WorldWideScience

Sample records for normal state properties

  1. Superconducting and Normal State Properties of OsB2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Niazi, A.; Zong, X.; Suh, B. J.; Vannette, M. W.; Prozorov, R.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-03-01

    OsB2 is a layered superhard metallic material that was found to superconduct below Tc= 2.1 K.^1 We report the first detailed measurements of the static and dynamic magnetic susceptibilities χ, electrical resistivity, heat capacity Cp, penetration depth, and ^11B NMR on OsB2 to characterize its superconducting and normal state properties. The results confirm that OsB2 is a bulk superconductor below Tc= 2.1 K@. Its properties can be described by a close to weak-coupling s-wave BCS model with an electron-phonon coupling constant λ= 0.4--0.5, δ(0)/(kBTc) 1.9, a small Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ of order 5 or less, and a small zero-temperature critical magnetic field of roughly 500 Oe. The ^11B NMR measurements in the normal state show a nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time T1= 2.1 s at room temperature and a Korringa law with T1T = 610 s.K at lower T, and a correspondingly small T-independent Knight shift. These results indicate a small s character of the conduction electron wave function at the B site at the Fermi level. Our results will be compared to corresponding data for MgB2.1. J. K. Vandenberg et al., Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 889 (1975).^*Supported by the USDOE under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-82. Permanent address: Dept. Phys., The Catholic Univ. Korea.

  2. Superconducting and normal state properties of carbon doped and neutron irradiated MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, R.H.T.; Samuely, P.; Szabo, P.; Holanova, Z.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Canfield, P.C.; Finnemore, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    Current research in MgB 2 focuses on the effects various types of perturbations have on the superconducting properties of this novel two-gap superconductor. In this article we summarize the effects of carbon doping and neutron irradiation in bulk MgB 2 . Low levels of carbon doping and light neutron irradiation result in significant enhancements in H c2 . At high fluences, where superconductivity is nearly fully suppressed, superconductivity can be restored through post exposure annealing. However, this results in a change in the interdependencies of the normal state and superconducting properties (ρ 0 , T c , H c2 ), with little or no enhancement in H c2

  3. Superconducting and normal-state properties of the layered boride OsB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Niazi, A.; Vannette, M. D.; Prozorov, R.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-12-01

    OsB2 crystallizes in an orthorhombic structure (Pmmn) which contains alternate boron and osmium layers stacked along the c axis. The boron layers consist of puckered hexagons as opposed to the flat graphite-like boron layers in MgB2 . OsB2 is reported to become superconducting below 2.1K . We report results of the dynamic and static magnetic susceptibilities, electrical resistivity, Hall effect, heat capacity, and penetration depth measurements on arc-melted polycrystalline samples of OsB2 to characterize its superconducting and normal-state properties. These measurements confirmed that OsB2 becomes a bulk superconductor below Tc=2.1K . Our results indicate that OsB2 is a moderate-coupling type-II superconductor with an electron-phonon coupling constant λep≈0.4-0.5 , a small Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ˜1-2 , and an upper critical magnetic field Hc2(0.5K)˜420Oe for an unannealed sample and Hc2(1K)˜330Oe for an annealed sample. The temperature dependence of the superfluid density ns(T) for the unannealed sample is consistent with an s -wave superconductor with a slightly enhanced zero temperature gap Δ(0)=1.9kBTc and a zero temperature London penetration depth λ(0)=0.38(2)μm . The ns(T) data for the annealed sample show deviations from the predictions of the single-band s -wave BCS model. The magnetic, transport, and thermal properties in the normal state of isostructural and isoelectronic RuB2 , which is reported to become superconducting below 1.6K , are also reported.

  4. Competing pseudogap and impurity effects on the normal-state specific heat properties of cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhumanov, S.; Karimboev, E. X.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we show that the pseudogap in the excitation spectra of high-Tc cuprates together with the impurity phase and charge inhomogeneity plays key roles in determining the essential features of their anomalous specific heat properties observed above Tc. We consider the doped cuprate superconductor as a multi-carrier model system (which consists of intrinsic and extrinsic polarons and pre-formed bosonic Cooper pairs) and study the competing pseudogap and impurity effects on the normal-state electronic specific heat of high-Tc cuprates taking into account charge inhomogeneities. We argue that unconventional electron-phonon interactions are responsible for the precursor Cooper pairing in the polaronic band below a mean-field temperature T∗ and the existence of a pseudogap above Tc in the cuprates. The electronic specific heat Ce(T) of doped cuprates below T∗ is calculated taking into account three contributions coming from the excited components of Cooper pairs, the ideal Bose-gas of incoherent Cooper pairs and the unpaired carriers in the impurity band. Above T∗, two contributions to Ce(T) coming from the unpaired intrinsic and extrinsic polarons are calculated within the two-component degenerate Fermi-gas model. By comparing our results with the experimental Ce(T) data obtained for La- and Y-based cuprates, we find that the observed behaviors of Ce(T) (below and above T∗) are similar to the calculated results for Ce(T) and the BCS-type jumps of Ce(T) at T∗ may be depressed by the impurity effects and may become more or less pronounced BCS-type anomalies in Ce(T) .

