU type fuel in power cycling conditions, resulting from NPP operation in a load followup regime. The test will be performed by means of a device designed and entirely executed in INR, a pioneering work for characterizing the CANDU fuel performances

  14. Iso-effect tables and therapeutic ratios for epidermoid cancer and normal tissue stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.; Creditor, M.

    1983-01-01

    Available literature on radiation injury to normal tissue stroma and ablation of epidermoid carcinoma was surveyed. Computer programs (RAD3 and RAD1) were then used to derive cell kinetic parameters and generate iso-effect tables for the relevant tissues. The two tables provide a set of limiting doses for tolerance of normal connective tissue (16% risk of injury) and for ablation of epidermoid cancer (16% risk of recurrence) covering a wide range of treatment schedules. Calculating the ratios of normal tissue tolerance to tumor control doses for each treatment scheme provides an array of therapeutic ratios, from which appropriate treatment schemes can be selected

  15. Ratio of organs to blood of mercury during its uptake by normal and acatalasemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, M.; Aikoh, H.

    1987-01-01

    The brain/blood, liver/blood, and heart/blood ratios of acatalasemic mice after intraperitoneal injection of labelled metallic mercury or after exposure to labelled metallic mercury vapor were significantly higher than those of normal mice. These ratios of normal or acatalasemic mice after injection with metallic mercury or exposure to metallic mercury vapor were significantly higher than those of normal and acatalasemic mice injected with mercuric ion. The amount of metallic mercury exhaled from acatalasemic mice injected with metallic mercury was greater than that from normal mice, indicating that the level of metallic mercury in blood of the former was higher than that of the latter. Actually, metallic mercury in the blood of acatalasemic mice injected with metallic mercury is higher than that in the blood of normal mice, suggesting that metallic mercury is easily transferred from blood to brain, liver, kidney, and heart

  16. Normal frontal lobe gray matter-white matter CT volume ratio in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Engelhart, J.; Hasso, A.N.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    We attempted to establish a computed tomographic value representing the normal volume ratio of gray matter to white matter (G/W) in children in order to have a baseline for studying various developmental disorders such as white matter hypoplasia. The records of 150 children 16 years of age or younger who had normal cranial computed tomography were reviewed. From these a group of 119 were excluded for various reasons. The remaining 3 were presumed to have normal brains. Using the region of interest function for tracing gray and white matter boundaries, superior and ventral to the foramen of Munro area, measurements were determined for consecutive adjacent frontal slices. Volumes were then calculated for both gray and white matter. A volume ratio of 2.010 (sigma=0.349), G/W, was then derived from each of 31 children. The clinical value of this ratio will be determined by future investigation. (orig.)

  17. Frequency of different disorders requiring warfarin therapy and its outcome in terms of dosage and inr value in pakistani population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, A.; Najmi, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the frequency of different disorders requiring warfarin therapy and to see the target INR and warfarin dose requirement in Pakistani population. Study Design:Descriptive study. Setting and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Armed Forces Institut e of Cardiology (AFIC) Rawalpindi, Military Hospital Rawalpindi and National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, Pakistan from October 2010 to March 2012. Patients and Methods: Stable patients taking warfarin therapy were recruited after detailed medical history, physical examination and laboratory tests. The demographic and clinical data of individuals were entered in a pre-structured proforma. Patients suffering from hepatic and renal disease, any co-morbid disease or taking any concurrent medication or diet which would have affected warfarin therapy, were excluded. Data was analyzed using PSS version 20.0. Results: A total of 607 stable patients fulfilling the eligibility criteria, participated in the study. There were 297 (48.9%) male and 310 (51.1%) female patients. The mean age was 37.93 +- 12.23 years (range 18-65 years). The most common indication for warfarin therapy was valvular heart diseases (93.4%) followed by atrial fibrillation (2.3%) whereas other indications for warfarin use are less commonly seen in our study population. Patients had mean international normalized ratio (INR) value of 2.3 +9- 0.8 (range 1.5-3.5). Mean daily dose of warfarin calculated in 607 patients was 5.62 and 1.98 mg with the range of 0.36-15 g whereas mean weekly dose was 39.36 +- 13.8 mg with the range of 2.5-105 mg. Conclusion: In Pakistani population the most common indications for warfarin use are valvular heart diseases followed by atrial fibrillation. The mean INR values were within recommended range of 2-3. The mean daily dose observed in long-term therapy is comparable to the empirical dose of 5 mg routinely started in clinical practice. (author)

  18. Warfarin dose and INR related to genotypes of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 in patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seljeflot Ingebjørg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Warfarin treatment has a narrow therapeutic range, requiring meticulous monitoring and dosage titration. Individual dosage requirement has recently partly been explained by genetic variation of the warfarin metabolizing enzyme CYP2C9 and the Vitamin K-activating enzyme VKORC1. In the WARIS-II study, comparing three different antithrombotic regimens after myocardial infarction, warfarin treatment reduced thrombotic events, but was associated with more frequent bleeding than use of acetylsalisylic acid (ASA alone. Aims The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between genotypes of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 and warfarin maintenance dose in myocardial infarction. The secondary aim was to relate the genotypes to international normalized ratio (INR. Methods Genotyping was performed in 212 myocardial infarction patients from the WARIS-II study by robotic isolation of DNA from EDTA whole blood (MagNa Pure LC before PCR amplification (LightCycler and melting point analysis. Results The 420 C>T substitution of CYP2C9*2, the 1075 A>C substitution of CYP2C9*3 and the 1173 C>T substitution of VKORC1 had minor allele frequencies of, 11.3%, 5.7% and 36.6% respectively. Warfarin weekly dose varied between 17 mg and 74 mg among the patients. INR did not vary between genotypes. Warfarin dosage requirement was significantly associated with CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes, treatment group and age. The VKORC1 genotype contributed 24.5% to the interindividual variation in warfarin dosage, whereas the combined CYP2C9 genotypes were only responsible for 7.2% of the dose variation. Conclusion CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype frequencies in myocardial infarction patients appear similar to other patient groups and have similar impact on warfarin maintenance dose.

  19. Raised international normalized ratio: an early warning for a late cardiac tamponade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Ammad; van den Brink, Albert; de Mol, Bas

    2006-01-01

    Seven consecutive cases of late cardiac tamponade after valvular surgery are reported; all were postoperatively treated with acenocoumarol and 6 had an international normalized ratio peak greater than 6.0 within 3 days preceding tamponade. It is suggested that during this excessive anticoagulation

  20. Determination of a safe INR for joint injections in patients taking warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, M A; Ray, R; Sarda, P; Li, S; Corbett, S

    2015-11-01

    With an increase in life expectancy in 'developed' countries, the number of elderly patients receiving joint injections for arthritis is increasing. There are legitimate concerns about an increased risk of thromboembolism if anticoagulation is stopped or reversed for such an injection. Despite being a common dilemma, the literature on this issue is scarce. We undertook 2,084 joint injections of the knee and shoulder in 1,714 patients between August 2008 and December 2013. Within this cohort, we noted 41 patients who were taking warfarin and followed them immediately after joint injection in the clinic or radiology department, looking carefully for complications. Then, we sought clinical follow-up, correspondence, and imaging evidence for 4 weeks, looking for complications from these joint injections. We recorded International Normalised Ratio (INR) values before injection. No complications were associated with the procedure after any joint injection. The radiologists who undertook ultrasound-guided injections to shoulders re-scanned the joints looking for haemarthroses: they found none. A similar outcome was noted clinically after injections in the outpatient setting. With a mean INR of 2.77 (range, 1.7-5.5) and a maximum INR within this group of 5.5, joint injections to the shoulder and knee can be undertaken safely in primary or secondary care settings despite the patient taking warfarin.

  1. Tolerance limits and tolerance intervals for ratios of normal random variables using a bootstrap calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Marilena; Zhai, Shuyan; Mathew, Thomas; Bebu, Ionut

    2017-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of deriving one-sided tolerance limits and two-sided tolerance intervals for a ratio of two random variables that follow a bivariate normal distribution, or a lognormal/normal distribution. The methodology that is developed uses nonparametric tolerance limits based on a parametric bootstrap sample, coupled with a bootstrap calibration in order to improve accuracy. The methodology is also adopted for computing confidence limits for the median of the ratio random variable. Numerical results are reported to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed approach. The methodology is illustrated using examples where ratio random variables are of interest: an example on the radioactivity count in reverse transcriptase assays and an example from the area of cost-effectiveness analysis in health economics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Using subcontractors: the experience of IRSN and INRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffroy, Francois; Hery, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the current status and assessment of risks and opportunities associated with subcontracting in nuclear installations as perceived and addressed by the IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire) and the INRS (Institut National de Recherche et de Securite). A first part recalls how these issues have been addressed since the 1990's. The author notices that subcontracting is associated with different terminologies for the IRSN and the INRS. In the next part, the author discusses the debate about subcontracting. He outlines that the organisation of the client must be examined, notably with respect to safety, to the way ability and traceability of subcontractor activities are considered and addressed. He comments the relationships between the client and its subcontractors. He briefly comments how the IRSN and the INRS address differently these issues related to subcontracting

  3. Estimates and Standard Errors for Ratios of Normalizing Constants from Multiple Markov Chains via Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Hani; Tan, Aixin

    2014-09-01

    In the classical biased sampling problem, we have k densities π 1 (·), …, π k (·), each known up to a normalizing constant, i.e. for l = 1, …, k , π l (·) = ν l (·)/ m l , where ν l (·) is a known function and m l is an unknown constant. For each l , we have an iid sample from π l , · and the problem is to estimate the ratios m l /m s for all l and all s . This problem arises frequently in several situations in both frequentist and Bayesian inference. An estimate of the ratios was developed and studied by Vardi and his co-workers over two decades ago, and there has been much subsequent work on this problem from many different perspectives. In spite of this, there are no rigorous results in the literature on how to estimate the standard error of the estimate. We present a class of estimates of the ratios of normalizing constants that are appropriate for the case where the samples from the π l 's are not necessarily iid sequences, but are Markov chains. We also develop an approach based on regenerative simulation for obtaining standard errors for the estimates of ratios of normalizing constants. These standard error estimates are valid for both the iid case and the Markov chain case.

  4. Normal values of urine total protein- and albumin-to-creatinine ratios in term newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamel, Chahrazed; Chianea, Thierry; Thon, Séverine; Lepichoux, Anne; Yardin, Catherine; Guigonis, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    It is important to have an accurate assessment of urinary protein when glomerulopathy or kidney injury is suspected. Currently available normal values for the neonate population have limited value, in part because they are based on small populations and obsolete creatinine assays. We have performed a prospective study with the aim to update the normal upper values of the urinary total protein-to-creatinine and albumin-to-creatinine ratios in term newborns. Urine samples were collected from 277 healthy, full-term newborns within the first 48 hours (D0-1) and between 72 and 120 h of life (D3-4). Total protein, albumin, creatinine and osmolality were measured and the upper limit of normal (upper-limit) values determined. At D0-1 and D3-4, the upper-limit values for the total protein-to-creatinine ratio were 1431 and 1205 mg/g (162 and 136 g/mol) and those for the albumin-to-creatinine ratio were 746 and 301 mg/g (84 and 34 g/mol), respectively. The upper-limit values were significantly higher at D0-1 than at D3-4 only for the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. This study determined the upper limit of normal values for urinary total protein-to-creatinine and albumin-to-creatinine ratios in the largest population of newborns studied to date. These values can therefore be considered as the most clinically relevant data currently available for the detection and diagnosis of glomerular injury in daily clinical practice in this population.

  5. Bladder cancer mapping in Libya based on standardized morbidity ratio and log-normal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhdiri, Maryam Ahmed; Samat, Nor Azah; Mohamed, Zulkifley

    2017-05-01

    Disease mapping contains a set of statistical techniques that detail maps of rates based on estimated mortality, morbidity, and prevalence. A traditional approach to measure the relative risk of the disease is called Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR). It is the ratio of an observed and expected number of accounts in an area, which has the greatest uncertainty if the disease is rare or if geographical area is small. Therefore, Bayesian models or statistical smoothing based on Log-normal model are introduced which might solve SMR problem. This study estimates the relative risk for bladder cancer incidence in Libya from 2006 to 2007 based on the SMR and log-normal model, which were fitted to data using WinBUGS software. This study starts with a brief review of these models, starting with the SMR method and followed by the log-normal model, which is then applied to bladder cancer incidence in Libya. All results are compared using maps and tables. The study concludes that the log-normal model gives better relative risk estimates compared to the classical method. The log-normal model has can overcome the SMR problem when there is no observed bladder cancer in an area.

  6. Normalization of coagulopathy is associated with improved outcome after isolated traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Daniel S; Mitra, Biswadev; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-07-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) has been reported in the setting of isolated traumatic brain injury (iTBI) and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of procoagulant agents administered to patients with ATC and iTBI during resuscitation, hypothesizing that timely normalization of coagulopathy may be associated with a decrease in mortality. A retrospective review of the Alfred Hospital trauma registry, Australia, was conducted and patients with iTBI (head Abbreviated Injury Score [AIS] ⩾3 and all other body AIS normalized ratio ⩾1.3) were selected for analysis. Data on procoagulant agents used (fresh frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, prothrombin complex concentrates, tranexamic acid, vitamin K) were extracted. Among patients who had achieved normalization of INR or survived beyond 24hours and were not taking oral anticoagulants, the association of normalization of INR and death at hospital discharge was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. There were 157 patients with ATC of whom 68 (43.3%) received procoagulant products within 24hours of presentation. The median time to delivery of first products was 182.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 115-375) minutes, and following administration of coagulants, time to normalization of INR was 605 (IQR 274-1146) minutes. Normalization of INR was independently associated with significantly lower mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.10; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38). Normalization of INR was associated with improved mortality in patients with ATC in the setting of iTBI. As there was a substantial time lag between delivery of products and eventual normalization of coagulation, specific management of coagulopathy should be implemented as early as possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Abnormal X : autosome ratio, but normal X chromosome inactivation in human triploid cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norwood Thomas H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X chromosome inactivation (XCI is that aspect of mammalian dosage compensation that brings about equivalence of X-linked gene expression between females and males by inactivating one of the two X chromosomes (Xi in normal female cells, leaving them with a single active X (Xa as in male cells. In cells with more than two X's, but a diploid autosomal complement, all X's but one, Xa, are inactivated. This phenomenon is commonly thought to suggest 1 that normal development requires a ratio of one Xa per diploid autosomal set, and 2 that an early event in XCI is the marking of one X to be active, with remaining X's becoming inactivated by default. Results Triploids provide a test of these ideas because the ratio of one Xa per diploid autosomal set cannot be achieved, yet this abnormal ratio should not necessarily affect the one-Xa choice mechanism for XCI. Previous studies of XCI patterns in murine triploids support the single-Xa model, but human triploids mostly have two-Xa cells, whether they are XXX or XXY. The XCI patterns we observe in fibroblast cultures from different XXX human triploids suggest that the two-Xa pattern of XCI is selected for, and may have resulted from rare segregation errors or Xi reactivation. Conclusion The initial X inactivation pattern in human triploids, therefore, is likely to resemble the pattern that predominates in murine triploids, i.e., a single Xa, with the remaining X's inactive. Furthermore, our studies of XIST RNA accumulation and promoter methylation suggest that the basic features of XCI are normal in triploids despite the abnormal X:autosome ratio.

  8. Signal-to-background-ratio preferences of normal-hearing listeners as a function of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jillian G.

    2005-04-01

    The primary purpose of speech is to convey a message. Many factors affect the listener's overall reception, several of which have little to do with the linguistic content itself, but rather with the delivery (e.g., prosody, intonation patterns, pragmatics, paralinguistic cues). Music, however, may convey a message either with or without linguistic content. In instances in which music has lyrics, one cannot assume verbal content will take precedence over sonic properties. Lyric emphasis over other aspects of music cannot be assumed. Singing introduces distortion of the vowel-consonant temporal ratio of speech, emphasizing vowels and de-emphasizing consonants. The phonemic production alterations of singing make it difficult for even those with normal hearing to understand the singer. This investigation was designed to identify singer-to-background-ratio (SBR) prefer- ences for normal hearing adult listeners (as opposed to SBR levels maxi-mizing speech discrimination ability). Stimuli were derived from three different original songs, each produced in two different genres and sung by six different singers. Singer and genre were the two primary contributors to significant differences in SBR preferences, though results clearly indicate genre, style and singer interact in different combinations for each song, each singer, and for each subject in an unpredictable manner.

  9. Derived release limits for airborne effluents at TRIGA - INR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, A.; Dulama, C.; Hirica, O.; Mihai, S.; Oprea, I.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning from fulfilling the purposes of dose limitation system recommended by ICRP, and now accepted in radiation protection, this paper presents an environmental transfer model to calculate derived release limits for airborne and gaseous radioactive effluents at TRIGA-INR, 14 MW Steady State Reactor, in function on INR-Pitesti site. The methodology consists in determination of the principal exposure pathways for different groups of population and dose calculations for each radionuclide. The characterization of radionuclides transfer to environment was made using the compartmental model. The parameter transfer concept was used to describe the distribution of radionuclides between the different compartments. Atmospheric dispersion was very carefully treated, because it is the primary mechanism of the transfer of radionuclides in the environment and it determines all exposure pathways. Calculation of the atmospheric dispersion was made using ORION-II computer code based on the Gaussian plume model which takes account of site's specific climate and relief conditions. Default values recommended by literature were used to calculate some of the parameters when specific site values were not available. After identification of all transfer parameters which characterize the most important exposure pathways, the release rate corresponding to the individual dose rate limit was calculated. This maximum release rate is the derived release limit for each radionuclide and source. In the paper, the derived release limits are calculated for noble gases, radioiodine and other airborne particulate radionuclides, which can be released on the TRIGA-INR reactor stack, and are important to radiation protection. (authors)

  10. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure) Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kimie; Ohashi, Yumiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure) and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure) ratio (SPR) was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH) as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure), concretely, peak values (SPR-p) and time integral values (SPR-i). The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i. PMID:28050567

  11. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Amemiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure ratio (SPR was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure, concretely, peak values (SPR-p and time integral values (SPR-i. The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i.

  12. Classification between normal and tumor tissues based on the pair-wise gene expression ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, YeeLeng; Zhang, XueWu; Ling, MT; Wang, XiangHong; Wong, YC; Danchin, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    Precise classification of cancer types is critically important for early cancer diagnosis and treatment. Numerous efforts have been made to use gene expression profiles to improve precision of tumor classification. However, reliable cancer-related signals are generally lacking. Using recent datasets on colon and prostate cancer, a data transformation procedure from single gene expression to pair-wise gene expression ratio is proposed. Making use of the internal consistency of each expression profiling dataset this transformation improves the signal to noise ratio of the dataset and uncovers new relevant cancer-related signals (features). The efficiency in using the transformed dataset to perform normal/tumor classification was investigated using feature partitioning with informative features (gene annotation) as discriminating axes (single gene expression or pair-wise gene expression ratio). Classification results were compared to the original datasets for up to 10-feature model classifiers. 82 and 262 genes that have high correlation to tissue phenotype were selected from the colon and prostate datasets respectively. Remarkably, data transformation of the highly noisy expression data successfully led to lower the coefficient of variation (CV) for the within-class samples as well as improved the correlation with tissue phenotypes. The transformed dataset exhibited lower CV when compared to that of single gene expression. In the colon cancer set, the minimum CV decreased from 45.3% to 16.5%. In prostate cancer, comparable CV was achieved with and without transformation. This improvement in CV, coupled with the improved correlation between the pair-wise gene expression ratio and tissue phenotypes, yielded higher classification efficiency, especially with the colon dataset – from 87.1% to 93.5%. Over 90% of the top ten discriminating axes in both datasets showed significant improvement after data transformation. The high classification efficiency achieved suggested

  13. Magnetization transfer on T2-weighted image : magnetization Transfer ratios in normal brain and cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Roh, Hong Gee; Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Young Kook; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Sung Tae; Choi, Sung Kyu [Inha Univ. College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the magnetization transfer ratio(MTR) of various normal structures and pathologic lesions, as seen on magnetization transfer T2-weighted images (MT+T2WI). Materials and Methods : In ten normal volunteers, T2-weighted images without MT (MT-T2WI) and with MT(MT+T2WI) were obtained. Off-set pulses used in MT+T2WI were 400, 600, 1000, 1500, and 2000Hz. In 60 clinical cases infarction(n=10), brain tumors(n=5), traumatic hematomas(n=5), other hematomas(n=3) vascular malformation(n=2) white matter disease(n=2) normal(n=31) and others(n=2), both MT-T2WI and MT+T2WI images were obtained using an off-set pulse of 600 Hz. In all volunteers and patients, MTR in various normal brain parenchyma and abnormal areas was measured. Results : The MTRs of white and gray matter were 48% and 45% respectively at 400 Hz, 26% and 22% at 600Hz, 12% and 11% of 1000Hz, 10% and 9% 1500HZ, and 9% and 8% at 2000Hz of RF. The MTR of CSF was 43% at 400 Hz of off-resonance RF, while the contrast resolution of T2WI was poor. An off-resonance of 600Hz appeared to be the optimal frequency. In diseased areas,MTRs varied but were usually similar to or lower than those of brain parenchyma. Conclusion : The optimal off-resonance RF on MT+T2WI appears to be 600 Hz for relatively high MTR of brain parenchyma and low MTR of CSF,in which MTRs of white and gray matter were 26% and 22%, respectively, of 600Hz off-set pulse. The MTRs of cerebral lesions varied and further studies of various cerebral lesions are needed.

  14. Sharp tooth induced sublingual hematoma in a patient with elevated international normalized ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Baliah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sublingual hematoma secondary to anticoagulation is a rare fatal condition. Hemorrhagic complications of warfarin are well-known. This particular case is unique because the patient was on warfarin for the past 2 years but did not develop the sublingual hematoma. However, a trauma by an attrited sharp cusp triggered the episode of the sublingual hematoma in this patient. Being a medical emergency, patient was promptly hospitalized in cardiac care unit and managed by medical team. The patient was transfused with 2 units of fresh frozen plasma and warfarin was temporarily stopped for 4 days. Alternate day regimen of warfarin was started after 4 days, and international normalized ratio dropped to 3. In dental management, enameloplasty of the mandibular first molar tooth was done to prevent trauma and ulcer development in the floor of the mouth. The hematoma resolved, and no new hematoma formation was observed for a period of 6 months.

  15. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  16. Signal-to-background ratio preferences of normal-hearing listeners as a function of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jillian Gallant

    The purpose of this study was to identify listeners' signal-to-background-ratio (SBR) preference levels for vocal music and to investigate whether or not SBR differences existed for different music genres. The ``signal'' was the singer's voice, and the ``background'' was the accompanying music. Three songs were each produced in two different genres (total of 6 genres represented). Each song was performed by three male and three female singers. Analyses addressed influences of musical genre, singing style, and singer timbre on listener's SBR choices. Fifty-three normal-hearing California State University of Northridge students ranging in age from 20-52 years participated as subjects. Subjects adjusted the overall music loudness to a comfortable listening level, and manipulated a second gain control which affected only the singer's voice. Subjects listened to 72 stimuli and adjusted the singer's voice to the level they felt sounded appropriate in comparison to the background music. Singer and Genre were the two primary contributors to significant differences in subject's SBR preferences, although the results clearly indicate Genre, Style and Singer interact in different combinations under different conditions. SBR differences for each song, each singer, and each subject did not occur in a predictable manner, and support the hypothesis that SBR preferences are neither fixed nor dependent merely upon music application or setting. Further investigations regarding psychoacoustical bases responsible for differences in SBR preferences are warranted.

  17. Patient-Specific Tailored Intervention Improves INR Time in Therapeutic Range and INR Variability in Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsman, Israel; Ezra, Orly; Hirsh Raccah, Bruria; Admon, Dan; Lotan, Chaim; Dekeyser Ganz, Freda

    2017-08-01

    Many patients with heart failure need anticoagulants, including warfarin. Good control is particularly challenging in heart failure patients, with range, thereby increasing the risk of complications. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a patient-specific tailored intervention on anticoagulation control in patients with heart failure. Patients with heart failure taking warfarin therapy (n = 145) were randomized to either standard care or a 1-time intervention assessing potential risk factors for lability of INR, in which they received patient-specific instructions. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) using Rosendaal's linear model was assessed 3 months before and after the intervention. The patient-tailored intervention significantly increased anticoagulation control. The median TTR levels before intervention were suboptimal in the interventional and control groups (53% vs 45%, P = .14). After intervention the median TTR increased significantly in the interventional group compared with the control group (80% [interquartile range, 62%-93%] vs 44% [29%-61%], P <.0001). The intervention resulted in a significant improvement in the interventional group before versus after intervention (53% vs 80%, P <.0001) but not in the control group (45% vs 44%, P = .95). The percentage of patients with a TTR ≥60%, considered therapeutic, was substantially higher in the interventional group: 79% versus 25% (P <.0001). The INR variability (standard deviation of each patient's INR measurements) decreased significantly in the interventional group, from 0.53 to 0.32 (P <.0001) after intervention but not in the control group. Patient-specific tailored intervention significantly improves anticoagulation therapy in patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Automatic Radiation Control System Of The Inr Linear Accelerator (troitsk).

    CERN Document Server

    Grachev, M I; Kuptsov, S I; Peleshko, V N; Shishkin, K I; Shmelev, M O; Skorkin, V M

    2004-01-01

    The radiation monitor system (RMS) at accelerator INR is a part of radiation safety system of experimental complex INR. RMS is intended for continuous monitoring of radiation field behind biological protection of linear accelerator INR with the personnel dose control and alarm purposes. Three-level system RMS consists of the operator computer, microprocessor data acquisition modules and networks of UDBN-02R neutron detectors and BDRC-01P photon detectors, located inside and behind biological protection of the accelerator (fig. 1).

  19. Normalized burn ratios link fire severity with patterns of avian occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.; Klein, Rob; McKerrow, Alexa

    2016-01-01

    ContextRemotely sensed differenced normalized burn ratios (DNBR) provide an index of fire severity across the footprint of a fire. We asked whether this index was useful for explaining patterns of bird occurrence within fire adapted xeric pine-oak forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains.ObjectivesWe evaluated the use of DNBR indices for linking ecosystem process with patterns of bird occurrence. We compared field-based and remotely sensed fire severity indices and used each to develop occupancy models for six bird species to identify patterns of bird occurrence following fire.MethodsWe identified and sampled 228 points within fires that recently burned within Great Smoky Mountains National Park. We performed avian point counts and field-assessed fire severity at each bird census point. We also used Landsat™ imagery acquired before and after each fire to quantify fire severity using DNBR. We used non-parametric methods to quantify agreement between fire severity indices, and evaluated single season occupancy models incorporating fire severity summarized at different spatial scales.ResultsAgreement between field-derived and remotely sensed measures of fire severity was influenced by vegetation type. Although occurrence models using field-derived indices of fire severity outperformed those using DNBR, summarizing DNBR at multiple spatial scales provided additional insights into patterns of occurrence associated with different sized patches of high severity fire.ConclusionsDNBR is useful for linking the effects of fire severity to patterns of bird occurrence, and informing how high severity fire shapes patterns of bird species occurrence on the landscape.

  20. Evaluation of the normal-to-diseased apparent diffusion coefficient ratio as an indicator of prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovici, Andrei; Sfrangeu, Silviu A; Feier, Diana; Caraiani, Cosmin; Lucan, Ciprian; Suciu, Mihai; Elec, Florin; Iacob, Gheorghita; Buruian, Mircea

    2014-05-10

    We tested the feasibility of a simple method for assessment of prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratios between prostate cancer and healthy prostatic tissue. The requirement for institutional review board approval was waived. A set of 20 standardized core transperineal saturation biopsy specimens served as the reference standard for placement of regions of interest on ADC maps in tumorous and normal prostatic tissue of 22 men with PCa (median Gleason score: 7; range, 6-9). A total of 128 positive sectors were included for evaluation. Two diagnostic ratios were computed between tumor ADCs and normal sector ADCs: the ADC peripheral ratio (the ratio between tumor ADC and normal peripheral zone tissue, ADC-PR), and the ADC central ratio (the ratio between tumor ADC and normal central zone tissue, ADC-CR). The performance of the two ratios in detecting high-risk tumor foci (Gleason 8 and 9) was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Both ADC ratios presented significantly lower values in high-risk tumors (0.48 ± 0.13 for ADC-CR and 0.40 ± 0.09 for ADC-PR) compared with low-risk tumors (0.66 ± 0.17 for ADC-CR and 0.54 ± 0.09 for ADC-PR) (p performance (ADC-CR AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 82.2%, specificity = 66.7% and ADC-PR AUC = 0.90, sensitivity = 93.7%, specificity = 80%) than stand-alone tumor ADCs (AUC of 0.75, sensitivity = 72.7%, specificity = 70.6%) for identifying high-risk lesions. The ADC ratio as an intrapatient-normalized diagnostic tool may be better in detecting high-grade lesions compared with analysis based on tumor ADCs alone, and may reduce the rate of biopsies.

  1. TRial of an Educational intervention on patients' knowledge of Atrial fibrillation and anticoagulant therapy, INR control, and outcome of Treatment with warfarin (TREAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattison Helen M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation (AF patients with a high risk of stroke are recommended anticoagulation with warfarin. However, the benefit of warfarin is dependent upon time spent within the target therapeutic range (TTR of their international normalised ratio (INR (2.0 to 3.0. AF patients possess limited knowledge of their disease and warfarin treatment and this can impact on INR control. Education can improve patients' understanding of warfarin therapy and factors which affect INR control. Methods/Design Randomised controlled trial of an intensive educational intervention will consist of group sessions (between 2-8 patients containing standardised information about the risks and benefits associated with OAC therapy, lifestyle interactions and the importance of monitoring and control of their International Normalised Ratio (INR. Information will be presented within an 'expert-patient' focussed DVD, revised educational booklet and patient worksheets. 200 warfarin-naïve patients who are eligible for warfarin will be randomised to either the intervention or usual care groups. All patients must have ECG-documented AF and be eligible for warfarin (according to the NICE AF guidelines. Exclusion criteria include: aged Discussion More data is needed on the clinical benefit of educational intervention with AF patients receiving warfarin. Trial registration ISRCTN93952605

  2. Eleven years of net network research activity - inr contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaconu, V.; Ionita, I.; Meleg, T.; Deaconu, M.; Truta, C.; Oncioiu, G.

    2013-01-01

    The European Network on Neutron Techniques Standardization for Structural Integrity (NeT) was established in 2002, grouping institutions from industry, research and academic media. Coordinated by the European Commission.s Joint Research Centre, the main mission of this network is to develop experimental and numerical techniques and standards for the reliable characterisation of residual stresses in structural welds. Each problem is tackled by creating a dedicated Task Group which manages measurement and modelling round robin studies and undertakes a thorough analysis and interpretation of the results. Over forty institutions are active NeT partners, their specific involvement and contributions being summarised in this paper. The Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR) is one of NeT founders and its contribution is related to numerical modelling, specimen analysis, material characterisation, data analysis or SANS support. This is also emphasised throughout this paper, together with the specific NeT research topics presentation. (authors)

  3. Nilai Rerata Vascular Pedicle Width, Vascular Pedicle-Cardiac Ratio Vascular Pedicle-Thoracic Ratio Orang Dewasa Normal Indonesia Studi di RS dr. Cipto Mangunkusomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommy Zunera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pedicle width (VPW adalah jarak tepi luar vena kava superior ke tepi luar arteri subklavia kiri. Pemeriksaan VPW di foto toraks bersifat non-invasif, cepat dan mudah untuk memprediksi hipervolemia.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui rerata nilai VPW orang dewasa normal Indonesia. VPW diukurdengan dua metode: pertama pengukuran VPW tunggal yang akurasinya terbatas di foto toraks digital karenarelatif tidak dipengaruhi faktor magnifikasi. Metode kedua untuk foto toraks nondigital yaitu pengukuranrasio:vascular pedicle-cardiac ratio (VPCR dan vascular pedicle-thoracic ratio (VPTR. Pengukuran serupadilakukan terhadap  topogram CT scan toraks AP terlentang dan CT scan toraks lalu dibandingkan akurasipengukuran di topogram dengan CT scan  toraks sebagai standar baku. Sampel terdiri atas 104 foto toraksPA subyek normal dan 103 CT scan  toraks subyek terpilih. Pada pemeriksaan toraks PA didapatkan rerata VPW 48,0±5,5mm, rerata VPCR 40,3±4,6%, dan rerata VPTR 17,2±1,7%. Pada pemeriksaan topogram CTscan didapatkan rerata VPW 50,3±6,2mm, rerata VPTR 45±5,1%, dan rerata VPTR 19,8±2,5%. Rerata VPWpada CT scan toraks 50,4±6,1mm. Pengukuran di foto toraks AP 10% lebih besar dibandingkan pada fototoraks PA dan pengukuranVPW di foto toraks terbukti memiliki akurasi  tinggi. Kata kunci: fototoraks, vascular pedicle width, vascular pedicle-cardiac ratio, vascular pedicle-thoracic ratio, hipervolemia.   The Mean Value of Vascular Pedicle Width, Vascular Pedicle-Cardiac Ratio,Vascular Pedicle-Thoracic Ratio of Normal Indonesian Adult Study In dr. Cipto Mangunkusomo Hospital Abstract Vascular pedicle width (VPW is the distance, from a perpendicular line at the takeoff point of the left subclavian artery off the aorta to the point at which the superior vena cava. Measurement of VPW on chestx-ray is relatively non-invasive, fast and easy technique as  hypervolemia predictor. The purpose of thisstudy is to know the mean VPW value of normal

  4. Waste processing practices at waste management department from INR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR), subsidiary of the Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities has its own Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR). The object of activity of STDR within the INR Pitesti is to treat and condition radioactive waste resulted from the nuclear facility. Also, it will must prepare and manage the decommissioning projects of its own facilities and to upgrade the facilities for the management of the radioactive waste resulting from other decommissioning activities. In according with the National Nuclear Program and the Governmental order no. 11/2003, the Institute for Nuclear Research is the main support for implementation of the methods and technologies for conditioning and disposal of radioactive waste generated by the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The classes and criteria of classification for radioactive waste generated in operation and decommissioning in Romania are established in compliance with the classification recommended by IAEA and generally valid in EU countries. The general classification takes into consideration the disposal requirements to isolate the radioactive waste from environment. In Romania, waste minimization is considered by Order No. 56/2004 of CNCAN President for approval of Fundamental regulations on the safe management of radioactive waste. According to this regulation, the generation of radioactive waste is to be kept to the minimum practicable level in terms of both its activity and volume through appropriate design measures, facility operation and decommissioning practices. In order to meet this requirement, the operator must ensure: - selection and control of materials; - recycling and reuse of materials, including clearance of materials; - implementing adequate operating procedures, including those referring to the physical, chemical and radiological characterization of the waste and sorting of different type of materials. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of the normal-to-diseased apparent diffusion coefficient ratio as an indicator of prostate cancer aggressiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebovici, Andrei; Sfrangeu, Silviu A; Feier, Diana; Caraiani, Cosmin; Lucan, Ciprian; Suciu, Mihai; Elec, Florin; Iacob, Gheorghita; Buruian, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    We tested the feasibility of a simple method for assessment of prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratios between prostate cancer and healthy prostatic tissue. The requirement for institutional review board approval was waived. A set of 20 standardized core transperineal saturation biopsy specimens served as the reference standard for placement of regions of interest on ADC maps in tumorous and normal prostatic tissue of 22 men with PCa (median Gleason score: 7; range, 6–9). A total of 128 positive sectors were included for evaluation. Two diagnostic ratios were computed between tumor ADCs and normal sector ADCs: the ADC peripheral ratio (the ratio between tumor ADC and normal peripheral zone tissue, ADC-PR), and the ADC central ratio (the ratio between tumor ADC and normal central zone tissue, ADC-CR). The performance of the two ratios in detecting high-risk tumor foci (Gleason 8 and 9) was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Both ADC ratios presented significantly lower values in high-risk tumors (0.48 ± 0.13 for ADC-CR and 0.40 ± 0.09 for ADC-PR) compared with low-risk tumors (0.66 ± 0.17 for ADC-CR and 0.54 ± 0.09 for ADC-PR) (p < 0.001) and had better diagnostic performance (ADC-CR AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 82.2%, specificity = 66.7% and ADC-PR AUC = 0.90, sensitivity = 93.7%, specificity = 80%) than stand-alone tumor ADCs (AUC of 0.75, sensitivity = 72.7%, specificity = 70.6%) for identifying high-risk lesions. The ADC ratio as an intrapatient-normalized diagnostic tool may be better in detecting high-grade lesions compared with analysis based on tumor ADCs alone, and may reduce the rate of biopsies

  6. Brain perfusion ratios by 99mTc HMPAO SPECT utilizing a mean value of the visual cortex to the cerebellum ratio derived from normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Catasus, C.; Rodriguez, R.; Cisnero, M.; Palmero, R.; Diaz, O.; Aguila, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Previous results shows that the cerebellum (CER) is the best reference to calculate relative indexes of perfusion (IP) by brain SPECT. However, it can not be used on patients with bilateral cerebellar hypoperfusion. In such cases visual cortex (VC) or an average of the whole brain activity is recommended (WB). VC and WB are less reliable than CER, making it difficult to compare SPECT scans that have been normalized with different values. Materials and Methods: To overcome this difficulty, we developed a method to calculate IP utilizing a reference value defined as (VC / ), where is the mean value of the VC/CER ratio derived from a normal database which was assumed to be constant. We called the value VC/ the 'Pseudocerebellum' (PCER). For clinical validation, we first tested statistically the VC/CER ratio on a group of 60 [ 99m Tc]-HMPAO SPECT scans of 20 normal subjects and 40 neurological patients with positive SPECT but without involvement of VC and CER. To demonstrate that IP PCER approx. IP CER , we calculated the mean value of the absolute differences CER - IP PCER vertical bar> on two groups of scans from subjects without involvement of VC and CER: 10 normal subjects (GI); and 40 patients (GII). Finally, using an indirect procedure the method was tested on a third group of SPECT scans of 30 patients with bilateral cerebellar hypoperfusion (G III). Results: The VC/CER ratio was approximately constant with gender and age at a 95% confidence level; CER - IP PCER vertical bar> was 1.22%±0.35 and 1.20%±0.42 for GI and GII, respectively. This is less than the within-subject replicability of the HMPAO SPECT studies; and thus demonstrated by an indirect approach that IP PCER is a valid procedure by which to evaluate relative perfusion on patients with bilateral cerebellar hypoperfusion and quantitatively comparable to using CER as reference region. Conclusion: The VC/CER ratio has very little inter-subject variability in individuals where these regions are not

  7. Pitfalls with the use of enhancement ratios or normalized excess mixing ratios measured in plumes to characterize pollution sources and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Yokelson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs, also known as enhancement ratios, are a common way to characterize plumes of pollution in atmospheric research. As single-source pollutant plumes disperse in the atmosphere, they are diluted by mixing with the adjacent background air. Changes in the composition of this background air can cause large changes to the NEMR that is subsequently measured by remote-sensing, airborne, or ground-based instruments. This scenario is common when boundary layer plumes enter the free troposphere and could also impact long-range transport or plumes near the top of the troposphere. We provide a context for these issues and an example showing that neglect of this effect could lead to serious errors in data interpretation.

