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Sample records for normales tercer trimestre

  1. Deseos, aptitudes y conocimientos sobre lactancia materna de gestantes en su tercer trimestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigio Rafael Gorrita Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la lactancia materna es la única forma natural de alimentar al bebé, y una forma inigualable de facilitar el alimento ideal para su crecimiento y desarrollo. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, para evaluar deseos, aptitudes y conocimientos sobre lactancia materna en el tercer trimestre de 114 gestantes del Policlínico "Mártires del 9 de Abril", de San José de las Lajas. Entre marzo de 2010 y de 2011 se valoraron sus historias de salud individual y familiar, y se aplicó a tal efecto un cuestionario con 22 preguntas. Resultados: la información se incorporó a una base de datos y se utilizó para el análisis el estadígrafo chi cuadrado, que se consideró significativo con p< 0,05. La totalidad de las gestantes deseaban amamantar. Dos terceras partes se consideraron aptas o muy aptas para hacerlo, y que poseían los conocimientos necesarios para lograrlo, pero solo algo más de la quinta parte demostró que los poseía. La mayoría de las futuras madres se encontraban entre los 20 y 35 años, el nivel de escolaridad más frecuentemente alcanzado fue el técnico o preuniversitario (en 60 de ellas, para el 52,6 %, y el 46,5 % de las gestantes mantenían una unión consensuada, el 40,3 % eran casadas, y 15 solteras (13,2 %, aspectos que, indiscutiblemente influyen en los resultados. Conclusiones: además de otros resultados alcanzados, la investigación arrojó que aunque la totalidad de las gestantes en su tercer trimestre deseaban lactar a su futuro bebé y las dos terceras partes se consideraban aptas o muy aptas para hacerlo y con conocimientos suficientes al respecto, solo algo más de la quinta parte demostró efectivamente poseerlos.

  2. Deseos, aptitudes y conocimientos sobre lactancia materna de gestantes en su tercer trimestre Desires, aptitudes and knowledge about breastfeeding in women at their third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigio Rafael Gorrita Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la lactancia materna es la única forma natural de alimentar al bebé, y una forma inigualable de facilitar el alimento ideal para su crecimiento y desarrollo. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, para evaluar deseos, aptitudes y conocimientos sobre lactancia materna en el tercer trimestre de 114 gestantes del Policlínico "Mártires del 9 de Abril", de San José de las Lajas. Entre marzo de 2010 y de 2011 se valoraron sus historias de salud individual y familiar, y se aplicó a tal efecto un cuestionario con 22 preguntas. Resultados: la información se incorporó a una base de datos y se utilizó para el análisis el estadígrafo chi cuadrado, que se consideró significativo con pIntroduction: breastfeeding is the only natural way of feeding the baby and an unparallel form of providing him with the ideal food for adequate growth and development. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the desires, the aptitudes and the knowledge about breastfeeding of 114 women in their third trimester of pregnancy from "Martires del 9 de Abril" polyclinics in San José de las Lajas. From March 2010 to March 2011, their individual and family health histories were assessed through a 22-interrogation questionnaire. Results: data were introduced in a database and chi square statistic was used for statistical analysis, the level of significance was p< 0,05. All the participants expressed their desire to breastfeed their offspring. Two thirds were considered prepared or well-prepared to do so, with the required knowledge to attain this objective; but just over one fifth did prove that they had it. Most of the future mothers aged 20 to 35 years; the schooling was mostly technician or high school education (60 for 52.6 %; the marital status of 45.6 % was cohabitation, 40.3 % were married and 13.2 % (15 were singles. These are aspects that undoubtedly influence the results. Conclusions: in addition

  3. Información sobre la lactancia materna de las gestantes en su tercer trimestre Information on breast feeding found in pregnant women in their third trimester of gestation

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    Remigio Rafael Gorrita Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: son universalmente reconocidas las virtudes de la lactancia materna -y es obvio que la mujer está dotada fisiológicamente para el amamantamiento y en un gran número de organizaciones internacionales de salud de diferentes países se han diseñado políticas con el objetivo de promover adecuadamente esta inigualable práctica- pero aún son múltiples los obstáculos que se presentan a su establecimiento exitoso, y los resultados, a largo plazo, no son satisfactorios. Objetivo: evaluar la información que, sobre lactancia materna, poseen las gestantes en el tercer trimestre de su embarazo, que pertenecen al Policlínico "Mártires del 9 de Abril", del municipio San José de las Lajas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, para conocer el nivel de información sobre lactancia materna, en el tercer trimestre, de 114 gestantes del Policlínico "Mártires del 9 de Abril", de San José de las Lajas. Se valoraron sus historias de salud individual y familiar, y se les aplicó un cuestionario con 22 preguntas que se evaluó cualitativa y cuantitativamente. Resultados: solo la quinta parte de las gestantes poseía la información suficiente sobre lactancia materna, aunque la mayoría había asumido que sí los tenía. Más de la mitad de los 17 aspectos explorados, eran deficientes en más del 50 % de las encuestadas. Los errores más frecuentes fueron: momento de dar agua al niño con lactancia materna exclusiva, cuándo brindar otro alimento, hasta cuándo mantener la lactancia materna, cómo debe ser la dieta de la madre, el alternamiento y el aseo de los pechos, y los impedimentos de la madre para la lactancia. Conclusiones: gran número de gestantes evidencian desconocimientos o actitudes equivocadas de diversa índole en relación con la lactancia materna exclusiva, aunque creen tener dominio del tema. Se deben explorar otros aspectos, además de los conocimientos sobre la lactancia, que, sin duda, atentan

  4. Estudio comparativo de las representaciones maternas durante el tercer trimestre de la gestación e incidencia de la ecografía en su establecimiento embarazos únicos normales, gemelares normales y únicos patológicos /

    OpenAIRE

    Arteaga Manieu, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada El interés por los temas y situaciones que se abordan en este trabajo, vienen desde hace un tiempo, en especial el interés por el modo en que una madre logra lidiar, en lo real y en lo fantaseado, con sus bebés en el caso de que sean gemelos. En una investigación anterior (Arteaga y Mitjavila, 2001), también en el marco del Doctorado en Psicopatología Infantojuvenil del Departamento de Psicología de la Salud y Psicología...

  5. El juego popular como recurso didáctico en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de socialización de los niños de tercer año de educación básica de la escuela Francisco González de la ciudad de Sucúa durante el tercer trimestre del año lectivo 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Zambrano Salavarría, Marjorie Maritza; Oleas Parra, Segundo Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo general de esta investigación fue relevar la importancia de los juegos populares como recurso didáctico en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de socialización de los niños de tercer año de educación básica de la escuela "Francisco González" de la ciudad de Sucúa. Los objetivos específicos fueron: analizar la incidencia del juego popular en la contribución de la enseñanza aprendizaje; proponer una gama de juegos populares y aplicar en las diferentes áreas de estudio; elaborar una ...

  6. Estudio comparativo de las representaciones maternas durante el tercer trimestre de la gestación e incidencia de la ecografía en su establecimiento. Embarazos únicos normales, gemelares y únicos patológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Arteaga Manieu, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    El interés por los temas y situaciones que se abordan en este trabajo, vienen desde hace un tiempo, en especial el interés por el modo en que una madre logra lidiar, en lo real y en lo fantaseado, con sus bebés en el caso de que sean gemelos. En una investigación anterior (Arteaga y Mitjavila, 2001), también en el marco del Doctorado en Psicopatología Infantojuvenil del Departamento de Psicología de la Salud y Psicología Social de la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, donde se inscribe el pre...

  7. Normal development of fetal hepatic haematopoiesis during the second trimester of gestation is upregulated by fibronectin expression in the stromal cells of the portal triads El desarrollo normal de la hematopoyesis hepática fetal durante el segundo trimestre de embarazo está regulado al alza por la expresión de fibronectina en las células del estroma de las tríadas portales

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    D. Tamiolakis

    2007-10-01

    -renovación, la proliferación y el crecimiento de las células madre hematopoyéticas, al interactuar con las células progenitoras hematopoyéticas. Se sabe que las glucoproteínas de la MEC producidas por las células del estroma desempeñan un papel crítico en la regulación del crecimiento y la diferenciación celulares. Se han documentado numerosos factores solubles y de membrana que regulan directamente la hematopoyesis, pero se sabe poco de la actividad de las células del estroma hepático y de la proteína (fibronectina de la matriz extracelular en el feto en relación con la hematopoyesis hepática. La unión de las células eritroides tardías a la fibronectina está bien tipificada y se cree que es crítica para las etapas terminales de la diferenciación eritroide. La intención de este artículo es determinar el papel de la fibronectina en la proliferación y diferenciación hematopoyética del hígado fetal en las distintas etapas del desarrollo. Material y método: examinamos y comparamos la expresión inmunohistoquímica de fibronectina en los campos portales del estroma hepático durante los trimestres primero, segundo y tercero del embarazo en relación con la aparición de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas CD34, progenitoras del estroma y endoteliales vasculares, respectivamente. Resultados: nuestros resultados mostraron una diferencia cuantitativa en cuanto a expresión de fibronectina en el estroma del tejido conjuntivo de los campos portales en el segundo trimestre de embarazo respecto al primero (p < 0,0001, prueba de la t y respecto al tercero (p < 0,0001, prueba de la t. Se hallaron también cambios similares en cuanto a la expresión de CD34 respecto al primer (p < 0,0001, prueba de la t y el tercer trimestres (p < 0,0001, prueba de la t, lo que indica la participación directa de la fibronectina en el mantenimiento de la actividad hematopoyética. Conclusiones: nuestros datos aportan pruebas de que un componente de la glucoproteina de la MEC, la

  8. Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de grossesse sur uterus bicorne a issue favorable. Vaginal bleeding in a pregnant woman with a bicornuate uterus, ultrasound finding and favourable outcome.

  9. Los fundamentos sociales del tercer sector

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    de la Torre, Isabel

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the gift, and the explanatory possibilities that its conceptual meaning offer and its methodological application, is the starting point to analyse the pro-social behaviours, present in the organizations that integrate the Third Sector: associations, foundations, benefit societies, co-operatives and labour societies. In all of these organizations, an interchange of goods and services is exercised, that can not be explained neither by the rules of the market nor by the principles of redistribution of the state. Altruism, solidarity and mutual principles, that inspire the pro-social behaviours, are usually practice through the networks of organized solidarity, that are based on the generalised trust and favour the civil society.

    La teoría del don, y las posibilidades explicativas que brindan su acepción conceptual y su aplicación metodológica, es el punto de partida para analizar los comportamientos prosociales, presentes en las entidades que integran el Tercer Sector: asociaciones, fundaciones, mutualidades, cooperativas y sociedades laborales. En todas estas entidades se ejercita un intercambio de bienes y servicios, que no pueden ser explicados ni por las reglas del mercado ni por los principios de redistribución del Estado. Los principios de altruismo, solidaridad y ayuda mutua, que inspiran los comportamientos prosociales, suelen practicarse a través de las redes de solidaridad organizada y favorecen el desarrollo de la sociedad civil.

  10. Trimestre Dates Endroit Objet Transport Hébergement, repas et frais ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chantal Taylor

    Transport. Hébergement, repas et frais divers. Accueil. Total des dépenses. Trimestre 1 les 23 et 24 avril 2012. Washington, États-Unis. Réunions du 5 au 9 juin 2012. Rome, Italie. Réunions. 16 308,20. 2 468,26. 18 776,46 du 15 au 23 juin 2012. Le Cap, Afrique du Sud. Réunions. Trimestre 2 les 5 et 6 septembre 2012.

  11. Matrices biológicas y biomarcadores de exposición fetal a drogas de abuso durante el tercer trimestre de la gestación

    OpenAIRE

    Ortigosa Gómez, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Introducción El abuso de sustancias en los países occidentales ha acontecido un problema de salud pública. Estas sustancias también son consumidas por embarazadas, afectando al feto y recién nacido, especialmente vulnerables. Desde la década de los ochenta, la eventual presencia y disposición de una sustancia de abuso en el organismo y su correlación con efectos clínicos y/o subjetivos ha sido evaluada mediante el análisis de plasma u orina. Sin embargo, realizar estas determinaciones en flui...

  12. Hemorragias obstétricas en el primer y segundo trimestre del embarazo

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    García Rodríguez, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de las hemorragias obstétricas en el primer y segundo trimestre del embarazo. Diagnóstico precoz de las mismas, la identificación de factores de riesgo, las causas y el tratamiento terapéutico

  13. Rotura Uterina Espontánea en embarazo de segundo trimestre: presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura

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    Airam Amoroso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La rotura uterina se define como la solución de continuidad de la pared uterina. Es una complicación obstétrica poco frecuente y potencialmente letal para la madre y el feto, que ocurre generalmente durante el segundo o tercer trimestre de gestación, y que está asociada principalmente a la cirugía uterina previa, constituyendo así un desafío médico por su difícil diagnóstico diferencial y controversial manejo. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 26 años de edad, con rotura espontánea de útero grávido de 18 semanas de gestación y antecedente de cicatriz uterina. Se realiza laparotomía exploradora obteniendo como hallazgo placenta y cordón umbilical unido a feto sin vida en cavidad abdominal, lo que confirma diagnóstico intraoperatorio. Spontaneous Uterine Rupture in Second Trimester of Pregnancy: Case report and Literature review Abstract Uterine rupture is a solution of continuity of the uterine wall. It is an uncommon and potentially lethal obstetric complication, for both mother and fetus, that mainly occurs during the second or third trimester of pregnancy, and that is mainly associated to previous uterine surgery, thus forming a medical challenge for its difficult differential diagnosis and controversial management. We report the case of a 26 years old patient with a spontaneous gravid uterine rupture, 18 weeks of gestation and cesarean scar background. Laparotomy is conducted finding both placenta and umbilical cord attached to no-living fetus in the abdominal cavity, which confirms intraoperative diagnosis.

  14. GILLES CLÉMENT: MANIFIESTO DEL TERCER PAISAJE

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    Iñigo García-Odiaga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El pequeño libro que contiene el Manifiesto del Tercer Paisaje de Gilles Clément, parece intentar ocultar en la sencillez de su edición la revolución teórica y práctica que va desgranando el texto. Teórica por que centra la mirada sobre unos territorios abandonados, inciertos y desdibujados que el autor es capaz de clasificar, determinar y analizar. Y práctica porque planteadas las virtudes de estos territorios ocultos, apuesta por su confirmación y mantenimiento de forma precisa. Finalmente sólo cabe preguntarse si estas mismas reflexiones que Clément centra en el paisaje, no son también un camino posible para entender algunos de los interrogantes que plantea la ciudad contemporánea.

  15. pour le trimestre qui a pris fin le 30 septembre 2012

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    acray

    30 sept. 2012 ... recommande de lire ce rapport en parallèle avec les états financiers non audités (à la page 9). L'information et les .... développement ont augmenté de 56,9 % par rapport au même trimestre de l'exercice 2011-2012 ..... IFRS) telles que publiées par le Conseil des normes comptables internationales (CNCI).

  16. Gastrosquisis: resultados en una institución de tercer nivel

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    A.J. Machuca Vaca

    2017-06-01

    Conclusión: La gastrosquisis es un defecto de pared abdominal frecuente que debe tratarse por un equipo multidisciplinario en una hospital de tercer nivel de atención. Nuestros resultados son comparables con la literatura internacional.

  17. Comportamento de lactentes nascidos a termo pequenos para a idade gestacional no primeiro trimestre da vida

    OpenAIRE

    Mello,Bernadete Balanin A.; Gonçalves,Vanda M. Gimenes; Souza,Elisabete Abib P.

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo foi comparar o comportamento de lactentes nascidos a termo com peso adequado (AIG) a lactantes pequenos para a idade gestacional (PIG), no primeiro trimestre de vida. A amostra foi de 20 lactentes, avaliados no 1º, 2º e 3º meses. Foram utilizadas as Escalas Bayley de Desenvolvimento Infantil - II, com ênfase na Escala de Classificação do Comportamento (ECC). Houve diferença significativa entre os grupos no 2º mês, com maior número de lactentes PIG classificados como alterados na EC...

  18. Baseline levels and trimestral variation of triiodothyronine and thyroxine and their association with mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwese, Christiaan L; Dekker, Friedo W; Lindholm, Bengt; Qureshi, Abdul R; Heimburger, Olof; Barany, Peter; Stenvinkel, Peter; Carrero, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists with regard to the association of thyroid hormones and mortality in dialysis patients. This study assesses the association between basal and trimestral variation of thyroid stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine and mortality. In 210 prevalent hemodialysis patients, serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and interleukin-6 were measured 3 months apart. Cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular deaths were registered during follow-up. Based on fluctuations along tertiles of distribution, four trimestral patterns were defined for each thyroid hormone: persistently low, decrease, increase, and persistently high. The association of baseline levels and trimestral variation with mortality was investigated with Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models. During follow-up, 103 deaths occurred. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels did not associate with mortality. Patients with relatively low basal triiodothyronine concentrations had higher hazards of dying than patients with high levels. Longitudinally, patients with persistently low levels of triiodothyronine during the 3-month period had higher mortality hazards than those having persistently high levels. These associations were mainly attributable to cardiovascular-related mortality. The association between thyroxine and mortality was not altered after adjustment for triiodothyronine. Hemodialysis patients with reduced triiodothyronine or thyroxine levels bear an increased mortality risk, especially due to cardiovascular causes. This was true when considering both baseline measurements and trimestral variation patterns. Our longitudinal design adds observational evidence supporting the hypothesis that the link may underlie a causal effect.

  19. Exodoncia del tercer molar: Factores que determinan complejidad

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    Ivan Manotas Arevalo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los procedimientos más frecuentes en el campo de la Cirugía Oral es la exodoncia, o extracción dental. La prevención y la promoción de hábitos saludables dentro de los que se cuenta la práctica del cepillado dental, uso de dentífricos, hilo dental y enjuagatorios bucales, además de visitas periódicas de control a especialistas y odontólogos generales e higienistas bucales ha conllevado a una reducción en la perdida de estructuras dentarias por causa de la caries y las periodontopatìas. Sin embargo se mantiene alto el número de exodoncias indicadas por falta de espacio en la estructura de los maxilares para la erupción dental, así como alteraciones en la posición y angulacion de los órganos dentales sobre su eje que impide una adecuada ubicación logrando que se indique su extracción. Dentro de la serie dental los órganos dentarios más frecuentemente afectados por este tipo de alteraciones son los terceros molares. También se mencionan que son esos mismos dientes los que acusan mayor grado de complejidad para realizar el procedimiento de exodoncia, y los que causan mayor grado de morbilidad posquirúrgica en el paciente, con un número mayor de complicaciones y su severidad, descritas en la literatura. (Duazary 2008; 141-147. Este artículo pretende analizar los factores que determinan complejidad en la exodoncia del tercer molar a partir de una revisión bibliografía y comparación de ésta.AbstractOne of the most frequent procedure used in the field of Oral Surgery is extracted, or tooth extraction. The prevention and promoting healthy habits in mind that the practice of brushing teeth, use of toothpastes, mouthwashes and dental floss mouth, in addition to regular monitoring visits to specialists and general dentists and oral hygiene has led to a reduction in the loss of structures caused by tooth decay and periodontal pathology. However remains high number of extractions indicated by lack of space in the

  20. Actualización en marcadores genéticos ultrasonográficos del 1º trimestre del embarazo

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    Felicia Amaralis Trull Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda el tema de los marcadores ultrasonográficos del 1º trimestre del embarazo, brindando una actualización del tema. Se hace énfasis en los marcadores predictivos de las anomalías congénitas más frecuentes y se concluyó con importantes aspectos a tener en cuenta para una correcta interpretación de estos hallazgos.

  1. [The work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal in the Revista Trimestral Micrográfica (Trabajos del Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biológicas)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamundí, A; Timoner, G; Nicolau, M C; Rial, R V; Esteban, S; Langa, M A

    This paper is based on a study of Revista Trimestral Micrografica (Trabajos del Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biologicas) between its creation by Santiago Ramon y Cajal in 1896 and his death in 1934. The journal Revista Trimestral Micrografica was the main way in which Santiago Ramon y Cajal and his school published their work since its creation. Ramon y Cajal created the journal for two main reasons: first, he needed a rapid system to publish his own work; second, the journal could serve to encourage his pupils. The journal published many important reports defending the neuronal theory which expanded the cellular one to include the nervous system.

  2. Somnolencia diurna excesiva en estudiantes de tercer semestre de medicina de la universidad nacional de Colombia.

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    Franklin Escobar Córdoba

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Tradicionalmente los estudiantes de medicina duermen poco, estudian largas jornadas nocturnas y como consecuencia padecen somnolencia diurna excesiva que produce disminución en la atención y afecta su calidad de vida. En nuestro país se conoce poco sobre la prevalencia y gravedad de este síntoma en esta población, al igual que sus efectos en grupos de correturnos en general como vigilantes, personal de salud, pilotos, militares, entre otros. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de somnolencia diurna excesiva en estudiantes de tercer semestre de medicina de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal, realizado en 2006, en una muestra de estudiantes (79.2%, n=99/125 de tercer semestre de medicina de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia que aceptaron participar en la investigación mediante consentimiento informado. Se aplicó la escala de somnolencia de Epworth validada localmente. Resultados. Los participantes evaluados fueron jóvenes, estudiantes universitarios de tercer semestre de medicina, en quienes se encontró somnolencia diurna excesiva en el 59.6% (n=59/99, siendo más frecuente en jóvenes de género masculino con promedio de edad de 21 años. Datos más elevados comparativamente con los informados en otros estudios para la población general. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de somnolencia diurna excesiva en la población estudiada es cuantitativamente importante y superior a la encontrada en otros estudios.

  3. Ética y economía: el caso del tercer sector

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    Fernando Leal Carretero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hay tres sectores en la sociedad (el mercado, el gobierno y el “tercer sector” o la “sociedad civil”, cada uno de los cuales tiene su propio papel y función, así como también tiene su propio tipo de falla. Hasta ahora ha sido mérito de la economía descubrir y articular las teorías sobre “fallas de mercados” (sobre cuya base se ha construido el Estado de bienestar y sobre “fallas de gobierno” (que han mostrado los límites de las democracias y las constituciones. Podría ser ya hora de comenzar a pensar sobre las “fallas del tercer sector”, y eso especialmente porque los tres tipos de falla tienen una dimensión ética. La economía puede ayudar a mejorar la calidad del pensamiento ético en relación con la sociedad civil y el tercer sector mostrándonos que, a menudo, no bastan las buenas intenciones. En efecto, la teoría económica nos puede proporcionar las herramientas para analizar los efectos a largo plazo de nuestras decisiones éticas, y eso no solamente en relación con tal o cual grupo particular de presuntos benefi ciarios, sino con relación a todos los grupos de la sociedad.

  4. El 'TERCER ESPACIO' EN EL ARTE Y LA TERAPIA. DIMENSIONES DEL ARTE EN EL TRABAJO PSICOSOCIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Schimpf-Herken, Ilse; Baumann, Till

    2015-01-01

    El arte ofrece nuevos caminos de sanación en el trabajo psicosocial. Elabora la experiencia en el denominado "tercer espacio", que genera un acercamiento paulatino a la experiencia dolorosa en el cual la situación de violencia no se sitúa en primer plano, la persona afectada es sujeto de su propio proceso de sanación. Igualmente «los lugares de la memoria» con un pasado violento se pueden transformar en "espacios de traspaso" (Winnicott) donde se puede experimentar confianza y empoderarse. A ...

  5. Tendencias del Tercer Sector a partir del análisis de las relaciones de interdependencia

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez Cuartas, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Este artículo presenta tres tipos de tendencias del Tercer Sector que pueden deducirse de un análisis de redes basado en teorías interorganizacionales y en teoría de dependencia de recursos. A través de dos estudios de caso realizados en la ciudad de Medellín en Colombia, se presentan algunas categorías que se constituyen en tendencias características del sector. This paper presents three different types of tendencies about third sector. This tendencies could be deduce in a network analysi...

  6. Informe sobre el Tercer Congreso Sudamericano de Neurocirugía

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    Alejandro Jiménez Arango

    1949-07-01

    Full Text Available Bogotá, abril 16 de 1949. Señor Profesor Dr. Jorge Bejarano, Ministro de Higiene. E.S.D. Señor Ministro: De conformidad con el Decreto No 540 de 2 de marzo del presente año, por el cual tuve el honor de ser nombrado Delegado de Colombia ad honorem al tercer Congreso Sudamericano de Neurocirugía que se reumo en Buenos Aires del 2 al 9 de los presentes, me permito informar a S. S. sobre el origen, desarrollo y acuerdos de dicho congreso.

  7. LOS PAÍSES DEL TERCER MUNDO FRENTE A LA CRISIS EUROPEA

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    PEDRO NEL PÁEZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este documento es determinar los canales de transmisión de la crisis europea hacia los países del Tercer Mundo. El trabajo examina la forma en que la crisis de la deuda soberana se propagó por el sector financiero, a través de la mayor volatilidad de la rentabilidad de los activos. Lo cual se debió a una mayor variación de sus precios, lo que tuvo efectos sobre el patrimonio neto de los agentes económicos, los ingresos, la demanda agregada y la asignación del crédito, así como también sobre la producción y el empleo. Para este documento se hizo búsqueda y selección de literatura especializada y se extrajeron estadísticas especializadas de la UNCTAD, CEPAL y OECD. Se concluye que la transmisión de la crisis europea al Tercer Mundo se dio por canales específicos conocidos, como el comercio internacional, la inversión extranjera directa, las remesas y la ayuda oficial para el desarrollo.

  8. Proteína C reactiva plasmática en el segundo trimestre para predicción de parto pretérmino

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    I. Suarez-Torres

    2016-06-01

    Conclusión: Las concentraciones plasmáticas de proteína C reactiva en el segundo trimestre están elevadas en las embarazadas que posteriormente presentan parto pretérmino, pero no son útiles en la predicción de este.

  9. La percolación cultural o cómo el mercado se institucionaliza en el tercer sector

    OpenAIRE

    López Rey, José A.

    2008-01-01

    Proponemos el concepto de percolación cultural para describir y estudiar el fenómeno de la introducción en el tercer sector de los valores propios de las organizaciones del mercado. Para ello, se describe un marco teórico que incluye teorías sobre la cultura organizacional, el nuevo institucionalismo y la teoría relacional de la sociedad como mejor herramienta para conocer el tercer sector. Se explicitan las hipótesis que han guiado la investigación y la metodología que la hizo posible y se r...

  10. Disfunção sexual: Avaliação de mulheres durante o terceiro trimestre gestacional

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    Ana Eliza Rios de Araújo Mathias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Disfunção sexual (DS é caracterizada pela falta, excesso, desconforto e/ou dor no desenvolvimento do ciclo da resposta sexual, se manifestando de forma persistente ou recorrente. Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência das disfunções sexuais femininas em gestantes de baixo risco no terceiro trimestre e verificar sua associação com fatores de risco. Métodos: É um estudo transversal composto por 102 gestantes de baixo risco durante o terceiro trimestre gestacional e com vida sexual ativa, que estiveram em acompanhamento nos postos de saúde das cidades de Petrolina (PE e Juazeiro (BA entre setembro de 2013 e março de 2014. Para isso, utilizou-se uma ficha de dados pessoais, com características sociodemográficas e clínicas e o questionário Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Foram calculadas prevalências e possíveis associações por meio do teste do χ2. Em todas as análises foi adotado o nível de significância de p˂0,05. Intervalos de confiança (IC95%, quando determinados, foram exatos. Resultados: Do total da amostra, 45,1% apresentaram disfunção sexual com taxa média de função sexual feminina de 26,15. Os menores escores de domínios foram em desejo e excitação. Ocorreu ainda associação de disfunção sexual com paridade. Conclusão: O presente estudo evidenciou uma taxa moderada de mulheres com disfunção sexual no terceiro trimestre gestacional, mostrando uma diminuição significativa em todos os domínios do FSFI. Além disso, constatou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa na associação de disfunção sexual com a variável paridade. Contudo, não foi encontrada diferença significativa na disfunção sexual com a variável idade, índice de massa corpórea, escolaridade e renda familiar.

  11. LAS INFOTECNOLOGÍAS EN LA TRANSFORMACIÓN DE LAS RELACIONES DEL TERCER ENTORNO

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    Derlisiret Rincón M.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El punto de partida de este trabajo es exponer el nacimiento del nuevo entramado social; los lazos que se tejen en el denominado Tercer Entono que de una u otra forma han construido una cartografía radicalmente contrapuesta a la tradicionalmente establecida. Así pues, a través del método descriptivo, se reconocen las diversas formas de interacciones y contradicciones que surgen en el espacio telemático y desde donde se crea un ambiente con características propias. Se concluye, que en dicho espacio se origina un ambiente cuyo habitat induce a comportamientos ajenos a los reconocidos y caracterizados desde el cual se perfila y modela un sujeto denominado “Human Plugged”, es decir, un humano conectado al Cyberespacio y sus multitareas, y distante o desconectado del espacio tradicional.

  12. Profesoras en el tercer ciclo universitario y en los postgrados sobre EEMM

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    Isabel de Torres Ramírez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la presencia de las mujeres en la universidad española, dentro de la enseñanza y la investigación llevada a cabo en el tercer ciclo de los estudios universitarios y en los programas de postgrado que se llevan a cabo dentro del área de conocimiento Estudios de las Mujeres. El objetivo concreto que se persigue es estudiar la presencia de profesoras en los programas de doctorado, en la dirección y en los tribunales de tesis y también en los másters, programas expertos/as y de especialistas vigentes durante el curso 2005-2006.

  13. LOS PAÍSES DEL TERCER MUNDO FRENTE A LA CRISIS EUROPEA

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRO NEL PÁEZ; JORGE ISAZA; LUZ AMANDA ZAMORA

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este documento es determinar los canales de transmisión de la crisis europea hacia los países del Tercer Mundo. El trabajo examina la forma en que la crisis de la deuda soberana se propagó por el sector financiero, a través de la mayor volatilidad de la rentabilidad de los activos. Lo cual se debió a una mayor variación de sus precios, lo que tuvo efectos sobre el patrimonio neto de los agentes económicos, los ingresos, la demanda agregada y la asignación del crédito, así como ...

  14. Gestión del conocimiento en el tercer sector: de la competitividad a la eficiencia organizacional

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    Cristian Bedoya-Dorado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tiene como objetivo presentar una reflexión sobre el aporte de la gestión del conocimiento (GC a la eficiencia en organizaciones del tercer sector. Para ello se llevó a cabo un análisis de contenido de una recopilación de 35 artículos de revistas indexadas JCR y SJR, y de revistas especializadas en GC. El análisis señala que aunque las organizaciones del tercer sector no están llamadas a competir como las organizaciones tradicionales, ni a generar estrategias de captación y fidelización de clientes, sí compiten por la financiación de otras organizaciones y realizan procesos misionales en donde la GC puede contribuir a su eficiencia, de modo que tengan una mejor atención y gestión de sus grupos de interés. Entre los resultados se destaca la importancia de los recursos humanos para lograr la eficiencia a través de la GC en las organizaciones del tercer sector. Este estudio sugiere, para futuras investigaciones, determinar empíricamente el efecto que tienen variables como la gestión de personal, el uso de las TIC, y la innovación en la GC y en la eficiencia de organizaciones del tercer sector, de gran importancia en los países en vía de desarrollo, debido a que atienden necesidades sociales y económicas en las que los Estados son ineficaces, por lo que la GC puede generar aportes para sus objetivos organizacionales.

  15. Tendencias clave para el tercer gobierno del MAS, Bolivia 2015-2019

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    Xavier Albó

    2016-03-01

    Esta presentación tiene como trasfondo el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo y pretende resaltar algunos de los logros del presidente Evo Morales y los desafíos que enfrenta en su tercer gobierno (2015-2019. Comienza revisando información demográfica básica, según el Censo de 2012, para luego centrarse en la economía: los hidrocarburos, la minería, la producción agropecuaria y la ecología. El boom de la quinua, la expansión de la frontera agrícola y la suspensión de la construcción de una carretera que atraviese el TIPNIS son algunos de los temas que se discuten. Internacionalmente, hay motivos de optimismo con relación a la demanda marítima de Bolivia, mientras que, a nivel nacional, el MAS aseguró una victoria parlamentaria en el año 2014. Las reformas menos exitosas son las del órgano judicial. La presentación termina revisando los movimientos sociales que permitieron la formación la de Asamblea Constituyente y el asunto de la autonomía municipal, departamental e indígena.

  16. Análisis de los mensajes audiovisuales del Tercer Sector en YouTube

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    C Van-Wyck

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las redes de la web 2.0 se han convertido en uno de los medios más utilizados por las organizaciones del Tercer Sector. En esta investigación se analizan los aspectos formales, de contenido y de significación de los vídeos emitidos por estas organizaciones a través de YouTube. Metodología. Utilizando como herramienta metodológica el análisis cuantitativo de contenido, se lleva a cabo el estudio de 370 mensajes representativos de este tipo de comunicaciones, con el objetivo de definir los perfiles característicos de estos mensajes audiovisuales. Resultados. Se pone de manifiesto que los vídeos emitidos muestran bajos niveles de creatividad, incorporan mucha información transmitida de una forma clara, con predominio de contenidos explícitos y formatos muy similares. Conclusiones. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, concluimos que estas organizaciones generan una comunicación previsible que tiende a estructuras homogéneas y fácilmente identificables en dos perfiles: Perfil de carácter más informativo (PI y Perfil de carácter más persuasivo (PP.

  17. Tecnologías de computación y Tercer Mundo

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    Hans Dieter Klee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este número aborda la comunicación desde las tres interpretaciones más importantes: la tradicionalista, la militar y mercantilista y el arte popular tan inestable, cuestionado y cambiante. Canclini cuestiona la compartamentalización de cultura: popular y de medios y esboza los problemas que plantea la tradicional miopía de no reconocer la universalización : ¿Re-intelección de los medios? apuntes sobre un libro de los Mattelart, ¿"Ética" o "Deontología" de la comunicación social?, El lenguaje del vestido y de la fiesta,Talleres de cultura Popular en Santiago de Chile, El dilema del arte popular en Bolivia,¿Sobrevivirán las artesanías aborígenes argentinas?, Los tejedores de El Tintorero, Tecnologías de computación y Tercer Mundo, La cobertura del terremoto en México, La comunicación como quehacer y como problema, la comunicación planificada sirve al desarrollo

  18. Diagnóstico prenatal citogenético mediante amniocentesis durante los trimestres II y III de gestación en Costa Rica

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    Isabel Castro Volio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar cromosomopatía fetal en voluntarias con embarazos de alto riesgo genético, brindar adecuada atención obstétrica y pediátrica y asesoramiento genético. En 842 embarazadas se obtuvo células fetales mediante amniocentesis, realizadas desde 1986 hasta 1999 inclusive. Las punciones se realizaron en hospitales del sistema de seguridad social y en la consulta privada. La indicación del 48 % de las amniocentesis fue el examen ultrasonográfico anormal y el 35 % de las punciones fue por edad materna avanzada. El 66 % de las veces el estudio se realizó en el II trimestre del embarazo y el 34 % en el III trimestre. Se utilizó el sistema cerrado de histocultivo y la cosecha por suspensión. El resultado final se obtuvo en 14 días (mediana. De las 842 muestras de líquido amniótico, en 217 no fue posible obtener resultados. Los 625 cariotipos fetales fueron anormales en 55 casos (9 %: 33 cariotipos trisómicos (incluyendo una trisomía 13 por translocación Robertsoniana de los cromosomas 13 y 14, ocho casos con síndrome de Turner (45,X, tres mosaicos cromosómicos (incluyendo una trisomía 22 en mosaico y 11 cariotipos anormales por otras causas. Al comparar la cantidad de defectos cromosómicos en relación a la indicación para efectuar la amniocentesis, se encontró un 17 % de cromosomopatía en los casos estudiados por ultrasonograma anormal y 2.5 % en los casos investigados por razón de la edad materna. En el seguimiento de 211 casos se encontró concordancia entre el cariotipo y el fenotipo del recién nacido, al igual que entre el diagnóstico ultrasonográfico fetal y la condición del neonato. El diagnóstico prenatal de cromosomopatía permitió el asesoramiento genético y el manejo obstétrico y pediátrico de los casos de manera adecuada. En los embarazos con cariotipo normal, esta información alivió la preocupación de muchos de los padresThe identification of fetal abnormal

  19. Fusión de un tercer molar mandibular con un cuarto molar supernumerario Fusion of mandibular third molar with supernumerary fourth molar

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    C. López Carriches

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La fusión dental es la unión de dos gérmenes dentales normalmente separados, mientras que la geminación se define como el intento de división de un único germen dental. La fusión y geminación de molares es poco frecuente en la dentición permanente. Describimos un caso clínico de un tercer molar inferior derecho fusionado a un cuarto molar supernumerario en un paciente varón de 36 años que ha presentado repetidos episodios de pericoronaritis. Tras el estudio radiológico se realiza la exodoncia del cordal semiincluido bajo anestesia local. Llevamos a cabo una revisión bibliográfica al respecto.Dental fusion is the union of two tooth buds that normally are separated, while gemination is defined as an attempt by a single tooth bud to divide. The fusion and gemination of molars is uncommon in permanent teeth. We report a clinical case of a right lower third molar fused to a supernumerary fourth molar in a 36-year-old male patient with repeated episodes of inflammation. After the radiologic study, the semi-impacted third molar was extracted under local anesthesia. The literature was reviewed.

  20. El docente de tercer nivel en las ciencias de la salud. Contexto ecuatoriano

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    Carlos Gafas González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Introducción: La superación permanente del graduado universitario constituye una dirección de trabajo de la educación superior ecuatoriana. En la misma concurren procesos formativos y de desarrollo, no solo de enseñanza aprendizaje, sino también de investigación, innovación, creación, transferencia y otros, articulados armónicamente en una propuesta docente-educativa pertinente a este nivel. Profundizar en el rol del profesor que imparte docencia en la enseñanza de tercer nivel constituyó el objetivo de este trabajo, para lo cual se realizó una investigación descriptiva, con un enfoque cualitativo, durante el período comprendido entre abril-agosto de 2015. La población estuvo constituida por los reglamentos y documentos rectores a tener en cuenta en la formación universitaria. Se emplearon métodos lógico-práctico, inductivo-deductivo y analítico-sintético. Resultados: El docente es concebido como promotor del análisis reflexivo, inductor de cambios, activador de la búsqueda del saber, suscitador de la discusión científica, generador de hipótesis, frente a un grupo estudiantil que piensa, crea, transforma, organiza y estructura conocimientos en un sistema personal, dinámico y contextual, cada vez más plural y diverso. Conclusiones: La preparación permanente e integral del docente universitario constituye un eje fundamental para la formación del estudiante y la transformación de la sociedad. Se sustenta en adquisición por estos de habilidades del lenguaje, la comunicación, el pensamiento crítico, ético y del conocimiento de un idioma extranjero y de las TIC, lo que les permitirá integrar las funciones sustantivas de la universidad, guiadas estas por la investigación. Deben ser poseedores de valores y cualidades humanas que contribuyan al alcance del buen vivir por la población ecuatoriana, del dominio disciplinar, profesional e investigador, en un marco donde la interculturalidad, el diálogo de

  1. Sexto Congreso Científico del Pacífico y Tercer Congreso Internacional de Microbiología

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    Luis Patiño Camargo

    1940-01-01

    Tengo el honor de rendir a Su Señoria informe de la misión con que me honró el Gobierno confiándome la representación de Colombia ante el Sexto Congreso Cientifico del Pacífico y ante el Tercer Congreso Internacional de Microbiología y la misión de visiter algunas de las instituciones de investigación médica en Centro América, Mejico y los Estados Unidos, según Decreto N° 1263, junio 15 de 1939, del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores.

  2. Estudio transversal de consumo de tabaco en trabajadores de un hospital de tercer nivel

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    Luis Villalobos-Gallegos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el consumo de tabaco es la primera causa prevenible de muerte y morbilidad en el mundo; estudios previos en hospitales muestran que la población médica sirve como modelo positivo en la promoción de la abstinencia del tabaco, sin embargo, cuando el personal de salud lo usa, las probabilidades de abstinencia disminuyen. Objetivos: 1 conocer la prevalencia de tabaquismo, 2 comparar las distintas áreas de trabajo en función de variables relacionadas con el consumo de tabaco, 3 identificar los factores de riesgo. Método: a 1,004 trabajadores de un establecimiento hospitalario se les aplicó un cuestionario de autorreporte que contenía preguntas para evaluar el tabaquismo, así como el Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND y la Cigarette Dependence Scale (CSD-12 y CSD-5 para evaluar dependencia de nicotina. Resultados: 23.4% de los trabajadores consumió tabaco en el último año, 60.4% de los fumadores son del sexo masculino, 91.2% presentó dependencia baja. Entre los factores de riesgo se encontraron los siguientes: grupo de edad de 20 a 31 años (OR=2.62, IC del 95% [1.77-3.88], p<.001, ser hombre (OR=2.91, IC del 95% [1.82-4.68], p<.001, edad de inicio del consumo (OR=1.09, IC del 95% [.71-1.68], p<.001, estado civil (OR=4.51, IC del 95% [1.18-17.18], p=.027, y tener una escolaridad de secundaria (OR=3.51, IC del 95% [1.66-7.40], p=.001 o bachillerato (OR=3.11, IC del 95% [1.61-6.02], p=.001. Discusión y conclusiones: el presente estudio aporta información actual sobre el consumo de tabaco en trabajadores de planta de un hospital de tercer nivel; se encontró una baja prevalencia de médicos que consumen tabaco (16.3%, en comparación con el personal de otra áreas de labor. Las implicaciones relacionadas con los hallazgos se discuten en el estudio.

  3. Freqüência Cardíaca Fetal durante o Primeiro Trimestre da Gestação Fetal Heart Rate in the First Trimester of Pregnancy

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    Heverton Pettersen

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estabelecer curva de normalidade da freqüência cardíaca fetal (FCF entre a 10ª e a 14ª semana de gestação. Métodos: a FCF foi avaliada em 1078 fetos entre 10 e 14 semanas de gestação. Para uma melhor correlação da FCF com a idade gestacional, os fetos foram divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com a idade gestacional: Grupo I (10 semanas, Grupo II (11 semanas, Grupo III (12 semanas e Grupo IV (13 semanas. Por meio de corte sagital, o coração fetal foi visualizado e o registro da FCF foi realizado usando Modo-B e Modo-M em tempo real. Calculou-se a FCF média eletronicamente por meio da colocação dos cálipers que registravam 3 ciclos consecutivos. Resultados: a FCF variou entre 136 e 178 bpm entre os 1078 fetos estudados. Construiu-se uma curva de normalidade estabelecendo-se a mediana e os percentis 5 e 95 da FCF para cada grupo. No Grupo I a FCF variou de 158 a 184 bpm; no Grupo II, de 155 a 175 bpm; no Grupo III, de 152 a 172 bpm; no Grupo IV, de 149 a 168 bpm. Houve diminuição progressiva e significativa da FCF com o avanço da idade gestacional durante o período estudado. Conclusões: a avaliação da FCF no primeiro trimestre de gestação é um procedimento simples e que deve ser analisado não só na sua forma qualitativa (batimentos cardíacos fetais rítmicos mas também na sua forma quantitativa, já que trabalhos publicados mostram a sua relação com o prognóstico fetal.Purpose: to determine normal ranges for fetal heart rate (FHR between the 10th and 14th week of pregnancy. Methods: a total of 1078 fetuses within a crown-rump length (CRL from the 10th to the 14th week of pregnancy were evaluated. The fetuses were divided into 4 groups: Group I (10 weeks, Group II (11 weeks, Group III (12 weeks, Group IV (13 weeks. The fetal heart was seen using B-mode/M-mode at a sagital plane and FHR was recorded. FHR was electronically calculated using calipers within 3 consecutive cycles without fetal moveiments

  4. El desarrollo de las Organizaciones del Tercer Sector en el proceso de modernización y más allá

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    PIERPAOLO DONATI

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available la sociologia se encuentra ante la urgente necesidad de definir que es el tercer sector y que son las organizaciones del tercer sector (ots. la hipotesis de este articulo es que las ots son actores de modernizacion. dentro del marco de un cambio social mas general, las ots, en cuanto que "subjetividades sociales", estan llamadas a dar vida a una sociedad diferente de la primera modernidad y sus sucesivos desarrollos en una direccion antihumanista. estos sujetos son portadores de una cultura organizativa en la que los derechos de ciudadania adoptan un caracter relacional. en resumen: el tercer sector debe analizarse como el producto de la diferenciacion societal en condiciones de creciente complejidad social.

  5. Caracterización molecular de aislamientos de enterobacter cloacae multirresistentes, productores ß-Lactamasas provenientes de pacientes de un hospital de tercer nivel de Bogotá

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    Ibonne Aydee García Romero

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Las enterobacterias, antaño flora normal del tracto gastrointestinal, han cambiado su biología y emergido como agentes patógenos nosocomiales que se tornan resistentes los antibióticos conocidos. Objetivo. Realizar la caracterización epidemiológico-molecular de 20 aislamientos de Enterobacter cloacae resistentes a cefalosporinas de tercera generación; provenientes de un hospital de tercer nivel de Bogotá-Colombia. Material y métodos. Los aislamientos fueron identificados mediante sistemas automatizados Microscan y VITEK, se utilizó el Enterobacter asbureae como control externo inter-especie. La confirmación de resistencia se hizo por técnica de difusión en agar, y una vez establecida se realizó BLEE para comprobación. La determinación de puntos isoeléctricos se hizo, mediante lisis por ultrasonido y la genotipificación mediante la metodología para bacterias Gramnegativas propuesta por Versalovic. Resultados: Los aislamientos colectados durante un año fueron causantes de 15 casos de infección Intrahospitalaria y dos colonizaciones. Todos los aislamientos presentaron resistencia a cefotaxima, ceftazidima, ceftriaxona, aztreonam y ciprofloxacina, 95% a amikacina, gentamicina y cloranfenicol, 75% a trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol, 20% a cefepime y todos fueron sensibles a imipenem. Dos aislamientos fueron confirmados como productores de â-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE por la técnica microbiológica de disco combinado. Por isoelectroenfoque presentaron dos â-lactamasas con puntos isoeléctricos (pI de 5,4 y 8,2. En los 18 aislamientos no inhibidos por ácido clavulánico, se detectaron entre 2 y 4 â-lactamasas con pI de 5,4; 6,0; 7,0; 8,2 y mayor que 8,2; la resistencia a cefalosporinas de tercera generación podría ser atribuida a la hiperproducción de AmpC; los valores de pI sugieren la producción simultánea de â-lactamasas tipo SHV y TEM. La genotipificación mediante tres metodologías de rep

  6. Relación de tesis doctorales y trabajos de investigación de tercer ciclo y de máster (TIT. Curso 2009/2010

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    Cuadernos de Arte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Relación de tesis doctorales y trabajos de investigación de tercer ciclo y de máster (TIT, defendidos en el departamento de Historia del Arte y Música de la Universidad de Granada, durante el curso académico 2009/2010

  7. Tercer molar ectópico a nivel de región infraorbitaria-seno maxilar Ectopic third molar of the maxillary sinus-infraorbital region

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    C. Moreno García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los cordales ectópicos son aquellos incluidos en posiciones inusuales o desplazados a distancia de su normal localización anatómica. La erupción ectópica de un diente dentro de la cavidad oral es común pero en otros lugares es raro. La erupción ectópica puede ir asociada con alteraciones en el desarrollo, procesos patológicos o yatrogenia. Caso Clínico. Mujer de 56 años de edad con tercer molar superior derecho ectópico a nivel de región infraorbitaria-seno maxilar. Presentaba dolor e inflamación hemifacial derecha de larga evolución y resistente a tratamiento médico. Se realizó exéresis quirúrgica de dicho cordal mediante abordaje de Caldwell-Luc. Discusión. En muchos casos la etiología de un cordal ectópico no puede ser identificada. La mayor parte de las veces son asintomáticos y diagnosticados mediante estudios radiológicos. Conclusión. La indicación de la exodoncia en el caso de un diente ectópico en general viene determinada por la presencia de sintomatología o en prevención de futuras complicaciones.Introduction. Ectopic third molar teeth are those that are impacted in unusual positions, or that have been displaced and are at a distance from their normal anatomic location. Ectopic eruption of a tooth within the oral cavity is common, but rare in other sites. Ectopic eruption can be associated with developmental disturbances, pathologic processes or iatrogenic activity. Case Report. Female, fifty-six years old, with an upper right ectopic third molar located in the maxillary sinus-infraorbital region. She presented with pain and inflammation of the right side of her face that she had been experiencing for along time and which had been resistant to treatment. Surgical excision was carried out of the third molar tooth using the Caldwell-Luc approach. Discussion. In many cases the etiology of ectopic third molars cannot be identified. Generally they are asymptomatic and diagnosed by radiology

  8. Correlation between the Doppler velocimetry findings of the uterine arteries during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy Correlação entre os achados doppplervelocimétricos das artérias uterinas no primeiro e segundo trimestres da gestação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Wenjaw Liao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the feasibility of transvaginal uterine artery Doppler examination in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, establish reference ranges in a Brazilian population and examine the correlation between these Doppler findings. METHODS: Longitudinal prospective study at the antenatal clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital. Uterine artery Doppler examinations were carried out transvaginally at 11 to 14 weeks and 20 to 25 weeks of gestation. Uterine artery mean pulsatility index (PI distributions were determined and the presence or absence of an early diastolic notch was also noted. The degree of correlation between first and second trimester Doppler findings was examined. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty four women with live singleton pregnancies and normal outcome were first examined at a mean gestation of 12.7 weeks. The values corresponding to the 50th and 95th centiles of mean PI were 1.69 and 2.48. Bilateral notches were observed in 44% of cases and unilateral notches were present in 19%. Second trimester Doppler examinations were carried out at a mean gestation of 23.2 weeks and corresponding figures for the 50th and 95th centiles were 1.03 and 1.57. Bilateral notches were noted in 4.4% of the cases. First trimester impedance indices were significantly higher and positively correlated to second trimester findings (r = 0.42, pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a aplicabilidade de realizar exames dopplervelocimétricos endovaginais das artérias uterinas no primeiro e segundo trimestres da gestação, definir valores normais na população brasileira e examinar a correlação entre esses achados. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo longitudinal conduzido em Hospital Universitário Terciário. Os exames dopplervelocimétricos das artérias uterinas foram realizados pela via endovaginal, entre 11 a 14 semanas e 20 a 25 semanas de gestação. Em cada período gestacional estudado, a distribuição dos valores dos índices de pulsatilidade (IP m

  9. Sistemas agroecológicos y su papel en los países del Tercer Mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Funes-Aguilar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El tercer milenio inicia en un mundo globalizado, unipolar: 6.3 mil millones de personas; de ellas, 850 millones hambrientas, 1,200 sin agua potable, 2,400 sin saneamiento, 850 millones analfabetos, 10 millones de niños mueren anualmente. Mientras tanto, 10% de la población disfruta del 70% de riquezas. Proliferan estallidos sociales, guerras, huracanes, terremotos, contaminación ambiental, inundaciones, calentamiento global, SIDA. Numerosas comunidades rurales se han colapsado económica y socialmente, el desempleo aumenta por tecnologías ahorradoras de fuerza laboral, persiste alta migración a las ciudades. La “Revolución Verde”, de especialización e industrialización agropecuaria de países desarrollados, ha generado conflictos ambientales y no ha sido una solución. La geofagia y sed de poder de países y políticos, generan distribución desequilibrada de riquezas. En nuestro planeta abundan resultados positivos con sistemas agroecológicos de producción que han demostrado poder resolver gran número de esos problemas. En América Latina y Cuba, existen experiencias del saber y tradiciones campesinas e indígenas, investigación y producción comercial con soluciones factibles para los problemas de este llamado “Tercer Mundo”, donde están los países más necesitados. Son evidentes los caminos posibles para alcanzar el anhelado desarrollo agropecuario. Este trabajo resume algunos ejemplos de los avances. El reto futuro es integrar los componentes de los agroecosistemas y lograr sinergias, consolidando sistemas agroecológicos holísticos, con eficiencia biológica, productiva, económica, energética y ambiental. Es esperanzador pensar que un futuro agroecológico unido a la voluntad política de desarrollo económico y social, puede contribuir en alto grado a liberar a nuestros países tercermundistas de la crítica situación actual

  10. Estudio de la prevalencia de un tercer conducto en primeros premolares superiores mediante diafanización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Stephanie De la Rosa Fernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Existen fracasos endodónticos que son relacionados por diferentes causas como: obturación incompleta, filtración coronal y fallos por parte del clínico en identificar o localizar los conductos radiculares y sus ramificaciones. Por este motivo, es básico la noción de la anatomía interna dental y sobre todo es importante tener en cuenta las variaciones que pueden existir en las distintas piezas dentales. Objetivo: El propósito del presente estudio es conocer la cantidad de conductos existentes en los primeros premolares superiores y saber si existe el tercer conducto en dichas piezas. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron 100 primeros premolares superiores donados por la Cátedra de Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Central del Ecuador, los cuales fueron divididos en tres grupos según la cantidad de raíces que presentaban y sometidos a diafanización para poder observar su morfología interna. Resultados: Se encontró en la muestra de dientes evaluados la presencia de tres conductos en el 7%, la presencia de dos conductos en el 72% y de un conducto en el 21%. Conclusiones: Los primeros premolares superiores presentan uno, dos y tres conductos. La presencia de tres conductos tiene una baja prevalencia.