  5. Annealing Effects on the Normal-State Resistive Properties of Underdoped Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovk, R. V.; Khadzhai, G. Ya.; Nazyrov, Z. F.; Kamchatnaya, S. N.; Feher, A.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of room-temperature annealing on the parameters of the basal-plane electrical resistance of underdoped YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-δ } and HoBa_2Cu_3O_{7-δ } single crystals in the normal and superconducting states is investigated. The form of the derivatives dρ (T)/dT makes it possible to determine the onset temperature of the fluctuation conductivity and indicates a nonuniform distribution of the labile oxygen. Annealing has been revealed to lead to a monotonic decrease in the oxygen deficiency, that primarily manifests itself as a decrease in the residual resistance, an increase of T_c, and a decrease in the Debye temperature.

  6. Method for the determination of the equation of state of advanced fuels based on the properties of normal fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.J.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1976-12-01

    An equation of state based on the properties of normal fluids, the law of rectilinear averages, and the second law of thermodynamics can be derived for advanced LMFBR fuels on the basis of the vapor pressure, enthalpy of vaporization, change in heat capacity upon vaporization, and liquid density at the melting point. The method consists of estimating an equation of state by means of the law of rectilinear averages and the second law of thermodynamics, integrating by means of the second law until an instability is reached, and then extrapolating by means of a self-consistent estimation of the enthalpy of vaporization

  7. Electronic properties of high-Tc superconductors. The normal and the superconducting state of high-Tc materials. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmany, H.; Mehring, M.; Fink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The International Winter School on Electronic Properties of High-Temperature Superconductors, held between March 7-14, 1992, in Kirchberg, (Tyrol) Austria, was the sixth in a series of meetings to be held at this venue. Four of the earlier meetings were dedicated to issues in the field of conducting polymers, while the winter school held in 1990 was devoted to the new discipline of high-Tc superconductivity. This year's meeting constituted a forum not only for the large number of scientists engaged in high-Tc research, but also for those involved in the new and exciting field of fullerenes. Many of the issues raised during the earlier winter schools on conducting polymers, and the last one on high-Tc superconductivity, have taken on a new significance in the light of the discovery of superconducting C 60 materials. The Kirchberg meetings are organized in the style of a school where experienced scientists from universities, research laboratories and industry have the opportunity to discuss their most recent results, and where students and young scientists can learn about the present status of research and applications from some of the most eminent workers in their field. In common with the previous winter school on high-Tc superconductors, the present one focused on the electronic properties of the cuprate superconductors. In addition, consideration was given to related compounds which are relevant to the understanding of the electronic structure of the cuprates in the normal state, to other oxide superconductors and to fulleride superconductors. Contributions dealing with their preparation, transport and thermal properties, high-energy spectroscopies, nuclear magnetic resonance, inelastic neutron scattering, and optical spectroscopy are presented in this volume. The theory of the normal and superconducting states also occupies a central position. (orig.)

  8. Normal and superconducting state properties of U6Fe at low temperatures and high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLong, L.E.; Crabtree, G.W.; Hall, L.N.; Kierstead, H.; Aoki, H.; Dhar, S.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Junod, A.

    1985-01-01

    High purity U 6 Fe polycrystals with a resistance ratio rrr=9 at T=4 K are found to exhibit a record onset temperature (T 0 >4.0 K) to superconductivity for U materials. Our measured values of the electronic coefficient of heat capacity Csup(*)=(150+-3) mJ/mol.K 2 , the mean Debye temperature THETA(T->0)=116 K and the normalized jump in heat capacity at Tsub(c), ΔC/γsup(*)Tsub(c)=2.3+-0.1, are all in good agreement with previous work, and suggest that U 6 Fe is a strong-coupled superconductor. Resistive upper critical field measurements on high purity samples revealed a pronounced S-shaped curvature of Hsub(c2)(T) and evidence for anisotropy, similar to effects seen in UPt 3 , but not observed in lower purity U 6 Fe samples. We find Hsub(c2)(0)>10 T and transition widths ΔTsub(c)proportionalHsup(1/2) at moderate fields, followed by an abrupt increase in ΔTsub(c) for H>8 T. Our Hsub(c2) data cannot be explained by existing theoretical models. Preliminary heat capacity measurements in magnetic fields 0 6 Fe at T< or approx.110 K. (orig.)