  8. RNI Point-of-care test (POCT: esperança ou ilusão? Point-of-care test (POCT INR: hope or illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Maria Sant'Ana Dusse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Na última década, foram desenvolvidos os testes point-of-care visando à geração rápida de resultados de exames. Na área da hemostasia, a razão normatizada internacional, o RNI point-of-care test (RNI-POCT, constitui o principal exame dessa nova proposta. Esse teste tem grande potencial de benefício em situações em que o resultado rápido da RNI influencia a tomada de decisão clínica, como no acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo, antes de procedimentos cirúrgicos e durante cirurgias cardíacas, além de permitir que o próprio paciente faça a monitoração da anticoagulação oral. Entretanto, a precisão e a acurácia da RNI-POCT ainda precisam ser aprimoradas para aumentar a eficácia e a eficiência do teste. A RDC/ANVISA Nº 302 deixa claro que os testes POCT devem ser supervisionados pelo responsável técnico do Laboratório Clínico nas fases pré-analítica, analítica e pós-analítica. Na prática, o laboratório não participa da execução desses testes e liberação dos resultados, não sendo, portanto, o mais indicado para garantir a qualidade dos mesmos. Os clínicos, especialmente aqueles envolvidos com a anticoagulação oral de pacientes, têm grande expectativa na incorporação da RNI-POCT na prática diária, apesar das limitações desse método. Esses profissionais mostram-se dispostos a treinar o paciente para realizar o teste, mas legalmente não são os responsáveis pela qualidade do mesmo e não estão preparados para a manutenção dos equipamentos. A definição do responsável pelo RNI-POCT precisa ser reavaliada pelos órgãos competentes, de forma a garantir que seja cumprida, e constitui etapa essencial para assegurar a qualidade do teste e, consequentemente, sua maior utilização.In the last decade, point-of-care tests were developed to provide rapid generation of test results. These tests have increasingly broad applications. In the area of hemostasis, the international normalized ratio

  9. Diagnosing dementia and normal aging: clinical relevance of brain ratios and cognitive performance in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves M.L.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value (clinical application of brain measures and cognitive function. Alzheimer and multiinfarct patients (N = 30 and normal subjects over the age of 50 (N = 40 were submitted to a medical, neurological and cognitive investigation. The cognitive tests applied were Mini-Mental, word span, digit span, logical memory, spatial recognition span, Boston naming test, praxis, and calculation tests. The brain ratios calculated were the ventricle-brain, bifrontal, bicaudate, third ventricle, and suprasellar cistern measures. These data were obtained from a brain computer tomography scan, and the cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic curves. We analyzed the diagnostic parameters provided by these ratios and compared them to those obtained by cognitive evaluation. The sensitivity and specificity of cognitive tests were higher than brain measures, although dementia patients presented higher ratios, showing poorer cognitive performances than normal individuals. Normal controls over the age of 70 presented higher measures than younger groups, but similar cognitive performance. We found diffuse losses of tissue from the central nervous system related to distribution of cerebrospinal fluid in dementia patients. The likelihood of case identification by functional impairment was higher than when changes of the structure of the central nervous system were used. Cognitive evaluation still seems to be the best method to screen individuals from the community, especially for developing countries, where the cost of brain imaging precludes its use for screening and initial assessment of dementia.

  10. Utility of Normal Tissue-to-Tumor {alpha}/{beta} Ratio When Evaluating Isodoses of Isoeffective Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, Hiram A., E-mail: hgay@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Jin Jianyue [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Chang, Albert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To achieve a better understanding of the effect of the number of fractions on normal tissue sparing for equivalent tumor control in radiation therapy plans by using equivalent biologically effective dose (BED) isoeffect calculations. Methods and Materials: The simple linear quadratic (LQ) model was assumed to be valid up to 10 Gy per fraction. Using the model, we formulated a well-known mathematical equality for the tumor prescription dose and probed and solved a second mathematical problem for normal tissue isoeffect. That is, for a given arbitrary relative isodose distribution (treatment plan in percentages), 2 isoeffective tumor treatment regimens (N fractions of the dose D and n fractions of the dose d) were denoted, which resulted in the same BED (corresponding to 100% prescription isodose). Given these situations, the LQ model was further exploited to mathematically establish a unique relative isodose level, z (%), for the same arbitrary treatment plan, where the BED to normal tissues was also isoeffective for both fractionation regimens. Results: For the previously stated problem, the relative isodose level z (%), where the BEDs to the normal tissue were also equal, was defined by the normal tissue {alpha}/{beta} ratio divided by the tumor {alpha}/{beta} times 100%. Fewer fractions offers a therapeutic advantage for those portions of the normal tissue located outside the isodose surface, z, whereas more fractions offer a therapeutic advantage for those portions of the normal tissue within the isodose surface, z. Conclusions: Relative isodose-based treatment plan evaluations may be useful for comparing isoeffective tumor regimens in terms of normal tissue effects. Regions of tissues that would benefit from hypofractionation or standard fractionation can be identified.

  11. INR Recent Contributions to Thorium-Based Fuel Using in CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodea, I.; Mărgeanu, C. A.; Rizoiu, A.; Olteanu, G.

    2014-01-01

    The paper summarizes INR Pitesti contributions and latest developments to the Thorium-based fuel (TF) using in present CANDU nuclear reactors. Earlier studies performed in INR Pitesti revealed the CANDU design potential to use Recovered Uranium (RU) and Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) as alternative fuels in PHWRs. In this paper, we performed both lattice and CANDU core calculations using TF, revealing the main neutron physics parameters of interest: k-infinity, coolant void reactivity (CVR), channel and bundle power distributions over a CANDU 6 reactor core similar to that of Cernavoda, Unit 1. We modelled the so called Once Through Thorium (OTT) fuel cycle, using the 3D finite-differences DIREN code, developed in INR. The INR flexible SEU-43 bundle design was the candidate for TF carrying. Preliminary analysis regarding TF burning in CANDU reactors has been performed using the finite differences 3D code DIREN. TFs showed safety features improvement regarding lower CVRs in the case of fresh fuel use. Improvements added to the INR ELESIMTORIU- 1 computer code give the possibility to fairly simulate irradiation experiments in INR TRIGA research reactor. Efforts are still needed in order to get better accuracy and agreement of simulations to the experimental results. (author)

  12. THE CONTROL OF INTERNATIONAL NORMALISED RATIO IN PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION TREATED WITH WARFARIN IN OUTPATIENT AND HOSPITAL SETTINGS: DATA FROM RECVASA REGISTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Loukianov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Am. To study in the RECVASA registers the availability of data about the international normalized ratio (INR indicator and achievement of its target values in outpatient and hospital practice in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF receiving anticoagulant therapy with warfarin.Material and methods. Data about the INR control and the frequency of achievement of its target values at the outpatient and hospital stages were analyzed in RECVASA (Ryazan and RECVASA FP – Yaroslavl outpatient registries, as well as in the hospital registers RECVASA FP (Moscow, Kursk, Tula in 817 patients (46.9% of men, age 68.5±9.6 years with AF and the prescribed anticoagulant therapy with warfarin.Results. INR was determined in 689 (84.3% of 817 patients. The values of INR were monitored during therapy with warfarin in RECVASA (Ryazan and RECVASA FP –Yaroslavl outpatient registries in 73.7% and 77.7% of patients, respectively, and in RECVASA FP hospital registers: 95.8% (Moscow; 81.3% (Tula and 93.5% (Kursk. The target level of INR (2.0-3.0 was achieved in a minority of patients with AF during treatment with warfarin: inRyazan – in 26.3% of cases;Yaroslavl – 38.3%;Kursk – 34.8%;Moscow – 39.5%; Tule – 26.3%. Control of INR in hospital registries during warfarin therapy in patients with AF significantly more often (p<0.05 was performed at the hospital stage, compared with prehospital (in Kursk –2.3 times more often in Moscow – 2.6 times, in Tula – in 1,8 times. The target level of INR in the hospital was achieved significantly more often (p<0.05 than before hospitalization (Moscow andKursk, but no significant differences were found in the RECVASA FP –Tula register (p=0.08. The INR was monitored by 94.9% of the patients; however, the target values of this indicator were achieved only in 33% of cases in the sample study in the RECVASA FP –Moscow registry according to a survey of 39 patients with AF who continued to receive warfarin after 2.6±0

  13. POCT PT INR - Is it adequate for patient care? A comparison of the Roche Coaguchek XS vs. Stago Star vs. Siemens BCS in patients routinely seen in an anticoagulation clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wendy S; Albright, Kathleen J; Berman, Megan; Spratt, Heidi; Mann, Peggy A; Unabia, Jaime; Petersen, John R

    2017-09-01

    In this study we examined the difference in patient INR values as measured by the POCT CoaguChek XS device and central laboratory Stago Evolution and Siemens BCS XP analyzers. This study composed of 100 warfarin therapy patients and 20 coagulation normal subjects, showed that the difference between the POCT and clinical laboratory values increased with increasing INR and was exacerbated by the use of different thromboplastin reagents by the POCT and central lab. The CoaguChek XS and on-site Stago analyzers which used human recombinant (ISI=1.01) and rabbit brain thromboplastin (ISI=1.25), respectively, showed reasonable agreement for INR5.0 with the Stago Evolution prevented adverse treatment events for the warfarin therapy patients in the six months preceding and following this investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of normalization of cerebro-placental ratio as a potential predictor for adverse outcome in SGA fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Cathy; Flood, Karen; Mullers, Sieglinde; Unterscheider, Julia; Breathnach, Fionnuala; Daly, Sean; Geary, Michael P; Kennelly, Mairead M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; O'Donoghue, Keelin; Hunter, Alison; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerald; Dicker, Patrick; Tully, Elizabeth C; Malone, Fergal D

    2017-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction accounts for a significant proportion of perinatal morbidity and mortality currently encountered in obstetric practice. The primary goal of antenatal care is the early recognition of such conditions to allow treatment and optimization of both maternal and fetal outcomes. Management of pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction remains one of the greatest challenges in obstetrics. Frequently, however, clinical evidence of underlying uteroplacental dysfunction may only emerge at a late stage in the disease process. With advanced disease the only therapeutic intervention is delivery of the fetus and placenta. The cerebroplacental ratio is gaining much interest as a useful tool in differentiating the at-risk fetus in both intrauterine growth restriction and the appropriate-for-gestational-age setting. The cerebroplacental ratio quantifies the redistribution of the cardiac output resulting in a brain-sparing effect. The Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction group previously demonstrated that the presence of a brain-sparing effect is significantly associated with an adverse perinatal outcome in the intrauterine growth restriction cohort. The aim of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction study was to evaluate the optimal management of fetuses with an estimated fetal weight 1.0. Overall, this secondary analysis demonstrated the importance of a serial abnormal cerebroplacental ratio value of <1 within the <34 weeks' gestation population. Contrary to our proposed hypothesis, we recognize that reversion of an abnormal cerebroplacental ratio to a normal ratio is not associated with a heightened degree of adverse perinatal outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of the Correlations and the MAXI Hardness Ratio between the Anomalous and Normal Low States of LMC X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpin, Trevor; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    The bright, unusual black-hole X-ray binary LMC X-3 has been monitored virtually continuously by the Japanese MAXI X-ray All-Sky Monitor aboard the International Space Station (Matsuoka, et al., PASJ, 2009) from August 2009 to the present. Comparison with RXTE PCA and ASM light curves during the ~2.33-year period of overlap demonstrate that despite slight differences in energy-band boundaries both the ASM and MAXI faithfully reproduce characteristics of the high-amplitude, nonperiodic long-term variability, on the order of 100-300 days, clearly seen in the more sensitive PCA monitoring. The mechanism for this variability at a timescale many times longer than the 1.7-day orbital period is still unknown. Models to explain the long-term variability invoke mechanisms such as changes in mass transfer rate, and/or a precessing warped accretion disk. Observations of LMC X-3 have not definitely determined whether wind accretion or Roche-love overflow is the driver of the long-term variability. Recent MAXI monitoring of LMC X-3 includes excellent coverage of a rare anomalous low state (ALS) where the X-ray source cannot be distinguished from the background, as well as several normal low states, in which the source count rate passes smoothly through a low, yet detectable value. Pointed Swift XRT and UVOT observations also sample this ALS and one normal low state well. We combine these data sets to study the correlations between the wavelength regimes observed during the ALS versus the normal low. We also examine the behavior of the X-ray hardness ratios using XRT and MAXI monitoring data during the ALS versus the normal low state.

  16. Elevated prothrombin time/international normalized ratio associated with concurrent administration of regorafenib and warfarin in a patient with advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitade, Hironori; Hiromasa-Yamasaki, Azusa; Hokkoku, Kengo; Mori, Mitsue; Watanabe, Michio; Nakai, Masuo; Yano, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Regorafenib and its metabolites may inhibit the activities of several CYP or UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms, including that of CYP2C9. Therefore, pharmacological agents that are CYP2C9 substrates may show elevated circulating levels and enhanced drug efficacy when concurrently used with regorafenib. Previous studies showed that the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of warfarin, which is the substrate for CYP2C9, increased upon co-administration of regorafenib. However, there are no reports indicating that the anticoagulant effects of warfarin increased upon co-administration of regorafenib. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with liver metastasis of colon cancer. He was treated with regorafenib at a dosage of 120 mg daily on days 1 to 21 every 4 weeks as a third-line therapy. He had a history of acute myocardial infarction and had taken 2 mg warfarin daily. Three weeks after the treatment began, PT/INR values markedly increased, although there was no hemorrhage. Administration of regorafenib and warfarin was discontinued, and then PT/INR rapidly decreased. Warfarin administration was restarted (0.5 mg daily) and the dose was increased up to 1.5 mg daily. The patient's PT/INR values exhibited a tendency to increase when concurrently used with regorafenib, the dose of which was reduced to 80 mg daily on days 1 to 14 every 3 weeks at a physician's discretion. The clinical course of this patient suggested that PT/INR might increase during concurrent use of warfarin and regorafenib. Therefore, PT/INR should be periodically monitored during the concurrent use of warfarin and regorafenib.

  17. The state of the art of the tacit knowledge transfer and preservation in INR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaceanu, V.; Constantin, M.; Apostol, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to highlight the stringency that the nuclear knowledge, mainly the tacit one, must be transferred and preserved and, also, the appropriate methods and tools to perform it should be identified, selected and developed. The paper shows a detailed analysis of the state of the nuclear knowledge in INR. The starting point in this work were two investigations: a questionnaire-based investigation regarding the motivations of the INR retiring experts for knowledge transfer and preservation and an IAEA general questionnaire applied in INR. The necessity of a such analysis is motivated by the fact that in the next 5-10 years many experienced researchers should be retired and the INR staff must very quickly find the best methods and tools for an optimal transfer and preservation of the knowledge, mainly the tacit one because this is embedded in experts' minds. One of the most important conclusion of this analysis is that a short-medium term strategy must be developed, regarding the knowledge management. (authors)

  18. Participation of INR to the research project initiated by the CANDU Owners Group - Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Maria; Ciocanescu, Marin; Gheorghiu, C-tin; Ohai, Dumitru; Visinescu, Doru; Ionescu, Silviu; Man, Ion; Pitigoi, Vasile; Anghel, Dumitru; Uta, Octavian

    2004-01-01

    Having in view the participation of the INR's Nuclear Materials and Corrosion Departments together with Chalk River Laboratories, AECL, and other nine well known institutes, to the Research Project coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency - Vienna and the results obtained as well, the CANDU Owners Group (COG) - Canada has proposed an economical contract to INR - Pitesti, called the DHC Project. The goal of this project was the investigation of the slow cracking in the hydration state (Delayed Hydride Cracking phenomenon) of the pressure tubes in CANDU reactors. There were determined, in specific conditions, the DHC rate, V DHC , and threshold factor of triggering the phenomenon K HI (the factor of stress intensity in the crack) occurring in un-irradiated Zr-2.5%Nb alloy. Further extensions of the project to irradiated alloys of the pressure tubes used in CANDU reactors, provided by the Canadian partner, are planned. This paper gives an overview covering the contributions of the INR's departments to the contract provisions for the current year as concluded with COG - Canada. It is described the design and execution activity of a device for processing the samples subject to testing, the mounting of the measuring chain, developing of a system for monitoring the testing parameters, the acquisition and automated processing of experimental data up to constituting the final report. The testing report was appreciated by the COG and recognized as demonstrating the INR's capability to fulfil the tasks of the DHC Project and so opened the way to further cooperation

  19. INR TRIGA Research Reactors: A Neutron Source for Radioisotopes and Materials Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbos, D.; Ciocanescu, M.; Paunoiu, C.; Bucsa, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    At the INR there are 2 high intensity neutron sources. These sources are in fact the two nuclear TRIGA reactors: TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR. TRIGA stationary reactor is provided with several in-core irradiation channels. Other several out-of-core irradiation channels are located in the vertical channels in the beryllium reflector blocks. The maximum value of the thermal neutron flux (E 14 cm -2 s -1 and of fast neutron flux (E>1 MeV) is 6.89×10 13 cm -2 s -1 . For neutron activation analysis both reactors are used and k0-NAA method has been implemented. At INR Pitesti a prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis devices has been designed, manufactured ant put into operation. For nuclear materials properties investigation neutron radiography methods was developed in INR. For these purposes two neutron radiography devices were manufacture, one of them underwater and other one dry. The neutron beams are used for investigation of materials properties and components produced or under development for applications in the energy sector (fission and fusion). At TRIGA 14 MW reactor a neutron difractormeter and a SANS devices are available for material residual stress and texture measurements. TRIGA 14 MW reactor is used for medical and industrial radioisotopes production ( 131 I, 125 I, 192 Ir, etc) and a method for 99 Mo- 99 Tc production from fission is under developing. At INR Pitesti several special programmes for new types of nuclear fuel behavior characterization are under development. (author)

  20. CARDIOTHORACIC RATIO AND VERTEBRAL HEART SCALE IN CLINICALLY NORMAL BLACK-RUMPED AGOUTIS (DASYPROCTA PRYMNOLOPHA, WAGLER 1831).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Charlys Rhands Coelho; das Neves Diniz, Anaemilia; da Silva Moura, Laecio; das Chagas Araújo Sousa, Francisco; Baltazar, Pollyana Irene; Freire, Larisse Danielle; Guerra, Porfírio Candanedo; de Sousa, João Macedo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Pessoa, Gerson Tavares; de Sá, Renan Paraguassu; Alves, Flávio Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Wild rodents, such as the lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), guinea pig (Cavia aperea), and black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) are intensely hunted throughout Amazonia and at the semiarid regions of northeastern Brazil. To contribute to the preservation of these species, more information about their anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology is needed. The aim of this study was to standardize the vertebral heart scale (VHS) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) in clinically normal black-rumped agouti, as well as to compare the results of these two methods, which are commonly used to evaluate the cardiac silhouette in domestic animals. Twelve healthy black-rumped agoutis, divided into two groups (six males and six females), obtained from the Nucleus for Wild Animal Studies and Conservation at the Federal University of Piauí, were radiographed in right and left lateral and dorsoventral projections. The values of the VHS were 8.00±0.31v (the number of thoracic vertebral length spanned by each dimension, starting at T4) for males and 8.11±0.41v for females, and there was no statistical difference between the decubitus (right and left) or between males and females (P>0.05). The CTR mean values obtained were 0.51±0.03 for males, and 0.52±0.02 for females, and there was no statistical difference between the genders (P>0.05). However, there was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.77 right decubitus and r=0.82 left decubitus). The thoracic and heart diameter had mean values of 6.72±0.61 and 3.48±0.30 cm (males), and for the females, it was 6.61±0.51 and 3.5±0.30 cm, respectively, and there was statistical difference between the genders. The results demonstrated high correlation between the VHS and CTR producing similar results, indicating similar clinical precision for assessing the size of the cardiac silhouette in the black-rumped agoutis.

  1. Public expertise and crisis management: the contributions of the INRS and IRSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supervil, Sylvie; Vaxelaire, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    The authors present and comment the main assets of the INRS (Institut national de recherche et de securite) and IRSN Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire), their common and specific concerns in the field of crisis management. The INRS possesses a diversity of abilities and professions (engineering, medicine, toxicology, ergonomics, etc.), resources adapted to the field of intervention of actors (work health services, local prevention services), the ability to intervene from the upstream knowledge of hazards to the proposition of solutions, the structures and availability to assist and support public authorities, and some practice outside a crisis context. On its side, the IRSN is a largely acknowledged expert, and participated to the elaboration of the national plan for the response to a major radiological or nuclear accident

  2. Precision of INR measured with a patient operated whole blood coagulometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jørn; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Korsgaard, Helle

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the precision of a portable whole blood coagulometer (CoaguChek S) in the hands of self-managing patients on oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients on self-managed OAT performed measurements of INR...... and between patients was 15.0% and 14.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The precision of CoaguChek S is satisfactory....

  3. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and uptake ratio of 131I-4-Iodo-phenylacetic acid in normal and tumour implied animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuecs, Z.; Sello, T.; Sathekge, M.

    2012-01-01

    per gram of tissue (%ID/g) is given in Table 1 for nine animals as three were considered outliers predominantly due to a high percentage of activity remaining in the tail after injection. The tumour to background ratio was calculated by comparing the muscle on the left flank as opposed to the right flank where the tumour was induced. The labeling via isotopic exchange did yield a low specific activity of the tracer which meant that a substantial amount of 4-iodo-phenylacetic acid was injected. This would amount to 30 μg per rat or 75 μg/kg or 1.1 μg/ml blood (mass of rats 400g and assuming 7% of body weight is blood). The LD50 value for phenyl acetic acid is 1600 mg/kg for intraperitoneal injection in rats which is orders of magnitude higher than the amount injected and therefore one can assume the 0,075 mg/kg injected 4-iodo-phenyl-acetic acid would not adversely interfere with the biological processes in the rat. The amount of phenyl-acetic acid in normal tissue is 16.8 μg/ml which is also a two orders of magnitude higher than the amount of 4-iodophenyl-acetic acid injected. This implies that the biodistribution of the tracer was not influenced by its metabolic product due to equilibrium with phenyl-acetic acid already present in the body. 131 I-4-iodo-phenyl-acetic acid was successfully prepared and the biodistribution in rats recorded. As expected no target organ was found after 5 h (although at the early stages a high cardiac blood pool uptake was recorded) with fast excretion from all organs via the kidney into the urine. In xenograft mice study a 4% tumour uptake and a tumour to background ratio of 2 was recorded after 5 h although high activity levels in the blood still remained at this time point.

  4. Irradiation tests on PHWR type fuel elements in TRIGA research reactor of INR Pitesti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horhoianu, Grigore [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania). Nuclear Fuel Engineering Lab.; Sorescu, Ion [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania). TRIGA Reactor Loop Facility; Parvan, Marcel [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania). Hot Cells Lab.

    2012-12-15

    Nine PHWR type fuel elements with reduced length were irradiated in loop A of the TRIGA Research Reactor of INR Pitesti. The primary objective of the test was to determine the performance of nuclear fuel fabricated at INR Pitesti at high linear powers in pressurized water conditions. Six fuel elements were irradiated with a ramp power history, achieving a maximum power of 45 kW/m during pre-ramp and of 64 kW/m in the ramp. The maximum discharge burnup was of 216 MWh/kgU. Another three fuel elements with reduced length were irradiated with declining power history. At the beginning of irradiation the fuel elements achieved a maximum linear power of 66 kW/m. The maximum fuel power was about 1.3 times the maximum expected in PHWR. The maximum discharge burnup was 205 MWh/kgU. The elements were destructively examined in the hot cells of INR Pitesti. Temperature-sensitive parameters such as UO{sub 2} grain growth, fission-gas release and sheath deformations were examined. The tests proved the feasibility of irradiating PHWR type fuel elements at linear powers up to 66 kW/m under pressurized water conditions and demonstrated the possibility of more flexible operation of this fuel in power reactors. This paper presents the results of the investigation. (orig.)

  5. Use of an INR-style bunch-length detector in the Fermilab Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, E.S.; Schmidt, C.W.; Feschenko, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Device to accurately measure the phase extent of a linac beam is being developed for use in the Fermilab 400 MeV Linac Upgrade. Prototypes have been and are being tested. We have attempted to improve the original design from the Institute for Nuclear Research in Moscow (INR) to increase the resolution for adequate operation at 805 MHz. The device incorporating a new arrangement of lens and deflector, reported previously, cannot achieve the desired resolution. This paper describes the operation and the strengths and weaknesses of the three types of bunch-length detectors (BLDs) and the measurements made at this time. The differences among these devices is delineated by the relative position of the rf deflector and the electrostatic einsel lens, as follows: INR--Lens before deflector; Fermilab--Lens after deflector; H- beam; and FNAL/INR--Lens and deflector combined. To satisfy the goals of commissioning the new linac, a resolution of about 5 picoseconds (1 degree at 805 MHz) is desired

  6. Relationship between iodine-123-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid washout ratio and oxygen consumption in normal and ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimimasa; Okamoto, Ryuji; Saito, Yasuhiro

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between oxygen consumption and iodine-123-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP) washout at rest and after exercise was investigated in normal and ischemic myocardium. Sixteen healthy volunteers and 14 patients with ischemic heart disease were examined. After injection of 111 MBq of 123 I-BMIPP, serial single photon emission computed tomography imaging was performed to evaluate washout ratio after 30 min and 1 hour of rest and after exercise. In the volunteers, the mean washout ratio was 3.3±3.5% after 1 hour of rest and increased during exercise. The exercise washout ratio showed a better correlation with net pressure rate product (net PRP: cumulative values of PRP during exercise) than with the peak PRP. The exercise washout ratio showed a strong correlation with the net PRP in the range from 180 to 300x10 3 mmHg·beat/min and a plateau of 10-15%. In the nine ischemic patients with net PRP≥300x10 3 mmHg·beat/min, the exercise washout ratio values were significantly elevated in normal segments relative to ischemic segments (10.1±1.9% vs 4.7±2.9%, p 3 mmHg·beat/min, washout ratio at rest and after exercise did not differ significantly between normal and ischemic segments. 123 I-BMIPP washout ratio increased with increased oxygen consumption during exercise in normal myocardium but not in ischemic myocardium. The patient must exercise before fatty acid metabolism can be compared between normal and ischemic myocardium. (author)

  7. High-resolution computed tomography evaluation of the bronchial lumen to vertebral body diameter and pulmonary artery to vertebral body diameter ratios in anesthetized ventilated normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cole, Robert C; Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, D Michael; Garbarino, Rachel; Barney, Sharron

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (BA) ratio has been utilized to investigate pulmonary pathology on high-resolution CT images. Diseases affecting both the bronchi and pulmonary arteries render the BA ratio less useful. The purpose of the study was to establish bronchial lumen diameter to vertebral body diameter (BV) and pulmonary artery diameter to vertebral body diameter (AV) ratios in normal cats. Methods Using high-resolution CT images, 16 sets of measurements (sixth thoracic vertebral body [mid-body], each lobar bronchi and companion pulmonary artery diameter) were acquired from young adult female cats and 41 sets from pubertal female cats. Results Young adult and pubertal cat BV ratios were not statistically different from each other in any lung lobe. Significant differences between individual lung lobe BV ratios were noted on combined age group analysis. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different between young adult and pubertal cats. All other lung lobe AV ratios were not significantly different. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different from all other lung lobes but not from each other in both the young adult and pubertal cats. Conclusions and relevance BV ratio reference intervals determined for individual lung lobes could be applied to both young adult and pubertal cats. Separate AV ratios for individual lung lobes would be required for young adult and pubertal cats. These ratios should allow more accurate evaluation of cats with concurrent bronchial and pulmonary arterial disease.

  8. Comparison of hematocrit/hemoglobin ratios in subjects with alpha-thalassemia, with subjects having chronic kidney disease and normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insiripong, Somchai; Supattarobol, Tanarat; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee

    2013-07-04

    The ratio of hematocrit (Hct) to hemoglobin (Hb) in the people with normal red blood cell (RBC) morphology is generally three to one. We studied Hct/Hb ratios among patients with alpha-thalassemias (Hb H, H-CS, AEBart, AEBart-CS, EFBart and EFBart-CS diseases) diagnosed by high performance liquid chromatography, and compared them with normal subjects and with patients having anemia due to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Hct and Hb levels were derived by automated analyzer. The means +/- SD of the Hct/Hb ratios were 3.5 +/- 0.2 (range 3.3 - 4.1), 3.0 +/- 0.1 (range 2.9 - 3.2) and 3.0 +/- 0.1 (range 2.8 - 3.2) in the alpha-thalassemia, normal and CKD groups, respectively. The mean Hct/Hb ratio in subjects with alpha-thalassemia was higher than the mean in normal subjects and in those with CKD. The Hct/Hb ratios for each genotype of the alpha-thalassemia were not different from each other. The underlying mechanisms for the higher Hct/Hb ratio among those with alpha-thalassemia are theorized to be less density and/or more hydration of a-thalassemia RBCs, more entrapment of plasma in the spun RBC, the high percent of nucleated RBC and WBC interference. A ratio of 3.5 +/- 0.2 may be helpful in cases of moderate anemia when typing only shows Hb A and E, to consider investigation for alpha-thalassemia, or in cases of alpha-thalassemia with acute blood loss, if the Hct is less than 35%, in the decision to transfuse.

  9. Extracting real-crack properties from non-linear elastic behaviour of rocks: abundance of cracks with dominating normal compliance and rocks with negative Poisson ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Zaitsev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of examination of experimental data on non-linear elasticity of rocks using experimentally determined pressure dependences of P- and S-wave velocities from various literature sources are presented. Overall, over 90 rock samples are considered. Interpretation of the data is performed using an effective-medium description in which cracks are considered as compliant defects with explicitly introduced shear and normal compliances without specifying a particular crack model with an a priori given ratio of the compliances. Comparison with the experimental data indicated abundance (∼ 80 % of cracks with the normal-to-shear compliance ratios that significantly exceed the values typical of conventionally used crack models (such as penny-shaped cuts or thin ellipsoidal cracks. Correspondingly, rocks with such cracks demonstrate a strongly decreased Poisson ratio including a significant (∼ 45 % portion of rocks exhibiting negative Poisson ratios at lower pressures, for which the concentration of not yet closed cracks is maximal. The obtained results indicate the necessity for further development of crack models to account for the revealed numerous examples of cracks with strong domination of normal compliance. Discovering such a significant number of naturally auxetic rocks is in contrast to the conventional viewpoint that occurrence of a negative Poisson ratio is an exotic fact that is mostly discussed for artificial structures.

  10. Noncentral Chi-Square versus Normal Distributions in Describing the Likelihood Ratio Statistic: The Univariate Case and Its Multivariate Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2008-01-01

    In the literature of mean and covariance structure analysis, noncentral chi-square distribution is commonly used to describe the behavior of the likelihood ratio (LR) statistic under alternative hypothesis. Due to the inaccessibility of the rather technical literature for the distribution of the LR statistic, it is widely believed that the…

  11. Correlation of morphological variants of the soft palate and Need's ratio in normal individuals: A digital cephalometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Juneja, Suruchi; Kumaraswam; Kikkeri Lakshminarayana; Basavaraju, Suman

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the variation of soft palate morphology in different age and gender groups. The correlations of radiographic velar length (VL), velar width (VW), pharyngeal depth (PD), and Need's ratio with soft palate variants were also studied in the North Indian subpopulation. The study sample consisted of 300 subjects aged between 15 and 45 (mean: 31.32) years. The velar morphology on lateral cephalograms was examined and grouped into six types. The results obtained were subjected to a statistical analysis to find the correlation between variants of the soft palate with gender and different age groups. The most frequent type of soft palate was leaf shaped (48.7%), and the least common was crook shaped (3.0%) among both the genders and various age groups, showing a significant correlation. The mean VL, VW, and PD values were significantly higher in males and significantly correlated with the types of soft palate. A significant correlation was observed between the mean VL, VW, PD, and Need's ratio with various age groups, showing an inconsistent pattern with an increase in age. The types of soft palate, gender, and Need's ratio were also significantly correlated, with an overall higher mean value of the Need's ratio among female subjects and the S-shaped soft palate. The knowledge of a varied spectrum of velar morphology and the variants of the soft palate help in a better understanding of the velopharyngeal closure and craniofacial anomalies.

  12. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin at different levels of INR control in atrial fibrillation: A meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, João; Ferreira, Jorge; Costa, Francisco; Carmo, Pedro; Cavaco, Diogo; Carvalho, Salomé; Morgado, Francisco; Adragão, Pedro; Mendes, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    The efficacy and safety of warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) depend on the time in the therapeutic range (TTR) with an international normalised ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.0. This meta-analysis focused the relative efficacy and safety of non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC) compared with warfarin at different thresholds of centre's TTR (cTTR). We searched PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and websites of regulatory agencies, limiting searches to randomized phase 3 trials. Primary outcomes were stroke or systemic embolism (SSE) and major or non-major clinically relevant (NMCR) bleeding. We used a random-effects model to pool effect on outcomes according to different thresholds of cTTR. Four TTR sub-studies with a total of 71,222 patients were included. The benefit of NOAC in reducing SSE compared with warfarin was significantly higher in patients at cTTRwarfarin in patients at all sub-groups (0.67, 0.54-0.83 for patients at cTTRwarfarin for stroke prevention is lost above a cTTR threshold of approximately 70%, but the relative safety appears to be less modified by the centre-based quality of INR control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship of normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and BAC/BrAC ratio in 98 physically fit human test subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J Mack; Burris, James M; Hughes, James R; Cunningham, Margaret P

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ratio was studied in 98 subjects (84 men, 14 women). Subjects consumed alcohol sufficient to produce a BrAC of at least 0.06 g/210 L 45-75 min after drinking. Breath samples were analyzed using an Intoxilyzer 8000 specially equipped to measure breath temperature. Venous blood samples and body temperatures were then taken. The mean body temperature of the men (36.6 degrees C) was lower than the women (37.0 degrees C); however, their mean breath temperatures were virtually identical (men: 34.5 degrees C; women: 34.6 degrees C). The BAC exceeded the BrAC for every subject. BAC/BrAC ratios were calculated from the BAC and BrAC analytical results. There was no difference in the BAC/BrAC ratios for men (1:2379) and women (1:2385). The correlation between BAC and BrAC was high (r = 0.938, p body temperature and end-expired breath temperature, body temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio, and breath temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio were much lower. Neither normal body temperature nor end-expired breath temperature was strongly associated with BAC/BrAC ratio.

  14. Retrofitting the instrumentation and control system of primary cooling circuit from TRIGA INR 14 MW reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, M.; Ciocanescu, M.; Ana, E. M.; Cristea, D.

    2008-01-01

    Activities of retrofitting the instrumentation and control system from TRIGA INR primary cooling circuit consists in replacement of actual system for: - parameter measurement; - safety; - reactor external scramming; - protection, command and supply for electrical elements of the system. This retrofitting project is designed to ensure the necessary features of reactor external safety and for technological parameter measurement. The new safety system of main cooling circuit is completely separated from its operating system and is arranged in a panel assembly in reactor control room. The operating system has the following features: - data acquisition; - parameter value and state of command elements displaying; - command elements on hierarchical levels; - operator information through visual and acoustic alarm. (authors)

  15. The environmental radioactivity data analysis at the inr platform in the post-chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudor, G.; Valeca, M.; Iordache, R.

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident, large quantities of radioactive substances were released into the atmosphere and were transported long distances, covering virtually the whole Europe, including Romania. This paper presents the analysis of the environment radioactivity data around the INR site, in the post-Chernobyl period in different types of samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evolution of Chernobyl originated radionuclides concentration in Mioveni-Pitesti area. The selected indicator was Cs-137, which was monitored on a regular basis. From the post-Chernobyl annual reports, were collected the average values for Cs-137 activity in environmental samples. The concentration was determined for eleven sampling locations (soil and vegetation samples) distributed on 10 km distance around INR site, and the determination was made using gamma spectrometry. The data reveals significant variations of the Cs-137 activity. These variations may be generated by various disturbances that detach material from the soil and air, therefore allowing the substance to travel long distances from its origin. (authors)

  16. Importance of Android/Gynoid Fat Ratio in Predicting Metabolic and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Normal Weight as well as Overweight and Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that android or truncal obesity is associated with a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, yet there is evidence that gynoid fat distribution may be protective. However, these studies have focused on adults and obese children. The purpose of our study was to determine if the android/gynoid fat ratio is positively correlated with insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR, and dislipidemia in a child sample of varying body sizes. In 7–13-year-old children with BMI percentiles ranging from 0.1 to 99.6, the android/gynoid ratio was closely associated with insulin resistance and combined LDL + VLDL-cholesterol. When separated by sex, it became clear that these relationships were stronger in boys than in girls. Subjects were stratified into BMI percentile based tertiles. For boys, the android/gynoid ratio was significantly related to insulin resistance regardless of BMI tertile with and LDL + VLDL in tertiles 1 and 3. For girls, only LDL + VLDL showed any significance with android/gynoid ratio and only in tertile 2. We conclude that the android/gynoid fat ratio is closely associated with insulin resistance and LDL + VLDL-, “bad,” cholesterol in normal weight boys and may provide a measurement of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in that population. PMID:25302115

  17. Importance of android/gynoid fat ratio in predicting metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in normal weight as well as overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsell, Lennie; Regier, Michael; Walton, Cheryl; Cottrell, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that android or truncal obesity is associated with a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, yet there is evidence that gynoid fat distribution may be protective. However, these studies have focused on adults and obese children. The purpose of our study was to determine if the android/gynoid fat ratio is positively correlated with insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR, and dislipidemia in a child sample of varying body sizes. In 7-13-year-old children with BMI percentiles ranging from 0.1 to 99.6, the android/gynoid ratio was closely associated with insulin resistance and combined LDL + VLDL-cholesterol. When separated by sex, it became clear that these relationships were stronger in boys than in girls. Subjects were stratified into BMI percentile based tertiles. For boys, the android/gynoid ratio was significantly related to insulin resistance regardless of BMI tertile with and LDL + VLDL in tertiles 1 and 3. For girls, only LDL + VLDL showed any significance with android/gynoid ratio and only in tertile 2. We conclude that the android/gynoid fat ratio is closely associated with insulin resistance and LDL + VLDL-, "bad," cholesterol in normal weight boys and may provide a measurement of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in that population.