  11. ESTRATEGIAS DE ACCION E INCIDENCIA EN LAS POLITICAS PUBLICAS DE LAS COOPERATIVAS DE TERCER GRADO EN ARGENTINA

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    María Cristina Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo indaga sobre la incidencia de las entidades representativas del cooperativismo argentino en las políticas públicas contemporáneas. Se presenta un estudio de caso de las dos más importantes cooperativas de tercer grado del país, se analizan sus metas y estrategias en las interacciones con las dependencias estatales. Los resultados de las acciones de los actores definen metas y estrategias que pueden ser convergentes y/o divergentes. Se concluye que los vínculos que han construido las confederaciones seleccionadas con el Estado presentan características de complementación y cooperación en términos generales. Asimismo, la facultad de las organizaciones estudiadas para incidir en la definición de las políticas públicas resulta no solamente de los recursos propios, sino, principalmente, de las oportunidades políticas y la capacidad de establecer alianzas inter-actorales mediante estrategias colectivas.

  12. A young woman with first-trimester metrorrhagia, fever and skin lesions Mujer joven con metrorragia del primer trimestre, fiebre y lesiones cutáneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lalueza Blanco

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease commonly affects women with child-bearing potential, and clinical activity extent is most relevant at the time of conception. Below, we report on the case of a 19-year-old woman who was admitted for first-trimester metrorrhagia and fever, with various extraintestinal manifestations, mainly including erythema nodosum and episcleritis during the course of disease. The differential diagnosis of these manifestations led to the diagnosis of Crohn's disease, which involved the whole colon.La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal afecta frecuentemente a mujeres en edad fértil, siendo fundamental el grado de actividad clínica en el momento de la concepción. A continuación se presenta el caso de una mujer de 19 años que ingresa por metrorragia del primer trimestre y fiebre; destacando durante su evolución la aparición de diferentes manifestaciones extraintestinales, fundamentalmente eritema nodoso y epiescleritis. A través del diagnóstico diferencial de estas manifestaciones se llegó al diagnóstico de una enfermedad de Crohn que afectaba a todo el colon.

  13. CONVENIENCIA DE LA CIRUGÌA PROFILÁCTICA DEL TERCER MOLAR RETENIDO: UN ANÁLISIS DE DECISIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ramírez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La proporción de cirugías de terceros molares que se realizan de manera profiláctica es difícil de estimar de manera precisa y depende en muchos casos de la definición que se dé para éste término. Objetivo. Determinar entre pacientes y cirujanos cuál es la alternativa más útil para plantear la cirugía profiláctica de los terceros molares retenidos asintomáticos. Material y métodos. Un análisis de decisiones clínicas (modelo de árbol de decisiones se utilizó para definir el tratamiento del tercer molar retenido asintomático. Las probabilidades para los desenlaces fueron obtenidos de la literatura. Las utilidades o preferencia fueron asignadas independientemente por pacientes y cirujanos. Resultados. La alternativa más conveniente para los pacientes fue la No extracción, mientras que para los cirujanos, la Si extracción. La decisión de los cirujanos resultó inestable al efectuar el análisis de sensibilidad bivariado al modificarse algunos valores asignados en el modelo, mientras que se mantuvo entre los pacientes. Conclusión. Las diferencias en las utilidades asignadas por pacientes y cirujanos, podrían deberse a la falta de información ofrecida al grupo de pacientes y a la diferencia de intereses entre unos y otros, si esto se corrige, la discrepancia entre los dos grupos logrará cerrarse, y a lo mejor podrían llegar a encontrar que la misma decisión es verdaderamente la más conveniente para ambos.

  14. La radio como medio para la comunicación alternativa y la participación del Tercer Sector en España y Francia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Sobrino, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Los medios del Tercer Sector de la Comunicación constituyen una oferta informativa y de participación dirigida a colectivos sociales de proximidad. Estos medios están promovidos desde los diferentes estamentos de la sociedad y son considerados alternativos a los medios convencionales. En el caso de la radio, están representados por las denominadas radios comunitarias, por las radios libres, por las radios asociativas, así como por las radios culturales y universitarias. En el pres...

  15. Complicaciones presentadas en pacientes mayores de 65 años ingresados por fractura de cadera en un hospital andaluz de tercer nivel

    OpenAIRE

    López-Hurtado, Felipe; Miñarro del Moral, Rosa María; Arroyo Ruiz, Verónica; Rodríguez Borrego, Mª Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer las complicaciones que se han producido en pacientes mayores de 65 años, ingresados en un hospital andaluz de tercer nivel durante el año 2012, con diagnóstico principal de fractura de cadera. Metodología: Diseño: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal. Ámbito, periodo y sujetos de estudio: Pacientes ingresados en el año 2012 mayores de 65 años con diagnóstico principal de fractura de cadera. Variables principales: Morbimortalidad recogida en el C...

  16. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  17. El papel docente ante las emociones de niñas y niños de tercer grado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Calderón Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada durante los años 2011-2012, cuyo objetivo fue analizar el papel del personal docente ante las emociones que manifiestan en el aula las niñas y los niños de tercer grado de dos escuelas urbanas de la provincia de San José. La investigación se fundamenta en la identificación de los conocimientos, habilidades, estrategias y recursos utilizados por el personal docente ante las diferentes emociones que manifiesta el estudiantado en el aula. La metodología de la investigación se dio bajo un enfoque mixto, por lo que el trabajo se dividió en una fase cualitativa y otra cuantitativa; en cada una se aplicaron diferentes instrumentos con base en los objetivos de la investigación; posteriormente se realizó una integración de ambos enfoques, para ampliar la perspectiva de las respuestas del personal docente ante las emociones que experimentan las niñas y los niños en el aula. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se identifican elementos facilitadores y obstaculizadores del quehacer docente, sobre las emociones de sus estudiantes y se logra constatar una deficiencia en el profesional en educación en cuanto al conocimiento de la temática, la falta de estrategias aplicables a las emociones de sus estudiantes, la poca información y actualización que se tiene en cuanto a la educación emocional en las aulas. This article presents the results of a research conducted over the years 2011-2012, in which the role of teachers in the face of the emotions felt in the classroom by third graders in two urban schools of the province of San José was analyzed. The research was based on the identification of the knowledge, skills, strategies and resources used by teachers as a response to different emotions that children manifest in the classroom.. The research methodology was developed under a mixed approach, therefore it was divided in a qualitative and a quantitative phase. In

  18. Procesos cognoscitivos implicados en la comprensión lectora en tercer grado de educación primaria

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    Patricia Torres Morales

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La comprensión lectora requiere de la interacción de diversos procesos cognoscitivos: atención, percepción, memoria y conciencia fonológica; estos procesos permiten detectar dificultades en el desarrollo cognoscitivo infantil. El objetivo de este artículo de investigación fue describir la relación entre el desempeño de la comprensión lectora y la precisión y velocidad de la lectura, así como con procesos cognoscitivos como la atención, percepción, memoria y conciencia fonológica en niños de tercer grado de educación primaria de Xalapa, Veracruz. Se evaluaron 26 niños (13 masculinos, 13 femeninos con edad promedio de 8 años y 8 meses (DE+ 8 meses a través de la Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil (ENI en las áreas de lectura, percepción visual/auditiva, atención visual/auditiva, memoria visual/auditiva y conciencia fonológica. La precisión y velocidad de la lectura así como la conciencia fonológica favorecen al buen rendimiento de la comprensión lectora. Abstract Reading comprehension requires the interaction of different cognitive processes: attention, perception, memory and phonological awareness; these processes allow detecting difficulties in child cognitive development. The objective of this research paper was to describe the relationship between the performance of reading comprehension and the precision and speed of reading, as well as cognitive processes like attention, perception, memory and phonological awareness in children from third grade of primary education of Xalapa, Veracruz. 26 children (13 male, 13 female with an average age of 8 years and 8 months (8 months were evaluated. The children neuropsychological assessment (ENI was aplicadad in the areas of reading, visual and auditory perception, visual and auditory attention, visual/auditory memory and phonological awareness. The accuracy and speed of reading and phonological awareness favor the good performance of reading comprehension.

  19. Diseño de mobiliario escolar mediante el aprendizaje basado en proyectos programación trimestral para la materia de tecnología industrial para 1º Bachillerato

    OpenAIRE

    Ortí Amela, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Treball Final de Màster Universitari en Professor/a d'Educació Secundària Obligatòria i Batxillerat, Formació Professional i Ensenyaments d'Idiomes. Codi: SAP129. Curs: 2014/2015 planteamiento del Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABP) de la asignatura de Tecnología Industrial I de 1º de Bachillerato, secuenciada en un trimestre, contextualizada en el centro donde realicé las prácticas, IES Penyagolosa de Castellón. Dado que el docente debe ser competente para ser capaz de organizar, pl...

  20. RELACIÓN ENTRE LA ANEMIA GESTACIONAL EN LA ALTURA DETECTADO EN EL I TRIMESTRE Y LOS RESULTADOS PERINATALES. HOSPITAL DANIEL ALCIDES CARRIÓN PASCO. AÑO 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Rios Bernardo, Cledy Ruperta

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre la anemia gestacional en la altura detectado en el I trimestre y los resultados perinatales. Hospital Daniel Alcides Carrión – Pasco. Año 2015. Método de Estudio: Deductivo; diseño descriptivo de nivel relacional, tipo retrospectivo, de cohorte transversal; la población estudiada estuvo constituida por 44 gestantes. Resultados: 1. La edad más frecuente 18 años, el 86% procedente de la zonas distritales, con estudios de secundaria en el 64% y 73% co...

  1. Errores de escritura en español en niños de tercer grado de educación primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Elizabeth Granados Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir los errores en las producciones escritas de niños de tercer grado de educación primaria de escuelas públicas, teniendo en cuenta su bajo rendimiento en pruebas del Estado. Método. Participaron 42 niños de tercer grado de educación primaria de escuelas oficiales de la ciudad de Xalapa (Veracruz, México, con una edad promedio de 8 años. Se aplicaron la Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para niños WISCIV, estandarizada para población mexicana, y la Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil (ENI. Resultados. Se observaron diferencias significativas con la prueba Anova, al comparar el total de errores con la composición narrativa, con la coherencia narrativa y con la longitud de la producción narrativa; y al comparar la precisión de la escritura con los procesos de percepción y memoria auditiva. Predominaron los errores de tipo ortográfico, visual, espacial y auditivos. Conclusión. El análisis de las producciones escritas de los niños permitió describir sus características, los tipos de error y los procesos neuropsicológicos asociados con los errores en la escritura.

  2. Calidad de sueño y excesiva somnolencia diurna en estudiantes del tercer y cuarto año de Medicina

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    Michael Bill Barrenechea Loo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo, Determinar el grado de somnolencia diurna y calidad del sueño en estudiantes del tercero y cuarto año de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de San Martín de Porres. Diseño, Descriptivo exploratorio transversal. Lugar, Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de San Martin de Porres. Participantes, 195 y 199 estudiantes de medicina de tercer y cuarto año, respectivamente. Intervenciones, Cuestionarios de escala de somnolencia de Epworth e índice de calidad del sueño Pittsburgh Modificado con estudio probabilístico aleatorio simple de estudiantes de medicina del tercer y cuarto año. Principales medidas de resultados, Frecuencias de Somnolencia diurna y calidad del sueño Resultados, Edad promedio global de 21.08 años. El 64.5% tiene mala calidad del sueño y 26%, excesiva somnolencia diurna. Se encontró una media global de 5.6 horas de sueño. Conclusiones, Se encontró alta frecuencia de mala calidad del sueño y excesiva somnolencia diurna en los estudiantes de medicina encuestados, además de un valor porcentual considerable sobre el consumo de medicación hipnótica y una tendencia a dormir 6 horas o menos.

  3. Tendencias de la Comunicación del Tercer Sector en la web 2.0: Análisis retórico de los tropos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Arroyo Almaraz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los grandes éxitos de determinados mensajes a través de las redes sociales han hecho que este nuevo “medio” se vea como un modelo muy interesante para el Tercer Sector. En este artículo llevamos a cabo el análisis de aspectos formales y de contenido de las comunicaciones del Tercer Sector en las redes sociales y se determinan las tendencias que se repiten  destacando, entre otros,  el uso retórico de los tropos. Se percibe una tendencia hacia la similitud de los mensajes estudiados en sus aspectos narrativos, expresivos, persuasivos y retóricos. Los mensajes de carácter social distribuidos a través de las redes sociales muestran, en su construcción, perfiles uniformes y homogéneos en sus aspectos formales. Se concluye que utilizan las mismas piezas ya usadas en otros medios por lo que se infiere que no piensan en las bondades de las redes sociales para aprovechar los recursos específicos de éstas.  

  4. Frecuencia de trastornos mentales en alumnos del tercer año de la Facultad de Medicina de una universidad privada de Lima - 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodas Descalzi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El estudiante de medicina está sometido a numerosas fuentes de estrés que lo hacen más susceptible a sufrir una gran variedad de trastornos mentales. Todo ello ha sido tema de múltiples estudios. La MINI (M: Mini I: International N: Neuropsychiatric I: Interview en formato escrito tiene 15 módulos que exploran diferentes diagnósticos y su versión peruana se ha validado recientemente. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de trastornos mentales en los estudiantes de tercer año de medicina de una universidad privada. Material y métodos: Se aplicó la MINI con una ficha de recolección de datos, previo consentimiento informado a los alumnos de tercer año. Se accedió luego a los resultados de MILLON aplicado en el examen médico anual. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue 68,1%. Se encontró una frecuencia de trastorno mental de 41,8%, sobresaliendo el Trastorno de Ansiedad Generalizada (27,84%. La frecuencia de probable trastorno de personalidad fue 80% destacando el Compulsivo (48,5%. Conclusiones: Se obtuvieron frecuencias elevadas de trastornos mentales, siendo el más frecuente el Trastorno de Ansiedad Generalizada y el probable Trastorno Compulsivo de personalidad; los mismos que deben ser confirmados con entrevistas psiquiátricas posteriores. (Rev Med Hered 2009;20:158-164.

  5. Argel, Buenos Aires, Montreal: el Comité de Cine del Tercer Mundo (1973 / 1974 / Algiers, Buenos Aires, Montreal: the Third World Cinema Committee (1973 / 1974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Mestman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El encuentro de cineastas de Argel (Argelia en diciembre de 1973 es bien conocido en los estudios sobre el cine del Tercer Mundo. En cuanto oportunidad de intercambio y discusión, este encuentro permitió la organización del trabajo de los cineastas y focalizó el debate en tres ejes principales: la contribución del cine a los procesos de liberación nacional, la descolonización de las pantallas del Tercer Mundo y la lucha contra la «alienación cultural». El resultado más importante fue la creación del Comité de Cine del Tercer Mundo. Solo seis meses más tarde, un nuevo encuentro tuvo lugar en Buenos Aires (Argentina. Por un lado, el presente ensayo muestra cómo un proyecto político-cinematográfico (el «tercermundismo» fue tomando forma gradualmente durante esos años y destaca el rol de ambas reuniones en la promoción de esta nueva identidad político-cultural. Por otro, este trabajo también propone la necesidad de incorporar a esta historia otro evento decisivo: los Rencontres Internationales pour un Nouveau Cinema, realizados en Montreal en 1974. Poco considerado incluso por la bibliografía especializada, este encuentro puede considerarse el más importante del cine polí- tico mundial de los años sesenta y setenta. Dada la cantidad y diversidad de los participantes de Europa, Estados Unidos, África y América Latina, la conferencia de Montreal fue crucial en la constitución del diálogo entre los cineastas políticos del Primer Mundo y la tendencia tercermundista construida entre Argel y Buenos Aires.Palabras clave: Tercer Mundo, tercermundismo, Tercer Cine, Nuevo Cine Latinoamericano, Federación Panafricana de CineastasAbstract:The filmmakers meeting held in Algiers (Algeria in December 1973 is a wellknown event among Third World Cinema´s studies. As an opportunity to exchange and discussion, this gathering organised the work of Third World filmmakers and focused the debate on three main issues: the contribution of

  6. Programa de Inglés Enfocado en el Uso de Recursos Materiales Audiovisuales para Estudiantes de Tercer Grado de Primaria de Una Institución Educativa Particular del Distrito de Miraflores

    OpenAIRE

    CHÁVEZ AOJALLA, CARLOS ENRIQUE

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo principal de la siguiente investigación fue evaluar los efectos en el aprendizaje del idioma inglés en estudiantes de tercer grado de primaria de una escuela particular del distrito de Miraflores al aplicar un programa de ingles basado en el uso de recursos materiales audiovisuales. La muestra estuvo conformada por 32 niños y niñas de tercer grado de primaria; 16 estudiantes formaron parte del grupo control y 16 estudiantes del grupo experimental. El instrumento de evaluación f...

  7. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  8. Incorporación de la asignatura de tercer ciclo "Técnicas y métodos de investigación jurídica comparada" al campus virtual

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino Lozano, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Mediante la herramienta informática «Campus Virtual» se dinamiza una asignatura de tercer ciclo que tiene por objeto analizar la metodología de trabajo y el desarrollo de estrategias en la investigación jurídica.

  9. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  10. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  12. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  13. Resistencia y susceptibilidad de microorganismos aislados en pacientes atendidos en una institución hospitalaria de tercer nivel, Villavicencio-Colombia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alexander Gutiérrez Lesmes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La resistencia bacteriana es problema significativo de salud pública y está asociada al uso indiscriminado e irracional de antibióticos, lo que afecta la eficacia de los tratamientos. Objetivo: Estimar la resistencia antimicrobiana a los antibióticos resultado de las pruebas invitro de susceptibilidad en una institución hospitalaria de tercer nivel de Villavicencio, Colombia. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de tipo retrospectivo, análisis univariado, calculando medias de las variables susceptibilidad, resistencia, antibiótico, microorganismos, y tipo de muestra resultados de las pruebas de susceptibilidad realizadas mediante técnica de Kirby-Bauer de 485 pruebas de susceptibilidad de la institución hospitalaria. Resultados y Discusión: Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados, fueron: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. Pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus ss. Aureus representando el 49% de total de microorganismos, los mayores reportes de resistencia en la pruebas invitro las presentaron Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus saprophyticus ss. Saprophytic, Enterobacter cloacae, presentan una resistencia media superior al 50%, y una susceptibilidad inferior 40%, la mayor resistencia media se presentó para los siguientes antibióticos, Cefalotina 72,2%, Cefazolina 59,9%, Nitrofurantoina 54,4%, Ceftriaxona 52,7%. Conclusiones: Antibióticos como la Cefalotina, Nitrofurantoina, Cefazolina y Ceftriaxona  pierden su utilidad terapéutica dada la elevada resistencia demostrada por los microorganismos aislados en las pruebas invitro, es necesario reforzar las medidas de uso adecuado de antibióticos para disminuir la posibilidad de adaptación y resistencia a los mismos,  el fenómeno de resistencia bacteriana ocurre fuera del ámbito hospitalario evidenciando la necesidad de iniciar también control y vigilancia en infecciones ocurridas en la comunidad.Cómo citar este

  14. Huella de carbono en cinco establecimientos de salud del tercer nivel de atención de Perú, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Bambarén-Alatrista

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para calcular la huella de carbono generada por los establecimientos de salud del tercer nivel de atención ubicados en la ciudad de Lima, Perú, en el año 2013. Se obtuvieron los reportes del consumo de recursos energéticos y agua, así como la generación de residuos de cinco establecimientos, los cuales contribuyeron al cambio climático con la emisión de 14 462 teq CO2. El 46% de estas emisiones están asociadas al consumo de combustible para el funcionamiento de la casa de fuerza, generadores eléctricos y vehículos de transporte. Un 44% se relacionan con el consumo de energía eléctrica, y el restante 10% con la utilización de agua y generación de residuos sólidos hospitalarios. CO2, N2O y CH4 son los gases de efecto invernadero incluidos en la estimación de la huella de carbono. Los hospitales tienen un impacto ambiental negativo, principalmente debido al consumo de combustibles fósiles.

  15. Burnout, liderazgo y satisfacción laboral en el personal asistencial de un hospital de tercer nivel en Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Contreras Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue identificar la presencia del Síndrome de Burnout, los estilos de liderazgo y la satisfacción laboral de los profesionales asistenciales de un hospital de tercer nivel y observar su relación, considerando variables sociodemográficas. Para ello, se utilizó el MBI, el TAP y el Test de Satisfacción Laboral S20/23, respectivamente. De acuerdo con los resultados, se encontró baja presencia de Burnout y altos niveles de realización personal, a pesar de las condiciones laborales adversas precursoras del síndrome. Contrario a lo reportado en la literatura, las personas con el síndrome o en riesgo de padecerlo presentan alta satisfacción laboral, sustentada en su motivación intrínseca, lo cual constituye un factor protector. No se encontró relación directa entre liderazgo y Burnout, pero el liderazgo sí se relaciona con la satisfacción laboral a través de la motivación intrínseca. Por último, se confirma el papel mediador de las variables sociodemográficas.

  16. Modulación Contextual en la Extinción: Recuperación de una Aversión Condicionada al Sabor en un Tercer Contexto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento se diseñó para evaluar la renovación ABC con un procedimiento de condicionamiento de aversión al sabor (CAS en tres fases: adquisición, extinción y prueba. Durante la adquisición, 15 ratas Wistar, asignadas a los grupos ABC y ABB, tuvieron acceso a una solución con sacarosa y posteriormente recibieron una inyección de cloruro de litio (LiCl en el Contexto A. En la extinción, ambos grupos bebieron la solución con sacarosa sin la administración del LiCl en el Contexto B. En la prueba, los grupos tuvieron acceso a la solución con sacarosa sin administrarles LiCl en el contexto de extinción para el grupo ABB, y en un tercer contexto para el grupo ABC. Los resultados mostraron la recuperación de la aversión condicionada al sabor únicamente en el grupo ABC.

  17. Contribución de la merienda al patrón alimentario de escolares con exceso de peso y estado nutricional normal, en Cartago, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    López, Marianela Ibarra; Llobet León, Laia; Fernández Rojas, Xinia

    2012-01-01

    Con el fin de identificar el aporte nutricional de las meriendas al patrón alimentario de los escolares con estado nutricional normal y con exceso de peso, se estudiaron 80 escolares (40 casos con sobrepeso/obesidad y 40 controles con estado nutricional normal) costarricenses de primer a tercer grado. Se tomó peso, talla y pliegue tricipital para la valoración antropométrica y se utilizó un registro dietético de tres días para la información de consumo. Las meriendas fueron analizadas de acue...

  18. Teenage pregnancy: use of drugs in the third trimester and prevalence of psychiatric disorders Gravidez na adolescência: uso de drogas no terceiro trimestre e prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Sendin Mitsuhiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders during pregnancy, the prevalence of cocaine and marijuana use during the third trimester of gestation and the socio-demographic characteristics of a population of low-income teenagers. METHOD: One thousand pregnant teenagers were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and a socio-demographic and socio-economic questionnaire at the obstetric center of a public hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Hair sample was collected for analysis. RESULTS: Of the 1000 pregnant teenagers interviewed, 53.6% were poor, 90.4% were unemployed, 92.5% were financially dependant and 60.2% dropped out of school. Those using drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy were equal to 6% (marijuana: 4%, cocaine: 1.7%, both: 0.3%. Those having at least one psychiatric disorder equaled 27.6%. The most frequent diagnoses were depression (12.9%, posttraumatic stress disorder (10.0% and anxiety disorders (5.6%. DISCUSSION: Unstructured families, dropping out of school, unemployment and a low level of professional training are all contributing factors to the maintenance of an unfavorable socio-economic environment in which there is a high prevalence of cocaine and marijuana use during the third trimester of pregnancy and an abnormally high incidence of psychiatric disorders.OBJETIVO: Determinar, em adolescentes de baixa renda, a prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos durante a gravidez, a prevalência de uso de cocaína e maconha no terceiro trimestre de gestação e descrever suas características sociodemográficas. MÉTODO: Mil adolescentes grávidas foram avaliadas por meio do Composite International Diagnostic Interview e de um questionário sociodemográfico e socioeconômico no centro obstétrico de um hospital público de São Paulo. Dessas, foi colhida amostra para análise de fios de cabelo. RESULTADOS: Das mil pacientes entrevistadas, 53,6% têm baixa renda, 60,2% abandonaram

  19. Análisis del comportamiento de la inflación trimestral en Colombia bajo cambios de régimen: Una evidencia a través del modelo "Switching" de Hamilton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Melo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como propósito estudiar la evolución de la inflación trimestral en Colombia, durante el período comprendido entre 1954 y 1996, a través de la metodología de Hamilton(1989 y segundo presentar algunos conceptos relacionados con dicha metodología, la cual introduce cambios de régimen en el análisis convencional de series de tiempo. En general, esta metodología permite estimar modelos ARIMA con parámetros o varianzas cambiantes en el tiempo. En este caso, tales cambios en el modelo de la inflación se suponen asociados a posibles regímenes distintos donde la inflación presenta cambios en su nivel o en su variabilidad. Esta modelación posibilita el reconocimiento de los distintos regímenes a través del tiempo (por ejemplo dos regímenes: inflación alta e inflación baja en lo referente a su tiempo promedio de duración y a la probabilidad asociada de cada uno de ellos, es decir, la probabilidad de estar en un régimen particular en un momento dado del tiempo. Las probabilidades de transición estimadas, permiten concluir, por ejemplo, que al estar en un régimen de inflación trimestral moderado, la probabilidad de permanecer en éste es muy alta (0.94, en tanto que pasar de éste a un régimen de inflación promedio alta tiene una probabilidad de (0.05, la cual es cinco veces mayor que la estimada para la transición de moderada a baja (0.01. Adicionalmente, se puede observar que la máxima probabilidad de permanecer en un mismo régimen se tiene en aquel caracterizado como de inflación y variabilidad moderadas.

  20. Jóvenes y tercer sector de medios en España: Formación en comunicación y cambio social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo tiene por objeto acercarse al papel de los medios comunitarios, libres y universitarios del Estado español como instrumentos para la alfabetización mediática y en tanto que espacios para la conformación de ciudadanía crítica y comunicativa. Tras el apartado conceptual, se analizan los procesos de aprendizaje que se implementan con respecto a la ciudadanía en general y a las comunidades de referencia en particular, prestando especial atención al rol y a la participación de la juventud. A partir de la triangulación de técnicas cuantitativas (encuesta y cualitativas (grupos de discusión, los resultados demuestran que los medios del tercer sector actúan como valiosas herramientas para la adquisición de habilidades y competencias críticas que pueden transferirse a la esfera profesional y vivencial de los jóvenes, dada la identificación de estos medios con los intereses, problemáticas y aspiraciones juveniles. En un sentido amplio, estas iniciativas contribuyen a la expansión del derecho a la comunicación en dos irecciones: por un lado, porque están abiertas a la participación ciudadana en las tareas de gestión y programación de los contenidos; y, por otro, porque sus prácticas descentralizadas constituyen un laboratorio de creatividad periodística que, a su vez, está vinculado al devenir de los movimientos sociales y otras formaciones de la ciudadanía organizada (ONG, asociaciones, etc..

  1. Hacer globalización desde Ecuador. El tercer espacio como utopía para el ecuatoriano en Timarán y Cuabú de Nelson Estupiñán Bass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Mvondo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo estudia cómo Nelson Estupiñán Bass da cuenta de la dinámica de la creación del tercer espacio en Ecuador con relación a la utopía de progreso socioeconómico que esta arrastra. Contempla la articulación entre “tercer espacio” y “utopía”. Este trabajo, que se apoya en el enfoque sociocrítico, analiza el espacio en Timarán y Cuabú y las inscripciones ideológicas que en ello afloran. Culmina en los siguientes resultados: 1 el tercer espacio es un lugar de intereses y resistencia para el ecuatoriano;y 2 este espacio suscita cierta utopía de desarrollo en el ecuatoriano. This paper studies how Nelson Estupiñán Bass realizes the dynamics in the creation of the third space in Ecuador relative to the utopia of socio-economic progress dragged by the latter. The study focuses on the articulation of the “third space” and the “utopia”. As this work is based on the sociocritical approach, it analyses the space from Timarán y Cuabú and the ideologies that it outcrops. The study deals with the following findings: 1 the third space is a space of interests and resistance for the Ecuadorian and 2 that space create a utopia of development in the Ecuadorian.

  2. Intervención educativa sobre infecciones de transmisión sexual en adolescentes del tercer año de secundaria del Colegio “Los Jazmines de Naranjal” de Lima, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Segura Zuloaga, Silvia E.; Hospital de Huaycán; Matzumura Kasano, Juan P.; Federación Latinoamericana de Sociedades de Climaterio y Menopausia (FLASCYM).; Gutiérrez Crespo, Hugo; Sociedad Peruana de Obstetricia y Ginecología (SPOG).

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia de una intervención educativa para elevar los conocimientos sobre las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual (ITS) en adolescentes del tercer año de educación Secundaria del colegio "Los Jazmines de Naranjal". Material y Métodos: Estudio pre experimental, prospectivo y longitudinal con una muestra de 95 adolescentes. Al inicio, se verificó con un pre-test un inadecuado nivel de conocimientos sobre Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual. Dicho instrumento estuvo dividido...

  3. Pensamiento constructivo y variables sociodemográficas en estudiantes de primero a tercer semestre de la facultad de psicología de la Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yovany Álvarez Ramírez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la modalidad de pensamiento constructivo de acuerdo con algunas variables sociodemográficas en estudiantes de primero a tercer semestre del programa de Psicología de la UNAB. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 70 estudiantes. A dicha muestra se le aplicó el inventario de pensamiento constructivo y algunas preguntas sociodemográficas. Los resultados indican que los estudiantes varones presentan una mejor puntuación en pensamiento constructivo que las mujeres. Además, los estudiantes mayores presentan mayor puntuación en pensamiento constructivo que los jóvenes.

  4. El Tercer Sector extremeño: un estudio descriptivo sobre su relación con las Nuevas Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio López Rey

    2006-01-01

    Este trabajo es una investigación sobre las ONG’s en Extremadura (España) y su relación con las Nuevas Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación. Analiza su presencia en Internet, su estructura y funcionamiento con el objetivo de comprobar si el denominado Tercer Sector se ha incorporado totalmente al tren de la Sociedad Telemática. El estudio, aunque de alcance local, es útil para observar la evolución y los cambios en estas organizaciones solidarias.

  5. Aplicación de un programa de educación en la castidad para los alumnos de tercer año de secundaria de los colegios parroquiales de Piura

    OpenAIRE

    Murúa Villena, Lucía Marisela

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación busca aplicar un programa de educación en la castidad para promover la vivencia de una recta sexualidad en los adolescentes del tercer año de secundaria; es decir, una adecuada educación sexual entendida en términos de promoción, de búsqueda por vivir la virtud, en este caso de promover la virtud de la castidad. El trabajo empieza delimitando el problema y los objetivos que busca alcanzar. Luego se desarrolla la fundamentación en la que se busca conocer la realidad d...

  6. Caracterización de los accidentes de trabajo en los funcionarios de una clínica de tercer nivel de la ciudad de Bogotá 2010 a 2013.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Rojas, Aida Bibiana; Coley Escorcia, Guillermo; Cárdenas Polanía, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Caracterizar la accidentalidad laboral en una clínica de tercer nivel de la ciudad de Bogotá, en el periodo 2010 a 2013. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo corte transversal, utilizando una base de datos de accidentalidad en los trabajadores vinculados directamente con la institución. Resultados: Durante el periodo estudiado se generaron 191 accidentes, 57 casos en el año 2013, el personal de enfermería fue el grupo con mayor porcentaje de accidentes (70.2 %...

  7. Tercer sector y univocidad conceptual: necesidad y elementos configuradores Terceiro setor e univocidade conceitual: necessidade e elementos configuradores The third sector and conceptual univocality: necessity and essential elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Jiménez Escobar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se destaca la importancia de que exista un concepto unívoco del tercer sector. En primer lugar se justifica esta relevancia conceptual desde un punto de vista epistemológico tanto para el estudio de los hechos sociales (objeto de conocimiento como para la propia configuración de las comunidades científicas (sujeto del conocimiento. En segundo lugar, también se argumenta esta necesidad de univocidad ya que condiciona las diferentes políticas públicas, y porque incide en la interacción de los agentes que contribuyen al cambio social. Por último se abordan los rasgos que pueden delimitar este espacio social propio, por un lado, y a caracterizar las particularidades de las entidades que operan en el mismo, por otro.No presente trabalho destaca-se a importância de que exista um conceito unívoco do Terceiro Setor. Em primeiro lugar, justifica-se esta relevância conceitual desde um ponto de vista epistemológico, tanto para o estudo dos fatos sociais (objeto de conhecimento, quanto para a própria configuração das comunidades científicas (sujeito do conhecimento. Em segundo lugar, argumenta-se também essa necessidade de univocidade já que condiciona as diferentes políticas públicas, e porque incide na integração dos agentes que contribuem para a mudança social. Por último, são abordados os rasgos que podem, por um lado, delimitar este espaço social próprio, e por outro, caracterizar as particularidades das entidades que operam em ele.This study emphasizes the importance of a univocal concept of the third sector. It first justifies the conceptual importance of univocality from a epistemological perspective and for the study of social facts (as an object of knowledge. Secondly, it argues the need for univocality since the concept is relevant to various public policies, and because it influences the integration of agents who contribute to social change. Finally, it looks at the divisions that can both

  8. Factores asociados a los accidentes por exposición percutánea en personal de enfermería en un hospital de tercer nivel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo López Mª Teresa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea suponen aproximadamente un tercio de los accidentes laborales del personal sanitario hospitalario. Su importancia estriba en las enfermedades causadas por patógenos transmisibles por esta vía (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, infección VIH. Objetivos: describir los accidentes de este tipo notificados en un hospital de tercer nivel; identificar factores asociados a estos accidentes en personal de enfermería; construir un modelo predictivo del riesgo individual de accidentarse. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de una cohorte retrospectiva compuesta por todas las personas que notificaron un accidente entre el 1-1-93 y el 30-6-96. Estudio de casos y controles en el personal de enfermería durante el período 1-1-95 al 30-6-96, analizado mediante regresión logística múltiple. RESULTADOS: La incidencia acumulada de accidentes en un año fue de 0,078 para las/-os enfermeras/-os. En el 57,3% de los casos estuvieron implicadas agujas de jeringas desechables o precargadas. La incidencia acumulada en un año fue mayor para las agujas de cateterismo intravenoso (8,5 por 100.000. El riesgo de accidentabilidad, ajustado por variables confundentes, fue mayor para las/-os enfermeras/-os (OR=3,22; I.C.95%=1,96-5,27, para los trabajadores de la Unidad de Hemodiálisis (OR=35,21; I.C.95%=3,74-331,16 y para aquéllos con contrato eventual (OR=4,50; I.C.95%=2,24-9,04. CONCLUSIONES: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea en este hospital son más frecuentes entre el personal de enfermería y se producen, fundamentalmente, con algún tipo de aguja hueca. Se han identificado factores asociados a estos accidentes, lo que permite dirigir programas preventivos específicos sobre trabajadores con más riesgo. El modelo obtenido es válido para estimar el grado de accidentabilidad individual en los sujetos estudiados.

  9. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  10. Achados Ultra-Sonográficos em Pacientes com Ameaça de Abortamento no Primeiro Trimestre da Gestação Ultrasound Findings in First-trimester Threatened Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Watanabe

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar os achados ultra-sonográficos nas gestantes com ameaça de abortamento no primeiro trimestre da gestação. Métodos: exames de ultra-som obstétrico transabdominal e transvaginal foram realizados nas pacientes com sangramento vaginal e teste de gravidez positivo. Foram incluídas as gestantes entre 6 a 14 semanas de gestação pela data da última menstruação ou pelo exame ultra-sonográfico, que apresentavam colo do útero impérvio ao exame clínico. Foram excluídas as gestações múltiplas ou aquelas que realizaram tentativa de abortamento por meio de drogas ou manipulação. Resultados: em 132 dos 247 casos (53.4% foi diagnosticada gestação viável e em 46.6% (115/247, gestação inviável. Abortamento incompleto foi identificado em 19% (47/247, abortamento completo em 8,5% (21/247, abortamento retido em 7,7% (19/247, gestação anembrionada em 6,1% (15/247, gestação ectópica em 4,5% (11/247 e mola hidatiforme em 0,8% (2/247. Conclusão: aproximadamente metade (46,6% das gestações com ameaça de abortamento no primeiro trimestre apresentaram diagnóstico de inviabilidade da gestação. O exame ultra-sonográfico pode ajudar a definir esta condição e a conduta obstétrica.Objective: to evaluate ultrasound findings in pregnant women with threatened abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy. Methods: transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound scans were performed in patients with vaginal bleeding with previous positive pregnancy test. Patients with 6-14-week gestation (by the last menstrual period or ultrasound scan, with closed cervix on clinical evaluation were included. Multiple pregnancies and those patients who have tried abortion by using abortive drugs or manipulation were excluded. Results: in 132 of 247 (53.4% the pregnancy was viable and in 46.6% (115/247 the pregnancy was nonviable. Incomplete miscarriage was found in 19% (47/247, complete miscarriage in 8.5% (21/247, missed abortion in 7.7% (19

  11. Comportamento de lactentes nascidos a termo pequenos para a idade gestacional no primeiro trimestre da vida Behavior of full term infants small for gestational age in the first three months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Balanin A. Mello

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi comparar o comportamento de lactentes nascidos a termo com peso adequado (AIG a lactantes pequenos para a idade gestacional (PIG, no primeiro trimestre de vida. A amostra foi de 20 lactentes, avaliados no 1º, 2º e 3º meses. Foram utilizadas as Escalas Bayley de Desenvolvimento Infantil - II, com ênfase na Escala de Classificação do Comportamento (ECC. Houve diferença significativa entre os grupos no 2º mês, com maior número de lactentes PIG classificados como alterados na ECC. O Fator Qualidade Motora demonstrou valores da mediana significativamente menores no grupo PIG, nos itens Motricidade Axial, Controle de Movimentos e Hipertonia Muscular. O Fator Atenção/Vigília não mostrou diferença entre os grupos. Entretanto, quando analisados os itens Exploração de Objetos e de Ambiente e Interação com o Examinador, houve diferença significativa no 2º mês, com valores da mediana menores no grupo PIG.The objective was to compare the behavior of full-term infants small-for-gestational age (SGA with full-term appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA. The sample considered 20 infants in the 1st, 2nd and in the 3rd months of life. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II were used, with attention to items related to Behavior Rate Scale (BRS. It was found that SGA infants showed lower average values in the BRS in the 2nd month. The Motor Quality Factor displayed significantly lower average values in SGA group, in the items Gross-motor Movement Required by Tasks, Control of Movements and Hypertonicity. The Attention/Arousal Factor in the items Exploration of Objects/Surroundings and Orientation to Examiner displayed significantly lower average values in the SGA group.

  12. La evaluación integral en la asignatura Sanidad Vegetal en el tercer año de la carrera Ingeniería Agrónoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Caridad Terry Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La didáctica tiene como objeto de estudio la dirección del proceso enseñanza- aprendizaje. Las concepciones sobre evaluación han estado marcadas por las teorías gnoseológicas que sirven de base metodológica a las concepciones pedagógicas, en especial a las teorías de aprendizajes que aportan los elementos esenciales acerca de cómo debe transcurrir el proceso de aprendizaje y en particular su evaluación. La asignatura Sanidad Vegetal, que se imparte en el tercer año, carente de una evaluación integradora. En reuniones de la disciplina se pudo conformar un trabajo que permita la orientación para la evaluación integral de los contenidos como componente del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje. Por lo que es objetivo de este trabajo Evaluar de forma integrada los contenidos de la asignatura Sanidad Vegetal en el tercer año de la carrera del Ingeniero Agrónomo. Los resultados en la práctica muestran el dominio por parte de los estudiantes del logro de las habilidades de la asignatura Sanidad Vegetal, la producción de materiales digitales e impresos.

  13. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  14. Dispositivo de seguridad para controlar mejor el tercer molar impactado durante exodoncia: Una nueva técnica Security device for a better control of impacted third molars during exodontia: A new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hernández Altemir

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available El desplazamiento accidental del tercer molar impactado es una complicación que ocurre de vez en cuando durante la exodoncia. La recuperación de estos dientes accidentalmente desplazados puede ser compleja debido a la mala visibilidad y el espacio limitado. Describimos una técnica fácil basada en un sistema de anclaje para controlar mejor los terceros molares impactados durante la exodoncia.Accidental displacement of impacted third molars is a complication that occasionally occurs during exodontia. The retrieval of these accidentally displaced third molars may be complex due to poor visibility and limited space. We describe an easy technique for a better control of impacted third molars during exodontia based on an anchoring system.

  15. en ocho cuentos utilizados en el tercer ciclo de la educación general básica del sistema educativo costarricense en el año 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Fernández Carballo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza una enumeración de los diversos preceptos que la ideología patriarcal asigna a los géneros femenino y masculino, y se pretende demostrar, a partir de las concepciones teóricas de Bajtín sobre las relaciones texto-sociedad, el enunciado y las valoraciones sociales, cómo dichos preceptos se refractan en ocho cuentos de lectura obligatoria utilizados por los estudiantes del Tercer Ciclo de la Educación General Básica del Sistema Educativo Costarricense en el año 2005. Finalmente, se establecen, en la conclusión, algunas recomendaciones en torno al tema tratado por su incidencia en la formación de los estudiantes.

  16. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  17. Exiliados judíos del Tercer Reich en el cine español: 1933-1936 / Jews in Exile from the 3rd Reich in the Spanish Cinema: 1933-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando González García

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende dar cuenta por extenso de la participación de judíos exiliados del Tercer Reich en el cine español entre 1933 y 1936, años en los que florece la industria cinematográfica española tras la crisis del sonoro. Se analizan aquí las estrategias de las empresas que estos exiliados forman o gestionan, y el papel de los técnicos y artistas en el conjunto de la cinematografía española, ofreciendo un listado pormenorizado de nombres y actividades, y su destino tras el inicio de la Guerra Civil en España.Palabras clave: capitales, empresarios, gestores, técnicos, artistas, productoras, películas, Tercer Reich, cine español, años treinta.AbstractThe aim of this paper is to fully inform the participation in the Spanish cinema between 1933and 1936 of Jews in exile from the Third Reich. It is in these years that the Spanish film industry flourishes after the ‘Sound Crisis’. Not only the strategies of the production companies that these exiled Jews created or managed will be analysed, but also the role of technicians and artists that participated in every aspect of the Spanish cinematography. Additionally, a detailed list of names and activities will be provided, with indication of their destiny after the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.Keywords: capital, businessmen, managers, technicians, artists, production companies, movies, Third Reich, Spanish cinema, Thirties.

  18. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  19. Using the Bologna Score to assess normal delivery healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Isaiane da Silva; Brito, Rosineide Santana de

    2016-01-01

    Describing the obstetric care provided in public maternity hospitals during normal labour using the Bologna Score in the city of Natal, Northeastern Brazil. A quantitative cross-sectional study conducted with 314 puerperal women. Data collection was carried out consecutively during the months of March to July 2014. Prenatal care was provided to 95.9% of the mothers, beginning around the 1st trimester of pregnancy (72.3%) and having seven or more consultations (51%). Spontaneous vaginal delivery was planned for 88.2% women. All laboring women were assisted by a health professional, mostly by a physician (80.6%), and none of them obtained 5 points on the Bologna Score due to the small percentage of births in non-supine position (0.3%) and absence of a partogram (2.2%). A higher number of episiotomies were observed among primiparous women (75.5%). The score obtained using the Bologna Index was low. Thus, it is necessary to improve and readjust the existing obstetrical model. Descrever a assistência obstétrica prestada em maternidades públicas municipais durante o parto normal na cidade de Natal, Nordeste do Brasil, com uso do Índice de Bologna. Estudo transversal com abordagem quantitativa, desenvolvido com 314 puérperas. A coleta de dados processou-se de forma consecutiva durante os meses de março a julho de 2014. A assistência pré-natal foi prestada a 95,9% das puérperas, com início em torno do 1º trimestre de gestação (72,3%) e realização de sete ou mais consultas (51%). O parto vaginal espontâneo foi planejado para 88,2% mulheres. Todas as parturientes foram assistidas por um profissional de saúde, especialmente pelo médico (80,6%) e nenhuma obteve 5 pontos no Índice de Bologna em virtude dos baixos percentuais de partos em posição não supina (0,3%) e ausência do partograma (2,2%). Houve maior número de episiotomias em primíparas (75,5%). A pontuação obtida por meio do Índice de Bologna foi baixa. Desse modo, é preciso melhorar e

  20. Tratamento do abortamento do primeiro trimestre da gestação: curetagem versus aspiração manual a vácuo Treatment of miscarriage in the first trimester of pregnancy: curettage versus manual vacuum aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Arildo Reginaldo de Holanda

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: fazer um estudo comparativo entre a curetagem uterina e a aspiração manual a vácuo (AMV no tratamento do abortamento do primeiro trimestre da gestação. MÉTODOS:foram incluídas 102 pacientes até a 12ª semana de gestação, com diagnóstico de abortamento, admitidas na Maternidade Escola Januário Cicco, entre janeiro de 1998 e julho de 2001, as quais foram aleatoriamente submetidas à curetagem uterina ou a AMV. As variáveis analisadas foram: controle da dor, necessidade de dilatação cervical mecânica, tempo de esvaziamento uterino, incidência de complicações e permanência hospitalar. As pacientes foram reavaliadas clínico-ecograficamente entre 7 e 10 dias após os procedimentos. Para a análise estatística foi utilizado o teste chi2. RESULTADOS: a anestesia geral foi empregada em todas as pacientes submetidas a curetagem uterina e em nenhuma daquelas que realizaram AMV, cuja dor foi controlada em 64% dos casos com anestesia local. As diferenças entre os dois métodos quanto à necessidade de dilatação cervical mecânica, tempo de esvaziamento e incidência de complicações não foram significativas. A permanência hospitalar foi significativamente menor nas pacientes submetidas a AMV. CONCLUSÕES: não foram observadas vantagens de um método sobre o outro, quanto à técnica e à incidência de complicações. O uso não necessário de anestesia geral e a permanência hospitalar significativamente menor indicam que a AMV deve ser recomendada para todos os serviços com assistência obstétrica, aumentando a resolutividade e diminuindo os riscos, melhorando a qualidade da assistência.PURPOSE: to perform a comparative study between uterine curettage and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA in the treatment of first-trimester miscarriages. METHODS: a hundred and two patients were included up to the 12th week of pregnancy, with diagnosis of miscarriage, admitted at Maternidade Escola Januário Cicco, between January 1998

  1. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  2. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  3. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  4. El clima en el aula y el logro de competencias en el área de persona familia y relaciones humanas de los estudiantes del tercer grado de educación secundaria de la Institución Educativa Túpac Amaru, Villa María del Triunfo, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Flores, María de Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    El propósito de la presente investigación es establecer la relación entre el clima en el aula con el logro de competencias en el área de persona familia y relaciones humanas de los estudiantes del tercer grado de educación secundaria de la Institución Educativa Túpac Amaru, distrito de Villa María del Triunfo. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 100 alumnos del tercer grado de educación secundaria, cuyas edades fluctúan entre los 13 y 15 años, y 6 docentes que enseñan el área de persona familia y...