  9. Electrogenic properties of the Na+/K+ ATPase control transitions between normal and pathological brain states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Giri P.; Filatov, Gregory; Shilnikov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Ionic concentrations fluctuate significantly during epileptic seizures. In this study, using a combination of in vitro electrophysiology, computer modeling, and dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate that changes in the potassium and sodium intra- and extracellular ion concentrations ([K+] and [Na+], respectively) during seizure affect the neuron dynamics by modulating the outward Na+/K+ pump current. First, we show that an increase of the outward Na+/K+ pump current mediates termination of seizures when there is a progressive increase in the intracellular [Na+]. Second, we show that the Na+/K+ pump current is crucial in maintaining the stability of the physiological network state; a reduction of this current leads to the onset of seizures via a positive-feedback loop. We then present a novel dynamical mechanism for bursting in neurons with a reduced Na+/K+ pump. Overall, our study demonstrates the profound role of the current mediated by Na+/K+ ATPase on the stability of neuronal dynamics that was previously unknown. PMID:25589588

  10. Magnetic properties of κ-(MDTTTF)2AuI2 salt in the normal and superconducting states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhaes, P.; Amiell, J.; Flandrois, S.; Ducasse, L.; Fritsch, A.; Hilti, B.; Mayer, C.W.; Zambounis, J.; Papavassiliou, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties (ESR, static susceptibility and magnetization experiments) of the new organic superconductor κ-(MDTTTF) 2 AuI 2 above and below the SC phase transition temperature (T c ≥ 4 K). At ambient pressure the electronic structures of this salt and of two related compounds κ-(BEDT) 2 Cu(SCN) 2 and κ-(BEDT) 2 Ag(CN) 2 , H 2 O have been calculated using an extended Huckel method. The analysis of both experimental results and calculated data has led us to propose a unified picture independently of the present molecular blocks. Finally the problem of the competition between the SC and AF low-temperature states which is based on the experimental evidences of electronic correlations has been examined. However, in the absence of any experimental evidence of an AF state, the origin of the electron pairing is still unclear in these quasi 2d materials

  11. Physical properties in the normal state of the molecular superconductor Κ-(BEDT)2Cu2(CN)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavassiliou, G.C.; Lagouvardos, D.J.; Terzis, A.; Amiell, J.; Garrigou-Lagrange, C.; Delhaes, P.; Hilti, B.; Pfeiffer, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the electrical, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the K-phase molecular conductor K-(BEDT) 2 Cu 2 (CN) 3 between room temperature and the liquid He 4 temperature range. We have shown that an intermittent superconducting material is present around or below 4 K which presents above this temperature limited spin fluctuations. The influence of disorder inside the anionic layers is discussed with respect to the X-ray crystal structure, and also the intrinsic effects due to temperature or pressure to explain this situation. Finally, the specific behaviour of the ESR linewidth at low temperature is analysed as a magnetic precursor regime of the supposed superconducting ground state. (orig.)

  12. Effect of annealing on the superconducting and normal state properties of the doped multifilamentary Cu-Nb composite wires prepared by in situ technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, S.S.; Dheer, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of annealing on the superconducting and normal state properties of the Ga-, In-, Ti- and Zr-doped (1 wt%) Cu-Nb composite wires prepared by in situ technique have been investigated in this paper. The wires annealed at 700 C for 10 h and then quenched at room temperature, show a decrease in the superconducting transition temperature, T c , and increase in the transition width, ΔT. Doping of the Cu-Nb wires causes an increase in the normal state resistivity and hence the upper critical field, H C2 . This results in a significant increase of J c . Annealing of these doped samples decreases H C2 and J c . In the case of In- and Ga-doped samples J c shows a marginal improvement at lower field but decreases at higher field. Zr and Ti doping appears to be beneficial for the improved J c in these in situ materials. (orig.)