  18. Optic Disc Change during Childhood Myopic Shift: Comparison between Eyes with an Enlarged Cup-To-Disc Ratio and Childhood Glaucoma Compared to Normal Myopic Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Young Lopilly Park

    Full Text Available Progressive disc tilting and the development or enlargement of peripapillary atrophy (PPA are observed during a myopic shift in children. This could be related to the changes around the optic nerve head during eyeball elongation. If the biomechanical properties at or around the optic nerve head are changed after exposure to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in glaucoma eyes, different response of the disc tilting and PPA changes could take place during eyeball elongation by myopic shift. On the basis of this background, the aim of this study was to compare the morphological changes in the optic disc induced by a myopic shift during childhood between normal control eyes, eyes from disc suspects with an enlarged cup-to-disc ratio (CDR, and eyes with childhood glaucoma.Total of 82 eyes from 82 subjects younger than 14 years of age were included in the study. Serial disc photographs were classified into one of two groups: eyes with an optic nerve head (ONH or peripapillary atrophy (PPA change or without an ONH/PPA change. Using ImageJ software, the outlines of the optic disc and PPA were plotted, and the vertical disc diameter (VDD, horizontal disc diameter (HDD, and maximum PPA width (PPW were measured. The changes in the ratios of these parameters and the relationships between the degree of myopic shift or the ONH/PPA change were analyzed.Twenty-five eyes with normal optic disc appearance, 36 eyes with enlarged cup-to-disc ratio, and 21 eyes of glaucoma patients were analyzed. The initial intraocular pressure (IOP at diagnosis was significantly different among the groups (P<0.001. The degree of myopic shift during follow-up period was not significantly different among the groups (P=0.612. However, the changes in the HDD/VDD and PPW/VDD ratios were significantly greater in the disc suspect group and significantly smaller in the glaucoma group. Among the 42 eyes with an ONH/PPA change, 16 (38.1% were from the normal control group, 24 (57.1% were

  19. Autonomic Neuropathy—a Prospective Cohort Study of Symptoms and E/I Ratio in Normal Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Zimmerman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAutonomic neuropathy in diabetes, in addition to causing a range of symptoms originating from the autonomic nervous system, may increase cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to study the progression of autonomic neuropathy, based on symptom score and evaluation of an autonomic test, in persons with normal and impaired glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D.MethodsParticipants were recruited in 2003/2004 with a follow-up in 2014. The participants’ glucose tolerance was categorized using oral glucose tolerance tests. Symptoms were evaluated using an autonomic symptom score (ASS, ECG was used to test cardiac autonomic function based on the expiration/inspiration ratio (E/I ratio, and blood samples were taken on both occasions.ResultsASSs were higher at follow-up in the T2D patients than in the normal glucose tolerance group (mean 1.21 ± 1.30 vs. 0.79 ± 0.7; p < 0.05. E/I ratio did not deteriorate more than could be expected as an aging effect in well-controlled T2D. No relationship was found between E/I ratio and HbA1c or ASS.ConclusionThe presence of autonomic symptoms increased over time in T2D patients, but the symptoms did not correlate with the E/I ratio in this metabolically well-controlled cohort. ASSs can be a useful clinical tool when assessing the progression of autonomic dysfunction in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism.

  20. The patients' perspective of international normalized ratio self-testing, remote communication of test results and confidence to move to self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Anne; Coughlan, Michael; Prizeman, Geraldine; O'Connell, Niamh; O'Mahony, Nora; Quinn, Katherine; McKee, Gabrielle

    2017-12-01

    To elicit the perceptions of patients, who self-tested their international normalized ratio and communicated their results via a text or phone messaging system, to determine their satisfaction with the education and support that they received and to establish their confidence to move to self-management. Self-testing of international normalized ratio has been shown to be reliable and is fast becoming common practice. As innovations are introduced to point of care testing, more research is needed to elicit patients' perceptions of the self-testing process. This three site study used a cross-sectional prospective descriptive survey. Three hundred and thirty patients who were prescribed warfarin and using international normalized ratio self-testing were invited to take part in the study. The anonymous survey examined patient profile, patients' usage, issues, perceptions, confidence and satisfaction with using the self-testing system and their preparedness for self-management of warfarin dosage. The response rate was 57% (n = 178). Patients' confidence in self-testing was high (90%). Patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with the support received, but expressed the need for more information on support groups, side effects of warfarin, dietary information and how to dispose of needles. When asked if they felt confident to adjust their own warfarin levels 73% agreed. Chi-squared tests for independence revealed that none of the patient profile factors examined influenced this confidence. The patients cited the greatest advantages of the service were reduced burden, more autonomy, convenience and ease of use. The main disadvantages cited were cost and communication issues. Patients were satisfied with self-testing. The majority felt they were ready to move to self-management. The introduction of innovations to remote point of care testing, such as warfarin self-testing, needs to have support at least equal to that provided in a hospital setting. © 2017 John

  1. Inre och yttre motivation till träning : en kvalitativ studie bland regebundet aktiva kvinnor

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Bakgrund: Regelbunden träning är viktig för både fysiskt och psykisktvälbefinnande. För att bibehålla en regelbundenhet i träningen krävs det ettengagemang och en motivation. En person kan motiveras av både inre ochyttre faktorer beroende på personens intresse. Trots att människor tenderaratt vara mer stillasittande, tycks intresset för träning och hälsa öka. Inteminst syns detta på sociala medier, där bilder och inlägg medträningsbudskap förmedlas frekvent. Syfte: Studiens syfte är att under...

  2. Tritium distribution ratios between the 30 % tributyl phosphate(TBP)-normal dodecane(nDD) organic phase and uranyl nitrate-nitric acid aqueous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzou; Sugikawa, Susumu; Maeda, Mitsuru; Tsujino, Takeshi.

    1989-10-01

    Tritium distribution ratios between the organic and aqueous phases were measured for the system of 30 % tributyl phosphate(TBP)-normal dodecane(nDD)/uranyl nitrate-nitric acid water. It was confirmed that tritium is extracted by TBP into the organic phase in both chemical forms of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated nitric acid (TNO 3 ). The value of tritium distribution ratio ranged from 0.002 to 0.005 for the conditions of 0-6 mol/L nitric acid, 0.5-800 mCi/L tritium in aqueous phase, and 0-125 g-U/L uranium in organic phase. Isotopic distribution coefficient of tritium between the organic and aqueous phases was observed to be about 0.95. (author)

  3. Fish to meat intake ratio and cooking oils are associated with hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Momoka; Uchida, Yuki; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Kitani, Shingo; Itou, Minoru; Oriishi, Tetsuharu; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Tanaka, Suiko; Yagi, Minoru; Sata, Michio

    2012-10-01

      Dietary habits are involved in the development of chronic inflammation; however, the impact of dietary profiles of hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal alanine transaminase levels (HCV-PNALT) remains unclear. The decision-tree algorithm is a data-mining statistical technique, which uncovers meaningful profiles of factors from a data collection. We aimed to investigate dietary profiles associated with HCV-PNALT using a decision-tree algorithm.   Twenty-seven HCV-PNALT and 41 patients with chronic hepatitis C were enrolled in this study. Dietary habit was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. A decision-tree algorithm was created by dietary variables, and was evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (AUROC).   In multivariate analysis, fish to meat ratio, dairy product and cooking oils were identified as independent variables associated with HCV-PNALT. The decision-tree algorithm was created with two variables: a fish to meat ratio and cooking oils/ideal bodyweight. When subjects showed a fish to meat ratio of 1.24 or more, 68.8% of the subjects were HCV-PNALT. On the other hand, 11.5% of the subjects were HCV-PNALT when subjects showed a fish to meat ratio of less than 1.24 and cooking oil/ideal bodyweight of less than 0.23 g/kg. The difference in the proportion of HCV-PNALT between these groups are significant (odds ratio 16.87, 95% CI 3.40-83.67, P = 0.0005). Fivefold cross-validation of the decision-tree algorithm showed an AUROC of 0.6947 (95% CI 0.5656-0.8238, P = 0.0067).   The decision-tree algorithm disclosed that fish to meat ratio and cooking oil/ideal bodyweight were associated with HCV-PNALT. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  4. Distribution pattern of urine albumin creatinine ratio and the prevalence of high-normal levels in untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmaru, Natsuki; Nakatsu, Takaaki; Izumi, Reishi; Mashima, Keiichi; Toki, Misako; Kobayashi, Asako; Ogawa, Hiroko; Hirohata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Satoru; Kusachi, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Even high-normal albuminuria is reportedly associated with cardiovascular events. We determined the urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in spot urine samples and analyzed the UACR distribution and the prevalence of high-normal levels. The UACR was determined using immunoturbidimetry in 332 untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic Japanese patients with hypertension and in 69 control subjects. The microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels were defined as a UCAR ≥30 and creatinine and a UCAR ≥300 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. The distribution patterns showed a highly skewed distribution for the lower levels, and a common logarithmic transformation produced a close fit to a Gaussian distribution with median, 25th and 75th percentile values of 22.6, 13.5 and 48.2 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. When a high-normal UACR was set at >20 to creatinine, 19.9% (66/332) of the hypertensive patients exhibited a high-normal UACR. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were observed in 36.1% (120/336) and 2.1% (7/332) of the patients, respectively. UACR was significantly correlated with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the pulse pressure. A stepwise multivariate analysis revealed that these pressures as well as age were independent factors that increased UACR. The UACR distribution exhibited a highly skewed pattern, with approximately 60% of untreated, non-diabetic hypertensive patients exhibiting a high-normal or larger UACR. Both hypertension and age are independent risk factors that increase the UACR. The present study indicated that a considerable percentage of patients require anti-hypertensive drugs with antiproteinuric effects at the start of treatment.

  5. INR participation in the IAEA research project investigating the influence of hydrogen absorption on zirconium alloy behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Maria; Radu, Vasile; Dobrea, Dumitru; Pitigoi, Vasile

    2003-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained at INR Pitesti from its participation in the research project coordinated by IAEA Vienna in cooperation with Chalk River and AECL Canada, titled 'Hydrogen and Hydride Induced Degradation of the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Zirconium-based Alloys'. Evidenced is the contribution of INR Pitesti in the works of this project as well as the benefits of this participation for Romania as owner of CANDU type reactor. In the frame this project new results concerning the propagation rate of DHC type cracks in pressure tubes in CANDU reactors were obtained. The same method used to investigate the DHC project was adapted for determination of other quantities of interest related to structural integrity of the materials. The methodology was applied for testing the pressure tubes in Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. The contribution of INR team to statistical processing of data obtained in all the laboratories participating in this project is also highlighted. Opportunity afforded by IAEA to INR Pitesti to bring its contribution to the development of this project of international cooperation together with other well-known institutions and the support from RAAN are acknowledged. These opened ways for other fruitful international cooperation

  6. [Knockdown of InR gene in ventral nephrocytes promotes resistance to toxic stress in Drosophila melanogaster females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreenkova, O V; Karpova, E K; Menshanov, P N; Rauschenbach, I Yu

    2015-02-01

    Hemolymph filtration in insects is performed by nephrocytes, additional cells of the circulatory system that are not connected to Malpighian vessels. Drosophila has two types of nephrocytes: the ventral ("garland"), which are situated around the connection site of the esophagus and proventriculus, and the pericardial, which are localized around the heart. In this study, we examined the role of the of insulin-like receptor (InR)gene in regulation of the function of ventral nephrocytes (VNC) in D. melanogaster females. Immunofluorescent analysis of female VNC with anti-InR antibodies revealed for the first time that the InR gene is expressed in VNC cells. To determine whether a change in the level of InR expression has an effect on VNC function in Drosophila females, we implemented an antisense suppressor of the InR gene, together with a driver that is expressed specifically in VNC. VNC function was evaluated by survival of the females exposed to toxic stress (treatment with AgNO3). This study has shown for the first time that suppression of InR expression in VNC leads to a rise in the survival of flies under conditions of toxic stress.

  7. Higher Ratio of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Could Predict Outcomes in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Kim

    Full Text Available The role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in the surveillance and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serially measured serum AFP levels in HCC progression or recurrence after initial treatment.A total of 722 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with HCC and treated at the National Cancer Center, Korea, between January 2004 and December 2009 were enrolled. The AFP ratios between 4-8 weeks post-treatment and those at the time of HCC progression or recurrence were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to correlate the post-treatment AFP ratios with the presence of HCC progression or recurrence.The etiology of HCC was related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in 562 patients (77.8%, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in 74 (10.2%, and non-viral cause in 86 (11.9%. There was a significant decrease in serum AFP levels from the baseline to 4 to 8 weeks after treatment (median AFP, 319.6 ng/mL vs. 49.6 ng/mL; p 1.0 was an independently associated with HCC progression or recurrence. Among the different causes of HCC analyzed, this association was significant only for HCC related to chronic hepatitis B (p< 0.001 and non-viral causes (p<0.05, and limited only to patients who had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels.Serial measurements of serum AFP ratios could be helpful in detecting progression or recurrence in treated patients with HBV-HCC and normal ALT.

  8. Higher Ratio of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Could Predict Outcomes in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in the surveillance and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serially measured serum AFP levels in HCC progression or recurrence after initial treatment. Methods A total of 722 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with HCC and treated at the National Cancer Center, Korea, between January 2004 and December 2009 were enrolled. The AFP ratios between 4–8 weeks post-treatment and those at the time of HCC progression or recurrence were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to correlate the post-treatment AFP ratios with the presence of HCC progression or recurrence. Results The etiology of HCC was related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 562 patients (77.8%), chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 74 (10.2%), and non-viral cause in 86 (11.9%). There was a significant decrease in serum AFP levels from the baseline to 4 to 8 weeks after treatment (median AFP, 319.6 ng/mL vs. 49.6 ng/mL; p 1.0 was an independently associated with HCC progression or recurrence. Among the different causes of HCC analyzed, this association was significant only for HCC related to chronic hepatitis B (p< 0.001) and non-viral causes (p<0.05), and limited only to patients who had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Conclusion Serial measurements of serum AFP ratios could be helpful in detecting progression or recurrence in treated patients with HBV-HCC and normal ALT. PMID:27304617

  9. Factors associated with failure to correct the international normalised ratio following fresh frozen plasma administration among patients treated for warfarin-related major bleeding. An analysis of electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzin, J; White, L A; Friedman, M; Nichols, C; Menzin, J; Hoesche, J; Bergman, G E; Jones, C

    2012-04-01

    This study assessed the frequency and factors associated with failure to correct international normalised ratio (INR) in patients administered fresh frozen plasma (FFP) for warfarin-related major bleeding. This retrospective database analysis used electronic health records from an integrated health system. Patients who received FFP between 01/01/2004 and 01/31/2010, and who met the following criteria were selected: major haemorrhage diagnosis the day before to the day after initial FFP administration; INR ≥2 on the day before or the day of FFP and another INR result available; warfarin prescription within 90 days. INR correction (defined as INR ≤1.3) was evaluated at the last available test up to one day following FFP. A total of 414 patients met selection criteria (mean age 75 years, 53% male, mean Charlson score 2.5). Patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding (58%), intracranial haemorrhage (38%) and other bleed types (4%). The INR of 67% of patients remained uncorrected at the last available test up to one day following receipt of FFP. In logistic regression analysis, the INR of patients who were older, those with a Charlson score of 4 or greater, and those with non-ICH bleeds (odds ratio vs. intracranial bleeding 0.48; 95% confidence interval 0.31-0.76) were more likely to remain uncorrected within one day following FFP administration. In an alternative definition of correction, (INR ≤1.5), 39% of patients' INRs remained uncorrected. For a substantial proportion of patients, the INRs remain inadequately or uncorrected following FFP administration, with estimates varying depending on the INR threshold used.

  10. Effect of second to first normal stress difference ratio at the die exit on neck-in phenomenon in polymeric flat film production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barborik, Tomas; Zatloukal, Martin

    2017-05-01

    In this study, viscoelastic modeling of the extrusion film casting process, based on the lD membrane model and modified Leonov constitutive equation, was conducted and the effect of the viscoelastic stress state at the die exit (captured here via second to first normal stress difference ratio) on the unwanted neck-in phenomenon has been analyzed for wide range of Deborah numbers and materials having different level of uniaxial and planar extensional strain hardening. Relevant experimental data for LDPE and theoretical predictions based on multimode eXtended Pom-Pom model acquired from the open literature were used for the validation purposes. It was found that firstly, the predicting capabilities of both constitutive equations for given material and processing conditions are comparable even if the single mode modified Leonov model was used and secondly, the agreement between theoretical and experimental data on neck-in is fairly good. Results of the theoretical study revealed that the viscoelastic stress state at the die exit (i.e. -N2/N1 ratio) increases the level of neck-in if uniaxial extensional strain hardening, planar to uniaxial extensional viscosity ratio and Deborah number increases. It has also been revealed that there exists threshold value for Deborah number and extensional strain hardening below which the neck-in becomes independent on the die exit stress state.

  11. [No role for oral anticoagulants (target INR: 2.0-3.0) after transient ischaemic attack or cerebral infarction of arterial origin; the 'European/Australasian stroke prevention in reversible ischaemia trial' (ESPRIT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schryver, E L L M; Halkes, P H A

    2008-02-23

    The 'European/Australasian stroke prevention in reversible ischaemia trial' (ESPRIT) aimed to determine whether oral anticoagulation of moderate intensity (target international normalised ratio (INR): 2.0-3.0) is more effective than acetylsalicylic acid in preventing future vascular events in patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke of arterial origin. International, multicentre randomised clinical trial. Patients were randomised within 6 months of TIA or minor stroke of arterial origin to oral anticoagulants (target INR: 2.0-3.0; n = 536) or acetylsalicylic acid (30-325 mg daily; n = 532). The primary endpoint was a composite of vascular death, non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction or major bleeding complications. In a post hoc analysis, the efficacy of anticoagulants was compared with that of the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole (200 mg twice daily), a third arm of ESPRIT. Treatment was unblinded, but auditing of endpoints was blinded. Data were analysed on an intent-to-treat basis. The comparison of anticoagulants and acetylsalicylic acid was stopped prematurely because the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole was found to be more effective than acetylsalicylic acid alone. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.6 years (SD: 2.2). The mean INR was 2.57 (SD: 0.86; nearly 70% of the time within target range). The primary endpoint occurred in 99 patients (19%) in the anticoagulation group and 98 patients (18%) in the acetylsalicylic acid group (hazard ratio: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.77-1.35). The hazard ratio was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.52-1.01) for ischaemic events and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.48-4.43) for major bleeding complications. The hazard ratio for the primary outcome event comparing anticoagulants with the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole was 1.31 (95% CI: 0.98-1.75). Oral anticoagulants (target INR: 2.0-3.0) were not more effective than acetylsalicylic acid in the secondary prevention of

  12. Out-of-range INR values and outcomes among new warfarin patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Winnie W; Wang, Li; Baser, Onur; Damaraju, Chandrasekharrao V; Schein, Jeffrey R

    2015-02-01

    Although efficacious in stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation, many warfarin patients are sub-optimally managed. To evaluate the association of international normalized ratio control and clinical outcomes among new warfarin patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Adult non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients (≥18 years) initiating warfarin treatment were selected from the US Veterans Health Administration dataset between 10/2007 and 9/2012. Valid international normalized ratio values were examined from the warfarin initiation date through the earlier of the first clinical outcome, end of warfarin exposure or death. Each patient contributed multiple in-range and out-of-range time periods. The relative risk ratios of clinical outcomes associated with international normalized ratio control were estimated. 34,346 patients were included for analysis. During the warfarin exposure period, the incidence of events per 100 person-years was highest when patients had international normalized ratio 3, patients had significantly increased risk of major bleeding (relative risk ratio: 1.5; 95 % confidence interval 1.2-2.0). In a Veterans Health Administration non-valvular atrial fibrillation population, exposure to out-of-range international normalized ratio values was associated with significantly increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes.

  13. Sex ratio at birth: scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Madhusoodhanan, M.; Jagadeesan, C.K.; Das, Birajalaxmi; Andrews, V.J.

    2015-01-01

    Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent. (orig.)

  14. Sex ratio at birth: scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Low Level Radiation Research Laboratory, Low Level Radiation Research Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Science Group, Kollam (India); Madhusoodhanan, M. [Victoria Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Kollam (India); Jagadeesan, C.K. [Directorate of Health Services, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Das, Birajalaxmi [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Low Level Radiation Research Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Science Group, Mumbai (India); Andrews, V.J.

    2015-11-15

    Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent. (orig.)

  15. Good quality of oral anticoagulation treatment in general practice using international normalised ratio point of care testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Tina Heidi; Lind, Bent

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulation treatment (OACT) with warfarin is common in general practice. Increasingly, international normalised ratio (INR) point of care testing (POCT) is being used to manage patients. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the quality of OACT with warfarin...... practices using INR POCT in the management of patients in warfarin treatment provided good quality of care. Sampling interval and diagnostic coding were significantly correlated with treatment quality....

  16. Rate of transformation and normal range about cardiac size and cardiothoracic ratio according to patient position and age at chest radiography of Korean adult man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Min [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Dong Hee [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Purpose of this study is present the normal range of cardiac size and cardiothoracic ratio according to patient position(chest PA and AP) and age of Korean adult male on digital chest X - ray, And to propose a mutually compatible conversion rate. 1,024 males were eligible for this study, among 1,300 normal chest patients who underwent chest PA and low-dose CT examinations on the same day at the 'S' Hospital Health Examination Center in Seoul From January to December 2014. CS and CTR were measured by Danzer (1919). The mean difference between CS and CTR was statistically significant (p<0.01) in Chest PA (CS 135.48 mm, CTR 43.99%) and Chest AP image (CS 155.96 mm, CTR 51.75%). There was no statistically significant difference between left and right heart in chest PA and AP images(p>0.05). CS showed statistically significant difference between Chest PA (p>0. 05) and Chest AP (p<0.05). The thorax size and CTR were statistically significant (p<0.01) in both age and chest PA and AP. Result of this study, On Chest AP image CS was magnified 15%, CTR was magnified 17% compare with Chest PA image. CS and CTR were about 10% difference by changing posture at all ages.

  17. Potential for waist-to-height ratio to detect overfat adolescents from a Pacific Island, even those within the normal BMI range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayon, Stéphane; Cavaloc, Yolande; Wattelez, Guillaume; Cherrier, Sophie; Lerrant, Yannick; Ashwell, Margaret; Galy, Olivier

    2017-12-15

    Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is a simple anthropometric proxy for central body fat; it is easy to use from a health education perspective. A WHtR value >0.5 has been proposed as a first level indicator of health risk. The first aim of this study was to compare WHtR with values based on body mass index (BMI) in their prediction of the percentage of body fat (%BF) in a multi-ethnic population of adolescents from New-Caledonia (age 11-16year). Secondly, to see whether WHtR >0.5 could be used to detect overfat subjects whose BMI was in the normal range. Body fat percentage (%BF, based on skinfold measurements), BMI and WHtR were calculated for New Caledonian adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds. The relationship between %BF, BMI and WHtR was determined using quadratic models and from linear regression equations. The sensitivity and specificity of WHtR for detecting overfat adolescents (%BF >25% in boys and >30% in girls) were assessed and compared with those from the BMI-based classification. WHtR showed better correlation with %BF than BMI-based measurements. WHtR >0.5 was also more accurate than BMI in detecting overfat adolescents. Moreover, using this boundary value, 8% of adolescents in the normal BMI range were shown to be over-fat. WHtR is a good anthropometric proxy to detect overfat adolescents. Detecting overfat adolescents within the normal BMI range is particularly important for preventing non communicable diseases. We therefore recommend using WHtR for health education programs in the Pacific area and more generally. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.D.; Knapp, E.E.; Key, C.H.; Skinner, C.N.; Isbell, C.J.; Creasy, R.M.; Sherlock, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data have become a common tool used in the mapping of wildland fire effects. Fire severity, defined as the degree to which a site has been altered, is often the variable mapped. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) used in an absolute difference change detection protocol (dNBR), has become the remote sensing method of choice for US Federal land management agencies to map fire severity due to wildland fire. However, absolute differenced vegetation indices are correlated to the pre-fire chlorophyll content of the vegetation occurring within the fire perimeter. Normalizing dNBR to produce a relativized dNBR (RdNBR) removes the biasing effect of the pre-fire condition. Employing RdNBR hypothetically allows creating categorical classifications using the same thresholds for fires occurring in similar vegetation types without acquiring additional calibration field data on each fire. In this paper we tested this hypothesis by developing thresholds on random training datasets, and then comparing accuracies for (1) fires that occurred within the same geographic region as the training dataset and in similar vegetation, and (2) fires from a different geographic region that is climatically and floristically similar to the training dataset region but supports more complex vegetation structure. We additionally compared map accuracies for three measures of fire severity: the composite burn index (CBI), percent change in tree canopy cover, and percent change in tree basal area. User's and producer's accuracies were highest for the most severe categories, ranging from 70.7% to 89.1%. Accuracies of the moderate fire severity category for measures describing effects only to trees (percent change in canopy cover and basal area) indicated that the classifications were generally not much better than random. Accuracies of the moderate category for the CBI classifications were somewhat better, averaging in the 50%-60% range. These results underscore the difficulty in

  19. A review of the clinical utility of INR to monitor and guide administration of prothrombin complex concentrate to orally anticoagulated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølbeck, Sacha; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Pär I

    2012-01-01

    the initiation steps of the haemostatic process. The objective of the present review was to reassess the evidence for using INR as a tool to guide administration of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) to OAC patients. A Medline and Cochrane database search was conducted using the following keywords...... value to aim for when reversing OAC was found. In three of the studies it was reported that patients reaching their target INR continued to bleed, whereas three studies reviewed reported good haemostatic response also in patients that did not reach their target INR. The present review found limited...

  20. Status of the development of RU-43 fuel at INR Pitesti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horhoianu, G.

    2008-01-01

    More than 50000 fuel bundles containing natural uranium fuel have been irradiated in the CANDU-6 reactors of Cernavoda-Romania NPP, with a very low defect rate, to a core-average discharge burnup of 170-190 Mwh/kgU. Recovered uranium (RU) is a by-product of many light-water reactor (LWR) fuel recycling programs. After fission products and plutonium (Pu) have been removed from spent LWR fuel, RU is left. A fissile content in the RU of 0.9 to 1.1% makes it impossible for reuse in an LWR without re-enrichment, but CANDU reactors have a sufficiently high neutron economy to use RU as fuel. RU from spent LWR fuel can be considered as a lower cost source of enrichment at the optimal enrichment level for CANDU fuel pellets. In Europe the feedstock of RU is approaching thousands tones and would provide sufficient fuel for hundreds CANDU-6 reactors years of operation. The use of RU fuel offers significant benefits to CANDU reactor operators. RU fuels improves fuel cycle economics by increasing the fuel burnup, which enables large cost reductions in fuel consumption and in spent fuel disposal. RU fuel offers enhanced operating margins that can be applied to increase reactor power. These benefits can be realized using existing fuel production technologies and practices, and with almost negligible changes to fuel receipt and handling procedures at the reactor. The application of RU fuel could be an important element in Cernavoda NPP. For this reason the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), Pitesti has started a research programme aiming to develop a new fuel bundle RU-43 for extended burnup operation. The most relevant calculations performed on this fuel bundle design version are presented. Also, the stages of an experimental program aiming to verify the operating performance are briefly described in this paper. (orig.)

  1. The Active Metabolite of Warfarin (3'-Hydroxywarfarin) and Correlation with INR, Warfarin and Drug Weekly Dosage in Patients under Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Pharmacogenetics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmati, Donato; Burini, Francesco; Talarico, Anna; Fabbri, Matteo; Bertocco, Cesare; Vigliano, Marco; Moratelli, Stefano; Cuneo, Antonio; Serino, Maria Luisa; Avato, Francesco Maria; Tisato, Veronica; Gaudio, Rosa Maria

    2016-01-01

    Warfarin oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) requires regular and frequent drug adjustment monitored by INR. Interindividual variability, drug and diet interferences, and genetics (VKORC1 and CYP2C9) make the maintenance/reaching of stable INR a not so easy task. HPLC assessment of warfarin/enantiomers was suggested as a valid monitoring-tool along with INR, but definite results are still lacking. We evaluated possible correlations between INR, warfarin/3'-hydroxywarfarin, and drug weekly dosage aimed at searching novel alternatives to OAT monitoring. VKORC1/CYP2C9 pharmacogenetics investigation was performed to account for the known influence on warfarin homeostasis. 133 OAT patients were recruited and assessed for warfarin/3'-hydroxywarfarin serum levels (HPLC), INR, and VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes. A subgroup of 52 patients were monitored in detail (5 consecutive controls; c0-c4) till the target INR was reached. Correlation analyses were performed in both groups. In the whole OAT group both warfarin and 3'-hydroxywarfarin correlate with INR at comparable degree (r2 = 0.0388 and 0.0362 respectively). Conversely, warfarin weekly dosage better correlates with warfarin than with 3'-hydroxywarfarin (r2 = 0.0975 and r2 = 0.0381 respectively), but considering together warfarin plus 3'-hydroxywarfarin the correlation strongly increased (r2 = 0.1114; ppharmacogenetics studies confirmed that patients carrying the VKORC1 variant-allele required lower warfarin maintenance dosage and that the combination of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 yielded a warfarin responsive index (WRI) inversely related to the number variant alleles. Our results overall suggest that 3'-hydroxywarfarin monitoring could be of great advantage in INR monitoring respect to classical warfarin assessment showing significant contribution also in multivariate analysis. Therefore, additional active metabolites should be recognized and investigated as novel useful indicators.

  2. Assessment of the efficacy of a novel tailored vitamin K dosing regimen in lowering the International Normalised Ratio in over-anticoagulated patients: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampouraki, Emmanouela; Avery, Peter J; Wynne, Hilary; Biss, Tina; Hanley, John; Talks, Kate; Kamali, Farhad

    2017-09-01

    Current guidelines advocate using fixed-doses of oral vitamin K to reverse excessive anticoagulation in warfarinised patients who are either asymptomatic or have minor bleeds. Over-anticoagulated patients present with a wide range of International Normalised Ratio (INR) values and response to fixed doses of vitamin K varies. Consequently a significant proportion of patients remain outside their target INR after vitamin K administration, making them prone to either haemorrhage or thromboembolism. We compared the performance of a novel tailored vitamin K dosing regimen to that of a fixed-dose regimen with the primary measure being the proportion of over-anticoagulated patients returning to their target INR within 24 h. One hundred and eighty-one patients with an index INR > 6·0 (asymptomatic or with minor bleeding) were randomly allocated to receive oral administration of either a tailored dose (based upon index INR and body surface area) or a fixed-dose (1 or 2 mg) of vitamin K. A greater proportion of patients treated with the tailored dose returned to within target INR range compared to the fixed-dose regimen (68·9% vs. 52·8%; P = 0·026), whilst a smaller proportion of patients remained above target INR range (12·2% vs. 34·0%; P vitamin K dosing is more accurate than fixed-dose regimen in lowering INR to within target range in excessively anticoagulated patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. On-site emergency intervention plan for nuclear accident situation at INR-Pitesti TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Margenu, S.; Preda, M.

    2001-01-01

    evaluate alternative countermeasure strategies in the various stage of an accident. In this way, we have developed at INC Pitesti a computer code namely DOZIM which is presented. The structure of the emergency intervention plan, as objectives, general features and procedures is given. Each year there is organized at INR Pitesti an emergency intervention exercise for a nuclear accident situation at the TRIGA reactor. The main objective of such an exercise is to test the response capability in a nuclear accident situation for all the institutions and organizations from all levels as well as to test the implementation of specific procedures

  4. The INR program in 2000-2005 period for developing the national technical support of the nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, C.

    2001-01-01

    The INR - Pitesti is largely implied in implementing the tasks of high complexity stipulated by the Emergency Directive of the Romanian Government No. 144/30.09.1999 meant to ensure the national technical support for the nuclear power field as well as the development of presupposed international cooperation. The Strategic Program of the Autonomous Authority for Nuclear Activities (RAAN) stipulates the main activities to be carried-out in the period 2000-2005 and beyond, in the frame of 18 specific programs. These programs approaches high priority world wide issues targeting major objectives like efficient operation of NPPs ensuring the design service life, creating conditions for extension of operation duration increasing the safety standard of personnel, of population as well as reducing the impact of nuclear power upon the environmental. Also, the program approaches functionally the problem of safety management of the radioactive waste resulting from nuclear facility operation. Achieving these major objective as well as of those specific laid down in the Strategic Program requires continual supply with material and human resources, refurbishment of material background of INR in its research and development activities as well as a consistent integration of the INR staff of researchers within the international scientific community. Implementing the annual programs included in the Strategic Program will ensure also fulfilment of the international arrangements of our country as well as the realization of the agreements concluded by the Ministry of Industry and Resources and RAAN with analogous authorities from abroad (AECL - Canada, DOE - USA, etc.). This document has the following content: 1. Legislative support and the mission of the program; 2. Program's strategic objectives; 3. General technical objectives of the programs. 4. Financing; 5. Providing and training human resources; 6. Investments for research and development; 7. International cooperation; 8

  5. Management of radioactive waste at INR-technical support for processing of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Popescu, I.V.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for nuclear research (INR) subsidiary of the Romanian authority for nuclear activities has its own radwaste treatment plant (STDR). STDR is supposed to treat and condition radioactive waste from the nuclear fuel facility, the TRIGA reactor, post irradiation examination laboratories and other research laboratories of NRI. The main steps of waste processing are: pretreatment (collection, characterization, segregation, decontamination)., treatment (waste volume reduction, radionuclide removal, compositional change), conditioning (immobilization and containerization), interim storage of the packages in compliance with safety requirements for the protection of human health and environmental protection, transport of the packages containing radioactive waste, disposal.

  6. The Active Metabolite of Warfarin (3'-Hydroxywarfarin) and Correlation with INR, Warfarin and Drug Weekly Dosage in Patients under Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Pharmacogenetics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Anna; Fabbri, Matteo; Bertocco, Cesare; Vigliano, Marco; Moratelli, Stefano; Cuneo, Antonio; Serino, Maria Luisa; Avato, Francesco Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Warfarin oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) requires regular and frequent drug adjustment monitored by INR. Interindividual variability, drug and diet interferences, and genetics (VKORC1 and CYP2C9) make the maintenance/reaching of stable INR a not so easy task. HPLC assessment of warfarin/enantiomers was suggested as a valid monitoring-tool along with INR, but definite results are still lacking. We evaluated possible correlations between INR, warfarin/3’-hydroxywarfarin, and drug weekly dosage aimed at searching novel alternatives to OAT monitoring. VKORC1/CYP2C9 pharmacogenetics investigation was performed to account for the known influence on warfarin homeostasis. Methods 133 OAT patients were recruited and assessed for warfarin/3’-hydroxywarfarin serum levels (HPLC), INR, and VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes. A subgroup of 52 patients were monitored in detail (5 consecutive controls; c0-c4) till the target INR was reached. Correlation analyses were performed in both groups Results In the whole OAT group both warfarin and 3’-hydroxywarfarin correlate with INR at comparable degree (r2 = 0.0388 and 0.0362 respectively). Conversely, warfarin weekly dosage better correlates with warfarin than with 3’-hydroxywarfarin (r2 = 0.0975 and r2 = 0.0381 respectively), but considering together warfarin plus 3’-hydroxywarfarin the correlation strongly increased (r2 = 0.1114; pwarfarin (r2 = 0.2157 and r2 = 0.0549; p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0944 respectively) seeming less affected by drug adjustments in the subgroup of 52 patients who started OAT. The multivariate analyses aimed at estimating the true contribution of 3’-hydroxywarfarin on INR value ascribed it the unique significant value (p = 0.0021) in spite of warfarin who lost association. The pharmacogenetics studies confirmed that patients carrying the VKORC1 variant-allele required lower warfarin maintenance dosage and that the combination of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 yielded a warfarin responsive index (WRI

  7. The role of research programs and commercial contracts for increase of economic competitiveness and development at INR Pitesti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petra, Nicoleta Mihaela; Ionila, Maria; Datcu, Mirela; Balan, Iosif Bogdan; Cretu, Ileana

    2008-01-01

    In the period in which globalization is increasing, one of the strategic objectives of the institute is to focus on those activities which help developing of services, products and technologies, applicable in nuclear industry, environment protection and medicine. One way to sustain INR activity is the technological transfer which ensures availability of research results by carrying out of R and D contracts in priority areas and of contracts with economical agents for the supply of services, products, technologies, such as: - Materials irradiation for medicine, industry and research; - Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and prompt gamma spectrometry for Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1; - Control and testing: non-destructive examination, functional tests of samples and equipment from Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1; - Characterization, conditioning and treatment of radioactive wastes for NPP- Cernavoda, Unit 1, Nuclear Fuel Plant (FCN) - Pitesti; - Measurement of isotopes concentration in environmental samples; -Corrosion experiments in static autoclaves and experiments regarding microbial corrosion for NPP Cernavoda Unit 1 and FCN Pitesti; - Nuclear consultancy for Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1 and Unit 2; - Stainless steel casks for radwaste; - Containers for heavy water; - Training and practice for students at the Universities of Pitesti, Bucuresti, Brasov. The paper presents the main areas where the results obtained in R and D programs can be applied, their implementation can be done, and the status of contracts and their importance for INR Pitesti and Romanian society development, as well. (authors)

  8. [A sudden rise in INR due to combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa, and Panax ginseng (Clavis Panax)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfan, Murat; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Ergun, Fatih; Ergelen, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Warfarin sodium is an antithrombin agent used in patients with prosthetic valve and atrial fibrillation. However, there are many factors that can change the effectiveness of the drug. Today, herbal mixtures promoted through targeted print and visual media can lead to sudden activity changes in patients using warfarin. In this case report we will present two cases with a sudden rise in INR due to using combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa and Panax ginseng (Panax Clavis). Two patients who used warfarin due to a history of aortic valve replacement (case 1) and atrial fibrillation (case 2) were admitted to the hospital due very high levels of INR detected during routine follow-up. Both patients had used an herbal medicine called ''Panax'' during the last month. The patients gave no indication regarding a change in diet or the use of another agent that might interact with warfarin. In cases where active bleeding could not be determinated, we terminated the use of the drug and re-evaluated dosage of warfarin before finally discharging the patient.

  9. Normal Female Germ Cell Differentiation Requires the Female X Chromosome to Autosome Ratio and Expression of Sex-Lethal in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    OpenAIRE

    Schüpbach, Trudi

    1985-01-01

    In somatic cells of Drosophila, the ratio of X chromosomes to autosomes (X:A ratio) determines sex and dosage compensation. The present paper addresses the question of whether germ cells also use the X:A ratio for sex determination and dosage compensation. Triploid female embryos were generated which, through the loss of an unstable ring-X chromosome, contained some germ cells of 2X;3A constitution in their ovaries. Such germ cells were shown to differentiate along one of two alternative pat...

  10. Ca/P concentration ratio at different sites of normal and osteoporotic rabbit bones evaluated by Auger and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder associated with reduced bone mineral density and the consequent high risk of bone fractures. Current practice relates osteoporosis largely with absolute mass loss. The assessment of variations in chemical composition in terms of the main elements comprising the bone mineral and its effect on the bone’s quality is usually neglected. In this study, we evaluate the ratio of the main elements of bone mineral, calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P), as a suit...