  5. Enfermedad periodontal y embarazo. Revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    B. María De Los Ángeles Herane, DRA.; DR. C. Carlos Godoy; DR. C. Patricio Herane

    2014-01-01

    La gingivitis del embarazo es una enfermedad inflamatoria producida por bacterias con una alta prevalencia, que va del 35 al 100%, según estudios. La severidad de la gingivitis aumentó gradualmente y alcanzó su peak en el tercer trimestre, seguido por una súbita disminución de la severidad en postparto, el cual se correlacionó con un aumento gradual en el nivel plasmático de progesterona y niveles de estrógenos que alcanzan su peak en el tercer trimestre y que sufren una repentina caída despu...

  6. Análisis de la marcha en mujeres embarazadas

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Estebaranz, Emma

    2015-01-01

    El embarazo se caracteriza por un conjunto de cambios en aspectos fisiológicos, psicológicos, emocionales y mecánicos que pueden afectar a la estructura corporal y a la marcha de las mujeres. El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar la influencia de los cambios anatómicos en el patrón de la marcha durante el segundo y tercer trimestre de gestación. La muestra seleccionada consta de cinco mujeres gestantes en el segundo y tercer trimestre de embarazo. Los parámetros cinemáticos y espacio-te...

  7. Algunas características del estado de la oclusión en niños de tercer grado Some characteristics of the occlusion state in third grade children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Alpízar Quintana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal para definir algunas características del estado de la oclusión en 257 niños de tercer grado del Centro Escolar “26 de Julio” de Santiago de Cuba desde septiembre del 2005 hasta julio del 2006. Entre los principales resultados sobresalieron los hábitos deformantes bucales, así como las maloclusiones ligeras y de la clase I de Angle, sobre todo en los varones. La alteración de la oclusión más frecuente fue el resalte aumentado y los tratamientos debieron ser aplicados por ortodoncistas en el nivel primario de atención.A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made to define some characteristics of the state of the occlusion in 257 third grade children of the "26 of Julio" School Center in Santiago de Cuba from September, 2005 to July, 2006. Among the main results the most outstanding were the deforming oral habits, as well as the mild malocclusions and those of the class I Angle, mainly in the males. The most frequent alteration of the occlusion was the increase prominence and the treatments should have been applied by orthodontists in the primary care level.

  8. La participación del tercer sector en las decisiones de vivienda: La integración del usuario en el proceso. Barrio 1 y 2 – Autoconstructores – Ensenada – Provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lombardi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La experiencia desarrollada recientemente en los Seminarios de posgrado, diseñados y coordinados por la UI 3, IDEHAB, FAU, UNLP, en el marco de los correspondientes Proyectos de Investigación, sumada a las actividades de grado y de extensión universitaria, facilita la verificación del rol protagónico que desempeña el usuario en el proceso de decisiones tendientes a lograr soluciones al problema habitacional. El sostenido crecimiento del Tercer Sector, sus complejidades y limitaciones, en el cambiante contexto actual, ha favorecido la incorporación del usuario de la vivienda desde el inicio del proceso como su gestor y generador de recursos, y a continuación, integrando distintas formas organizativas, aportando desde lo personal a las decisiones referidas a diseño y producción de la vivienda. La propuesta de la vivienda implica servicios, equipamiento y comunicaciones; es la respuesta a una necesidad sentida, donde el usuario construye directamente su propio crecimiento personal, acompañado por una mejor calidad de vida de su grupo familiar y acorde a su identidad y reconocimiento de lenguaje tectónico. Esta integración del usuario en el proceso decisorio, requiere la participación de profesionales universitarios con formación consciente y comprometida con la problemática social.

  9. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  10. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  11. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  12. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  13. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  14. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  15. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  16. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  17. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  18. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  19. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  20. Medically-enhanced normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To consider public perspectives on the use of medicines for non-medical purposes, a usage called medically-enhanced normality (MEN). Method: Examples from the literature were combined with empirical data derived from two Danish research projects: a Delphi internet study and a Telebus...

  1. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Caracterización de la anemia durante el embarazo y algunos factores de riesgo asociados, en gestantes del municipio regla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Irania San Gil Suárez

    Full Text Available Introducción: la anemia como problema mundial constituye un indicador general de pobre salud. En Latinoamérica la anemia ferripriva afecta a los grupos vulnerables como las embarazadas. Cuba no está exenta de esta carencia nutricional y su prevalencia alcanza el 25 % de las embarazadas. Objetivo: caracterizar la anemia durante la gestación y su relación con posibles factores asociados. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y de corte transversal en 68 gestantes entre 28 y 32 semanas del Policlínico Lidia y Clodomiro, en el período de octubre a noviembre de 2010. Se aplicó una encuesta con datos sociodemográficos, antecedentes obstétricos y del embarazo actual y se determinó la hemoglobina. Resultados: se observó una disminución de los valores medios de hemoglobina entre el primer trimestre (112 g/L y el tercero (108 g/L. También se constató una alta frecuencia de anemia tanto en el primer trimestre (35,3 % como en el tercer trimestre del embarazo (56,0%, con una anemia moderada más alta. La anemia al inicio del embarazo resultó un factor de riesgo (ρ=0,02 de la existencia de anemia al tercer trimestre. Conclusiones: existió una alta frecuencia de anemia, siendo la anemia moderada la más frecuente, tanto en el primer trimestre como en el tercer trimestre de las embarazadas estudiadas. La anemia al inicio del embarazo resultó ser el factor de riesgo más importante encontrado en nuestro estudio a la existencia de anemia en el tercer trimestre, con independencia de otros posibles factores involucrados.

  3. Epidemiología de la encefalopatía neonatal en un hospital de tercer nivel en Cuba Epidemiology of neonatal encephalopathy in a tertiary level hospital in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rogelio Robaina Castellanos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los factores de riesgo asociados a la ocurrencia de encefalopatía neonatal han sido poco tratados en países del tercer mundo. De igual forma, se desconoce la incidencia de esta entidad en la mayoría de los centros de atención perinatal en Cuba. Objetivo: determinar la incidencia y factores de riesgo de encefalopatía neonatal en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención perinatal en Cuba. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico retrospectivo que incluyó los 35 neonatos con encefalopatía neonatal, provenientes de una cohorte de 19 577 neonatos nacidos vivos en el Hospital Provincial Ginecobstétrico Docente de Matanzas, en el período de 2005-2011. Para la determinación de factores de riesgo se realizó un estudio de caso-control, mediante análisis bivariado, con una relación caso-control de 1:3. Resultados: la incidencia de encefalopatía neonatal fue de 1,78 por 1 000 nacidos vivos. La encefalopatía neonatal posasfixia se presentó en 48,5 % de los casos. La hipertensión arterial materna durante el embarazo, el antecedente materno de hipertensión arterial crónica, la procedencia materna rural y el sexo masculino, constituyeron factores de riesgo antenatales. Los factores de riesgo intranatales encontrados fueron: la presencia de depresión severa al nacer, circulares apretadas al cuello, rotura prematura de membranas, corioamnionitis clínica, placenta previa, estado fetal no tranquilizante y líquido amniótico meconial. Conclusiones: en la población estudiada los factores de riesgo perinatales y algunos antenatales tienen importancia epidemiológica.Introduction: the risk factors related to the onset of neonatal encephalopathy have been poorly treated in the Third World countries. Likewise, the incidence of this disease in most of the Cuban perinatal care centers is unknown. Objective: to determine the incidence and risk factors of neonatal encephalopathy in a tertiary perinatal care hospital. Methods: a

  4. Programa de fluoración de la leche en Codegua, Chile: evaluación al tercer año

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mariño

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available En 1994 se inició un estudio comunitario para determinar la efectividad del uso de productos lácteos fluorados, distribuidos mediante el Programa Nacional de Alimentación Complementaria, con el fin de lograr una disminución de la caries dental infantil en zonas rurales de Chile en las que esta tiene una alta prevalencia. Se determinaron los índices de prevalencia de caries dental en dos comunidades rurales de la Sexta Región de Chile: una en la que los niños recibieron productos lácteos fluorados (comunidad de estudio: Codegua y otra en la que recibieron productos lácteos no fluorados (comunidad testigo: La Punta. Después de recibir productos lácteos fluorados durante 3 años, los índices de prevalencia de caries dental presentaron una significativa mejoría en la comunidad de estudio. Al comparar la prevalencia actual de la caries dental en los preescolares de Codegua con la que presentaban antes de la fluoración de los productos lácteos, se comprueba que disminuyó entre 40 y 60% en niños de 3 a 6 años. En los grupos de 3 y 4 años de edad, la proporción de niños sin antecedentes de caries dental aumentó en 74% (de 40,7 a 70,8% y 71% (de 33,3 a 56,9%, respectivamente. Estos resultados, similares a los obtenidos tras la introducción de programas de fluoración del agua potable, se consiguieron sin ningún otro tipo de intervención adicional en el funcionamiento normal del Programa Nacional de Alimentación Complementaria, como podrían ser campañas de motivación de las madres o de educación para el consumo de productos de este programa.

  5. POSSIBLE ENTRAPMENT OF THE ULNAR ARTERY BY THE THIRD HEAD OF PRONATOR TERES MUSCLE. El posible atrapamiento de la arteria ulnar por el tercer fascículo del músculo pronador teres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de las variaciones en los alrededores de la fosa cubital es útil para cirujanos ortopédicos, cirujanos plásticos y médicos en general. Observamos las variaciones arteriales y musculares en y alrededor de la fosa cubital. La arteria braquial terminó 2 pulgadas por encima de la base de la fosa cubital. Las arterias radiales y cubitales entraron en la fosa cubital  pasando delante de los tendones de los músculos braquial y bíceps braquial respectivamente. La arteria cubital estaba rodeada por el tercer fascículo del pronador teres, que tuvo su origen en la fascia cubriendo la parte distal del músculo braquial. Este músculo se unió a tendón de pronador teres distalmente y fue suministrado por una rama del nervio mediano. Este músculo podría alterar el flujo sanguíneo en la arteria cubital y puede causar dificultades para el registro de la presión sanguínea. Knowledge of variations at and in the surroundings of cubital fossa is useful for the orthopedic surgeons, plastic surgeons and medical practitioners in general. During routine dissection, we observed arterial and muscular variations in and around the cubital fossa. The brachial artery terminated 2 inches above the base of the cubital fossa. The radial and ulnar arteries entered the cubital fossa by passing in front of the tendons of brachialis and biceps brachii respectively. The ulnar artery was surrounded by the third head of pronator teres which took its origin from the fascia covering the distal part of the brachialis muscle. This muscle joined pronator teres tendon distally and was supplied by a branch of median nerve. This muscle could alter the blood flow in the ulnar artery and may cause difficulties in recording the blood pressure.

  6. POSSIBLE ENTRAPMENT OF THE ULNAR ARTERY BY THE THIRD HEAD OF PRONATOR TERES MUSCLE. EL POSIBLE ATRAPAMIENTO DE LA ARTERIA ULNAR POR EL TERCER FASCÍCULO DEL MÚSCULO PRONADOR TERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesha Nayak B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variations at and in the surroundings of cubital fossa is useful for the orthopedic surgeons, plastic surgeons and medical practitioners in general. During routine dissection, we observed arterial and muscular variations in and around the cubital fossa. The brachial artery terminated 2 inches above the base of the cubital fossa. The radial and ulnar arteries entered the cubital fossa by passing in front of the tendons of brachialis and biceps brachii respectively. The ulnar artery was surrounded by the third head of pronator teres which took its origin from the fascia covering the distal part of the brachialis muscle. This muscle joined pronator teres tendon distally and was supplied by a branch of median nerve. This muscle could alter the blood flow in the ulnar artery and may cause difficulties in recording the blood pressure.El conocimiento de las variaciones en los alrededores de la fosa cubital es útil para cirujanos ortopédicos, cirujanos plásticos y médicos en general. Observamos las variaciones arteriales y musculares en y alrededor de la fosa cubital. La arteria braquial terminó 2 pulgadas por encima de la base de la fosa cubital. Las arterias radiales y cubitales entraron en la fosa cubital pasando delante de los tendones de los músculos braquial y bíceps braquial respectivamente. La arteria cubital estaba rodeada por el tercer fascículo del pronador teres, que tuvo su origen en la fascia cubriendo la parte distal del músculo braquial. Este músculo se unió a tendón de pronador teres distalmente y fue suministrado por una rama del nervio mediano. Este músculo podría alterar el flujo sanguíneo en la arteria cubital y puede causar dificultades para el registro de la presión sanguínea.

  7. Conducta sexual en féminas estudiantes de segundo y tercer años de medicina Sexual behavior in female medical students of second and third years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina del Carmen Cano Reyes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de 40 estudiantes de segundo y tercer años de medicina pertenecientes al Policlínico Docente "Carlos Juan Finlay" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta marzo de 2010, con vistas a caracterizar la conducta sexual de dichas féminas. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron: edad de comienzo de las relaciones sexuales, motivación para estas, estabilidad de la pareja y uso del preservativo en la primera relación sexual. La información obtenida fue procesada a través de métodos computarizados y se utilizó el porcentaje como medida de resumen, de lo cual resultó que la mayoría de las encuestadas comenzaron sus relaciones sexuales entre los 14 y 15 años, sin pareja estable y desprotegidas, motivadas porque todas las amigas ya lo habían hecho.An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 40 medical students of second and third years, belonging to "Carlos Juan Finlay" Teaching Polyclinic of Santiago de Cuba, from January to March 2010, with the purpose of characterizing the sexual behavior of these women. Among the analyzed variates were age at onset of sex, motivation for this, couple stability and use of the condom in the first intercourse. The information obtained was processed through computerized methods and the percentage was used as summary measure, from which resulted that most of respondents began their sexual relations between 14 and 15 years, without a regular partner and with unprotected sex, motivated because all their friends had already sex.

  8. Solidarydar.org: Un experimento de cooperación en Comunicación social digital entre la Universidad y el Tercer Sector de Acción Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Arroyo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La solidaridad necesita un esfuerzo especial por conseguir eficacia en su comunicación estratégica. En el marco de investigación de la Comunicación y las Ciencias Sociales, esta cuestión es un objeto de estudio. Sin embargo, para el Tercer Sector de Acción Social (TSAS, surge la duda de si están funcionando correctamente las herramientas de la web 2.0 y 3.0. Para responder a esta pregunta, se fundó en 2007 Solidarydar.org, un proyecto experimental de aprendizaje y servicio con la misión de dinamizar la comunicación digital de las causas sociales por medio de la creatividad publicitaria y la investigación en comunicación social digital. Es un espacio de encuentro entre las organizaciones del TSAS y los alumnos de Publicidad. El trabajo cuenta con una dinámica de colaboración de la Universidad con el TSAS para la realización de comunicación social digital. Se ha construido un soporte web multicanal consistente en una página web y en perfiles en diversas redes sociales; estas han ofrecido un buen rendimiento de audiencias en la comunicación de las campañas de comunicación de las ocho ediciones del Festival Universitario Solidarydar.org y las Jornadas de publicidad social. Se han hecho más de 150 campañas publicitarias para más de cincuenta organizaciones.

  9. Los textos literarios que asigna el MEP para el tercer ciclo de la educación general básica en Costa Rica: algunas reflexiones al respecto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Orozco, Grettel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se detallan y analizan las principales modificaciones que presenta la lista de lecturas obligatorias propuesta en el año 2010 e implementada por el Ministerio de Educación Pública a partir del año 2011, en el Tercer Ciclo de la Educación General Básica costarricense. El estudio fue realizado a partir de la búsqueda bibliográfica de revistas especializadas, tesis de grado, libros, los Planes de Estudios de Español del 2005 y del año 2009, la lista de lecturas obligatorias implementada en el 2011, así como también gracias a entrevistas a especialistas en el área de la educación costarricense. Se concluye que las principales modificaciones responden a la dosificación, la categorización y la flexibilidad del listado de lecturas, pues la cantidad de textos y los géneros literarios que se estudian por nivel se modifican, así como también ahora se le brinda una gama de opciones al docente para que elija qué leer con su grupo estudiantil; no obstante, también se evidencia que ninguno de estos cambios ha sido debidamente fundamentado en la nueva propuesta. Finalmente, se destaca la incorporación de un corpus significativo de textos literarios que hacen referencia al personaje del presidente Juan Mora Porras, cuyo fin se vislumbra de carácter identitario e ideológico, pues su propósito es contrarrestar el desencanto político que ha aumentado en los últimos años e instaurarse como el nuevo referente del héroe nacional.

  10. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  11. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  12. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Vigilancia de los niveles de uso de antibióticos y perfiles de resistencia bacteriana en hospitales de tercer nivel de la Ciudad de México Surveillance of antibiotic utilization and bacterial resistance profiles in tertiary level hospitals in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Benavides-Plascencia; Alejandro Leonardo Aldama-Ojeda; Héctor Javier Vázquez

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar los niveles de uso de antibióticos y el perfil de resistencia de las bacterias nosocomiales, e identificar y proponer estrategias para disminuir la resistencia a los antibióticos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, retrolectivo (1994-1995), hecho en seis hospitales de tercer nivel de la Ciudad de México. RESULTADOS: La resistencia del grupo hospitalario fue de 86%, mientras que el consumo total de antibióticos por institución varió entre 44 y 195 dosis diarias defin...

  14. Programa de refuerzo para el aprendizaje de las matemáticas en el tercer año de Educación General Básica de la escuela Tres de Noviembre del cantón Cuenca, en el periodo lectivo 2016-2017

    OpenAIRE

    Chaca Reino, Rita Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo desarrolla una propuesta metodológica a través de la elaboración de un programa de refuerzo para el aprendizaje de las matemáticas en el tercer año de E.G.B., a través de técnicas activas, y actividades lúdicas; el mismo que se aplica a las destrezas con criterio de desempeño que presentan falencias en el diagnóstico realizado. The present work develops a methodological proposal through the elaboration of a program of reinforcement for the learning process of Math in th...

  15. Funcionamiento familiar y resiliencia en estudiantes con facultades sobresalientes del tercer año de secundaria de una institución educativa pública con altas exigencias académicas, durante el período 2013

    OpenAIRE

    García Pérez, Teófilo Josué; Yupanqui Illacutipa, Zinia Karen; Puente Guedez, Katty

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la relación existente entre resiliencia y funcionamiento familiar en una muestra de 231 estudiantes del tercer año del nivel secundario de nueve secciones, en una institución educativa pública con altas exigencias académicas. Material y Métodos: Para evaluar la variable resiliencia se utilizó la Escala de Resiliencia de Young (1993) y para la variable funcionamiento familiar el Cuestionario de Evaluación de Funcionamiento Familiar (CEFF) elaborado por Atri (2006), que est...

  16. Theory of normal metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The organizers requested that I give eight lectures on the theory of normal metals, ''with an eye on superconductivity.'' My job was to cover the general properties of metals. The topics were selected according to what the students would need to known for the following lectures on superconductivity. My role was to prepare the ground work for the later lectures. The problem is that there is not yet a widely accepted theory for the mechanism which pairs the electrons. Many mechanisms have been proposed, with those of phonons and spin fluctuations having the most followers. So I tried to discuss both topics. I also introduced the tight-binding model for metals, which forms the basis for most of the work on the cuprate superconductors

  17. Anuncio de servicio público sobre la tosferina (:30) (Whooping Cough Public Service Announcement)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Este anuncio de servicio público, de 30 segundos, alienta a las mujeres embarazadas a ponerse la vacuna contra la tosferina llamada Tdap, durante el tercer trimestre de cada embarazo, para que le pasen anticuerpos a su bebé a fin de que este nazca con protección contra esta grave enfermedad.

  18. Espondilitis tuberculosa en adultos: revisión de una serie de casos en un hospital de tercer nivel, Lima-Perú Tuberculous spondylitis in adults: a case series from a reference hospital in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castillo-Angeles

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Describimos las características clínicas y demográficas en pacientes adultos con espondilitis tuberculosa así como un análisis exploratorio que buscó establecer características que contribuyeron al desarrollo de esta enfermedad, en un hospital de tercer nivel de Lima. Realizamos un estudio tipo serie de casos y describimos 33 casos recolectados entre 1999-2009. 18 pacientes (55% fueron varones, la media de edad fue 31 años (IQ 23 a 51 años y un tiempo de enfermedad de 3 meses (IQ 1 a 8 meses. El principal síntoma fue lumbalgia en 28 (85%. Los segmentos más comprometidos fueron el torácico en 28 (60% casos y lumbar en 13 (28%. Tuberculosis pulmonar se encontró en 14 (42% casos. Veinticuatro (73% recibieron esquema I. La duración de tratamiento fue 10,5 ± 4,2 meses . Las características clínicas, diagnósticas fueron similares a series nacionales previas e internacionales.We describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of adult patients with tuberculous spondylitis as well as an exploratory analysis that seeked to establish patient characteristics that contributed to the development of this disorder at a reference hospital in Lima. This is a case-series descriptive study where data collection from 33 medical records of patients from 1999 to 2009 was done. Eighteen (55% were male. Median age was 31 years (IQR 23 to 51 years. Median time of symptoms was 3 months (IQR 1 to 8 months. The most frequent symptom was back pain in 28 (85%. The most frequently affected areas were the thoracic spine involved in 28 (60% cases and lumbar spine in 13 (28%. Pulmonary tuberculosis was present in fourteen (42% cases. Twenty four (73% patients received first line treatment. Treatment duration was 10.5 ± 4.2 months. Clinical and diagnostic characteristics were similar to previous Peruvian case reports and current literature.

  19. Costos directos y aspectos clínicos de las reacciones adversas a medicamentos en pacientes hospitalizados en el servicio de medicina interna de una institución de tercer nivel de Bogotá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Tribiño

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las reacciones adversas a medicamentos constituyen un problema clínico frecuente en el ámbito hospitalario y aumentan los costos de la atención en salud. En Colombia son pocos los estudios realizados para evaluarlas desde el punto de vista clínico y económico. Objetivo. Determinar los costos generados por las reacciones adversas a medicamentos en pacientes hospitalizados en el servicio de medicina interna de una institución de tercer nivel e identificar sus principales características clínicas. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo seguimiento intensivo de los pacientes del servicio de medicina interna durante un período de cinco meses para detectar reacciones adversas. La información se recolectó mediante un formulario basado en el formato de reporte del INVIMA. La probabilidad de causalidad se generó mediante el algoritmo de Naranjo. Se calcularon los costos directos desde la perspectiva del pagador teniendo en cuenta la estancia adicional, los medicamentos, los exámenes paraclínicos, los procedimientos, los traslados a la unidad de cuidado intermedio o intensivo y los insumos. Resultados. Se detectaron 268 reacciones adversas en 208 de los 836 pacientes que ingresaron en el servicio (proporción de incidencia, 25,1%; razón de presencia, 0,32. El 74,3% se clasificó como probable; el 92,5% fue tipo A; el 81,3% correspondió a reacciones moderadas. El sistema más frecuentemente afectado fue el hematológico (33,9%. Los medicamentos que actúan en sangre fueron los más frecuentemente relacionados (37,6%. El costo generado por la atención de las reacciones adversas fluctuó entre $93'633.422 y $122'155.406. Conclusiones. Dado el impacto negativo de las reacciones adversas en el bienestar de los pacientes, los recursos que se emplean en su atención y la proporción importante de reacciones adversas prevenibles, se requieren programas operativos de farmacovigilancia institucional.

  20. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  1. Las Acciones Sistemáticas en Salud Mejoran el Control y Seguimiento Ponderal de las Embarazadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danay Hernández Díaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El seguimiento sistemático y personalizado de la ganancia de peso gestacional puede constituir una herramienta útil a nivel primario de salud para el binomio madre-hijo para su salud presente y futura. Método: Estudio observacional analítico para determinar si existen diferencias en la evolución ponderal en dos grupos  según sistematicidad en intervención sobre estilos de vida y cultura alimentaria en 256 embarazadas del policlínico Chiqui Gómez en Santa Clara, Cuba desde octubre 2012 a septiembre 2014; las mismas fueron vistas en los tres trimestres de la gestación (190 o sólo en el primero y en el tercer trimestre (66, las que conformaron los dos grupos analizados de acuerdo por la sistematicidad en la asistencia a los encuentros presenciales (consultas. Se calcularon y compararon las ganancias de peso según grupo de pertenencia y estado nutricional pregestacional.  Se usaron métodos de estadística descriptiva y de comparación de grupos por estado nutricional. Resultados: Las gestantes con mayor asistencia a las consultas mostraron durante el segundo trimestre un mayor ajuste a  las ganancias de peso recomendadas, lo cual no pudo comprobarse estadísticamente en el tercer trimestre; no obstante la cuantía de ganancia de peso en las obesas y sobrepeso, en este trimestre, fue menor  que en aquellas que no asistieron regularmente a las consultas.  Conclusiones: La sistematicidad  y personalización de acciones ejecutadas en embarazadas, se asoció a mejor adherencia a la ganancia de peso recomendadas en el segundo trimestre; así como con una disminución de la cuantía de ganancia ponderal, en aquellas pacientes con sobrepeso y obesidad durante el tercer trimestre.

  2. NUEVAS REALIDADES EN EL TERCER SECTOR: LAS APORTACIONES JURÍDICO-ORGANIZATIVAS DE LAS FUNDACIONES CÍVICAS / NEW REALITIES IN THE THIRD SECTOR: THE LEGAL AND ORGANISATIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF COMMUNITY FOUNDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio JIMÉNEZ ESCOBAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las fundaciones cívicas constituyen una realidad incipiente en Europa aunque sus orígenes se remontan a comienzos del siglo XX. En España sin embargo, hasta fechas muy recientes, no empiezan a identificarse organizaciones que respondan a las características propias de este tipo de fundaciones. El propósito de este trabajo es, en primer lugar, sistematizar los elementos configuradores específicos a nivel organizativo –finalidad, recursos, actividades, procesos y estructuras de gobierno- que subyacen en esta fórmula peculiar del Tercer Sector, exponiendo cómo se manifiestan a través de algunos ejemplos de buenas prácticas presentes en la realidad española. Esta sistematización sirve de base, en segundo lugar, para proponer una definición de fundación cívica, reflexionar sobre la pertinencia del término escogido para denominarlas y resaltar sus principales ventajas, aportaciones y novedades respecto a otras formas jurídicas alternativas –como las fundaciones clásicas y las asociaciones-, lo que las lleva a convertirse en un fenómeno de innovación social organizativa. Por último se trazan las líneas maestras del encaje de este tipo de entidades en el ordenamiento jurídico español y se ponen de manifiesto algunas de las dificultades y desajustes normativos que pueden plantearse cuando la regulación vigente, fundamentalmente la de naturaleza tributaria, no tiene en cuenta de forma adecuada las particularidades de este tipo de entidades. / Community Foundations are an emerging reality in Europe, although their origins date back to the early twentieth century. In Spain, however, until very recently there has been no awareness about organisations that answer to the characteristics of this type of foundation. The purpose of this paper is, first of all, to systematize their specific distinguishing elements at organisational level, and the resources, activities, processes and governance structures that underlie this particular

  3. CHAND LC 4445 CAPITOL. EL TERCER VIAJE DE LE CORBUSIER A CHANDIGARH, MARZO-ABRIL 1952 / Chand LC 4445 Capitol. Third trip of Le Corbusier to Chandigarh, March-April 1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Fuertes Pérez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El tercer viaje de Le Corbusier a Chandigarh, un año después de su primer contacto con la India, está íntimamente ligado a la definición del Capitolio en tanto que plataforma activa, capaz de poner en tensión los palacios institucionales de la que forman parte, y en tanto que realidad aislada de la ciudad y únicamente vinculada a la experiencia de las vastas dimensiones del país, al llano que la sustenta, a su techo de cielo y a las montañas que ponen fin al terreno horizontal. Durante los veinticinco días que permanece en el lugar, Le Corbusier define el Capitolio como recinto y determina sus límites, introduce la física de los reflejos combinados, intensifica la topografía como tema arquitectónico que anima la plataforma del Capitolio y dibuja los jardines que preceden al palacio del Gobernador, como síntesis de todos los temas expuestos. Los resultados darán lugar, a su vuelta, al plano con número de atelier chand lc 4445 capitol. Más adelante, a medida que se definen los palacios, el Capitolio irá modificándose para alcanzar una nueva situación de equilibrio respecto a ellos, pero siempre en relación a aquello que sucedió durante esos días de 1952. SUMMARY. The third trip of Le Corbusier to Chandigarh, a year after his first contact with India, is closely bound to the definition of the Capitol as an active platform, capable of pulling together the institutional palaces of which it forms a part and as a reality isolated from the city and uniquely linked to the experience of the vast dimensions of the country, to the plain that supports it, to its ceiling of sky and to the mountains that end the horizontal land. During the twenty-five days he stayed there, Le Corbusier defined the Capitol as an area and determined its limits. He introduced the physics of the combined reflections, intensified the topography as an architectural theme that animates the platform of the Capitol and drew the gardens that lead to the

  4. A imunização contra a rubéola no primeiro trimestre de gestação pode levar à perda auditiva? Can the immunization against rubella take to the hearing loss in the first pregnancy quarter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L��cia Pereira de Andrade Dias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: embora o risco da Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita após a imunização seja pequeno, é necessário assegurar a imunidade das mulheres em idade fértil, especialmente daquelas com risco mais alto de exposição, visando a prevenção. OBJETIVO: esclarecer o risco que a imunização da rubéola apresenta para a audição do recém nascido, no primeiro trimestre de gestação. CONCLUSÃO: os levantamentos realizados por este estudo permitiram concluir que ainda há um grande caminho a ser percorrido em prol da erradicação da rubéola no Brasil, bem como a diminuição dos riscos de surdez neurossensorial causados pela Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita.BACKGROUND: although congenital rubella syndrome risk after immunization is low, it is required to assert immunity of women in fertile age, especially those in higher risk of exposure aiming at prevention. PURPOSE: to elucidate the risk that rubella immunization in the first three months of gestation presents for the newborn hearing. CONCLUSION: investigations carried out by this study allow us to conclude that there is still a lot to be done in order to eradicate rubella in Brazil, as well as to reduce/decrease risks of neurosensorial deafness caused by CRS.

  5. Novas evidências empíricas sobre a dinâmica trimestral do consumo agregado das famílias brasileiras no período 1995-2009 New empirical evidence on the quarterly dynamics of Brazilian aggregate household consumption from 1995 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Patta Schettini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta especificações econométricas inéditas para o consumo agregado das famílias brasileiras em níveis trimestrais, no período 1995-2009. Argumenta-se, em particular, que a utilização de aproximações trimestrais da renda disponível do setor privado (a preços de 1995 encadeados, do crédito disponibilizado às famílias brasileiras (em % do PIB e (de uma proxy da taxa de juros real da economia como variáveis explicativas da dinâmica trimestral do consumo agregado dessas famílias gera modelos com elevado grau de ajuste "dentro da amostra" e "fora da amostra". Tais modelos sugerem, ainda, uma elasticidade-renda (privada, excluindo rendas líquidas de propriedade próxima de 0,4 e semielasticidades-crédito e taxa de juros da ordem de 2% e -2% para o consumo agregado das famílias brasileiras.This paper presents new econometric specifications for the quarterly behavior of aggregate consumption of Brazilian households from 1995 to 2009. It is argued, in particular, that the use of quarterly measures of both private disposable income (in chained 1995 prices, the credit granted to households (as a % of GDP and a proxy for real interest rates as explanatory variables for the level of quarterly household consumption lead to well adjusted models "within the sample" with good "out of sample" performance. Moreover, the models presented in this paper point to values of the (approximated private income elasticity around 0.4 and credit and interest (semi elasticities of household consumption around 2% and -2%, respectively.

  6. Prevalência da colonização vaginal e anorretal por estreptococo do grupo B em gestantes do terceiro trimestre Prevalence of vaginal and anorectal colonization by group B streptococcus in pregnant women in the last three months of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Beraldo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estudar a prevalência da colonização por estreptococo do grupo B em gestantes do terceiro trimestre, atendidas em um hospital regional, e avaliar a associação da colonização com as variáveis maternas demográficas e clínicas. MÉTODOS: no período de 8 de outubro de 2002 a 26 de março de 2003, foi realizado um estudo transversal (de prevalência com 309 gestantes no terceiro trimestre. Amostras de secreção vaginal e anorretal foram coletadas e testadas para identificação presuntiva do estreptococo do grupo B. Foram incluídas as gestantes com gestação maior ou igual a 36 semanas datadas por ultra-sonografia e excluídas as que se recusaram a participar, as em uso de antibioticoterapia e as que haviam sido submetidas a exame ginecológico pelo período mínimo de 24 horas antes da coleta. As gestantes foram caracterizadas por variáveis demográficas (raça, idade, grau de escolaridade, renda familiar e número de gestações e clínicas (idade gestacional, ocorrência de infecção urinária durante a gestação atual, ruptura prematura de membranas e tempo de bolsa rota, febre materna intraparto, corioamnionite, líquido amniótico com mecônio, via de parto utilizada, febre materna pós-parto e endometrite. RESULTADOS: das gestantes, 46 estavam colonizadas pelo estreptococo do grupo B, sendo que 26 (56,5% tiveram a cultura vaginal positiva, 8 (17,4% a cultura anorretal positiva e 12 (26,5% tiveram tanto a cultura vaginal como a retal positivas. Nenhuma das variáveis analisadas neste estudo foi estatisticamente significativa quanto à colonização pelo estreptococo do grupo B. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise bivariada pelo teste do chi2 e teste exato de Fisher quando apropriado. CONCLUSÃO: a taxa de prevalência da colonização vaginal e anorretal pelo estreptococo do grupo B em gestantes no terceiro trimestre, foi de 14,9%. Não houve associação entre fatores de risco (primigestação, idade

  7. Bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina | Okeke | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior‑posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events ...

  8. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mahmoud; Beer, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN), to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  9. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghandi

    Full Text Available Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN, to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  10. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; univariate study; normalization models; stainless steel; standard error of prediction. Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their ...

  11. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  12. The N'ormal Distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An optimal way of choosing sample size in an opinion poll is indicated using the normal distribution. Introduction. In this article, the ubiquitous normal distribution is intro- duced as a convenient approximation for computing bino- mial probabilities for large values of n. Stirling's formula. • and DeMoivre-Laplace theorem ...

  13. Aplicación Móvil de Realidad Aumentada para la Enseñanza de la Clasificación de los Seres Vivos a Niños de Tercer GradoA Mobile Augmented Reality Application for Teaching the Classification of Living Things to Primary School’s Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Solano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones (TIC ha tenido un gran auge en lo los últimos años y es debido a este auge que se han ido introduciendo en el aula de clase con resultados prometedores. Por esta razón es indispensable crear herramientas innovadoras que fortalezcan los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje de los estudiantes, además de motivarlos a usar este tipo de herramientas tanto dentro como fuera del aula. El presente documento tiene como objetivo presentar al lector la problemática existente en la enseñanza de las ciencias naturales, específicamente en el tema de la clasificación de los seres vivos para los niños de tercer grado, así como la solución propuesta a partir de las TIC.

  14. Transmisión del Mal de Río Cuarto virus por ninfas de primer y tercer estadio de Delphacodes kuscheli Transmission of Mal de Río Cuarto virus by first and third-instar nymphs of Delphacodes kuscheli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Arneodo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la capacidad de ninfas de primer y tercer estadío de Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae para adquirir y posteriormente transmitir el Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV, bajo condiciones controladas. Ninfas I y III avirulíferas se alimentaron separadamente de plantas de trigo infectadas durante 48 horas, para luego ser colocadas en subgrupos de tres individuos sobre plantas de trigo sanas. Se realizaron transmisiones seriales utilizando períodos de inoculación de 24 horas. Ambos estadií os lograron adquirir y transmitir el MRCV, pero se evidenció una mayor cantidad de subgrupos infectivos cuando la adquisición se efectuó como ninfas I, así como una disminución significativa en la duración del período de latencia del virus respecto de los insectos que adquirieron el MRCV durante el tercer estadio ninfal.The ability of first and third-instar Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae nymphs to acquire and transmit Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV, under controlled conditions, was investigated. First and third-instar nymphs were allowed acquisition feeding separately on infected wheat plants for 48 hours. The insects were then placed in groups of three for serial transmissions to healthy wheat plants, using inoculation periods of 24 hours. Both instars of D. kuscheli were demonstrated to acquire and subsequently transmit the virus. Nevertheless, transmission trials showed highest transmission efficiency and shortest latent period when MRCV was acquired by first-instar nymphs.

  15. Management of the third sector: a social practice? Gestión del tercer sector: ¿una práctica social? Gestão do terceiro setor: uma prática social?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Carla Aguiar Antunes Soares

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering growth of the Third Sector in the Brazilian scenario and the changes and processes required in the management and activities of these institutions, it is believed that characterizing these management practices and the action of the managers as a social practice will lead to a better understanding of procedures and managerial roles through which the changes and professionalization of organizations in the Third Sector occur in society. The methodological procedures were qualitative in nature, using a structured interview to collect data. The approach adopted favored the area of management that emerges as one of the major challenges experienced by these organizations. The sample was composed of 20 managers, 12 women and 8 men, with at least 3 years of effective work responsibility in different areas of Third Sector organizations in the Brazilian city of Belo Horizonte. Results confirmed that in recent years aspects such as volunteers, partnership, stature and management itself are some of the transformations in the context of the Third Sector. But the highlight of these changes in the sector is management, which is in an accelerated advance searching for professionalism. For effectiveness and consolidation, it is essential that management be conceived and realized from a practical perspective, because the management field in the Third Sector was shown to be a consolidated social practice.Frente al crecimiento del Tercer Sector en el escenario brasileño y las transformaciones exigidas y ocurridas en los procesos gerenciales y en el ámbito de la actuación de esas instituciones, se cree que caracterizar sus prácticas de gestión y la realidad de los gerentes como una práctica social llevará a mejorar la comprensión de los procesos y de los roles gerenciales, por medio de los cuales ocurren las transformaciones y profesionalización de las organizaciones del Tercer Sector en la sociedad. Los procedimientos metodol

  16. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  17. Homofobia y/o ser enfermero. Primer evento científico de violencia. Segundo trimestre del año 2009. Pinar del Río Homophobia and/or to be a male nurse. 1st Scientific Event of Violence on the second quarter of 2009. Pinar del Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Rodríguez Lazo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La homofobia significa un terror irracional e injustificado hacia a los homosexuales y la homosexualidad. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, a un grupo determinado de hombres del municipio de Pinar del Río con el objetivo de reflexionar sobre la homofobia en cuanto a los enfermeros homosexuales, durante el segundo trimestre del año 2009. El universo estuvo constituido por 147 hombres del municipio de Pinar del Río, a los cuales se le aplicó una encuesta, la muestra fue de 100 hombres seleccionados por el método estadístico al azar simple, lo que indica que se encuesto el 68,02%, obteniéndose los siguientes resultados, el 100% de los encuestados si conocen que es la homofobia, el 77% de los encuestados si sienten rechazo por los homosexuales, la totalidad de los encuestados no consideran que todos los enfermeros sean homosexuales, un 29% consideran que el trabajo de los enfermeros homosexuales es mejor, y el 70% de los encuestados opinan que la mayoría de los enfermeros que optan por su profesión tienen orientación por personas de su mismo sexo.Homophobia means an irrational and unjustified fear to homosexuals and homosexuality. A descriptive study was conducted to a determined group of men in Pinar del Rio municipality. This research was aimed at reflecting on homophobia regarding male homosexual nurses during the second quarter of 2009. The target group included 147 men in Pinar del Rio municipality, this group was polled. The sample was comprised of 100 men chosen at a simple random, which indicated that 68, 02% were surveyed, results showed that: 100% knew what homophobia was, 77% felt aversion to homosexuals, the totality of those polled did not consider all male nurses were homosexuals, 29% considered male homosexual nurses performed their job better, and 70% expressed the opinion that the majority of the male choosing nursing profession experience same-sex attraction.

  18. The normal and pathological language

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Luis D.

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary development of normal and pathological psychology has achieved in recent decades, thanks to the dual method of objective observation and oral survey enabled the researcher spirit of neuro-psychiatrist penetrate the intimate mechanism of the nervous system whose supreme manifestation is thought. It is normal psychology explaining the complicated game of perceptions: their methods of transmission, their centers of projection, its transformations and its synthesis to construct ...

  19. Is normal science good science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Kępińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Normal science” is a concept introduced by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962. In Kuhn’s view, normal science means “puzzle solving”, solving problems within the paradigm—framework most successful in solving current major scientific problems—rather than producing major novelties. This paper examines Kuhnian and Popperian accounts of normal science and their criticisms to assess if normal science is good. The advantage of normal science according to Kuhn was “psychological”: subjective satisfaction from successful “puzzle solving”. Popper argues for an “intellectual” science, one that consistently refutes conjectures (hypotheses and offers new ideas rather than focus on personal advantages. His account is criticized as too impersonal and idealistic. Feyerabend’s perspective seems more balanced; he argues for a community that would introduce new ideas, defend old ones, and enable scientists to develop in line with their subjective preferences. The paper concludes that normal science has no one clear-cut set of criteria encompassing its meaning and enabling clear assessment.

  20. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  1. Precaval retropancreatic space: Normal anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Myung Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    The authors defined precaval retropancreatic space as the space between pancreatic head with portal vein and IVC and analyzed the CT findings of this space to know the normal structures and size in this space. We evaluated 100 cases of normal abdominal CT scan to find out normal anatomic structures of precaval retropancreatic space retrospectively. We also measured the distance between these structures and calculated the minimum, maximum and mean values. At the splenoportal confluence level, normal structures between portal vein and IVC were vessel (21%), lymph node (19%), and caudate lobe of liver (2%) in order of frequency. The maximum AP diameter of portocaval lymph node was 4 mm. Common bile duct (CBD) was seen in 44% and the diameter was mean 3 mm and maximum 11 mm. CBD was located in extrapancreatic (75%) and lateral (60.6%) to pancreatic head. At IVC-left renal vein level, the maximum distance between CBD and IVC was 5 mm and the structure between posterior pancreatic surface and IVC was only fat tissue. Knowledge of these normal structures and measurement will be helpful in differentiating pancreatic mass with retropancreatic mass such as lymphadenopathy.

  2. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  4. CT and MRI normal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.

    1998-01-01

    This book gives answers to questions frequently heard especially from trainees and doctors not specialising in the field of radiology: Is that a normal finding? How do I decide? What are the objective criteria? The information presented is three-fold. The normal findings of the usual CT and MRI examinations are shown with high-quality pictures serving as a reference, with inscribed important additional information on measures, angles and other criteria describing the normal conditions. These criteria are further explained and evaluated in accompanying texts which also teach the systematic approach for individual picture analysis, and include a check list of major aspects, as a didactic guide for learning. The book is primarily intended for students, radiographers, radiology trainees and doctors from other medical fields, but radiology specialists will also find useful details of help in special cases. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Marrow transfusions into normal recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.

    1983-01-01

    During the past several years we have explored the transfusion of bone marrow into normal nonirradiated mice. While transfused marrow proliferates readily in irradiated animals, only minimal proliferation takes place in nonirradiated recipients. It has generally been assumed that this was due to the lack of available proliferative sites in recipients with normal marrow. Last year we were able to report that the transfusion of 200 million bone marrow cells (about 2/3 of the total complement of marrow cells of a normal mouse) resulted in 20% to 25% of the recipient's marrow being replaced by donor marrow. Thus we can now study the behavior of animals that have been transfused (donor) and endogenous (recipient) marrow cells, although none of the tissues of either donor or recipient have been irradiated. With these animals we hope to investigate the nature of the peculiar phenomenon of serial exhaustion of marrow, also referred to as the limited self-replicability of stem cells

  6. The construction of normal expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    The gradual upward changes of standards in normal everyday life have significant environmental implications, and it is therefore important to study how these changes come about. The intention of the article is to analyze the social construction of normal expectations through a case study. The case...... concerns the present boom in bathroom renovations in Denmark, which offers an excellent opportunity to study the interplay between a wide variety of consumption drivers and social changes pointing toward long-term changes of normal expectations regarding bathroom standards. The study is problemoriented...... and transdisciplinary and draws on a wide range of sociological, anthropological, and economic theories. The empirical basis comprises a combination of statistics, a review of magazine and media coverage, visits to exhibitions, and qualitative interviews. A variety of consumption drivers are identified. Among...

  7. Creación de dinero y demanda por dinero durante la alta inflación boliviana de 1982-1985

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Juan Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Las tasas de inflación mensual boliviana desde el segundo trimestre de 1984 asta el tercer trimestre de 1985 fueron las más altas del mundo en los últimos 35 años y solo comparables a aquellas sufridas en algunas naciones de Europa Central después de las dos guerras mundiales. Las altas tasas de crecimiento de los precios durante este periodo caracterizan un claro caso de hiperinflación. Aunque los síntomas más agudos se presentaron en el periodo mencionado, las altas tasas de inflación apare...

  8. Normalized cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  9. Random Generators and Normal Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David H.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to the authors' previous chaotic-dynamical model for random digits of fundamental constants, we investigate a complementary, statistical picture in which pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) are central. Some rigorous results are achieved: We establish b-normality for constants of the form $\\sum_i 1/(b^{m_i} c^{n_i})$ for certain sequences $(m_i), (n_i)$ of integers. This work unifies and extends previously known classes of explicit normals. We prove that for coprime $b,c>1$ the...

  10. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  11. Normal forms in Poisson geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcut, I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of Poisson manifolds is highly nontrivial even locally. The first important result in this direction is Conn's linearization theorem around fixed points. One of the main results of this thesis (Theorem 2) is a normal form theorem in Poisson geometry, which is the Poisson-geometric

  12. Mixed normal inference on multicointegration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotic likelihood analysis of cointegration in I(2) models, see Johansen (1997, 2006), Boswijk (2000) and Paruolo (2000), has shown that inference on most parameters is mixed normal, implying hypothesis test statistics with an asymptotic 2 null distribution. The asymptotic distribution of the

  13. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Is My Child’s Appetite Normal? Cayla, who is 4 years old, did not finish her lunch. But she is ready to play. Her ... snack for later. That is okay! Your child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in ...

  14. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Pettorossi, A.; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  15. Semigroups of data normalization functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2016-01-01

    Variable centering and scaling are functions that are typically used in data normalization. Various properties of centering and scaling functions are presented. It is shown that if we use two centering functions (or scaling functions) successively, the result depends on the order in which the

  16. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  17. Neutron RBE for normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.; Hornsey, S.

    1979-01-01

    RBE for various normal tissues is considered as a function of neutron dose per fraction. Results from a variety of centres are reviewed. It is shown that RBE is dependent on neutron energy and is tissue dependent, but is not specially high for the more critical tissues or for damage occurring late after irradiation. (author)

  18. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  19. El estado de las negociaciones comerciales internacionales II Trimestre 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Zelicovich, Julieta; Selva, Inés; Romero, Camila; Foglia, Andrea; Meier, Carolina; Agrano, Daniela; Cervino, Josefina; D’Alesio, Laura; Garro, Luciana; Chiacchiera, Magalí; Bonsjak, María Eugenia; Ciliberto, María Eugenia; Ruiz, María Paz; Cortese, Valeria; Roldán, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    El Grupo de Estudios sobre Negociaciones Comerciales Internacionales, radicado en el Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Ciencia Política y Relaciones Internacionales de la Universidad Nacional de Rosario, tiene como meta analizar la evolución de la gobernanza global del comercio mundial, considerando las dinámicas de las negociaciones comerciales internacionales en el marco de la Organización Mundial del Comercio, las negociaciones ...

  20. El estado de las negociaciones comerciales internacionales - IV trimestre 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Zelicovich, Julieta; Selva, Inés; Romero, Camila; Abrigo, Lourdes; Salvoch, Victoria; Costa, Victoria; Ruiz, Ma. Paz; Cervino, Josefina; Agrano, Daniela; Cortese, Valeria; D’alesio, Laura; Foglia, Andrea; Bruno, Verónica; Cabrera Herrero, Agustina; Chiacchiera, Magalí

    2016-01-01

    Desde el inicio del siglo XXI las relaciones comerciales internacionales experimentaron importantes transformaciones: el intercambio de bienes se intensificó, se incrementaron las relaciones de interdependencia, se extendieron las cadenas globales de valor, los actores más dinámicos se desplazaron geográficamente y temas como los servicios, la infraestructura y las finanzas vinculadas al comercio cobraron creciente importancia. Las dinámic...

  1. MOLA HIDATIDIFORME PARCIAL CON FETO VIVO DEL SEGUNDO TRIMESTRE

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez Azpilcueta, Arturo; Islas Domínguez, Luis; Durán Padilla, Marco Antonio

    2010-01-01

    La mola hidatidiforme es un embarazo que se caracteriza por una degeneración hidrópica de las vellosidades coriales y habitualmente la ausencia del feto. La mola parcial se caracteriza por ser resultado de una triploidía diándrica y por la presencia de cambios hidatiformes progresivos lentos con capilares vellosos funcionantes, que afectan solamente a algunas de las vellosidades; se asocia con un feto o embrión anormal identifcable (vivo o muerto), membranas o eritrocitos fetales. Se analiza ...

  2. Superconducting versus normal conducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Podlech, Holger

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important issues of high-power hadron linacs is the choice of technology with respect to superconducting or room-temperature operation. The favour for a specific technology depends on several parameters such as the beam energy, beam current, beam power and duty factor. This contribution gives an overview of the comparison between superconducting and normal conducting cavities. This includes basic radiofrequency (RF) parameters, design criteria, limitations, required RF and plug power as well as case studies.

  3. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  4. Gerenciamento de Enfermagem e administração das organizações do Terceiro Setor Gerencia de Enfermería y la administración de las organizaciones del Tercer Sector Managment in Nursing and the administration of Third Sector organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Ruthes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo de revisão bibliográfica procurou-se verificar a evolução do terceiro setor e as relações entre gerenciamento em enfermagem nestas organizações. Constata-se um crescimento deste setor na área de saúde, trazendo a ampliação do mercado de trabalho para enfermeiros. Assim, considera-se que é preciso alertar os enfermeiros a estarem preparados para a gestão nestas organizações, buscando seu desenvolvimento na gestão hospitalar. O terceiro setor vem sendo valorizado como forma de promoção social nos segmentos de saúde, educação, assistência social e outros, reunindo indivíduos e instituições de forma participativa.En este artículo de revisión bibliográfica se objectivó verificar la evolución del tercer sector y las relaciones entre gerenciamento en enfermería en estas organizacioneslas. Verificase un crescimiento de este sector en la area de salud, trayendo la ampliación en el mercado de trabajo para los enfermeros. Así, considerase que es necesario alertar a los enfermeros para supreparo para la gestión en estas organizaciones, buscando su desarrollo en la gestión hospitalaria. El tercer sector viene siendo valorado como forma de promoción social en la salud, educación, ayuda social y otros segmientos, juntando individuos y instituciones de una forma participativa.In this article of bibliographical revision it was aimed at verifying the evolution of the third sector and the relations between nursing management in that organizations. It is observed a growing of this sector in health area, bringing a market anplification in the work of the nurse. Thus, it is considered the need for warning the nurses to be prepared for the management in these organizations, seeking for development in hospital management. Third sector is being valued as a form of social promotion in the health, education, social assistance and others segments, congregating individuals and institutions in a participative form.