  13. Evidence of non-coincidence of normalized sigmoidal curves of two different structural properties for two-state protein folding/unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Hamidur; Khan, Md. Khurshid Alam; Hassan, Md. Imtaiyaz; Islam, Asimul; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ahmad, Faizan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Non-coincidence of normalized sigmoidal curves of two different structural properties is consistence with the two-state protein folding/unfolding. ► DSC measurements of denaturation show a two-state behavior of g-cyt-c at pH 6.0. ► Urea-induced denaturation of g-cyt-c is a variable two- state process at pH 6.0. ► GdmCl-induced denaturation of g-cyt-c is a fixed two- state process at pH 6.0. -- Abstract: In practice, the observation of non-coincidence of normalized sigmoidal transition curves measured by two different structural properties constitutes a proof of existence of thermodynamically stable intermediate(s) on the folding ↔ unfolding pathway of a protein. Here we give first experimental evidence that this non-coincidence is also observed for a two-state protein denaturation. Proof of this evidence comes from our studies of denaturation of goat cytochrome-c (g-cyt-c) at pH 6.0. These studies involve differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements in the absence of urea and measurements of urea-induced denaturation curves monitored by observing changes in absorbance at 405, 530, and 695 nm and circular dichroism (CD) at 222, 405, and 416 nm. DSC measurements showed that denaturation of the protein is a two-state process, for calorimetric and van’t Hoff enthalpy changes are, within experimental errors, identical. Normalization of urea-induced denaturation curves monitored by optical properties leads to noncoincident sigmoidal curves. Heat-induced transition of g-cyt-c in the presence of different urea concentrations was monitored by CD at 222 nm and absorption at 405 nm. It was observed that these two different structural probes gave not only identical values of T m (transition temperature), ΔH m (change in enthalpy at T m ) and ΔC p (constant-pressure heat capacity change), but these thermodynamic parameters in the absence of urea are also in agreement with those obtained from DSC measurements

  14. Electrogenic properties of the Na⁺/K⁺ ATPase control transitions between normal and pathological brain states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Giri P; Filatov, Gregory; Shilnikov, Andrey; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2015-05-01

    Ionic concentrations fluctuate significantly during epileptic seizures. In this study, using a combination of in vitro electrophysiology, computer modeling, and dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate that changes in the potassium and sodium intra- and extracellular ion concentrations ([K(+)] and [Na(+)], respectively) during seizure affect the neuron dynamics by modulating the outward Na(+)/K(+) pump current. First, we show that an increase of the outward Na(+)/K(+) pump current mediates termination of seizures when there is a progressive increase in the intracellular [Na(+)]. Second, we show that the Na(+)/K(+) pump current is crucial in maintaining the stability of the physiological network state; a reduction of this current leads to the onset of seizures via a positive-feedback loop. We then present a novel dynamical mechanism for bursting in neurons with a reduced Na(+)/K(+) pump. Overall, our study demonstrates the profound role of the current mediated by Na(+)/K(+) ATPase on the stability of neuronal dynamics that was previously unknown. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. A semimetal model of the normal state magnetic susceptibility and transport properties of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, B.C.; McGuire, M.A.; Sefat, A.S.; Mandrus, D.

    2010-01-01

    A simple two-band 3D model of a semimetal is constructed to determine which normal state features of the Ba(Fe 1-x Co x ) 2 As 2 superconductors can be qualitatively understood within this framework. The model is able to account in a semiquantitative fashion for the measured magnetic susceptibility, Hall, and Seebeck data, and the low temperature Sommerfeld coefficient for 0 < x < 0.3 with only three parameters for all x. The purpose of the model is not to fit the data but to provide a simple starting point for thinking about the physics of these interesting materials. Although many of the static magnetic properties, such as the increase of the magnetic susceptibility with temperature, are reproduced by the model, none of the spin-fluctuation dynamics are addressed. A general conclusion from the model is that the magnetic susceptibility of most semimetals should increase with temperatures.