  11. Correlation of morphological variants of the soft palate and Need's ratio in normal individuals: A digital cephalometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Juneja, Suruchi [Surendera Dental College and Research Institute, Sriganganagar (India); Kumaraswam; Kikkeri Lakshminarayana [Dept. of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Farooqia Dental College, Mysore (India); Basavaraju, Suman [Dept. of Periodontics, J.S.S Dental College, Mysore (India)

    2014-09-15

    The present study was aimed to investigate the variation of soft palate morphology in different age and gender groups. The correlations of radiographic velar length (VL), velar width (VW), pharyngeal depth (PD), and Need's ratio with soft palate variants were also studied in the North Indian subpopulation. The study sample consisted of 300 subjects aged between 15 and 45 (mean: 31.32) years. The velar morphology on lateral cephalograms was examined and grouped into six types. The results obtained were subjected to a statistical analysis to find the correlation between variants of the soft palate with gender and different age groups. The most frequent type of soft palate was leaf shaped (48.7%), and the least common was crook shaped (3.0%) among both the genders and various age groups, showing a significant correlation. The mean VL, VW, and PD values were significantly higher in males and significantly correlated with the types of soft palate. A significant correlation was observed between the mean VL, VW, PD, and Need's ratio with various age groups, showing an inconsistent pattern with an increase in age. The types of soft palate, gender, and Need's ratio were also significantly correlated, with an overall higher mean value of the Need's ratio among female subjects and the S-shaped soft palate. The knowledge of a varied spectrum of velar morphology and the variants of the soft palate help in a better understanding of the velopharyngeal closure and craniofacial anomalies.

  12. Preoperative Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Peripheral Blood Predicts Stages, Metastasis, and Histological Grades in Patients with Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangdong Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR has been shown to be associated with the prognosis of various solid tumors. This study sought to evaluate the important value of the MLR in ovarian cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 133 ovarian cancer patients and 43 normal controls were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' demographics were analyzed along with clinical and pathologic data. The counts of peripheral neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets were collected and used to calculate the MLR, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR. and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR. The optimal cutoff value of the MLR was determined by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. We compared the MLR, NLR, and PLR between ovarian cancer and normal control patients and among patients with different stages and different grades, as well as between patients with lymph node metastasis and non–lymph node metastasis. We then investigated the value of the MLR in predicting the stage, grade, and lymph node positivity by using logistic regression. The impact of the MLR on overall survival (OS was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in the MLR were observed between ovarian cancer patients and normal controls. However, no difference was found for the NLR and PLR. Highly significant differences in the MLR were found among patients with different stages (stage I-II and stage III-IV, grades (G1 and >G1, and lymph node metastasis status. The MLR was a significant and independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis, as determined by logistic regression. The optimal cutoff value of the MLR was 0.23. We also classified the data according to tumor markers (CA125, CA199, HE4, AFP, and CEA and conventional coagulation parameters (International Normalized Ratio [INR] and fibrinogen. Highly significant differences in CA125, CA199, HE4, INR, fibrinogen levels, and lactate

  13. CD4+, CD8+, CD3+ cell counts and CD4+/CD8+ ratio among patients with mycobacterial diseases (leprosy, tuberculosis), HIV infections, and normal healthy adults: a comparative analysis of studies in different regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tahziba; Kulshreshtha, K K; Yadav, V S; Katoch, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the CD4+, CD8+, CD3+ cell counts and the CD4/CD8 ratio among normal healthy controls (adults and children), leprosy patients (without any complications and during reactional states), TB patients (with and without HIV), and HIV-positive patients (early infection and full-blown AIDS) and correlated the changes with disease progression. In our study, it was observed that among adults, CD4+ cell counts ranged from 518-1098, CD8+ from 312-952, whereas CD4/CD8 ratio from 0.75-2.30. Among children, both CD4+ and CD8+ cells were more and the CD4/CD8 ratio varied from 0.91-3.17. With regard to leprosy patients, we observed that CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts were lower among PB (pauci-bacillary) and MB (multi-bacillary) patients. CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.99 ± 0.28 among PB patients while the ratio was lower, 0.78 ± 0.20, among MB patients. CD4+ cell counts were raised during RR (reversal reactions) and ENL (erythema nodosum leprosum) among the PB and MB patients whereas the CD8+ cell counts were lower among PB and MB patients. CD4/CD8 ratio doubled during reactional episodes of RR and ENL. Among the HIV-negative tuberculosis (TB) patients, both the CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts were found to be less and the CD4/CD8 ratio varied between 0.53-1.75. Among the HIV-positive TB patients and HIV-positive patients, both the CD4+ and CD8+ cells were very less and ratio drops significantly. In the initial stages of infection, as CD4+ counts drop, an increase in the CD8+ cell counts was observed and the ratio declines. In full-blown cases, CD4+ cell counts were very low, 3-4 to 54 cells, CD8+ cells from 12-211 and the ratio drops too low. This study is the first of its kind in this region of the country and assumes importance since no other study has reported the values of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts among patients with mycobacterial diseases (leprosy and TB), HIV infections along with normal healthy individuals of the region, and correlation with clinical

  14. Impact of co-morbidities and patient characteristics on international normalized ratio control over time in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Winnie W; Choi, Jiyoon C; Vanderpoel, Julie; Damaraju, Chandrasekharra V; Wildgoose, Peter; Fields, Larry E; Schein, Jeffrey R

    2013-08-15

    This study determined the association between co-morbidities, including heart failure (HF) and time in therapeutic range (TTR), in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Longitudinal patient-level anticoagulation management records collected from 2006 to 2010 were analyzed. Adult patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who used warfarin for a 12-month period with no gap of >60 days between visits were identified. TTR <55% was defined as "lower" TTR. CHADS₂ score of ≥2 was defined as "higher" CHADS₂. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between co-morbidities and TTR. A total of 23,425 patients met the study criteria. The mean age ± SD was 74.8 ± 9.7 years, with 84.8% aged ≥65 years. The most common co-morbidities were hypertension (41.7%), diabetes (24.1%), HF (11.7%), and previous stroke (11.1%). The mean TTR ± SD was 67.3 ± 14.4%, with 18.6% of patients in the lower TTR range. In multivariate analyses using age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and region as covariates, HF (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28 to 1.56; p <0.001), diabetes (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.38; p <0.001), and previous stroke (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.27; p <0.001) were associated with lower TTR. In a second set of multivariate analyses using gender and region as covariates, a higher CHADS₂ score was associated with lower TTR (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.18; p <0.001). In conclusion, HF was associated with the greatest likelihood of a lower TTR, followed by diabetes, then stroke. Anticoagulation control may be more challenging for patients with these conditions. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prothrombin time (PT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PT; Pro-time; Anticoagulant-prothrombin time; Clotting time: protime; INR; International normalized ratio ... PT is measured in seconds. Most of the time, results are given as what is called INR ( ...

  16. Utility of waist-to-height ratio in assessing the status of central obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jihua

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body Mass Index (BMI is widely used to assess the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk in children but it does not always relate to central obesity and varies with growth and maturation. Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR is a relatively constant anthropometric index of abdominal obesity across different age, sex or racial groups. However, information is scant on the utility of WHtR in assessing the status of abdominal obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children, categorized according to the accepted BMI threshold values. Methods Cross-sectional cardiometabolic risk factor variables on 3091 black and white children (56% white, 50% male, 4-18 years of age were used. Based on the age-, race- and sex-specific percentiles of BMI, the children were classified as normal weight (5th - 85th percentiles and overweight/obese (≥ 85th percentile. The risk profiles of each group based on the WHtR ( Results 9.2% of the children in the normal weight group were centrally obese (WHtR ≥0.5 and 19.8% among the overweight/obese were not (WHtR Conclusion WHtR not only detects central obesity and related adverse cardiometabolic risk among normal weight children, but also identifies those without such conditions among the overweight/obese children, which has implications for pediatric primary care practice.

  17. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase indexes and n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio as biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk factors in normal-weight rabbits fed high fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Gabriela; Roco, Julieta; Medina, Analia; Van Nieuwenhove, Carina; Medina, Mirta; Jerez, Susana

    2016-01-20

    Biomarkers for cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors would be important tools to maximize the effectiveness of dietary interventions to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) indexes and n-6/n-3 fatty acids (FA) ratio as biomarkers of CMR induced by feeding rabbits on high fat diets (HFDs). Rabbits were fed either regular diet or 18 % fat in regular diet (HFD) or 1 % cholesterol diet (HD) or diet containing 1 % cholesterol and 18 % fat (HFD-HD) during 6 weeks. Body weights (BW), blood pressure, visceral abdominal fat (VAF) and glucose tolerance test were determined. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), fasting glucose (FG), and FA levels from plasma were measured. SCD indexes were calculated as product/precursor ratios of individual FA. BW was similar in all diet groups. HD increased TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. HFD increased TG, VAF and FG, and decreased HDL-C. The addition of HFD to HD joined to dyslipidemia increased VAF and FG. SCD indexes were increased and n-6/n-3 was unchanged in HD. SCD indexes were reduced and n-6/n-3 FA ratio was increased in HFD and HFD-HD. CMR factors were correlated positively with n-6/n-3 FA ratio. Although VAF had a stronger correlation with n-6/n-3 FA ratio than with SCD indexes, VAF was associated independently to both markers. HFD simulating lipid composition of the average Western-style diet induced experimental rabbit models of normal-weight metabolic syndrome (MS). SCD indexes and n-6/n-3 were modified according to the type of dietary fat. Considering that VAF and CMR factors appear to be stronger associated to n-6/n-3 FA ratio than to SCD indexes, n-6/n-3 FA ratio may be a better biomarker of MS and CMR in normal-weight subjects than SCD indexes.

  18. Den inre och yttre självkänslans betydelse för tendensen att bruka self-handicapping

    OpenAIRE

    Ottosson, Olivia

    2008-01-01

    Självkänsla är något vi ständigt bär med oss och den inverkar på vårt agerande samt våra val i livet. Johnson (2003) delar in självkänslan i två delar den inre och yttre, vilka kan kombineras till fyra personligheter. Forskning har visat att självkänslan samvarierar med tendensen till att bruka self-handicapping. Self-handicapping innebär att människan skapar hinder för sig själv påhittade eller verkliga. Etthundrasju studenter fyllde i en enkät bestående av 58 påståenden, vilken mätte inre, ...

  19. Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99.73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24 hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24 hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.

  20. PT and INR Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... and vitamin K (either in a multivitamin or liquid nutrition supplement) may decrease PT. Certain foods, such ...

  1. Low Platelet to White Blood Cell Ratio Indicates Poor Prognosis for Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yusheng; Gong, Jiao; Xiao, Cuicui; Zhu, Shuguang; Zhou, Wenying; Luo, Juan; Chong, Yutian; Hu, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Background. Platelet to white blood cell ratio (PWR) was an independent prognostic predictor for outcomes in some diseases. However, the prognostic role of PWR is still unclear in patients with hepatitis B related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). In this study, we evaluated the clinical performances of PWR in predicting prognosis in HBV-related ACLF. Methods. A total of 530 subjects were recruited, including 97 healthy controls and 433 with HBV-related ACLF. Liver function, prothrombin time activity (PTA), international normalized ratio (INR), HBV DNA measurement, and routine hematological testing were performed at admission. Results . At baseline, PWR in patients with HBV-related ACLF (14.03 ± 7.17) was significantly decreased compared to those in healthy controls (39.16 ± 9.80). Reduced PWR values were clinically associated with the severity of liver disease and the increased mortality rate. Furthermore, PWR may be an inexpensive, easily accessible, and significant independent prognostic index for mortality on multivariate analysis (HR = 0.660, 95% CI: 0.438-0.996, p = 0.048) as well as model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. Conclusions . The PWR values were markedly decreased in ACLF patients compared with healthy controls and associated with severe liver disease. Moreover, PWR was an independent prognostic indicator for the mortality rate in patients with ACLF. This investigation highlights that PWR comprised a useful biomarker for prediction of liver severity.

  2. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  3. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  4. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  5. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  6. Analysis of in-R12 CHF data: influence of hydraulic diameter and heating length; test of Weisman boiling crisis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czop, V.; Herer, C.; Souyri, A.; Garnier, J.

    1993-09-01

    In order to progress on the comprehensive modelling of the boiling crisis phenomenon, Electricite de France (EDF), Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and FRAMATOME have set up experimental programs involving in-R12 tests: the EDF APHRODITE program and the CEA-EDF-FRAMATOME DEBORA program. The first phase in these programs aims to acquire critical heat flux (CHF) data banks, within large thermal-hydraulic parameter ranges, both in cylindrical and annular configurations, and with different hydraulic diameters and heating lengths. Actually, three data banks have been considered in the analysis, all of them concerning in-R12 round tube tests: - the APHRODITE data bank, obtained at EDF with a 13 mn inside diameter, - the DEBORA data bank, obtained at CEA with a 19.2 mm inside diameter, - the KRISTA data bank, obtained at KfK with a 8 mm inside diameter. The analysis was conducted using CHF correlations and with the help of an advanced mathematical tool using pseudo-cubic thin plate type Spline functions. Two conclusions were drawn: -no influence of the heating length on our CHF results, - the influence of the diameter on the CHF cannot be simply expressed by an exponential function of this parameter, as thermal-hydraulic parameters also have an influence. Some calculations with Weisman and Pei theoretical boiling crisis model have been compared to experimental values: fairly good agreement was obtained, but further study must focus on improving the modelling of the influence of pressure and mass velocity. (authors). 12 figs., 4 tabs., 21 refs

  7. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  8. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  9. Evaluation of diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs by MRI. Determination of a normal range in signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images and evaluation of diffuse diseases of an organ by using it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs, including the liver, spleen, pancreas, and vertebral marrow, were evaluated by using signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images. Conventional T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained in 1.5 T MR system in 203 persons, including 122 controls and 81 patients with a diffuse disease in the upper abdominal organ. In controls, though there was neither sexual nor age difference in signal intensity ratios of the liver and pancreas, those of the spleen and vertebral marrow showed sexual and age difference, respectively. A normal range of signal intensity ratio of each organ in each image was determined in each decade of each sex by using controls. The signal intensity ratio of the liver was significantly low in T1- and T2-weighted images in patients with abundant iron deposit and within normal limits in patients with liver cirrhosis or scant iron deposit. The signal intensity ratio of the liver was significantly high only in a T2-weighted image in patients with fatty deposit in the liver, which was suspected to be due to inflammatory change in the liver with fatty deposit. The signal intensity ratios of the spleen, pancreas, and vertebral marrow were significantly low only in a T2-weighted image in patients with iron metabolic disturbance. The signal intensity ratio of the pancreas was significantly high in 40% of patients with acute and/or chronic pancreatitis, which was more sensitive in detection of pancreatitis than data in other studies. it can be concluded that the signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images is useful for detection of diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs by using the normal range in each decade of each sex. (S.Y.)

  10. Relationship between general safety requirements and safety culture in the improvement of safe operation of I.N.R. TRIGA reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocanescu, M.; Preda, M.; Chiritescu, M.; Dumitru, M.

    1996-01-01

    Acquiring of the basic principles of ''safety culture'' by a large number of profesionals in the nuclear field drew the attention of the decision factors in the INR managerial structure, who decided to promote certain practical actions at each level in order to improve nuclear safety. Starting from the ''Republican Standards for Nuclear Safety'' issued by CSEN in 1975, where general safety criteria are defined for nuclear reactors and NPPs, the specialists at the TRIGA reactor originated and implemented a coherent and secure system to ensure nuclear safety over all steps of nuclear activities: research, conception, execution, commissioning and operation. This system has been continuosly corrected so that now it is completely integrated in a modern safety system. The paper presents the way in which a modern system for nuclear safety at the TRIGA reactor has been implemented and developed, in accordance to specific criteria and requirements imposed by related National Regulations and with the principles of safety culture. Starting from the definition of specific responsabilities, there are presented the internal stipulations and practical actions at all levels in order to enhance nuclear safety. (orig.)

  11. Opposing Post-transcriptional Control of InR by FMRP and LIN-28 Adjusts Stem Cell-Based Tissue Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Luhur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Although the intrinsic mechanisms that control whether stem cells divide symmetrically or asymmetrically underlie tissue growth and homeostasis, they remain poorly defined. We report that the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP limits the symmetric division, and resulting expansion, of the stem cell population during adaptive intestinal growth in Drosophila. The elevated insulin sensitivity that FMRP-deficient progenitor cells display contributes to their accelerated expansion, which is suppressed by the depletion of insulin-signaling components. This FMRP activity is mediated solely via a second conserved RNA-binding protein, LIN-28, known to boost insulin signaling in stem cells. Via LIN-28, FMRP controls progenitor cell behavior by post-transcriptionally repressing the level of insulin receptor (InR. This study identifies the stem cell-based mechanism by which FMRP controls tissue adaptation, and it raises the possibility that defective adaptive growth underlies the accelerated growth, gastrointestinal, and other symptoms that affect fragile X syndrome patients. : Luhur et al. report that FMRP acts via LIN-28 in progenitor cells to dampen the adaptive expansion of intestinal tissue in the fruit fly, raising the possibility that defective LIN28-mediated adaptive growth underlies some of the symptoms that affect fragile X syndrome patients. Keywords: FMRP, fmr1, LIN-28, insulin receptor, IIS, adaptive growth, tissue resizing, intestinal stem cell, insulin sensitivity

  12. Quality of management of oral anticoagulation as assessed by time in therapeutic INR range in elderly and younger patients with low mean years of formal education: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo Lamego de Barros; Ferreira, Diana Carvalho; Valacio, Reginaldo Aparecido; Vieira Moreira, Maria da Consolação

    2011-05-01

    despite the overwhelming evidence of its effectiveness, oral anticoagulation continues to be underused in the elderly, presumably due to physicians' misconceptions when estimating bleeding risk and ability to comply with treatment. to investigate the quality of anticoagulation control among deprived elderly and younger patients. prospective observational study. a public anticoagulation clinic in a developing country. all adult patients on intended long-term (>90 days) oral anticoagulation. We studied 171 patients (79 elderly and 92 non-elderly) with a mean follow-up of 273 ± 84.9 days. the main outcome measure was the quality of anticoagulation management as measured by the time in therapeutic (TTR) international normalised ratio (INR) range. Elderly patients (≥60 years) were compared with younger patients with respect to the educational level and co-morbidities. the mean number of years of formal education was 4.37 ± 3.2 years. The mean TTR was 62.50 ± 17.9% in non-elderly and 62.10 ± 16.6% in elderly (P = 0.862) subjects, despite the higher prevalence of co-morbidities in the latter group: heart failure (46.3 versus 28.6%, P = 0.042), diabetes mellitus (22.8 versus 8.7%, P = 0.011), renal failure (estimated glomerular filtration rate educational levels (3.42 ± 2.5 versus 5.55 ± 3.4 years of formal education, P < 0.001) and higher rates of cognitive impairment (34.0 versus 13.1%, P = 0.004), but a similar mean TTR (62.46 ± 16.1 versus 63.02 ± 17.8%, P = 0.856). The oldest (≥75 years) patients did as well as those aged ≤50 years (mean TTR: 62.54 ± 16.0 versus 62.23 ± 16.4%, respectively, P = 0.98). good-quality management of oral anticoagulation is achievable in deprived populations attending an anticoagulation clinic. Elderly patients may experience similar quality of anticoagulation despite having higher levels of co-morbidities and polypharmacy. These results add evidence to the safety of such therapeutic interventions in the elderly.

  13. An evaluation of patient self-testing competency of prothrombin time for managing anticoagulation: pre-randomization results of VA Cooperative Study #481--The Home INR Study (THINRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolor, Rowena J; Ruybalid, R Lynne; Uyeda, Lauren; Edson, Robert G; Phibbs, Ciaran; Vertrees, Julia E; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Jacobson, Alan K; Matchar, David B

    2010-10-01

    Prior studies suggest patient self-testing (PST) of prothrombin time (PT) can improve the quality of anticoagulation (AC) and reduce complications (e.g., bleeding and thromboembolic events). "The Home INR Study" (THINRS) compared AC management with frequent PST using a home monitoring device to high-quality AC management (HQACM) with clinic-based monitoring on major health outcomes. A key clinical and policy question is whether and which patients can successfully use such devices. We report the results of Part 1 of THINRS in which patients and caregivers were evaluated for their ability to perform PST. Study-eligible patients (n = 3643) were trained to use the home monitoring device and evaluated after 2-4 weeks for PST competency. Information about demographics, medical history, warfarin use, medications, plus measures of numeracy, literacy, cognition, dexterity, and satisfaction with AC were collected. Approximately 80% (2931 of 3643) of patients trained on PST demonstrated competency; of these, 8% (238) required caregiver assistance. Testers who were not competent to perform PST had higher numbers of practice attempts, higher cuvette wastage, and were less able to perform a fingerstick or obtain blood for the cuvette in a timely fashion. Factors associated with failure to pass PST training included increased age, previous stroke history, poor cognition, and poor manual dexterity. A majority of patients were able to perform PST. Successful home monitoring of PT with a PST device required adequate levels of cognition and manual dexterity. Training a caregiver modestly increased the proportion of patients who can perform PST.

  14. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  15. Radiation technologies at INR NASU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevs'kij, Yi.M.; Sakhno, V.Yi.; Tomchaj, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    The results of Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in the development and use of nuclear and radiation technologies applied for a number of scientific, technical and technological projects in the framework of state budget themes, research programs, innovation and scientific and technological national and international programs and projects are presented.

  16. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  18. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  19. Good quality of oral anticoagulation treatment in general practice using international normalised ratio point of care testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Tina Heidi; Lind, Bent

    2015-01-01

    collected retrospectively for a period of six months. For each patient, time in therapeutic range (TTR) was calculated and correlated with practice and patient characteristics using multilevel linear regression models. RESULTS: We identified 447 patients in warfarin treatment in the 20 practices using POCT......INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulation treatment (OACT) with warfarin is common in general practice. Increasingly, international normalised ratio (INR) point of care testing (POCT) is being used to manage patients. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the quality of OACT with warfarin...

  20. Good quality of oral anticoagulation treatment in general practice using international normalised ratio point of care testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Tina Heidi; Lind, Bent

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulation treatment (OACT)with warfarin is common in general practice. Increasingly,international normalised ratio (INR) point of care testing(POCT) is being used to manage patients. The aim of thisstudy was to describe and analyse the quality of OACT withwarfarin...... in the management of patients in warfarintreatment provided good quality of care. Sampling intervaland diagnostic coding were significantly correlated withtreatment quality. FUNDING: The study received financial support from theSarah Krabbe Foundation, the General Practitioners’ Educationand Development Foundation...

  1. Population Impact of Drug Interactions with Warfarin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín-Pérez, Mar; Gaist, David; de Abajo, Francisco J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:  To investigate the population impact of previously reported interactions between warfarin and other drugs on international normalized ratio (INR) levels. METHODS:  Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a United Kingdom primary care database, a cohort of warfarin users between.......55) and in the proportion of patients with INR levels out of therapeutic range (population...

  2. Comparison of outcomes among patients randomized to warfarin therapy according to anticoagulant control: results from SPORTIF III and V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Harvey D; Gruber, Michael; Feyzi, Jan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Warfarin sodium reduces stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation, but international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring is required. Target INRs are frequently not achieved, and the risk of death, bleeding, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke or systemic embolism event (SEE......) may be related to INR control. METHODS: We analyzed the relationship between INR control and the rates of death, bleeding, MI, and stroke or SEE among 3587 patients with atrial fibrillation randomized to receive warfarin treatment in the SPORTIF (Stroke Prevention Using an Oral Thrombin Inhibitor...... control group (1.69% and 1.58%, respectively) (Pwarfarin, the risks of death...

  3. The Laplace Likelihood Ratio Test for Heteroscedasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martin van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the likelihood ratio test for heteroscedasticity, assuming the Laplace distribution, gives good results for Gaussian and fat-tailed data. The likelihood ratio test, assuming normality, is very sensitive to any deviation from normality, especially when the observations are from a distribution with fat tails. Such a likelihood test can also be used as a robust test for a constant variance in residuals or a time series if the data is partitioned into groups.

  4. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  5. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  6. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  7. Comparing thrombin generation in patients with hemophilia A and patients on vitamin K antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, M L Y; Fischer, K; de Laat, B; Huisman, A; Ninivaggi, M; Schutgens, R E G

    Essentials: It is unknown if hemophilia patients with atrial fibrillation need anticoagulation. Endogenous thrombin potentials (ETP) in hemophilia patients and patients on coumarins were compared. Severe hemophilia patients had comparable ETP to therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR). In

  8. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  9. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  10. Validation of the CoaguChek XS international normalised ratio point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    laboratory automated coagulation analysers up to INR values of. 3.0. ... To evaluate the clinical utility of the CoaguChek XS for monitoring of patients on standard warfarin therapy (INR 2 - 3) as well .... quality control system with satisfactory.

  11. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  12. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  14. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  15. The potential drug-drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors and warfarin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Hansen, Morten Rix

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been suggested to increase the effect of warfarin, and clinical guidelines recommend careful monitoring of international normalized ratio (INR) when initiating PPI among warfarin users. However, this drug-drug interaction is sparsely investigated...... in a clinical setting. The aim was to assess whether initiation of PPI treatment among users of warfarin leads to increased INR values. METHODS: The study was an observational self-controlled study from 1998 to 2012 leveraging data on INR measurements on patients treated with warfarin from primary care...... and outpatient clinics and their use of prescription drugs. Data were analyzed in 2015. We assessed INR, warfarin dose, and dose/INR ratio before and after initiating PPI treatment using the paired student's t-test. RESULTS: We identified 305 warfarin users initiating treatment with PPIs. The median age was 71...

  16. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  17. Sex Dimorphism of the Heart Diameters and Cardiothoracic Ratios ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine gender associated differences in the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and heart diameters in a normal Nigerian population. Subject and Method: The normal heart diameters and cardiothoracic ratios were measured from posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs of healthy 510 male and 508 female ...

  18. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  19. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  20. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  1. Event Registration System for INR Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grekhov, O.V.; Drugakov, A.N.; Kiselev, Yu.V.

    2006-01-01

    The software of the Event registration system for the linear accelerators is described. This system allows receiving of the information on changes of operating modes of the accelerator and supervising of hundreds of key parameters of various systems of the accelerator. The Event registration system consists of the source and listeners of events. The sources of events are subroutines built in existing ACS Linac. The listeners of events are software Supervisor and Client ERS. They are used for warning the operator about change controlled parameter of the accelerator

  2. Inr training programme in nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretu, I.; Ionila, M.; Gyongyosi, E.; Dragan, E.; Petra, M.

    2013-01-01

    The field of scientific research goes through rapid changes to which organizations must dinamically and efficiently adapt, which leads to the need to develop a continuous learning process that should be the basis for a long-term operational performance. Thus, human resource management systems and continuous learning should be perfectly correlated/alligned with the organizational strategy and knowledge. The research institutes through the nature of their activity are constantly undergoing a transformation process by exploring new research areas which presumes ensuring competent human resources who have to continuously learn and improve. The «learning organization » concept represents a metaphor rooted in the search of a strategy for promoting the personal development of the individual within an organization through a continuous transformation. Learning is associated with the idea of continuous transformation based on the individual and organizational development. Within « learning organizations » the human development strategy occupies a central role in management strategies. It was learned that organizations which perform excellently depend on the employees committment, especially in the budget constraints environment. For this, the human resources have to be used at maximum capacity but this is possible only with an increased committment of the employee towards the organization. The purpose of this paper is to present the basic training programme for the new employees which is part of the training strategy which carry out activities in the nuclear field of SCN Pitesti. With the majority of the research personnel aged between 45 and 60 years old there is the risk of loosing the knowledge gained in this domain. The expertise gained by experienced experts in the institute nationally and internationally can be exploited through the knowledge transfer to the new employees by organizing training programmes. The knowledge transfer between generations is one of the main challenges of the nuclear field in the near future. Thus, starting 2011 every year lecturers from the institute present in an organized environment seminars focused on key areas of activity: reactor and nuclear materials, nuclear power plants and operating nuclear installations, nuclear security, nuclear security culture, radioactive waste, radiation protection, environment, quality, safety and work health, quality culture, emergency preparedness, prevention and protection, information technology, intellectual property protection, physical protection and protection of classified information, international cooperation, technological transfer, the economic-financial system in the scientific research domain, legislations, regulations, standardization. This paper presents the main results achieved through the general training programme for the nuclear activities conducted within SCN and the conclusions drawn from this type of training. (authors)

  3. [Quantification of acetabular coverage in normal adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R M; Yang, C Y; Yu, C Y; Yang, C R; Chang, G L; Chou, Y L

    1991-03-01

    Quantification of acetabular coverage is important and can be expressed by superimposition of cartilage tracings on the maximum cross-sectional area of the femoral head. A practical Autolisp program on PC AutoCAD has been developed by us to quantify the acetabular coverage through numerical expression of the images of computed tomography. Thirty adults (60 hips) with normal center-edge angle and acetabular index in plain X ray were randomly selected for serial drops. These slices were prepared with a fixed coordination and in continuous sections of 5 mm in thickness. The contours of the cartilage of each section were digitized into a PC computer and processed by AutoCAD programs to quantify and characterize the acetabular coverage of normal and dysplastic adult hips. We found that a total coverage ratio of greater than 80%, an anterior coverage ratio of greater than 75% and a posterior coverage ratio of greater than 80% can be categorized in a normal group. Polar edge distance is a good indicator for the evaluation of preoperative and postoperative coverage conditions. For standardization and evaluation of acetabular coverage, the most suitable parameters are the total coverage ratio, anterior coverage ratio, posterior coverage ratio and polar edge distance. However, medial coverage and lateral coverage ratios are indispensable in cases of dysplastic hip because variations between them are so great that acetabuloplasty may be impossible. This program can also be used to classify precisely the type of dysplastic hip.

  4. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  5. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  6. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  7. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  8. Sampling from the normal and exponential distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, K.R.; Wills, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for generating random numbers from the normal and exponential distributions are described. These involve dividing each function into subregions, and for each of these developing a method of sampling usually based on an acceptance rejection technique. When sampling from the normal or exponential distribution, each subregion provides the required random value with probability equal to the ratio of its area to the total area. Procedures written in FORTRAN for the CYBER 175/CDC 6600 system are provided to implement the two algorithms

  9. Population Impact of Drug Interactions with Warfarin: A Real-World Data Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pérez, Mar; Gaist, David; de Abajo, Francisco J; Rodríguez, Luis A García

    2018-03-01

     To investigate the population impact of previously reported interactions between warfarin and other drugs on international normalized ratio (INR) levels.  Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a United Kingdom primary care database, a cohort of warfarin users between 2005 and 2013 ( N  = 121,962) was followed until the first qualifying prescription for the potential interacting drugs was evaluated. Sixteen sub-cohorts, one for each study drug, and a control sub-cohort of warfarin were ascertained. Short-term changes in INR levels were assessed by comparing INR values measured before and after initiation of the interacting drug with paired Student's t -test. We also evaluated the proportion of patients with INR values outside the therapeutic range (INR: 2-3).  Miconazole use was associated with the highest mean increase in INR (+3.35), followed by amiodarone (+1.28), fluconazole (+0.79), metronidazole (+0.75) and nystatin (+0.65). After subtracting the natural INR variation observed in the control sub-cohort, supra-therapeutic levels (INR > 3) were found in 53.2% (miconazole), 45.5% (amiodarone), 23.3% (metronidazole), 23.2% (fluconazole) and 17.6% (nystatin) of patients initiating treatment with these drugs. Carbamazepine use was associated with a mean INR decrease of -0.63 and infra-therapeutic levels (INR < 2) were observed in 46.2% of patients initiating carbamazepine. For all other drugs, the change was small to moderate, in absolute INR units (+0.23 to +0.55) and in the proportion of patients with INR levels out of therapeutic range (<16%).  Clinically potentially important interactions were observed in several study drugs. The majority of them, although confirmed, had little impact after adjusting for standard INR variability in the general population of warfarin users. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  10. The Success of Self-Testing for Anticoagulation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Songur

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The optimal therapeutic range for INR of the patient who were on warfarin therapy is narrow. There are various methods of INR monitoring to adjust the appropriate dosage of warfarin therapy. This study aims to test the reliability of POC (Point of care devices used for INR(International normalized ratio monitoring. Material and Method: Forty six  patients who were on warfarin therapy for any reasons were enrolled for this study. Their INR  were divided into 3 groups according to their laboratory INR results. Grup 1 had INR results lower than 2, group 2 had INR levels of 2 to 3.5, group 3 had INR levels of higher than 3.5 INR of the patients were remeasured with the POC device.  Results: The ages of the patients were between 24 to 84. Twenty six patients were male and 20 were female. The mean INR level of laboratory measurements was 1.26 in group 1 whereas it was 1.45 for POC device measurements. There were not statistically significant difference between two devices for group 1 (p=0.15. In group 2 the mean INR levels were measured by laboratory instrument and POC device were 2.74 and 3.51 respectively (p=0,01. In group 3 mean INR levels were measured by laboratory instrument and POC device were 4.27 and 5.25 respectively (p=0.01. Discussion: We suppose it is rational to adjust warfarin dosage by specialists using laboratory results in order to prevent hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications.

  11. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  12. Safety and Efficacy of Warfarin Therapy in Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Annette L; Vanderpluym, Christina; Gauvreau, Kimberly A; Fulton, David R; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Friedman, Kevin G; Murray, Jenna M; Brown, Loren D; Almond, Christopher S; Evans-Langhorst, Margaret; Newburger, Jane W

    2017-10-01

    To describe the safety and efficacy of warfarin for patients with Kawasaki disease and giant coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs, ≥8 mm). Giant aneurysms are managed with combined anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapies, heightening risk of bleeding complications. We reviewed the time in therapeutic range; percentage of international normalization ratios (INRs) in range (%); bleeding events, clotting events; INRs ≥6; INRs ≥5 and warfarin therapy was 7.2 years (2.3-13.3 years). Goal INR was 2.0-3.0 (n = 6) or 2.5-3.5 (n = 3), based on CAA size and history of CAA thrombosis. All patients were treated with aspirin; 1 was on dual antiplatelet therapy and warfarin. The median time in therapeutic range was 59% (37%-85%), and median percentage of INRs in range was 68% (52%-87%). INR >6 occurred in 3 patients (4 events); INRs ≥5 warfarin and aspirin, with INRs in range only two-thirds of the time. Future studies should evaluate the use of direct oral anticoagulants in children as an alternative to warfarin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  14. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  15. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  16. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  17. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  18. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  19. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  20. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  1. Comparing computing formulas for estimating concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    This paper provides guidance on the choice of computing formulas (estimators) for estimating concentration ratios and other ratio-type measures of radionuclides and other environmental contaminant transfers between ecosystem components. Mathematical expressions for the expected value of three commonly used estimators (arithmetic mean of ratios, geometric mean of ratios, and the ratio of means) are obtained when the multivariate lognormal distribution is assumed. These expressions are used to explain why these estimators will not in general give the same estimate of the average concentration ratio. They illustrate that the magnitude of the discrepancies depends on the magnitude of measurement biases, and on the variances and correlations associated with spatial heterogeneity and measurement errors. This paper also reports on a computer simulation study that compares the accuracy of eight computing formulas for estimating a ratio relationship that is constant over time and/or space. Statistical models appropriate for both controlled spiking experiments and observational field studies for either normal or lognormal distributions are considered. 24 references, 15 figures, 7 tables

  2. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  3. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  4. When blood is thinner than water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Gude

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antagonists of vitamin K dependant clotting factors are commonly used as treatment/prophylaxis for anticoagulation. Due to their narrow therapeutic window, a wide range of complications including death may occur. International normalized ratio (INR is monitored to measure adequacy/excess of anticoagulation. There is a plethora of risk factors that may contribute to the uncontrollably high INR values. We describe our experience of a case of deep venous thrombosis wherein the patient had an overshoot of INR during anticoagulation therapy. We review the literature and discuss management in such scenarios.

  5. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  6. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  7. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  8. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  9. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  10. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  11. Medically-enhanced normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To consider public perspectives on the use of medicines for non-medical purposes, a usage called medically-enhanced normality (MEN). Method: Examples from the literature were combined with empirical data derived from two Danish research projects: a Delphi internet study and a Telebus...

  12. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  14. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus

  15. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  16. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  17. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Golden ratio beauty as scientific function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Olsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally when one is considering the golden ratio in the history of ideas, one is often looking at it as an aesthetic principle – usually associated with Greek art, sculpture and mathematics. However, in recent years the prevalence of the golden ratio within a broad range of scientific disciplines has brought its role in the perfection of science to the forefront. I would like to collapse these two areas by proposing a somewhat novel way of looking at the aesthetics of the golden ratio: its pervasive expression in scientific form and function is the basis of the aesthetics in the world. Therefore, science contains the same mathematical beauty as found in artistic expression. The golden ratio guides the Chaos Border of Kolmogorov, Arnold, and Moser (KAM theorem and it can be found hidden in all elementary particles, and even in the proportions of dark matter and energy relative to visible matter and energy. It is evident in the structure and growth functions of plants and animals and it can be found in the physiological functions of humans. It now appears that without the golden ratio, we would not have the form or function of the proton, cell, athlete, horse, species, planet, solar system or galaxy.

  19. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  20. The J/$\\psi$ normal nuclear absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Castanier, C; Castor, J; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; kanyan, H; ldzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavicheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Cormick, M M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Riccati, L; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, M F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, E; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu T

    2005-01-01

    We present a new determination of the ratio of cross-sections (J/psi) /DY as expected for nucleus-nucleus reactions if J/psi would only be normally absorbed by nuclear matter. This anticipated behaviour is based on proton-nucleus data exclusively, and compared, as a function of centrality, with updated S-U results from experiment NA38 and with the most recent Pb-Pb results from experiment NA50.

  1. Normalization of oxygen and hydrogen isotope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    To resolve confusion due to expression of isotopic data from different laboratories on non-corresponding scales, oxygen isotope analyses of all substances can be expressed relative to VSMOW or VPDB (Vienna Peedee belemnite) on scales normalized such that the ??18O of SLAP is -55.5% relative to VSMOW. H3+ contribution in hydrogen isotope ratio analysis can be easily determined using two gaseous reference samples that differ greatly in deuterium content. ?? 1988.

  2. Fast fission ratio and relative conversion ratio measurements in gadolinium poisoned water moderated UO2 lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    A programme of criticality experiments has been carried out for BNFL by the Battelle reactor facility at Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Washington State, USA. A series of water moderated lattices of 4.3% enriched, 12.7 mm diameter, UO 2 fuel rods was studied, the fuel pitch was varied and the effects of gadolinium poison were measured. This report deals with the measurement of Fast Fission Ratios and Relative Conversion Ratios at the centre of five of the critical lattices. The Fast Fission Ratio (FFR) is defined here as the ratio of the fission rate per atom of U238, to the fission rate per atom of U235. The Relative Conversion Ratio (RCR) is defined as the ratio of the capture rate per ,atom of U238, to the fission rate per atom of U235, in the reactor fuel, relative to the corresponding ratio in a well thermalised neutron spectrum. A major aspect of these measurements was that the packs of foils were prepared at AEEW Winfrith, despatched to the USA for irradiation and returned to Winfrith for counting. This resulted in a considerable logistics problem but by good planning and the co-operation and diligence of all concerned this problem was overcome. However, the long distance involved inevitably meant that samples were not available for measurement until about 28 hours after the irradiation. It was therefore necessary to modify the techniques that are normally used in the Reactor Physics Division Counting Laboratory, where samples are normally available about two hours after shut-down. The techniques used and the results obtained are given below

  3. The transverse Poisson's ratio of composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foye, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    An expression is developed that makes possible the prediction of Poisson's ratio for unidirectional composites with reference to any pair of orthogonal axes that are normal to the direction of the reinforcing fibers. This prediction appears to be a reasonable one in that it follows the trends of the finite element analysis and the bounding estimates, and has the correct limiting value for zero fiber content. It can only be expected to apply to composites containing stiff, circular, isotropic fibers bonded to a soft matrix material.