  5. Lithium control during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Jain, D.

    2010-01-01

    Periodic increases in lithium (Li) concentrations in the primary heat transport (PHT) system during normal operation are a generic problem at CANDU® stations. Lithiated mixed bed ion exchange resins are used at stations for pH control in the PHT system. Typically tight chemistry controls including Li concentrations are maintained in the PHT water. The reason for the Li increases during normal operation at CANDU stations such as Pickering was not fully understood. In order to address this issue a two pronged approach was employed. Firstly, PNGS-A data and information from other available sources was reviewed in an effort to identify possible factors that may contribute to the observed Li variations. Secondly, experimental studies were carried out to assess the importance of these factors in order to establish reasons for Li increases during normal operation. Based on the results of these studies, plausible mechanisms/reasons for Li increases have been identified and recommendations made for proactive control of Li concentrations in the PHT system. (author)

  6. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  7. "Ser diferente é normal?"/"Being different: is it normal?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Veras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pergunta título deste trabalho retoma o slogan “Ser diferente é normal”, que é parte da campanha criada para uma organização não-governamental que atende portadores de Síndrome de Down. O objetivo é a inclusão social da pessoa com deficiência e o primeiro passo foi propor a inclusão de um grupo de diferentes no grupo dito normal. No vídeo de lançamento da campanha, o diferente, identificado como normal, é mostrado por meio de exemplos – um negro com cabelo black-power, um skin-head, um corpo tatuado, um corpo feminino halterofílico, uma família hippie, uma garota com síndrome de Down. A visão da adolescente dançando reduz, de certo modo, o efeito imaginário que vai além da síndrome, uma vez que apenas o corpo com seus olhinhos puxados se destacam, e não se interrogam questões cognitivas. Minha proposta é refletir sobre o estatuto paradoxal do exemplo, tal como é trabalhado nesse vídeo: se, por definição, um exemplo mostra de fato seu pertencimento a uma classe, pode-se concluir que é exatamente por ser exemplar que ele se encontra fora dela, no exato momento em que a exibe e define. The question in the title of this paper refers to the slogan "ser diferente é normal" ("It´s normal to be different", which is part of a campaign created for a NGO that supports people with Down syndrome. The objective of the campaign is to promote the social inclusion of individuals with Down syndrome, and the first step was to propose the inclusion of a group of "differents" in the so-called normal group. The film launching the campaign shows the different identified as normal by means of examples: a black man exhibiting blackpower haircut, a skin-head, a tattooed body, an over-athletic female body, a hippie family and a girl with Down syndrome. The vision of the dancing teenager lessens the imaginary effect that surpasses the syndrome, since only her body and her little oriental eyes stand out and no cognitive issues are

  8. Efeitos das condições climáticas no trimestre de nascimento sobre asma e pneumonia na infância e na vida adulta em uma coorte no Sul do Brasil The effects of season at time of birth on asthma and pneumonia in childhood and adulthood in a birth cohort in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alejandro González

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do clima no trimestre do nascimento e nos seis primeiros meses de vida (temperatura média em tercis sobre as hospitalizações por asma e pneumonia em pré-escolares e sobre o diagnóstico de asma em adultos pertencentes ao estudo de coorte de nascimento de 1982 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Essa coorte incluiu todos os 5.914 nascidos vivos naquele ano, dos quais, 77% foram acompanhados até a idade adulta (23-24 anos. Os resultados demonstraram que os nascidos entre abril e junho (outono apresentaram risco de hospitalização por pneumonia e asma/"bronquite" 1,31 (IC95%: 0,99-1,73 a 2,35 (IC95%: 1,11-4,99 vezes maior do que os nascidos entre janeiro-março (verão. O risco de hospitalizações conforme a temperatura média nos seis primeiros meses de vida foi 1,64 (IC95%: 1,26-2,13 a 3,16 (IC95%: 1,63-6,12 vezes maior no tercil frio do que no quente. Os efeitos da sazonalidade diminuíram com a idade, sendo pouco evidente a associação com asma aos 23-24 anos. As hospitalizações foram mais freqüentes entre crianças pobres, mas os efeitos da sazonalidade sobre a pneumonia foram mais evidentes entre os ricos.This study evaluated the effects of seasonal weather at time of birth and ambient temperature during the first six months of life on hospitalizations due to asthma and pneumonia in preschool children and on diagnosis of asthma in adulthood among individuals from the 1982 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The cohort included 5,914 live births, of which 77% were followed up until adulthood (23-24 yr. The risk of hospitalization due to pneumonia and asthma among children born from April to June (autumn was 1.31 (95%CI: 0.99-1.73 to 2.4 (95%CI: 1.11-4.99 times higher than that of children born from January to March (summer. For temperature in the first six months of life, risk of hospitalization was 1.64 (95%CI: 1.26-2.13 to 3.16 (95%CI: 1.63-6.12 times higher for children born in the

  9. Understanding a Normal Distribution of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltenfort, Mitchell G

    2015-12-01

    Assuming data follow a normal distribution is essential for many common statistical tests. However, what are normal data and when can we assume that a data set follows this distribution? What can be done to analyze non-normal data?

  10. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  11. A locally adaptive normal distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvanitidis, Georgios; Hansen, Lars Kai; Hauberg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    entropy distribution under the given metric. The underlying metric is, however, non-parametric. We develop a maximum likelihood algorithm to infer the distribution parameters that relies on a combination of gradient descent and Monte Carlo integration. We further extend the LAND to mixture models......The multivariate normal density is a monotonic function of the distance to the mean, and its ellipsoidal shape is due to the underlying Euclidean metric. We suggest to replace this metric with a locally adaptive, smoothly changing (Riemannian) metric that favors regions of high local density...

  12. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  13. Multispectral histogram normalization contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, J. M.; Schwartz, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    A multispectral histogram normalization or decorrelation enhancement which achieves effective color composites by removing interband correlation is described. The enhancement procedure employs either linear or nonlinear transformations to equalize principal component variances. An additional rotation to any set of orthogonal coordinates is thus possible, while full histogram utilization is maintained by avoiding the reintroduction of correlation. For the three-dimensional case, the enhancement procedure may be implemented with a lookup table. An application of the enhancement to Landsat multispectral scanning imagery is presented.

  14. Normal modes and continuous spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmforth, N.J.; Morrison, P.J.

    1994-12-01

    The authors consider stability problems arising in fluids, plasmas and stellar systems that contain singularities resulting from wave-mean flow or wave-particle resonances. Such resonances lead to singularities in the differential equations determining the normal modes at the so-called critical points or layers. The locations of the singularities are determined by the eigenvalue of the problem, and as a result, the spectrum of eigenvalues forms a continuum. They outline a method to construct the singular eigenfunctions comprising the continuum for a variety of problems

  15. Normal movement selectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J

    2010-05-13

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vigilancia de los niveles de uso de antibióticos y perfiles de resistencia bacteriana en hospitales de tercer nivel de la Ciudad de México Surveillance of antibiotic utilization and bacterial resistance profiles in tertiary level hospitals in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Benavides-Plascencia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar los niveles de uso de antibióticos y el perfil de resistencia de las bacterias nosocomiales, e identificar y proponer estrategias para disminuir la resistencia a los antibióticos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, retrolectivo (1994-1995, hecho en seis hospitales de tercer nivel de la Ciudad de México. RESULTADOS: La resistencia del grupo hospitalario fue de 86%, mientras que el consumo total de antibióticos por institución varió entre 44 y 195 dosis diarias definidas/100 camas-día. CONCLUSIONES: Se identificaron los elementos para instrumentar un sistema de vigilancia integral que mejore el uso de antibióticos y la valoración de la resistencia bacteriana.OBJECTIVE: To identify the levels of antibiotic utilization and the resistance profiles of nosocomial bacteria, as well as the strategies to diminish resistance to antibiotics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective (1994-1995 study was conducted in six tertiary level hospitals in Mexico City. RESULTS: A total of 86% antibiotic resistance was observed in these hospitals. The overall consumption of antibiotics per hospital ranged between 44 and 195 Defined Daily Doses/100 day-beds. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the components to frame an integral surveillance system aimed at improving the use of antibiotics and the quality of the bacterial resistance assessment in these hospitals.

  17. Update on normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiranjan Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is labelled when typical glaucomatous disc changes, visual field defects and open anterior chamber angles are associated with intraocular pressure (IOP constantly below 21 mmHg. Chronic low vascular perfusion, Raynaud's phenomenon, migraine, nocturnal systemic hypotension and over-treated systemic hypertension are the main causes of normal tension glaucoma. Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography and visual field analysis are the main tools of investigation for the diagnosis of NTG. Management follows the same principles of treatment for other chronic glaucomas: To reduce IOP by a substantial amount, sufficient to prevent disabling visual loss. Treatment is generally aimed to lower IOP by 30% from pre-existing levels to 12-14 mmHg. Betaxolol, brimonidine, prostaglandin analogues, trabeculectomy (in refractory cases, systemic calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine and 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure are considered in the management of NTG. The present review summarises risk factors, causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NTG.

  18. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  19. Is My Penis Normal? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth / For Teens / Is My Penis Normal? Print en español ¿Es normal mi pene? ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...

  20. Normal vibrations in gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolling, G.; Waugh, J.L.T.

    1964-01-01

    The triple axis crystal spectrometer at Chalk River has been used to observe coherent slow neutron scattering from a single crystal of pure gallium arsenide at 296 o K. The frequencies of normal modes of vibration propagating in the [ζ00], (ζζζ], and (0ζζ] crystal directions have been determined with a precision of between 1 and 2·5 per cent. A limited number of normal modes have also been studied at 95 and 184 o K. Considerable difficulty was experienced in obtaining welt resolved neutron peaks corresponding to the two non-degenerate optic modes for very small wave-vector, particularly at 296 o K. However, from a comparison of results obtained under various experimental conditions at several different points in reciprocal space, frequencies (units 10 12 c/s) for these modes (at 296 o K) have been assigned: T 8·02±0·08 and L 8·55±02. Other specific normal modes, with their measured frequencies are (a) (1,0,0): TO 7·56 ± 008, TA 2·36 ± 0·015, LO 7·22 ± 0·15, LA 6·80 ± 0·06; (b) (0·5, 0·5, 0·5): TO 7·84 ± 0·12, TA 1·86 ± 0·02, LO 7·15 ± 0·07, LA 6·26 ± 0·10; (c) (0, 0·65, 0·65): optic 8·08 ±0·13, 7·54 ± 0·12 and 6·57 ± 0·11, acoustic 5·58 ± 0·08, 3·42 · 0·06 and 2·36 ± 004. These results are generally slightly lower than the corresponding frequencies for germanium. An analysis in terms of various modifications of the dipole approximation model has been carried out. A feature of this analysis is that the charge on the gallium atom appears to be very small, about +0·04 e. The frequency distribution function has been derived from one of the force models. (author)

  1. Normal vibrations in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolling, G; Waugh, J L T

    1964-07-01

    The triple axis crystal spectrometer at Chalk River has been used to observe coherent slow neutron scattering from a single crystal of pure gallium arsenide at 296{sup o}K. The frequencies of normal modes of vibration propagating in the [{zeta}00], ({zeta}{zeta}{zeta}], and (0{zeta}{zeta}] crystal directions have been determined with a precision of between 1 and 2{center_dot}5 per cent. A limited number of normal modes have also been studied at 95 and 184{sup o}K. Considerable difficulty was experienced in obtaining welt resolved neutron peaks corresponding to the two non-degenerate optic modes for very small wave-vector, particularly at 296{sup o}K. However, from a comparison of results obtained under various experimental conditions at several different points in reciprocal space, frequencies (units 10{sup 12} c/s) for these modes (at 296{sup o}K) have been assigned: T 8{center_dot}02{+-}0{center_dot}08 and L 8{center_dot}55{+-}02. Other specific normal modes, with their measured frequencies are (a) (1,0,0): TO 7{center_dot}56 {+-} 008, TA 2{center_dot}36 {+-} 0{center_dot}015, LO 7{center_dot}22 {+-} 0{center_dot}15, LA 6{center_dot}80 {+-} 0{center_dot}06; (b) (0{center_dot}5, 0{center_dot}5, 0{center_dot}5): TO 7{center_dot}84 {+-} 0{center_dot}12, TA 1{center_dot}86 {+-} 0{center_dot}02, LO 7{center_dot}15 {+-} 0{center_dot}07, LA 6{center_dot}26 {+-} 0{center_dot}10; (c) (0, 0{center_dot}65, 0{center_dot}65): optic 8{center_dot}08 {+-}0{center_dot}13, 7{center_dot}54 {+-} 0{center_dot}12 and 6{center_dot}57 {+-} 0{center_dot}11, acoustic 5{center_dot}58 {+-} 0{center_dot}08, 3{center_dot}42 {center_dot} 0{center_dot}06 and 2{center_dot}36 {+-} 004. These results are generally slightly lower than the corresponding frequencies for germanium. An analysis in terms of various modifications of the dipole approximation model has been carried out. A feature of this analysis is that the charge on the gallium atom appears to be very small, about +0{center_dot}04 e. The

  2. Striving for the unknown normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    During the last decade, more and more people have received prescriptions for ADHD drug treatment, and simultaneously the legitimacy of the ADHD diagnosis has been heavily debated among both professionals and laymen. Based on an anthropological fieldwork among adults with ADHD, I illustrate how...... the ADHD diagnosis both answers and produces existential questions on what counts as normal behaviour and emotions. The diagnosis helps the diagnosed to identify, accept and handle problems by offering concrete explanations and solutions to diffuse experienced problems. But the diagnostic process...... is not only a clarifying procedure with a straight plan for treatment and direct effects. It is also a messy affair. In a process of experimenting with drugs and attempting to determine how or whether the medication eliminates the correct symptoms the diagnosed is put in an introspective, self...

  3. IIH with normal CSF pressures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soh Youn Suh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a condition of raised intracranial pressure (ICP in the absence of space occupying lesions. ICP is usually measured by lumbar puncture and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure above 250 mm H 2 O is one of the diagnostic criteria of IIH. Recently, we have encountered two patients who complained of headaches and exhibited disc swelling without an increased ICP. We prescribed acetazolamide and followed both patients frequently; because of the definite disc swelling with IIH related symptoms. Symptoms and signs resolved in both patients after they started taking acetazolamide. It is generally known that an elevated ICP, as measured by lumbar puncture, is the most important diagnostic sign of IIH. However, these cases caution even when CSF pressure is within the normal range, that suspicion should be raised when a patient has papilledema with related symptoms, since untreated papilledema may cause progressive and irreversible visual loss.

  4. CT in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Katsuzo; Nogaki, Hidekazu; Noda, Masaya; Kusunoki, Tadaki; Tamaki, Norihiko

    1981-01-01

    CT scans were obtained on 33 patients (age 73y. to 31y.) with the diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus. In each case, the diagnosis was made on the basis of the symptoms, CT and cisternographic findings. Underlying diseases of normal pressure hydrocephalus are ruptured aneurysms (21 cases), arteriovenous malformations (2 cases), head trauma (1 case), cerebrovascular accidents (1 case) and idiopathie (8 cases). Sixteen of 33 patients showed marked improvement, five, moderate or minimal improvement, and twelve, no change. The results were compared with CT findings and clinical response to shunting. CT findings were classified into five types, bases on the degree of periventricular hypodensity (P.V.H.), the extent of brain damage by underlying diseases, and the degree of cortical atrophy. In 17 cases of type (I), CT shows the presence of P.V.H. with or without minimal frontal lobe damage and no cortical atrophy. The good surgical improvements were achieved in all cases of type (I) by shunting. In 4 cases of type (II), CT shows the presence of P.V.H. and severe brain damage without cortical atrophy. The fair clinical improvements were achieved in 2 cases (50%) by shunting. In one case of type (III), CT shows the absence of P.V.H. without brain damage nor cortical atrophy. No clinical improvement was obtained by shunting in this type. In 9 cases of type (IV) with mild cortical atrophy, the fair clinical improvement was achieved in two cases (22%) and no improvement in 7 cases. In 2 cases of type (V) with moderate or marked cortical atrophy, no clinical improvement was obtained by shunting. In conclusion, it appeared from the present study that there was a good correlation between the result of shunting and the type of CT, and clinical response to shunting operation might be predicted by classification of CT findings. (author)

  5. Haz que tu bebé nazca protegido contra la tosferina(Born with Protection against Whooping Cough)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Este podcast provee información acerca de la tosferina, una enfermedad que puede ser mortal para los bebés, y la recomendación de los CDC de que todas las mujeres reciban la vacuna Tdap durante el tercer trimestre de cada embarazo para que su bebé nazca con protección contra esta grave enfermedad.

  6. Violencia contra mujeres embarazadas entre las usuarias del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social: un estudio sobre determinantes, prevalencia y severidad

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Castro; Gregorio Agustín Ruiz; María de la Luz Arenas Monreal; Sergio Juárez Márquez; Nora Barrios Martínez Rojas

    2002-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de una encuesta entre 446 mujeres usuarias de los servicios de salud del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) en Morelos, que se encontraban en su tercer trimestre de embarazo. El objetivo era indagar si la violencia contra mujeres se incrementa durante el embarazo o si, por el contrario, disminuye. Se encontró que la prevalencia no varió en ambos periodos (aproximadamente 15 por ciento, en general). En cambio, la severidad de l...

  7. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  8. Digital Pupillometry in Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmann, Annekatrin; Waizel, Maria; Kazerounian, Sara; Szurman, Peter; Wilhelm, Helmut; Boden, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the pupil size of normal subjects at different illumination levels with a novel pupillometer. The pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with an infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH, Alsdorf, Germany) at five different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32, and 250 lux). Measurements were performed by the same investigator. Ninety images were executed during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm. This cross-sectional study analysed 490 eyes of 245 subjects (mean age: 51.9 ± 18.3 years, range: 6–87 years). On average, pupil diameter decreased with increasing light intensities for both eyes, with a mean pupil diameter of 5.39 ± 1.04 mm at 0 lux, 5.20 ± 1.00 mm at 0.5 lux, 4.70 ± 0.97 mm at 4 lux, 3.74 ± 0.78 mm at 32 lux, and 2.84 ± 0.50 mm at 250 lux illumination. Furthermore, it was found that anisocoria increased by 0.03 mm per life decade for all illumination levels (R2 = 0.43). Anisocoria was higher under scotopic and mesopic conditions. This study provides additional information to the current knowledge concerning age- and light-related pupil size and anisocoria as a baseline for future patient studies. PMID:28228832

  9. Normal modes of Bardeen discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdaguer, E.

    1983-01-01

    The short wavelength normal modes of self-gravitating rotating polytropic discs in the Bardeen approximation are studied. The discs' oscillations can be seen in terms of two types of modes: the p-modes whose driving forces are pressure forces and the r-modes driven by Coriolis forces. As a consequence of differential rotation coupling between the two takes place and some mixed modes appear, their properties can be studied under the assumption of weak coupling and it is seen that they avoid the crossing of the p- and r-modes. The short wavelength analysis provides a basis for the classification of the modes, which can be made by using the properties of their phase diagrams. The classification is applied to the large wavelength modes of differentially rotating discs with strong coupling and to a uniformly rotating sequence with no coupling, which have been calculated in previous papers. Many of the physical properties and qualitative features of these modes are revealed by the analysis. (author)

  10. Avaliação do risco para parto prematuro espontâneo pelo comprimento do colo uterino no primeiro e segundo trimestres da gravidez Risk assessment for spontaneous preterm delivery according to cervical length in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique Burlacchini de Carvalho

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos:avaliar, no primeiro e segundo trimestres da gravidez, a correlação entre o comprimento do colo uterino e a ocorrência de parto prematuro espontâneo. Métodos:em 641 grávidas do pré-natal geral, a medida do comprimento do colo uterino foi realizada em dois momentos: entre a 11ª e a 16ª e entre a 23ª e a 24ª semana da gravidez. A avaliação do colo uterino foi feita pela ultra-sonografia transvaginal, com a grávida em posição ginecológica e tendo realizado previamente esvaziamento da bexiga. O comprimento do colo uterino foi medido linearmente do seu orifício interno ao externo. A medida do comprimento do colo uterino foi correlacionada com a idade gestacional no momento do parto. Para comparação das médias do grupo de grávidas que tiveram parto prematuro e a termo utilizamos o teste t de Student. A sensibilidade, especificidade, taxa de falso-positivos, falso-negativos e acurácia para o parto prematuro foram calculadas para os comprimentos de colo menores ou iguais a 30 mm, 25 mm e 20 mm. Resultados:a medida do comprimento do colo uterino entre a 11ª e a 16ª semana de gestação não apresentou diferença significativa entre o grupo de parto prematuro e o grupo a termo (40,6 mm e 42,7 mm, respectivamente, p=0,2459. A diferença entre os grupos, no entanto, foi significativa quando o colo foi medido entre a 23ª e a 24ª semana de gravidez (37,3 mm para o grupo que evoluiu com parto prematuro e 26,7 mm para o grupo a termo, p=0,0001, teste t de Student. Conclusões:o comprimento do colo uterino entre a 11ª e a 16ª semana de gravidez não foi significativamente diferente entre as gestantes com parto prematuro ou a termo. No entanto, na 23ª e 24ª semana esta diferença foi significativa, podendo ser um método de predição da prematuridade.Purpose: to evaluate, in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, the correlation between cervical length and spontaneous preterm delivery. Methods: cervical length was

  11. Defining the "normal" postejaculate urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Akanksha; Jarow, Jonathan P; Maples, Pat; Sigman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although sperm have been shown to be present in the postejaculate urinalysis (PEU) of both fertile and infertile men, the number of sperm present in the PEU of the general population has never been well defined. The objective of this study was to describe the semen and PEU findings in both the general and infertile population, in order to develop a better appreciation for "normal." Infertile men (n = 77) and control subjects (n = 71) were prospectively recruited. Exclusion criteria included azoospermia and medications known to affect ejaculation. All men underwent a history, physical examination, semen analysis, and PEU. The urine was split into 2 containers: PEU1, the initial voided urine, and PEU2, the remaining voided urine. Parametric statistical methods were applied for data analysis to compare sperm concentrations in each sample of semen and urine between the 2 groups of men. Controls had higher average semen volume (3.3 ± 1.6 vs 2.0 ± 1.4 mL, P sperm concentrations (112 million vs 56.2 million, P = .011), compared with infertile men. The presence of sperm in urine was common in both groups, but more prevalent among infertile men (98.7% vs 88.7%, P = .012), in whom it comprised a greater proportion of the total sperm count (46% vs 24%, P = .022). The majority of sperm present in PEU were seen in PEU1 of both controls (69%) and infertile men (88%). An association was noted between severe oligospermia (sperm counts in PEU (sperm in the urine compared with control, there is a large degree of overlap between the 2 populations, making it difficult to identify a specific threshold to define a positive test. Interpretation of a PEU should be directed by whether the number of sperm in the urine could affect subsequent management.

  12. Turbocharging Normalization in Highland Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Filippov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure many production processes are used compressors of various types, including turbochargers, which produce compressed air. The actual performance values of turbochargers used in highlands are significantly different from the certified values, and parameters of compressed air do not always guarantee the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.The paper presents research results of the turbochargers of 4CI 425MX4 type, a series of "CENTAC", manufactured by INGERSOL – RAND Company. The research has been conducted in industrial highland conditions in difficult climatic environment. There were almost no investigations of turbochargers running in highland conditions. The combination of low atmospheric pressure with high temperature of the intake air causes the abnormal operating conditions of a turbocharger. Only N. M. Barannikov in his paper shows the results of theoretical studies of such operating conditions, but as to the practical research, there is no information at all.To normalize the turbocharger operation an option of the mechanical pressurization in the suction pipe is adopted. As a result of theoretical research, a TurboMAX blower MAX500 was chosen as a supercharger. The next stage of theoretical research was to construct characteristics of the turbocharger 4CI 425MX4 with a mechanical supercharger in the suction pipe. The boost reduces to the minimum the time of using additional compressors when parameters of the intake air are changed and ensures the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.To verify the results of theoretical studies, namely, the technique for recalculation of the turbocharger characteristics under the real conditions of suction, were carried out the experimental researches. The average error between experimental and theoretical data is 2,9783 %, which confirms the validity of the technique used for reduction of the turbocharger characteristics to those under the real conditions of suction.

  13. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth / For Teens / ... Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Print What Is Vaginal Discharge? Vaginal discharge is fluid that comes from ...

  14. Should Japan Become a Normal Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    This thesis evaluates Japanese geopolitical change in the post-Cold War era. It does so by analyzing Japan's history, its foreign policy since 1945, its reasons for becoming a normal country, and the impact of its normalization...

  15. Aplicación de la experiencia de aprendizaje mediado a la estrategia de aprendizaje basado en problemas en estudiantes del tercer semestre de medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga, Colombia = Application of Mediated Learning Experience to the Problem Based Learning strategy on third semester medical students at a Colombian university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Olaya, Hilda Leonor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas (ABP, ha mostrado logros importantes en la enseñanza de la medicina. La Experiencia del Aprendizaje Mediado (EAM, derivada de la Teoría de la Modificabilidad Cognitiva, podría aumentar los alcances de la estrategia ABP y contribuir al logro de aprendizajes significativos en estudiantes de medicina. En el presente estudio se evaluaron los beneficios sobre el aprendizaje significativo de incorporar la EAM al ABP en estudiantes de medicina. Materiales y métodos: se hizo un estudio controlado y con asignación aleatoria con los estudiantes del tercer semestre de medicina de la Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga, Colombia. El primer grupo recibió solamente la metodología ABP y el segundo, dicha metodología articulada con la EAM. En subgrupos de ocho estudiantes asistieron a 16 sesiones (2 horas/semana para desarrollar problemas relacionados con el propósito homeostático ''mantener un adecuado aporte de oxígeno a los tejidos''. Se utilizaron dos pruebas de conocimiento: selección múltiple y resolución de problemas. Se describieron cualitativamente los resultados de la observación del desempeño cognitivo y de las autoevaluaciones, coevaluaciones y heteroevaluaciones. Resultados y conclusiones: los promedios y porcentajes de aprobación de las pruebas de conocimiento fueron mayores en el grupo de intervención, pero estas diferencias solo fueron estadísticamente significativas en la prueba de selección múltiple. Es posible que la estrategia ABP por sí misma potencie el aprendizaje significativo, pero las observaciones cualitativas demuestran que la EAM favorece la motivación y un ambiente propicio para potenciar las funciones cognitivas por lo que podría aumentar los beneficios del ABP.

  16. Natalidad, soberanía y desarrollo: las medidas restrictivas a la planificación familiar en el tercer gobierno peronista (Argentina, 1973-1976 Birthrate, sovereignty and development: the restrictive regulations to family planning in the third peronist government (Argentina, 1973-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Alejandra Felitti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El acelerado crecimiento de la población mundial durante la segunda posguerra expandió el temor de un inminente agotamiento de los recursos naturales y la desestabilización del sistema capitalista. Mientras la "explosión demográfica" se convertía en una seria amenaza en tiempos de Guerra Fría, en Argentina se presentaba el problema inverso, una tasa de natalidad en permanente descenso. El tercer gobierno peronista (1973-1976 incluyó este tema entre sus prioridades y la originalidad de su plan de acción fue la implementación, por primera vez en el país, de medidas coercitivas sobre el libre acceso a la anticoncepción. En este artículo nos proponemos analizar estas políticas, las contradicciones al interior del gobierno respecto a las medidas a seguir, sus repercusiones y las resistencias que generaron.The intensive growth of the world population during the second postwar period expanded the fear of an imminent depletion of natural resources and the destabilization of the capitalist system. Meanwhile the "population bomb" became a threat in the Cold War context, in Argentina the situation was the opposite, with a persistent birth rate decline. The third Peronist government (1973-1976 included the problem of the demographic fall among its priorities and the originality of its plan of action was that, for the first time in this country, coercive regulations prevented the free access to contraception. In this article we propose to analyze these policies, the contradictions inside the government regarding the best way to proceed, its repercussions and the resistance they produced.

  17. A note on totally normal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zougdani, H.K.

    1990-10-01

    In this note we give the necessary and sufficient condition for a topological space X such that the product space X x Y is totally normal for any (non discrete) metric space Y, and we show that a totally normal p-space need not be a perfectly normal in general, which makes Theorem 2 doubtful. (author). 6 refs

  18. Manufacturing technology for practical Josephson voltage normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlmann, Johannes; Kieler, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we present the manufacturing technology for the fabrication of integrated superconducting Josephson serial circuits for voltage normals. First we summarize some foundations for Josephson voltage normals and sketch the concept and the setup of the circuits, before we describe the manufacturing technology form modern practical Josephson voltage normals.

  19. Neutron scattering by normal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennes, P.G. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Neutron data on motions in normal liquids well below critical point are reviewed and classified according to the order of magnitude of momentum transfers {Dirac_h}q and energy transfers {Dirac_h}w. For large momentum transfers a perfect gas model is valid. For smaller q and incoherent scattering, the major effects are related to the existence of two characteristic times: the period of oscillation of an atom in its cell, and the average lifetime of the atom in a definite cell. Various interpolation schemes covering both time scales are discussed. For coherent scattering and intermediate q, the energy spread is expected to show a minimum whenever q corresponds to a diffraction peak. For very small q the standard macroscopic description of density fluctuations is applicable. The limits of the various (q) and (w) domains and the validity of various approximations are discussed by a method of moments. The possibility of observing discrete transitions due to internal degrees of freedom in polyatomic molecules, in spite of the 'Doppler width' caused by translational motions, is also examined. (author) [French] L'auteur examine les donnees neutroniques sur les mouvements dans les liquides normaux, bien au-dessous du point critique, et les classe d'apres l'ordre de grandeur des transferts de quantite de mouvement {Dirac_h}q et des transferts d'energie {Dirac_h}w. Pour les grands transferts de, quantite de mouvement, un modele de gaz parfait est valable. En ce qui concerne les faibles valeurs de q et la diffussion incoherente, les principaux effets sont lies a l'existence de deux temps caracteristiques: la periode d'oscillation d'un atome dans sa cellule et la duree moyenne de vie de l'atome dans une cellule determinee. L'auteur etudie divers systemes d'interpolation se rapportant aux deux echelles de temps. Pour la diffusion coherente et les valeurs intermediaires de q, on presume que le spectre d'energie accuse un minimum chaque fois que q correspond a un pic de

  20. Normal distal pulmonary vein anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that the pulmonary veins (PVs, especially their myocardial sleeves play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Understanding the PV anatomy is crucial for the safety and efficacy of all procedures performed on PVs. The aim of this study was to present normal distal PV anatomy and to create a juxtaposition of all PV ostium variants.Methods. A total of 130 randomly selected autopsied adult human hearts (Caucasian were examined. The number of PVs ostia was evaluated and their diameter was measured. The ostium-to-last-tributary distance and macroscopic presence of myocardial sleeves were also evaluated.Results. Five hundred forty-one PV ostia were identified. Four classical PV ostia patterns (two left and two right PVs were observed in 70.8% of all cases. The most common variant was the classical pattern with additional middle right PV (19.2%, followed by the common ostium for the left superior and the inferior PVs (4.44%. Mean diameters of PV ostia (for the classical pattern were: left superior = 13.8 ± 2.9 mm; left inferior = 13.3 ± 3.4 mm; right superior = 14.3 ± 2.9 mm; right inferior = 13.7 ± 3.3 mm. When present, the additional middle right PV ostium had the smallest PV ostium diameter in the heart (8.2 ± 4.1 mm. The mean ostium-to-last-tributary (closest to the atrium distances were: left superior = 15.1 ± 4.6 mm; left inferior = 13.5 ± 4.0 mm; right superior = 11.8 ± 4.0 mm; right inferior = 11.0 ± 3.7 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes in ostia diameters and ostium-to-last-tributary distances.Conclusion. Only 71% of the cases have four standard pulmonary veins. The middle right pulmonary vein is present in almost 20% of patients. Presented data can provide useful information for the clinicians during interventional procedures or radiologic examinations of PVs.

  1. Comportamiento del desarrollo sicomotor en el menor de 1 año, en relación con el manejo y funcionamiento familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Robaina Suárez

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo del desarrollo sicomotor (DSM hasta el año de edad, de una muestra de 51 recién nacidos sanos, relacionándolo con el manejo y funcionamiento familiar. El DSM se evaluó por la observación trimestral en la puericultura de las habilidades adquiridas y la aplicación al año de la prueba Brunet-Lezine. Para conocer el manejo familiar se utilizó una encuesta de preguntas cerradas, evaluando como adecuado o inadecuado, según parámetros previamente establecidos. Para el funcionamiento familiar aplicamos la prueba de Smilkstein, que mide el adgar familiar y expresa cualitativamente el funcionamiento como: funcional, moderadamente funcional y disfuncional. El 84,3 % de los niños presentó DSM normal al año, el 15,7 % retardo ligero a partir del tercer trimestre, siendo el lenguaje la esfera afectada; de ellos el 75 % vivía con familias disfuncionales y el 100 % con un manejo inadecuadoA descriptive and prospective study of the psychomotor development (SMD up to the first year of life in relation to family management and functioning was conducted in a sample of 51 sound newborn infants. The SMD was evaluated by the trimestral observation in child care of the adquired abilities and the application of the Brunet-Lezine test at one year of age. To know the family management it was used a survey of closed questions. Adequate and inadequate evaluations were given according to previously established parameters. In order to determine the family functioning we applied the Smilkstein´s test that measures the family Apgar and expresses qualitatively the functioning as: functional, moderately functional and dysfunctional. 84,3 % of the children had a normal SMD at one year of age, whereas 15,7% had mild retardation from the third trimester on, being speech the most affected sphere. Of them 75 % lived with dysfunctional families and 100 % with an inadequate management

  2. Programa de fluoración de la leche en Codegua, Chile: evaluación al tercer año The milk fluoridation program in Codegua, Chile: an evaluation after 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mariño

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available En 1994 se inició un estudio comunitario para determinar la efectividad del uso de productos lácteos fluorados, distribuidos mediante el Programa Nacional de Alimentación Complementaria, con el fin de lograr una disminución de la caries dental infantil en zonas rurales de Chile en las que esta tiene una alta prevalencia. Se determinaron los índices de prevalencia de caries dental en dos comunidades rurales de la Sexta Región de Chile: una en la que los niños recibieron productos lácteos fluorados (comunidad de estudio: Codegua y otra en la que recibieron productos lácteos no fluorados (comunidad testigo: La Punta. Después de recibir productos lácteos fluorados durante 3 años, los índices de prevalencia de caries dental presentaron una significativa mejoría en la comunidad de estudio. Al comparar la prevalencia actual de la caries dental en los preescolares de Codegua con la que presentaban antes de la fluoración de los productos lácteos, se comprueba que disminuyó entre 40 y 60% en niños de 3 a 6 años. En los grupos de 3 y 4 años de edad, la proporción de niños sin antecedentes de caries dental aumentó en 74% (de 40,7 a 70,8% y 71% (de 33,3 a 56,9%, respectivamente. Estos resultados, similares a los obtenidos tras la introducción de programas de fluoración del agua potable, se consiguieron sin ningún otro tipo de intervención adicional en el funcionamiento normal del Programa Nacional de Alimentación Complementaria, como podrían ser campañas de motivación de las madres o de educación para el consumo de productos de este programa.A study was done in 1994 to determine the effectiveness of the fluoridated dairy products that the Chilean National Program for Supplementary Feeding had been distributing to reduce the high prevalence of children’s dental caries in rural areas of that country. For the study, the prevalence of caries was assessed in two rural communities of the Sixth Region of Chile. Children in the

  3. MR guided spatial normalization of SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, B.; Barnden, L.R.; Kwiatek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In SPECT population studies where magnetic resonance (MR) scans are also available, the higher resolution of the MR scans allows for an improved spatial normalization of the SPECT scans. In this approach, the SPECT images are first coregistered to their corresponding MR images by a linear (affine) transformation which is calculated using SPM's mutual information maximization algorithm. Non-linear spatial normalization maps are then computed either directly from the MR scans using SPM's built in spatial normalization algorithm, or, from segmented TI MR images using DARTEL, an advanced diffeomorphism based spatial normalization algorithm. We compare these MR based methods to standard SPECT based spatial normalization for a population of 27 fibromyalgia patients and 25 healthy controls with spin echo T 1 scans. We identify significant perfusion deficits in prefrontal white matter in FM patients, with the DARTEL based spatial normalization procedure yielding stronger statistics than the standard SPECT based spatial normalization. (author)

  4. Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.

  5. Correlated random sampling for multivariate normal and log-normal distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žerovnik, Gašper; Trkov, Andrej; Kodeli, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for correlated random sampling is presented. Representative samples for multivariate normal or log-normal distribution can be produced. Furthermore, any combination of normally and log-normally distributed correlated variables may be sampled to any requested accuracy. Possible applications of the method include sampling of resonance parameters which are used for reactor calculations.

  6. Normal form theory and spectral sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Jan A.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of unique normal form is formulated in terms of a spectral sequence. As an illustration of this technique some results of Baider and Churchill concerning the normal form of the anharmonic oscillator are reproduced. The aim of this paper is to show that spectral sequences give us a natural framework in which to formulate normal form theory. © 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  7. Denotational Aspects of Untyped Normalization by Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Andrzej; Rohde, Henning Korsholm

    2005-01-01

    of soundness (the output term, if any, is in normal form and ß-equivalent to the input term); identification (ß-equivalent terms are mapped to the same result); and completeness (the function is defined for all terms that do have normal forms). We also show how the semantic construction enables a simple yet...... formal correctness proof for the normalization algorithm, expressed as a functional program in an ML-like, call-by-value language. Finally, we generalize the construction to produce an infinitary variant of normal forms, namely Böhm trees. We show that the three-part characterization of correctness...

  8. Ultrasonographic features of normal lower ureters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soon; Bae, M. Y.; Park, K. J.; Jeon, H. S.; Lee, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Although ultrasonographic evaluation of the normal ureters is difficult due to bowel gas, the lower segment of the normal ureters can be visualized using the urinary bladder as an acoustic window. Authors prospetively performed ultrasonography with the standard suprapubic technique and analyzed the ultrasonographic features of normal lower ureters in 79 cases(77%). Length of visualized segment of the distal ureter ranged frp, 1.5cm to 7.2 cm and the visualized segment did not exceed 3.9mm in maximum diameter. Knowledge of sonographic features of the normal lower ureters can be helpful in the evaluation of pathologic or suspected pathologic conditions of the lower ureters

  9. Spinal cord normalization in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jiwon; Seigo, Michaela; Saidha, Shiv; Sotirchos, Elias; Zackowski, Kathy; Chen, Min; Prince, Jerry; Diener-West, Marie; Calabresi, Peter A; Reich, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord (SC) pathology is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and measures of SC-atrophy are increasingly utilized. Normalization reduces biological variation of structural measurements unrelated to disease, but optimal parameters for SC volume (SCV)-normalization remain unclear. Using a variety of normalization factors and clinical measures, we assessed the effect of SCV normalization on detecting group differences and clarifying clinical-radiological correlations in MS. 3T cervical SC-MRI was performed in 133 MS cases and 11 healthy controls (HC). Clinical assessment included expanded disability status scale (EDSS), MS functional composite (MSFC), quantitative hip-flexion strength ("strength"), and vibration sensation threshold ("vibration"). SCV between C3 and C4 was measured and normalized individually by subject height, SC-length, and intracranial volume (ICV). There were group differences in raw-SCV and after normalization by height and length (MS vs. HC; progressive vs. relapsing MS-subtypes, P normalization by length (EDSS:r = -.43; MSFC:r = .33; strength:r = .38; vibration:r = -.40), and height (EDSS:r = -.26; MSFC:r = .28; strength:r = .22; vibration:r = -.29), but diminished with normalization by ICV (EDSS:r = -.23; MSFC:r = -.10; strength:r = .23; vibration:r = -.35). In relapsing MS, normalization by length allowed statistical detection of correlations that were not apparent with raw-SCV. SCV-normalization by length improves the ability to detect group differences, strengthens clinical-radiological correlations, and is particularly relevant in settings of subtle disease-related SC-atrophy in MS. SCV-normalization by length may enhance the clinical utility of measures of SC-atrophy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  10. Impacto de una campaña de mejora de la higiene de manos sobre el consumo de soluciones hidroalcohólicas en un hospital de tercer nivel Impact of a hand hygiene campaign on alcoholic hand rub consumption in a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Valorar la influencia sobre el consumo de preparados de base alcohólica de una campaña de mejora de la higiene de manos, y más concretamente del desarrollo de talleres prácticos sobre higienización de manos en un hospital de tercer nivel del Servicio Cántabro de Salud. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio ecológico con datos de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2008. La variable dependiente fue el consumo de preparados de base alcohólica (ml/día. Como variable independiente se utilizó la campaña de mejora de la higiene de manos desarrollada en el Servicio Cántabro de Salud. Para valorar la relación del consumo con la campaña se utilizó un análisis de regresión lineal múltiple. Resultados y conclusiones: Destaca la asociación entre la formación recibida sobre higiene de manos en las unidades de hospitalización y el consumo de preparados de base alcohólica, que mejora al consolidarse la campaña (año 2008 y demuestra un efecto positivo de ésta, en especial de sus aspectos formativos.Objective: To evaluate the influence of a hand hygiene program on consumption of alcoholic hand rub, and specifically the impact of the development of hand washing training in a tertiary hospital belonging to the Cantabrian Health Service in Spain. Methods: We performed an ecological study from January 2005 to December 2008. The dependent variable was consumption of alcoholic hand rub (ml/day. As the independent variable, we used the hand hygiene campaign developed by the Cantabrian Health Service. The relationship between alcoholic hand rub consumption and the campaign was evaluated using multiple linear regression. Results and conclusions: The training received in hand hygiene in hospital wards was associated with consumption of alcoholic hand rub, which improved as the campaign became consolidated (in 2008 and showed a positive effect, particularly its training aspects.

  11. An atlas of normal skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, J.J.; Maisey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    This atlas was compiled to provide the neophyte as well as the experienced radiologist and the nuclear medicine physician with a reference on normal skeletal scintigraphy as an aid in distinguishing normal variations in skeletal uptake from abnormal findings. Each skeletal scintigraph is labeled, and utilizing an identical scale, a relevant skeletal photograph and radiograph are placed adjacent to the scintigraph

  12. On normal modes in classical Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Normal modes of Hamittonian systems that are even and of classical type are characterized as the critical points of a normalized kinetic energy functional on level sets of the potential energy functional. With the aid of this constrained variational formulation the existence of at least one family

  13. Computerized three-dimensional normal atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Isamu; Suto, Yasuzo; Suzuki, Masataka; Iio, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents our ongoing project in which normal human anatomy and its quantitative data are systematically arranged in a computer. The final product, the Computerized Three-Dimensional Normal Atlas, will be able to supply tomographic images in any direction, 3-D images, and coded information on organs, e.g., anatomical names, CT numbers, and T 1 and T 2 values. (author)

  14. Pseudo--Normals for Signed Distance Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2003-01-01

    the relation of a point to a mesh. At the vertices and edges of a triangle mesh, the surface is not \\$C\\^1\\$ continuous. Hence, the normal is undefined at these loci. Thürmer and Wüthrich proposed the \\$\\backslash\\$emph{angle weighted pseudo--normal} as a way to deal with this problem. In this paper, we...

  15. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus, ...

  16. a Recursive Approach to Compute Normal Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    HSU, L.; MIN, L. J.; FAVRETTO, L.

    2001-06-01

    Normal forms are instrumental in the analysis of dynamical systems described by ordinary differential equations, particularly when singularities close to a bifurcation are to be characterized. However, the computation of a normal form up to an arbitrary order is numerically hard. This paper focuses on the computer programming of some recursive formulas developed earlier to compute higher order normal forms. A computer program to reduce the system to its normal form on a center manifold is developed using the Maple symbolic language. However, it should be stressed that the program relies essentially on recursive numerical computations, while symbolic calculations are used only for minor tasks. Some strategies are proposed to save computation time. Examples are presented to illustrate the application of the program to obtain high order normalization or to handle systems with large dimension.

  17. La traducción: un tercer dominio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Spoturno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESEÑA del libro: La Traductología. Miradas para comprender su complejidad, Beatriz Cagnolati (comp.. Buenos Aires, La Plata: Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación (UNLP. Serie Estudios/ Investigaciones 42, 2012.

  18. El marketing al servicio de las organizaciones del tercer sector

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Eugenia Toca Torres

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente artículo es revisar el verdadero significado del marketing al servicio de las organizaciones cuya finalidad es neta y exclusivamente social. El artículo toma distancia del mercadeo social —tan ampliamente investigado — y evita en todo momento una adopción discrecional de herramientas y procesos del marketing comercial; busca en consecuencia, consolidar un enfoque acorde con la naturaleza, actividades y público de las organizaciones sociales. A partir del análisis de l...

  19. ¿Sobrevivira taylor en el tercer milenio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Parra R.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Los anteriores artículos recogen las exposiciones del debate sobre la vigencia del taylorismo, realizado en el primer semestre de 1997 en mesa redonda convocada por el Departamento de Gestión empresarial, el Programa Maestría en Administración y la revista innovar. Se conto con la participación de la profesora Anita Waiss del departamento de sociología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, los profesores Carlos Martínez, Ricardo Romero y Bernardo Parra, del departamento de Gestión Empresarial de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. El debate también conto con la presencia del profesor Guillermo Camacho Caro, consultor y conferencista de las diferentes universidades del país, quien hizo una excelente comparecencia del taylorismo, la profesora Lilian M. Gilbreth quien se concentro en las formas de promover el bienestar del trabajador. Por ese entonces ella trabajaba en un proyecto de diseñar cocinas integrales.

  20. El marketing al servicio de las organizaciones del tercer sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eugenia Toca Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es revisar el verdadero significado del marketing al servicio de las organizaciones cuya finalidad es neta y exclusivamente social. El artículo toma distancia del mercadeo social tan ampliamente investigado y evita en todo momento una adopción discrecional de herramientas y procesos del marketing comercial; busca en consecuencia, consolidar un enfoque acorde con la naturaleza, actividades y público de las organizaciones sociales. A partir del análisis de literatura especializada de las ciencias sociales y políticas, como institucionalismo, política social, bienes públicos, pobreza y vulnerabilidad, se deduce un lenguaje pertinente para esta tipología mercadológica, y se trasciende a su respectivo contraste con la realidad social colombiana. Estas claridades permiten, finalmente, proponer el contenido de un curso sobre asuntos sociales y de marketing.

  1. El marketing al servicio de las organizaciones del tercer sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eugenia Toca Torres

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es revisar el verdadero significado del marketing al servicio de las organizaciones cuya finalidad es neta y exclusivamente social. El artículo toma distancia del mercadeo social —tan ampliamente investigado — y evita en todo momento una adopción discrecional de herramientas y procesos del marketing comercial; busca en consecuencia, consolidar un enfoque acorde con la naturaleza, actividades y público de las organizaciones sociales. A partir del análisis de literatura especializada de las ciencias sociales y políticas, como institucionalismo, política social, bienes públicos, pobreza y vulnerabilidad, se deduce un lenguaje pertinente para esta tipología mercadológica, y se trasciende a su respectivo contraste con la realidad social colombiana. Estas claridades permiten, finalmente, proponer el contenido de un curso sobre asuntos sociales y de marketing.

  2. Normal zone soliton in large composite superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupferman, R.; Mints, R.G.; Ben-Jacob, E.

    1992-01-01

    The study of normal zone of finite size (normal domains) in superconductors, has been continuously a subject of interest in the field of applied superconductivity. It was shown that in homogeneous superconductors normal domains are always unstable, so that if a normal domain nucleates, it will either expand or shrink. While testing the stability of large cryostable composite superconductors, a new phenomena was found, the existence of stable propagating normal solitons. The formation of these propagating domains was shown to be a result of the high Joule power generated in the superconductor during the relatively long process of current redistribution between the superconductor and the stabilizer. Theoretical studies were performed in investigate the propagation of normal domains in large composite super conductors in the cryostable regime. Huang and Eyssa performed numerical calculations simulating the diffusion of heat and current redistribution in the conductor, and showed the existence of stable propagating normal domains. They compared the velocity of normal domain propagation with the experimental data, obtaining a reasonable agreement. Dresner presented an analytical method to solve this problem if the time dependence of the Joule power is given. He performed explicit calculations of normal domain velocity assuming that the Joule power decays exponentially during the process of current redistribution. In this paper, the authors propose a system of two one-dimensional diffusion equations describing the dynamics of the temperature and the current density distributions along the conductor. Numerical simulations of the equations reconfirm the existence of propagating domains in the cryostable regime, while an analytical investigation supplies an explicit formula for the velocity of the normal domain

  3. A Contribuição do Contador para a Gestão das Empresas do Terceiro Setor: uma pesquisa de campo no Distrito Federal Accountant Contribution for the Third Sector Organizations Management: a research field in the Federal District - BrazilLa Contribución del Contador para la Gestión de las Empresas del Tercer Sector: un estudio de campo en el Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚNIOR, Idalberto José das Neves

    2007-01-01

    accounting of what it is this sector, in special, of companies who integrates it, and the existence of a work field to be explored by the professional of the accounting.RESUMENEn todo el mundo, organizaciones del Tercer Sector surgen y adquieren importancia en el cómputo de las economías, sea para suplir las lagunas de la acción gubernamental o para concretizar objetivos de solidariedad que no encuentran espacio para su realización en otros lugares. La necesidad de obtener informaciones para una gestión más profesional de estas empresas hizo surgir un nuevo campo de trabajo para el profesional de contabilidad. El objetivo principal de este artículo es analizar las percepciones de las empresas del Tercer Sector con relación a los servicios profesionales contables y la confrontación de éstos con la opinión de contabilistas, por medio de un estudio de campo realizado en el Distrito Federal. Los resultados evidenciaron que es muy bajo el grado de atención ofrecido por los servicios contables, frente a las necesidades de información de las empresas del Tercer Sector, que hay gran desconocimiento por parte de los profesionales de contabilidad sobre este sector, especialmente las empresas que lo integran y que hay un campo de trabajo disponible para que el profesional de la contabilidad pueda explorarlo.