  16. Ab initio calculation of transition state normal mode properties and rate constants for the H(T)+CH4(CD4) abstraction and exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, G.C.; Walch, S.P.; Wagner, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    We present ab initio (GVB--POL--CI) calculations for enough of the region about the abstraction and exchange saddle points for H(T)+CH 4 (CD 4 ) to perform a full normal mode analysis of the transition states. The resulting normal mode frequencies are compared to four other published surfaces: an ab initio UHF--SCF calculation by Carsky and Zahradnik, a semiempirical surface by Raff, and two semiempirical surfaces by Kurylo, Hollinden, and Timmons. Significant quantitative and qualitative differences exist between the POL--CI results and those of the other surfaces. Transition state theory rate constants and vibrationally adiabatic reaction threshold energies were computed for all surfaces and compared to available experimental values. For abstraction, the POL--CI rates are in good agreement with experimental rates and in better agreement than are the rates of any of the other surfaces. For exchange, uncertainties in the experimental values and in the importance of vibrationally nonadiabatic effects cloud the comparison of theory to experiment. Tentative conclusions are that the POL--CI barrier is too low by several kcal. Unless vibrationaly nonadiabatic effects are severe, the POL--CI surface is still in better agreement with experiment than are the other surfaces. The rates for a simple 3-atom transition state theory model (where CH 3 is treated as an atom) are compared to the rates for the full 6-atom model. The kinetic energy coupling of reaction coordinate modes to methyl group modes is identified as being of primary importance in determining the accuracy of the 3-atom model for this system. Substantial coupling in abstraction, but not exchange, causes the model to fail for abstraction but succeed for exchange

  17. A Semimetal Model of the Normal State Susceptibility and Transport Properties of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Brian; Sefat, Athena; McGuire, Michael; Mandrus, David

    2010-03-01

    A simple two-band 3D model of a semimetal is constructed to see which normal state features of the Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 superconductors can be qualitatively understood within this framework. The model is able to account in a semiquantitative fashion for the measured magnetic susceptibility, Hall, and Seebeck data, and the low temperature Sommerfeld coefficient for 0 general conclusion from the model is that the magnetic susceptibility of most semimetals should increase with temperatures. This is indeed found to be the case for two well-known semimetals Bi and TiSe2. Research supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering.

  18. Local normality properties of some infrared representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doplicher, S.; Spera, M.

    1983-01-01

    We consider the positive energy representations of the algebra of quasilocal observables for the free massless Majorana field described in preceding papers. We show that by an appropriate choice of the (partially) occupied one particle modes we can find irreducible, type IIsub(infinite) or IIIsub(lambda) representations in this class which are unitarily equivalent to the vacuum representation when restricted to any forward light cone and disjoint from it when restricted to any backward light cone, or conversely. We give an elementary explicit proof of local normality of each representation in the above class. (orig.)

  19. Normalized Excited Squeezed Vacuum State and Its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangguo; Wang Jisuo; Liang Baolong

    2007-01-01

    By using the intermediate coordinate-momentum representation in quantum optics and generating function for the normalization of the excited squeezed vacuum state (ESVS), the normalized ESVS is obtained. We find that its normalization constants obtained via two new methods are uniform and a new form which is different from the result obtained by Zhang and Fan [Phys. Lett. A 165 (1992) 14]. By virtue of the normalization constant of the ESVS and the intermediate coordinate-momentum representation, the tomogram of the normalized ESVS and some useful formulae are derived.

  20. Quasiparticle transport properties of mesoscopic wires containing normal-metal/superconductor/normal-metal proximity junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam; Kim, Kijoon; Lee, Hu Jong; Lee, Seongjae; Yuk, Jong Seol; Park, Kyoung Wan; Lee, El Hang

    1997-01-01

    We measured the differential resistance dV/dI of mesoscopic normal-metal/superconductor/normal-metal (N-S-N) junctions. At low temperatures (T PbIn /e, where Δ PbIn is the gap energy of superconducting Pb-In, and at a higher bias V c . The zero-bias dip is supposed to originate from Andreev reflections of quasiparticles and the peak near 2Δ PbIn /e from the formation of a standing-wave mode of quasiparticles inside the superconducting potential barrier. We attribute the peaks at V c to a transition of the superconducting region to the normal state as the current exceeds the critical current I c of S

  1. Superconducting and normal properties of metallic amorphous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquinazi, P.D.

    1983-02-01

    The superconducting and transport properties (superconducing critical temperature, superconducting critical currents, electric resistivity and thermal conductivity) of the amorphous alloys La 70 Cu 30 and Zr 70 Cu 30 prepared by melt spinning have been investigated. The modification of these properties when, the initial amorphous metals relax to other metastable state under thermal treatment at below crystallization temperatures, have also been studied. (M.E.L.) [es

  2. Differences in otosclerotic and normal human stapedial osteoblast properties are normalized by alendronate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Richardson, Yvonne L; Flynn, John; Kveton, John; Eisen, Marc; Leonard, Gerald; Aronow, Michael; Rodner, Craig; Parham, Kourosh