  4. Reference Priors For Non-Normal Two-Sample Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, C.; Steel, M.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The reference prior algorithm (Berger and Bernardo, 1992) is applied to locationscale models with any regular sampling density. A number of two-sample problems is analyzed in this general context, extending the dierence, ratio and product of Normal means problems outside Normality, while explicitly

  5. Theory of normal metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The organizers requested that I give eight lectures on the theory of normal metals, ''with an eye on superconductivity.'' My job was to cover the general properties of metals. The topics were selected according to what the students would need to known for the following lectures on superconductivity. My role was to prepare the ground work for the later lectures. The problem is that there is not yet a widely accepted theory for the mechanism which pairs the electrons. Many mechanisms have been proposed, with those of phonons and spin fluctuations having the most followers. So I tried to discuss both topics. I also introduced the tight-binding model for metals, which forms the basis for most of the work on the cuprate superconductors

  6. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  7. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  8. Analysis of in-R12 CHF data: influence of hydraulic diameter and heating length; test of Weisman boiling crisis model; Analyse de donnees de flux critique en R12: influence du diametre hydraulique et de la longueur chauffante; test du modele de Weisman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czop, V; Herer, C; Souyri, A; Garnier, J

    1993-09-01

    In order to progress on the comprehensive modelling of the boiling crisis phenomenon, Electricite de France (EDF), Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) and FRAMATOME have set up experimental programs involving in-R12 tests: the EDF APHRODITE program and the CEA-EDF-FRAMATOME DEBORA program. The first phase in these programs aims to acquire critical heat flux (CHF) data banks, within large thermal-hydraulic parameter ranges, both in cylindrical and annular configurations, and with different hydraulic diameters and heating lengths. Actually, three data banks have been considered in the analysis, all of them concerning in-R12 round tube tests: - the APHRODITE data bank, obtained at EDF with a 13 mn inside diameter, - the DEBORA data bank, obtained at CEA with a 19.2 mm inside diameter, - the KRISTA data bank, obtained at KfK with a 8 mm inside diameter. The analysis was conducted using CHF correlations and with the help of an advanced mathematical tool using pseudo-cubic thin plate type Spline functions. Two conclusions were drawn: -no influence of the heating length on our CHF results, - the influence of the diameter on the CHF cannot be simply expressed by an exponential function of this parameter, as thermal-hydraulic parameters also have an influence. Some calculations with Weisman and Pei theoretical boiling crisis model have been compared to experimental values: fairly good agreement was obtained, but further study must focus on improving the modelling of the influence of pressure and mass velocity. (authors). 12 figs., 4 tabs., 21 refs.

  9. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  10. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.

  11. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  12. The Role of Warfarin Alone or in Combination with Certain Natural Products Against Blood Disorders Induced by Gamma Radiation in Experimental Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahim, M.G.; Radwan, R.R.; Shaaban, E.A.; El-Denshary, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of warfarin against blood disorder induced by radiation and possible effect of certain natural products in modifying anticoagulant effect of warfarin in irradiated rats was investigated. Prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen level and platelet count were evaluated. Furthermore, plasma level of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined. The obtained data showed that irradiation elevated Pt, INR, PTT, TT and fibrinogen level. Moreover, irradiation increased MDA and NO levels while, reduced GSH level. It was found that administration of garlic, fenugreek or green tea with warfarin for one week before irradiation resulted in elevation in PT and INR. Results suggest that patients on warfarin and exposed to radiation are specifically advised to avoid taking herbal medicines or to have their PT and INR measured within two weeks of starting the drug, to be on a safer side

  13. Rotator Cuff Strength Ratio and Injury in Glovebox Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Amelia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. Due to the high workload imposed upon the shoulder while working in an industrial glovebox, this study investigated the strength ratio of the rotator cuff muscles in glovebox workers and compared this ratio to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forces produced in the motions of shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios that were significantly different from the healthy norm. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature of glovebox workers in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development.

  14. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  15. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  16. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  17. Efficacy and safety of dabigatran compared with warfarin at different levels of international normalised ratio control for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: an analysis of the RE-LY trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Lars; Yusuf, Salim; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Alings, Marco; Flather, Marcus; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Pais, Prem; Dans, Antonio; Eikelboom, John; Oldgren, Jonas; Pogue, Janice; Reilly, Paul A; Yang, Sean; Connolly, Stuart J

    2010-09-18

    Effectiveness and safety of warfarin is associated with the time in therapeutic range (TTR) with an international normalised ratio (INR) of 2·0-3·0. In the Randomised Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial, dabigatran versus warfarin reduced both stroke and haemorrhage. We aimed to investigate the primary and secondary outcomes of the RE-LY trial in relation to each centre's mean TTR (cTTR) in the warfarin population. In the RE-LY trial, 18 113 patients at 951 sites were randomly assigned to 110 mg or 150 mg dabigatran twice daily versus warfarin dose adjusted to INR 2·0-3·0. Median follow-up was 2·0 years. For 18 024 patients at 906 sites, the cTTR was estimated by averaging TTR for individual warfarin-treated patients calculated by the Rosendaal method. We compared the outcomes of RE-LY across the three treatment groups within four groups defined by the quartiles of cTTR. RE-LY is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00262600. The quartiles of cTTR for patients in the warfarin group were: less than 57·1%, 57·1-65·5%, 65·5-72·6%, and greater than 72·6%. There were no significant interactions between cTTR and prevention of stroke and systemic embolism with either 110 mg dabigatran (interaction p=0·89) or 150 mg dabigatran (interaction p=0·20) versus warfarin. Neither were any significant interactions recorded with cTTR with regards to intracranial bleeding with 110 mg dabigatran (interaction p=0·71) or 150 mg dabigatran (interaction p=0·89) versus warfarin. There was a significant interaction between cTTR and major bleeding when comparing 150 mg dabigatran with warfarin (interaction p=0·03), with less bleeding events at lower cTTR but similar events at higher cTTR, whereas rates of major bleeding were lower with 110 mg dabigatran than with warfarin irrespective of cTTR. There were significant interactions between cTTR and effects of both 110 mg and 150 mg dabigatran versus warfarin on the composite of all

  18. Suboptimal Anticoagulant Management in Japanese Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Warfarin for Stroke Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Kaneko, Hirokazu; Mishina, Sari; Wang, Feng; Morita, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, with increasing prevalence in Japan. Although prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) targets for monitoring warfarin therapy in patients with nonvalvular AF (NVAF) are well defined, real-world patient characteristics and PT-INR levels remain unknown among Japanese patients with NVAF who initiate and continue warfarin (warfarin maintainers) versus those who switch from warfarin to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs; warfarin switchers). Patients with NVAF receiving oral anticoagulants between February 2013 and June 2015 were identified using a nationwide electronic medical record (EMR) database from 69 hospitals in Japan. Demographics and characteristics of patients, PT-INR, time in therapeutic range (TTR), and frequency in range (FIR) of PT-INR between warfarin maintainers and warfarin switchers were assessed. A total of 1705 patients met inclusion criteria and were examined (1501 warfarin maintainers versus 204 warfarin switchers). CHADS 2 , CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc, and HAS-BLED scores were comparable between groups. However, these scores were significantly higher among warfarin switchers at the time of switching than at the time of warfarin initiation. Furthermore, TTR and FIR of PT-INR were lower in warfarin switchers than in maintainers. Nevertheless, TTR and FIR were below 50% (PT-INR, 1.6-2.6) in both patient groups. In this EMR-based clinical study, patients who switched to DOACs had both poor or inadequate PT-INR control and higher risk factors of stroke. Many patients receiving warfarin did not achieve sufficient PT-INR therapeutic range. DOACs could be recommended in Japanese patients with NVAF with inadequate PT-INR control and increased risk of stroke. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cerebral perfusion in homogeneity in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, S.M.; Larcos, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In the interpretation of cerebral perfusion scans, it is important to know the normal variation in perfusion which may occur between the cerebral hemispheres. For this reason 24 normal volunteers with no neurological or psychiatric history, and who were on no medications, had 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT studies using a single headed gamma camera computer system. Oblique, coronal and sagittal images were reviewed separately by two experienced observers and any differences were resolved by consensus. Semi-quantitation was performed by summing two adjacent oblique slices and drawing right and left mirror image ROIs corresponding to the mid section level of anterior and posterior frontal lobes, anterior and posterior parietal lobes, temporal lobes and cerebellum. From the mean counts per pixel, right: left ROI ratios and ROI: cerebellar ratios were calculated. On qualitative review 6/24 subjects had mild asymmetry in tracer distribution between right and left cerebral lobes. Semi-quantitation revealed a 5-10% difference in counts between right and left ROIs in 12/24 subjects and an additional three subjects had 10-20% difference in counts between right and left temporal lobes. This study demonstrates the presence of mild asymmetry of cerebral perfusion in a significant minority of normal subjects

  20. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  1. Estimate of the therapeutic ratio for charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.S.; Goldstein, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    To establish the RBE in normal and tumor tissue of heavy ion beams, the dose response for normal tissues, tumors and hypoxic and euoxic cells in vitro to single fraction irradiation and their ability to recover has been studied. The data demonstrate that the therapeutic ratio (RBE in tumor/RBE in normal tissue) of the murine systems increases with increasing LET up to the LET of the peak of the modulated neon beam. Although the argon beam has some features which make it attractive for therapy, its application may be limited because of its unfavorable biological depth-dose distribution

  2. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  3. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  4. Association between Risk Factors and Overnight Albumin/Creatinine Ratio - even in its Normal Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Andreasen, A.H.; Mogensen, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    I denne lille artikel påvises det, at selv en ganske let forøget udskillelse af albumin i urinen forekommer hyppigere hos aldersdiabetikere med (andre) risikofaktorer såsom hypertension, hyperlipidæmi, hyperglykæmi etc. Udgivelsesdato: 1994...

  5. Person fit for test speededness: normal curvatures, likelihood ratio tests and empirical Bayes estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goegebeur, Y.; de Boeck, P.; Molenberghs, G.

    2010-01-01

    The local influence diagnostics, proposed by Cook (1986), provide a flexible way to assess the impact of minor model perturbations on key model parameters’ estimates. In this paper, we apply the local influence idea to the detection of test speededness in a model describing nonresponse in test data,

  6. Normal bone mineral content but unfavourable muscle/fat ratio in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Mølgaard, Christian; Skakkebaek, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary endocrine clinic at the University Hospital, Copenhagen. PATIENTS: Eighteen untreated boys with KS...

  7. Restrictions on the Ratio of Normal to Tangential Field Components in Magnetic Rubber Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burke, S. K; Ibrahim, M. E

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic Rubber Testing (MRT) is an extremely sensitive method for deteckng surface-breaking cracks in ferromagnetic materials, and is used extensively in critical inspections for D6ac steel components of the F-111 aircraft...

  8. Monitoring of treatment with vitamin K antagonists: recombinant thromboplastins are more sensitive to factor VII than tissue-extract thromboplastins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, J S; van den Besselaar, A M H P; de Maat, M P M; Leebeek, F W G; Kruip, M J H A

    2017-03-01

    Essentials Differences in sensitivity to factor VII (FVII) have been suggested between thromboplastins. FVII-induced International Normalized Ratio (INR) changes differ between commercial reagents. Recombinant human thromboplastins are more sensitive to FVII than tissue-extract thromboplastins. Thromboplastin choice may affect FVII-mediated INR stability. Background Differences regarding sensitivity to factor VII have been suggested for recombinant human and tissue-extract thromboplastins used for International Normalized Ratio (INR) measurement, but the evidence is scarce. Differences in FVII sensitivity are clinically relevant, as they can affect INR stability during treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Objectives To determine whether commercial thromboplastins react differently to changes in FVII. Methods We studied the effect of addition of FVII on the INR in plasma by using three tissue-extract (Neoplastin C1+, Hepato Quick, and Thromborel S) and three recombinant human (Recombiplastin 2G, Innovin, and CoaguChek XS) thromboplastins. Three different concentrations of purified human FVII (0.006, 0.012 and 0.062 μg mL -1 plasma), or buffer, were added to five certified pooled plasmas of patients using VKAs (INR of 1.5-3.5). Changes in FVII activity were measured with two bioassays (Neoplastin and Recombiplastin), and relative INR changes were compared between reagents. Results After addition of 0.062 μg mL -1 FVII, FVII activity in the pooled plasmas increased by approximately 20% (Neoplastin) or 32% (Recombiplastin) relative to the activity in pooled normal plasma. All thromboplastins showed dose-dependent INR decreases. The relative INR change in the pooled plasmas significantly differed between the six thromboplastins. No differences were observed among recombinant or tissue-extract thromboplastins. Pooled results indicated that the FVII-induced INR change was greater for recombinant than for tissue-extract thromboplastins. Conclusions Differences

  9. Normalizing the causality between time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X. San

    2015-08-01

    Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula was derived to evaluate information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing a Lyapunov exponent-like, one-dimensional phase-space stretching rate and a noise-to-signal ratio from the rate of information flow in the balance of the marginal entropy evolution of the flow recipient. It is verified with autoregressive models and applied to a real financial analysis problem. An unusually strong one-way causality is identified from IBM (International Business Machines Corporation) to GE (General Electric Company) in their early era, revealing to us an old story, which has almost faded into oblivion, about "Seven Dwarfs" competing with a giant for the mainframe computer market.

  10. Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…

  11. Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the Assessment of early Nephropathy in Sudanese Population. ... Further studies with 24 hour urine sample are recommended for assessment of Microalbuminuria in long term Diabetic patients, provided that the patients are on a normal diet with regular ...

  12. Bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina | Okeke | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior‑posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events ...

  13. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  14. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mahmoud; Beer, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN), to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  15. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghandi

    Full Text Available Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN, to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  16. Ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valind, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis is based on five different papers. The labelling of specific tracer compounds with positron emitting radionuclides enables a range of structural, physiological and biochemical parameters in the lung to be measured non-invasively, using positron emission tomography. This concept affords a unique opportunity for in vivo studies of different expressions of pulmonary pathophysiology at the regional level. The present thesis describes the application of positron emission tomography to the measurements of ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios using inert gas tracers, neon-19 and nitrogen-13 respectively. The validity of the methods applied was investigated with respect to the transport of inert gas tracers in the human lung. Both ventilation and the ventilation/perfusion ratio may be obtained with errors less than 10 % in the normal lung. In disease, however, errors may increase in those instances where the regional ventilation is very low or the intra-regional gas flow distribution is markedly nonuniform. A 2-3 fold increase in ventilation was demonstrated in normal nonsmoking subjects going from ventral to dorsal regions in the supine posture. These large regional differences could be well explained by the intrinsic elastic properties of lung tissue, considering the gravitational gradient in transpulmonary pressure. In asymptomatic smokers substantial regional ventilatroy abnormalities were found whilst the regional gas volume was similar in smokers and nonsmokers. The uncoupling between ventilation and gas volume probably reflects inflammatory changes in the airways. The regional differences in dV/dt/dQ/dt were relatively small and blood flow was largely matched to ventilation in the supine posture. However, small regions of lung with very low ventilation, unmatched by blood flow commonly exists in the most dependent parts of the lung in both smokers and nonsmokers. (29 illustrations, 7 tables, 113 references)

  17. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; univariate study; normalization models; stainless steel; standard error of prediction. Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their ...

  18. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  19. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  20. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  1. The N'ormal Distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An optimal way of choosing sample size in an opinion poll is indicated using the normal distribution. Introduction. In this article, the ubiquitous normal distribution is intro- duced as a convenient approximation for computing bino- mial probabilities for large values of n. Stirling's formula. • and DeMoivre-Laplace theorem ...

  2. Stopping-power ratios for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of the absorbed dose at a specified location in a medium irradiated with an electron or photon beam normally consists of two steps: (1) the determination of the mean absorbed dose to a detector by using a calibration factor or performing an absolute measurement, (2) the determination of the absorbed dose to the medium at the point of interest by calculations based on the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the detector and the different stopping and scattering properties of the medium and the detector material. When the influence of the detector is so small that the electron fluence in the medium is not modified, the ratio of the mass collision stopping power of the two materials accounts for the differences in energy deposition, and provides a conversion factor to relate the absorbed dose in both materials. Today, all national and international dosimetry protocols and codes of practice are based on such procedures, and the user easily can carry out these steps using tabulated data to convert a measured quantity to absorbed dose in the irradiated medium at the location of interest. Effects due to the spatial extension of the detector are taken into account using perturbation correction factors. The Monte Carlo method has become the most common and powerful calculational technique for determining the electron fluence (energy spectra) under different irradiation conditions. Cavity theory is then used to calculate stopping-power ratios. In this chapter, the different steps needed to evaluate s-ratios will be considered, emphasizing the different types of cavity-theory integrals and the Monte Carlo techniques used to derive the necessary electron spectra in the range of energies commonly used in radiation dosimetry, i.e., photon and electron beams with energies up to 50 MeV

  3. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  4. The human heart: application of the golden ratio and angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henein, Michael Y; Zhao, Ying; Nicoll, Rachel; Sun, Lin; Khir, Ashraf W; Franklin, Karl; Lindqvist, Per

    2011-08-04

    The golden ratio, or golden mean, of 1.618 is a proportion known since antiquity to be the most aesthetically pleasing and has been used repeatedly in art and architecture. Both the golden ratio and the allied golden angle of 137.5° have been found within the proportions and angles of the human body and plants. In the human heart we found many applications of the golden ratio and angle, in addition to those previously described. In healthy hearts, vertical and transverse dimensions accord with the golden ratio, irrespective of different absolute dimensions due to ethnicity. In mild heart failure, the ratio of 1.618 was maintained but in end-stage heart failure the ratio significantly reduced. Similarly, in healthy ventricles mitral annulus dimensions accorded with the golden ratio, while in dilated cardiomyopathy and mitral regurgitation patients the ratio had significantly reduced. In healthy patients, both the angles between the mid-luminal axes of the pulmonary trunk and the ascending aorta continuation and between the outflow tract axis and continuation of the inflow tract axis of the right ventricle approximate to the golden angle, although in severe pulmonary hypertension, the angle is significantly increased. Hence the overall cardiac and ventricular dimensions in a normal heart are consistent with the golden ratio and angle, representing optimum pump structure and function efficiency, whereas there is significant deviation in the disease state. These findings could have anatomical, functional and prognostic value as markers of early deviation from normality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  6. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  7. High aspect ratio spheromak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.; Schmid, P.

    1987-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP (R/a = 50cm/8cm) has been operated as an ohmically heated spheromak of high aspect ratio. We find that the dynamo can drive the toroidal field upward at rates as high as 10 6 G/sec. Discharges can be initiated and ramped upward from seed fields as low as 50 G. Small toroidal bias fields of either polarity (-0.2 < F < 0.2) do not significantly affect operation. 5 refs., 3 figs

  8. Determination of Optimum Compression Ratio: A Tribological Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yüksek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are the primary energy conversion machines both in industry and transportation. Modern technologies are being implemented to engines to fulfill today's low fuel consumption demand. Friction energy consumed by the rubbing parts of the engines are becoming an important parameter for higher fuel efficiency. Rate of friction loss is primarily affected by sliding speed and the load acting upon rubbing surfaces. Compression ratio is the main parameter that increases the peak cylinder pressure and hence normal load on components. Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of compression ratio on total friction loss of a diesel engine. A variable compression ratio diesel engine was operated at four different compression ratios which were "12.96", "15:59", "18:03", "20:17". Brake power and speed was kept constant at predefined value while measuring the in- cylinder pressure. Friction mean effective pressure ( FMEP data were obtained from the in cylinder pressure curves for each compression ratio. Ratio of friction power to indicated power of the engine was increased from 22.83% to 37.06% with varying compression ratio from 12.96 to 20:17. Considering the thermal efficiency , FMEP and maximum in- cylinder pressure optimum compression ratio interval of the test engine was determined as 18.8 ÷ 19.6.

  9. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  10. Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) for binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios based on toxic ratios-effects curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Lin, Zhifen; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposed a QSAR model to predict joint effects at non-equitoxic ratios for binary mixtures containing reactive toxicants, cyanogenic compounds and aldehydes. Toxicity of single and binary mixtures was measured by quantifying the decrease in light emission from the Photobacterium phosphoreum for 15 min. The joint effects of binary mixtures (TU sum) can thus be obtained. The results showed that the relationships between toxic ratios of the individual chemicals and their joint effects can be described by normal distribution function. Based on normal distribution equations, the joint effects of binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]) can be predicted quantitatively using the joint effects at equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]). Combined with a QSAR model of [Formula: see text]in our previous work, a novel QSAR model can be proposed to predict the joint effects of mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]). The proposed model has been validated using additional mixtures other than the one used for the development of the model. Predicted and observed results were similar (p>0.05). This study provides an approach to the prediction of joint effects for binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios.

  11. Comparing thrombin generation in patients with hemophilia A and patients on vitamin K antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, M L Y; Fischer, K; de Laat, B; Huisman, A; Ninivaggi, M; Schutgens, R E G

    2017-05-01

    Essentials It is unknown if hemophilia patients with atrial fibrillation need anticoagulation. Endogenous thrombin potentials (ETP) in hemophilia patients and patients on coumarins were compared. Severe hemophilia patients had comparable ETP to therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR). In non-severe hemophilia, 33% had higher ETP than therapeutic INR and may need anticoagulation. Click to hear Dr Negrier's perspective on global assays for assessing coagulation SUMMARY: Background It is unknown whether patients with hemophilia A with atrial fibrillation require treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to the same extent as the normal population. Objective To compare hemostatic potential in hemophilia patients and patients on VKAs using thrombin generation (TG). Methods In this cross-sectional study, TG, initiated with 1pM tissue factor, was measured in 133 patients with severe (FVIII hemophilia A, 97 patients on a VKA with an international normalized ratio (INR) ≥ 1.5 and healthy controls. Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) (nm*min) was compared according to FVIII level (hemophilia patients and patients on VKAs had lower median ETPs at 304 (196-449) and 176 (100-250), respectively. ETP was quite similar in severe hemophilia patients (185 [116-307]) and patients with a therapeutic INR (156 [90-225]). Compared with patients with therapeutic INR, ETP in patients with FVIII 1-19% and patients with FVIII 20-50% was higher at 296 (203-430) and 397 (219-632), respectively. All patients with therapeutic INR had an ETP hemophilia patients, 70% of patients with FVIII 1-19% and 52% of patients with FVIII 20-50% had an ETP hemophilia patients, TG was comparable to that in patients with a therapeutic INR. In one-third of non-severe hemophilia patients, TG was higher. These results suggest that anticoagulation therapy should be considered in a substantial proportion of non-severe hemophilia patients. © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Is this the right normalization? A diagnostic tool for ChIP-seq normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Claudia; Heller, Ruth; Volkinshtein, Rita; Yekutieli, Daniel

    2015-05-09

    Chip-seq experiments are becoming a standard approach for genome-wide profiling protein-DNA interactions, such as detecting transcription factor binding sites, histone modification marks and RNA Polymerase II occupancy. However, when comparing a ChIP sample versus a control sample, such as Input DNA, normalization procedures have to be applied in order to remove experimental source of biases. Despite the substantial impact that the choice of the normalization method can have on the results of a ChIP-seq data analysis, their assessment is not fully explored in the literature. In particular, there are no diagnostic tools that show whether the applied normalization is indeed appropriate for the data being analyzed. In this work we propose a novel diagnostic tool to examine the appropriateness of the estimated normalization procedure. By plotting the empirical densities of log relative risks in bins of equal read count, along with the estimated normalization constant, after logarithmic transformation, the researcher is able to assess the appropriateness of the estimated normalization constant. We use the diagnostic plot to evaluate the appropriateness of the estimates obtained by CisGenome, NCIS and CCAT on several real data examples. Moreover, we show the impact that the choice of the normalization constant can have on standard tools for peak calling such as MACS or SICER. Finally, we propose a novel procedure for controlling the FDR using sample swapping. This procedure makes use of the estimated normalization constant in order to gain power over the naive choice of constant (used in MACS and SICER), which is the ratio of the total number of reads in the ChIP and Input samples. Linear normalization approaches aim to estimate a scale factor, r, to adjust for different sequencing depths when comparing ChIP versus Input samples. The estimated scaling factor can easily be incorporated in many peak caller algorithms to improve the accuracy of the peak identification. The

  13. An experimental study on the normal stress of magnetorheological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jile; Tian, Yu; Ren, Dongxue; Meng, Yonggang

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of the normal stress on the shear rate and magnetic field strength in the shear flow of magnetorheological (MR) fluids has been studied experimentally. An obvious normal stress could be observed when the applied magnetic field was higher than a critical value. The normal stress increases considerably with increase of the shear rate and magnetic field, and decreases suddenly and significantly upon the onset of shear thickening in MR fluids. The ratio of shear stress to normal stress, an analogue of the friction coefficient, increases with increase of the shear rate, but decreases with increase of the applied magnetic field. Along with the shear stress, the normal stress in MR fluids could provide a more comprehensive understanding of the MR effect, and the evolution of the particle structure in shear flow, and may have important implications for preparing high performance magnetostrictive elastomers with high force output along the magnetic field direction

  14. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  15. The normal and pathological language

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Luis D.

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary development of normal and pathological psychology has achieved in recent decades, thanks to the dual method of objective observation and oral survey enabled the researcher spirit of neuro-psychiatrist penetrate the intimate mechanism of the nervous system whose supreme manifestation is thought. It is normal psychology explaining the complicated game of perceptions: their methods of transmission, their centers of projection, its transformations and its synthesis to construct ...

  16. DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay

  17. Is normal science good science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Kępińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Normal science” is a concept introduced by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962. In Kuhn’s view, normal science means “puzzle solving”, solving problems within the paradigm—framework most successful in solving current major scientific problems—rather than producing major novelties. This paper examines Kuhnian and Popperian accounts of normal science and their criticisms to assess if normal science is good. The advantage of normal science according to Kuhn was “psychological”: subjective satisfaction from successful “puzzle solving”. Popper argues for an “intellectual” science, one that consistently refutes conjectures (hypotheses and offers new ideas rather than focus on personal advantages. His account is criticized as too impersonal and idealistic. Feyerabend’s perspective seems more balanced; he argues for a community that would introduce new ideas, defend old ones, and enable scientists to develop in line with their subjective preferences. The paper concludes that normal science has no one clear-cut set of criteria encompassing its meaning and enabling clear assessment.

  18. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  19. Laboratory assessment of novel oral anticoagulants: method suitability and variability between coagulation laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Tuukka A; Pakkanen, Anja; Lassila, Riitta; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta

    2013-05-01

    Laboratory tests to assess novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are under evaluation. Routine monitoring is unnecessary, but under special circumstances bioactivity assessment becomes crucial. We analyzed the effects of NOACs on coagulation tests and the availability of specific assays at different laboratories. Plasma samples spiked with dabigatran (Dabi; 120 and 300 μg/L) or rivaroxaban (Riva; 60, 146, and 305 μg/L) were sent to 115 and 38 European laboratories, respectively. International normalized ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were analyzed for all samples; thrombin time (TT) was analyzed specifically for Dabi and calibrated anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) activity for Riva. We compared the results with patient samples. Results of Dabi samples were reported by 73 laboratories (13 INR and 9 APTT reagents) and Riva samples by 22 laboratories (5 INR and 4 APTT reagents). Both NOACs increased INR values; the increase was modest, albeit larger, for Dabi, with higher CV, especially with Quick (vs Owren) methods. Both NOACs dose-dependently prolonged the APTT. Again, the prolongation and CVs were larger for Dabi. The INR and APTT results varied reagent-dependently (P laboratories, respectively. The screening tests INR and APTT are suboptimal in assessing NOACs, having high reagent dependence and low sensitivity and specificity. They may provide information, if laboratories recognize their limitations. The variation will likely increase and the sensitivity differ in clinical samples. Specific assays measure NOACs accurately; however, few laboratories applied them. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  20. Reproducibility of isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of an accelerator as part of a mass spectrometer has improved the sensitivity for measuring low levels of long-lived radionuclides by several orders of magnitude. However, the complexity of a large tandem accelerator and beam transport system has made it difficult to match the precision of low energy mass spectrometry. Although uncertainties for accelerator measured isotope ratios as low as 1% have been obtained under favorable conditions, most errors quoted in the literature for natural samples are in the 5 to 20% range. These errors are dominated by statistics and generally the reproducibility is unknown since the samples are only measured once

  1. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  2. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  3. Normal Aging and Decision Making: The Role of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depping, Miriam K.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    The main argument of this review is that motivational development associated with normal aging affects decision making. With increasing age, the ratio of gains to losses becomes more and more unfavorable. Reflecting the increasing losses in resources, goal orientation changes from a predominant orientation towards gains in young adulthood to an…

  4. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  5. Nearly Efficient Likelihood Ratio Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    Seemingly absent from the arsenal of currently available "nearly efficient" testing procedures for the unit root hypothesis, i.e. tests whose local asymptotic power functions are indistinguishable from the Gaussian power envelope, is a test admitting a (quasi-)likelihood ratio interpretation. We...... show that the likelihood ratio unit root test derived in a Gaussian AR(1) model with standard normal innovations is nearly efficient in that model. Moreover, these desirable properties carry over to more complicated models allowing for serially correlated and/or non-Gaussian innovations....

  6. Switching from rivaroxaban to warfarin: an open label pharmacodynamic study in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kenneth Todd; Byra, William; Vaidyanathan, Seema; Natarajan, Jaya; Ariyawansa, Jay; Salih, Hiba; Turner, Kenneth C

    2015-01-01

    Aims The primary objective was to explore the pharmacodynamic changes during transition from rivaroxaban to warfarin in healthy subjects. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics were assessed as secondary objectives. Methods An open label, non-randomized, sequential two period study. In treatment period 1 (TP1), subjects received rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily (5 days), followed by co-administration with a warfarin loading dose regimen of 5 or 10 mg (for the 10 mg regimen, the dose could be uptitrated to attain target international normalized ratio [INR] ≥2.0) once daily (2–4 days). When trough INR values ≥2.0 were attained, rivaroxaban was discontinued and warfarin treatment continued as monotherapy (INR 2.0–3.0). During treatment period 2, subjects received the same warfarin regimen as in TP1, but without rivaroxaban. Results During co-administration, maximum INR and prothrombin time (PT) values were higher than with rivaroxaban or warfarin monotherapy. The mean maximum effect (Emax) for INR after co-administration was 2.79–4.15 (mean PT Emax 41.0–62.7 s), compared with 1.41–1.74 (mean PT Emax 20.1–25.2 s) for warfarin alone. However, rivaroxaban had the smallest effect on INR at trough rivaroxaban concentrations. Neither rivaroxaban nor warfarin significantly affected maximum plasma concentrations of the other drug. Conclusions The combined pharmacodynamic effects during co-administration of rivaroxaban and warfarin were greater than additive, but the pharmacokinetics of both drugs were unaffected. Co-administration was well tolerated. When transitioning from rivaroxaban to warfarin, INR monitoring during co-administration should be performed at the trough rivaroxaban concentration to minimize the effect of rivaroxaban on INR. PMID:25475601

  7. Precaval retropancreatic space: Normal anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Myung Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    The authors defined precaval retropancreatic space as the space between pancreatic head with portal vein and IVC and analyzed the CT findings of this space to know the normal structures and size in this space. We evaluated 100 cases of normal abdominal CT scan to find out normal anatomic structures of precaval retropancreatic space retrospectively. We also measured the distance between these structures and calculated the minimum, maximum and mean values. At the splenoportal confluence level, normal structures between portal vein and IVC were vessel (21%), lymph node (19%), and caudate lobe of liver (2%) in order of frequency. The maximum AP diameter of portocaval lymph node was 4 mm. Common bile duct (CBD) was seen in 44% and the diameter was mean 3 mm and maximum 11 mm. CBD was located in extrapancreatic (75%) and lateral (60.6%) to pancreatic head. At IVC-left renal vein level, the maximum distance between CBD and IVC was 5 mm and the structure between posterior pancreatic surface and IVC was only fat tissue. Knowledge of these normal structures and measurement will be helpful in differentiating pancreatic mass with retropancreatic mass such as lymphadenopathy.

  8. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  10. CT and MRI normal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.

    1998-01-01

    This book gives answers to questions frequently heard especially from trainees and doctors not specialising in the field of radiology: Is that a normal finding? How do I decide? What are the objective criteria? The information presented is three-fold. The normal findings of the usual CT and MRI examinations are shown with high-quality pictures serving as a reference, with inscribed important additional information on measures, angles and other criteria describing the normal conditions. These criteria are further explained and evaluated in accompanying texts which also teach the systematic approach for individual picture analysis, and include a check list of major aspects, as a didactic guide for learning. The book is primarily intended for students, radiographers, radiology trainees and doctors from other medical fields, but radiology specialists will also find useful details of help in special cases. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Marrow transfusions into normal recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.

    1983-01-01

    During the past several years we have explored the transfusion of bone marrow into normal nonirradiated mice. While transfused marrow proliferates readily in irradiated animals, only minimal proliferation takes place in nonirradiated recipients. It has generally been assumed that this was due to the lack of available proliferative sites in recipients with normal marrow. Last year we were able to report that the transfusion of 200 million bone marrow cells (about 2/3 of the total complement of marrow cells of a normal mouse) resulted in 20% to 25% of the recipient's marrow being replaced by donor marrow. Thus we can now study the behavior of animals that have been transfused (donor) and endogenous (recipient) marrow cells, although none of the tissues of either donor or recipient have been irradiated. With these animals we hope to investigate the nature of the peculiar phenomenon of serial exhaustion of marrow, also referred to as the limited self-replicability of stem cells

  12. The construction of normal expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    The gradual upward changes of standards in normal everyday life have significant environmental implications, and it is therefore important to study how these changes come about. The intention of the article is to analyze the social construction of normal expectations through a case study. The case...... concerns the present boom in bathroom renovations in Denmark, which offers an excellent opportunity to study the interplay between a wide variety of consumption drivers and social changes pointing toward long-term changes of normal expectations regarding bathroom standards. The study is problemoriented...... and transdisciplinary and draws on a wide range of sociological, anthropological, and economic theories. The empirical basis comprises a combination of statistics, a review of magazine and media coverage, visits to exhibitions, and qualitative interviews. A variety of consumption drivers are identified. Among...

  13. Normalized cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  14. Random Generators and Normal Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David H.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to the authors' previous chaotic-dynamical model for random digits of fundamental constants, we investigate a complementary, statistical picture in which pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) are central. Some rigorous results are achieved: We establish b-normality for constants of the form $\\sum_i 1/(b^{m_i} c^{n_i})$ for certain sequences $(m_i), (n_i)$ of integers. This work unifies and extends previously known classes of explicit normals. We prove that for coprime $b,c>1$ the...

  15. Corticocortical feedback increases the spatial extent of normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Kreiman, Gabriel; Born, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation operating across different brain regions, sensory modalities, and species. It provides a good phenomenological description of non-linear response properties in primary visual cortex (V1), including the contrast response function and surround suppression. Despite its widespread application throughout the visual system, the underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. We recently observed that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression in V1, raising the possibility that feedback acts through normalization. To test this idea, we characterized area summation and contrast response properties in V1 with and without feedback from V2 and V3 in alert macaques and applied a standard normalization model to the data. Area summation properties were well explained by a form of divisive normalization, which computes the ratio between a neuron's driving input and the spatially integrated activity of a "normalization pool." Feedback inactivation reduced surround suppression by shrinking the spatial extent of the normalization pool. This effect was independent of the gain modulation thought to mediate the influence of contrast on area summation, which remained intact during feedback inactivation. Contrast sensitivity within the receptive field center was also unaffected by feedback inactivation, providing further evidence that feedback participates in normalization independent of the circuit mechanisms involved in modulating contrast gain and saturation. These results suggest that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression by increasing the visuotopic extent of normalization and, via this mechanism, feedback can play a critical role in contextual information processing.

  16. Corticocortical feedback increases the spatial extent of normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J.; Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Kreiman, Gabriel; Born, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation operating across different brain regions, sensory modalities, and species. It provides a good phenomenological description of non-linear response properties in primary visual cortex (V1), including the contrast response function and surround suppression. Despite its widespread application throughout the visual system, the underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. We recently observed that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression in V1, raising the possibility that feedback acts through normalization. To test this idea, we characterized area summation and contrast response properties in V1 with and without feedback from V2 and V3 in alert macaques and applied a standard normalization model to the data. Area summation properties were well explained by a form of divisive normalization, which computes the ratio between a neuron's driving input and the spatially integrated activity of a “normalization pool.” Feedback inactivation reduced surround suppression by shrinking the spatial extent of the normalization pool. This effect was independent of the gain modulation thought to mediate the influence of contrast on area summation, which remained intact during feedback inactivation. Contrast sensitivity within the receptive field center was also unaffected by feedback inactivation, providing further evidence that feedback participates in normalization independent of the circuit mechanisms involved in modulating contrast gain and saturation. These results suggest that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression by increasing the visuotopic extent of normalization and, via this mechanism, feedback can play a critical role in contextual information processing. PMID:24910596

  17. Aspect Ratio Scaling of Ideal No-wall Stability Limits in High Bootstrap Fraction Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.E.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stutman, D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent experiments in the low aspect ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] have achieved normalized beta values twice the conventional tokamak limit at low internal inductance and with significant bootstrap current. These experimental results have motivated a computational re-examination of the plasma aspect ratio dependence of ideal no-wall magnetohydrodynamic stability limits. These calculations find that the profile-optimized no-wall stability limit in high bootstrap fraction regimes is well described by a nearly aspect ratio invariant normalized beta parameter utilizing the total magnetic field energy density inside the plasma. However, the scaling of normalized beta with internal inductance is found to be strongly aspect ratio dependent at sufficiently low aspect ratio. These calculations and detailed stability analyses of experimental equilibria indicate that the nonrotating plasma no-wall stability limit has been exceeded by as much as 30% in NSTX in a high bootstrap fraction regime

  18. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  19. Normal forms in Poisson geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcut, I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of Poisson manifolds is highly nontrivial even locally. The first important result in this direction is Conn's linearization theorem around fixed points. One of the main results of this thesis (Theorem 2) is a normal form theorem in Poisson geometry, which is the Poisson-geometric

  20. Mixed normal inference on multicointegration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotic likelihood analysis of cointegration in I(2) models, see Johansen (1997, 2006), Boswijk (2000) and Paruolo (2000), has shown that inference on most parameters is mixed normal, implying hypothesis test statistics with an asymptotic 2 null distribution. The asymptotic distribution of the

  1. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Is My Child’s Appetite Normal? Cayla, who is 4 years old, did not finish her lunch. But she is ready to play. Her ... snack for later. That is okay! Your child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in ...