  4. Strength of Gamma Rhythm Depends on Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Supratim; Ni, Amy M.; Maunsell, John H. R.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal assemblies often exhibit stimulus-induced rhythmic activity in the gamma range (30–80 Hz), whose magnitude depends on the attentional load. This has led to the suggestion that gamma rhythms form dynamic communication channels across cortical areas processing the features of behaviorally relevant stimuli. Recently, attention has been linked to a normalization mechanism, in which the response of a neuron is suppressed (normalized) by the overall activity of a large pool of neighboring neurons. In this model, attention increases the excitatory drive received by the neuron, which in turn also increases the strength of normalization, thereby changing the balance of excitation and inhibition. Recent studies have shown that gamma power also depends on such excitatory–inhibitory interactions. Could modulation in gamma power during an attention task be a reflection of the changes in the underlying excitation–inhibition interactions? By manipulating the normalization strength independent of attentional load in macaque monkeys, we show that gamma power increases with increasing normalization, even when the attentional load is fixed. Further, manipulations of attention that increase normalization increase gamma power, even when they decrease the firing rate. Thus, gamma rhythms could be a reflection of changes in the relative strengths of excitation and normalization rather than playing a functional role in communication or control. PMID:23393427

  5. MR imaging of the ankle: Normal variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, A.M.; Cheung, Y.; Rosenberg, Z.S.; Norman, A.; Leeds, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty asymptomatic ankles were studied with high-resolution surface coil MR imaging. The thirty ankles were reviewed for identification or normal structures. The MR appearance of the deltoid and posterior to talo-fibular ligaments, peroneous brevis and longus tendons, and posterior aspect of the tibial-talar joint demonstrated several normal variants not previously described. These should not be misinterpreted as pathologic processes. The specific findings included (1) cortical irregularity of the posterior tibial-talar joint in 27 of 30 cases which should not be mistaken for osteonecrois; (2) normal posterior talo-fibular ligament with irregular and frayed inhomogeneity, which represents a normal variant in seven of ten cases; and (3) fluid in the shared peroneal tendons sheath which may be confused for a longitudinal tendon tear in three of 30 cases. Ankle imaging with the use of MR is still a relatively new procedure. Further investigation is needed to better define normal anatomy as well as normal variants. The authors described several structures that normally present with variable MR imaging appearances. This is clinically significant in order to maintain a high sensitivity and specificity in MR imaging interpretation

  6. The setting of the organizational structure in the third sector: the case of EDISCA Configuración de la estructura organizacional en el tercer sector: el caso EDISCA Configuração da estrutura organizacional no terceiro setor: o caso EDISCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Teixeira da Cunha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In line with the growing concern of third sector organizations in relation to their management practices and also with the growing interest of scholars to study them, this paper aims to analyze the organizational structure of an NGO, the "Escola de Dança e Integração Social para Criança e Adolescente" School of Dance and Social Integration for Children and Adolescents (EDISCA. A descriptive qualitative research was used that consisted of a case study, taking as a parameter the theory of configurations by Mintzberg (2008. The study is supported by document research and primary data collection by in-depth interview. Data analysis used the technique of content analysis that allowed inferences to be made, taking as analysis units the coordination mechanisms, the design parameters and the situational factors related to the theoretical approach on which the research is based. It was concluded that the entity studied presents a hybrid configuration due to the evident presence of features mostly related to the configurations called Machine Bureaucracy and Adhocracy. Although presenting opposite features, such configurations reveal a scenario common to entities such as EDISCA that tend to adopt increasingly effective management practices, adjusting informal and flexible elements, typical of the third sector, to more rigid and structured systems of planning and control.En sintonía con la creciente preocupación de las entidades del Tercer Sector en relación a sus prácticas gerenciales y con el aumento del interés de la academia en convertirlas en objeto de estudio, este artículo se propone analizar la estructura organizacional de una ONG, la Escuela de Danza e Integración Social para Niños y Adolescentes (EDISCA. Se empleó una encuesta cualitativa descriptiva, que constituyó en un estudio de caso, tomándose como parámetro la teoría de las configuraciones de Mintzberg (2008. El estudio se apoya en la investigación documental y en la

  7. Defecography: A study of normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorvon, P.; Stevenson, G.W.; McHugh, S.; Somers, P.

    1987-01-01

    This study of young volunteers was set up in an effort to establish true normal measurements for defecography with minimum selection bias. The results describe the mean (and the range) for the following: anorectal angle; anorectal junction position at rest; excursion on lift, strain, and evacuation; anal canal length and degree of closure; and the frequency and degree of features such as rectocele and intussusception which have previously been called abnormalities. The results indicate that there is a very wide range of normal appearances. Knowledge of these normal variations is important to avoid overreporting and unnecessary surgery

  8. Nonlinear dynamics exploration through normal forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this exposition covers the method of normal forms and its application to ordinary differential equations through perturbation analysis. In addition to its emphasis on the freedom inherent in the normal form expansion, the text features numerous examples of equations, the kind of which are encountered in many areas of science and engineering. The treatment begins with an introduction to the basic concepts underlying the normal forms. Coverage then shifts to an investigation of systems with one degree of freedom that model oscillations

  9. Normal-dispersion microresonator Kerr frequency combs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Xiaoxiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical microresonator-based Kerr frequency comb generation has developed into a hot research area in the past decade. Microresonator combs are promising for portable applications due to their potential for chip-level integration and low power consumption. According to the group velocity dispersion of the microresonator employed, research in this field may be classified into two categories: the anomalous dispersion regime and the normal dispersion regime. In this paper, we discuss the physics of Kerr comb generation in the normal dispersion regime and review recent experimental advances. The potential advantages and future directions of normal dispersion combs are also discussed.

  10. Normal radiographic findings. 4. act. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    This book can serve the reader in three ways: First, it presents normal findings for all radiographic techniques including KM. Important data which are criteria of normal findings are indicated directly in the pictures and are also explained in full text and in summary form. Secondly, it teaches the systematics of interpreting a picture - how to look at it, what structures to regard in what order, and for what to look in particular. Checklists are presented in each case. Thirdly, findings are formulated in accordance with the image analysis procedure. All criteria of normal findings are defined in these formulations, which make them an important didactic element. (orig.)

  11. Normal radiographic findings. 4. act. ed.; Roentgennormalbefunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, T.B. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Dillingen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    This book can serve the reader in three ways: First, it presents normal findings for all radiographic techniques including KM. Important data which are criteria of normal findings are indicated directly in the pictures and are also explained in full text and in summary form. Secondly, it teaches the systematics of interpreting a picture - how to look at it, what structures to regard in what order, and for what to look in particular. Checklists are presented in each case. Thirdly, findings are formulated in accordance with the image analysis procedure. All criteria of normal findings are defined in these formulations, which make them an important didactic element. (orig.)

  12. Caries dental asociada a factores de riesgo durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cecilio Pérez Oviedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El periodo gestacional se relaciona con una mayor incidencia de caries dental, aunque la asociación entre gestación e incremento de caries no ha podido aún ser científicamente demostrada. Se propuso realizar un estudio para determinar la presencia de caries dental y algunos factores de riesgo asociados en el primer y tercer trimestre del embarazo, para detectar la aparición de lesiones cariosas nuevas y cambios relacionados con los factores de riesgo entre ambos trimestres. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal desde diciembre de 2006 a febrero de 2008 en el municipio de Florida, Camagüey, Cuba. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por 38 embarazadas y la muestra por 21, que fueron interrogadas y examinadas en ambos trimestres con el objetivo de determinar la presencia de caries y los factores de riesgo asociados como: higiene bucal deficiente, dieta cariogénica, pH salival bajo, ocurrencia de vómitos y embarazo previo. La información necesaria fue recogida en un formulario confeccionado al efecto. En el primer trimestre el 80,95 % estaban afectadas por caries dental y se observó aparición de lesiones nuevas en 6 embarazadas, en el tercer trimestre. Los factores de riesgo presentados con mayor frecuencia en el primer trimestre fueron la dieta cariogénica en el 66,66 % y la higiene bucal deficiente en el 47,61 % de las pacientes. Ninguna embarazada modificó la dieta durante el embarazo, sin embargo la higiene bucal deficiente persistió en el 14,28 %. El 52,38 % de las embarazadas afectadas en el primer trimestre consumían dieta cariogénica y el 47,61 % habían tenido embarazo previo. Se concluyó que hubo afectación por nuevas caries durante el embarazo, los factores de riesgo que predominantes fueron la dieta cariogénica, la higiene bucal deficiente y el embarazo previo. Las pacientes no modificaron la dieta durante el embarazo, pero sí mejoraron la higiene bucal. Todas las que presentaban vómitos y pH salival

  13. Imaging the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix in children: normal anatomy and variations of normality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Paul D.; Batty, Ruth; Connolly, Dan J.A.; Reeves, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The midline structures of the supra-tentorial brain are important landmarks for judging if the brain has formed correctly. In this article, we consider the normal appearances of the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix as shown on MR imaging in normal and near-normal states. (orig.)

  14. The total plasmatic estriol on normal gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    The total plasmatic estriol in normal pregnants was determinated by radioimmunological method using estriol labelled with sup(125)I. The obtained results presented similar results in comparison with methods using sup(19)C and sup(3)H. (author)

  15. Terre Haute and the Normal School Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Allen

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines the short history of the Terre Haute Normal School before its tragic burning on April 9, 1888 and relates that story to the course of events immediately following the fire. (Author)

  16. Looking at Your Newborn: What's Normal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features that may make a normal newborn look strange are temporary. After all, babies develop while immersed ... sleepy during the first day or two of life. Many new parents become concerned about their newborn's ...

  17. Mental Health: What's Normal, What's Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Understanding what's considered normal mental health can be tricky. See how feelings, thoughts and behaviors determine mental health and how to recognize if you or a ...

  18. Compressed normalized block difference for object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Zhang, Dengzhuo; Cai, Donglan; Zhou, Hao; Lan, Ge

    2018-04-01

    Feature extraction is very important for robust and real-time tracking. Compressive sensing provided a technical support for real-time feature extraction. However, all existing compressive tracking were based on compressed Haar-like feature, and how to compress many more excellent high-dimensional features is worth researching. In this paper, a novel compressed normalized block difference feature (CNBD) was proposed. For resisting noise effectively in a highdimensional normalized pixel difference feature (NPD), a normalized block difference feature extends two pixels in the original formula of NPD to two blocks. A CNBD feature can be obtained by compressing a normalized block difference feature based on compressive sensing theory, with the sparse random Gaussian matrix as the measurement matrix. The comparative experiments of 7 trackers on 20 challenging sequences showed that the tracker based on CNBD feature can perform better than other trackers, especially than FCT tracker based on compressed Haar-like feature, in terms of AUC, SR and Precision.

  19. Forced Normalization: Antagonism Between Epilepsy and Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Itoh, Yasuhiko

    2017-05-01

    The antagonism between epilepsy and psychosis has been discussed for a long time. Landolt coined the term "forced normalization" in the 1950s to describe psychotic episodes associated with the remission of seizures and disappearance of epileptiform activity on electroencephalograms in individuals with epilepsy. Since then, neurologists and psychiatrists have been intrigued by this phenomenon. However, although collaborative clinical studies and basic experimental researches have been performed, the mechanism of forced normalization remains unknown. In this review article, we present a historical overview of the concept of forced normalization, and discuss potential pathogenic mechanisms and clinical diagnosis. We also discuss the role of dopamine, which appears to be a key factor in the mechanism of forced normalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient CEPSTRAL Normalization for Robust Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Fu-Hua; Stern, Richard M; Huang, Xuedong; Acero, Alejandro

    1993-01-01

    .... We compare the performance of these algorithms with the very simple RASTA and cepstral mean normalization procedures, describing the performance of these algorithms in the context of the 1992 DARPA...

  1. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age.

  2. Right thoracic curvature in the normal spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda Keigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry and vertebral rotation, at times observed in the normal spine, resemble the characteristics of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Right thoracic curvature has also been reported in the normal spine. If it is determined that the features of right thoracic side curvature in the normal spine are the same as those observed in AIS, these findings might provide a basis for elucidating the etiology of this condition. For this reason, we investigated right thoracic curvature in the normal spine. Methods For normal spinal measurements, 1,200 patients who underwent a posteroanterior chest radiographs were evaluated. These consisted of 400 children (ages 4-9, 400 adolescents (ages 10-19 and 400 adults (ages 20-29, with each group comprised of both genders. The exclusion criteria were obvious chest and spinal diseases. As side curvature is minimal in normal spines and the range at which curvature is measured is difficult to ascertain, first the typical curvature range in scoliosis patients was determined and then the Cobb angle in normal spines was measured using the same range as the scoliosis curve, from T5 to T12. Right thoracic curvature was given a positive value. The curve pattern was organized in each collective three groups: neutral (from -1 degree to 1 degree, right (> +1 degree, and left ( Results In child group, Cobb angle in left was 120, in neutral was 125 and in right was 155. In adolescent group, Cobb angle in left was 70, in neutral was 114 and in right was 216. In adult group, Cobb angle in left was 46, in neutral was 102 and in right was 252. The curvature pattern shifts to the right side in the adolescent group (p Conclusions Based on standing chest radiographic measurements, a right thoracic curvature was observed in normal spines after adolescence.

  3. Advancing Normal Birth: Organizations, Goals, and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hotelling, Barbara A.; Humenick, Sharron S.

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the support for advancing normal birth is summarized, based on a comparison of the goals of Healthy People 2010, Lamaze International, the Coalition for Improving Maternity Services, and the midwifery model of care. Research abstracts are presented to provide evidence that the midwifery model of care safely and economically advances normal birth. Rates of intervention experienced, as reported in the Listening to Mothers survey, are compared to the forms of care recommended by ...

  4. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. METHODS: Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results...... 100 mg/5 min. CONCLUSIONS: A sweat production rate of 100 mg/5 min as measured by gravimetric testing may be a reasonable cut-off value for distinguishing axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis from normal physiological sweat production....

  5. Normalization based K means Clustering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Virmani, Deepali; Taneja, Shweta; Malhotra, Geetika

    2015-01-01

    K-means is an effective clustering technique used to separate similar data into groups based on initial centroids of clusters. In this paper, Normalization based K-means clustering algorithm(N-K means) is proposed. Proposed N-K means clustering algorithm applies normalization prior to clustering on the available data as well as the proposed approach calculates initial centroids based on weights. Experimental results prove the betterment of proposed N-K means clustering algorithm over existing...

  6. Sampling from the normal and exponential distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, K.R.; Wills, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for generating random numbers from the normal and exponential distributions are described. These involve dividing each function into subregions, and for each of these developing a method of sampling usually based on an acceptance rejection technique. When sampling from the normal or exponential distribution, each subregion provides the required random value with probability equal to the ratio of its area to the total area. Procedures written in FORTRAN for the CYBER 175/CDC 6600 system are provided to implement the two algorithms

  7. Cortical Thinning in Network-Associated Regions in Cognitively Normal and Below-Normal Range Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Walter Heinrichs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether cortical thickness across the brain and regionally in terms of the default mode, salience, and central executive networks differentiates schizophrenia patients and healthy controls with normal range or below-normal range cognitive performance. Cognitive normality was defined using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB composite score (T=50 ± 10 and structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to generate cortical thickness data. Whole brain analysis revealed that cognitively normal range controls (n=39 had greater cortical thickness than both cognitively normal (n=17 and below-normal range (n=49 patients. Cognitively normal controls also demonstrated greater thickness than patients in regions associated with the default mode and salience, but not central executive networks. No differences on any thickness measure were found between cognitively normal range and below-normal range controls (n=24 or between cognitively normal and below-normal range patients. In addition, structural covariance between network regions was high and similar across subgroups. Positive and negative symptom severity did not correlate with thickness values. Cortical thinning across the brain and regionally in relation to the default and salience networks may index shared aspects of the psychotic psychopathology that defines schizophrenia with no relation to cognitive impairment.

  8. Parser Adaptation for Social Media by Integrating Normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, Rob; van Noord, Gerardus

    This work explores normalization for parser adaptation. Traditionally, normalization is used as separate pre-processing step. We show that integrating the normalization model into the parsing algorithm is beneficial. This way, multiple normalization candidates can be leveraged, which improves

  9. Linear regression and the normality assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Amand F; Finan, Chris

    2017-12-16

    Researchers often perform arbitrary outcome transformations to fulfill the normality assumption of a linear regression model. This commentary explains and illustrates that in large data settings, such transformations are often unnecessary, and worse may bias model estimates. Linear regression assumptions are illustrated using simulated data and an empirical example on the relation between time since type 2 diabetes diagnosis and glycated hemoglobin levels. Simulation results were evaluated on coverage; i.e., the number of times the 95% confidence interval included the true slope coefficient. Although outcome transformations bias point estimates, violations of the normality assumption in linear regression analyses do not. The normality assumption is necessary to unbiasedly estimate standard errors, and hence confidence intervals and P-values. However, in large sample sizes (e.g., where the number of observations per variable is >10) violations of this normality assumption often do not noticeably impact results. Contrary to this, assumptions on, the parametric model, absence of extreme observations, homoscedasticity, and independency of the errors, remain influential even in large sample size settings. Given that modern healthcare research typically includes thousands of subjects focusing on the normality assumption is often unnecessary, does not guarantee valid results, and worse may bias estimates due to the practice of outcome transformations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative thallium-201 myocardial exercise scintigraphy in normal subjects and patients with normal coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, M.G.; St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein; Laarman, G.J.; Lelbach, S.; Cramer, M.J.; Ascoop, C.A.P.L.; Verzijlbergen, J.F.; Wall, E.E. van der; Zwinderman, A.H.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative thallium-201 myocardial exercise scintigraphy was tested in two patient populations representing alternative standards for cardiac normality: group I comprised 18 male uncatherized patients with a low likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD); group II contained 41 patients with normal coronary arteriograms. Group I patients were younger, they achieved a higher rate-pressure product than group II patients; all had normal findings by phisical examination and electrocardiography at rest and exercise. Group II patients comprised 21 females, 11 patients showed abnormal electrocardiography at rest, and five patients showed ischemic ST depression during exercise. Twelve patients had sign of minimal CAD. Twelve patients revealed abnormal visual and quantitative thallium findings, three of these patients had minimal CAD. Profiles of uptake and washout of thallium-201 were derived from both patient groups, and compared with normal limits developed by Maddahi et al. Furthermore, low likelihood and angiographically normal patients may differ substantially, and both sets of normal patients should be considered when establishing criteria of abnormality in exercise thallium imaging. When commercial software containing normal limits for quantitative analysis of exercise thallium-201 imaging is used in clinical practice, it is mandatory to compare these with normal limits of uptake and washout of thallium-201, derived from the less heterogeneous group of low-likelihood subjects, which should be used in selecting a normal population to define normality. (author). 37 refs.; 3 figs; 1 tab

  11. Evaluación del impacto de un programa de vigilancia epidemiológica del consumo de antibióticos y la flora en una clínica de tercer nivel Evaluation of the impact of a program of epidemiological surveillance in consumption of antibiotics and flora in a third level clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Cataño

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto que un programa de vigilancia epidemiológica tiene en las características de la formulación de antibióticos y la frecuencia de gérmenes multirresistentes en una clínica de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Medellín. Materiales y métodos. Es un estudio retrospectivo y observacional, dividido en una fase de 18 meses previa a la intervención, comprendida entre julio 1 de 2004 y diciembre 31 de 2005, y una fase de intervención de 18 meses, comprendida entre enero 1 de 2006 y junio 30 de 2007. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la Clínica Las Vegas de la ciudad de Medellín. Incluyó como universo, los aislamientos de gérmenes multirresistentes y la cantidad de antibiótico formulado. Se evaluaron los cambios en la formulación de antibióticos (dosis diaria definida por 100 día/cama y los cambios en la frecuencia de aislamientos de gérmenes multirresistentes. Resultados. Se encontró un incremento progresivo en el uso de antibióticos, sin que se hubieran modificado los indicadores de ocupación hospitalaria. La política de intervención demostró una reducción estadísticamente significativa en el uso de ceftriaxona (p >0,001, imipenem (pObjective: To determine the impact of an epidemiological surveillance program in the formulation patterns of antimicrobials, and the frequency of multirresistant bacteria isolated in a third level clinic in Medellin. Materials and methods: A retrospective and observational study, divided in a pre-intervention phase of 18 months, between July 1st 2004 a December 31st 2005, and an intervention phase of 18 months, between January 1st 2006 and June 30th 2007 was carried out. The study was done at Las Vegas Clinic in Medellín on the multiresistant bacteria isolated and the amount of antibiotic prescribed. The observed changes were evaluated in the magnitude of antibiotics formulation (daily defined doses x 100 day-bed and the changes in the frequency of isolations of multiresistant

  12. Transmissão Vertical Zero: parceria entre o serviço público e o terceiro setor Transmisión Vertical Cero: sociedad entre el servicio público y el Tercer Sector Project Zero Perinatal HIV Transmission: partnership between public and private agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie Maria de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Divulgar experiência multidisciplinar de parceria entre gestores da rede pública de saúde e organizações não-governamentais voltadas à atenção à gestante HIV positivo; e caracterizar as situações de exposição ao HIV por gestantes atendidas pelo Projeto Transmissão Vertical Zero do Município de Sorocaba - SP. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com emprego de fontes documentais, e com levantamento de dados para caracterização sócio-demográfica e situações de exposição ao risco de infecção pelo HIV de 120 gestantes atendidas pelo Projeto, entre 1998 e 2004. RESULTADOS: O compartilhamento de ações entre o público e o terceiro setor constituiu-se em eficiente alternativa de assistência à mulher soropositiva para o HIV, ainda que 56,7% das gestantes desconhecessem a sorologia do parceiro e 73,3% nunca terem usado preservativo. CONCLUSÃO: A parceria contribuiu para a redução da transmissão vertical do HIV em Sorocaba - SP.OBJETIVOS: Divulgar la experiencia multidisciplinaria de sociedad entre gestores de la red pública de salud y organizaciones no gubernamentales dirigidas a la atención de la gestante VIH positivo; y caracterizar las situaciones de exposición al VIH por gestantes atendidas por el Proyecto Transmisión Vertical Zero del Municipio de Sorocaba - SP. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo realizado con el empleo de fuentes documentales, y con el levantamiento de datos para caracterización socio-demográfica y situaciones de exposición al riesgo de infección por el VIH de 120 gestantes atendidas por el Proyecto, entre 1998 y 2004. RESULTADOS: El compartir acciones entre el público y el tercer sector se constituye en una eficiente alternativa de asistencia a la mujer seropositiva para el VIH, aunque el 56,7% de las gestantes desconociese la serología de la pareja y el 73,3% nunca haya usado preservativo. CONCLUSIÓN: La sociedad contribuyó a la reducción de la transmisión vertical

  13. Normal people working in normal organizations with normal equipment: system safety and cognition in a mid-air collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues; Gomes, José Orlando; Huber, Gilbert Jacob; Vidal, Mario Cesar

    2009-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in improving the safety of complex systems is to understand how accidents emerge in normal working situations, with equipment functioning normally in normally structured organizations. We present a field study of the en route mid-air collision between a commercial carrier and an executive jet, in the clear afternoon Amazon sky in which 154 people lost their lives, that illustrates one response to this challenge. Our focus was on how and why the several safety barriers of a well structured air traffic system melted down enabling the occurrence of this tragedy, without any catastrophic component failure, and in a situation where everything was functioning normally. We identify strong consistencies and feedbacks regarding factors of system day-to-day functioning that made monitoring and awareness difficult, and the cognitive strategies that operators have developed to deal with overall system behavior. These findings emphasize the active problem-solving behavior needed in air traffic control work, and highlight how the day-to-day functioning of the system can jeopardize such behavior. An immediate consequence is that safety managers and engineers should review their traditional safety approach and accident models based on equipment failure probability, linear combinations of failures, rules and procedures, and human errors, to deal with complex patterns of coincidence possibilities, unexpected links, resonance among system functions and activities, and system cognition.

  14. Computed tomography of the normal sternum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, L.R.; Teplick, S.K.; Kay, H.

    1983-01-01

    The normal CT anatomy of the sternum was studied in 35 patients. In addition to the normal appearance of the sternum, normal variants that may mimic desease were often noted. In the manubrium, part of the posterior cortical margin was unsharp and irregular in 34 of 35 patients. Part of the anterior cortical margin was indistinct in 20 of the 35 patients. Angulation of the CT gantry to a position more nearly perpendicular to the manubrium improved the definition of the cortical margins. The body of the sternum was ovoid to rectangular and usually had sharp cortical margins. Sections through the manubriosternal joint and xyphoid often demonstrated irregular mottled calcifications and indistinct margins again simulating bony lesions. The rib insertions, sternal clavicular joints, and adjacent soft-tissue appearance also were evaluated

  15. Masturbation, sexuality, and adaptation: normalization in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Theodore

    2008-03-01

    During adolescence the central masturbation fantasy that is formulated during childhood takes its final form and paradoxically must now be directed outward for appropriate object finding and pair matching in the service of procreative aims. This is a step in adaptation that requires a further developmental landmark that I have called normalization. The path toward airing these private fantasies is facilitated by chumship relationships as a step toward further exposure to the social surround. Hartmann's structuring application of adaptation within psychoanalysis is used as a framework for understanding the process that simultaneously serves intrapsychic and social demands and permits goals that follow evolutionary principles. Variations in the normalization process from masturbatory isolation to a variety of forms of sexual socialization are examined in sociological data concerning current adolescent sexual behavior and in case examples that indicate some routes to normalized experience and practice.

  16. Asymptotic normalization coefficients and astrophysical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Azhari, A.; Clark, H.L.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Lui, Y.-W.; Sattarov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.E.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Carstoiu, F.

    2000-01-01

    The S factor for the direct capture reaction 7 Be(p,γ) 8 B can be found at astrophysical energies from the asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC's) which provide the normalization of the tails of the overlap functions for 8 B → 7 Be + p. Peripheral transfer reactions offer a technique to determine these ANC's. Using this technique, the 10 B( 7 Be, 8 B) 9 Be and 14 N( 7 Be, 8 B) 13 C reactions have been used to measure the asymptotic normalization coefficient for 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B. These results provide an indirect determination of S 17 (0). Analysis of the existing 9 Be(p, γ) 10 B experimental data within the framework of the R-matrix method demonstrates that experimentally measured ANC's can provide a reasonable determination of direct radiative capture rates. (author)

  17. Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, G.M.; Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants are a common occurrence in clinical practice. In this chapter a large number of skeletal anomalies of the spine and pelvis are reviewed. Some of the more common skeletal anomalies of the extremities are also presented. The second section of this chapter deals with normal skeletal variants. Some of these variants may simulate certain disease processes. In some instances there are no clear-cut distinctions between skeletal variants and anomalies; therefore, there may be some overlap of material. The congenital anomalies are presented initially with accompanying text, photos, and references, beginning with the skull and proceeding caudally through the spine to then include the pelvis and extremities. The normal skeletal variants section is presented in an anatomical atlas format without text or references

  18. X-ray emssion from normal galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speybroeck, L. van; Bechtold, J.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of results obtained with the Einstein Observatory is presented. There are two general categories of normal galaxy investigation being pursued - detailed studies of nearby galaxies where individual sources can be detected and possibly correlated with galactic morphology, and shorter observations of many more distant objects to determine the total luminosity distribution of normal galaxies. The principal examples of the first type are the CFA study of M31 and the Columbia study of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The Columbia normal galaxy survey is the principal example of the second type, although there also are smaller CFA programs concentrating on early galaxies and peculiar galaxies, and MIT has observed some members of the local group. (Auth.)

  19. Quantum arrival times and operator normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerfeldt, Gerhard C.; Seidel, Dirk; Gonzalo Muga, J.

    2003-01-01

    A recent approach to arrival times used the fluorescence of an atom entering a laser illuminated region, and the resulting arrival-time distribution was close to the axiomatic distribution of Kijowski, but not exactly equal, neither in limiting cases nor after compensation of reflection losses by normalization on the level of expectation values. In this paper we employ a normalization on the level of operators, recently proposed in a slightly different context. We show that in this case the axiomatic arrival-time distribution of Kijowski is recovered as a limiting case. In addition, it is shown that Allcock's complex potential model is also a limit of the physically motivated fluorescence approach and connected to Kijowski's distribution through operator normalization

  20. Helicon normal modes in Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz, P. A.; Caneses, J. F.; Green, D. L.; Goulding, R. H.; Lau, C.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Rapp, J.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2018-05-01

    The Proto-MPEX helicon source has been operating in a high electron density ‘helicon-mode’. Establishing plasma densities and magnetic field strengths under the antenna that allow for the formation of normal modes of the fast-wave are believed to be responsible for the ‘helicon-mode’. A 2D finite-element full-wave model of the helicon antenna on Proto-MPEX is used to identify the fast-wave normal modes responsible for the steady-state electron density profile produced by the source. We also show through the simulation that in the regions of operation in which core power deposition is maximum the slow-wave does not deposit significant power besides directly under the antenna. In the case of a simulation where a normal mode is not excited significant edge power is deposited in the mirror region. ).

  1. Normalization as a canonical neural computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carandini, Matteo; Heeger, David J.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the brain relies on a set of canonical neural computations, repeating them across brain regions and modalities to apply similar operations to different problems. A promising candidate for such a computation is normalization, in which the responses of neurons are divided by a common factor that typically includes the summed activity of a pool of neurons. Normalization was developed to explain responses in the primary visual cortex and is now thought to operate throughout the visual system, and in many other sensory modalities and brain regions. Normalization may underlie operations such as the representation of odours, the modulatory effects of visual attention, the encoding of value and the integration of multisensory information. Its presence in such a diversity of neural systems in multiple species, from invertebrates to mammals, suggests that it serves as a canonical neural computation. PMID:22108672

  2. Normal stress Sestamibi study: why re inject?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.A.; Hughes, T.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is widely used for risk stratification of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. A normal MPI study predicts an annual cardiac event rate of 99 Tc m -Sestamibi (MIBI), omitting the rest study when the post-stress study is interpreted as normal. The safety of this approach has not been validated, all published reports utilising both rest and stress images to interpret a study as 'normal'. Between 1/1/98 and 30/8/98, 489 patients (patients) were referred to our department for stress MPI. Of these, 237 were interpreted as normal on the basis of their post-stress study, and did not undergo a rest study. 12 month clinical follow-up was available in 184 (78%) of these patients, representing the study group (82 males, 102 females; mean age 61±12 years). 156 of these patients were referred for assessment of chest pain, three for dyspnoea, six for abnormal ECGs, and 19 for pre-operative evaluation. At one year of follow-up, there were no myocardial infarcts or admissions for unstable angina, and no cardiac deaths. Three patients died of non-cardiac causes. Seven patients underwent coronary angiography: five were normal, one had a single 50% stenosis, and one had an 80% vein graft stenosis which was subsequently angioplastied. In conclusion, a normal stress MIBI image predicts an excellent prognosis and negates the need for a rest reinjection study, thus reducing patient camera time and radiation exposure, improving departmental throughput, and minimising public health expenditure. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  3. Normal modes of weak colloidal gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsigmond; Swan, James W.

    2018-01-01

    The normal modes and relaxation rates of weak colloidal gels are investigated in calculations using different models of the hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. The relaxation spectrum is computed for freely draining, Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa, and accelerated Stokesian dynamics approximations of the hydrodynamic mobility in a normal mode analysis of a harmonic network representing several colloidal gels. We find that the density of states and spatial structure of the normal modes are fundamentally altered by long-ranged hydrodynamic coupling among the particles. Short-ranged coupling due to hydrodynamic lubrication affects only the relaxation rates of short-wavelength modes. Hydrodynamic models accounting for long-ranged coupling exhibit a microscopic relaxation rate for each normal mode, λ that scales as l-2, where l is the spatial correlation length of the normal mode. For the freely draining approximation, which neglects long-ranged coupling, the microscopic relaxation rate scales as l-γ, where γ varies between three and two with increasing particle volume fraction. A simple phenomenological model of the internal elastic response to normal mode fluctuations is developed, which shows that long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions play a central role in the viscoelasticity of the gel network. Dynamic simulations of hard spheres that gel in response to short-ranged depletion attractions are used to test the applicability of the density of states predictions. For particle concentrations up to 30% by volume, the power law decay of the relaxation modulus in simulations accounting for long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions agrees with predictions generated by the density of states of the corresponding harmonic networks as well as experimental measurements. For higher volume fractions, excluded volume interactions dominate the stress response, and the prediction from the harmonic network density of states fails. Analogous to the Zimm model in polymer

  4. Metabolomics data normalization with EigenMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V Karpievitch

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry has become one of the analytical platforms of choice for metabolomics studies. However, LC-MS metabolomics data can suffer from the effects of various systematic biases. These include batch effects, day-to-day variations in instrument performance, signal intensity loss due to time-dependent effects of the LC column performance, accumulation of contaminants in the MS ion source and MS sensitivity among others. In this study we aimed to test a singular value decomposition-based method, called EigenMS, for normalization of metabolomics data. We analyzed a clinical human dataset where LC-MS serum metabolomics data and physiological measurements were collected from thirty nine healthy subjects and forty with type 2 diabetes and applied EigenMS to detect and correct for any systematic bias. EigenMS works in several stages. First, EigenMS preserves the treatment group differences in the metabolomics data by estimating treatment effects with an ANOVA model (multiple fixed effects can be estimated. Singular value decomposition of the residuals matrix is then used to determine bias trends in the data. The number of bias trends is then estimated via a permutation test and the effects of the bias trends are eliminated. EigenMS removed bias of unknown complexity from the LC-MS metabolomics data, allowing for increased sensitivity in differential analysis. Moreover, normalized samples better correlated with both other normalized samples and corresponding physiological data, such as blood glucose level, glycated haemoglobin, exercise central augmentation pressure normalized to heart rate of 75, and total cholesterol. We were able to report 2578 discriminatory metabolite peaks in the normalized data (p<0.05 as compared to only 1840 metabolite signals in the raw data. Our results support the use of singular value decomposition-based normalization for metabolomics data.

  5. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  6. Normal anatomy of lung perfusion SPECT scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, G.W.; Levy, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Ten patients studies for possible pulmonary embolic disease had normal lung perfusion planar and SPECT scintigraphy. A computer program was developed to superimpose the CT scans on corresponding SPECT images. Superimposition of CT scans on corresponding SPECT transaxial cross-sectional images, when available, provides the needed definition and relationships of adjacent organs. SPECT transaxial sections provide clear anatomic definition of perfusion defects without foreground and background lung tissue superimposed. The location, shape, and size of the perfusion defects can be readily assessed by SPECT. An algorithm was developed for the differentiation of abnormal pulmonary perfusion patterns from normal structures on variation

  7. Anatomy, normal variants, and basic biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Johnson, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the anatomy and basic functions of the foot and ankle important to physicians involved in imaging procedures, clinical medicine, and surgery. New radiographic techniques especially magnetic resonance imaging, provide more diagnostic information owing to improved tissue contrast and the ability to obtain multiple image planes (axial, sagittal, coronal, oblique). Therefore, a thorough knowledge of skeletal and soft tissue anatomy is even more essential. Normal variants must also be understood in order to distinguish normal from pathologic changes in the foot and ankle. A basic understanding of biomechanics is also essential for selecting the proper diagnostic techniques

  8. Dlk1 in normal and abnormal hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakajiri, S; O'kelly, J; Yin, D

    2005-01-01

    normals. Also, Dlk1 mRNA was elevated in mononuclear, low density bone marrow cells from 11/38 MDS patients, 5/11 AML M6 and 2/4 AML M7 samples. Furthermore, 5/6 erythroleukemia and 2/2 megakaryocytic leukemia cell lines highly expressed Dlk1 mRNA. Levels of Dlk1 mRNA markedly increased during...... (particularly M6, M7), and it appears to be associated with normal development of megakaryocytes and B cells....

  9. Statistical Theory of Normal Grain Growth Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, A.; Luczka, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three physically relevant problems concerning the normal grain growth process. These are: Infinite vs finite size of the system under study (a step towards more realistic modeling); conditions of fine-grained structure formation, with possible applications to thin films and biomembranes, and interesting relations to superplasticity of materials; approach to log-normality, an ubiquitous natural phenomenon, frequently reported in literature. It turns out that all three important points mentioned are possible to be included in a Mulheran-Harding type behavior of evolving grains-containing systems that we have studied previously. (author)

  10. Radiogenomics: predicting clinical normal tissue radiosensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsner, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the genetic basis of normal tissue radiosensitivity, or  'radiogenomics', aims at predicting clinical radiosensitivity and optimize treatment from individual genetic profiles. Several studies have now reported links between variations in certain genes related to the biological response...... to radiation injury and risk of normal tissue morbidity in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. However, after these initial association studies including few genes, we are still far from being able to predict clinical radiosensitivity on an individual level. Recent data from our own studies on risk...

  11. Automatic Radiometric Normalization of Multitemporal Satellite Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Schmidt, Michael

    2004-01-01

    with normalization using orthogonal regression. The procedure is applied to Landsat TM images over Nevada, Landsat ETM+ images over Morocco, and SPOT HRV images over Kenya. Results from this new automatic, combined MAD/orthogonal regression method, based on statistical analysis of test pixels not used in the actual...

  12. Post-Normal science in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankel, Dorothy J.; Vaage, Nora S.; van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    This special issue contains a selection of papers presented during the 2014 Bergen meeting, complemented with short perspectives by young PNS-inspired scholars, presented at a mini-symposium "Post-normal times? New thinking about science and policy advice" held on 21 October 2016 in celebration of

  13. Physical Development: What's Normal? What's Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Physical Development: What’s Normal? What’s Not? Page Content Article ... growth . The timing and speed of a child's physical development can vary a lot, because it is ...

  14. Visual attention and flexible normalization pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Odelia; Coen-Cagli, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Attention to a spatial location or feature in a visual scene can modulate the responses of cortical neurons and affect perceptual biases in illusions. We add attention to a cortical model of spatial context based on a well-founded account of natural scene statistics. The cortical model amounts to a generalized form of divisive normalization, in which the surround is in the normalization pool of the center target only if they are considered statistically dependent. Here we propose that attention influences this computation by accentuating the neural unit activations at the attended location, and that the amount of attentional influence of the surround on the center thus depends on whether center and surround are deemed in the same normalization pool. The resulting form of model extends a recent divisive normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). We simulate cortical surround orientation experiments with attention and show that the flexible model is suitable for capturing additional data and makes nontrivial testable predictions. PMID:23345413

  15. Achondroplasia in sibs of normal parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, N; Auger, M; Mattei, J F; Giraud, F

    1988-01-01

    A new case of recurrent achondroplasia in sibs of normal parents is reported. Two sisters and a half sister were affected. Various mechanisms can be postulated to account for unexpected recurrence of achondroplasia in the same sibship. Germinal mosaicism and unstable premutation are discussed here. Images PMID:3236371

  16. Achondroplasia in sibs of normal parents.

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, N; Auger, M; Mattei, J F; Giraud, F

    1988-01-01

    A new case of recurrent achondroplasia in sibs of normal parents is reported. Two sisters and a half sister were affected. Various mechanisms can be postulated to account for unexpected recurrence of achondroplasia in the same sibship. Germinal mosaicism and unstable premutation are discussed here.

  17. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in idiopathic normal pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed Ahmed Eshra

    2013-12-22

    Dec 22, 2013 ... system of the brain causing ventricular enlargement. This is followed by gradual .... sion, not to decrease the pressure (which is already normal).8–15 ... So ETV must be performed in patients with clinical evolution of not more.

  18. Principal normal indicatrices of closed space curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A theorem due to J. Weiner, which is also proven by B. Solomon, implies that a principal normal indicatrix of a closed space curve with nonvanishing curvature has integrated geodesic curvature zero and contains no subarc with integrated geodesic curvature pi. We prove that the inverse problem alw...

  19. Normal tension glaucoma and Alzheimer disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kessing, Svend Vedel; Mogensen, Ulla Brasch

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is associated with increased risk of developing dementia/Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: A total of 69 patients with NTG were identified in the case note files in the Glaucoma Clinic, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Rigshospitalet...

  20. Normal stresses in semiflexible polymer hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, M.; Vos, Bart E.; de Cagny, Henri C. G.; Bonn, Daniel; Koenderink, Gijsje H.; MacKintosh, F. C.

    2018-03-01

    Biopolymer gels such as fibrin and collagen networks are known to develop tensile axial stress when subject to torsion. This negative normal stress is opposite to the classical Poynting effect observed for most elastic solids including synthetic polymer gels, where torsion provokes a positive normal stress. As shown recently, this anomalous behavior in fibrin gels depends on the open, porous network structure of biopolymer gels, which facilitates interstitial fluid flow during shear and can be described by a phenomenological two-fluid model with viscous coupling between network and solvent. Here we extend this model and develop a microscopic model for the individual diagonal components of the stress tensor that determine the axial response of semiflexible polymer hydrogels. This microscopic model predicts that the magnitude of these stress components depends inversely on the characteristic strain for the onset of nonlinear shear stress, which we confirm experimentally by shear rheometry on fibrin gels. Moreover, our model predicts a transient behavior of the normal stress, which is in excellent agreement with the full time-dependent normal stress we measure.

  1. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... the normal thyroid gland has a homogenous increased medium level echo texture. The childhood thyroid gland dimension correlates linearly with age and body surface unlike adults. [14] Iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyroid hormones which function to control the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  2. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Janssens (Artiena Soe); R. Heide (Rogier); J.C. den Hollander (Jan); P.G.M. Mulder (P. G M); B. Tank (Bhupendra); A.P. Oranje (Arnold)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__AIMS:__ To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. __METHODS:__ Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults.

  3. Normal sleep and its neurophysiological regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.F.; Talamini, L.M.; Watson, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Normal sleep consists of two states: NREM (light and deep sleep) and REM, alternating in a cyclical pattern. The sleep/wake rhythm is regulated by two processes: the sleep propensity, building up during wake, and the circadian rhythm, imposed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The arousal pathways in

  4. Named entity normalization in user generated content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Named entity recognition is important for semantically oriented retrieval tasks, such as question answering, entity retrieval, biomedical retrieval, trend detection, and event and entity tracking. In many of these tasks it is important to be able to accurately normalize the recognized entities,

  5. Morphological evaluation of normal human corneal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Niels; Heegaard, Steffen; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    of corneas from 100 consecutively selected paraffin-embedded eyes were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS). All specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. The eyes were enucleated from patients with choroidal melanoma. Corneas were considered to be normal. RESULTS: Ninety of 100...

  6. Dissociative Functions in the Normal Mourning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Sees dissociative functions in mourning process as occurring in conjunction with integrative trends. Considers initial shock reaction in mourning as model of normal dissociation in mourning process. Dissociation is understood to be related to traumatic significance of death in human consciousness. Discerns four psychological categories of…

  7. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  8. Normalized compression distance of multisets with applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.R.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    Pairwise normalized compression distance (NCD) is a parameter-free, feature-free, alignment-free, similarity metric based on compression. We propose an NCD of multisets that is also metric. Previously, attempts to obtain such an NCD failed. For classification purposes it is superior to the pairwise

  9. Limiting Normal Operator in Quasiconvex Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aussel, D.; Pištěk, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2015), s. 669-685 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Quasiconvex function * Sublevel set * Normal operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/pistek-0453552.pdf

  10. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease. Inhibits pathogenic enteric bacteria. Decrease luminal pH; Secrete bacteriocidal proteins; Colonization resistance; Block epithelial binding – induce MUC2. Improves epithelial and mucosal barrier integrity. Produce ...

  11. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2015-08-07

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool.

  12. Perturbations of normally solvable nonlinear operators, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Ray

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X and Y be Banach spaces and let ℱ and be Gateaux differentiable mappings from X to Y In this note we study when the operator ℱ+ is surjective for sufficiently small perturbations of a surjective operator ℱ The methods extend previous results in the area of normal solvability for nonlinear operators.

  13. Normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    The Lie algebra generated by Hopf-zero classical normal forms is decomposed into two versal Lie subalgebras. Some dynamical properties for each subalgebra are described; one is the set of all volume-preserving conservative systems while the other is the maximal Lie algebra of nonconservative systems. This introduces a unique conservative–nonconservative decomposition for the normal form systems. There exists a Lie-subalgebra that is Lie-isomorphic to a large family of vector fields with Bogdanov–Takens singularity. This gives rise to a conclusion that the local dynamics of formal Hopf-zero singularities is well-understood by the study of Bogdanov–Takens singularities. Despite this, the normal form computations of Bogdanov–Takens and Hopf-zero singularities are independent. Thus, by assuming a quadratic nonzero condition, complete results on the simplest Hopf-zero normal forms are obtained in terms of the conservative–nonconservative decomposition. Some practical formulas are derived and the results implemented using Maple. The method has been applied on the Rössler and Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our results. (paper)

  14. Normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    The Lie algebra generated by Hopf-zero classical normal forms is decomposed into two versal Lie subalgebras. Some dynamical properties for each subalgebra are described; one is the set of all volume-preserving conservative systems while the other is the maximal Lie algebra of nonconservative systems. This introduces a unique conservative-nonconservative decomposition for the normal form systems. There exists a Lie-subalgebra that is Lie-isomorphic to a large family of vector fields with Bogdanov-Takens singularity. This gives rise to a conclusion that the local dynamics of formal Hopf-zero singularities is well-understood by the study of Bogdanov-Takens singularities. Despite this, the normal form computations of Bogdanov-Takens and Hopf-zero singularities are independent. Thus, by assuming a quadratic nonzero condition, complete results on the simplest Hopf-zero normal forms are obtained in terms of the conservative-nonconservative decomposition. Some practical formulas are derived and the results implemented using Maple. The method has been applied on the Rössler and Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our results.

  15. Sample normalization methods in quantitative metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiman; Li, Liang

    2016-01-22

    To reveal metabolomic changes caused by a biological event in quantitative metabolomics, it is critical to use an analytical tool that can perform accurate and precise quantification to examine the true concentration differences of individual metabolites found in different samples. A number of steps are involved in metabolomic analysis including pre-analytical work (e.g., sample collection and storage), analytical work (e.g., sample analysis) and data analysis (e.g., feature extraction and quantification). Each one of them can influence the quantitative results significantly and thus should be performed with great care. Among them, the total sample amount or concentration of metabolites can be significantly different from one sample to another. Thus, it is critical to reduce or eliminate the effect of total sample amount variation on quantification of individual metabolites. In this review, we describe the importance of sample normalization in the analytical workflow with a focus on mass spectrometry (MS)-based platforms, discuss a number of methods recently reported in the literature and comment on their applicability in real world metabolomics applications. Sample normalization has been sometimes ignored in metabolomics, partially due to the lack of a convenient means of performing sample normalization. We show that several methods are now available and sample normalization should be performed in quantitative metabolomics where the analyzed samples have significant variations in total sample amounts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Refixation saccades with normal gain values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsager, Leise Elisabeth Hviid; Faber, Christian Emil; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass

    2017-01-01

    -ocular reflex. However, this partial deficit is in conflict with the current way of interpreting vHIT results in which the vestibular function is classified as either normal or pathological based only on the gain value. Refixation saccades, which are evident signs of vestibulopathy, are not considered...

  17. Hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, Jose Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; Joao, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima, E-mail: ecamic@uol.com.br [Hospital Universitario Onofre Lopes (HUOL/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Clinica Gastrocentro e Ambulatorios de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo e de Cirurgia Hepatobiliopancreatica

    2017-09-01

    Background: The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. Aim: To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. Method: This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Results: Eighty eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p< 0.001), personal history of cancer (p=0.020), presence of >3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. Conclusion: It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine amino transaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. (author)

  18. KERNEL MAD ALGORITHM FOR RELATIVE RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The multivariate alteration detection (MAD algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA. The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1 data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  19. Robust glint detection through homography normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Roholm, Lars; García Ferreiros, Iván

    2014-01-01

    A novel normalization principle for robust glint detection is presented. The method is based on geometric properties of corneal reflections and allows for simple and effective detection of glints even in the presence of several spurious and identically appearing reflections. The method is tested...

  20. Power curve report - with turbulence intensity normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn; Vesth, Allan

    , additional shear and turbulence intensitity filters are applied on the measured data. Secondly, the method for normalization to a given reference turbulence intensity level (as described in Annex M of the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [3]) is applied. The measurements have been performed using DTU...

  1. Accounting for the Benefits of Database Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting J.; Du, Hui; Lehmann, Constance M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a teaching approach to reinforce accounting students' understanding of the concept of database normalization. Unlike a conceptual approach shown in most of the AIS textbooks, this approach involves with calculations and reconciliations with which accounting students are familiar because the methods are frequently used in…

  2. Selective attention in normal and impaired hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Best, Virginia

    2008-12-01

    A common complaint among listeners with hearing loss (HL) is that they have difficulty communicating in common social settings. This article reviews how normal-hearing listeners cope in such settings, especially how they focus attention on a source of interest. Results of experiments with normal-hearing listeners suggest that the ability to selectively attend depends on the ability to analyze the acoustic scene and to form perceptual auditory objects properly. Unfortunately, sound features important for auditory object formation may not be robustly encoded in the auditory periphery of HL listeners. In turn, impaired auditory object formation may interfere with the ability to filter out competing sound sources. Peripheral degradations are also likely to reduce the salience of higher-order auditory cues such as location, pitch, and timbre, which enable normal-hearing listeners to select a desired sound source out of a sound mixture. Degraded peripheral processing is also likely to increase the time required to form auditory objects and focus selective attention so that listeners with HL lose the ability to switch attention rapidly (a skill that is particularly important when trying to participate in a lively conversation). Finally, peripheral deficits may interfere with strategies that normal-hearing listeners employ in complex acoustic settings, including the use of memory to fill in bits of the conversation that are missed. Thus, peripheral hearing deficits are likely to cause a number of interrelated problems that challenge the ability of HL listeners to communicate in social settings requiring selective attention.

  3. Superconvergent sum rules for the normal reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, K.; Zimerman, A.H.; Villani, A.