    2014-10-01

    Identify and compare phenotypic properties of osteoblasts from patients with otosclerosis (OSO), normal bones (HOB), and normal stapes (NSO) to determine a possible cause for OSO hypermineralization and assess any effects of the bisphosphonate, alendronate. OSO (n = 11), NSO (n = 4), and HOB (n = 13) cultures were assayed for proliferation, adhesion, mineralization, and gene expression with and without 10(-10)M-10(-8)M alendronate. Academic hospital. Cultures were matched for age, sex, and passage number. Cell attachment and proliferation + alendronate were determined by Coulter counting cells and assaying tritiated thymidine uptake, respectively. At 7, 14, and 21 days of culture + alendronate, calcium content and gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were determined. OSO had significantly more cells adhere but less proliferation than NSO or HOB. Calcification was significantly increased in OSO compared to HOB and NSO. NSO and HOB had similar cell adhesion and proliferation rates. A dose-dependent effect of alendronate on OSO adhesion, proliferation, and mineralization was found, resulting in levels equal to NSO and HOB. All cultures expressed osteoblast-specific genes such as RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, and osteocalcin. However, osteopontin was dramatically reduced, 9.4-fold at 14 days, in OSO compared to NSO. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG), important in bone resorption, was elevated in OSO with decreased levels of OPG levels. Alendronate had little effect on gene expression in HOB but in OSO increased osteopontin levels and decreased RANKL/OPG. OSO cultures displayed properties of hypermineralization due to decreased osteopontin (OPN) and also had increased RANKL/OPG, which were normalized by alendronate. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  3. Statistical properties of the normalized ice particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoë, Julien; Protat, Alain; Testud, Jacques; Bouniol, Dominique; Heymsfield, A. J.; Bansemer, A.; Brown, P. R. A.; Forbes, R. M.

    2005-05-01

    Testud et al. (2001) have recently developed a formalism, known as the "normalized particle size distribution (PSD)", which consists in scaling the diameter and concentration axes in such a way that the normalized PSDs are independent of water content and mean volume-weighted diameter. In this paper we investigate the statistical properties of the normalized PSD for the particular case of ice clouds, which are known to play a crucial role in the Earth's radiation balance. To do so, an extensive database of airborne in situ microphysical measurements has been constructed. A remarkable stability in shape of the normalized PSD is obtained. The impact of using a single analytical shape to represent all PSDs in the database is estimated through an error analysis on the instrumental (radar reflectivity and attenuation) and cloud (ice water content, effective radius, terminal fall velocity of ice crystals, visible extinction) properties. This resulted in a roughly unbiased estimate of the instrumental and cloud parameters, with small standard deviations ranging from 5 to 12%. This error is found to be roughly independent of the temperature range. This stability in shape and its single analytical approximation implies that two parameters are now sufficient to describe any normalized PSD in ice clouds: the intercept parameter N*0 and the mean volume-weighted diameter Dm. Statistical relationships (parameterizations) between N*0 and Dm have then been evaluated in order to reduce again the number of unknowns. It has been shown that a parameterization of N*0 and Dm by temperature could not be envisaged to retrieve the cloud parameters. Nevertheless, Dm-T and mean maximum dimension diameter -T parameterizations have been derived and compared to the parameterization of Kristjánsson et al. (2000) currently used to characterize particle size in climate models. The new parameterization generally produces larger particle sizes at any temperature than the Kristjánsson et al. (2000

  4. Superconducting state mechanisms and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kresin, Vladimir Z; Wolf, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    'Superconducting State' provides a very detailed theoretical treatment of the key mechanisms of superconductivity, including the current state of the art (phonons, magnons, and plasmons). A very complete description is given of the electron-phonon mechanism responsible for superconductivity in the majority of superconducting systems, and the history of its development, as well as a detailed description of the key experimental techniques used to study the superconducting state and determine the mechanisms. In addition, there are chapters describing the discovery and properties of the key superconducting compounds that are of the most interest for science, and applications including a special chapter on the cuprate superconductors. It provides detailed treatments of some very novel aspects of superconductivity, including multiple bands (gaps), the "pseudogap" state, novel isotope effects beyond BCS, and induced superconductivity.

  5. Effects of Consolidation Stress State on Normally Consolidated Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lade, Poul V.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of consolidation stress state on the stress-strain and strength characteristics has been studied from experiments on undisturbed block samples of a natural, normally consolidated clay known as San Francisco Bay Mud. The results of experiments on K0-consolidated, hollow cylinder specimens...... and on isotropically consolidated, cubical specimens, both tested in triaxial compression and extension, clearly showed the influence of the undisturbed fabric as well as the effect of the initial consolidation stress states. While the K0-consolidated specimens appeared to retain their original fabric and exhibit...