  2. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Pettorossi, A.; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  3. Semigroups of data normalization functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2016-01-01

    Variable centering and scaling are functions that are typically used in data normalization. Various properties of centering and scaling functions are presented. It is shown that if we use two centering functions (or scaling functions) successively, the result depends on the order in which the

  4. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  5. Neutron RBE for normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.; Hornsey, S.

    1979-01-01

    RBE for various normal tissues is considered as a function of neutron dose per fraction. Results from a variety of centres are reviewed. It is shown that RBE is dependent on neutron energy and is tissue dependent, but is not specially high for the more critical tissues or for damage occurring late after irradiation. (author)

  6. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  7. Log-Normality and Multifractal Analysis of Flame Surface Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Law, Chung K.

    2013-11-01

    The turbulent flame surface is typically highly wrinkled and folded at a multitude of scales controlled by various flame properties. It is useful if the information contained in this complex geometry can be projected onto a simpler regular geometry for the use of spectral, wavelet or multifractal analyses. Here we investigate local flame surface statistics of turbulent flame expanding under constant pressure. First the statistics of local length ratio is experimentally obtained from high-speed Mie scattering images. For spherically expanding flame, length ratio on the measurement plane, at predefined equiangular sectors is defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to the length of a circular-arc of radius equal to the average radius of the flame. Assuming isotropic distribution of such flame segments we convolute suitable forms of the length-ratio probability distribution functions (pdfs) to arrive at corresponding area-ratio pdfs. Both the pdfs are found to be near log-normally distributed and shows self-similar behavior with increasing radius. Near log-normality and rather intermittent behavior of the flame-length ratio suggests similarity with dissipation rate quantities which stimulates multifractal analysis. Currently at Indian Institute of Science, India.

  8. Correspondence normalized ghost imaging on compressive sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Sheng-Mei; Zhuang Peng

    2014-01-01

    Ghost imaging (GI) offers great potential with respect to conventional imaging techniques. It is an open problem in GI systems that a long acquisition time is be required for reconstructing images with good visibility and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). In this paper, we propose a new scheme to get good performance with a shorter construction time. We call it correspondence normalized ghost imaging based on compressive sensing (CCNGI). In the scheme, we enhance the signal-to-noise performance by normalizing the reference beam intensity to eliminate the noise caused by laser power fluctuations, and reduce the reconstruction time by using both compressive sensing (CS) and time-correspondence imaging (CI) techniques. It is shown that the qualities of the images have been improved and the reconstruction time has been reduced using CCNGI scheme. For the two-grayscale ''double-slit'' image, the mean square error (MSE) by GI and the normalized GI (NGI) schemes with the measurement number of 5000 are 0.237 and 0.164, respectively, and that is 0.021 by CCNGI scheme with 2500 measurements. For the eight-grayscale ''lena'' object, the peak signal-to-noise rates (PSNRs) are 10.506 and 13.098, respectively using GI and NGI schemes while the value turns to 16.198 using CCNGI scheme. The results also show that a high-fidelity GI reconstruction has been achieved using only 44% of the number of measurements corresponding to the Nyquist limit for the two-grayscale “double-slit'' object. The qualities of the reconstructed images using CCNGI are almost the same as those from GI via sparsity constraints (GISC) with a shorter reconstruction time. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Pharmacoepidemiological assessment of drug interactions with vitamin K antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Christensen, Rene dePont; Wang, Shirley V

    2014-01-01

    PurposeWe present a database of prescription drugs and international normalized ratio (INR) data and the applied methodology for its use to assess drug-drug interactions with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). We use the putative interaction between VKAs and tramadol as a case study. MethodsWe used...

  10. Probable interaction between an oral vitamin K antagonist and turmeric (Curcuma longa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveluy, Amélie; Géniaux, Hélène; Thibaud, Lucile; Mallaret, Michel; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Haramburu, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    We report a probable interaction between a vitamin K antagonist, fluindione, and the herbal medicine turmeric that resulted in the elevation of the international normalized ratio (INR). The case presented here underlines the importance of considering potential exposure to herbal medications when assessing adverse effects. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  11. Risk Stratification for Bleeding Complications in Patients With Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Joshua D; Goodin, Amie J; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Hypertension, Abnormal renal/liver function, Stroke, Bleeding, Labile International Normalized Ratio (INR), Elderly, Drugs or alcohol use (HAS-BLED) score has strong predictive validity for major bleeding complications, but limited validation has been conducted in venous thromboem...

  12. Apixaban for reduction in stroke and other ThromboemboLic events in atrial fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial: design and rationale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, R.D.; Alexander, J.H.; Al-Khatib, S.M.; Ansell, J.; Diaz, R.; Easton, J.D.; Gersh, B.J.; Granger, C.B.; Hanna, M.; Horowitz, J.; Hylek, E.M.; McMurray, J.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Wallentin, L.

    2010-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased risk of stroke that can be attenuated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Vitamin K antagonist use is limited, in part, by the high incidence of complications when patients' international normalized ratios (INRs) deviate from the target range. The

  13. The influence of NSAIDs on coumarin sensitivity in patients with CYP2C9 polymorphism after total hip replacement surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beinema, M.J.; Jong, P.H. de; Salden, H.J.; Wijnen, M.H.W.A.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of NSAIDs on the international normalized ratio (INR) in patients with cytochrome P450 (CYP)-2C9 enzyme variants starting acenocoumarol (an oral coumarin) therapy during the first 7 days after total hip replacement surgery. METHODS: In this prospective study, an

  14. The influence of NSAIDs on coumarin sensitivity in patients with CYP2C9 polymorphism after total hip replacement surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beinema, Maarten J.; de Jong, Petra H.; Salden, Har J. M.; van Wijnen, Merel; van der Meer, Jan; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of NSAIDs on the international normalized ratio (INR) in patients with cytochrome P450 (CYP)-2C9 enzyme variants starting acenocoumarol (an oral coumarin) therapy during the first 7 days after total hip replacement surgery. Methods: In this prospective study, an

  15. Home management of oral anticoagulation via telemedicine versus conventional hospital-based treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henry; Lauterlein, Jens-Jacob; Sørensen, Patricia D

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an expert computer system for the control of oral anticoagulation therapy, accessible by the patients via their own computer. To investigate if the weekly measurement and dosing of international normalized ratio (INR) at home using the online Internet-based system was superior t...

  16. Dietary Vitamin K intake and anticoagulation control during the initiation phase of warfarin therapy: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of varying levels of dietary vitamin K intake on therapeutic International Normalized Ratio (INR) values among patients starting warfarin therapy has not been well studied. We performed a prospective cohort study among 282 patients to explore the independent associations between usual in...

  17. Chest Pain with Normal Thallium-201 Myocardial Perfusion Image – Is It Really Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pang-Yen; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lin, Li-Fan; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Yang, Shih-Ping; Liou, Jun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion image (MPI) is commonly used to detect coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain. Although a normal thallium-201 MPI result is generally considered to be a good prognosis and further coronary angiogram is not recommended, there are still a few patients who suffer from unexpected acute coronary events. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical prognosis in patients with normal thallium-201 MPI. Methods From January 2006 to August 2012, a total 22,003 patients undergoing thallium-201 MPI in one tertiary center were screened. Of these, 8092 patients had normal results and were investigated retrospectively. During follow-up, 54 patients underwent coronary angiogram because of refractory typical angina pectoris or unexpected acute coronary events. These 54 patients were divided into 2 groups: group I consisted of 26 (48.1%) patients with angiography-proven significant coronary artery stenosis, and group II consisted of 28 (51.9%) patients without significant stenosis. Results Patients in group I had a higher prevalence of prior coronary stenting and electrocardiographic features of ST depression compared with patients in group II. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that both prior coronary stenting and ST depression were risk predictors of unexpected acute coronary events in the patients with normal thallium-201 MPI [odds ratio (OR), 5.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-34.06, p = 0.05 and OR, 7.10; 95% CI: 1.28-39.51, p = 0.03,respectively]. Conclusions Although there is a low incidence of unexpected acute coronary events in patients with chest pain and normal thallium-201 MPI, physicians should be aware of the potentials risk in certain patients in this specific population. PMID:27274174

  18. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  19. RECENT TRENDS IN GENDER RATIO AT BIRTH IN HANGZHOU, CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; Qiu, L Q; Yau, Kkw; Hui, Y V; Binns, C W; Lee, A H

    2015-12-01

    Higher than normal sex ratios at birth in China have been reported since the early 1980's. This study aimed to investigate recent trends in sex ratio at birth in Hangzhou, capital of Zhejiang Province in southeast China. Information on selected maternal and birth-related characteristics was extracted from the Hangzhou Birth Information Database for all pregnant women who delivered live births during 2005-2014. The sex ratios at birth were calculated after excluding infants with missing data on gender and those born with ambiguous genitalia. A total of 478,192 male births and 430,852 female births were recorded giving an overall ratio of 111.0. The sex ratio at birth was almost constant at around 110.7 during the period 2005-2008, followed by an increase to the peak at 113.1 in 2010 and then declined back to 109.6 in 2014. The gender ratio at birth in Hangzhou remained unbalanced for the past decade.

  20. Sacroiliac Joint/Sacrum Uptake Ratio Measured by Quantitative Sacroiliac Joint Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Yiul; Park, Seon Yang; Lee, Myung Chul; Choi, Sang Jae; Cho, Bo Youn; Choe, Kang Won; Koh, Chang Soon

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness and significance of quantitative sacroiliac joint scintigraphy in the assessment of sacroiliitis, we measured Sacroiliac Joint/Sacrum Uptake Ratio (SIS Ratio) by region of interest (ROI) method using 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The observed results were as follows:1) Using ROI method, the SIS ratios for the control group of 65 persons were 1.05±0.08 (left) and 1.06±0.07 (right) which were narrower in range than those of slice method (mean±S.D.) 2) The effects of age, gender and laterality on SIS ratio were not significant. 3) In left side, one of 6 patients with rheumatoid arthritis had SIS ratio in excess of 2 standard deviation of normal control group, and remainder had SIS ratios within normal limit. In right side, 3 patients had SIS ratios in excess of 2 standard deviation of normal control group, and remainder, within normal limit. 4) In both sacroiliac joint, 2 of 3 patients having sacroiliitis clinically with Reiter's syndrome whose pelvis A-P X-ray findings showed normal had high SIS ratios (left/right; 1.31/1.69, 1.90/1.80), but SIS ratio of one patient who bad no evidence of sacroiliitis clinically was within normal limit. 5) In 6 patients with ankylosing spondylitis in both sacroiliac joints, q whose pelvis A-P X-ray findings showed severe sclerotic change of sacroiliac pints had SIS ratio within normal limit or below that of normal control group, and SIS ratios of 2 patients whose pelvis A-P X-ray findings showed were increased. 6) 4 of 5 patients with low back pain of which cause could not be evaluated clinically and radiologically had SIS ratios in excess of that of normal control group. It would be concluded the quantitative sacroiliac joint scintigraphy is useful and sensitive screening method in the diagnosis as well as in the assessment clinical activity of sacroiliitis.

  1. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2013-12-01

    To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Interocular acuity differences and binocular summation ratios were compared between groups. Crowding ratios were calculated by dividing the single Landolt C decimal acuity with the crowded Landolt C decimal acuity mono- and binocularly. A linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the contribution of 5 predictors to the monocular and binocular crowding ratio: nystagmus amplitude, nystagmus frequency, strabismus, astigmatism, and anisometropia. Crowding ratios were higher under mono- and binocular viewing conditions for children with infantile nystagmus syndrome than for children with normal vision. Children with albinism showed higher crowding ratios in their poorer eye and under binocular viewing conditions than children with normal vision. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome showed larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision (0.1 logMAR in our clinical groups and 0.0 logMAR in children with normal vision). Binocular summation ratios did not differ between groups. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude predicted the crowding ratio in the poorer eye (p = 0.015 and p = 0.005, respectively). The crowding ratio in the better eye showed a marginally significant relation with nystagmus frequency and depth of anisometropia (p = 0.082 and p = 0.070, respectively). The binocular crowding ratio was not predicted by any of the variables. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome show larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude are significant predictors of the crowding ratio in the poorer eye.

  2. Superconducting versus normal conducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Podlech, Holger

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important issues of high-power hadron linacs is the choice of technology with respect to superconducting or room-temperature operation. The favour for a specific technology depends on several parameters such as the beam energy, beam current, beam power and duty factor. This contribution gives an overview of the comparison between superconducting and normal conducting cavities. This includes basic radiofrequency (RF) parameters, design criteria, limitations, required RF and plug power as well as case studies.

  3. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  4. Normalization reduces intersubject variability in cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Mark J; Herrmann, Barbara S; Guinan, John J; Rauch, Steven D

    2014-09-01

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are used to assess saccular and inferior vestibular nerve function. Normalization of the VEMP waveform has been proposed to reduce the variability in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials by correcting for muscle activation. In this study, we test the hypothesis that normalization of the raw cervical VEMP waveform causes a significant decrease in the intersubject variability. Prospective cohort study. Large specialty hospital, department of otolaryngology. Twenty healthy subjects were used in this study. All subjects underwent cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing using short tone bursts at 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 Hz. Both intersubject and intrasubject variability was assessed. Variability between raw and normalized peak-to-peak amplitudes was compared using the coefficient of variation. Intrasubject variability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient and interaural asymmetry ratio. cVEMPs were present in most ears. Highest peak-to-peak amplitudes were recorded at 750 Hz. Normalization did not alter cVEMP tuning characteristics. Normalization of the cVEMP response caused a significant reduction in intersubject variability of the peak-to-peak amplitude. No significant change was seen in the intrasubject variability. Normalization significantly reduces cVEMP intersubject variability in healthy subjects without altering cVEMP characteristics. By reducing cVEMP amplitude variation due to nonsaccular, muscle-related factors, cVEMP normalization is expected to improve the ability to distinguish between healthy and pathologic responses in the clinical application of cVEMP testing.

  5. Correlates of lung/heart ratio of thallium-201 in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, S.; Kaul, S.; Boucher, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    We studied 306 patients with chest pain (262 with coronary artery disease and 44 with no coronary artery disease) to determine which of 23 clinical, exercise, thallium, and angiographic variables best discriminate between patients with increased lung/heart ratios of thallium versus those with normal ratios. Normal lung/heart ratio values were defined using an additional 45 subjects with less than 1% probability of coronary artery disease. The number of diseased vessels was the best discriminator between patients with increased ratios versus those with normal ratios. Double product at peak exercise, number of segments with abnormal wall motion, patient gender, and duration of exercise were also significant discriminators. Using discriminant function analysis these variables could correctly identify 81% of cases with increased lung/heart ratios and 72% of cases with normal ratios. These results indicate that an increased lung/heart ratio of thallium reflects exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction and affords a better understanding of why this thallium parameter is a powerful prognostic indicator in patients with chest pain

  6. Lithium control during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Jain, D.

    2010-01-01

    Periodic increases in lithium (Li) concentrations in the primary heat transport (PHT) system during normal operation are a generic problem at CANDU® stations. Lithiated mixed bed ion exchange resins are used at stations for pH control in the PHT system. Typically tight chemistry controls including Li concentrations are maintained in the PHT water. The reason for the Li increases during normal operation at CANDU stations such as Pickering was not fully understood. In order to address this issue a two pronged approach was employed. Firstly, PNGS-A data and information from other available sources was reviewed in an effort to identify possible factors that may contribute to the observed Li variations. Secondly, experimental studies were carried out to assess the importance of these factors in order to establish reasons for Li increases during normal operation. Based on the results of these studies, plausible mechanisms/reasons for Li increases have been identified and recommendations made for proactive control of Li concentrations in the PHT system. (author)

  7. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  8. "Ser diferente é normal?"/"Being different: is it normal?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Veras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pergunta título deste trabalho retoma o slogan “Ser diferente é normal”, que é parte da campanha criada para uma organização não-governamental que atende portadores de Síndrome de Down. O objetivo é a inclusão social da pessoa com deficiência e o primeiro passo foi propor a inclusão de um grupo de diferentes no grupo dito normal. No vídeo de lançamento da campanha, o diferente, identificado como normal, é mostrado por meio de exemplos – um negro com cabelo black-power, um skin-head, um corpo tatuado, um corpo feminino halterofílico, uma família hippie, uma garota com síndrome de Down. A visão da adolescente dançando reduz, de certo modo, o efeito imaginário que vai além da síndrome, uma vez que apenas o corpo com seus olhinhos puxados se destacam, e não se interrogam questões cognitivas. Minha proposta é refletir sobre o estatuto paradoxal do exemplo, tal como é trabalhado nesse vídeo: se, por definição, um exemplo mostra de fato seu pertencimento a uma classe, pode-se concluir que é exatamente por ser exemplar que ele se encontra fora dela, no exato momento em que a exibe e define. The question in the title of this paper refers to the slogan "ser diferente é normal" ("It´s normal to be different", which is part of a campaign created for a NGO that supports people with Down syndrome. The objective of the campaign is to promote the social inclusion of individuals with Down syndrome, and the first step was to propose the inclusion of a group of "differents" in the so-called normal group. The film launching the campaign shows the different identified as normal by means of examples: a black man exhibiting blackpower haircut, a skin-head, a tattooed body, an over-athletic female body, a hippie family and a girl with Down syndrome. The vision of the dancing teenager lessens the imaginary effect that surpasses the syndrome, since only her body and her little oriental eyes stand out and no cognitive issues are

  9. Concentration ratio of radon progeny in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2000-01-01

    Investigations have been made on the concentration ratio of radon progeny in air. Data have been acquired intermittently since 1988 using alpha spectroscopic method around the author's office that is located in the northeastern part of Japan. Clarifying the behavior of radon progeny is an issue of wide importance to radiation protection, predicting earthquakes, etc. Let Rabc=ECRn(RaA)/{ECRn(RaB) + ECRn(RaC)}; the concentration ratio, Rabc, is relevant to the stability of the air. Statistical and time series analyses indicated several interesting results. To examine the log-normal distribution, Lilliefors test was made for logarithm of outdoor data every one year. Rabc passed the test 6 times for 9 years, while Radon progeny passed 8 times. Outdoor data indicated that the value of Rabc was lower in the morning, in other world, the air was more stable in the morning than in the afternoon. To see the seasonal variation, one-way layout analysis was made for four groups of data, i.e., spring (March to May), summer (June to August), autumn (September to November), and winter (December to February). Rabc indicated significantly higher level in spring and winter, in other word, air was stable in summer and autumn. Time series analysis was made for various variables; power spectra were estimated with autoregressive model that is equivalent to maximum entropy method. Power spectrum for Rabc was most similar to that of wind speed. One-year period, that is always remarkable for radon progeny, was not significant for Rabc. Three- to nine-day periods were often seen for Rabc, radon progeny, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure. These several-day periods are probably attributed to the passage of air masses. Twenty-day to thirty-day peak may be attributed to meteorological phenomena corresponding to the rotation period of the sun. Temperature indicated no significant periodicity except overwhelming one-year period. Wind speed is well known to affect the radon progeny concentration

  10. Understanding a Normal Distribution of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltenfort, Mitchell G

    2015-12-01

    Assuming data follow a normal distribution is essential for many common statistical tests. However, what are normal data and when can we assume that a data set follows this distribution? What can be done to analyze non-normal data?

  11. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  12. Power cycling experiments in INR-TRIGA-SSR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, M.

    2008-01-01

    The in-reactor experimental program started this summer with some power cycling experiments to provide date on fuel behaviour under abnormal reactor operating conditions. The paper describes the irradiation device, its operational features and an original 'under-flux' movement system. Also, there are presented main data of irradiation device (pressure, flow, temperature, construction), in-pile section, location, sample, instrumentation, experimental sequences and operating data of Interest for the experimenters. (author)

  13. [Ratio of erythrocyte and plasma in massive blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Hui; Liu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Gui, Rong

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the suitable ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte by retrospective analysis of coagulation in patients with massive blood transfusion. The clinical data of 151 cases with massive blood transfusion from January 2011 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. According to coagulation, patients were divided into coagulation normal group (138 cases) and coagulation dysfunction group (13 cases). Based on the ratio of 1:1 of fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte, the patients were divided into high plasma group(2:1), medium plasma group (1:1) and low plasma (blood transfusion. The results showed that prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) were prolonged, fibrinogen (FIB) level decreased significantly (all P blood transfusion 24 h; the high plasma and the medium plasma group of coagulation normal group had no significant changes in coagulation (P > 0.05); prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen level in the medium plasma and low plasma subgroup of coagulation dysfunction group after massive transfusion was still in abnormal levels (P > 0.05), coagulation function in high plasma subgroup was improved significantly (P blood transfusion, the ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte is recommended to be 2:1 in patients of coagulation dysfunction in order to improve the patient's coagulation function and to reduce the incidence of adverse event, the ratio of fresh frozen plasma to erythrocyte is recommended to be 1:1 in patients with normal coagulation so as to reduce the dilutional coagulopathy and hypervolemia of blood.

  14. Maternal serum ratio of ghrelin to obestatin decreased in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiguang; Fan, Xiaobin; Yu, Yuecheng; Wang, Yingchun

    2015-10-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to participate in blood pressure regulation. Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, is described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. We hypothesized that ghrelin/obestatin imbalance played a role in the pathogenesis. This study was designed to determine the alterations of ghrelin and obestatin concentrations and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum in preeclampsia. This retrospective case-control study included 31 preeclampsia and 31 gestational week-matched normal pregnancies. Ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in maternal serum were determined by radioimmunoassay, and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio was calculated. The ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum were significantly lower in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (214.34±14.27pg/mL vs 251.49±16.15pg/mL, P=0.041, 1.07±0.09 vs 0.82±0.08, P=0.023). The obestatin concentration in maternal serum was significantly higher in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (276.35±15.38pg/mL vs 223.53±18.61pg/mL, P=0.019). The systolic blood pressure in preeclampsia was negatively correlated with ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio (r=-0.549, P=0.003; r=-0.491, P=0.004) and was positively correlated with obestatin concentrations in preeclampsia (r=0.388, P=0.013). The findings of this study suggested disturbance of ghrelin and obestatin in maternal serum in preeclampsia, and ghrelin/obestatin imbalance might play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Plutonium isotope ratios in polychaete worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to recent reports that suggest that terrestrial and aquatic organisms may preferentially take up 238 Pu compared with sup(239+240)Pu. It is stated that although kinetic isotope effects are known to occur in biological systems for low mass number elements, such as H, C and N, such effects are generally discounted with higher mass numbers, and differences in the biological 'uptake' of isotopes of high mass number elements, such as those of Pu, are normally attributable to differences in the chemical or physical forms of the isotopes or to different quantities of isotopes available to organisms. This has been applied to explain differential Pu isotope behaviour in animals under controlled laboratory conditions, but it is not certain that it can be applied to explain anomalies of Pu isotope behaviour in organisms contaminated by nuclear test debris or by wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Geochemical weathering may also have an effect. Described here are experiments in which it was found that deposit feeding marine worms living in sediments contaminated in different ways with Pu isotopes did not show preferential accumulation of 238 Pu. The worms had been exposed to different chemical and physical forms of the isotopes, including exposure to laboratory-labelled sediment, sediment collected from a former weapons test site, and sediment contaminated by wastes from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The worms were allowed to accumulate Pu for times of 5 to 40 days. Isotope ratios were determined by α-spectrometric techniques. It is considered that the results are important for environmental samples where Pu activity levels are low. (U.K.)

  16. Measurement of normal auditory ossicles by high-resolusion CT with application of normal criteria to disease cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Jyoko

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to define criteria for the normal position of ossicles and to apply them in patients with rhinolaryngologically or pathologically confirmed diseases. Ossicles were measured on high-resolution CT images of 300 middle ears, including 241 normal ears and 59 diseased ears, in a total of 203 subjects. Angles A, B, and C to the baseline between the most lateral margins of bilateral internal auditory canals, and distance ratio b/a were defined as measurement items. Normal angles A, B, and C and distance ratio b/a ranged from 19 deg to 59 deg, 101 deg to 145 deg, 51 deg to 89 deg, and 0.49 to 0.51, respectively. Based on these criteria, all of these items were within the normal range in 30/34 (88.2 %) ears for otitis media and mastoiditis. One or more items showed far abnormal values (standard deviation; more than 3) in 5/7 (71.4 %) ears for cholesteatoma and 4/4 (100 %) ears for external ear anomaly. These normal measurements may aid in evaluating the position of auditory ossicles especially in the case of cholesteatoma and auditory ossicle abnormality. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Measurement of normal auditory ossicles by high-resolusion CT with application of normal criteria to disease cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Jyoko

    1988-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to define criteria for the normal position of ossicles and to apply them in patients with rhinolaryngologically or pathologically confirmed diseases. Ossicles were measured on high-resolution CT images of 300 middle ears, including 241 normal ears and 59 diseased ears, in a total of 203 subjects. Angles A, B, and C to the baseline between the most lateral margins of bilateral internal auditory canals, and distance ratio b/a were defined as measurement items. Normal angles A, B, and C and distance ratio b/a ranged from 19 deg to 59 deg, 101 deg to 145 deg, 51 deg to 89 deg, and 0.49 to 0.51, respectively. Based on these criteria, all of these items were within the normal range in 30/34 (88.2 %) ears for otitis media and mastoiditis. One or more items showed far abnormal values (standard deviation; more than 3) in 5/7 (71.4 %) ears for cholesteatoma and 4/4 (100 %) ears for external ear anomaly. These normal measurements may aid in evaluating the position of auditory ossicles especially in the case of cholesteatoma and auditory ossicle abnormality. (Namekawa, K.).

  18. Confidence bounds and hypothesis tests for normal distribution coefficients of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill; Richard A. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    For normally distributed populations, we obtain confidence bounds on a ratio of two coefficients of variation, provide a test for the equality of k coefficients of variation, and provide confidence bounds on a coefficient of variation shared by k populations.

  19. Illumination normalization based on simplified local binary patterns for a face verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Illumination normalization is a very important step in face recognition. In this paper we propose a simple implementation of Local Binary Patterns, which effectively reduces the variability caused by illumination changes. In combination with a likelihood ratio classifier, this illumination

  20. Bowman Capsule Volume and Related Factors in Adults With Normal Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Sasaki

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: In the normal adult kidney, there may be an optimal BV to GV ratio for maintaining effective filtration in a variety of clinical situations, including advanced age, obesity, and hypertension.

  1. A locally adaptive normal distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvanitidis, Georgios; Hansen, Lars Kai; Hauberg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    entropy distribution under the given metric. The underlying metric is, however, non-parametric. We develop a maximum likelihood algorithm to infer the distribution parameters that relies on a combination of gradient descent and Monte Carlo integration. We further extend the LAND to mixture models......The multivariate normal density is a monotonic function of the distance to the mean, and its ellipsoidal shape is due to the underlying Euclidean metric. We suggest to replace this metric with a locally adaptive, smoothly changing (Riemannian) metric that favors regions of high local density...

  2. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  3. Multispectral histogram normalization contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, J. M.; Schwartz, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    A multispectral histogram normalization or decorrelation enhancement which achieves effective color composites by removing interband correlation is described. The enhancement procedure employs either linear or nonlinear transformations to equalize principal component variances. An additional rotation to any set of orthogonal coordinates is thus possible, while full histogram utilization is maintained by avoiding the reintroduction of correlation. For the three-dimensional case, the enhancement procedure may be implemented with a lookup table. An application of the enhancement to Landsat multispectral scanning imagery is presented.

  4. Normal modes and continuous spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmforth, N.J.; Morrison, P.J.

    1994-12-01

    The authors consider stability problems arising in fluids, plasmas and stellar systems that contain singularities resulting from wave-mean flow or wave-particle resonances. Such resonances lead to singularities in the differential equations determining the normal modes at the so-called critical points or layers. The locations of the singularities are determined by the eigenvalue of the problem, and as a result, the spectrum of eigenvalues forms a continuum. They outline a method to construct the singular eigenfunctions comprising the continuum for a variety of problems

  5. Normal movement selectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J

    2010-05-13

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Librarian's Primer on Financial Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1982-01-01

    Explains in simple terms the nature and function of a number of basic types of business and industrial financial ratios. An annotated list of five basic sources for ratios is included and a reference list and bibliography are attached. (JL)

  7. Stable isotope ratios in hair and teeth reflect biologic rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Appenzeller

    Full Text Available Biologic rhythms give insight into normal physiology and disease. They can be used as biomarkers for neuronal degenerations. We present a diverse data set to show that hair and teeth contain an extended record of biologic rhythms, and that analysis of these tissues could yield signals of neurodegenerations. We examined hair from mummified humans from South America, extinct mammals and modern animals and people, both healthy and diseased, and teeth of hominins. We also monitored heart-rate variability, a measure of a biologic rhythm, in some living subjects and analyzed it using power spectra. The samples were examined to determine variations in stable isotope ratios along the length of the hair and across growth-lines of the enamel in teeth. We found recurring circa-annual periods of slow and fast rhythms in hydrogen isotope ratios in hair and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in teeth. The power spectra contained slow and fast frequency power, matching, in terms of normalized frequency, the spectra of heart rate variability found in our living subjects. Analysis of the power spectra of hydrogen isotope ratios in hair from a patient with neurodegeneration revealed the same spectral features seen in the patient's heart-rate variability. Our study shows that spectral analysis of stable isotope ratios in readily available tissues such as hair could become a powerful diagnostic tool when effective treatments and neuroprotective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases become available. It also suggests that similar analyses of archaeological specimens could give insight into the physiology of ancient people and animals.

  8. Update on normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiranjan Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is labelled when typical glaucomatous disc changes, visual field defects and open anterior chamber angles are associated with intraocular pressure (IOP constantly below 21 mmHg. Chronic low vascular perfusion, Raynaud's phenomenon, migraine, nocturnal systemic hypotension and over-treated systemic hypertension are the main causes of normal tension glaucoma. Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography and visual field analysis are the main tools of investigation for the diagnosis of NTG. Management follows the same principles of treatment for other chronic glaucomas: To reduce IOP by a substantial amount, sufficient to prevent disabling visual loss. Treatment is generally aimed to lower IOP by 30% from pre-existing levels to 12-14 mmHg. Betaxolol, brimonidine, prostaglandin analogues, trabeculectomy (in refractory cases, systemic calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine and 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure are considered in the management of NTG. The present review summarises risk factors, causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NTG.

  9. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  10. Consumption of 125I labelled fibrinogen in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, B.; Camargo, E.E.; Reis, J.M.M. dos; Carvalho, N.; Leao, L.E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The metabolism of iodine- 125 labeled human fibrinogen is studied by using three different sets of the radiopharmaceutical (0.9, 1.3 and 1.84 iodine atoms/fibrinogen molecule ratios) in 19 normal subjects. An aliquot of 40 μCi of fibrinogem- 125 I is injected in each subject, on normal dietary conditions and blood samples are withdrawn at 30, 60, 180, 36 and 720 minutes after the injection and, thereafter, one daily sample during 10 days. The compartmental distribution of the tracer is defined by plotting plasma and serum sample counts on a semilogarithmic graph paper. A rapid phase and 3 compartments are obtained. A 'rapid' consumption half-life and a 'real' consumption half-life are defined. The fibrinogen clottability is followed up to the last blood sample by checking the ratios of serum and plasma radioactivities [pt

  11. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-01-01

    The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  12. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  13. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  14. Ventilation-perfusion distribution in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth C; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P; Wilson, Theodore A

    2012-09-01

    Functional values of LogSD of the ventilation distribution (σ(V)) have been reported previously, but functional values of LogSD of the perfusion distribution (σ(q)) and the coefficient of correlation between ventilation and perfusion (ρ) have not been measured in humans. Here, we report values for σ(V), σ(q), and ρ obtained from wash-in data for three gases, helium and two soluble gases, acetylene and dimethyl ether. Normal subjects inspired gas containing the test gases, and the concentrations of the gases at end-expiration during the first 10 breaths were measured with the subjects at rest and at increasing levels of exercise. The regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion was described by a bivariate log-normal distribution with parameters σ(V), σ(q), and ρ, and these parameters were evaluated by matching the values of expired gas concentrations calculated for this distribution to the measured values. Values of cardiac output and LogSD ventilation/perfusion (Va/Q) were obtained. At rest, σ(q) is high (1.08 ± 0.12). With the onset of ventilation, σ(q) decreases to 0.85 ± 0.09 but remains higher than σ(V) (0.43 ± 0.09) at all exercise levels. Rho increases to 0.87 ± 0.07, and the value of LogSD Va/Q for light and moderate exercise is primarily the result of the difference between the magnitudes of σ(q) and σ(V). With known values for the parameters, the bivariate distribution describes the comprehensive distribution of ventilation and perfusion that underlies the distribution of the Va/Q ratio.

  15. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juanjuan; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2017-01-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with marked hemodynamic and uterine changes that allow adequate uteroplacental blood flow and uterine expansion for the growing fetus. These pregnancy-associated changes involve significant uteroplacental and vascular remodeling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important regulators of vascular and uterine remodeling. Increases in MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been implicated in vasodilation, placentation and uterine expansion during normal pregnancy. The increases in MMPs could be induced by the increased production of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy. MMP expression/activity may be altered during complications of pregnancy. Decreased vascular MMP-2 and MMP-9 may lead to decreased vasodilation, increased vasoconstriction, hypertensive pregnancy and preeclampsia. Abnormal expression of uteroplacental integrins, cytokines and MMPs may lead to decreased maternal tolerance, apoptosis of invasive trophoblast cells, inadequate remodeling of spiral arteries, and reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP). RUPP may cause imbalance between the anti-angiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endoglin and the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor, or stimulate the release of inflammatory cytokines, hypoxia-inducible factor, reactive oxygen species, and angiotensin AT1 receptor agonistic autoantibodies. These circulating factors could target MMPs in the extracellular matrix as well as endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, causing generalized vascular dysfunction, increased vasoconstriction and hypertension in pregnancy. MMP activity can also be altered by endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and changes in the MMP/TIMP ratio. In addition to their vascular effects, decreases in expression/activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the uterus could impede uterine growth and expansion and lead to premature labor. Understanding the role of MMPs in uteroplacental and

  16. On a radioimmunoassay ratio making the diagnosis of dysthyroidism easier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresson, Y.; Marty, D.; Moullart, V.

    1982-01-01

    The offered ratio is a dimensionless number, independant of kits, or units and usually fluctuates around one. We obtain it by [TBGsub(m)/Tsub(4m)].[T 4 ]/[TBG] and, divided by a constant, it represents the first term of the development in series of the free thyroxin index mathematical expression from which it gives a nearly perfect value. Using this ratio the discrimination between eu- and hyperthyroidism is very apparent as well as the distinction between hypo and euthyroidism. The children from two to fifteen years of age and the women under hormonal contraception treatment show normal value. These results have been confirmed by a statistical investigation including 184 normal subjects, 76 hyperthyroid subjects without treatment, 18 euthyroid women under hormonal contraception treatment and 32 children from birth to fifteen years of age. It is conclued from this statistical investigation that the offered ratio is more accurate and more reliable as a mean of diagnosis than the free thyroxin index when calculated from the T3 uptake test [fr

  17. Normal aging and decision making: The role of motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Depping, Miriam K; Freund, Alexandra M

    2011-01-01

    The main argument of this review is that motivational development associated with normal aging affects decision making. With increasing age, the ratio of gains to losses becomes more and more unfavorable. Reflecting the increasing losses in resources, goal orientation changes from a predominant orientation towards gains in young adulthood to an increasingly stronger orientation towards the prevention of loss in older adulthood. As goals serve as reference points for the evaluation of decision...

  18. Is My Penis Normal? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth / For Teens / Is My Penis Normal? Print en español ¿Es normal mi pene? ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...

  19. Normal vibrations in gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolling, G.; Waugh, J.L.T.

    1964-01-01

    The triple axis crystal spectrometer at Chalk River has been used to observe coherent slow neutron scattering from a single crystal of pure gallium arsenide at 296 o K. The frequencies of normal modes of vibration propagating in the [ζ00], (ζζζ], and (0ζζ] crystal directions have been determined with a precision of between 1 and 2·5 per cent. A limited number of normal modes have also been studied at 95 and 184 o K. Considerable difficulty was experienced in obtaining welt resolved neutron peaks corresponding to the two non-degenerate optic modes for very small wave-vector, particularly at 296 o K. However, from a comparison of results obtained under various experimental conditions at several different points in reciprocal space, frequencies (units 10 12 c/s) for these modes (at 296 o K) have been assigned: T 8·02±0·08 and L 8·55±02. Other specific normal modes, with their measured frequencies are (a) (1,0,0): TO 7·56 ± 008, TA 2·36 ± 0·015, LO 7·22 ± 0·15, LA 6·80 ± 0·06; (b) (0·5, 0·5, 0·5): TO 7·84 ± 0·12, TA 1·86 ± 0·02, LO 7·15 ± 0·07, LA 6·26 ± 0·10; (c) (0, 0·65, 0·65): optic 8·08 ±0·13, 7·54 ± 0·12 and 6·57 ± 0·11, acoustic 5·58 ± 0·08, 3·42 · 0·06 and 2·36 ± 004. These results are generally slightly lower than the corresponding frequencies for germanium. An analysis in terms of various modifications of the dipole approximation model has been carried out. A feature of this analysis is that the charge on the gallium atom appears to be very small, about +0·04 e. The frequency distribution function has been derived from one of the force models. (author)

  20. Normal vibrations in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolling, G; Waugh, J L T

    1964-07-01

    The triple axis crystal spectrometer at Chalk River has been used to observe coherent slow neutron scattering from a single crystal of pure gallium arsenide at 296{sup o}K. The frequencies of normal modes of vibration propagating in the [{zeta}00], ({zeta}{zeta}{zeta}], and (0{zeta}{zeta}] crystal directions have been determined with a precision of between 1 and 2{center_dot}5 per cent. A limited number of normal modes have also been studied at 95 and 184{sup o}K. Considerable difficulty was experienced in obtaining welt resolved neutron peaks corresponding to the two non-degenerate optic modes for very small wave-vector, particularly at 296{sup o}K. However, from a comparison of results obtained under various experimental conditions at several different points in reciprocal space, frequencies (units 10{sup 12} c/s) for these modes (at 296{sup o}K) have been assigned: T 8{center_dot}02{+-}0{center_dot}08 and L 8{center_dot}55{+-}02. Other specific normal modes, with their measured frequencies are (a) (1,0,0): TO 7{center_dot}56 {+-} 008, TA 2{center_dot}36 {+-} 0{center_dot}015, LO 7{center_dot}22 {+-} 0{center_dot}15, LA 6{center_dot}80 {+-} 0{center_dot}06; (b) (0{center_dot}5, 0{center_dot}5, 0{center_dot}5): TO 7{center_dot}84 {+-} 0{center_dot}12, TA 1{center_dot}86 {+-} 0{center_dot}02, LO 7{center_dot}15 {+-} 0{center_dot}07, LA 6{center_dot}26 {+-} 0{center_dot}10; (c) (0, 0{center_dot}65, 0{center_dot}65): optic 8{center_dot}08 {+-}0{center_dot}13, 7{center_dot}54 {+-} 0{center_dot}12 and 6{center_dot}57 {+-} 0{center_dot}11, acoustic 5{center_dot}58 {+-} 0{center_dot}08, 3{center_dot}42 {center_dot} 0{center_dot}06 and 2{center_dot}36 {+-} 004. These results are generally slightly lower than the corresponding frequencies for germanium. An analysis in terms of various modifications of the dipole approximation model has been carried out. A feature of this analysis is that the charge on the gallium atom appears to be very small, about +0{center_dot}04 e. The

  1. The impact of tissue Doppler index E/e' ratio on instantaneous wave-free ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arashi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Ri, Tonre; Otsuki, Hisao; Nakao, Masashi; Kamishima, Kazuho; Jujo, Kentaro; Minami, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2018-03-01

    The instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is a vasodilator-free, invasive pressure wire index of the functional severity of coronary stenosis and is calculated under resting conditions. In a recent study, iFR was found to be more closely linked to coronary flow reserve (CFR) than fractional flow reserve (FFR). E/e' is a surrogate marker of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and LV diastolic dysfunction. Coronary resting flow was found to be increased in patients with elevated E/e', and higher coronary resting flow was associated with lower CFR. Higher baseline coronary flow induces a greater loss of translesional pressure and may affect iFR. However, no reports have examined the impact of E/e' on iFR. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between iFR and E/e' compared with FFR. We retrospectively examined 103 consecutive patients (142 with stenosis) whose iFR, FFR, and E/e' were measured simultaneously. The mean age, LV mass index, and systolic blood pressure of patients with elevated E/e' were higher than those of patients with normal E/e'. Although no significant differences were observed in mean FFR values and % diameter stenosis, the mean iFR value in patients with elevated E/e' was significantly lower than that in patients with normal E/e'. The iFR was negatively correlated with E/e', while there was no correlation between FFR and E/e'. Multivariate analysis showed that E/e' and % diameter stenosis were independent determinants of iFR. E/e' ratio affects iFR values. Our results suggest that FFR mainly reflects the functional severity of the epicardial stenosis whereas iFR could potentially be influenced by not only epicardial stenosis but also other factors related to LV filling pressure or LV diastolic dysfunction. Further research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms that influence the evaluation of iFR in patients with elevated E/e'. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Kresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the results of portfolio optimization, we empirically demonstrated in our paper that this may not necessarily be true. On the historical dataset of DJIA components we empirically showed that both Sharpe ratio and MAD ratio outperformed Rachev ratio. However, for Rachev ratio we assumed only one level of parameters value. Different set-ups of parameters may provide different results and thus further analysis is certainly required.