    1976-05-01

    Families of superconvergent relations for the normal reflectivity function are written. Sum rules connecting the difference of phases of the reflectivities of two materials are also considered. Finally superconvergence relations and sum rules for magneto-reflectivity in the Faraday and Voigt regimes are also studied

  4. Effects of pions on normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokita, N.

    1981-01-01

    Verification of the uniform biological effectiveness of pion beams of various dimensions produced at LAMPF has been made using cultured mammalian cells and mouse jejunum. Normal tissue radiobiology studies at LAMPF are reviewed with regard to biological beam characterization for the therapy program and the current status of acute and late effect studies on rodents

  5. Normal equivariant forms of vector fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Bringas, F.

    1992-07-01

    We prove a theorem of linearization of type Siegel and a theorem of normal forms of type Poincare-Dulac for germs of holomorphic vector fields in the origin of C 2 , Γ -equivariants, where Γ is a finite subgroup of GL (2,C). (author). 5 refs

  6. Challenging the Ideology of Normal in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamma, Subini A.; Boelé, Amy L.; Moore, Brooke A.; Klingner, Janette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we build on Brantlinger's work to critique the binary of normal and abnormal applied in US schools that create inequities in education. Operating from a critical perspective, we draw from Critical Race Theory, Disability Studies in Education, and Cultural/Historical Activity Theory to build a conceptual framework for…

  7. Glymphatic MRI in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringstad, Geir; Vatnehol, Svein Are Sirirud; Eide, Per Kristian

    2017-10-01

    The glymphatic system has in previous studies been shown as fundamental to clearance of waste metabolites from the brain interstitial space, and is proposed to be instrumental in normal ageing and brain pathology such as Alzheimer's disease and brain trauma. Assessment of glymphatic function using magnetic resonance imaging with intrathecal contrast agent as a cerebrospinal fluid tracer has so far been limited to rodents. We aimed to image cerebrospinal fluid flow characteristics and glymphatic function in humans, and applied the methodology in a prospective study of 15 idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (mean age 71.3 ± 8.1 years, three female and 12 male) and eight reference subjects (mean age 41.1 + 13.0 years, six female and two male) with suspected cerebrospinal fluid leakage (seven) and intracranial cyst (one). The imaging protocol included T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with equal sequence parameters before and at multiple time points through 24 h after intrathecal injection of the contrast agent gadobutrol at the lumbar level. All study subjects were kept in the supine position between examinations during the first day. Gadobutrol enhancement was measured at all imaging time points from regions of interest placed at predefined locations in brain parenchyma, the subarachnoid and intraventricular space, and inside the sagittal sinus. Parameters demonstrating gadobutrol enhancement and clearance in different locations were compared between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and reference subjects. A characteristic flow pattern in idiopathic normal hydrocephalus was ventricular reflux of gadobutrol from the subarachnoid space followed by transependymal gadobutrol migration. At the brain surfaces, gadobutrol propagated antegradely along large leptomeningeal arteries in all study subjects, and preceded glymphatic enhancement in adjacent brain tissue, indicating a pivotal role of intracranial pulsations for glymphatic function. In

  8. Normalization for triple-target microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magniette Frederic

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most microarray studies are made using labelling with one or two dyes which allows the hybridization of one or two samples on the same slide. In such experiments, the most frequently used dyes are Cy3 and Cy5. Recent improvements in the technology (dye-labelling, scanner and, image analysis allow hybridization up to four samples simultaneously. The two additional dyes are Alexa488 and Alexa494. The triple-target or four-target technology is very promising, since it allows more flexibility in the design of experiments, an increase in the statistical power when comparing gene expressions induced by different conditions and a scaled down number of slides. However, there have been few methods proposed for statistical analysis of such data. Moreover the lowess correction of the global dye effect is available for only two-color experiments, and even if its application can be derived, it does not allow simultaneous correction of the raw data. Results We propose a two-step normalization procedure for triple-target experiments. First the dye bleeding is evaluated and corrected if necessary. Then the signal in each channel is normalized using a generalized lowess procedure to correct a global dye bias. The normalization procedure is validated using triple-self experiments and by comparing the results of triple-target and two-color experiments. Although the focus is on triple-target microarrays, the proposed method can be used to normalize p differently labelled targets co-hybridized on a same array, for any value of p greater than 2. Conclusion The proposed normalization procedure is effective: the technical biases are reduced, the number of false positives is under control in the analysis of differentially expressed genes, and the triple-target experiments are more powerful than the corresponding two-color experiments. There is room for improving the microarray experiments by simultaneously hybridizing more than two samples.

  9. Fission cross-section normalization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemans, C.; Ghent Rijksuniversiteit; Deruytter, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The present measurements yield σsub(f)-data in the neutron energy from 20 MeV to 30 keV directly normalized in the thermal region. In the keV-region these data are consistent with the absolute σsub(f)-measurements of Szabo and Marquette. For the secondary normalization integral I 2 values have been obtained in agreement with those of Gwin et al. and Czirr et al. which were also directly normalized in the thermal region. For the I 1 integral, however, puzzling low values have been obtained. This was also the case for σsub(f)-bar in neutron energy intervals containing strong resonances. Three additional measurements are planned to further investigate these observations: (i) maintaining the actual approx.2π-geometry but using a 10 B-foil for the neutron flux detection (ii) using a low detection geometry with a 10 B- as well as a 6 Li-flux monitor. Only after these measurements definite conclusions on the I 1 and I 2 integrals can be formulated and final σsub(f)-bar-values can be released. The present study also gives some evidence for a correlation between the integral I 2 and the neutron flux monitor used. The influence of a normalization via I 1 or I 2 on the final cross-section has been shown. The magnitude of possible normalization errors is illustrated. Finally, since 235 U is expected to be an ''easy'' nucleus (low α-activity high σsub(f)-values), there are some indications that the important discrepancies still present in 235 U(n,f) cross-section measurements might partially be due to errors in the neutron flux determination

  10. Spatial normalization of array-CGH data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennetot Caroline

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH is a recently developed technique for analyzing changes in DNA copy number. As in all microarray analyses, normalization is required to correct for experimental artifacts while preserving the true biological signal. We investigated various sources of systematic variation in array-CGH data and identified two distinct types of spatial effect of no biological relevance as the predominant experimental artifacts: continuous spatial gradients and local spatial bias. Local spatial bias affects a large proportion of arrays, and has not previously been considered in array-CGH experiments. Results We show that existing normalization techniques do not correct these spatial effects properly. We therefore developed an automatic method for the spatial normalization of array-CGH data. This method makes it possible to delineate and to eliminate and/or correct areas affected by spatial bias. It is based on the combination of a spatial segmentation algorithm called NEM (Neighborhood Expectation Maximization and spatial trend estimation. We defined quality criteria for array-CGH data, demonstrating significant improvements in data quality with our method for three data sets coming from two different platforms (198, 175 and 26 BAC-arrays. Conclusion We have designed an automatic algorithm for the spatial normalization of BAC CGH-array data, preventing the misinterpretation of experimental artifacts as biologically relevant outliers in the genomic profile. This algorithm is implemented in the R package MANOR (Micro-Array NORmalization, which is described at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/projects/manor and available from the Bioconductor site http://www.bioconductor.org. It can also be tested on the CAPweb bioinformatics platform at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/CAPweb.

  11. Fusion and normalization to enhance anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, R.; Atkinson, G.; Antoniades, J.; Baumback, M.; Chester, D.; Edwards, J.; Goldstein, A.; Haas, D.; Henderson, S.; Liu, L.

    2009-05-01

    This study examines normalizing the imagery and the optimization metrics to enhance anomaly and change detection, respectively. The RX algorithm, the standard anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery, more successfully extracts bright rather than dark man-made objects when applied to visible hyperspectral imagery. However, normalizing the imagery prior to applying the anomaly detector can help detect some of the problematic dark objects, but can also miss some bright objects. This study jointly fuses images of RX applied to normalized and unnormalized imagery and has a single decision surface. The technique was tested using imagery of commercial vehicles in urban environment gathered by a hyperspectral visible/near IR sensor mounted in an airborne platform. Combining detections first requires converting the detector output to a target probability. The observed anomaly detections were fitted with a linear combination of chi square distributions and these weights were used to help compute the target probability. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) quantitatively assessed the target detection performance. The target detection performance is highly variable depending on the relative number of candidate bright and dark targets and false alarms and controlled in this study by using vegetation and street line masks. The joint Boolean OR and AND operations also generate variable performance depending on the scene. The joint SUM operation provides a reasonable compromise between OR and AND operations and has good target detection performance. In addition, new transforms based on normalizing correlation coefficient and least squares generate new transforms related to canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and a normalized image regression (NIR). Transforms based on CCA and NIR performed better than the standard approaches. Only RX detection of the unnormalized of the difference imagery in change detection provides adequate change detection performance.

  12. On the transition to the normal phase for superconductors surrounded by normal conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Kachmar, Ayman

    2009-01-01

    For a cylindrical superconductor surrounded by a normal material, we discuss transition to the normal phase of stable, locally stable and critical configurations. Associated with those phase transitions, we define critical magnetic fields and we provide a sufficient condition for which those...

  13. Inheritance of Properties of Normal and Non-Normal Distributions after Transformation of Scores to Ranks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how population parameters representing heterogeneity of variance, skewness, kurtosis, bimodality, and outlier-proneness, drawn from normal and eleven non-normal distributions, also characterized the ranks corresponding to independent samples of scores. When the parameters of population distributions from which samples were…

  14. Normal gravity field in relativistic geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Vlasov, Igor; Han, Wen-Biao

    2018-02-01

    Modern geodesy is subject to a dramatic change from the Newtonian paradigm to Einstein's theory of general relativity. This is motivated by the ongoing advance in development of quantum sensors for applications in geodesy including quantum gravimeters and gradientometers, atomic clocks and fiber optics for making ultra-precise measurements of the geoid and multipolar structure of the Earth's gravitational field. At the same time, very long baseline interferometry, satellite laser ranging, and global navigation satellite systems have achieved an unprecedented level of accuracy in measuring 3-d coordinates of the reference points of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame and the world height system. The main geodetic reference standard to which gravimetric measurements of the of Earth's gravitational field are referred is a normal gravity field represented in the Newtonian gravity by the field of a uniformly rotating, homogeneous Maclaurin ellipsoid of which mass and quadrupole momentum are equal to the total mass and (tide-free) quadrupole moment of Earth's gravitational field. The present paper extends the concept of the normal gravity field from the Newtonian theory to the realm of general relativity. We focus our attention on the calculation of the post-Newtonian approximation of the normal field that is sufficient for current and near-future practical applications. We show that in general relativity the level surface of homogeneous and uniformly rotating fluid is no longer described by the Maclaurin ellipsoid in the most general case but represents an axisymmetric spheroid of the fourth order with respect to the geodetic Cartesian coordinates. At the same time, admitting a post-Newtonian inhomogeneity of the mass density in the form of concentric elliptical shells allows one to preserve the level surface of the fluid as an exact ellipsoid of rotation. We parametrize the mass density distribution and the level surface with two parameters which are

  15. Deformation associated with continental normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resor, Phillip G.

    Deformation associated with normal fault earthquakes and geologic structures provide insights into the seismic cycle as it unfolds over time scales from seconds to millions of years. Improved understanding of normal faulting will lead to more accurate seismic hazard assessments and prediction of associated structures. High-precision aftershock locations for the 1995 Kozani-Grevena earthquake (Mw 6.5), Greece image a segmented master fault and antithetic faults. This three-dimensional fault geometry is typical of normal fault systems mapped from outcrop or interpreted from reflection seismic data and illustrates the importance of incorporating three-dimensional fault geometry in mechanical models. Subsurface fault slip associated with the Kozani-Grevena and 1999 Hector Mine (Mw 7.1) earthquakes is modeled using a new method for slip inversion on three-dimensional fault surfaces. Incorporation of three-dimensional fault geometry improves the fit to the geodetic data while honoring aftershock distributions and surface ruptures. GPS Surveying of deformed bedding surfaces associated with normal faulting in the western Grand Canyon reveals patterns of deformation that are similar to those observed by interferometric satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) for the Kozani Grevena earthquake with a prominent down-warp in the hanging wall and a lesser up-warp in the footwall. However, deformation associated with the Kozani-Grevena earthquake extends ˜20 km from the fault surface trace, while the folds in the western Grand Canyon only extend 500 m into the footwall and 1500 m into the hanging wall. A comparison of mechanical and kinematic models illustrates advantages of mechanical models in exploring normal faulting processes including incorporation of both deformation and causative forces, and the opportunity to incorporate more complex fault geometry and constitutive properties. Elastic models with antithetic or synthetic faults or joints in association with a master

  16. The variability problem of normal human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have suggested considerable inter-individual variability in the time course pattern of net joint moments during normal human walking, although the limited sample sizes precluded statistical analyses. The purpose of the present study was to obtain joint moment patterns from...... a group of normal subjects and to test whether or not the expected differences would prove to be statistically significant. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recorded on video while they walked across two force platforms. Ten kinematic and kinetic parameters were selected and input to a statistical...... cluster analysis to determine whether or not the 15 subjects could be divided into different 'families' (clusters) of walking strategy. The net joint moments showed a variability corroborating earlier reports. The cluster analysis showed that the 15 subjects could be grouped into two clusters of 5 and 10...

  17. Autobiographical Memory in Normal Ageing and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey J. Sagar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memories in young and elderly normal subjects are drawn mostly from the recent past but elderly subjects relate a second peak of memories from early adulthood. Memory for remote past public events is relatively preserved in dementia, possibly reflecting integrity of semantic relative to episodic memory. We examined recall of specific, consistent autobiographical episodes in Alzheimer's disease (AD in response to cue words. Patients and control subjects drew most memories from the recent 20 years: episode age related to anterograde memory function but not subject age or dementia. Subjects also related a secondary peak of memories from early adulthood; episode age related to subject age and severity of dementia. The results suggest that preferential recall of memories from early adulthood is based on the salience of retrieval cues, altered by age and dementia, superimposed on a temporal gradient of semantic memory. Further, AD shows behavioural similarity to normal ageing.

  18. A Proposed Arabic Handwritten Text Normalization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Abu-Ain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Text normalization is an important technique in document image analysis and recognition. It consists of many preprocessing stages, which include slope correction, text padding, skew correction, and straight the writing line. In this side, text normalization has an important role in many procedures such as text segmentation, feature extraction and characters recognition. In the present article, a new method for text baseline detection, straightening, and slant correction for Arabic handwritten texts is proposed. The method comprises a set of sequential steps: first components segmentation is done followed by components text thinning; then, the direction features of the skeletons are extracted, and the candidate baseline regions are determined. After that, selection of the correct baseline region is done, and finally, the baselines of all components are aligned with the writing line.  The experiments are conducted on IFN/ENIT benchmark Arabic dataset. The results show that the proposed method has a promising and encouraging performance.

  19. Zero cosmological constant from normalized general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Aharon; Rubin, Shimon

    2009-01-01

    Normalizing the Einstein-Hilbert action by the volume functional makes the theory invariant under constant shifts in the Lagrangian. The associated field equations then resemble unimodular gravity whose otherwise arbitrary cosmological constant is now determined as a Machian universal average. We prove that an empty space-time is necessarily Ricci tensor flat, and demonstrate the vanishing of the cosmological constant within the scalar field paradigm. The cosmological analysis, carried out at the mini-superspace level, reveals a vanishing cosmological constant for a universe which cannot be closed as long as gravity is attractive. Finally, we give an example of a normalized theory of gravity which does give rise to a non-zero cosmological constant.

  20. Suitable Image Intensity Normalization for Arterial Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Omran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic imaging is a widely used non-invasivemedical imaging procedure since it is economical, comparativelysafe, portable and adaptable. However, one of its main weaknessesis the poor quality of images, which makes the enhancementof image quality an important issue in order to have a moreaccurate diagnose of the disease, or for the transformation of theimage through telemedicine channel and in many other imageprocessing tasks [1]. The purpose of this paper is to automaticallyenhance the image quality after the automatic detection of theartery wall. This step is essential before subsequent measurementsof arterial parameters [9]. This was performed automaticallyby applying linear normalization, where results showedthat normalization of ultra sound images is an important step inenhancing the image quality for later processing. In comparisonwith other methods, our method is automatic. The evaluationof image quality was done mathematically by comparing pixelintensities of images before and after enhancement, in additionto a visual evaluation.

  1. Normal anatomical measurements in cervical computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaunbauer, W.; Daepp, S.; Haertel, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radiodiagnostically relevant normal values and variations for measurements of the cervical region, the arithmetical average and the standard deviation were determined from adequate computer tomograms on 60 healthy women and men, aged 20 to 83 years. The sagittal diameter of the prevertebral soft tissue and the lumina of the upper respiratory tract were evaluated at exactly defined levels between the hyoid bone and the incisura jugularis sterni. - The thickness of the aryepiglottic folds, the maximal sagittal and transverse diameters of the thyroid gland and the calibre of the great cervical vessels were defined. - To assess information about laryngeal function in computerized tomography, measurements of distances between the cervical spine and anatomical fixed points of the larynx and hypopharynx were made as well as of the degree of vocal cord movement during normal respiration and phonation. (orig.) [de

  2. Broad Ligament Haematoma Following Normal Vaginal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrar, Faiza; Awan, Azra Saeed; Fatima, Touseef; Tabassum, Hina

    2017-01-01

    A 37-year-old, patient presented in emergency with history of normal vaginal delivery followed by development of abdominal distention, vomiting, constipation for last 3 days. She was para 4 and had normal vaginal delivery by traditional birth attendant at peripheral hospital 3 days back. Imaging study revealed a heterogeneous complex mass, ascites, pleural effusion, air fluid levels with dilatation gut loops. Based upon pelvic examination by senior gynaecologist in combination with ultrasound; a clinical diagnosis of broad ligament haematoma was made. However, vomiting and abdominal distention raised suspicion of intestinal obstruction. Due to worsening abdominal distention exploratory laparotomy was carried out. It was pseudo colonic obstruction and caecostomy was done. Timely intervention by multidisciplinary approach saved patient life with minimal morbidity.

  3. Sphalerons, deformed sphalerons and normal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brihaye, Y.; Kunz, J.; Oldenburg Univ.

    1992-01-01

    Topological arguments suggest that tha Weinberg-Salam model posses unstable solutions, sphalerons, representing the top of energy barriers between inequivalent vacua of the gauge theory. In the limit of vanishing Weinberg angle, such unstable solutions are known: the sphaleron of Klinkhamer and Manton and at large values of the Higgs mass in addition the deformed sphalerons. Here a systematic study of the discrete normal modes about these sphalerons for the full range Higgs mass is presented. The emergence of deformed sphalerons at critical values of the Higgs mass is seem to be related to the crossing of zero of the eigenvalue of the particular normal modes about the sphaleron. 6 figs., 1 tab., 19 refs. (author)

  4. Normalizing the causality between time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X. San

    2015-08-01

    Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula was derived to evaluate information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing a Lyapunov exponent-like, one-dimensional phase-space stretching rate and a noise-to-signal ratio from the rate of information flow in the balance of the marginal entropy evolution of the flow recipient. It is verified with autoregressive models and applied to a real financial analysis problem. An unusually strong one-way causality is identified from IBM (International Business Machines Corporation) to GE (General Electric Company) in their early era, revealing to us an old story, which has almost faded into oblivion, about "Seven Dwarfs" competing with a giant for the mainframe computer market.

  5. Normal modes of vibration in nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgeneau, R J [Yale Univ., New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cordes, J [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dolling, G; Woods, A D B

    1964-07-01

    The frequency-wave-vector dispersion relation, {nu}(q), for the normal vibrations of a nickel single crystal at 296{sup o}K has been measured for the [{zeta}00], [{zeta}00], [{zeta}{zeta}{zeta}], and [0{zeta}1] symmetric directions using inelastic neutron scattering. The results can be described in terms of the Born-von Karman theory of lattice dynamics with interactions out to fourth-nearest neighbors. The shapes of the dispersion curves are very similar to those of copper, the normal mode frequencies in nickel being about 1.24 times the corresponding frequencies in copper. The fourth-neighbor model was used to calculate the frequency distribution function g({nu}) and related thermodynamic properties. (author)

  6. The self-normalized Donsker theorem revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Parczewski, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We extend the Poincar\\'{e}--Borel lemma to a weak approximation of a Brownian motion via simple functionals of uniform distributions on n-spheres in the Skorokhod space $D([0,1])$. This approach is used to simplify the proof of the self-normalized Donsker theorem in Cs\\"{o}rg\\H{o} et al. (2003). Some notes on spheres with respect to $\\ell_p$-norms are given.

  7. Proteoglycans in Leiomyoma and Normal Myometrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Nichole M.; Carrino, David A.; Caplan, Arnold I.; Hurd, William W.; Liu, James H.; Tan, Huiqing; Mesiano, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyoma are a common benign pelvic tumors composed of modified smooth muscle cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM). The proteoglycan composition of the leiomyoma ECM is thought to affect pathophysiology of the disease. To test this hypothesis, we examined the abundance (by immunoblotting) and expression (by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) of the proteoglycans biglycan, decorin, and versican in leiomyoma and normal myometrium and determined whether expression is affected by steroid hormones and menstrual phase. Leiomyoma and normal myometrium were collected from women (n = 17) undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy. In vitro studies were performed on immortalized leiomyoma (UtLM) and normal myometrial (hTERT-HM) cells with and without exposure to estradiol and progesterone. In leiomyoma tissue, abundance of decorin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were 2.6-fold and 1.4-fold lower, respectively, compared with normal myometrium. Abundance of versican mRNA was not different between matched samples, whereas versican protein was increased 1.8-fold in leiomyoma compared with myometrium. Decorin mRNA was 2.4-fold lower in secretory phase leiomyoma compared with proliferative phase tissue. In UtLM cells, progesterone decreased the abundance of decorin mRNA by 1.3-fold. Lower decorin expression in leiomyoma compared with myometrium may contribute to disease growth and progression. As decorin inhibits the activity of specific growth factors, its reduced level in the leiomyoma cell microenvironment may promote cell proliferation and ECM deposition. Our data suggest that decorin expression in leiomyoma is inhibited by progesterone, which may be a mechanism by which the ovarian steroids affect leiomyoma growth and disease progression. PMID:26423601

  8. Normal mode analysis for linear resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, W.; Lerbinger, K.; Gruber, R.; Tsunematsu, T.

    1984-10-01

    The compressible, resistive MHD equations are linearized around an equilibrium with cylindrical symmetry and solved numerically as a complex eigenvalue problem. This normal mode code allows to solve for very small resistivity eta proportional 10 -10 . The scaling of growthrates and layer width agrees very well with analytical theory. Especially, both the influence of current and pressure on the instabilities is studied in detail; the effect of resistivity on the ideally unstable internal kink is analyzed. (orig.)

  9. On Normalized Compression Distance and Large Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Borbely, Rebecca Schuller

    2015-01-01

    Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) is a popular tool that uses compression algorithms to cluster and classify data in a wide range of applications. Existing discussions of NCD's theoretical merit rely on certain theoretical properties of compression algorithms. However, we demonstrate that many popular compression algorithms don't seem to satisfy these theoretical properties. We explore the relationship between some of these properties and file size, demonstrating that this theoretical pro...

  10. The J/$\\psi$ normal nuclear absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Castanier, C; Castor, J; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; kanyan, H; ldzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavicheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Cormick, M M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Riccati, L; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, M F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, E; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu T

    2005-01-01

    We present a new determination of the ratio of cross-sections (J/psi) /DY as expected for nucleus-nucleus reactions if J/psi would only be normally absorbed by nuclear matter. This anticipated behaviour is based on proton-nucleus data exclusively, and compared, as a function of centrality, with updated S-U results from experiment NA38 and with the most recent Pb-Pb results from experiment NA50.

  11. Research on Normal Human Plantar Pressure Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available FSR400 pressure sensor, nRF905 wireless transceiver and MSP40 SCM are used to design the insole pressure collection system, LabVIEW is used to make HMI of data acquisition, collecting a certain amount of normal human foot pressure data, statistical analysis of pressure distribution relations about five stages of swing phase during walking, using the grid closeness degree to identify plantar pressure distribution pattern recognition, and the algorithm simulation, experimental results demonstrated this method feasible.

  12. The classification of normal screening mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Zoey Z. Y.; Rawashdeh, Mohammad A.; Heard, Robert; Brennan, Patrick C.; Lee, Warwick; Lewis, Sarah J.

    2016-03-01

    Rationale and objectives: To understand how breast screen readers classify the difficulty of normal screening mammograms using common lexicon describing normal appearances. Cases were also assessed on their suitability for a single reader strategy. Materials and Methods: 15 breast readers were asked to interpret a test set of 29 normal screening mammogram cases and classify them by rating the difficulty of the case on a five-point Likert scale, identifying the salient features and assessing their suitability for single reading. Using the False Positive Fractions from a previous study, the 29 cases were classified into 10 "low", 10 "medium" and nine "high" difficulties. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics. Spearman's correlation was used to test the strength of association between the difficulty of the cases and the readers' recommendation for single reading strategy. Results: The ratings from readers in this study corresponded to the known difficulty level of cases for the 'low' and 'high' difficulty cases. Uniform ductal pattern and density, symmetrical mammographic features and the absence of micro-calcifications were the main reasons associated with 'low' difficulty cases. The 'high' difficulty cases were described as having `dense breasts'. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the difficulty of the cases and readers' recommendation for single reading (r = -0.475, P = 0.009). Conclusion: The findings demonstrated potential relationships between certain mammographic features and the difficulty for readers to classify mammograms as 'normal'. The standard Australian practice of double reading was deemed more suitable for most cases. There was an inverse moderate association between the difficulty of the cases and the recommendations for single reading.

  13. Geomagnetic reversal in brunhes normal polarity epoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J D; Foster, J H

    1969-02-07

    The magnetic stratigraphly of seven cores of deep-sea sediment established the existence of a short interval of reversed polarity in the upper part of the Brunches epoch of normal polarity. The reversed zone in the cores correlates well with paleontological boundaries and is named the Blake event. Its boundaries are estimated to be 108,000 and 114,000 years ago +/- 10 percent.

  14. Ureterocolonic anastomosis in clinically normal dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, E.A.; Walter, M.C.; Goldschmidt, M.H.; Biery, D.N.; Bovee, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Ureterocolonic anastomosis was evaluated in 13 clinically normal dogs. Urinary continence was maintained after surgery, and the procedure was completed without technique errors in all but 2 dogs. Three dogs died within 5 weeks (2 of undetermined causes and 1 of aspiration pneumonia and neurologic disease), and 1 dog was euthanatized 4 months after surgery because of neurologic signs. Two healthy dogs were euthanatized 3 months after surgery for light microscopic evaluation of their kidneys. Five dogs were euthanatized 6 months after surgery for light microscopic evaluation of their kidneys. Gastrointestinal and neurologic disturbances developed in 4 dogs at various postoperative intervals. Plasma ammonia concentration measured in 2 dogs with neurologic signs was increased. Plasma ammonia concentration measured in 5 dogs without neurologic signs was within normal limits. All 5 dogs, in which metabolic acidosis was diagnosed, had high normal or above normal serum chloride concentration. Serum urea nitrogen values were increased after surgery because of colonic absorption of urea. Serum creatinine concentration was increased in 1 dog 6 months after surgery. Individual kidney glomerular filtration rate was reduced in 38% (3/8) of the kidneys from 4 other dogs at 6 months after surgery. Of 5 dogs euthanatized at 3 to 4 months after surgery, 4 had bilateral pyelitis, and 1 had unilateral pyelonephritis. Six months after surgery, pyelonephritis was diagnosed in 40% (4/10) of the kidneys from 5 dogs. The ureterocolonic anastomosis procedure is a salvage procedure that should allow complete cystectomy. However, variable degress of metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, and neurologic disease may result

  15. The thoracic paraspinal shadow: normal appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, H H; Kolbenstvedt, A

    1982-01-01

    The width of the right and left thoracic paraspinal shadows were measured at all levels in 200 presumably normal individuals. The paraspinal shadow could be identified in nearly all cases on the left side and in approximately one-third on the right. The range of variation was greater on the left side than one the right. The left paraspinal shadow was wider at the upper levels and in individuals above 40 years of age.

  16. Online Normalization Algorithm for Engine Turbofan Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    Online Normalization Algorithm for Engine Turbofan Monitoring Jérôme Lacaille 1 , Anastasios Bellas 2 1 Snecma, 77550 Moissy-Cramayel, France...understand the behavior of a turbofan engine, one first needs to deal with the variety of data acquisition contexts. Each time a set of measurements is...it auto-adapts itself with piecewise linear models. 1. INTRODUCTION Turbofan engine abnormality diagnosis uses three steps: reduction of

  17. Comet Giacobini-Zinner - a normal comet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, A.L.; Barker, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of Comet Giacobini-Zinner were obtained during its 1985 apparition using an IDS spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. Column densities and production rates were computed. The production rates were compared to observations of other normal comets. Giacobini-Zinner is shown to be depleted in C2 and C3 relative to CN. These production rates are down by a factor of 5. 12 references

  18. Manual on environmental monitoring in normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Many establishments handling radioactive materials produce, and to some extent also discharge, radioactive waste as part of their normal operation. The radiation doses to which members of the public may be exposed during such operation must remain below the stipulated level. The purpose of this manual is to provide technical guidance for setting up programmes of routine environmental monitoring in the vicinity of nuclear establishment. The annex gives five examples of routine environmental monitoring programmes currently in use: these have been indexed separately.

  19. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-01-01

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  20. Basic characterization of normal multifocal electroretinogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Cherkasova, Lilia; Rojas Rondon, Irene; Castro Perez, Pedro Daniel; Lopez Felipe, Daniel; Santiesteban Freixas, Rosaralis; Mendoza Santiesteban, Carlos E

    2008-01-01

    A scientific literature review was made on the novel multifocal electroretinogram technique, the involved cell mechanisms and some of the factors modifying its results together with the form of presentation. The basic characteristics of this electrophysiological record obtained from several regions of the retina of normal subjects is important in order to create at a small scale a comparative database to evaluate pathological eye tracing. All this will greatly help in early less invasive electrodiagnosis of localized retinal lesions. (Author)

  1. Estimating the Heading Direction Using Normal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    understood (Faugeras and Maybank 1990), 3 Kinetic Stabilization under the assumption that optic flow or correspon- dence is known with some uncertainty...accelerometers can achieve very It can easily be shown (Koenderink and van Doom high accuracy, the same is not true for inexpensive 1975; Maybank 1985... Maybank . ’Motion from point matches: Multi- just don’t compute normal flow there (see Section 6). plicity of solutions". Int’l J. Computer Vision 4

  2. Normalization of oxygen and hydrogen isotope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    To resolve confusion due to expression of isotopic data from different laboratories on non-corresponding scales, oxygen isotope analyses of all substances can be expressed relative to VSMOW or VPDB (Vienna Peedee belemnite) on scales normalized such that the ??18O of SLAP is -55.5% relative to VSMOW. H3+ contribution in hydrogen isotope ratio analysis can be easily determined using two gaseous reference samples that differ greatly in deuterium content. ?? 1988.

  3. Parietal podocytes in normal human glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariety, Jean; Mandet, Chantal; Hill, Gary S; Bruneval, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Although parietal podocytes along the Bowman's capsule have been described by electron microscopy in the normal human kidney, their molecular composition remains unknown. Ten human normal kidneys that were removed for cancer were assessed for the presence and the extent of parietal podocytes along the Bowman's capsule. The expression of podocyte-specific proteins (podocalyxin, glomerular epithelial protein-1, podocin, nephrin, synaptopodin, and alpha-actinin-4), podocyte synthesized proteins (vascular endothelial growth factor and novH), transcription factors (WT1 and PAX2), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57, and intermediate filaments (cytokeratins and vimentin) was tested. In addition, six normal fetal kidneys were studied to track the ontogeny of parietal podocytes. The podocyte protein labeling detected parietal podocytes in all of the kidneys, was found in 76.6% on average of Bowman's capsule sections, and was prominent at the vascular pole. WT1 and p57 were expressed in some parietal cells, whereas PAX2 was present in all or most of them, so some parietal cells coexpressed WT1 and PAX2. Furthermore, parietal podocytes coexpressed WT1 and podocyte proteins. Cytokeratin-positive cells covered a variable part of the capsule and did not express podocyte proteins. Tuft-capsular podocyte bridges were present in 15.5 +/- 3.7% of the glomerular sections. Parietal podocytes often covered the juxtaglomerular arterioles and were present within the extraglomerular mesangium. Parietal podocytes were present in fetal kidneys. Parietal podocytes that express the same epitopes as visceral podocytes do exist along Bowman's capsule in the normal adult kidney. They are a constitutive cell type of the Bowman's capsule. Therefore, their role in physiology and pathology should be investigated.

  4. Crate counter for normal operating loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, R.A.

    A lithium-loaded zinc sulfide scintillation counter to closely assay plutonium in waste packaged in 1.3 by 1.3 by 2.13m crates was built. In addition to assays for normal operating loss accounting, the counter will allow safeguards verification immediately before shipment of the crates for burial. The counter should detect approximately 10 g of plutonium in 1000 kg of waste

  5. ''Identical'' bands in normally-deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.; Baktash, C.; Yu, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    Gamma-ray transitions energies in neighboring odd- and even-mass nuclei for normally-deformed nuclear configurations are analyzed in a manner similar to recent analyses for superdeformed states. The moment of inertia is shown to depend on pair correlations and the aligned angular momentum of the odd nucleon. The implications of this analysis for ''identical'' super-deformed bands are discussed. 26 refs., 9 figs

  6. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression, the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  7. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  8. Hilar height ratio in normal Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kyung Ho; Lee, Nam Joon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung

    1979-01-01

    Hilar displacement is one of the significant sign of pulmonary volume change. The hilar height ratio (HHR) is a value that express the normal position of hilum in its hemithorax, and it is calculated by dividing the distance from the hilum to the lung apex by the distance from the hilum to the diaphragm. Displacement of one hilum is usually easy to detect but both are displaced in the same direction especially, recognition is more difficult. Knowledge of normal HHR allows evaluation of hilar positional change even when the relative hilar position are not altered. Normal chest PA views of 275 cases taken at Korea University Hospital during the period of April 1978 to Jun 1979 were analyzed. The right hilum is positioned in lower half of the right hemithorax, while the left hilum is situated in the upper half of left hemithorax. The difference of hilar ratio according to age group is slight, but there is significant difference between right-HHR and left-HHR. The value of right-HHR is 1.28 ± 0.14, the value of left-HHR is 0.88 ± 0.09.

  9. Normal CT anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga, O.; Matozzi, F.; Beranger, M.; Nazarian, S.; Salamon, G.; Gambarelli, J.

    1982-01-01

    To analyse the anatomo-radiological correlation of the spine and spinal cord, 22 formalized, frozen anatomical specimens corresponding to different regions of the spinal column (8 cervical, 5 dorsal, and 9 lumbar) were studied by CT scans on axial, sagittal and coronal planes and by contact radiography after they were cut into anatomical slices in order to clarify the normal CT anatomy of the spinal column. The results obtained from CT patient scans, performed exclusively on the axial plane, were compared with those obtained from the anatomical specimens (both CT and contrast radiography). High resolution CT programs were used, enabling us to obtain better individualization of the normal structures contained in the spinal column. Direct sagittal and coronal sections were performed on the specimens in order to get further anatomo-radiological information. Enhanced CT studies of the specimens were also available because of the air already present in the subarachnoid spaces. Excellent visualization was obtained of bone structures, soft tissue and the spinal cord. High CT resolution of the spine appeares to be an excellent neuroradiological procedure to study the spine and spinal cord. A metrizamide CT scan is, however, necessary when a normal unenhanced CT scan is insufficient for diagnosis and when the spinal cord is not clearly visible, as often happens at the cervical level. Clinical findings are certainly very useful to ascertain the exact CT level and to limit the radiation exposure. (orig.)

  10. Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Osamu; Shimazu, Hideki

    1985-03-01

    We previously reported basic and clinical evaluation of aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-millimicrosphere albumin (milli MISA) and concluded aerosol inhalation scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-milli MISA was useful for routine examination. But central airway deposit of aerosol particles was found in not only the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but also normal subjects. So we performed aerosol inhalation scintigraphy in normal subjects and evaluated their scintigrams. The subjects had normal values of FEVsub(1.0)% (more than 70%) in lung function tests, no abnormal findings in chest X-ray films and no symptoms and signs. The findings of aerosol inhalation scintigrams in them were classified into 3 patterns; type I: homogeneous distribution without central airway deposit, type II: homogeneous distribution with central airway deposit, type III: inhomogeneous distribution. These patterns were compared with lung function tests. There was no significant correlation between type I and type II in lung function tests. Type III was different from type I and type II in inhomogeneous distribution. This finding showed no correlation with %VC, FEVsub(1.0)%, MMF, V radical50 and V radical50/V radical25, but good correlation with V radical25 in a maximum forced expiratory flow-volume curve. Flow-volume curve is one of the sensitive methods in early detection of COPD, so inhomogeneous distribution of type III is considered to be due to small airway dysfunction.

  11. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, A S; Heide, R; den Hollander, J C; Mulder, P G M; Tank, B; Oranje, A P

    2005-03-01

    To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults. There was an uneven distribution of MCs in different body sites using the anti-tryptase monoclonal antibody technique. Numbers of MCs on the trunk, upper arm, and upper leg were similar, but were significantly different from those found on the lower leg and forearm. Two distinct groups were formed--proximal and distal. There were 77.0 MCs/mm2 at proximal body sites and 108.2 MCs/mm2 at distal sites. Adjusted for the adjacent diagnosis and age, this difference was consistent. The numbers of MCs in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders were not different from those in the control group. Differences in the numbers of MCs between the distal and the proximal body sites must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. A pilot study in patients with mastocytosis underlined the variation in the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin, but showed a considerable overlap. The observed numbers of MCs in adults cannot be extrapolated to children. MC numbers varied significantly between proximal and distal body sites and these differences must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. There was a considerable overlap between the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin.

  12. Normal form for mirror machine Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragt, A.J.; Finn, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A systematic algorithm is developed for performing canonical transformations on Hamiltonians which govern particle motion in magnetic mirror machines. These transformations are performed in such a way that the new Hamiltonian has a particularly simple normal form. From this form it is possible to compute analytic expressions for gyro and bounce frequencies. In addition, it is possible to obtain arbitrarily high order terms in the adiabatic magnetic moment expansion. The algorithm makes use of Lie series, is an extension of Birkhoff's normal form method, and has been explicitly implemented by a digital computer programmed to perform the required algebraic manipulations. Application is made to particle motion in a magnetic dipole field and to a simple mirror system. Bounce frequencies and locations of periodic orbits are obtained and compared with numerical computations. Both mirror systems are shown to be insoluble, i.e., trajectories are not confined to analytic hypersurfaces, there is no analytic third integral of motion, and the adiabatic magnetic moment expansion is divergent. It is expected also that the normal form procedure will prove useful in the study of island structure and separatrices associated with periodic orbits, and should facilitate studies of breakdown of adiabaticity and the onset of ''stochastic'' behavior

  13. [Quantification of acetabular coverage in normal adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R M; Yang, C Y; Yu, C Y; Yang, C R; Chang, G L; Chou, Y L

    1991-03-01

    Quantification of acetabular coverage is important and can be expressed by superimposition of cartilage tracings on the maximum cross-sectional area of the femoral head. A practical Autolisp program on PC AutoCAD has been developed by us to quantify the acetabular coverage through numerical expression of the images of computed tomography. Thirty adults (60 hips) with normal center-edge angle and acetabular index in plain X ray were randomly selected for serial drops. These slices were prepared with a fixed coordination and in continuous sections of 5 mm in thickness. The contours of the cartilage of each section were digitized into a PC computer and processed by AutoCAD programs to quantify and characterize the acetabular coverage of normal and dysplastic adult hips. We found that a total coverage ratio of greater than 80%, an anterior coverage ratio of greater than 75% and a posterior coverage ratio of greater than 80% can be categorized in a normal group. Polar edge distance is a good indicator for the evaluation of preoperative and postoperative coverage conditions. For standardization and evaluation of acetabular coverage, the most suitable parameters are the total coverage ratio, anterior coverage ratio, posterior coverage ratio and polar edge distance. However, medial coverage and lateral coverage ratios are indispensable in cases of dysplastic hip because variations between them are so great that acetabuloplasty may be impossible. This program can also be used to classify precisely the type of dysplastic hip.

  14. Normal and abnormal aging in bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ardila

    Full Text Available Abstract Bilinguals use two different language systems to mediate not only social communication, but also cognitive processes. Potential differences between bilinguals and monolinguals in task-solving strategies and patterns of cognitive decline during normal and abnormal aging have been suggested. Main contribution: A research review of the area suggests that normal aging is associated with increased interference between the two languages and tendency to retreat to a single language. General cognitive functioning has been found to be higher in demented bilingual patients if communication is carried out in L1 rather than in L2. Recent research has reported that bilingualism can have a protective effect during aging, attenuating the normal cognitive decline associated with aging, and delaying the onset of dementia. Conclusions: Regardless of the significant heterogeneity of bilingualism and the diversity of patterns in language use during life-span, current research suggests that bilingualism is associated with preserved cognitive test performance during aging, and potentially can have some protective effect in dementia.

  15. Cerebral perfusion in homogeneity in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, S.M.; Larcos, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In the interpretation of cerebral perfusion scans, it is important to know the normal variation in perfusion which may occur between the cerebral hemispheres. For this reason 24 normal volunteers with no neurological or psychiatric history, and who were on no medications, had 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT studies using a single headed gamma camera computer system. Oblique, coronal and sagittal images were reviewed separately by two experienced observers and any differences were resolved by consensus. Semi-quantitation was performed by summing two adjacent oblique slices and drawing right and left mirror image ROIs corresponding to the mid section level of anterior and posterior frontal lobes, anterior and posterior parietal lobes, temporal lobes and cerebellum. From the mean counts per pixel, right: left ROI ratios and ROI: cerebellar ratios were calculated. On qualitative review 6/24 subjects had mild asymmetry in tracer distribution between right and left cerebral lobes. Semi-quantitation revealed a 5-10% difference in counts between right and left ROIs in 12/24 subjects and an additional three subjects had 10-20% difference in counts between right and left temporal lobes. This study demonstrates the presence of mild asymmetry of cerebral perfusion in a significant minority of normal subjects

  16. Deformation around basin scale normal faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahic, D.

    2010-01-01

    Faults in the earth crust occur within large range of scales from microscale over mesoscopic to large basin scale faults. Frequently deformation associated with faulting is not only limited to the fault plane alone, but rather forms a combination with continuous near field deformation in the wall rock, a phenomenon that is generally called fault drag. The correct interpretation and recognition of fault drag is fundamental for the reconstruction of the fault history and determination of fault kinematics, as well as prediction in areas of limited exposure or beyond comprehensive seismic resolution. Based on fault analyses derived from 3D visualization of natural examples of fault drag, the importance of fault geometry for the deformation of marker horizons around faults is investigated. The complex 3D structural models presented here are based on a combination of geophysical datasets and geological fieldwork. On an outcrop scale example of fault drag in the hanging wall of a normal fault, located at St. Margarethen, Burgenland, Austria, data from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements, detailed mapping and terrestrial laser scanning were used to construct a high-resolution structural model of the fault plane, the deformed marker horizons and associated secondary faults. In order to obtain geometrical information about the largely unexposed master fault surface, a standard listric balancing dip domain technique was employed. The results indicate that for this normal fault a listric shape can be excluded, as the constructed fault has a geologically meaningless shape cutting upsection into the sedimentary strata. This kinematic modeling result is additionally supported by the observation of deformed horizons in the footwall of the structure. Alternatively, a planar fault model with reverse drag of markers in the hanging wall and footwall is proposed. Deformation around basin scale normal faults. A second part of this thesis investigates a large scale normal fault

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of normal pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masami; Uozumi, Tohru; Sakoda, Katsuaki; Ohta, Masahiro; Kagawa, Yoshihiro; Kajima, Toshio.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable procedure for diagnosing such midline-positioned lesions as pituitary adenomas. To differentiate them from microadenomas fifty-seven cases (9 - 74 years old, 29 men and 28 women), including 50 patients without any sellar or parasellar diseases and seven normal volunteers, were studied in order to clarify the MR findings of the shape, height, and signal intensity of the normal pituitary gland, especially at the median sagittal section. The height of a normal pituitary gland varied from 2 to 9 mm (mean: 5.7 mm); the upper surface of the gland was convex in 19.3 %, flat in 49.1 %, and concave in 31.6 %. The mean height of the gland in women in their twenties was 7.5 mm, and the upper convex shape appeared exclusively in women of the second to fourth decades. Nine intrasellar pituitary adenomas (PRL-secreting: 4, GH-secreting: 4, ACTH-secreting: 1), all verified by surgery, were diagnosed using a resistive MR system. The heights of the gland in these cases were from 7 to 15 mm (mean: 11.3 mm); the upper surface was convex in 7 cases. A localized bulging of the upper surface of the gland and a localized depression of the sellar floor were depicted on the coronal and sagittal sections in most cases. Although the GH- and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases showed homogeneous intrasellar contents, in all the PRL-secreting adenoma cases a low-signal-intensity area was detected in the IR images. The mean T1 values of the intrasellar content of the normal volunteers, the PRL-, GH-, and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases, were 367, 416, 355, and 411 ms respectively. However, in the PRL-secreting adenoma cases, the mean T1 value of the areas showing a low signal intensity on IR images was 455 ms; this was a significant prolongation in comparison with that of a normal pituitary gland. (J.P.N.)

  18. Data-driven intensity normalization of PET group comparison studies is superior to global mean normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Aanerud, Joel; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global mean (GM) normalization is one of the most commonly used methods of normalization in PET and SPECT group comparison studies of neurodegenerative disorders. It requires that no between-group GM difference is present, which may be strongly violated in neurodegenerative disorders....... Importantly, such GM differences often elude detection due to the large intrinsic variance in absolute values of cerebral blood flow or glucose consumption. Alternative methods of normalization are needed for this type of data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two types of simulation were performed using CBF images...

  19. HYPERVASCULAR LIVER LESIONS IN RADIOLOGICALLY NORMAL LIVER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, José Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; João, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araújo Lima

    2017-01-01

    The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Eighty-eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine aminotransaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. As lesões hepáticas hipervasculares representam um desafio diagnóstico. Identificar fatores de risco para câncer em pacientes portadores de lesão hepática hipervascular não-hemangiomatosa em fígado radiologicamente normal. Estudo prospectivo que incluiu pacientes com lesões hepáticas hipervasculares em que o diagnóstico final foi obtido por exame anatomopatológico ou, presumido a partir de seguimento mínimo de um ano. Diagnóstico prévio de cirrose ou radiológico de hemangioma foram considerados critérios de exclusão. Oitenta e oito pacientes foram incluídos. A relação mulher/homem foi de 5,3/1. A idade média foi de 42,4 anos. Na maior parte das vezes as lesões hepáticas foram únicas e com

  20. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-18

    Aug 18, 1990 ... couples where the husband's normal sperm morphology was less than 15% ... gonadotrophin (HCG) 5000 ID was given when the average size of three ... have a normal sperm count and motility but have lower than normal ...

  1. Non-Normality and Testing that a Correlation Equals Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth J.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of the assumption of normality for testing that a bivariate normal correlation equals zero is examined. Both empirical and theoretical evidence suggest that such tests are robust with respect to violation of the normality assumption. (Author/JKS)

  2. Normal families and isolated singularities of meromorphic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, P.S.; Subramaniam, A.