  6. Detailed spectroscopy of the normally deformed states in 132Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, E.S.; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Santos, D.; Nyako, B.M.; O'Brien, N.J.; Parry, C.M.; Wadsworth, R.

    1997-01-01

    High-spin states have been studied in 132 Ce produced in the 100 Mo( 36 S,4nγ) reaction using the EUROGAM II spectrometer. The structure of the normally deformed states (β 2 ∝0.2) has been investigated. Eight ΔI=2 bands and three ΔI=1 bands have been identified and the level scheme extended up to spin and parity (40 + ) at an excitation energy 19.79 MeV. The results are interpreted with the aid of Woods-Saxon cranking calculations, which suggest a variety of triaxial (γ) shapes in this nucleus stabilised by specific active quasiparticle orbitals. (orig.)

  7. Normalization and psychometric properties of career skills confidence inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates normalization and psychometric properties of career skills confidence inventory. For this purpose, we use Betz’s questionnaire [Betz, N. E., Harmon, L., & Borgen, F. (1996. The relationships of self- efficacy for the Holland themes to gender, occupational group membership, and vocational interests. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 90-98.], which consists of 60 questions in three groups of self-awareness, exploration and planning. The study distributes the questionnaire among 600 randomly selected students and analyzes the feedback using Pearson correlation ratios. The results indicate that there are some positive and meaningful correlations between three component and career counseling. There are also positive and meaningful relationships among three components of self-awareness, exploration and planning.

  8. The Properties of Normal Conducting Cathodes in FZD Superconducting Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schamlott, A; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J

    2009-01-01

    The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF photoinjector) is one of the latest applications of SC technology in the accelerator field. Since superconducting cathodes with high QE are not available up to now, normal conducting cathode material is the main choice for the SRF photoinjectors. However, the compatibility between the cathode and the cavity is one of the challenges for this concept. The SRF gun with Cs2Te cathode has been successfully operated under the collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD, and MBI. In this paper, some experience gained in the gun commissioning will be concluded. The results of the properties of Cs2Te photocathode in the cavity will be presented, such as the Q.E., the life time, the dark current and the thermal emittance.

  9. The X-ray properties of normal galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray observations with the Einstein satellite have shown that normal galaxies of all morphological types are spatially extended sources of X-ray emission with luminosities in the range of L(x) of about 10 to the 39th to 10 to the 41st erg/s. Although this is only a small fraction of the total energy output of a normal galaxy, X-ray observations are uniquely suited to study phenomena that are otherwise elusive. In X-rays one can study directly the end products of stellar evolution (SNRs and compact remnants). X-ray observations have led to the discovery of gaseous outflows linked to starburst nuclear activity in spiral galaxies and to the detection of a hot interstellar medium in early-type galaxies. Through X-ray observations it is possible to set constraints on structural galaxy parameters, such as the mass of elliptical galaxies, and perhaps get new insight on the origin of cosmic rays and the properties of the magnetic fields of spiral galaxies.

  10. Biophysical properties of normal and diseased renal glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Hans M; Henderson, Joel M; Byfield, Fitzroy J; Bruggeman, Leslie A; Ding, Yaxian; Huang, Chunfa; Suh, Jung Hee; Franke, Thomas; Mele, Elisa; Pollak, Martin R; Miner, Jeffrey H; Janmey, Paul A; Weitz, David A; Miller, R Tyler

    2011-03-01

    The mechanical properties of tissues and cells including renal glomeruli are important determinants of their differentiated state, function, and responses to injury but are not well characterized or understood. Understanding glomerular mechanics is important for understanding renal diseases attributable to abnormal expression or assembly of structural proteins and abnormal hemodynamics. We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a new technique, capillary micromechanics, to measure the elastic properties of rat glomeruli. The Young's modulus of glomeruli was 2,500 Pa, and it was reduced to 1,100 Pa by cytochalasin and latunculin, and to 1,400 Pa by blebbistatin. Cytochalasin or latrunculin reduced the F/G actin ratios of glomeruli but did not disrupt their architecture. To assess glomerular biomechanics in disease, we measured the Young's moduli of glomeruli from two mouse models of primary glomerular disease, Col4a3(-/-) mice (Alport model) and Tg26(HIV/nl) mice (HIV-associated nephropathy model), at stages where glomerular injury was minimal by histopathology. Col4a3(-/-) mice express abnormal glomerular basement membrane proteins, and Tg26(HIV/nl) mouse podocytes have multiple abnormalities in morphology, adhesion, and cytoskeletal structure. In both models, the Young's modulus of the glomeruli was reduced by 30%. We find that glomeruli have specific and quantifiable biomechanical properties that are dependent on the state of the actin cytoskeleton and nonmuscle myosins. These properties may be altered early in disease and represent an important early component of disease. This increased deformability of glomeruli could directly contribute to disease by permitting increased distension with hemodynamic force or represent a mechanically inhospitable environment for glomerular cells.