  3. Poisson's ratio of fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansson, Henrik; Helsing, Johan

    1996-05-01

    Poisson's ratio flow diagrams, that is, the Poisson's ratio versus the fiber fraction, are obtained numerically for hexagonal arrays of elastic circular fibers in an elastic matrix. High numerical accuracy is achieved through the use of an interface integral equation method. Questions concerning fixed point theorems and the validity of existing asymptotic relations are investigated and partially resolved. Our findings for the transverse effective Poisson's ratio, together with earlier results for random systems by other authors, make it possible to formulate a general statement for Poisson's ratio flow diagrams: For composites with circular fibers and where the phase Poisson's ratios are equal to 1/3, the system with the lowest stiffness ratio has the highest Poisson's ratio. For other choices of the elastic moduli for the phases, no simple statement can be made.

  4. Striving for the unknown normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    During the last decade, more and more people have received prescriptions for ADHD drug treatment, and simultaneously the legitimacy of the ADHD diagnosis has been heavily debated among both professionals and laymen. Based on an anthropological fieldwork among adults with ADHD, I illustrate how...... the ADHD diagnosis both answers and produces existential questions on what counts as normal behaviour and emotions. The diagnosis helps the diagnosed to identify, accept and handle problems by offering concrete explanations and solutions to diffuse experienced problems. But the diagnostic process...... is not only a clarifying procedure with a straight plan for treatment and direct effects. It is also a messy affair. In a process of experimenting with drugs and attempting to determine how or whether the medication eliminates the correct symptoms the diagnosed is put in an introspective, self...

  5. IIH with normal CSF pressures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soh Youn Suh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a condition of raised intracranial pressure (ICP in the absence of space occupying lesions. ICP is usually measured by lumbar puncture and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure above 250 mm H 2 O is one of the diagnostic criteria of IIH. Recently, we have encountered two patients who complained of headaches and exhibited disc swelling without an increased ICP. We prescribed acetazolamide and followed both patients frequently; because of the definite disc swelling with IIH related symptoms. Symptoms and signs resolved in both patients after they started taking acetazolamide. It is generally known that an elevated ICP, as measured by lumbar puncture, is the most important diagnostic sign of IIH. However, these cases caution even when CSF pressure is within the normal range, that suspicion should be raised when a patient has papilledema with related symptoms, since untreated papilledema may cause progressive and irreversible visual loss.

  6. Generating a normalized geometric liver model with warping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boes, J.L.; Weymouth, T.E.; Meyer, C.R.; Quint, L.E.; Bland, P.H.; Bookstein, F.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the automated determination of the liver surface in abdominal CT scans for radiation treatment, surgery planning, and anatomic visualization. The normalized geometric model of the liver is generated by averaging registered outlines from a set of 15 studies of normal liver. The outlines have been registered with the use of thin-plate spline warping based on a set of five homologous landmarks. Thus, the model consists of an average of the surface and a set of five anatomic landmarks. The accuracy of the model is measured against both the set of studies used in model generation and an alternate set of 15 normal studies with use of, as an error measure, the ratio of nonoverlapping model and study volume to total model volume

  7. CT in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Katsuzo; Nogaki, Hidekazu; Noda, Masaya; Kusunoki, Tadaki; Tamaki, Norihiko

    1981-01-01

    CT scans were obtained on 33 patients (age 73y. to 31y.) with the diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus. In each case, the diagnosis was made on the basis of the symptoms, CT and cisternographic findings. Underlying diseases of normal pressure hydrocephalus are ruptured aneurysms (21 cases), arteriovenous malformations (2 cases), head trauma (1 case), cerebrovascular accidents (1 case) and idiopathie (8 cases). Sixteen of 33 patients showed marked improvement, five, moderate or minimal improvement, and twelve, no change. The results were compared with CT findings and clinical response to shunting. CT findings were classified into five types, bases on the degree of periventricular hypodensity (P.V.H.), the extent of brain damage by underlying diseases, and the degree of cortical atrophy. In 17 cases of type (I), CT shows the presence of P.V.H. with or without minimal frontal lobe damage and no cortical atrophy. The good surgical improvements were achieved in all cases of type (I) by shunting. In 4 cases of type (II), CT shows the presence of P.V.H. and severe brain damage without cortical atrophy. The fair clinical improvements were achieved in 2 cases (50%) by shunting. In one case of type (III), CT shows the absence of P.V.H. without brain damage nor cortical atrophy. No clinical improvement was obtained by shunting in this type. In 9 cases of type (IV) with mild cortical atrophy, the fair clinical improvement was achieved in two cases (22%) and no improvement in 7 cases. In 2 cases of type (V) with moderate or marked cortical atrophy, no clinical improvement was obtained by shunting. In conclusion, it appeared from the present study that there was a good correlation between the result of shunting and the type of CT, and clinical response to shunting operation might be predicted by classification of CT findings. (author)

  8. PENGARUH PERUBAHAN RETURN ON ASSETS, PERUBAHAN DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO DAN PERUBAHAN CASH RATIO TERHADAP PERUBAHAN DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Soesetio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Dividend Payout Ratio used to calculate all of revenue that will be accepted by stockholders as cash dividend, usually explained as percentage. This research was conducted to know several factors that affected change of Dividend Payout Ratio and to know the significance level and the correlation between dependent and independent variable. Analysis instrument used was parametric statistic. Based on the result of statistic test,  The Change of Return on Asset (X1, The Change of Debt to Equity Ratio (X2,  were able to explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio, and The Change of CashRatio can’t explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate concentrations and their ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Ming; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2013-05-01

    Determinations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF lactate:pyruvate (L/P) ratios are important in several clinical settings, yet published normative data have significant limitations. We sought to determine a large dataset of stringently-defined normative data for CSF lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF L/P ratios. We evaluated data from 627 patients who had determinations of CSF lactate and/or CSF pyruvate from 2001 to 2011 at the Cleveland Clinic. Inclusion in the normal reference population required normal CSF cell counts, glucose and protein and routine serum chemistries and absence of progressive brain disorder, epilepsy, or seizure within 24h. Brain MRI, if done, showed no evidence of tumor, acute changes or basal ganglia abnormality. CSF cytology, CSF alanine and immunoglobulin levels, and oligoclonal band analysis were required to be normal, if done. Various inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared. 92 patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria for a reference population. The 95% central intervals (2.5%-97.5%) for CSF lactate and pyruvate levels were 1.01-2.09mM and 0.03-0.15mM, respectively, and 9.05-26.37 for CSF L/P. There were no significant gender-related differences of CSF lactate or pyruvate concentrations or of CSF L/P. Weak positive correlations between the concentration of CSF lactate or pyruvate and age were noted. Using stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria, we determined normative data for CSF lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF L/P ratios in a large, well-characterized reference population. Normalcy of routine CSF and blood analytes are the most important parameters in determining reference intervals for CSF lactate and pyruvate. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaicher, Wibke; Brugger, Peter C.; Mittermayer, Christoph; Schwindt, Jens; Deutinger, Josef; Bernaschek, Gerhard; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaicher, Wibke [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: wibke.blaicher@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Schwindt, Jens [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Deutinger, Josef [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Bernaschek, Gerhard [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  12. Normalized GNSS Interference Pattern Technique for Altimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Ribot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that reflected signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS can be used for altimetry applications, such as monitoring of water levels and determining snow height. Due to the interference of these reflected signals and the motion of satellites in space, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR measured at the receiver slowly oscillates. The oscillation rate is proportional to the change in the propagation path difference between the direct and reflected signals, which depends on the satellite elevation angle. Assuming a known receiver position, it is possible to compute the distance between the antenna and the surface of reflection from the measured oscillation rate. This technique is usually known as the interference pattern technique (IPT. In this paper, we propose to normalize the measurements in order to derive an alternative model of the SNR variations. From this model, we define a maximum likelihood estimate of the antenna height that reduces the estimation time to a fraction of one period of the SNR variation. We also derive the Cramér–Rao lower bound for the IPT and use it to assess the sensitivity of different parameters to the estimation of the antenna height. Finally, we propose an experimental framework, and we use it to assess our approach with real GPS L1 C/A signals.

  13. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome and normal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background/aims: To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Methods: Interocular acuity differences and

  14. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background/aims: To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Methods: Interocular acuity

  15. An Intersection–Union Test for the Sharpe Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Frahm

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An intersection–union test for supporting the hypothesis that a given investment strategy is optimal among a set of alternatives is presented. It compares the Sharpe ratio of the benchmark with that of each other strategy. The intersection–union test takes serial dependence into account and does not presume that asset returns are multivariate normally distributed. An empirical study based on the G–7 countries demonstrates that it is hard to find significant results due to the lack of data, which confirms a general observation in empirical finance.

  16. Superconducting spin-triplet-MRAM with infinite magnetoresistance ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenk, Daniel; Ullrich, Aladin; Obermeier, Guenter; Mueller, Claus; Krug von Nidda, Hans-Albrecht; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); Morari, Roman [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); D. Ghitsu Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, Academiei Str. 3/3, MD2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Solid State Physics Department, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Zdravkov, Vladimir I. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); D. Ghitsu Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, Academiei Str. 3/3, MD2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Institute of Applied Physics and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Universitaet Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9A, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Sidorenko, Anatoli S. [D. Ghitsu Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, Academiei Str. 3/3, MD2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Tagirov, Lenar R. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); Solid State Physics Department, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    We fabricated a nanolayered hybrid superconductor-ferromagnet spin-valve structure, i.e. the superconducting transition temperature of this structure depends on its magnetic history. The observed spin-valve effect is based on the generation of the long range odd in frequency triplet component, arising from a non-collinear relative orientation of the constituent ferromagnetic layers. We investigated the effect both as a function of the sweep amplitude of the magnetic field, determining the magnetic history, and the applied transport current. Moreover, we demonstrate the possibility of switching the system from the normal o the superconducting state by applying field pulses, yielding an infinite magnetoresistance ratio.

  17. Sequential probability ratio controllers for safeguards radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.L.; Nixon, K.V.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential hypothesis tests applied to nuclear safeguards accounting methods make the methods more sensitive to detecting diversion. The sequential tests also improve transient signal detection in safeguards radiation monitors. This paper describes three microprocessor control units with sequential probability-ratio tests for detecting transient increases in radiation intensity. The control units are designed for three specific applications: low-intensity monitoring with Poisson probability ratios, higher intensity gamma-ray monitoring where fixed counting intervals are shortened by sequential testing, and monitoring moving traffic where the sequential technique responds to variable-duration signals. The fixed-interval controller shortens a customary 50-s monitoring time to an average of 18 s, making the monitoring delay less bothersome. The controller for monitoring moving vehicles benefits from the sequential technique by maintaining more than half its sensitivity when the normal passage speed doubles

  18. Deriving Light Interception and Biomass from Spectral Reflectance Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Goudriaan, J.

    1993-01-01

    was calculated as the ratio between infrared (790–810 nm) and red (640–660 nm) reflectance. The cultivars form a different canopy structure. However, a regression analysis did not show any cultivar effect on the relation between RVI and fPAR The predicted fPAR from frequently measured RVI was used to calculate...... the product of daily fPAR and incoming PAR (cumulative PAR interception) in all spring barley cultivars grown in monoculture and in mixture with oil seed rape (Brassica napus). A regression analysis showed that the relation between cumulative intercepted PAR and total above ground biomass was the same in all...... monocultures and mixtures. The ratio α of incremental dry matter and intercepted PAR was normally 2.4 g MJ−1, but it declined below this value when temperatures fell below 12°C....

  19. Strain ratio measurement of femoral cartilage by real-time elastosonography: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipek, Ali; Unal, Ozlem; Kartal, Merve Gulbiz; Arslan, Halil; Isik, Cetin; Bozkurt, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate strain ratio measurement of femoral cartilage using real-time elastosonography. Twenty-five patients with femoral cartilage pathology on MRI (study group) were prospectively compared with 25 subjects with normal findings on MRI (control group) using real-time elastosonography. Strain ratio measurements of pathologic and normal cartilage were performed and compared, both within the study group and between the two groups. Elastosonography colour-scale coding showed a colour change from blue to red in pathologic cartilage and only blue colour-coding in normal cartilage. In the study group, the median strain ratio was higher in pathologic cartilage areas compared to normal areas (median, 1.49 [interquartile range, 0.80-2.53] vs. median, 0.01 [interquartile range, 0.01-0.01], p < 0.001, respectively). The median strain ratio of the control group was 0.01 (interquartile range, 0.01-0.01), and there was no significant difference compared to normal areas of the study group. There was, however, a significant difference between the control group cartilage and pathologic cartilage of the study group (p < 0.001). Elastosonography may be an effective, easily accessible, and relatively simple tool to demonstrate pathologic cartilage and to differentiate it from normal cartilage in the absence of advanced imaging facility such as MRI. (orig.)

  20. Urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy Turkish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Ismail; Çelik, İlknur; Poyrazoglu, Hakan M; Köse, Kader; Tanrıkulu, Esen; Sahin, Habibe; Yılmaz, Kenan; Öztürk, Ahmet; Yel, Sibel; Gündüz, Zübeyde; Düşünsel, Ruhan

    2017-11-01

    we aimed to establish reference values for urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy children aged 6-15 years and to investigate the relationship between their nutritional habits and oxalate excretion. Random urine specimens from 953 healthy children aged 6-15 years were obtained and analyzed for oxalate and creatinine. Additionally, a 24-h dietary recall form was prepared and given to them. The ingredient composition of the diet was calculated. The children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (69 years, n = 353), Group II (10-12 years, n = 335), and Group III (13-15 years, n = 265). The 95th percentile of the oxalate to creatinine ratio for subjects aged 6-9, 10-12, and 13-15 years were 0.048, 0.042, and 0.042 mg/mg, respectively. The oxalate to creatinine ratio was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 and Group 3. Urinary oxalate excretion was positively correlated with increased protein intake and negatively correlated with age. A significant positive correlation was determined between urinary oxalate excretion and the proline, serine, protein, and glycine content of diet. Dietary proline intake showed a positive correlation with the urine oxalate to creatinine ratio and was found to be an independent predictor for urinary oxalate. These data lend support to the idea that every country should have its own normal reference values to determine the underlying metabolic risk factor for kidney stone disease since regional variation in the dietary intake of proteins and other nutrients can affect normal urinary excretion of oxalate.

  1. Discrimination of periodontal diseases using diffuse reflectance spectral intensity ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Sekhar, Prasanth; Betsy, Joseph; Presanthila, Janam; Subhash, Narayanan

    2012-02-01

    This clinical study was to demonstrate the applicability of diffuse reflectance (DR) intensity ratio R620/R575 in the quantification and discrimination of periodontitis and gingivitis from healthy gingiva. DR spectral measurements were carried out with white-light illumination from 70 healthy sites in 30 healthy volunteers, and 63 gingivitis- and 58 periodontitis-infected sites in 60 patients. Clinical parameters such as probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival index were recorded in patient population. Diagnostic accuracies for discrimination of gingivitis and periodontitis from healthy gingiva were determined by comparison of spectral signatures with clinical parameters. Divergence of average DR spectral intensity ratio between control and test groups was studied using analysis of variance. The mean DR spectrum on normalization at 620 nm showed marked differences between healthy tissue, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Hemoglobin concentration and apparent SO2 (oxygen saturation) were also calculated for healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites. DR spectral intensities at 545 and 575 nm showed a decreasing trend with progression of disease. Among the various DR intensity ratios studied, the R620/R575 ratio provided a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94% for discrimination of healthy tissues from gingivitis and a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 100% for discrimination of gingivitis from periodontitis.

  2. What is ''normal aging brain for his/her age'' ? The first report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kinomura, Shigeo; Goto, Ryoi

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the correlations between the gray matter volume, white matter volume and age, and determined normal aging brain for his/her age in every decade. We analyzed magnetic resonance images of the brain from 828 normal Japanese subjects. Significant negative correlation between the gray matter ratio (ratio of the gray matter volume in intracranial volume) and age was shown. From these results, we determined ''normal aging brain for his/her age'' and ''atrophied brain for his/her age'' in every decade. (author)

  3. Hubungan Analisis Ratio Keuangan dengan Kesehatan Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekarso Soekarso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the business world, companies develop a vision and mission to improve welfare in the future. The work program the company is to achieve productivity and profitability. Finance in the company is one of the strategic functions that includes wealth management and transformation of added value (added value and also the control of corporate health. The financial statements such as balance sheet (balance sheet, profit and loss statement (income statement, and financial ratio (financial ratios, reflects the company's performance and health. Financial ratio analysis relates to the health of the company through a ratio of effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, liquidity, and solvability. Analysis shows that whenever actual value of financial ratios is above standard it means the company is healthy, and when the actual value of financial ratios is below the standard, it reversely means that companies are not healthy.

  4. Combining Ratio Estimation for Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Saad; Hi, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    The Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Code decoding algorithm make use of a scaled receive signal derived from maximizing the log-likelihood ratio of the received signal. The scaling factor (often called the combining ratio) in an AWGN channel is a ratio between signal amplitude and noise variance. Accurately estimating this ratio has shown as much as 0.6 dB decoding performance gain. This presentation briefly describes three methods for estimating the combining ratio: a Pilot-Guided estimation method, a Blind estimation method, and a Simulation-Based Look-Up table. The Pilot Guided Estimation method has shown that the maximum likelihood estimates of signal amplitude is the mean inner product of the received sequence and the known sequence, the attached synchronization marker (ASM) , and signal variance is the difference of the mean of the squared received sequence and the square of the signal amplitude. This method has the advantage of simplicity at the expense of latency since several frames worth of ASMs. The Blind estimation method s maximum likelihood estimator is the average of the product of the received signal with the hyperbolic tangent of the product combining ratio and the received signal. The root of this equation can be determined by an iterative binary search between 0 and 1 after normalizing the received sequence. This method has the benefit of requiring one frame of data to estimate the combining ratio which is good for faster changing channels compared to the previous method, however it is computationally expensive. The final method uses a look-up table based on prior simulated results to determine signal amplitude and noise variance. In this method the received mean signal strength is controlled to a constant soft decision value. The magnitude of the deviation is averaged over a predetermined number of samples. This value is referenced in a look up table to determine the combining ratio that prior simulation associated with the average magnitude of

  5. The effectiveness of computer reminders versus postal reminders for improving quality assessment for point-of-care testing in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, Volkert; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Reventlow, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of electronic and postal reminders for increasing adherence to the quality assurance programme for the international normalized ratio (INR) point-of-care testing (POCT) device inprimary care. Methods: All 213...... family practices that use the Elective Laboratory of the Capital Region, Denmark, and regularly conduct INR POCT were randomly allocated into two similarly sized groups. During the 4-month intervention, these practices were sent either computer reminders (ComRem) or computer generated postal reminders...... (Postal) if they did not perform a split test to check the quality of their INR POCT for each calendar month. The adherence of the practices was tracked during the subsequent 8 months subdivided into two 4-month periods both without intervention. Outcomes were measures of split test procedure adherence...

  6. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  7. Digital Pupillometry in Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmann, Annekatrin; Waizel, Maria; Kazerounian, Sara; Szurman, Peter; Wilhelm, Helmut; Boden, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the pupil size of normal subjects at different illumination levels with a novel pupillometer. The pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with an infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH, Alsdorf, Germany) at five different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32, and 250 lux). Measurements were performed by the same investigator. Ninety images were executed during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm. This cross-sectional study analysed 490 eyes of 245 subjects (mean age: 51.9 ± 18.3 years, range: 6–87 years). On average, pupil diameter decreased with increasing light intensities for both eyes, with a mean pupil diameter of 5.39 ± 1.04 mm at 0 lux, 5.20 ± 1.00 mm at 0.5 lux, 4.70 ± 0.97 mm at 4 lux, 3.74 ± 0.78 mm at 32 lux, and 2.84 ± 0.50 mm at 250 lux illumination. Furthermore, it was found that anisocoria increased by 0.03 mm per life decade for all illumination levels (R2 = 0.43). Anisocoria was higher under scotopic and mesopic conditions. This study provides additional information to the current knowledge concerning age- and light-related pupil size and anisocoria as a baseline for future patient studies. PMID:28228832

  8. Normal modes of Bardeen discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdaguer, E.

    1983-01-01

    The short wavelength normal modes of self-gravitating rotating polytropic discs in the Bardeen approximation are studied. The discs' oscillations can be seen in terms of two types of modes: the p-modes whose driving forces are pressure forces and the r-modes driven by Coriolis forces. As a consequence of differential rotation coupling between the two takes place and some mixed modes appear, their properties can be studied under the assumption of weak coupling and it is seen that they avoid the crossing of the p- and r-modes. The short wavelength analysis provides a basis for the classification of the modes, which can be made by using the properties of their phase diagrams. The classification is applied to the large wavelength modes of differentially rotating discs with strong coupling and to a uniformly rotating sequence with no coupling, which have been calculated in previous papers. Many of the physical properties and qualitative features of these modes are revealed by the analysis. (author)

  9. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith Edward [Kobe, JP; Moser, William Elliott [Peoria, IL; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald [Washington, IL; Knox, Kevin Jay [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  10. Cy5 total protein normalization in Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Laurin, Ylva; Larsson, Anita; Bjerneld, Erik J; Rönn, Ola

    2015-10-01

    Western blotting is a widely used method for analyzing specific target proteins in complex protein samples. Housekeeping proteins are often used for normalization to correct for uneven sample loads, but these require careful validation since expression levels may vary with cell type and treatment. We present a new, more reliable method for normalization using Cy5-prelabeled total protein as a loading control. We used a prelabeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide ester labeling that produces a linear signal response. We obtained a low coefficient of variation (CV) of 7% between the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) target to Cy5 total protein control signals over the whole loading range from 2.5 to 20.0μg of Chinese hamster ovary cell lysate protein. Corresponding experiments using actin or tubulin as controls for normalization resulted in CVs of 13 and 18%, respectively. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not produce a proportional signal and was not suitable for normalization in these cells. A comparison of ERK1/2 signals from labeled and unlabeled samples showed that Cy5 prelabeling did not affect antibody binding. By using total protein normalization we analyzed PP2A and Smad2/3 levels with high confidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Defining the "normal" postejaculate urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Akanksha; Jarow, Jonathan P; Maples, Pat; Sigman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although sperm have been shown to be present in the postejaculate urinalysis (PEU) of both fertile and infertile men, the number of sperm present in the PEU of the general population has never been well defined. The objective of this study was to describe the semen and PEU findings in both the general and infertile population, in order to develop a better appreciation for "normal." Infertile men (n = 77) and control subjects (n = 71) were prospectively recruited. Exclusion criteria included azoospermia and medications known to affect ejaculation. All men underwent a history, physical examination, semen analysis, and PEU. The urine was split into 2 containers: PEU1, the initial voided urine, and PEU2, the remaining voided urine. Parametric statistical methods were applied for data analysis to compare sperm concentrations in each sample of semen and urine between the 2 groups of men. Controls had higher average semen volume (3.3 ± 1.6 vs 2.0 ± 1.4 mL, P sperm concentrations (112 million vs 56.2 million, P = .011), compared with infertile men. The presence of sperm in urine was common in both groups, but more prevalent among infertile men (98.7% vs 88.7%, P = .012), in whom it comprised a greater proportion of the total sperm count (46% vs 24%, P = .022). The majority of sperm present in PEU were seen in PEU1 of both controls (69%) and infertile men (88%). An association was noted between severe oligospermia (sperm counts in PEU (sperm in the urine compared with control, there is a large degree of overlap between the 2 populations, making it difficult to identify a specific threshold to define a positive test. Interpretation of a PEU should be directed by whether the number of sperm in the urine could affect subsequent management.

  12. Turbocharging Normalization in Highland Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Filippov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure many production processes are used compressors of various types, including turbochargers, which produce compressed air. The actual performance values of turbochargers used in highlands are significantly different from the certified values, and parameters of compressed air do not always guarantee the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.The paper presents research results of the turbochargers of 4CI 425MX4 type, a series of "CENTAC", manufactured by INGERSOL – RAND Company. The research has been conducted in industrial highland conditions in difficult climatic environment. There were almost no investigations of turbochargers running in highland conditions. The combination of low atmospheric pressure with high temperature of the intake air causes the abnormal operating conditions of a turbocharger. Only N. M. Barannikov in his paper shows the results of theoretical studies of such operating conditions, but as to the practical research, there is no information at all.To normalize the turbocharger operation an option of the mechanical pressurization in the suction pipe is adopted. As a result of theoretical research, a TurboMAX blower MAX500 was chosen as a supercharger. The next stage of theoretical research was to construct characteristics of the turbocharger 4CI 425MX4 with a mechanical supercharger in the suction pipe. The boost reduces to the minimum the time of using additional compressors when parameters of the intake air are changed and ensures the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.To verify the results of theoretical studies, namely, the technique for recalculation of the turbocharger characteristics under the real conditions of suction, were carried out the experimental researches. The average error between experimental and theoretical data is 2,9783 %, which confirms the validity of the technique used for reduction of the turbocharger characteristics to those under the real conditions of suction.

  13. Effect of anesthesia, positioning, time, and feeding on the proventriculus: keel ratio of clinically healthy parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Sophie E; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Yandell, Brian S; Adams, William M

    2010-01-01

    Healthy, adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were imaged on three occasions to determine the effects of anesthesia, patient rotation, feeding, and short/long-term temporal factors on the proventriculus:keel ratio. Increasing rotation up to 15 degrees from right lateral resulted in increased inability to measure the proventriculus in up to 44% of birds, meaning that the proventriculus:keel ratio could not be calculated from those radiographs. There was a significant difference between the proventriculus:keel ratio for individual parrots when quantified 3 weeks apart. Despite this difference, all ratios remained within normal limits. No significant effect was identified due to anesthesia, feeding, fasting, or repeated imaging through an 8-h period. Interobserver agreement for measurability and correlation for the proventriculus:keel ratio values was high. It is recommended that the proventriculus:keel ratio be calculated from anesthetized parrots to attain images in true lateral recumbency. Ratio fluctuations within the normal range between radiographs obtained on different dates may be observed in normal parrots.

  14. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth / For Teens / ... Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Print What Is Vaginal Discharge? Vaginal discharge is fluid that comes from ...

  15. Should Japan Become a Normal Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    This thesis evaluates Japanese geopolitical change in the post-Cold War era. It does so by analyzing Japan's history, its foreign policy since 1945, its reasons for becoming a normal country, and the impact of its normalization...

  16. Warfarin and Rivaroxaban Duplication: A Case Report and Medication Error Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Julie A; Paulus, Eric J; Shubat, Alexandra R; Miah, Sharminara

    2015-12-01

    A 62-year-old African American man received unintentional duplicate anticoagulation therapy with warfarin 5 mg and rivaroxaban 20 mg daily for the treatment of recurrent pulmonary embolism. The patient presented to the anticoagulation clinic 6 days after hospital discharge with an International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2.3 and he was instructed to continue warfarin 5 mg daily. Seven days later, he returned to the clinic with an INR >8.0 using a point-of-care device. He denied any signs or symptoms of bleeding. During the interview, he reported starting a new medication for neuropathy 5 days earlier. The clinical pharmacist contacted the dispensing pharmacy and determined rivaroxaban 20 mg was the new medication. The patient denied receiving new prescription counseling at the dispensing pharmacy. Because rivaroxaban can falsely elevate INR results, the actual INR value was unknown. To minimize the risk for recurrent venous thromboembolism, vitamin K was not administered and no warfarin doses were held. Rather, the patient was instructed to stop rivaroxaban and reduce the warfarin dose. Five days later, the patient returned with an INR of 4.3. He still had not experienced any signs or symptoms of bleeding. The patient was quickly stabilized on a warfarin maintenance dose of 22.5 mg weekly. The anticoagulation clinic pharmacist notified management at the clinic and at the dispensing pharmacy in an effort to identify process errors and prevent additional incidents.

  17. Effectiveness of a real-time clinical decision support system for computerized physician order entry of plasma orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Triulzi, Darrell J; Reddy, Vivek; Waters, Jonathan H

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of implementing adaptive plasma ordering criteria in the computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system, with alerts that were automatically generated if the recipient's antecedent international normalized ratio (INR) did not meet the institutional criteria. In a regional health care system consisting of 11 hospitals using a common CPOE, data on the number of plasma orders and alerts that were generated were collected over a 4-month period before prescribers were required to select an indication for plasma. When adaptive ordering was implemented prescribers had to choose from prepopulated indications for plasma: INR of 1.6 or greater with bleeding, INR of 1.6 or greater before an invasive procedure, therapeutic exchange, massive transfusion, and other. Regardless of the antecedent INR the alert did not trigger if massive transfusion or plasmapheresis was selected. Information on prescribers and recipients was collected during this 5-month period. In the 4-month period before the adaptive alerts were implemented, 42.9% of the plasma orders generated an alert; in the 5-month period thereafter the alert rate was significantly lower at 27.9% (p plasma orders were for periprocedure or bleeding patients whose antecedent INR was less than 1.6. There were significant differences in prescriber specialties among those who ordered plasma using the other indication compared to all plasma orders. Electronic interventions improve compliance with plasma guidelines but as implemented are not sufficient to completely curtail non-evidence-based ordering. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. Dental postoperative bleeding complications in patients with suspected and documented liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C H; Scobey, M W; Napenas, J J; Brennan, M T; Lockhart, P B

    2012-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of bleeding complications following dental procedures in patients with known or suspected chronic liver disease and whether international normalized ratio (INR) determination could aid in predicting bleeding complications in these patients. We identified 90 patients (mean age: 51 ± 9 years) in this retrospective chart review. Sixty-nine patients had a known history of chronic liver disease and 21 had suspected chronic liver disease. Descriptive statistics were determined. Independent sample t-test and one-way variance test were utilized for continuous variables and chi-square test for dichotomous variables. The mean INR value for all patients was 1.2 ± 0.3. The INR value was significantly associated with the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, the diagnoses of Hepatitis B and C together, the presence of ascites alone, and the number of clinical signs and symptoms (i.e. ascites, jaundice and encephalopathy) present. Nine patients with INR values between 1.5 and 2 underwent invasive dental procedures without postoperative bleeding complications. There were no episodes of postoperative bleeding in patients. The findings suggest that clinicians should not rely solely on an INR value to predict post-procedure bleeding in patients with liver disease. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Quality of anticoagulation management with warfarin among outpatients in a tertiary hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenta, Teferi Gedif; Assefa, Tamrat; Alemayehu, Bekele

    2017-06-06

    Warfarin is the most widely used anticoagulant in the world. The difficulty of managing warfarin contributes to great potential for patient harm, both from excessive anticoagulation and insufficient anticoagulation. This study assessed the International Normalized Ratio (INR) control outcome measures and warfarin dose adjustment practices at cardiology and hematology outpatient clinics at a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was based on a cross - sectional study design involving 360 retrospective patients' chart review among outpatients who received warfarin for its various indications. The mean frequency of INR monitoring per patient was 62.9 days (17.2-143.7 days). Patients spent 52.2%, 29.0% and 18.8% of the time in sub-therapeutic, therapeutic and supra-therapeutic ranges, respectively. The daily warfarin dose was increased 50.9% and 36.9% and decreased in 52.8% and 60.9% of the time for occurrences of sub-therapeutic and supra-therapeutic INRs to achieve target ranges of 2.0-3.0 and 2.5-3.5, respectively. The quality of anticoagulation management with warfarin among outpatients in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital was sub-optimal. This was reflected by low Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR), longer than recommended INR monitoring frequency, and minimal actions taken to adjust warfarin dose after occurrences of non-therapeutic INRs.

  20. Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in

  1. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio or the ratio of boys over girls at birth have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews, Johnson and Neil (2008) studied the direct evidence of individual pregnancies and

  2. The Golden Ratio--A Contrary Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Clement

    2005-01-01

    Many assertions about the occurrence of the golden ratio phi in art, architecture, and nature have been shown to be false, unsupported, or misleading. For instance, we show that the spirals found in sea shells, in particular the "Nautilus pompilius," are not in the shape of the golden ratio, as is often claimed. Some of the most interesting…

  3. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  4. Key financial ratios can foretell hospital closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, M L; Wertheim, P

    1993-11-01

    An analysis of various financial ratios sampled from open and closed hospitals shows that certain leverage, liquidity, capital efficiency, and resource availability ratios can predict hospital closure up to two years in advance of the closure with an accuracy of nearly 75 percent.

  5. Charge ratio of muons from atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, Todor

    2003-05-22

    We calculate the intensities and angular distributions of positive and negative muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos. We comment on some sources of uncertainty in the charge ratio. We also draw attention to a potentially interesting signature of neutrino oscillations in the muon charge ratio, and we discuss the prospects for its observation (which are not quite within the reach of currently planned magnetized detectors)

  6. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet

  7. Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)

  8. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...

  9. Vascular corrosion casting of normal and pre-eclamptic placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Geping; Chen, Ming; Li, Juan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Yang, Shujun; Li, Xiuyun; Yuan, Zheng; Wu, Aifang

    2017-12-01

    Pre-eclampsia is an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality that is associated with decreased placental perfusion. In the present study, vascular corrosion casting was used to investigate the differences in structural changes of the fetoplacental vasculature between normal and pre-eclamptic placentas. An improved epoxy resin vascular casting technique was used in the present study. Casting media were infused into 40 normal and 40 pre-eclamptic placentas through umbilical arteries and veins in order to construct three dimensional fetoplacental vasculatures. The number of branches, diameter, morphology and peripheral artery-to-vein ratio were measured for each specimen. The results indicated that the venous system of normal placentas was divided into 5-7 grades of branches and the volume of the vascular bed was 155.5±45.3 ml. In severe pre-eclamptic placentas, the volume was 106.4±36.1 ml, which was significantly lower compared with normal placentas (P<0.01). The venous system of pre-eclamptic placentas was divided into 4-5 grades of branches, which was much more sparse compared with normal placentas. In additions, the diameters of grade 1-3 veins and grade 2-3 arteries were significantly smaller in severe pre-eclampsia (P<0.05). In conclusion, pre-eclamptic placentas displayed a decreased volume of vascular bed, smaller diameters of grade 1-3 veins and grade 2-3 arteries, and an increased peripheral artery-to-vein ratio, which may be a cause of the placental dysfunction during severe pre-eclampsia.

  10. Bone/soft-tissue enrichment ratio in skeletal scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuschel, W.

    1982-01-01

    The thesis aimed at establishing normal values for the enrichment intensity of sup(99m)Tc-MDP above the sacrum (S) as reference point for spongy bones in relation to soft-tissue (ST) enrichment (S/St ratio). A normal range for S/ST was determined for five age groups which was given separately for males and females. In addition, the question was examined what causes there could be for S/ST exceeding, the norm or an increased F/ST ratio (F=femur centre) between bone and soft tissue. The question was studied whether or not beniguity or malignancy of a base disease has an important influence on F/ST values. Dependence of F/ST values from primary tumour localization and the tendency of metastatic spread in bones were investigated in malignoma patients. In addition, an assessment was made of what correlation existed, between the laboratory parameters measured, particularly alkaline phosphatase, and the F/ST values. The questions were examined what correlation existed between the F/ST values established and scintiscan findings; whether or not solitary radionuclide enrichments or multiple foci were found in the scintiscan; and what influence the number of foci had on the F/ST values. In tumour patients, the question examined what correlation existed between a tumour-specific treatment and the F/ST values. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Urinary pregnandiol-3-glucuronide and estrone conjugates to creatinine ratios in early pregnancies complicated by vaginal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, B J

    1986-10-01

    There is no simple and rapid test available to predict the outcome of an early pregnancy complicated by vaginal bleeding. In this prospective study, 15 women with normal pregnancies collected a weekly urine sample between 6 and 13 weeks' gestation. A single random urine sample was obtained from 15 women with bleeding who continued to carry their child and 50 women who proceeded to have a spontaneous abortion (SAB). Pregnandiol-3-glucuronide (PDG) was determined with the use of enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) and estrone conjugates (E1C) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The ratios of these metabolites to creatinine (C) were calculated. PDG/C ratios in normal women rose gradually from 6 weeks on. All women with bleeding during a normal pregnancy had ratios in the normal range, but 94% of women with a SAB had ratios below the normal range. The E1C/C ratio remained unchanged from 6 to 11 weeks and then rose rapidly. Until 11 weeks, there was no clear separation between the E1C/C ratios of the women with a SAB and the women with bleeding who continued their pregnancies. The prognosis of threatened abortion can be made by a urinary PDG/C ratio but not by an E1C/C ratio. EMIT is simple and quick and uses technology present in many laboratories.

  12. Geometrical scaling in charm structure function ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroun, G.R.; Rezaei, B.