    1985-06-01

    Based on the criterion of Zalcman for normal families, a generalization of a well-known result relating normal families and isolated essential singularities of meromorphic functions is proved, using a theorem of Lehto and Virtanen on normal functions. (author)

  3. Análisis de la problemática para la adquisición de los antirretrovirales VIH/SIDA en los países del Tercer Mundo Analysis of the problem to acquire HIV/AIDS antiretroviral drugs in the Third World countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel M. Collazo Herrera

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es exponer la problemática existente para la adquisición de los medicamentos antirretrovirales para el VIH/SIDA en el ámbito mundial, fundamentalmente la situación que confrontan los países en vías de desarrollo, que para poder obtener el acceso global al tratamiento tienen que invertir recursos económicos suficientes en la esfera de la salud, no disponibles actualmente en los países más pobres. Esto es motivado por los altos precios que tienen los antirretrovirales en el mercado internacional por parte las compañías transnacionales farmacéuticas, aspecto que repercute considerablemente en el incremento de los costos del tratamiento, y es uno de los principales obstáculos para su disposición en los países del Tercer Mundo. Ante el dramático panorama del VIH/SIDA a escala mundial, la comunidad internacional se ha pronunciado en favor de concretar diferentes acuerdos entre los productores de antirretrovirales y los gobiernos de los países en vías de desarrollo, para lograr una reducción importante en el costo del tratamiento antirretrovírico. También existen iniciativas locales de algunas naciones del mundo subdesarrollado, de producir nacionalmente estos fármacos, con el objetivo de garantizar sostenidamente el acceso global de los pacientes a esta terapia. Todos estos esfuerzos están encaminadas a un mismo propósito, disponer de la mayor cantidad de antirretrovirales en el arsenal terapéutico para el tratamiento del VIH/SIDA, así como buscar distintas vías para la adquisición de estos fármacos en condiciones económicas más favorables para los países más pobres del mundo, que las existentes actualmente en el mercado farmacéutico internacional, y de esta forma, posibilitar la obtención del beneficio en términos de salud para los pacientes, a un costo más razonable para las maltrechas economías de los países subdesarrollados.The objective of the present paper is to deal with

  4. Implementación de un programa de uso regulado de antibióticos en 2 unidades de cuidado intensivo medico-quirúrgico en un hospital universitario de tercer nivel en Colombia Implementation of a regulated antibiotic use program in two medical-surgical intensive units care in a third level mayor teaching hospital in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian José Pallares

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de un programa de uso regulado de antibióticos en adherencia, consumo antibiótico y resistencia bacteriana en 2 unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI de un hospital universitario de tercer nivel en Colombia. Materiales y Método: Estudio prospectivo observacional de intervención que analiza 2 períodos en el tiempo en 2 UCI: preintervención (agosto de 2008 a febrero de 2009 y posintervención (marzo a septiembre de 2009. El estudio se llevó a cabo en el Hospital Universitario del Valle Evaristo García E.S.E. Se evaluaron: adherencia a guías de uso de antibióticos creadas por epidemiología hospitalaria, consumo antibiótico en dosis diaria definida e incidencia acumulada mensual de infección por Escherichia coli (E. coli y Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae BLEE, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa resistente a quinolonas y cefalosporinas de cuarta generación, Staphylococcus aureus resistente a oxacilina y Acinetobacter baumannii multirresistente. Resultados: Se encontró adherencia a guías de uso de antibióticos superior al 80% para ambas UCI durante la intervención. Se redujo significativamente el consumo de meropenem (UCI-1 p = 0,009/UCI-2 p = 0,000, vancomicina (UCI-1 y UCI-2 p = 0,018, ceftriaxona (UCI-1 p = 0,015/ UCI-2 p = 0,018, ciprofloxacina (UCI-1 p = 0,027/UCI-2 p = 0,018, se incrementó el consumo de piperacilina/tazobactam (UCI-1 p = no significativa/UCI-2 p = 0,017 y cefepime (UCI-1 p = 0,028/UCI-2 p = 0,004. Se redujo la incidencia de infección por E. coli y K. pneumoniae BLEE + (UCI-1 83%/UCI-2 78%, P. aeruginosa resistente a ciprofloxacina (UCI-1 87%/UCI-2 82% y cefalosporinas de cuarta generación (UCI-1 83%/UCI-2 76%. Conclusiones: La creación de un programa de uso regulado de antibióticos reduce significativamente el consumo y los costos de antibióticos en las UCI del Hospital Universitario del Valle y la infección por microorganismos resistentes.Objective: To determine the

  5. Description of a cohort of patients with criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS in two third-level hospitals Descripción de una cohorte de pacientes con criterios de síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica en dos hospitales de tercer nivel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Alberto Jaimes Barragán

    2001-01-01

    índrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica (SRIS, a la sepsis y a las complicaciones que de ellos se derivan, como responsables de un número importante de hospitalizaciones y consultas en los servicios de urgencias en centros de tercer nivel. En nuestro medio muchos aspectos relacionados con la epidemiología, la presentación clínica y la microbiología de estas entidades se encuentran aún por definir. Diseño: estudio de cohorte longitudinal. Población de estudio: pacientes hospitalizados por urgencias en dos hospitales de referencia, con criterios de SRIS de adquisición extrahospitalaria y etiología no traumática, entre agosto 1 de 1998 y marzo 31 de 1999. Metodología: recolección, en el momento de la admisión en urgencias, de variables relacionadas con las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y microbiológicas de la cohorte. Resultados: 503 pacientes ingresaron al estudio. El rango de edad osciló entre 14 y 97 años, con un promedio de 49 años. El 46.5% fueron mujeres. El 27.8% fueron amas de casa, desempleados el 12.7% y agricultores el 4.9%. El tiempo de hospitalización promedio fue de 11.3 días. Los principales diagnósticos de ingreso fueron neumonía, sepsis e infección de tejidos blandos. Los gérmenes más frecuentemente aislados en sangre fueron Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae y Escherichia coli, Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron choque (17.2% y síndrome de dificultad respiratoria (13.1%. El 58.8% de los pacientes presentaron síndrome de origen infeccioso sin germen cultivado, y entre estos los síndromes predominantes fueron neumonía e infecciones de tejidos blandos. Conclusiones: el SRIS y la sepsis son entidades frecuentes en nuestros hospitales. La población estudiada es heterogénea en cuanto a sus características epidemiológicas, microbiológicas y la edad de los pacientes, pero parece diferenciarse claramente de otras latitudes en cuanto a población más joven y menor tiempo de estancia hospitalaria

  6. Transport through hybrid superconducting/normal nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterer, David

    2013-01-29

    We mainly investigate transport through interacting quantum dots proximized by superconductors. For this purpose we extend an existing theory to describe transport through proximized quantum dots coupled to normal and superconducting leads. It allows us to study the influence of a strong Coulomb interaction on Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This is a particularly interesting topic because it combines two competing properties: in superconductors Cooper pairs are formed by two electrons which experience an attractive interaction while two electrons located on a quantum dot repel each other due to the Coulomb interaction. It seems at first glance that transport processes involving Cooper pairs should be suppressed because of the two competing interactions. However, it is possible to proximize the dot in nonequilibrium situations. At first, we study a setup composed of a quantum dot coupled to one normal, one ferromagnetic, and one superconducting lead in the limit of an infinitely-large superconducting gap. Within this limit the coupling between dot and superconductor is described exactly by the presented theory. It leads to the formation of Andreev-bound states (ABS) and an additional bias scheme opens in which a pure spin current, i.e. a spin current with a vanishing associated charge current, can be generated. In a second work, starting from the infinite-gap limit, we perform a systematic expansion of the superconducting gap around infinity and investigate Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This allows us to estimate the validity of infinite-gap calculations for real systems in which the superconducting gap is usually a rather small quantity. We find indications that a finite gap renormalizes the ABS and propose a resummation approach to explore the finite-gap ABS. Despite the renormalization effects the modifications of transport by finite gaps are rather small. This result lets us conclude that the infinite-gap calculation is a valuable tool to

  7. Transport through hybrid superconducting/normal nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futterer, David

    2013-01-01

    We mainly investigate transport through interacting quantum dots proximized by superconductors. For this purpose we extend an existing theory to describe transport through proximized quantum dots coupled to normal and superconducting leads. It allows us to study the influence of a strong Coulomb interaction on Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This is a particularly interesting topic because it combines two competing properties: in superconductors Cooper pairs are formed by two electrons which experience an attractive interaction while two electrons located on a quantum dot repel each other due to the Coulomb interaction. It seems at first glance that transport processes involving Cooper pairs should be suppressed because of the two competing interactions. However, it is possible to proximize the dot in nonequilibrium situations. At first, we study a setup composed of a quantum dot coupled to one normal, one ferromagnetic, and one superconducting lead in the limit of an infinitely-large superconducting gap. Within this limit the coupling between dot and superconductor is described exactly by the presented theory. It leads to the formation of Andreev-bound states (ABS) and an additional bias scheme opens in which a pure spin current, i.e. a spin current with a vanishing associated charge current, can be generated. In a second work, starting from the infinite-gap limit, we perform a systematic expansion of the superconducting gap around infinity and investigate Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This allows us to estimate the validity of infinite-gap calculations for real systems in which the superconducting gap is usually a rather small quantity. We find indications that a finite gap renormalizes the ABS and propose a resummation approach to explore the finite-gap ABS. Despite the renormalization effects the modifications of transport by finite gaps are rather small. This result lets us conclude that the infinite-gap calculation is a valuable tool to

  8. CT of Normal Developmental and Variant Anatomy of the Pediatric Skull: Distinguishing Trauma from Normality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriz, Sanjin; Patel, Jaymin H; Ameli Renani, Seyed; Allan, Rosemary; Vlahos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice has been increasing rapidly, with the number of CT examinations performed in adults and children rising by 10% per year in England. Because the radiology community strives to reduce the radiation dose associated with pediatric examinations, external factors, including guidelines for pediatric head injury, are raising expectations for use of cranial CT in the pediatric population. Thus, radiologists are increasingly likely to encounter pediatric head CT examinations in daily practice. The variable appearance of cranial sutures at different ages can be confusing for inexperienced readers of radiologic images. The evolution of multidetector CT with thin-section acquisition increases the clarity of some of these sutures, which may be misinterpreted as fractures. Familiarity with the normal anatomy of the pediatric skull, how it changes with age, and normal variants can assist in translating the increased resolution of multidetector CT into more accurate detection of fractures and confident determination of normality, thereby reducing prolonged hospitalization of children with normal developmental structures that have been misinterpreted as fractures. More important, the potential morbidity and mortality related to false-negative interpretation of fractures as normal sutures may be avoided. The authors describe the normal anatomy of all standard pediatric sutures, common variants, and sutural mimics, thereby providing an accurate and safe framework for CT evaluation of skull trauma in pediatric patients. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  9. Correspondence normalized ghost imaging on compressive sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Sheng-Mei; Zhuang Peng

    2014-01-01

    Ghost imaging (GI) offers great potential with respect to conventional imaging techniques. It is an open problem in GI systems that a long acquisition time is be required for reconstructing images with good visibility and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). In this paper, we propose a new scheme to get good performance with a shorter construction time. We call it correspondence normalized ghost imaging based on compressive sensing (CCNGI). In the scheme, we enhance the signal-to-noise performance by normalizing the reference beam intensity to eliminate the noise caused by laser power fluctuations, and reduce the reconstruction time by using both compressive sensing (CS) and time-correspondence imaging (CI) techniques. It is shown that the qualities of the images have been improved and the reconstruction time has been reduced using CCNGI scheme. For the two-grayscale ''double-slit'' image, the mean square error (MSE) by GI and the normalized GI (NGI) schemes with the measurement number of 5000 are 0.237 and 0.164, respectively, and that is 0.021 by CCNGI scheme with 2500 measurements. For the eight-grayscale ''lena'' object, the peak signal-to-noise rates (PSNRs) are 10.506 and 13.098, respectively using GI and NGI schemes while the value turns to 16.198 using CCNGI scheme. The results also show that a high-fidelity GI reconstruction has been achieved using only 44% of the number of measurements corresponding to the Nyquist limit for the two-grayscale “double-slit'' object. The qualities of the reconstructed images using CCNGI are almost the same as those from GI via sparsity constraints (GISC) with a shorter reconstruction time. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Normal range of gastric emptying in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Collins, C.; Francis, L.; Henry, R.; O'Loughlin, E.; John Hunter Children's Hospital, Newcastle, NSW

    1999-01-01

    Full text: As part of a larger study looking at gastric emptying times in cystic fibrosis, we assessed the normal range of gastric emptying in a control group of children. Thirteen children (8 girls, 5 boys) aged 4-15 years (mean 10) were studied. Excluded were children with a history of relevant gastrointestinal medical or surgical disease, egg allergy or medication affecting gastric emptying. Imaging was performed at 08.00 h after an overnight fast. The test meal was consumed in under 15 min and comprised one 50 g egg, 80 g commercial pancake mix, 10 ml of polyunsaturated oil, 40 ml of water and 30 g of jam. The meal was labelled with 99 Tc m -macroaggregates of albumin. Water (150 ml) was also consumed with the test meal. One minute images of 128 x 128 were acquired over the anterior and posterior projections every 5 min for 30 min, then every 15 min until 90 min with a final image at 120 min. Subjects remained supine for the first 60 min, after which they were allowed to walk around. A time-activity curve was generated using the geometric mean of anterior and posterior activity. The half emptying time ranged from 55 to 107 min (mean 79, ± 2 standard deviations 43-115). Lag time (time for 5% to leave stomach) ranged from 2 to 26 min (mean 10). The percent emptied at 60 min ranged from 47 to 73% (mean 63%). There was no correlation of half emptying time with age. The normal reference range for a test meal of pancakes has been established for 13 normal children

  11. Exercises in anatomy: the normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    In the first of our exercises in anatomy, created for the Multimedia Manual of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery, we emphasized that thorough knowledge of intracardiac anatomy was an essential part of the training for all budding cardiac surgeons, explaining how we had used the archive of congenitally malformed hearts maintained at Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to prepare a series of videoclips, demonstrating the salient features of tetralogy of Fallot. In this series of videoclips, we extend our analysis of the normal heart, since for our initial exercise we had concentrated exclusively on the structure of the right ventricular outflow tract. We begin our overview of normal anatomy by emphasizing the need, in the current era, to describe the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion. Increasingly, clinicians are demonstrating the features of the heart as it is located within the body. It is no longer satisfactory, therefore, to describe these components in a 'Valentine' fashion, as continues to be the case in most textbooks of normal or cardiac anatomy. We then emphasize the importance of the so-called morphological method, which states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their own intrinsic morphology, and not according to other parts, which are themselves variable. We continue by using this concept to show how it is the appendages that serve to distinguish between the atrial chambers, while the apical trabecular components provide the features to distinguish the ventricles. We then return to the cardiac chambers, emphasizing features of surgical significance, in particular the locations of the cardiac conduction tissues. We proceed by examining the cardiac valves, and conclude by providing a detailed analysis of the septal structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Normal variants of skin in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available 2221 consecutive live births taking place between March 1994 and February 1995 were evaluated for a minimum period of 5 days to note for the occurrence of various normal anatomical variants specially those of skin. Birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, socio-economic status and consanguinity were carefully recorded in all the cases. Mongolian spots (72%, Epstein pearls (43.8%, Milia (26.2% and Erythema toxicum (25.2%, were the common dermatological variants noted. Maturity of the babies and possibly genetic factors (consanguinity are important factors in their causation as ordered in our study.

  13. Technical normalization in the geoinformatics branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislava Horáková

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A basic principle of the technical normalisation is to hold the market development by developing unified technical rules for all concerned subjects. The information and communication technological industry is characterised by certain specific features contrary to the traditional industry. These features bring to the normalisation domain new demands, mainly the flexibility enabling to reflect the rapidly development market of ICT elastic way. The goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current process of technical normalization in the geoinformatic branch

  14. Renal malignancies with normal excretory urograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kass, D.A.; Hricak, H.; Davidson, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Four patients with malignant renal masses showed no abnormality of excretory urograms with tomography. Of the four lesions, two were primary renal cell carcinomas, one was a metastatic focus from a contralateral renal cell carcinoma, and one was a metastatic lesion from rectal adenocarcinoma. A normal excretory urogram should not be considered sufficient to exclude a clinically suspected malignant renal mass. In such an instance, diagnostic evaluation should be pursued using a method capable of topographic anatomic display, such as computed tomography or sonography

  15. Local normality properties of some infrared representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doplicher, S.; Spera, M.

    1983-01-01

    We consider the positive energy representations of the algebra of quasilocal observables for the free massless Majorana field described in preceding papers. We show that by an appropriate choice of the (partially) occupied one particle modes we can find irreducible, type IIsub(infinite) or IIIsub(lambda) representations in this class which are unitarily equivalent to the vacuum representation when restricted to any forward light cone and disjoint from it when restricted to any backward light cone, or conversely. We give an elementary explicit proof of local normality of each representation in the above class. (orig.)

  16. Normal blood supply of the canine patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.E.; Wilson, J.W.; Robbins, T.A.; Ribble, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The normal blood supply of the canine patella was evaluated, using microangiography and correlated histology. Arterioles entered the cortex of the patella at multiple sites along the medial, lateral, and dorsal aspects. The body of the patella was vascularized uniformly, with many arterioles that branched and anastomosed extensively throughout the patella. The patella was not dependent on a single nutrient artery for its afferent supply, but had an extensive interior vascular network. These factors should ensure rapid revascularization and healing of patellar fractures, provided appropriate fracture fixation is achieved

  17. Deficiency of normal galaxies among Markaryan galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyeveer, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of the morphological types of Markaryan galaxies and other galaxies in the Uppsala catalog indicates a strong deficiency of normal ellipticals among the Markaryan galaxies, for which the fraction of type E galaxies is ≤ 1% against 10% among the remaining galaxies. Among the Markaryan galaxies, an excess of barred galaxies is observed - among the Markaryan galaxies with types Sa-Scd, approximately half or more have bars, whereas among the remaining galaxies of the same types bars are found in about 1/3

  18. Exchange rate arrangements: From extreme to "normal"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies theoretical and empirical location dispersion of exchange rate arrangements - rigid-intermediate-flexible regimes, in the context of extreme arrangements of a currency board, dollarization and monetary union moderate characteristics of intermediate arrangements (adjustable pegs crawling pegs and target zones and imperative-process "normalization" in the form of a managed or clean floating system. It is established that de iure and de facto classifications generate "fear of floating" and "fear of pegging". The "impossible trinity" under the conditions of capital liberalization and globalization creates a bipolar view or hypothesis of vanishing intermediate exchange rate regimes.

  19. Ultrasonographic ejection fraction of normal gallbladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hun; Kim, Seung Yup; Park, Yaung Hee; Kang, Ik Won; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Halym College, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-06-15

    Real-time ultrasonography is a simple, accurate, noninvasive and potentially valuable means of studying gallbladder size and emptying. The authors calculated ultrasonographically the ejection fraction of 80 cases of normally functioning gallbladder on oral cholecystography, from June 1983 to April 1984, at the department of radiology, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Ultrasonographic Ejection Fraction at 30 minutes after the fatty meal was 73.1{+-}16.85. 2. There was no significant difference in age and sex, statistically.

  20. MR of the normal and ischemic hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to be more sensitive than traditional radiographic and radionuclide methods for detecting early avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. The authors have found that in addition to its proven value for early detection, MRI can help us characterize individual lesions and understand the pathophysiology of AVN. This chapter reviews the clinical and pathological features of AVN of the femoral head, and describes recent contributions of MRI toward understanding the normal and ischemic hip. This review summarizes the 5-year experience of the MR group at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

  1. The consequences of non-normality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hip, I.; Lippert, Th.; Neff, H.; Schilling, K.; Schroers, W.

    2002-01-01

    The non-normality of Wilson-type lattice Dirac operators has important consequences - the application of the usual concepts from the textbook (hermitian) quantum mechanics should be reconsidered. This includes an appropriate definition of observables and the refinement of computational tools. We show that the truncated singular value expansion is the optimal approximation to the inverse operator D -1 and we prove that due to the γ 5 -hermiticity it is equivalent to γ 5 times the truncated eigenmode expansion of the hermitian Wilson-Dirac operator

  2. Torsion of the normal fallopian tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, M W

    1972-01-01

    From 1961 to 1970 a number of cases of torsion of the Fallopian tube were seen at the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in San Francisco of which 3 cases are reported. Of the many theories of causation, pelvic congestion seemed the most likely. The only universal symptom is pain, located in the quadrant of the affected tube and sometimes radiating to the thigh or flank. Nausea and vomiting are frequent; temperature and white cell count are only slightly elevated or normal. A mass is often felt, depending on the amount of hemorrhage. Correct diagnosis is almost never made preoperatively. The only treatment is laparotomy and surgical correction.

  3. Normal CT anatomy of the calcaneus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Gyu; Kang, Heung Sik

    1986-01-01

    Normal sectional anatomy of the calcaneus with multiplanar CT examination was studied in 5 volunteers as the background for interpretation of various abnormalities. Major 3 sectional anatomy including plantar, coronal, sagittal and additional tuberosity planes are described. With CT examination of the calcaneus, 1. More detailed anatomy of 3 facets of subtalar joint (anterior, middle, and posterior facet) can be well visualized. 2. Its clinical applications in the tarsal trauma, tarsal coalition, subtalar infection, degenerative arthritis, club foot, pes planus and tarsal tumor could provide much more information's, which not obtained by conventional radiographic studies.

  4. Is this the right normalization? A diagnostic tool for ChIP-seq normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Claudia; Heller, Ruth; Volkinshtein, Rita; Yekutieli, Daniel

    2015-05-09

    Chip-seq experiments are becoming a standard approach for genome-wide profiling protein-DNA interactions, such as detecting transcription factor binding sites, histone modification marks and RNA Polymerase II occupancy. However, when comparing a ChIP sample versus a control sample, such as Input DNA, normalization procedures have to be applied in order to remove experimental source of biases. Despite the substantial impact that the choice of the normalization method can have on the results of a ChIP-seq data analysis, their assessment is not fully explored in the literature. In particular, there are no diagnostic tools that show whether the applied normalization is indeed appropriate for the data being analyzed. In this work we propose a novel diagnostic tool to examine the appropriateness of the estimated normalization procedure. By plotting the empirical densities of log relative risks in bins of equal read count, along with the estimated normalization constant, after logarithmic transformation, the researcher is able to assess the appropriateness of the estimated normalization constant. We use the diagnostic plot to evaluate the appropriateness of the estimates obtained by CisGenome, NCIS and CCAT on several real data examples. Moreover, we show the impact that the choice of the normalization constant can have on standard tools for peak calling such as MACS or SICER. Finally, we propose a novel procedure for controlling the FDR using sample swapping. This procedure makes use of the estimated normalization constant in order to gain power over the naive choice of constant (used in MACS and SICER), which is the ratio of the total number of reads in the ChIP and Input samples. Linear normalization approaches aim to estimate a scale factor, r, to adjust for different sequencing depths when comparing ChIP versus Input samples. The estimated scaling factor can easily be incorporated in many peak caller algorithms to improve the accuracy of the peak identification. The

  5. The normal range of condylar movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Han Up; Park, Tae Won

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of condylar movement of normal adults. The author gas observed roentgenographic images of four serial positions of condylar head taken by modified transcranial lateral oblique projection. The serial positions are centric occlusion, rest position, 1 inch open position and maximal open position. The results were obtained as follow; 1. Inter-incisal distance was 46.85 mm in maximal open position. 2. The length between the deepest point of glenoid fossa and summit of condylar head in rest position was wider than that in centric occlusion by 0.8 mm. 3. In 1 inch open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 12.64 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 1.84 mm of vertical direction. 4. In maximal open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 19.06 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 0.4 mm of vertical direction. 5. In centric occlusion, the width between glenoid fossa and margin of condylar head was greater in the posterior portion than in the anterior portion by 0.4 mm. 6. Except for estimated figures of 1 inch open position, all of the estimated figures was greater in male than in female.

  6. Extravascular transport in normal and tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R K; Gerlowski, L E

    1986-01-01

    The transport characteristics of the normal and tumor tissue extravascular space provide the basis for the determination of the optimal dosage and schedule regimes of various pharmacological agents in detection and treatment of cancer. In order for the drug to reach the cellular space where most therapeutic action takes place, several transport steps must first occur: (1) tissue perfusion; (2) permeation across the capillary wall; (3) transport through interstitial space; and (4) transport across the cell membrane. Any of these steps including intracellular events such as metabolism can be the rate-limiting step to uptake of the drug, and these rate-limiting steps may be different in normal and tumor tissues. This review examines these transport limitations, first from an experimental point of view and then from a modeling point of view. Various types of experimental tumor models which have been used in animals to represent human tumors are discussed. Then, mathematical models of extravascular transport are discussed from the prespective of two approaches: compartmental and distributed. Compartmental models lump one or more sections of a tissue or body into a "compartment" to describe the time course of disposition of a substance. These models contain "effective" parameters which represent the entire compartment. Distributed models consider the structural and morphological aspects of the tissue to determine the transport properties of that tissue. These distributed models describe both the temporal and spatial distribution of a substance in tissues. Each of these modeling techniques is described in detail with applications for cancer detection and treatment in mind.

  7. Normal CT in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, T; Okuno, T; Ito, M; Konishi, Y; Yoshioka, M [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-10-01

    There have been several reports as to normal CT in children. However, they included children with convulsions as normal subjects. In our experience, children with convulsions have an enlargement of the subdural space in the frontal region. Therefore, we studied CT in children without convulsions. Of the 10,000 patients examined with EMI 1000 or EMI 1010 at Kyoto Univ. Hospital from 1976 to 1979, 110 children could be classified into the following types according to their symptoms: 1) Type-1 head injury, without abnormalities in CT resulting from this injury, 2) non-migraining headaches, and 3) others without CT abnormalities who were routinely examined. Previous studies have shown that the enlargement of the subdural space in the frontal region was not abnormal under one year. However, the present study has shown that it was not dilated in children without convulsions. We stressed the usefulness of our newly calculated basal cistern index, because the SD was small and could be readily indentified (this index was under 0.29 in most cases; their SD's were 0.04 in those under one year and 0.02 over one year). The other data were not so different from those of previous studies.

  8. Oxygen delivery in irradiated normal tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, M.F.; Ansari, R. [Univ. of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States). School of Biomedical Engineering; Gaber, M.W. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure significantly alters the structure and function of microvascular networks, which regulate delivery of oxygen to tissue. In this study we use a hamster cremaster muscle model to study changes in microvascular network parameters and use a mathematical model to study the effects of these observed structural and microhemodynamic changes in microvascular networks on oxygen delivery to the tissue. Our experimental observations indicate that in microvascular networks while some parameters are significantly affected by irradiation (e.g. red blood cell (RBC) transit time), others remain at the control level (e.g. RBC path length) up to 180 days post-irradiation. The results from our mathematical model indicate that tissue oxygenation patterns are significantly different in irradiated normal tissue as compared to age-matched controls and the differences are apparent as early as 3 days post irradiation. However, oxygen delivery to irradiated tissue was not found to be significantly different from age matched controls at any time between 7 days to 6 months post-irradiation. These findings indicate that microvascular late effects in irradiated normal tissue may be due to factors other than compromised tissue oxygenation. (author)

  9. Does partial occlusion promote normal binocular function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Ding, Zhaofeng; Chan, Lily Y L; Chen, Xiang; Yu, Minbin; Deng, Daming; Hess, Robert F

    2012-10-03

    There is growing evidence that abnormal binocular interactions play a key role in the amblyopia syndrome and represent a viable target for treatment interventions. In this context the use of partial occlusion using optical devices such as Bangerter filters as an alternative to complete occlusion is of particular interest. The aims of this study were to understand why Bangerter filters do not result in improved binocular outcomes compared to complete occlusion, and to compare the effects of Bangerter filters, optical blur and neutral density (ND) filters on normal binocular function. The effects of four strengths of Bangerter filters (0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2) on letter and vernier acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity, and interocular suppression were measured in 21 observers with normal vision. In a subset of 14 observers, the partial occlusion effects of Bangerter filters, ND filters and plus lenses on stereopsis and interocular suppression were compared. Bangerter filters did not have graded effect on vision and induced significant disruption to binocular function. This disruption was greater than that of monocular defocus but weaker than that of ND filters. The effect of the Bangerter filters on stereopsis was more pronounced than their effect on monocular acuity, and the induced monocular acuity deficits did not predict the induced deficits in stereopsis. Bangerter filters appear to be particularly disruptive to binocular function. Other interventions, such as optical defocus and those employing computer generated dichoptic stimulus presentation, may be more appropriate than partial occlusion for targeting binocular function during amblyopia treatment.

  10. Normal CT in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Tatsuo; Okuno, Takehiko; Ito, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Yoshioka, Mieko

    1980-01-01

    There have been several reports as to normal CT in children. However, they included children with convulsions as normal subjects. In our experience, children with convulsions have an enlargement of the subdural space in the frontal region. Therefore, we studied CT in children without convulsions. Of the 10,000 patients examined with EMI 1000 or EMI 1010 at Kyoto Univ. Hospital from 1976 to 1979, 110 children could be classified into the following types according to their symptoms: 1) Type-1 head injury, without abnormalities in CT resulting from this injury, 2) non-migraining headaches, and 3) others with on CT abnormalities who were routinely examined. Previous studies have shown that the enlargement of the subdural space in the frontal region was not abnormal under one year. However, the present study has shown that it was not dilated in children without convulsions. We stressed the usefulness of our newly calculated basal cistern index, because the SD was small and could be readily indentified (this index was under 0.29 in most cases; their SD's were 0.04 in those under one year and 0.02 over one year). The other data were not so different from those of previous studies. (J.P.N.)

  11. Not Normal: the uncertainties of scientific measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Judging the significance and reproducibility of quantitative research requires a good understanding of relevant uncertainties, but it is often unclear how well these have been evaluated and what they imply. Reported scientific uncertainties were studied by analysing 41 000 measurements of 3200 quantities from medicine, nuclear and particle physics, and interlaboratory comparisons ranging from chemistry to toxicology. Outliers are common, with 5σ disagreements up to five orders of magnitude more frequent than naively expected. Uncertainty-normalized differences between multiple measurements of the same quantity are consistent with heavy-tailed Student's t-distributions that are often almost Cauchy, far from a Gaussian Normal bell curve. Medical research uncertainties are generally as well evaluated as those in physics, but physics uncertainty improves more rapidly, making feasible simple significance criteria such as the 5σ discovery convention in particle physics. Contributions to measurement uncertainty from mistakes and unknown problems are not completely unpredictable. Such errors appear to have power-law distributions consistent with how designed complex systems fail, and how unknown systematic errors are constrained by researchers. This better understanding may help improve analysis and meta-analysis of data, and help scientists and the public have more realistic expectations of what scientific results imply.

  12. Ocular Blood Flow and Normal Tension Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is known as a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and glaucomatous visual field loss, even though the intraocular pressure (IOP does not exceed the normal range. The pathophysiology of NTG remains largely undetermined. It is hypothesized that the abnormal ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. A number of evidences suggested that the vascular factors played a significant role in the development of NTG. In recent years, the new imaging techniques, fluorescein angiography, color Doppler imaging (CDI, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, have been used to evaluate the ocular blood flow and blood vessels, and the impaired vascular autoregulation was found in patients with NTG. Previous studies showed that NTG was associated with a variety of systemic diseases, including migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, primary vascular dysregulation, and Flammer syndrome. The vascular factors were involved in these diseases. The mechanisms underlying the abnormal ocular blood flow in NTG are still not clear, but the risk factors for glaucomatous optic neuropathy likely included oxidative stress, vasospasm, and endothelial dysfunction.

  13. "Differently normal" and "normally different": negotiations of female embodiment in women's accounts of 'atypical' sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntram, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    During recent decades numerous feminist scholars have scrutinized the two-sex model and questioned its status in Western societies and medicine. Along the same line, increased attention has been paid to individuals' experiences of atypical sex development, also known as intersex or 'disorders of sex development' (DSD). Yet research on individuals' experiences of finding out about their atypical sex development in adolescence has been scarce. Against this backdrop, the present article analyses 23 in-depth interviews with women who in their teens found out about their atypical sex development. The interviews were conducted during 2009-2012 and the interviewees were all Swedish. Drawing on feminist research on female embodiment and social scientific studies on diagnosis, I examine how the women make sense of their bodies and situations. First, I aim to explore how the women construe normality as they negotiate female embodiment. Second, I aim to investigate how the divergent manners in which these negotiations are expressed can be further understood via the women's different access to a diagnosis. Through a thematic and interpretative analysis, I outline two negotiation strategies: the "differently normal" and the "normally different" strategy. In the former, the women present themselves as just slightly different from 'normal' women. In the latter, they stress that everyone is different in some manner and thereby claim normalcy. The analysis shows that access to diagnosis corresponds to the ways in which the women present themselves as "differently normal" and "normally different", thus shedding light on the complex role of diagnosis in their negotiations of female embodiment. It also reveals that the women make use of what they do have and how alignments with and work on norms interplay as normality is construed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ingesta de hierro y folatos durante el embarazo y su relación con indicadores bioquímicos maternos = Iron and folate intake during pregnancy and its relationship with maternal biochemical indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Mesa, Sandra Lucía

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la anemia en gestantes es un problema de salud pública en América Latina incluida Colombia.Objetivo: evaluar los indicadores bioquímicos del estado nutricional del hierro y el folato en un grupo de mujeres gestantes pobres vinculadas a un programa nutricional de la Gobernación de Antioquia (Colombia.Materiales y métodos: estudio cuasiexperimental en 26 gestantes, beneficiarias de un programa de educación nutricional, complemento alimentario fortificado con micronutrientes y suplemento de hierro, ácido fólico y vitamina C. Se evaluaron la ingesta dietética por recordatorio de 24 horas, y se midieron la ferritina sérica, la hemoglobina, el volumen corpuscular medio, la proteína C reactiva y el folato sérico; se hizo un coprológico para parásitos intestinales. Se aplicaron la prueba de Pearson para correlacionar la ingesta de folatos con la concentración sérica de los mismos, la prueba de Spearman para correlacionar la ingesta de hierro con la concentración sérica de ferritina, ANOVA de mediciones repetidas para comparación entre los trimestres de gestación y análisis de regresión simple y múltiple para establecer la dependencia de la ferritina, la hemoglobina y el folato sérico con las variables de interés. Se consideró significativo p < 0,05.Resultados: la anemia se previno en 84,6%; la variable más explicativa del cambio en la hemoglobina del tercer trimestre fue su valor en el segundo trimestre. Disminuyó la microcitosis (p = 0,02, pero las gestantes con menor ingesta de hierro tuvieron mayor prevalencia de esta en el tercer trimestre (p = 0,009. La ferropenia aumentó en el transcurso del embarazo (p < 0,001 y se halló correlación positiva entre la ingesta de hierro y la concentración de ferritina en el tercer trimestre (r = 0,64; p < 0,001. La concentración sérica de folato aumentó en el segundo y tercer trimestres (p = 0,018 y se observó una tendencia a la correlación positiva con la ingesta

  15. Cuantificación de la importancia del Fondo Nacional de Garantías en la movilización de créditos a las pymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Castillo Bonilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretender establecer y medir el impacto que el aval proporcionado por el Fondo Nacional de Garantías tiene en el flujo de créditos hacia las pymes. Con base en la información proporcionada por Asobancaria, la Superintendencia Financiera y el Fondo Nacional de Garantías para el período comprendido entre el primer trimestre de 2003 y el tercer trimestre de 2010, se estimó un modelo econométrico utilizando mínimos cuadrados dinámicos. Los resultados empíricos muestran que el aval otorgado por el Fondo Nacional de Garantías influye en el volumen de créditos movilizados hacia las peque ̃ nas y medianas empresas. Sin embargo, su influencia económica es poco relevante.

  16. Cuantificación de la importancia del Fondo Nacional de Garantías en la movilización de créditos a las pymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Castillo Bonilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretender establecer y medir el impacto que el aval proporcionado por el Fondo Nacional de Garantías tiene en el flujo de créditos hacia las pymes. Con base en la información proporcionada por Asobancaria, la Superintendencia Financiera y el Fondo Nacional de Garantías para el período comprendido entre el primer trimestre de 2003 y el tercer trimestre de 2010, se estimó un modelo econométrico utilizando mínimos cuadrados dinámicos. Los resultados empíricos muestran que el aval otorgado por el Fondo Nacional de Garantías influye en el volumen de créditos movilizados hacia las pequeñas y medianas empresas. Sin embargo, su influencia económica es poco relevante.

  17. An investigation on normal school students’ learning burnout – A case study of English normal students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjing Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning burnout is a phenomenon in which students hold a negative attitude to curriculum learning, which manifests in aspects of physiology, psychology, behavior and interpersonal communication. China attaches great importance to higher education, colleges and universities shoulder the important task of training national modernization personnel. The problem of university students’ learning burnout has become a social phenomenon that cannot be ignored. Normal university students are one of the important groups of college students, and this phenomenon of learning burnout may also occur among them. English majors are the backbone of English teachers in primary and secondary schools in the future. The learning status of these groups affects the overall quality of teaching in normal colleges and universities and, more importantly, the quality of teachers in primary and secondary schools in the future. This paper first reviews the definition of learning burnout and the research methods of measurement. Subsequently, it investigates the learning burnout of English matriculation students by taking the first-year English majors of Jiangxi Normal University as an example. In this way, this research is hoped to promote the study on learning burnout not only among English normal students but also other normal students.

  18. Normal myogenic cells from newborn mice restore normal histology to degenerating muscles of the mdx mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.E.; Hoffman, E.P.; Partridge, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Dystrophin deficiency in skeletal muscle of the x-linked dystrophic (mdx) mouse can be partially remedied by implantation of normal muscle precursor cells (mpc). However, it is difficult to determine whether this biochemical rescue results in any improvement in the structure or function of the treated muscle, because the vigorous regeneration of mdx muscle more than compensates for the degeneration. By using x-ray irradiation to prevent mpc proliferation, it is possible to study loss of mdx muscle fibers without the complicating effect of simultaneous fiber regeneration. Thus, improvements in fiber survival resulting from any potential therapy can be detected easily. Here, we have implanted normal mpc, obtained from newborn mice, into such preirradiated mdx muscles, finding that it is far more extensively permeated and replaced by implanted mpc than is nonirradiated mdx muscle; this is evident both from analysis of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoenzyme markers and from immunoblots and immunostaining of dystrophin in the treated muscles. Incorporation of normal mpc markedly reduces the loss of muscle fibers and the deterioration of muscle structure which otherwise occurs in irradiated mdx muscles. Surprisingly, the regenerated fibers are largely peripherally nucleated, whereas regenerated mouse skeletal muscle fibers are normally centrally nucleated. We attribute this regeneration of apparently normal muscle to the tendency of newborn mouse mpc to recapitulate their neonatal ontogeny, even when grafted into 3-wk-old degenerating muscle

  19. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the waiting...

  20. Estado nutricional del hierro en gestantes adolescentes, Medellín, Colombia / Nutritional status of iron in pregnant adolescents, Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz E. Parra S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analizar el estado nutricional del hierro en gestantes adolescentes de tercer trimestre. Metodología: estudio analítico de corte transversal con 276 adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años, en tercer trimestre de gestación de la Empresa Social del Estado (ese Metrosalud (Medellín, 2011-2012, con datos de hemoglobina, volumen corpuscular medio, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media e ingesta de suplemento de hierro. La ferritina sérica se analizó en 178 gestantes, controlada por proteína C-reactiva. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central, dispersión, porcentajes y pruebas de Chi2 , anova, Kruskal-Wallis y U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: la prevalencia de anemia fue 17,1% en el tercer trimestre de gestación y por deficiencia de hierro, 51%. La mediana de ferritina sérica fue 13,3 µg/L (RQ: 7,7 µg/L-17,9 µg/L; sólo el 5,6% (n = 9 presentó valores adecuados de ferritina. Las madres que tomaron suplemento de hierro diariamente presentaron mejores concentraciones de hemoglobina y ferritina, frente a aquellas que no lo hicieron, Hb 12,1g/dL vs. 11,7 g/dL (p = 0,019 y ferritina sérica 14,6 µg/L vs. 7,0 µg/L (p = 0,000. Discusión: hubo altas prevalencias de anemia y ferropenia en las gestantes, asociadas con la no adherencia al suplemento de hierro Objetivo: analizar el estado nutricional del hierro en gestantes adolescentes de tercer trimestre. Metodología: estudio analítico de corte transversal con 276 adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años, en tercer trimestre de gestación de la Empresa Social del Estado (ese Metrosalud (Medellín, 2011-2012, con datos de hemoglobina, volumen corpuscular medio, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media e ingesta de suplemento de hierro. La ferritina sérica se analizó en 178 gestantes, controlada por proteína C-reactiva. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central, dispersión, porcentajes y pruebas de Chi2 , anova, Kruskal-Wallis y U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: la prevalencia

  1. Propagation of normal zones in composite superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1976-08-01

    This paper describes calculations of propagation velocities of normal zones in composite superconductors. Full accounting is made for (1) current sharing, (2) the variation with temperature of the thermal conductivity of the copper matrix, and the specific heats of the matrix and the superconductor, and (3) the variation with temperature of the steady-state heat transfer at a copper-helium interface in the nucleate-boiling, transition, and film-boiling ranges. The theory, which contains no adjustable parameters, is compared with experiments on bare (uninsulated) conductors. Agreement is not good. It is concluded that the effects of transient heat transfer may need to be included in the theory to improve agreement with experiment

  2. Uterus MRI. Normal and pathological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, G.; Bartoli, J.M.; Gaubert, J.Y.; Bayle, O.; Distefano-Louineau, D.; Kasbarian, M.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), a non invasive procedure, is taking a place of growing importance as a means of radiological exploration. Its use in uterine pathologies has shown considerable developments. This requires an excellent knowledge of the normal and pathological aspects of the uterus. In fact it exists a zonal anatomy of the uterus which varies according to hormonal impregnation and this is very well seen by MRI. MRI gives excellent results in the diagnosis and study of different uterine pathologies. The radiological appearance of leiomyomas differs depending on the presence or not of degenerative changes within them. Uterine adenomyosis is also well studied by MRI. Lastly different studies in the literature have shown MRI to be a reliable method of exploration with a high degree of fiability, specificity and sensibility to study the local spread of malignant uterine diseases. The authors report their experience and also that present in the literature concerning the study of the uterus by MRI [fr

  3. Microscopic theory of normal liquid 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafari, N.; Doroudi, A.

    1994-03-01

    We have used the self-consistent scheme proposed by Singwi, Tosi, Land and Sjoelander (STLS) to study the properties of normal liquid 3 He. By employing the Aziz potential (HFD-B) and some other realistic pairwise interactions, we have calculated the static structure factor, the pair-correlation function, the zero sound frequencies as a function of wave-vector, and the Landau parameter F s 0 for different densities. Our results show considerable improvement over the Ng-Singwi's model potential of a hard core plus an attractive tail. Agreement between our results and the experimental data for the static structure factor and the zero sound frequencies is fairly good. (author). 30 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Ibsen and Peking Women's High Normal University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at exploring the great influence of Ibsen and especially his play A Doll House on the young Chinese girls studying at Peking Women’s High Normal University established for the first time in China at the beginning of the 20th century to educate girls. In its short history, the girls at the university were exposed widely to the progressive ideas and literature from the West. Ibsen, the most popular writer at that time, inspired the girls tremendously whose performance of A Doll House aroused a heated debate among the well-known scholars on such important issues as women’s rights, women’s liberation, new culture, art and literature. Consequently there appeared at the university first group of modern Chinese women writers who picked up their pens and wrote about themselves and about women in China, describing themselves as “Chinese Noras”.

  5. Cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamo, H.L.; Meric, P.C.; Ponsin, J.C.; Rey, A.C.; Luft, A.G.; Seylaz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A xenon-133 method was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Preliminary results suggested that shunting should be performed on patients whose CBF increased after CSF removal. There was a significant increase in CBF in patients with NPH, which was confirmed by the favorable outcome of 88% of patients shunted. The majority of patients with senile and presenile dementia showed a decrease or no change in CBF after CSF removal. It is suggested that although changes in CBF and clinical symptoms of NPH may have the same cause, i.e., changes in the cerebral intraparenchymal pressure, there is no simple direct relation between these two events. The mechanism underlying the loss of autoregulation observed in NPH is also discussed

  6. 'Normal' markets, market imperfections and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Howarth, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The conventional distinction between 'economic' and 'engineering' approaches to energy analysis obscures key methodological issues concerning the measurement of the costs and benefits of policies to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. The engineering approach is in fact based upon firm economic foundations: the principle of lifecycle cost minimization that arises directly from the theory of rational investment. Thus, evidence that so-called 'market barriers' impede the adoption of cost-effective energy-efficient technologies implies the existence of market failures as defined in the context of microeconomic theory. A widely held view that the engineering view lacks economic justification, is based on the fallacy that markets are 'normally' efficient. (author)

  7. About the principles of radiation level normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper highlights the impact being made by the radiation level normalization principles upon the social and economic indicators. The newly introduced radiation safety standards - 97 are taken as an example. It is emphasized that it is necessary to use a sound approach while defining radiation protection standards, taking into consideration economic and social factors existing in Ukraine at the moment. Based on the concept of the natural radiation background and available results of the epidemiological surveys, the dose limits are proposed for the radiation protection standards. The paper gives a description of the dose limitation system recommended by the International Committee for Radiation Protection. The paper highlights a negative impact of the line non threshold concept, lack of special knowledge in the medical service and mass media to make decisions to protect people who suffered from the Chernobyl accident

  8. How Long Is a Normal Labor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Blix, Ellen; Hegaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Normal progress of labor is a subject for discussion among professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of labor in women with a planned home birth and spontaneous onset who gave birth at home or in hospital after transfer. METHODS: This is a population-based study...... of home births in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). All midwives assisting at a home birth from 2008 to 2013 were asked to provide information about home births using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Birth data from 1,612 women, from Denmark (n = 1,170), Norway (n = 263), Sweden (n...... = 138), and Iceland (n = 41) were included. The total median duration from onset of labor until the birth of the baby was approximately 14 hours for primiparas and 7.25 hours for multiparas. The duration of the different phases varied between countries. Blood loss more than 1,000 mL and perineal...

  9. Normal tissue complication probability for salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of radiotherapy is to make a profitable balance between the morbidity (due to side effects of radiation) and cure of malignancy. To achieve this, one needs to know the relation between NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) and various treatment variables of a schedule viz. daily dose, duration of treatment, total dose and fractionation along with tissue conditions. Prospective studies require that a large number of patients be treated with varied schedule parameters and a statistically acceptable number of patients develop complications so that a true relation between NTCP and a particular variable is established. In this study Salivary Glands Complications have been considered. The cases treated in 60 Co teletherapy machine during the period 1994 to 2002 were analyzed and the clinicians judgement in ascertaining the end points was the only means of observations. The only end points were early and late xerestomia which were considered for NTCP evaluations for a period of 5 years

  10. Normal dispersion femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T N; Kieu, K; Maslov, A V; Miyawaki, M; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-09-15

    We propose and demonstrate a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) operating in the normal dispersion regime. The FOPO generates chirped pulses at the output, allowing significant pulse energy scaling potential without pulse breaking. The output average power of the FOPO at 1600 nm was ∼60  mW (corresponding to 1.45 nJ pulse energy and ∼55% slope power conversion efficiency). The output pulses directly from the FOPO were highly chirped (∼3  ps duration), and they could be compressed outside of the cavity to 180 fs by using a standard optical fiber compressor. Detailed numerical simulation was also performed to understand the pulse evolution dynamics around the laser cavity. We believe that the proposed design concept is useful for scaling up the pulse energy in the FOPO using different pumping wavelengths.

  11. The Ethos of Post-Normal Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kønig, Nicolas; Børsen, Tom; Emmeche, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The norms and values of Post-Normal Science (PNS) are instrumental in guiding science advice practices. In this article, we report work in progress to systematically investigate the norms and values of PNS through a structured review. Anarchive of 397 documents was collected, including documents...... that contribute to the endeavour of ameliorating science advice practices from a PNS perspective. Action and structure-oriented viewpoints are used as complementing perspectives in the analysis of the ethos of PNS. From the action-perspective we study how prototypes of norms and values are reflected upon...... in negotiations of normative issues relating to science advice. From the structural perspective we study how interrelated prototypes of norms and values are presupposed in prescriptions, proscriptions, and goals for science advice practices. Through this analysis we identify a plurality of interrelated prototypes...

  12. Behavioral finance: Finance with normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Statman

    2014-06-01

    Behavioral finance substitutes normal people for the rational people in standard finance. It substitutes behavioral portfolio theory for mean-variance portfolio theory, and behavioral asset pricing model for the CAPM and other models where expected returns are determined only by risk. Behavioral finance also distinguishes rational markets from hard-to-beat markets in the discussion of efficient markets, a distinction that is often blurred in standard finance, and it examines why so many investors believe that it is easy to beat the market. Moreover, behavioral finance expands the domain of finance beyond portfolios, asset pricing, and market efficiency and is set to continue that expansion while adhering to the scientific rigor introduced by standard finance.

  13. Visualization of normal pleural sinuses with AMBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, N.J.; Kool, L.J.S.; Oestmann, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that ventral and dorsal pleural sinuses are frequently better appreciated with advanced modulated beam equalization radiography (AMBER) than with standard chest radiography. The visualization of the sinuses with both techniques was compared and their typical configuration studied. Four hundred patients without known chest disease were evaluated. Two groups of 200 patients were studied with either AMBER or standard chest radiography. Visualization was evaluated by three radiologists using a four-point scale. The shape of the sinus was traced if sufficiently visible. A significantly larger segment of the respective sinuses was seen with the AMBER technique. The dorsal sinus was significantly easier to trace than the ventral. Various sinus configurations were noted. AMBER improves the visibility of the pleural sinuses. Knowledge of their normal configuration is the precondition for correctly diagnosing lesions hitherto frequently overlooked

  14. Normal Incidence for Graded Index Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhoje, Uday K.; Van Zyl, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    A plane wave is incident normally from vacuum (eta(sub 0) = 1) onto a smooth surface. The substrate has three layers; the top most layer has thickness d(sub 1) and permittivity epsilon(sub 1). The corresponding numbers for the next layer are d(sub 2); epsilon(sub 2), while the third layer which is semi-in nite has index eta(sub 3). The Hallikainen model [1] is used to relate volumetric soil moisture to the permittivity. Here, we consider the relation for the real part of the permittivity for a typical loam soil: acute epsilon(mv) = 2.8571 + 3.9678 x mv + 118:85 x mv(sup 2).

  15. Photometric normalization of LROC WAC images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.; Denevi, B.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; McEwen, A. S.; LROC Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) acquires near global coverage on a monthly basis. The WAC is a push frame sensor with a 90° field of view (FOV) in BW mode and 60° FOV in 7-color mode (320 nm to 689 nm). WAC images are acquired during each orbit in 10° latitude segments with cross track coverage of ~50 km. Before mosaicking, WAC images are radiometrically calibrated to remove instrumental artifacts and to convert at sensor radiance to I/F. Images are also photometrically normalized to common viewing and illumination angles (30° phase), a challenge due to the wide angle nature of the WAC where large differences in phase angle are observed in a single image line (±30°). During a single month the equatorial incidence angle drifts about 28° and over the course of ~1 year the lighting completes a 360° cycle. The light scattering properties of the lunar surface depend on incidence(i), emission(e), and phase(p) angles as well as soil properties such as single-scattering albedo and roughness that vary with terrain type and state of maturity [1]. We first tested a Lommel-Seeliger Correction (LSC) [cos(i)/(cos(i) + cos(e))] [2] with a phase function defined by an exponential decay plus 4th order polynomial term [3] which did not provide an adequate solution. Next we employed a LSC with an exponential 2nd order decay phase correction that was an improvement, but still exhibited unacceptable frame-to-frame residuals. In both cases we fitted the LSC I/F vs. phase angle to derive the phase corrections. To date, the best results are with a lunar-lambert function [4] with exponential 2nd order decay phase correction (LLEXP2) [(A1exp(B1p)+A2exp(B2p)+A3) * cos(i)/(cos(e) + cos(i)) + B3cos(i)]. We derived the parameters for the LLEXP2 from repeat imaging of a small region and then corrected that region with excellent results. When this correction was applied to the whole Moon the results were less than optimal - no surprise given the

  16. Normal hepatic vein patterns on ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Jin; Chae, Yoo Soon; Park, Hea Yeoung; Park, Bok Hwan; Kim, Yang Sook

    1987-01-01

    Understanding of the anatomy of the hepatic vein is important in manipulation for transplantation of the liver, hepatectomy and the treatment of hepatic trauma with avulsion of the hepatic vein. Demonstrated of the inferior right hepatic vein (IRHV) is also important; in some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, thrombus can be seen in the IRHV; in primary Budd-Chiari syndrome, the IRHV is main draining vein; during hepatectomy, the postero-inferior segment of the right lobe and draining IRHV can be preserved. For some 10 months ultrasound examination was done in a total of 124 patients with normal liver function with special emphasis on the hepatic vein, their branches, and the IRHV, and analysed in terms of branching pattern and relative size of the hepatic vein and the detection rate of the IRHV.

  17. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence

  18. Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-05-01

    This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

  19. Quasiparticle transport properties of mesoscopic wires containing normal-metal/superconductor/normal-metal proximity junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam; Kim, Kijoon; Lee, Hu Jong; Lee, Seongjae; Yuk, Jong Seol; Park, Kyoung Wan; Lee, El Hang

    1997-01-01

    We measured the differential resistance dV/dI of mesoscopic normal-metal/superconductor/normal-metal (N-S-N) junctions. At low temperatures (T PbIn /e, where Δ PbIn is the gap energy of superconducting Pb-In, and at a higher bias V c . The zero-bias dip is supposed to originate from Andreev reflections of quasiparticles and the peak near 2Δ PbIn /e from the formation of a standing-wave mode of quasiparticles inside the superconducting potential barrier. We attribute the peaks at V c to a transition of the superconducting region to the normal state as the current exceeds the critical current I c of S

  20. Do vegetarians have a normal bone mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Susan A

    2004-09-01

    Public health strategies targeting the prevention of poor bone health on a population-wide basis are urgently required, with particular emphasis being placed on modifiable factors such as nutrition. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of a vegetarian diet on indices of skeletal integrity to address specifically whether vegetarians have a normal bone mass. Analysis of existing literature, through a combination of observational, clinical and intervention studies were assessed in relation to bone health for the following: lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan diets versus omnivorous, predominantly meat diets, consumption of animal versus vegetable protein, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Mechanisms of action for a dietary "component" effect were examined and other potential dietary differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians were also explored. Key findings included: (i) no differences in bone health indices between lacto-ovo-vegetarians and omnivores; (ii) conflicting data for protein effects on bone with high protein consumption (particularly without supporting calcium/alkali intakes) and low protein intake (particularly with respect to vegan diets) being detrimental to the skeleton; (iii) growing support for a beneficial effect of fruit and vegetable intake on bone, with mechanisms of action currently remaining unclarified. The impact of a "vegetarian" diet on bone health is a hugely complex area since: 1) components of the diet (such as calcium, protein, alkali, vitamin K, phytoestrogens) may be varied; 2) key lifestyle factors which are important to bone (such as physical activity) may be different; 3) the tools available for assessing consumption of food are relatively weak. However, from data available and given the limitations stipulated above, "vegetarians" do certainly appear to have "normal" bone mass. What remains our challenge is to determine what components of a vegetarian diet are of particular benefit to bone, at what levels and under

  1. Characterizing Normal Groundwater Chemistry in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachera, D.; Lautze, N. C.; Thomas, D. M.; Whittier, R. B.; Frazer, L. N.

    2017-12-01

    Hawaii is dependent on groundwater resources, yet how water moves through the subsurface is not well understood in many locations across the state. As marine air moves across the islands water evaporates from the ocean, along with trace amounts of sea-salt ions, and interacts with the anthropogenic and volcanic aerosols (e.g. sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, HCl), creating a slightly more acidic rain. When this rain falls, it has a chemical signature distinctive of past processes. As this precipitation infiltrates through soil it may pick up another distinctive chemical signature associated with land use and degree of soil development, and as it flows through the underlying geology, its chemistry is influenced by the host rock. We are currently conducting an investigation of groundwater chemistry in selected aquifer areas of Hawaii, having diverse land use, land cover, and soil development conditions, in an effort to investigate and document what may be considered a "normal" water chemistry for an area. Through this effort, we believe we better assess anomalies due to contamination events, hydrothermal alteration, and other processes; and we can use this information to better understand groundwater flow direction. The project has compiled a large amount of precipitation, soil, and groundwater chemistry data in the three focus areas distributed across in the State of Hawaii. Statistical analyses of these data sets will be performed in an effort to determine what is "normal" and what is anomalous chemistry for a given area. Where possible, results will be used to trace groundwater flow paths. Methods and preliminary results will be presented.

  2. Experimental microangiographic study in normal rabbit liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Gyoo; Park, Jong Yeon; Han, Kook Sang; Moon, Ki Ho; Choi, Chang Ho; Han, Koon Taek; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    Microangiography is an experimental radiologic technique for evaluation of the morphology and the function of small vessels. The purpose of this study is to introduce a good microangiographic technique and to present the microangiographic appearance of normal hepatic vascular pattern. Five white rabbits weighing 2.5-2.9Kg were objected. Polyethylene catheters were inserted in portal vein and then in IVC. Heparin mixed normal saline (2cc/1000cc) was infused through portal vein and blood was drained to IVC. Barium suspension was infused via the catheter placed in portal vein until the liver surface showed satisfactory finding in barium filling. The liver was removed and this preparation was fixed in 10% formaline for 7 days. After fixation, the liver was sectioned on 1-2mm thickness. The slices were radiographed on high resolution plate using Faxitron. H-E staining of liver tissue was also done. The microbrium was well distributed in all small vessels without filling defect. And we could find the hexagonal shaped classic liver lobule, in which the central vein was located at central portion and portal vein at periphery. The enlargement was showed numerous sinusoids, but there was less dye in the central portion of lobule, but the central vein was well filled by microbarium. The peripheral portion of lobule was well filled with microbarium. So, we could find diamond shaped liver acinus, in which central vein was located at priperal portion and the center of liver acinus was terminal portal vein that growed out from a small portal space. The three acini made the complex acinus and acinar agglomerate was composed of three or four complex acini. It is considered that the liver acinus pattern of Rapparport is more acceptable on microangiography than the classic concept of hepatic lobule

  3. Ventilation-perfusion distribution in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth C; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P; Wilson, Theodore A

    2012-09-01

    Functional values of LogSD of the ventilation distribution (σ(V)) have been reported previously, but functional values of LogSD of the perfusion distribution (σ(q)) and the coefficient of correlation between ventilation and perfusion (ρ) have not been measured in humans. Here, we report values for σ(V), σ(q), and ρ obtained from wash-in data for three gases, helium and two soluble gases, acetylene and dimethyl ether. Normal subjects inspired gas containing the test gases, and the concentrations of the gases at end-expiration during the first 10 breaths were measured with the subjects at rest and at increasing levels of exercise. The regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion was described by a bivariate log-normal distribution with parameters σ(V), σ(q), and ρ, and these parameters were evaluated by matching the values of expired gas concentrations calculated for this distribution to the measured values. Values of cardiac output and LogSD ventilation/perfusion (Va/Q) were obtained. At rest, σ(q) is high (1.08 ± 0.12). With the onset of ventilation, σ(q) decreases to 0.85 ± 0.09 but remains higher than σ(V) (0.43 ± 0.09) at all exercise levels. Rho increases to 0.87 ± 0.07, and the value of LogSD Va/Q for light and moderate exercise is primarily the result of the difference between the magnitudes of σ(q) and σ(V). With known values for the parameters, the bivariate distribution describes the comprehensive distribution of ventilation and perfusion that underlies the distribution of the Va/Q ratio.

  4. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juanjuan; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2017-01-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with marked hemodynamic and uterine changes that allow adequate uteroplacental blood flow and uterine expansion for the growing fetus. These pregnancy-associated changes involve significant uteroplacental and vascular remodeling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important regulators of vascular and uterine remodeling. Increases in MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been implicated in vasodilation, placentation and uterine expansion during normal pregnancy. The increases in MMPs could be induced by the increased production of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy. MMP expression/activity may be altered during complications of pregnancy. Decreased vascular MMP-2 and MMP-9 may lead to decreased vasodilation, increased vasoconstriction, hypertensive pregnancy and preeclampsia. Abnormal expression of uteroplacental integrins, cytokines and MMPs may lead to decreased maternal tolerance, apoptosis of invasive trophoblast cells, inadequate remodeling of spiral arteries, and reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP). RUPP may cause imbalance between the anti-angiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endoglin and the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor, or stimulate the release of inflammatory cytokines, hypoxia-inducible factor, reactive oxygen species, and angiotensin AT1 receptor agonistic autoantibodies. These circulating factors could target MMPs in the extracellular matrix as well as endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, causing generalized vascular dysfunction, increased vasoconstriction and hypertension in pregnancy. MMP activity can also be altered by endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and changes in the MMP/TIMP ratio. In addition to their vascular effects, decreases in expression/activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the uterus could impede uterine growth and expansion and lead to premature labor. Understanding the role of MMPs in uteroplacental and

  5. Normal composite face effects in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotti, Federica; Wu, Esther; Yang, Hua; Jiahui, Guo; Duchaine, Bradley; Cook, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Upright face perception is thought to involve holistic processing, whereby local features are integrated into a unified whole. Consistent with this view, the top half of one face appears to fuse perceptually with the bottom half of another, when aligned spatially and presented upright. This 'composite face effect' reveals a tendency to integrate information from disparate regions when faces are presented canonically. In recent years, the relationship between susceptibility to the composite effect and face recognition ability has received extensive attention both in participants with normal face recognition and participants with developmental prosopagnosia. Previous results suggest that individuals with developmental prosopagnosia may show reduced susceptibility to the effect suggestive of diminished holistic face processing. Here we describe two studies that examine whether developmental prosopagnosia is associated with reduced composite face effects. Despite using independent samples of developmental prosopagnosics and different composite procedures, we find no evidence for reduced composite face effects. The experiments yielded similar results; highly significant composite effects in both prosopagnosic groups that were similar in magnitude to the effects found in participants with normal face processing. The composite face effects exhibited by both samples and the controls were greatly diminished when stimulus arrangements were inverted. Our finding that the whole-face binding process indexed by the composite effect is intact in developmental prosopagnosia indicates that other factors are responsible for developmental prosopagnosia. These results are also inconsistent with suggestions that susceptibility to the composite face effect and face recognition ability are tightly linked. While the holistic process revealed by the composite face effect may be necessary for typical face perception, it is not sufficient; individual differences in face recognition ability

  6. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 ± 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 ± 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells

  7. Sonographic findings of normal newborn spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Sup; Kim, Dong Gyu

    1988-01-01

    The authors performed spinal cord ultrasonography of 21 healthy newborn infants in Gyeongsang National University Hospital. Normal spinal cord revealed low echogenecity at that of cerebrospinal fluid and was demarcated by intense reflections from its dorsal and ventral surfaces. The central canal was routinely seen as a thin linear reflection in the center of the cord. The nerve roots making up the cauda equina formed a poorly defined collection of intense linear echoes extending from the conus. On real time image, the normal spinal cord exhibited rather slow and rhythmical anteroposterior movement within the subarachnoid fluid. A distinct and rapid vascular pulsation of the spinal cord was usually recognizable. The approximate level of vertebral bodies was determined as follows; most ventrally located vertebral body was thought to be L5 and S1 was seen slightly posterior to the L5 directed inferoposteriorly. According to the above criteria terminal portions of spinal cord were seen around the L2 body in 5 MHz and pointed termination of conus medullaris was clearly seen at L2-3 junction and in upper body of L3 by 7.5 MHz. So it would be better to examine by 5 MHz for spatial orientation and then by 7.5 MHz for more accurate examination. High-resolution, real-time ultrasonography was a safe, rapid screening technique for evaluation of the spinal cord in infants. Additional applications of spinal sonography may be possible in the evaluation of neonatal syringohydromyelia and meningocele as well as intraspinal cyst localization for possible percutaneous puncture by ultrasound guidance

  8. Pudendal somatosensory evoked potentials in normal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo A. Cavalcanti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP is an electrophysiological test used to evaluate sensory innervations in peripheral and central neuropathies. Pudendal SSEP has been studied in dysfunctions related to the lower urinary tract and pelvic floor. Although some authors have already described technical details pertaining to the method, the standardization and the influence of physiological variables in normative values have not yet been established, especially for women. The aim of the study was to describe normal values of the pudendal SSEP and to compare technical details with those described by other authors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clitoral sensory threshold and pudendal SSEP latency was accomplished in 38 normal volunteers. The results obtained from stimulation performed on each side of the clitoris were compared to ages, body mass index (BMI and number of pregnancies. RESULTS: The values of clitoral sensory threshold and P1 latency with clitoral left stimulation were respectively, 3.64 ± 1.01 mA and 37.68 ± 2.60 ms. Results obtained with clitoral right stimulation were 3.84 ± 1.53 mA and 37.42 ± 3.12 ms, respectively. There were no correlations between clitoral sensory threshold and P1 latency with age, BMI or height of the volunteers. A significant difference was found in P1 latency between nulliparous women and volunteers who had been previously submitted to cesarean section. CONCLUSIONS: The SSEP latency represents an accessible and reproducible method to investigate the afferent pathways from the genitourinary tract. These results could be used as normative values in studies involving genitourinary neuropathies in order to better clarify voiding and sexual dysfunctions in females.

  9. Escuela Normal de Costa Rica: Historia y legado

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal-Jiménez, Vivian; Ruiz-Badilla, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    On the centennial of the Escuela Normal (Normal School) of Costa Rica, this paper discusses its role and its legacy in teacher training. It is structured in three parts. Firstly, it presents a brief historical background of the origin and profile of normal schools in various parts of the world. Secondly, it describes the development of the Escuela Normal (Normal School) in Costa Rica, refers to various personalities and significant elements that have set the course and prestige of the institu...

  10. Normalization at the field level: fractional counting of citations

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Opthof, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Van Raan et al. (2010; arXiv:1003.2113) have proposed a new indicator (MNCS) for field normalization. Since field normalization is also used in the Leiden Rankings of universities, we elaborate our critique of journal normalization in Opthof & Leydesdorff (2010; arXiv:1002.2769) in this rejoinder concerning field normalization. Fractional citation counting thoroughly solves the issue of normalization for differences in citation behavior among fields. This indicator can also be used to obtain ...

  11. Physiological adaptation of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, S; Ghossein-Doha, C; van Kuijk, S M J; van Drongelen, J; Spaanderman, M E A

    2017-02-01

    embarazos complicados y fisiológicos. La literatura se obtuvo de las bases de datos PubMed (NCBI) y EMBASE (Ovid). Los estudios incluidos mencionaban tanto mediciones de referencia del volumen plasmático (no embarazada, antes del embarazo o después del parto) como mediciones tomadas a edades gestacionales predeterminadas. Se calcularon las medias de las diferencias entre las mediciones de referencia y las del embarazo para el volumen plasmático a intervalos predefinidos de la edad gestacional, utilizando un modelo de efectos aleatorios descrito por DerSimonian y Laird. En el metaanálisis se incluyeron treinta estudios con fechas de publicación entre 1934 y 2007. El volumen plasmático aumentó en las primeras semanas de embarazo y el mayor incremento se produjo durante el segundo trimestre. El volumen de plasma continuó aumentando en el tercer trimestre con un aumento combinado máximo de 1,13L (IC 95%, 1,7-1,19 L), lo que supone un aumento del 45,6% (IC 95%, 43,0-48,1%) en embarazos fisiológicas en comparación con el valor de referencia. El aumento del volumen plasmático en los embarazos con hipertensión y con crecimiento intrauterino restringido fue de 0,80L (IC 95%, 0,59-1,02 L), lo que supone un aumento del 32,3% (IC 95%, 23,6-41,1%) en el tercer trimestre, y un incremento menor que en los embarazos fisiológicos (P embarazo fisiológico el volumen de plasma aumenta, en promedio, más de 1L, en comparación con el de las no embarazadas. En los embarazos complicados por hipertensión gestacional, preeclampsia o restricción del crecimiento fetal, el aumento del volumen plasmático en el tercer trimestre es un 13,3% menor que en el embarazo normal. :meta : ,、。 : meta。PubMed(NCBI)EMBASE(Ovid)。(、)。DerSimonianLaird,。 : Meta30,19342007。,。,1.13 L(95% CI,1.07~1.19 L),,45.6%(95% CI,43.0%~48.1%)。0.80 L(95%CI,0.59~1.02 L),32.3%(95% CI,23.6%~41.1%),(P<0.0001)。 : ,,1 L。、,13.3%。. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Evaluating Transfer Entropy for Normal and y-Order Normal Distributions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváčková-Schindler, Kateřina; Toulias, T. L.; Kitsos, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2016), s. 1-20 ISSN 2231-0851 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Transfer entropy * time series * Kullback-Leibler divergence * causality * generalized normal distribution Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/hlavackova-schindler-0461261.pdf

  13. PV System Performance Evaluation by Clustering Production Data to Normal and Non-Normal Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsafarakis, O.; Sinapis, K.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2018-01-01

    The most common method for assessment of a photovoltaic (PV) system performance is by comparing its energy production to reference data (irradiance or neighboring PV system). Ideally, at normal operation, the compared sets of data tend to show a linear relationship. Deviations from this linearity

  14. Normal Language Skills and Normal Intelligence in a Child with de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Thomas H.; Kelly, Desmond P.

    1988-01-01

    The subject of this case report is a two-year, seven-month-old girl with de Lange syndrome, normal intelligence, and age-appropriate language skills. She demonstrated initial delays in gross motor skills and in receptive and expressive language but responded well to intensive speech and language intervention, as well as to physical therapy.…

  15. Prácticas para estimular el parto normal Practices to stimulate normal childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Maria Barbosa da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo lleva a una reflexión sobre las prácticas del estímulo al parto normal, con la fundamentación teórica de cada una de ellas. Las prácticas incluidas en este estudio fueron el ayuno, enemas, spray y baños de inmersión, caminatas, movimientos pélvicos y masaje. En un contexto de revalorización del parto normal, ofrecer a la mujer durante el parto opciones de comodidad basadas en evidencias puede ser una forma de preservar el curso fisiológico del parto.This article leads to a reflection about the practices of encouraging normal childbirth, with the theoretical foundation for each one of them. The practices included in this study were fasting, enema, shower and immersion baths, walking, pelvic movements and massage. In a context of revaluation of normal birth, providing evidence-based comfort options for women during childbirth can be a way to preserve the physiological course of labour.

  16. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  17. Relating normalization to neuronal populations across cortical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Douglas A; Alberts, Joshua J; Cohen, Marlene R

    2016-09-01

    Normalization, which divisively scales neuronal responses to multiple stimuli, is thought to underlie many sensory, motor, and cognitive processes. In every study where it has been investigated, neurons measured in the same brain area under identical conditions exhibit a range of normalization, ranging from suppression by nonpreferred stimuli (strong normalization) to additive responses to combinations of stimuli (no normalization). Normalization has been hypothesized to arise from interactions between neuronal populations, either in the same or different brain areas, but current models of normalization are not mechanistic and focus on trial-averaged responses. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying normalization, we examined interactions between neurons that exhibit different degrees of normalization. We recorded from multiple neurons in three cortical areas while rhesus monkeys viewed superimposed drifting gratings. We found that neurons showing strong normalization shared less trial-to-trial variability with other neurons in the same cortical area and more variability with neurons in other cortical areas than did units with weak normalization. Furthermore, the cortical organization of normalization was not random: neurons recorded on nearby electrodes tended to exhibit similar amounts of normalization. Together, our results suggest that normalization reflects a neuron's role in its local network and that modulatory factors like normalization share the topographic organization typical of sensory tuning properties. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Doppler ultrasound scan during normal gestation: umbilical circulation; Ecografia Doppler en la gestacion normal: circulacion umbilical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, T.; Sabate, J.; Martinez-Benavides, M. M.; Sanchez-Ramos, J. [Hospital Virgen Macarena. Sevilla (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    To determine normal umbilical circulation patterns by means of Doppler ultrasound scan in a healthy gestating population without risk factors and with normal perinatal results, and to evaluate any occurring modifications relative to gestational age by obtaining records kept during pregnancy. One hundred and sixteen pregnant women carrying a single fetus have been studied. These women had no risk factors, with both clinical and analytical controls, as well as ultrasound scans, all being normal. There were performed a total of 193 Doppler ultrasound scans between weeks 15 and 41 of gestation, with blood-flow analysis in the arteries and vein of the umbilical cord. The obtained information was correlated with parameters that evaluate fetal well-being (fetal monitoring and/or oxytocin test) and perinatal result (delivery type, birth weight, Apgar score). Statistical analysis was performed with the programs SPSS 6.0.1 for Windows and EPIINFO 6.0.4. With pulsed Doppler, the umbilical artery in all cases demonstrated a biphasic morphology with systolic and diastolic components and without retrograde blood flow. As the gestation period increased, there was observed a progressive decrease in resistance along with an increase in blood-flow velocity during the diastolic phase. The Doppler ultrasound scan is a non-invasive method that permits the hemodynamic study of umbilical blood circulation. A knowledge of normal blood-flow signal morphology, as well as of the normal values for Doppler indices in relation to gestational age would permit us to utilize this method in high-risk pregnancies. (Author) 30 refs.

  19. Chest Pain with Normal Thallium-201 Myocardial Perfusion Image – Is It Really Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pang-Yen; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lin, Li-Fan; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Yang, Shih-Ping; Liou, Jun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion image (MPI) is commonly used to detect coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain. Although a normal thallium-201 MPI result is generally considered to be a good prognosis and further coronary angiogram is not recommended, there are still a few patients who suffer from unexpected acute coronary events. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical prognosis in patients with normal thallium-201 MPI. Methods From January 2006 to August 2012, a total 22,003 patients undergoing thallium-201 MPI in one tertiary center were screened. Of these, 8092 patients had normal results and were investigated retrospectively. During follow-up, 54 patients underwent coronary angiogram because of refractory typical angina pectoris or unexpected acute coronary events. These 54 patients were divided into 2 groups: group I consisted of 26 (48.1%) patients with angiography-proven significant coronary artery stenosis, and group II consisted of 28 (51.9%) patients without significant stenosis. Results Patients in group I had a higher prevalence of prior coronary stenting and electrocardiographic features of ST depression compared with patients in group II. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that both prior coronary stenting and ST depression were risk predictors of unexpected acute coronary events in the patients with normal thallium-201 MPI [odds ratio (OR), 5.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-34.06, p = 0.05 and OR, 7.10; 95% CI: 1.28-39.51, p = 0.03,respectively]. Conclusions Although there is a low incidence of unexpected acute coronary events in patients with chest pain and normal thallium-201 MPI, physicians should be aware of the potentials risk in certain patients in this specific population. PMID:27274174

  20. Mechanism of insulin resistance in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, K; Man, C Dalla; Smith, F E; Thelwall, P E; Cobelli, C; Robson, S C; Taylor, R

    2013-08-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with insulin resistance although the mechanism is not understood. Increased intramyocellular lipid is closely associated with the insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and the aim of this study was to determine whether this was so for the physiological insulin resistance of pregnancy. Eleven primiparous healthy pregnant women (age: 27-39 years, body mass index 24.0±3.1 kg/m2) and no personal or family history of diabetes underwent magnetic resonance studies to quantify intramyocellular lipid, plasma lipid fractions, and insulin sensitivity. The meal-related insulin sensitivity index was considerably lower in pregnancy (45.6±9.9 vs. 193.0±26.1; 10(-4) dl/kg/min per pmol/l, p=0.0002). Fasting plasma triglyceride levels were elevated 3-fold during pregnancy (2.3±0.2 vs. 0.8±0.1 mmol/l, pinsulin resistance is distinct from that underlying type 2 diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. BWR normal water chemistry guidelines: 1986 revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    Boiling water reactors (BWRs) have experienced stress corrosion cracking in the reactor cooling system piping resulting in adverse impacts on plant availability and personnel radiation exposure. The BWR Owners Group and EPRI have sponsored a major research and development program to provide remedies for this stress corrosion cracking problem. This work shows that the likelihood of cracking depends on the plant's water chemistry performance (environment) as well as on material condition and stress level. Plant experience and other research demonstrate that water quality also affects fuel performance and radiation field buildup in BWRs. This report,''BWR Normal Water Chemistry Guidelines: 1986 Revision,'' presents suggested generic water chemistry specifications, justifies the proposed water chemistry limits, suggests responses to out-of-specification water chemistry, discusses available chemical analysis methods as well as data management and surveillance schemes, and details the management philosophy required to successfully implement a water chemistry control program. An appendix contains recommendations for water quality of auxiliary systems. 73 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs

  2. Human normal tissue reactions in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniike, Keiko

    1990-01-01

    Acute and late normal tissue reactions in radiotherapy have not been considered to be major problems with conventional fractionation. But they may cause certain problems when newer schedules such as hyperfractionation or accelerated fractionation are used. In opposing parallel radiotherapy, the dose fractionation of skin or subcutaneous connective tissue are different between in one portal and two portals daily. So we examined acute skin erythema and late connective tissue fibrosis in the two groups (one and two portals) of the patients with uterus cancer. Acute skin erythema and late connective tissue fibrosis were slightly stronger in case of one portal daily. In relation to the anatomical site of skin, acute skin erythema was stronger at the buttocks than the lower abdomen, but late fibrosis was reverse to that. So the degree of acute skin erythema did not predict the degree of late connective tissue fibrosis. The number of Time Dose Fractionation Factor could roughly estimate the degree of erythema and fibrosis. Late fibrosis in 36 fractions increased with an increase of abdominal thickness, but acute erythema did not. (author)

  3. MR imaging of the normal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Uchida, Yoshie; Nakayama, Gen; Bito, Kaoru; Haba, Hirotsugu; Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Hamamoto, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate current 1.5-T MR imaging with respiratory ordered phase encoding (ROPE) technique in the identification of pancreatic contour and main pancreatic duct, 100 normal subjects examined with spin echo technique including transaxial scans of T 1 -WI,T 2 -WI, and proton density (PD)-WI were reviewed. The results of MR imaging were then compared with computed tomography (CT). Pancreatic contour was divided into 3 parts; head, body, and tail. T 1 -WI was the best pulse sequence in describing pancreas and the rates of specific identification of head, body, and tail were 69%, 97%, and 92%, respectively. While these rates were 62%, 90%, and 92% with plain CT and 69%, 94%, and 94% with contrast-enhanced CT, respectively. A combination of MR imaging and CT yielded better rates of identification. The main pancreatic duct was visible in 44% as a low intensity line on T 1 -WI and in 16% on plain CT. Dorsal to pancreas, all of the major vessels were seen in every patients. Ventrally, retroperitoneal fat was important, however, it was not a limiting factor. When respiratory compensation using ROPE functioned well, it was possible to differentiate bowel from pancreas in patients with sparse fat because signal intensity of the pancreas tended to be higher than that of gastrointestinal wall and its contents on T 1 -WI. Current MR imaging seemed to be a complementary method with CT in the identification of the pancreas. (author)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaicher, Wibke; Brugger, Peter C.; Mittermayer, Christoph; Schwindt, Jens; Deutinger, Josef; Bernaschek, Gerhard; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI

  5. Trinucleon asymptotic normalization constants including Coulomb effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Lehman, D.R.; Payne, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Exact theoretical expressions for calculating the trinucleon S- and D-wave asymptotic normalization constants, with and without Coulomb effects, are presented. Coordinate-space Faddeev-type equations are used to generate the trinucleon wave functions, and integral relations for the asymptotic norms are derived within this framework. The definition of the asymptotic norms in the presence of the Coulomb interaction is emphasized. Numerical calculations are carried out for the s-wave NN interaction models of Malfliet and Tjon and the tensor force model of Reid. Comparison with previously published results is made. The first estimate of Coulomb effects for the D-wave asymptotic norm is given. All theoretical values are carefully compared with experiment and suggestions are made for improving the experimental situation. We find that Coulomb effects increase the 3 He S-wave asymptotic norm by less than 1% relative to that of 3 H, that Coulomb effects decrease the 3 He D-wave asymptotic norm by approximately 8% relative to that of 3 H, and that the distorted-wave Born approximation D-state parameter, D 2 , is only 1% smaller in magnitude for 3 He than for 3 H due to compensating Coulomb effects

  6. President's Commission and the normal accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter incorporates the major points of an analysis of the accident at Three Mile Island that I prepared in September 1979. In contrast to the findings of the President's Commission (1979), I did not view the accident as the result of operator error, an inept utility, or a negligent Nuclear Regulatory Commission but as a consequence of the complexity and interdependence that characterize the system itself. I argued that the accident was inevitable-that is, that it could not have been prevented, foreseen, or quickly terminated, because it was incomprehensible. It resembled other accidents in nuclear plants and in other high risk, complex and highly interdependent operator-machine systems; none of the accidents were caused by management or operator ineptness or by poor government regulation, though these characteristics existed and should have been expected. I maintained that the accident was normal, because in complex systems there are bound to be multiple faults that cannot be avoided by planning and that operators cannot immediately comprehend

  7. Normal thyroid function values in Ethiopians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassie, Emnetu; Abdulkadir, Jemal

    1990-01-01

    Thyroid function values were determined in 56 healthy nongoitrous adult Ethiopians. The mean triiodothyronine (T3) values for 20 males and 36 females were 1.42+-0.32 nmol/L and 1.51+-0.25 nmol/L, and thyroxine (T4) values were 119 22 nmol/L and 116+21 nmol/L respectively. The mean thyrotropin (TSH) values for males and females were identical at 1.86+-0.94 mu/L. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) at 2 hours was 8.6+-4.4% in males and 11.3+-4.3% in females, and at 24 hours 31.7+-11.7% and 38.9+-11.1% respectively. The difference between males and females were significant at both 2 and 24 hours (P<0.05). The ranges for the 3 hormones derived from the mean 2SD values are close to these supplied with the kits but the Ethiopian RAIU values are higher than the values currently applicable in developed countries, probably indicative of the lower level of dietary iodine available to the population here. The values obtained in this study are offered to serve as normal reference for the interpretation of thyroid function results in Ethiopian patients. A strategy for the rational utilization of the available in vitro tests is suggested

  8. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory.

  9. Radiation distribution sensing with normal optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Kawarabayashi, J; Naka, R; Uritani, A; Watanabe, K I; Iguchi, T; Tsujimura, N

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a radiation distribution monitor using a normal plastic optical fiber. The monitor has a long operating length (10m-100m) and can obtain continuous radiation distributions. A principle of the position sensing is based on a time-of-flight technique. The characteristics of this monitor to beta particles, gamma rays and fast neutrons were obtained. The spatial resolutions for beta particles ( sup 9 sup 0 Sr sup - sup 9 sup 0 Y), gamma rays ( sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs) and D-T neutrons were 30 cm, 37 cm and 13 cm, respectively. The detection efficiencies for the beta rays, the gamma rays and D-T neutrons were 0.11%, 1.6x10 sup - sup 5 % and 5.4x10 sup - sup 4 %, respectively. The effective attenuation length of the detection efficiency was 18m. New principle of the position sensing based on spectroscopic analysis was also proposed. A preliminary test showed that the spectrum observed at the end of the fiber depended on the position of the irradiated point. This fact shows that t...

  10. Radiation distribution sensing with normal optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawarabayashi, Jun; Mizuno, Ryoji; Naka, Ryotaro; Uritani, Akira; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Iguchi, Tetsuo [Nagoya Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Tsujimura, Norio [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a radiation distribution monitor using a normal plastic optical fiber. The monitor has a long operating length (10m-100m) and can obtain continuous radiation distributions. A principle of the position sensing is based on a time-of-flight technique. The characteristics of this monitor to beta particles, gamma rays and fast neutrons were obtained. The spatial resolutions for beta particles ({sup 90}Sr{sup -90}Y), gamma rays ({sup 137}Cs) and D-T neutrons were 30 cm, 37 cm and 13 cm, respectively. The detection efficiencies for the beta rays, the gamma rays and D-T neutrons were 0.11%, 1.6x10{sup -5}% and 5.4x10{sup -4}%, respectively. The effective attenuation length of the detection efficiency was 18m. New principle of the position sensing based on spectroscopic analysis was also proposed. A preliminary test showed that the spectrum observed at the end of the fiber depended on the position of the irradiated point. This fact shows that the radiation distributions were calculated from the spectrum by mathematical deconvolution technique. (author)

  11. Radiation distribution sensing with normal optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawarabayashi, Jun; Mizuno, Ryoji; Naka, Ryotaro; Uritani, Akira; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Tsujimura, Norio

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a radiation distribution monitor using a normal plastic optical fiber. The monitor has a long operating length (10m-100m) and can obtain continuous radiation distributions. A principle of the position sensing is based on a time-of-flight technique. The characteristics of this monitor to beta particles, gamma rays and fast neutrons were obtained. The spatial resolutions for beta particles ( 90 Sr -90 Y), gamma rays ( 137 Cs) and D-T neutrons were 30 cm, 37 cm and 13 cm, respectively. The detection efficiencies for the beta rays, the gamma rays and D-T neutrons were 0.11%, 1.6x10 -5 % and 5.4x10 -4 %, respectively. The effective attenuation length of the detection efficiency was 18m. New principle of the position sensing based on spectroscopic analysis was also proposed. A preliminary test showed that the spectrum observed at the end of the fiber depended on the position of the irradiated point. This fact shows that the radiation distributions were calculated from the spectrum by mathematical deconvolution technique. (author)

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaicher, Wibke [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: wibke.blaicher@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Schwindt, Jens [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Deutinger, Josef [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Bernaschek, Gerhard [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  13. Glycoprotein biosynthesis by human normal platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Bello, O.; Apitz-Castro, R.

    1987-01-01

    Incorporation of radioactive Man, Gal, Fuc, Glc-N, and NANA into washed human normal platelets and endogenous glycoproteins has been found. Both parameters were time dependent. Analysis of hydrolyzed labeled glycoproteins by paper chromatography revealed that the radioactive monosaccharide incubated with the platelets had not been converted into other sugars. Acid hydrolysis demonstrates the presence of a glycosidic linkage. All the effort directed to the demonstration of the existence of a lipid-sugar intermediate in intact human platelets yielded negative results for Man and Glc-N used as precursors. The incorporation of these sugars into glycoproteins is insensitive to bacitracin, suggesting no involvement of lipid-linked saccharides in the synthesis of glycoproteins in human blood platelets. The absence of inhibition of the glycosylation process in the presence of cycloheximide suggests that the sugars are added to proteins present in the intact platelets. These results support the contention that glycoprotein biosynthesis in human blood platelets observed under our experimental conditions is effected through direct sugar nucleotide glycosylation

  14. Normalized GNSS Interference Pattern Technique for Altimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Ribot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that reflected signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS can be used for altimetry applications, such as monitoring of water levels and determining snow height. Due to the interference of these reflected signals and the motion of satellites in space, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR measured at the receiver slowly oscillates. The oscillation rate is proportional to the change in the propagation path difference between the direct and reflected signals, which depends on the satellite elevation angle. Assuming a known receiver position, it is possible to compute the distance between the antenna and the surface of reflection from the measured oscillation rate. This technique is usually known as the interference pattern technique (IPT. In this paper, we propose to normalize the measurements in order to derive an alternative model of the SNR variations. From this model, we define a maximum likelihood estimate of the antenna height that reduces the estimation time to a fraction of one period of the SNR variation. We also derive the Cramér–Rao lower bound for the IPT and use it to assess the sensitivity of different parameters to the estimation of the antenna height. Finally, we propose an experimental framework, and we use it to assess our approach with real GPS L1 C/A signals.

  15. Anuncio de servicio público sobre la tosferina (:30) (Whooping Cough Public Service Announcement)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-13

    Este anuncio de servicio público, de 30 segundos, alienta a las mujeres embarazadas a ponerse la vacuna contra la tosferina llamada Tdap, durante el tercer trimestre de cada embarazo, para que le pasen anticuerpos a su bebé a fin de que este nazca con protección contra esta grave enfermedad.  Created: 4/13/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 4/13/2015.

  16. Glicanos de la vellosidad trofoblástica en la anemia ferropénica y la preeclampsia grave

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Alejandra María; Parra-Sosa, Beatriz Elena; Bueno-Sánchez, Julio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Las glicoproteínas de la membrana del sincitiotrofoblasto (STB) se encuentran en contacto con la sangre materna, por lo que pueden participar en la comunicación en la interface materno-fetal. Objetivo: caracterizar patrones de glicanos de la vellosidad trofoblástica de mujeres sanas, anémicas por deficiencia de hierro y preeclámpticas graves de inicio temprano. Materiales y métodos: se obtuvieron extractos proteínicos de vellosidad placentaria de tercer trimestre y se determinó ...

  17. Haz que tu bebé nazca protegido contra la tosferina (Born with Protection against Whooping Cough)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-13

    Este podcast provee información acerca de la tosferina, una enfermedad que puede ser mortal para los bebés, y la recomendación de los CDC de que todas las mujeres reciban la vacuna Tdap durante el tercer trimestre de cada embarazo para que su bebé nazca con protección contra esta grave enfermedad.  Created: 4/13/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 4/13/2015.

  18. Prevalence and severity of domestic violence among pregnant women, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Roberto; Ruíz, Agustín

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Determinar si el embarazo es un factor de riesgo o un factor de protección frente a la violencia doméstica y comparar la prevalencia y severidad de la violencia que sufren las mujeres embarazadas antes y durante el embarazo. MÉTODOS: Encuesta realizada a una muestra de 468 mujeres atendidas en consulta prenatal en su tercer trimestre de embarazo por los servicios de la Secretaría de Salud del estado de Morelos (México). Se exploró violencia emocional, física y sexual. Se construyó ...

  19. Edición 2015 Volumen 17 Nro 03

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Mamani, Fortunato; Universidad Nacional del Altiplano Puno Peru; Collantes Menis, Nestor; Universidad Nacional del Altiplano

    2015-01-01

    Los editores de la Revista Investigaciones Altoandinas  (Journal of High Andean Research) de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, a través de Vice Rectorado de Investigación se complacen en presentar la presente edición en su Vol- 17 N° 03 correspondiente al tercer trimestre del año 2015 (de tres publicaciones al año).  La Revista a consideración, es resultado de propuestas llegadas a nuestra oficina, los mismos que fueron sometidos a una revisión por pares (modalidad doble ciego) de confor...

  20. Polish normalization of the Body Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lipowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical attractiveness plays an important part in one’s social functioning. The interest in one’s own appearance have been documented as widespread among the female population, but over the recent years it is more and more often emphasized that concentrating on body appearance concerns men as well. Franzoi and Shields (1984 created the Body Esteem Scale which allows to qualify the subject’s attitude towards his or her own body. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale along with the norms for age and sex clusters. Participants and procedure The normalization sample consisted of 4298 participants: 1865 women aged 16 to 80 (M = 29.92; SD = 12.85 and 2433 men aged 16 to 78 (M = 28.74; SD = 11.50. Education levels among the participants were also controlled for. In order to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, translation was adopted as the adaptation strategy. Like the original one, the Polish scale comprises 35 items grouped into three gender specific subscales. The subscales for women include Sexual Attractiveness, Weight Concern, and Physical Condition, whereas the body esteem of is examined with regards to Physical Attractiveness, Upper Body Strength, and Physical Condition. Results Reliability of subscales was high both for females (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.80 to 0.89 and males (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.85 to 0.88. The given coefficients of reliability cover the original division into subscales adopted by the authors of BES. Conclusions We confirmed high reliability of the Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, thus we recommend it as a diagnostic tool. Created norms allowed to refer results obtained in the course of research carried out on people with various disorders (e.g. eating disorders or body dysmorphic disorder with population data for corresponding age brackets.

  1. Computer tomography (CT) finding of normal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chi Ja; Kim, Byung Tae; Lee, Jeung Suk

    1983-01-01

    Conventional radiology of the pancreas are too often unsatisfactory. It is well known that the whole body CT is very useful in identifying retroperitoneal pathology. The authors intended to present normal pancreatic morphology and data for preparation of basis for interpretation of abnormalities. We results were as follows; 1. There were 36 male and 24 female patients, and their ages ranged from 7 to 78 years. 2. 1) The organs adjacent pancreas were stomach, inferior vena cava, duodenum, caudate lobe of the liver left kidney, left adrenal gland, superior mesenteric vessels, spleen. 2) In 19 patients, pancreatic tail at the level of left kidney in the transverse plane, it was either ventral in 13 (68%), ventromedial in 2 (19%), ventrolateral in 4 (21%) to left kidney, in the other 41 patients, it was cranial to the upper pole of left kidney, ventral in 25 (61%), ventromedial in 1 (2%), ventrolateral in 15 (37%). 3) Pancreatic tail was cranial to the pancreatic body, 3 cm cranial in 2 (4%), 2-3 cm in 5 (8%), 1-2 cm in 6 (10%), less than 1 cm in 11 (18%). In the other, caudal in 3 (5%). 4) Pancreatic tail was cranial to the level of the splenic hilum in 36 (60%), 0-2 cm caudal in 24 (40%). 3. Pancreatic shape was uniform tapering form in 37 (62%), lobulated form in 23 (38%). 4. Pancreatic orientation was horizontal in 13 (22%), vertical 56 (76%), S-shaped in 1 (2%). 5. Pancreatic margin was smooth in 22 (37%), lobulated in 38 (63%). 6. In most patients, pancreas was uniform in density. 7. Pancreatic size was 0.5 ± 0.1 in measurement ratio of the head in 48 (80%), 0.4 ± 0.1 of the body in 49 (88%), 0.5 ± 0.1 of the tail in 47 (78%)

  2. Platelet cyclooxygenase expression in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, J; Lunsford, K; Mullins, K; Stokes, J; Pinchuk, L; Wills, R; McLaughlin, R; Langston, C; Pruett, S; Mackin, A

    2011-01-01

    Human platelets express both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Variation in COX-2 expression could be a mechanism for variable response to aspirin. The hypotheses were that circulating canine platelets express COX-1 and COX-2, and that aspirin alters COX expression. The objective was to identify changes in platelet COX expression and in platelet function caused by aspirin administration to dogs. Eight female, intact hounds. A single population, repeated measures design was used to evaluate platelet COX-1 and COX-2 expression by flow cytometry before and after aspirin (10 mg/kg Q12h for 10 days). Platelet function was analyzed via PFA-100(®) (collagen/epinephrine), and urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) (11-dTXB(2)) was measured and normalized to urinary creatinine. Differences in COX expression, PFA-100(®) closure times, and urine 11-dTXB(2 ): creatinine ratio were analyzed before and after aspirin administration. Both COX-1 and COX-2 were expressed in canine platelets. COX-1 mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) increased in all dogs, by 250% (range 63-476%), while COX-2 expression did not change significantly (P = 0.124) after aspirin exposure, with large interindividual variation. PFA-100(®) closure times were prolonged and urine 11-dTXB(2) concentration decreased in all dogs after aspirin administration. Canine platelets express both COX isoforms. After aspirin exposure, COX-1 expression increased despite impairment of platelet function, while COX-2 expression varied markedly among dogs. Variability in platelet COX-2 expression should be explored as a potential mechanism for, or marker of, variable aspirin responsiveness. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Colloid normalizes resuscitation ratio in pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraklas, Iris; Lam, Uyen; Cochran, Amalia; Stoddard, Gregory; Saffle, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burned children is challenging because of their small size and intolerance to over- or underresuscitation. Our American Burn Association-verified regional burn center has used colloid "rescue" as part of our pediatric resuscitation protocol. With Institutional Review Board approval, the authors reviewed children with ≥15% TBSA burns admitted from January 1, 2004, to May 1, 2009. Resuscitation was based on the Parkland formula, which was adjusted to maintain urine output. Patients requiring progressive increases in crystalloid were placed on a colloid protocol. Results were expressed as an hourly resuscitation ratio (I/O ratio) of fluid infusion (ml/kg/%TBSA/hr) to urine output (ml/kg/hr). We reviewed 53 patients; 29 completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone (lactated Ringer's solution [LR]), and 24 received colloid supplementation albumin (ALB). Groups were comparable in age, gender, weight, and time from injury to admission. ALB patients had more inhalation injuries and larger total and full-thickness burns. LR patients maintained a median I/O of 0.17 (range, 0.08-0.31), whereas ALB patients demonstrated escalating ratios until the institution of albumin produced a precipitous return of I/O comparable with that of the LR group. Hospital stay was lower for LR patients than ALB patients (0.59 vs 1.06 days/%TBSA, P = .033). Twelve patients required extremity or torso escharotomy, but this did not differ between groups. There were no decompressive laparotomies. The median resuscitation volume for ALB group was greater than LR group (9.7 vs 6.2 ml/kg/%TBSA, P = .004). Measuring hourly I/O is a helpful means of evaluating fluid demands during burn shock resuscitation. The addition of colloid restores normal I/O in pediatric patients.

  4. Peripheral refraction in normal infant rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Huang, Juan; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Smith, Earl L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize peripheral refractions in infant monkeys. Methods Cross-sectional data for horizontal refractions were obtained from 58 normal rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age. Longitudinal data were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal meridians from 17 monkeys. Refractive errors were measured by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at eccentricities of 15, 30, and 45 degrees. Axial dimensions and corneal power were measured by ultrasonography and keratometry, respectively. Results In infant monkeys, the degree of radial astigmatism increased symmetrically with eccentricity in all meridians. There were, however, initial nasal-temporal and superior-inferior asymmetries in the spherical-equivalent refractive errors. Specifically, the refractions in the temporal and superior fields were similar to the central ametropia, but the refractions in the nasal and inferior fields were more myopic than the central ametropia and the relative nasal field myopia increased with the degree of central hyperopia. With age, the degree of radial astigmatism decreased in all meridians and the refractions became more symmetrical along both the horizontal and vertical meridians; small degrees of relative myopia were evident in all fields. Conclusions As in adult humans, refractive error varied as a function of eccentricity in infant monkeys and the pattern of peripheral refraction varied with the central refractive error. With age, emmetropization occurred for both central and peripheral refractive errors resulting in similar refractions across the central 45 degrees of the visual field, which may reflect the actions of vision-dependent, growth-control mechanisms operating over a wide area of the posterior globe. PMID:18487366

  5. Vascular factors in suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerskov, Simon; Rabiei, Katrin; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Guo, Xinxin; Kern, Silke; Wikkelsø, Carsten; Skoog, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We examined clinical and imaging findings of suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in relation to vascular risk factors and white matter lesions (WMLs), using a nested case-control design in a representative, population-based sample. Methods: From a population-based sample, 1,235 persons aged 70 years or older were examined with CT of the brain between 1986 and 2000. We identified 55 persons with hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement, i.e., radiologic findings consistent with iNPH. Among these, 26 had clinical signs that fulfilled international guideline criteria for probable iNPH. These cases were labeled suspected iNPH. Each case was matched to 5 controls from the same sample, based on age, sex, and study cohort. Data on risk factors were obtained from clinical examinations and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, overweight, history of coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, and WMLs on CT were examined. Risk factors associated with iNPH with a p value <0.1 in χ2 tests were included in conditional logistic regression models. Results: In the regression analyses, suspected iNPH was related to moderate to severe WMLs (odds ratio [OR] 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–17.6), while hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement was related to hypertension (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.8), moderate to severe WMLs (OR 6.5; 95% CI: 2.1–20.3), and DM (OR 4.3; 95% CI: 1.1–16.3). Conclusions: Hypertension, WMLs, and DM were related to clinical and imaging features of iNPH, suggesting that vascular mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology. These findings might have implications for understanding disease mechanisms in iNPH and possibly prevention. PMID:26773072

  6. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Krampl, Elisabeth; Ulm, Barbara; Witzani, Linde; Prayer, Lucas; Brugger, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed

  7. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, Kevin; Howman-Giles, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV max , and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV max with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  8. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: Daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Krampl, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ulm, Barbara [Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  9. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  10. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  11. Spin-polarized transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hong-Yu; Wang Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the spin-dependent electron transport in single and double normal/ferromagnetic/normal zigzag graphene nanoribbon (NG/FG/NG) junctions. The ferromagnetism in the FG region originates from the spontaneous magnetization of the zigzag graphene nanoribbon. It is shown that when the zigzag-chain number of the ribbon is even and only a single transverse mode is actived, the single NG/FG/NG junction can act as a spin polarizer and/or a spin analyzer because of the valley selection rule and the spin-exchange field in the FG, while the double NG/FG/NG/FG/NG junction exhibits a quantum switching effect, in which the on and the off states switch rapidly by varying the cross angle between two FG magnetizations. Our findings may shed light on the application of magnetized graphene nanoribbons to spintronics devices. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  12. Quantum transport in graphene normal-metal superconductor- normal-metal structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohammadpour

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available  We study the transport of electrons in a graphene NSN structure in which two normal regions are connected by a superconducting strip of thickness d. Within Dirac-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations we describe the transmission through the contact in terms of different scattering processes consisting of quasiparticle cotunneling, local and crossed Andreev reflections. Compared to a fully normal structure we show that the angular dependence of the transmission probability is significantly modified by the presence of superconducting correlations. This modifation can be explained in terms of the interplay between Andreev reflection and Klein tunneling of chiral quasiparticles. We further analyze the energy dependence of the resulting differential conductance of the structure. The subgap differential conductance shows features of Andreev reflection and cotunelling processes, which tends to the values of an NS structure for large ds. Above the gap, the differential conductance shows an oscillatory behavior with energy even at very large ds.

  13. Spin-filter effect in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal/superconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong; Yang, Wei; Yang, Xinjian; Qin, Minghui; Guo, Jianqin

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the thickness of the ferromagnetic insulator, the spin-filter effect in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal/superconductor (NM/FI/NM/SC) junctions is studied based on the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) theory. It is shown that a spin-dependent energy shift during the tunneling process induces splitting of the subgap resonance peaks. The spin polarization due to the spin-filter effect of the FI causes an imbalance of the peaks heights and can enhance the Zeeman splitting of the gap peaks caused by an applied magnetic field. The spin-filter effect has no contribution to the proximity-effect-induced superconductivity in NM interlayer

  14. Normal Function of the Colon and Anorectal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is Constipation Introduction: What is Constipation? Normal Function Common Questions & Mistaken Beliefs Signs & Symptoms Symptoms Overview ... What is Constipation Introduction: What is Constipation? Normal Function Common Questions & Mistaken Beliefs Signs & Symptoms Symptoms Overview ...

  15. Activin receptor subunits in normal and dysfunctional adult human testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, V; Meachem, S; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2008-01-01

    The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown.......The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown....

  16. U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1971-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1971-2000) (DSI-9641C) include climatological normals based on monthly maximum, minimum, and mean temperature and monthly total...

  17. Verbal Processing Reaction Times in "Normal" and "Poor" Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Jack; And Others

    After it had been determined that reaction time (RT) was a sensitive measure of hemispheric dominance in a verbal task performed by normal adult readers, the reaction times of three groups of subjects (20 normal reading college students, 12 normal reading third graders and 11 poor reading grade school students) were compared. Ss were exposed to…

  18. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer in 90 couples where the husband's normal sperm morphology was less than 15% were analysed. Based on the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa the patients were divided into three groups: group A - normal morphological features 0 - 5%; group B - 6 ...

  19. 10 CFR 71.71 - Normal conditions of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Normal conditions of transport. 71.71 Section 71.71 Energy..., Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.71 Normal conditions of transport. (a) Evaluation. Evaluation of each package design under normal conditions of transport must include a determination of the effect on...

  20. Normalization vs. Social Role Valorization: Similar or Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Singh, Rajani Ranjan; Thressiakutty, A. T.

    2015-01-01

    The radical changes towards services for persons with disabilities were brought by Principle of Normalization, originated in 1969. As a consequence of Normalization, disability as a whole, and intellectual disability in particular, received the attention of the masses and the intelligentsia began advocating normalization ideologies which became…