    2014-01-01

    By using a Laplace-transform technique, we solve the next-to-leading-order master equation for charm production and derive a compact formula for the ratio R c =F L cc ¯ /F 2 cc ¯ , which is useful for extracting the charm structure function from the reduced charm cross section, in particular, at DESY HERA, at small x. Our results show that this ratio is independent of x at small x. In this method of determining the ratios, we apply geometrical scaling in charm production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Our analysis shows that the renormalization scales have a sizable impact on the ratio R c at high Q 2 . Our results for the ratio of the charm structure functions are in a good agreement with some phenomenological models

  13. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  14. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  15. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  16. Comparison of CSF Distribution between Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Ishikawa, M; Yamamoto, K

    2016-07-01

    CSF volumes in the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure are increased in both idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease, though the differences in these volumes in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease have not been well-described. Using CSF segmentation and volume quantification, we compared the distribution of CSF in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease. CSF volumes were extracted from T2-weighted 3D spin-echo sequences on 3T MR imaging and quantified semi-automatically. We compared the volumes and ratios of the ventricles and subarachnoid spaces after classification in 30 patients diagnosed with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, 10 with concurrent idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease, 18 with Alzheimer disease, and 26 control subjects 60 years of age or older. Brain to ventricle ratios at the anterior and posterior commissure levels and 3D volumetric convexity cistern to ventricle ratios were useful indices for the differential diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus or idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease from Alzheimer disease, similar to the z-Evans index and callosal angle. The most distinctive characteristics of the CSF distribution in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus were small convexity subarachnoid spaces and the large volume of the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure. The distribution of the subarachnoid spaces in the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease group was the most deformed among these 3 groups, though the mean ventricular volume of the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease group was intermediate between that of the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease groups. The z-axial expansion of the lateral ventricle and compression of the brain just above the ventricle were the common findings in the parameters for differentiating

  17. A note on totally normal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zougdani, H.K.

    1990-10-01

    In this note we give the necessary and sufficient condition for a topological space X such that the product space X x Y is totally normal for any (non discrete) metric space Y, and we show that a totally normal p-space need not be a perfectly normal in general, which makes Theorem 2 doubtful. (author). 6 refs

  18. Manufacturing technology for practical Josephson voltage normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlmann, Johannes; Kieler, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we present the manufacturing technology for the fabrication of integrated superconducting Josephson serial circuits for voltage normals. First we summarize some foundations for Josephson voltage normals and sketch the concept and the setup of the circuits, before we describe the manufacturing technology form modern practical Josephson voltage normals.

  19. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. MIKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 54—73% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111–115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.14–1.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.15–1.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.14–0.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 14–22 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;

  20. Neutron scattering by normal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennes, P.G. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Neutron data on motions in normal liquids well below critical point are reviewed and classified according to the order of magnitude of momentum transfers {Dirac_h}q and energy transfers {Dirac_h}w. For large momentum transfers a perfect gas model is valid. For smaller q and incoherent scattering, the major effects are related to the existence of two characteristic times: the period of oscillation of an atom in its cell, and the average lifetime of the atom in a definite cell. Various interpolation schemes covering both time scales are discussed. For coherent scattering and intermediate q, the energy spread is expected to show a minimum whenever q corresponds to a diffraction peak. For very small q the standard macroscopic description of density fluctuations is applicable. The limits of the various (q) and (w) domains and the validity of various approximations are discussed by a method of moments. The possibility of observing discrete transitions due to internal degrees of freedom in polyatomic molecules, in spite of the 'Doppler width' caused by translational motions, is also examined. (author) [French] L'auteur examine les donnees neutroniques sur les mouvements dans les liquides normaux, bien au-dessous du point critique, et les classe d'apres l'ordre de grandeur des transferts de quantite de mouvement {Dirac_h}q et des transferts d'energie {Dirac_h}w. Pour les grands transferts de, quantite de mouvement, un modele de gaz parfait est valable. En ce qui concerne les faibles valeurs de q et la diffussion incoherente, les principaux effets sont lies a l'existence de deux temps caracteristiques: la periode d'oscillation d'un atome dans sa cellule et la duree moyenne de vie de l'atome dans une cellule determinee. L'auteur etudie divers systemes d'interpolation se rapportant aux deux echelles de temps. Pour la diffusion coherente et les valeurs intermediaires de q, on presume que le spectre d'energie accuse un minimum chaque fois que q correspond a un pic de

  1. Normal distal pulmonary vein anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that the pulmonary veins (PVs, especially their myocardial sleeves play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Understanding the PV anatomy is crucial for the safety and efficacy of all procedures performed on PVs. The aim of this study was to present normal distal PV anatomy and to create a juxtaposition of all PV ostium variants.Methods. A total of 130 randomly selected autopsied adult human hearts (Caucasian were examined. The number of PVs ostia was evaluated and their diameter was measured. The ostium-to-last-tributary distance and macroscopic presence of myocardial sleeves were also evaluated.Results. Five hundred forty-one PV ostia were identified. Four classical PV ostia patterns (two left and two right PVs were observed in 70.8% of all cases. The most common variant was the classical pattern with additional middle right PV (19.2%, followed by the common ostium for the left superior and the inferior PVs (4.44%. Mean diameters of PV ostia (for the classical pattern were: left superior = 13.8 ± 2.9 mm; left inferior = 13.3 ± 3.4 mm; right superior = 14.3 ± 2.9 mm; right inferior = 13.7 ± 3.3 mm. When present, the additional middle right PV ostium had the smallest PV ostium diameter in the heart (8.2 ± 4.1 mm. The mean ostium-to-last-tributary (closest to the atrium distances were: left superior = 15.1 ± 4.6 mm; left inferior = 13.5 ± 4.0 mm; right superior = 11.8 ± 4.0 mm; right inferior = 11.0 ± 3.7 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes in ostia diameters and ostium-to-last-tributary distances.Conclusion. Only 71% of the cases have four standard pulmonary veins. The middle right pulmonary vein is present in almost 20% of patients. Presented data can provide useful information for the clinicians during interventional procedures or radiologic examinations of PVs.

  2. Three- versus four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for the reversal of warfarin-induced bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Tara; Taylor, Scott; Abraham, Prasad; Mcmillian, Wesley; Harris, Serena; Curtis, James; Elder, Tai

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 3-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (3F-PCC) compared to 4-factor PCC (4F-PCC) in warfarin-associated bleeding. Methods: This multicenter, retrospective, cohort study analyzed data from patients admitted between May 2011 and October 2014 who received PCC for warfarin-associated bleeding. The primary outcome was the rate of international normalized ratio (INR) normalization, defined as an INR ≤1.3, after administration of 3F-PCC compared to 4F-PCC. Other variables of interest included the incidence of additional reversal agents, new thromboembolic events, and mortality. Results: A total of 134 patients were included in the analysis. The average dose of PCC administered was 24.6 ± 9.3 units/kg versus 36.3 ± 12.8 units/kg in the 3F-PCC and 4F-PCC groups, respectively, P < 0.001. Baseline INR in the 3F-PCC and 4F-PCC groups was 3.61 ± 2.3 and 6.87 ± 2.3, respectively P < 0.001. 4F-PCC had a higher rate of INR normalization at first INR check post-PCC administration compared to 3F-PCC (84.2% vs. 51.9%, P = 0.0001). Thromboembolic events, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and mortality were similar among both groups. Conclusion: The use of 4F-PCC leads to a more significant reduction in INR compared to 3F-PCC though no difference in mortality or length of stay was observed. Thromboembolism rates were similar among both groups. PMID:29619338

  3. Normal SPECT thallium-201 bull's-eye display: gender differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, R.L.; Tamas, M.J.; Cloninger, K.

    1988-01-01

    The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the 201 TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images requires gender-matched normal files

  4. Approach to normalization of the secondary circuit water chemistry of NPP with WWER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamet, V.A.; Erpyleva, S.F.; Banyuk, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    The approach to normalization if indices of water-chemical regime of the secondary circuit of the NPP with WWER-1000 reactor, based on pH calculational values at the coolant working temperature in dependence on the normalized admixtures concentration is considered. The possibility for conducting the water regime of steam generators by the ratio of sodium concentration and electrical conductivity of H-cation sample of blow-through water is shown. The limitations (os action level) by deviation of normalized indices from recommended ones for normal operational conditions are described

  5. Computer tomography (CT) finding of normal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chi Ja; Kim, Byung Tae; Lee, Jeung Suk

    1983-01-01

    Conventional radiology of the pancreas are too often unsatisfactory. It is well known that the whole body CT is very useful in identifying retroperitoneal pathology. The authors intended to present normal pancreatic morphology and data for preparation of basis for interpretation of abnormalities. We results were as follows; 1. There were 36 male and 24 female patients, and their ages ranged from 7 to 78 years. 2. 1) The organs adjacent pancreas were stomach, inferior vena cava, duodenum, caudate lobe of the liver left kidney, left adrenal gland, superior mesenteric vessels, spleen. 2) In 19 patients, pancreatic tail at the level of left kidney in the transverse plane, it was either ventral in 13 (68%), ventromedial in 2 (19%), ventrolateral in 4 (21%) to left kidney, in the other 41 patients, it was cranial to the upper pole of left kidney, ventral in 25 (61%), ventromedial in 1 (2%), ventrolateral in 15 (37%). 3) Pancreatic tail was cranial to the pancreatic body, 3 cm cranial in 2 (4%), 2-3 cm in 5 (8%), 1-2 cm in 6 (10%), less than 1 cm in 11 (18%). In the other, caudal in 3 (5%). 4) Pancreatic tail was cranial to the level of the splenic hilum in 36 (60%), 0-2 cm caudal in 24 (40%). 3. Pancreatic shape was uniform tapering form in 37 (62%), lobulated form in 23 (38%). 4. Pancreatic orientation was horizontal in 13 (22%), vertical 56 (76%), S-shaped in 1 (2%). 5. Pancreatic margin was smooth in 22 (37%), lobulated in 38 (63%). 6. In most patients, pancreas was uniform in density. 7. Pancreatic size was 0.5 ± 0.1 in measurement ratio of the head in 48 (80%), 0.4 ± 0.1 of the body in 49 (88%), 0.5 ± 0.1 of the tail in 47 (78%)

  6. Platelet cyclooxygenase expression in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, J; Lunsford, K; Mullins, K; Stokes, J; Pinchuk, L; Wills, R; McLaughlin, R; Langston, C; Pruett, S; Mackin, A

    2011-01-01

    Human platelets express both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Variation in COX-2 expression could be a mechanism for variable response to aspirin. The hypotheses were that circulating canine platelets express COX-1 and COX-2, and that aspirin alters COX expression. The objective was to identify changes in platelet COX expression and in platelet function caused by aspirin administration to dogs. Eight female, intact hounds. A single population, repeated measures design was used to evaluate platelet COX-1 and COX-2 expression by flow cytometry before and after aspirin (10 mg/kg Q12h for 10 days). Platelet function was analyzed via PFA-100(®) (collagen/epinephrine), and urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) (11-dTXB(2)) was measured and normalized to urinary creatinine. Differences in COX expression, PFA-100(®) closure times, and urine 11-dTXB(2 ): creatinine ratio were analyzed before and after aspirin administration. Both COX-1 and COX-2 were expressed in canine platelets. COX-1 mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) increased in all dogs, by 250% (range 63-476%), while COX-2 expression did not change significantly (P = 0.124) after aspirin exposure, with large interindividual variation. PFA-100(®) closure times were prolonged and urine 11-dTXB(2) concentration decreased in all dogs after aspirin administration. Canine platelets express both COX isoforms. After aspirin exposure, COX-1 expression increased despite impairment of platelet function, while COX-2 expression varied markedly among dogs. Variability in platelet COX-2 expression should be explored as a potential mechanism for, or marker of, variable aspirin responsiveness. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Vascular factors in suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerskov, Simon; Rabiei, Katrin; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Guo, Xinxin; Kern, Silke; Wikkelsø, Carsten; Skoog, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We examined clinical and imaging findings of suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in relation to vascular risk factors and white matter lesions (WMLs), using a nested case-control design in a representative, population-based sample. Methods: From a population-based sample, 1,235 persons aged 70 years or older were examined with CT of the brain between 1986 and 2000. We identified 55 persons with hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement, i.e., radiologic findings consistent with iNPH. Among these, 26 had clinical signs that fulfilled international guideline criteria for probable iNPH. These cases were labeled suspected iNPH. Each case was matched to 5 controls from the same sample, based on age, sex, and study cohort. Data on risk factors were obtained from clinical examinations and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, overweight, history of coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, and WMLs on CT were examined. Risk factors associated with iNPH with a p value <0.1 in χ2 tests were included in conditional logistic regression models. Results: In the regression analyses, suspected iNPH was related to moderate to severe WMLs (odds ratio [OR] 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–17.6), while hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement was related to hypertension (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.8), moderate to severe WMLs (OR 6.5; 95% CI: 2.1–20.3), and DM (OR 4.3; 95% CI: 1.1–16.3). Conclusions: Hypertension, WMLs, and DM were related to clinical and imaging features of iNPH, suggesting that vascular mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology. These findings might have implications for understanding disease mechanisms in iNPH and possibly prevention. PMID:26773072

  8. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  9. Quantification of pulmonary thallium-201 activity after upright exercise in normal persons: importance of peak heart rate and propranolol usage in defining normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-nine normal patients (34 angiographically normal and 25 clinically normal by Bayesian analysis) underwent thallium-201 imaging after maximal upright exercise. Lung activity was quantitated relative to myocardial activity and a lung/myocardial activity ratio was determined for each patient. Stepwise regression analysis was then used to examine the influence of patient clinical characteristics and exercise variables on the lung/myocardium ratio. Peak heart rate during exercise and propranolol usage both showed significant negative regression coefficients (p less than 0.001). No other patient data showed a significant relation. Using the regression equation and the estimated variance, a 95% confidence level upper limit of normal could be determined for a give peak heart rate and propranolol status. Sixty-one other patients were studied to validate the predicted upper limits of normal based on this model. None of the 27 patients without coronary artery disease had an elevated lung/myocardial ratio, compared with 1 of 8 with 1-vessel disease (difference not significant), 6 of 14 with 2-vessel disease (p less than 0.005), and 6 of 12 with 3-vessel disease (p less than 0.0001). Thus, lung activity on upright exercise thallium-201 studies can be quantitated relative to myocardial activity, and is inversely related to peak heart rate and propranolol use. Use of a regression analysis allows determination of a 95% confidence upper limit of normal to be anticipated in an individual patient

  10. MR guided spatial normalization of SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, B.; Barnden, L.R.; Kwiatek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In SPECT population studies where magnetic resonance (MR) scans are also available, the higher resolution of the MR scans allows for an improved spatial normalization of the SPECT scans. In this approach, the SPECT images are first coregistered to their corresponding MR images by a linear (affine) transformation which is calculated using SPM's mutual information maximization algorithm. Non-linear spatial normalization maps are then computed either directly from the MR scans using SPM's built in spatial normalization algorithm, or, from segmented TI MR images using DARTEL, an advanced diffeomorphism based spatial normalization algorithm. We compare these MR based methods to standard SPECT based spatial normalization for a population of 27 fibromyalgia patients and 25 healthy controls with spin echo T 1 scans. We identify significant perfusion deficits in prefrontal white matter in FM patients, with the DARTEL based spatial normalization procedure yielding stronger statistics than the standard SPECT based spatial normalization. (author)

  11. Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.

  12. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  13. Transcription and the aspect ratio of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    analysis of transcription. It is shown that under certain reasonable assumptions transcription is only possible if the aspect ratio is in the regime corresponding to further twisting. We find this constraint to be in agreement with long-established crystallographic studies of DNA.......Two separate regimes exist for the aspect ratio of DNA. A low aspect regime where DNA will twist further under strain and a high aspect regime where DNA will untwist under strain. The question of the overall geometry, i.e. the aspect ratio, of DNA is revisited from the perspective of a geometrical...

  14. Financial Ratios and Perceived Household Financial Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Garrett

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the relative strength of three objective measures of financial health (using the solvency, liquidity, and investment asset ratio in predicting a household’s subjective feeling of current financial satisfaction. Using a sample of 6,923 respondents in the 2008 Health and Retirement Study this paper presents evidence of two main findings: 1 the solvency ratio is most strongly associated with financial satisfaction levels based on a cross-sectional design and 2 changes in the investment asset ratio are most strongly associated with changes in financial satisfaction over time.

  15. Evaluation for moments of a ratio with application to regression estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Doukhan, Paul; Lang, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Ratios of random variables often appear in probability and statistical applications. We aim to approximate the moments of such ratios under several dependence assumptions. Extending the ideas in Collomb [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 285 (1977) 289–292], we propose sharper bounds for the moments of randomly weighted sums and for the Lp-deviations from the asymptotic normal law when the central limit theorem holds. We indicate suitable applications in finance and censored data analysis and focus on t...

  16. Tests and Confidence Intervals for an Extended Variance Component Using the Modified Likelihood Ratio Statistic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Frydenberg, Morten; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2005-01-01

    The large deviation modified likelihood ratio statistic is studied for testing a variance component equal to a specified value. Formulas are presented in the general balanced case, whereas in the unbalanced case only the one-way random effects model is studied. Simulation studies are presented......, showing that the normal approximation to the large deviation modified likelihood ratio statistic gives confidence intervals for variance components with coverage probabilities very close to the nominal confidence coefficient....

  17. Serum Thyroxine to Thyroxine-Binding Globulin Ratio in Pregnancy and Newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Yeul

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the ratio of serum thyroxine(T 4 ) /thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) for the thyroid status in pregnancy and newborn serum thyroxine, TBG, triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine levels were radioimmunoassayed in normal pregnant women at each of the trimesters, and the calculated serum T 4 /TBG ratios were compared with other parameters such as T 3 /TBG ratio and free T 4 /TBG ratio and free T 4 /TBG ratio. Serum T 4 levels were elevated with the proportionate increase in TBG levels during pregnancy, leading to the nearly constant value of serum T 4 /TBG ratios as in normal non-pregnant controls. In contrast, serum T 3 /TBG and free T 4 /TBG ratios varied considerably during pregnancy. In newborn, T 4 levels were nearly not changed with compared non-pregnant control value and TBG levels were elevated. The results indicate that serum T 4 /TBG ratio is a better parameter than others in evaluating the thyroid status during pregnancy and but newborn is a no better.

  18. Radionuclide stroke count ratios for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, M.D.; Graham, T.P. Jr.; Born, M.L.; Jones, J.P.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Artman, M.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of left ventricular to right ventricular stroke counts measured by radionuclide angiography has been used in adults to estimate the severity of left-sided valvular regurgitation. The validation of this technique in children for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload is reported herein. Radionuclide stroke count ratios in 60 children aged 0.5 to 19 years (mean 11) were determined. Based on their diagnoses, the patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) normal--40 patients with no shunts or valvular regurgitation, (2) left ventricular volume overload--13 patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation, or both, and (3) right ventricular volume overload--7 patients, 2 with severe tricuspid regurgitation, 3 with atrial septal defects, and 2 with total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. The radionuclide stroke count ratio clearly differentiated these groups (p less than 0.05): normal patients had a stroke count ratio of 1.04 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- 1 standard deviation), the left ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 2.43 +/- 0.86, and the right ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 0.44 +/- 0.17. In 22 of our 60 patients, radionuclide stroke count ratios were compared with cineangiographic stroke volume ratios, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.88. It is concluded that radionuclide ventriculography is an excellent tool for qualitative and quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation in children

  19. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    instances of curious sex ratios exemplify an important principle: the fitness ..... markable transition - the whole means of sex determination has changed. No longer ... to the cytoplasmic symbiont is self-evident; the symbionts simply increase the.

  20. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  1. Anomalous Enantiomer Ratios in Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G.; Sant, M.; Asiyo, C.

    2009-03-01

    The enantiomer (mirror-image) ratios of sugar acids in carbonaceous meteorites have been measured. D-enantiomer excesses are found in all acids measured thus far. This includes rare as well as common compounds.

  2. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  3. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... between preoperatively measured neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an inflammation ... analgesic (tenoxicam – as the first drug of choice, paracetamol, tramadol, or pethidine) usage ... fracture fixation). Age, sex, type of ...

  4. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...

  5. Temperature diagnostic line ratios of Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.C.; Smith, B.W.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1986-01-01

    Based on extensive calculations of the excitation rates of Fe XVII, four temperature-sensitive line ratios are investigated, paying special attention to the contribution of resonances to the excitation rates and to the contributions of dielectronic recombination satellites to the observed line intensities. The predictions are compared to FPCS observations of Puppis A and to Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and SOLEX observations of the sun. Temperature-sensitive line ratios are also computed for emitting gas covering a broad temperature range. It is found that each ratio yields a differently weighted average for the temperature and that this accounts for some apparent discrepancies between the theoretical ratios and solar observations. The effects of this weighting on the Fe XVII temperature diagnostics and on the analogous Fe XXIV/Fe XXV satellite line temperature diagnostics are discussed. 27 references

  6. Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)

  7. Isotopic ratios in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This colloquium is aimed at presentation of isotope ratio measurements in different objects of solar system and surrounding interstellar space and evaluation of what information on composition and structure of primitive solar nebula and on chemical evolution of interstellar space in this part of the galaxy can be deduced from it. Isotope ratio in solar system got from laboratory study of extraterrestrial materials is a subject of this colloquium. Then isotope ratio measured in solar wind, planets and comets. Measurements either are made in-situ by mass spectrometry of ions in solar wind or planetery atmosphere gases either are remote measurements of spectra emitted by giant planets and comets. At last, planetology and astrophysics implications are presented and reviewed. Consraints for solar system formation model can be deduced from isotope ratio measurement. Particularly, isotope anomalies are marks of the processes, which have influenced the primitive solar nebula contraction [fr

  8. From Fibonacci Sequence to the Golden Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fiorenza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well-known characterization of the Golden ratio as limit of the ratio of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, and we give an explanation of this property in the framework of the Difference Equations Theory. We show that the Golden ratio coincides with this limit not because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of the characteristic polynomial, but, from a more general point of view, because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of a restricted set of roots, which in this special case coincides with the two roots of the characteristic polynomial. This new perspective is the heart of the characterization of the limit of ratio of consecutive terms of all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients, without any assumption on the roots of the characteristic polynomial, which may be, in particular, also complex and not real.

  9. Determining sex ratios of turtle hatchlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Previous status assessments of marine turtles have assumed that the natural sex ratio of a marine turtle population is 1:1 (e.g. Conant et al. 2009). However, this...

  10. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  11. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Page, Lionel

    2009-11-25

    Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  12. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Coates

    Full Text Available Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D, which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  13. Lyplal1 is dispensable for normal fat deposition in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Watson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have detected association between variants in or near the Lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1 locus and metabolic traits, including central obesity, fatty liver and waist-to-hip ratio. LYPLAL1 is also known to be upregulated in the adipose tissue of obese patients. However, the physiological role of LYPLAL1 is not understood. To investigate the function of Lyplal1 in vivo we investigated the phenotype of the Lyplal1tm1a(KOMPWtsi homozygous mouse. Body composition was unaltered in Lyplal1 knockout mice as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scanning, both on normal chow and on a high-fat diet. Adipose tissue distribution between visceral and subcutaneous fat depots was unaltered, with no change in adipocyte cell size. The response to both insulin and glucose dosing was normal in Lyplal1tm1a(KOMPWtsi homozygous mice, with normal fasting blood glucose concentrations. RNAseq analysis of liver, muscle and adipose tissue confirmed that Lyplal1 expression was ablated with minimal additional changes in gene expression. These results suggest that Lyplal1 is dispensable for normal mouse metabolic physiology and that despite having been maintained through evolution Lyplal1 is not an essential gene, suggesting possible functional redundancy. Further studies will be required to clarify its physiological role.

  14. Acoustic wave spread in superconducting-normal-superconducting sandwich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushadze, G.I.

    2004-01-01

    The acoustic wave spread, perpendicular to the boundaries between superconducting and normal metals in superconducting-normal-superconducting (SNS) sandwich has been considered. The alternate current flow sound induced by the Green function method has been found and the coefficient of the acoustic wave transmission through the junction γ=(S 1 -S 2 )/S 1 , (where S 1 and S 2 are average energy flows formed on the first and second boundaries) as a function of the phase difference between superconductors has been investigated. It is shown that while the SNS sandwich is almost transparent for acoustic waves (γ 0 /τ), n=0,1,2, ... (where τ 0 /τ is the ratio of the broadening of the quasiparticle energy levels in impurity normal metal as a result of scattering of the carriers by impurities 1/τ to the spacing between energy levels 1/τ 0 ), γ=2, (S 2 =-S 1 ), which corresponds to the full reflection of the acoustic wave from SNS sandwich. This result is valid for the limit of a pure normal metal but in the main impurity case there are two amplification and reflection regions for acoustic waves. The result obtained shows promise for the SNS sandwich as an ideal mirror for acoustic wave reflection

  15. Optical Observations of X-ray Bright, Optically Normal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, Alberto C.; Aryan, N. S.; Ghosh, K. K.

    2007-05-01

    X-ray bright, optically normal galaxies (XBONGs) are galaxies that seem to have normal spectra and morphology, but are relatively bright x-ray sources. The large ratio of the x-ray to optical emission suggests that some activity, similar to that of active galactic nuclei (AGN), is occurring. Since the galaxies do not show any obvious sign of nuclear activity in their optical spectra, one possible explanation is that these galaxies do not have an optically thick accretion disk at small radii, as previously assumed. Previous data for NGC 7626 classifies it as an XBONG, and so we are studying optical features of this galaxy in order to determine better its features. After confirming an x-ray jet, we are now comparing this to optical features that we have found, including warped dust lanes and a possible optical jet.

  16. Premixed Flames Under Microgravity and Normal Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikunova, Anastasia I.; Son, Eduard E.

    2018-03-01

    Premixed conical CH4-air flames were studied experimentally and numerically under normal straight, reversed gravity conditions and microgravity. Low-gravity experiments were performed in Drop tower. Classical Bunsen-type burner was used to find out features of gravity influence on the combustion processes. Mixture equivalence ratio was varied from 0.8 to 1.3. Wide range of flow velocity allows to study both laminar and weakly turbulized flames. High-speed flame chemoluminescence video-recording was used as diagnostic. The investigations were performed at atmospheric pressure. As results normalized flame height, laminar flame speed were measured, also features of flame instabilities were shown. Low- and high-frequency flame-instabilities (oscillations) have a various nature as velocity fluctuations, preferential diffusion instability, hydrodynamic and Rayleigh-Taylor ones etc., that was explored and demonstrated.

  17. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent Bicep2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid of from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequencies...

  18. INFLUENCE OF SCALE RATIO, ASPECT RATIO, AND PLANFORM ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUPERCAVITATING HYDROFOILS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. No appreciable scale effect was found for scale ratios up to 3 in the fully-cavitating flow region. The...overall performance of the hydrofoil by increasing the aspect ratio above 3, and (2) moderate taper ratio seems to be advantageous in view of the overall performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. (Author)

  19. Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werder, Gabriel M.; Razdan, Rahul S.; Gagliardi, Joseph A.; Chaddha, Shashi K.B.

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze

  20. Functional evaluation of transplanted kidneys in normal function and acute rejection using BOLD MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wenbo; Xu Jingjing; Wang Qindong; Xu Ying; Zhang Minming

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated a large number of subjects using BOLD MRI to provide more information about oxygen metabolism in the normal function of transplanted kidneys and to distinguish acute graft rejection from normal function kidneys. This study included 122 subjects (20 volunteers, 72 patients with normal functioning transplants, and 21 patients with acute rejection), and 9 patients had normal function grafts received examination while grafts dysfunction occurred within 6 months during the follow-up. The R2* (1/s) values in the cortex and medulla as well as the R2* ratio of the medulla to cortex (R2* ratio of M/C) were recorded. The R2* values of the medulla were higher than those of the cortex in the normal function group and the volunteers which have a steep R2* ratio of M/C. All the R2* values in the acute rejection group were lower than those in the normal function grafts group (P 1.1) is an important reason for keeping clinical normal function.

  1. Risk for COPD with Obstruction of Active Smokers with Normal Spirometry and Reduced Diffusion Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, Robert J.; Sanders, Abraham; Vincent, Thomas L.; Mezey, Jason G.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokers are assessed for COPD using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusion capacity (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these “normal spirometry/low DLCO” smokers is unknown. Methods From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, CBC, urinalysis, HIV status, α1-antitrypsin level, chest X-ray, FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity (TLC). Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers. Findings In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45 ± 20 months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41 ± 31 months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD. Interpretation Despite appearing “normal” by GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk for developing COPD with obstruction to airflow. PMID:26541521

  2. Correlated random sampling for multivariate normal and log-normal distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žerovnik, Gašper; Trkov, Andrej; Kodeli, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for correlated random sampling is presented. Representative samples for multivariate normal or log-normal distribution can be produced. Furthermore, any combination of normally and log-normally distributed correlated variables may be sampled to any requested accuracy. Possible applications of the method include sampling of resonance parameters which are used for reactor calculations.

  3. Normal form theory and spectral sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Jan A.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of unique normal form is formulated in terms of a spectral sequence. As an illustration of this technique some results of Baider and Churchill concerning the normal form of the anharmonic oscillator are reproduced. The aim of this paper is to show that spectral sequences give us a natural framework in which to formulate normal form theory. © 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  4. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra I Djomehri

    Full Text Available Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca to phosphorus (P and Ca to zinc (Zn elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095 mg/cc, bone: 570-1415 mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340 mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590 mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220 mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450 mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740 mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770 mg/cc. A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49, hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46, cementum (1.51, and bone (1.68 were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765 and in cementum (595-990, highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.

  5. Mineral Density Volume Gradients in Normal and Diseased Human Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations. PMID:25856386

  6. Analysis of the influence factors on myocardium to liver ratio of 99Tcm-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinming; Tian Jiahe; Zhao Xiaoguang; Liu Zilai; Wang Shengcai

    1995-01-01

    The resting myocardial SPECT by different MIBI kits for 113 cases of normal and ischemic heart disease is performed. The preparation of kits, reducing agents, and the time of imaging are checked using myocardium to liver (M/L) ratio as the parameter of myocardium uptake of MIBI. It shows that MIBI uptake of myocardium has no relation with the reducing agents, the time of imaging between 60-120 min, while M/L ratio varied in every individual case. The ratio of M/L has also no relation to the Radiochemical Purity (RCP) as long as RCP is more than 95%

  7. Optimization study of normal conductor tokamak for commercial neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; Sakai, R.; Okamoto, A.

    2017-05-01

    The optimum conceptual design of tokamak with normal conductor coils was studied for minimizing the cost for producing a given neutron flux by using a system code, PEC. It is assumed that the fusion neutrons are used for burning transuranics from the fission reactor spent fuel in the blanket and a fraction of the generated electric power is circulated to opearate the tokamak with moderate plasma fusion gain. The plasma performance was assumed to be moderate ones; {β\\text{N}}~∼ ~3{--}4 in the aspect ratio A~=~2{--}3 and {{H}98y2}~=~1 . The circulating power is an important factor affecting the cost. Though decreasing the aspect ratio is useful to raise the plasma beta and decrease the toroidal field, the maximum field in the coil starts to rise in the very low aspect ratio range and then the circulating power increases with decrease in the plasma aspect ratio A below A~∼ ~2 , while the construction cost increases with A . As a result, the cost per neutron has its minimum around A~∼ ~2.2 , namely, between ST and the conventional tokamak. The average circulating power fraction is expected to be ~51%.

  8. Denotational Aspects of Untyped Normalization by Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Andrzej; Rohde, Henning Korsholm

    2005-01-01

    of soundness (the output term, if any, is in normal form and ß-equivalent to the input term); identification (ß-equivalent terms are mapped to the same result); and completeness (the function is defined for all terms that do have normal forms). We also show how the semantic construction enables a simple yet...... formal correctness proof for the normalization algorithm, expressed as a functional program in an ML-like, call-by-value language. Finally, we generalize the construction to produce an infinitary variant of normal forms, namely Böhm trees. We show that the three-part characterization of correctness...

  9. Ultrasonographic features of normal lower ureters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soon; Bae, M. Y.; Park, K. J.; Jeon, H. S.; Lee, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Although ultrasonographic evaluation of the normal ureters is difficult due to bowel gas, the lower segment of the normal ureters can be visualized using the urinary bladder as an acoustic window. Authors prospetively performed ultrasonography with the standard suprapubic technique and analyzed the ultrasonographic features of normal lower ureters in 79 cases(77%). Length of visualized segment of the distal ureter ranged frp, 1.5cm to 7.2 cm and the visualized segment did not exceed 3.9mm in maximum diameter. Knowledge of sonographic features of the normal lower ureters can be helpful in the evaluation of pathologic or suspected pathologic conditions of the lower ureters

  10. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  11. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  12. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  13. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  14. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  15. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  16. The twenty-four/four hour ratio (T/F ratio) of Tc-99m MDP uptake in patients with bone metastases and degenerative changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, O.; Kleinhaus, U.; Keren, R.; Frankel, A.; Front, D.

    1984-01-01

    Normal and metastatic bone differ in their histological structure. Normal bone is mainly lamellar while metastatic bone formation is made in a large part out of new woven bone. The woven bone has a much larger surface area than the more stable lamellar bone and it is lined with metabolically active osteoblasts. The crystalline structures in the woven bone are smaller and have a larger surface area available for absorption. Uptake of bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals continues in new woven bone longer than in the lamellar bone. Bone scintigraphy was performed in 89 patients at four hours and 24 hours using a digital camera. The lesion to non lesion (L/N) ratio was determined using the camera computer. The T/F ratio was calculated: T/F=((L/N)-24)/((L/N)-4). Three groups were investigated. In 15 patients with metastatic bone carcinoma, T/F ratio was 1.46 +- 0.4. In 47 patients with degenerative joint disease the T/F ratio was 1.05 +- 0.06. In 27 patients with treated metastatic bone carcinoma the T/F ratio was 1.12 +- 0.13. The T/F ratio is significantly (p<0.001) different in patients with metastases compared to patients with benign degenerative disease. Chemotherapeutic and hormonal treatment cause significant (p<0.001) reduction in the T/F ratio. The T/F ratio may have a potential in differentiating degenerative from neoplastic diseases and in the evaluation of patients with bone metastases undergoing treatment

  17. The interblink interval in normal and dry eye subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston PR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patrick R Johnston,1 John Rodriguez,1 Keith J Lane,1 George Ousler,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Schepens Eye Research Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: Our aim was to extend the concept of blink patterns from average interblink interval (IBI to other aspects of the distribution of IBI. We hypothesized that this more comprehensive approach would better discriminate between normal and dry eye subjects.Methods: Blinks were captured over 10 minutes for ten normal and ten dry eye subjects while viewing a standardized televised documentary. Fifty-five blinks were analyzed for each of the 20 subjects. Means, standard deviations, and autocorrelation coefficients were calculated utilizing a single random effects model fit to all data points and a diagnostic model was subsequently fit to predict probability of a subject having dry eye based on these parameters.Results: Mean IBI was 5.97 seconds for normal versus 2.56 seconds for dry eye subjects (ratio: 2.33, P = 0.004. IBI variability was 1.56 times higher in normal subjects (P < 0.001, and the autocorrelation was 1.79 times higher in normal subjects (P = 0.044. With regard to the diagnostic power of these measures, mean IBI was the best dry eye versus normal classifier using receiver operating characteristics (0.85 area under curve (AUC, followed by the standard deviation (0.75 AUC, and lastly, the autocorrelation (0.63 AUC. All three predictors combined had an AUC of 0.89. Based on this analysis, cutoffs of ≤3.05 seconds for median IBI, and ≤0.73 for the coefficient of variation were chosen to classify dry eye subjects.Conclusion: (1 IBI was significantly shorter for dry eye patients performing a visual task compared to normals; (2 there was a greater variability of interblink intervals in normal subjects; and (3 these parameters were useful as diagnostic predictors of dry eye disease. The results of this pilot study merit investigation of IBI

  18. Spinal cord normalization in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jiwon; Seigo, Michaela; Saidha, Shiv; Sotirchos, Elias; Zackowski, Kathy; Chen, Min; Prince, Jerry; Diener-West, Marie; Calabresi, Peter A; Reich, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord (SC) pathology is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and measures of SC-atrophy are increasingly utilized. Normalization reduces biological variation of structural measurements unrelated to disease, but optimal parameters for SC volume (SCV)-normalization remain unclear. Using a variety of normalization factors and clinical measures, we assessed the effect of SCV normalization on detecting group differences and clarifying clinical-radiological correlations in MS. 3T cervical SC-MRI was performed in 133 MS cases and 11 healthy controls (HC). Clinical assessment included expanded disability status scale (EDSS), MS functional composite (MSFC), quantitative hip-flexion strength ("strength"), and vibration sensation threshold ("vibration"). SCV between C3 and C4 was measured and normalized individually by subject height, SC-length, and intracranial volume (ICV). There were group differences in raw-SCV and after normalization by height and length (MS vs. HC; progressive vs. relapsing MS-subtypes, P normalization by length (EDSS:r = -.43; MSFC:r = .33; strength:r = .38; vibration:r = -.40), and height (EDSS:r = -.26; MSFC:r = .28; strength:r = .22; vibration:r = -.29), but diminished with normalization by ICV (EDSS:r = -.23; MSFC:r = -.10; strength:r = .23; vibration:r = -.35). In relapsing MS, normalization by length allowed statistical detection of correlations that were not apparent with raw-SCV. SCV-normalization by length improves the ability to detect group differences, strengthens clinical-radiological correlations, and is particularly relevant in settings of subtle disease-related SC-atrophy in MS. SCV-normalization by length may enhance the clinical utility of measures of SC-atrophy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  19. A new metric for quantifying burn severity: The Relativized Burn Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Gregory K. Dillon; Carol Miller

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-inferred burn severity data have become increasingly popular over the last decade for management and research purposes. These data typically quantify spectral change between pre-and post-fire satellite images (usually Landsat). There is an active debate regarding which of the two main equations, the delta normalized burn ratio (dNBR) and its relativized form...

  20. The Stiles-Crawford Effect: spot-size ratio departure in retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nachieketa K.; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2016-04-01

    The Stiles-Crawford effect of the first kind is the retina's compensative response to loss of luminance efficiency for oblique stimulation manifested as the spot-size ratio departure from the perfect power coupling for a normal human eye. In a retinitis pigmentosa eye (RP), the normal cone photoreceptor morphology is affected due to foveal cone loss and disrupted cone mosaic spatial arrangement with reduction in directional sensitivity. We show that the flattened Stiles-Crawford function (SCF) in a RP eye is due to a different spot-size ratio departure profile, that is, for the same loss of luminance efficiency, a RP eye has a smaller departure from perfect power coupling compared to a normal eye. Again, the difference in spot-size ratio departure increases from the centre towards the periphery, having zero value for axial entry and maximum value for maximum peripheral entry indicating dispersal of photoreceptor alignment which prevents the retina to go for a bigger compensative response as it lacks both in number and appropriate cone morphology to tackle the loss of luminance efficiency for oblique stimulation. The slope of departure profile also testifies to the flattened SCF for a RP eye. Moreover, the discrepancy in spot-size ratio departure between a normal and a RP eye is shown to have a direct bearing on the Stiles-Crawford diminution of visibility.