  11. Theory of normal and superconducting properties of fullerene-based solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.L.

    1992-10-01

    Recent experiments on the normal-state and superconducting properties of fullerene-based solids are used to constrain the proposal theories of the electronic nature of these materials. In general, models of superconductivity based on electron pairing induced by phonons are consistent with electronic band theory. The latter experiments also yield estimates of the parameters characterizing these type H superconductors. It is argued that, at this point, a ''standard model'' of phonons interacting with itinerant electrons may be a good first approximation for explaining the properties of the metallic fullerenes

  12. Extension properties of states on operator algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamhalter, Jan

    1995-08-01

    We summarize and deepen some recent results concerning the extension problem for states on operator algebras and general quantum logics. In particular, we establish equivalence between the Gleason extension property, the Hahn-Banach extension property, and the universal state extension property of projection logics. Extensions of Jauch-Piron states are investigated.

  13. The thermodynamic properties of normal liquid helium 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, M.; Moshfegh, H. R.

    2009-09-01

    The thermodynamic properties of normal liquid helium 3 are calculated by using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method. The Landau Fermi liquid model and Fermi-Dirac distribution function are considered as our statistical model for the uncorrelated quantum fluid picture and the Lennard-Jones and Aziz potentials are used in our truncated cluster expansion (LOCV) to calculate the correlated energy. The single particle energy is treated variationally through an effective mass. The free energy, pressure, entropy, chemical potential and liquid phase diagram as well as the helium 3 specific heat are evaluated, discussed and compared with the corresponding available experimental data. It is found that the critical temperature for the existence of the pure gas phase is about 4.90 K (4.45 K), which is higher than the experimental prediction of 3.3 K, and the helium 3 flashing temperature is around 0.61 K (0.50 K) for the Lennard-Jones (Aziz) potential.

  14. On normal modes and dispersive properties of plasma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiland, J.

    1976-01-01

    The description of nonlinear wave phenomena in terms of normal modes contra that of electric fields is discussed. The possibility of defining higher order normal modes is pointed out and the field energy is expressed in terms of the normal mode and the electric field. (Auth.)

  15. Normal state magnetic behavior of (U/sub 1-x/RE/sub x/)Be13 pseudobinaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirngiebl, E.; Thompson, J.D.; Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Any impurity doping seems to modify the low temperature properties of UBe 13 in a way rather unusual compared to normal superconductors. So far, however, little attention has been paid to the modification of the normal state properties of impurity doped UB 13 . We have investigated the normal state magnetic behavior of impurity doped (U/sub 1-x/RE/sub x/)Be 13 pseudobinaries (RE = Th, Y, La, Lu, Sc) in the temperature range between 2 K and 380 K for impurity concentrations x ≤ 0.05 to see if there are correlations with T/sub c/(x)

  16. Inheritance of Properties of Normal and Non-Normal Distributions after Transformation of Scores to Ranks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how population parameters representing heterogeneity of variance, skewness, kurtosis, bimodality, and outlier-proneness, drawn from normal and eleven non-normal distributions, also characterized the ranks corresponding to independent samples of scores. When the parameters of population distributions from which samples were…

  17. Normal state Raman spectra of high-Tc cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory to explain Raman spectra of high-T c cuprates R 2-x M x CuO 4 in the normal state. We used electronic Hamiltonian prescribed by Fulde in presence of anti-ferromagnetism. Phonon interaction to the hybridization between the conduction electrons of the system and the f-electrons has been incorporated in the calculation. The phonon spectral density is calculated by the Green function technique of Zubarev at zero wave vector and finite (room) temperature limit. Parameter dependence of Raman active phonon frequencies are studied by varying model parameters of the system i.e. the position of f-level (ε f ), the effective electron-phonon coupling strength (g), the staggered magnetic field (h 1 ), and the hybridization parameter (v). The four Raman active peaks (P 1 to P 4 ) represent the electronic states of the atomic sub-systems of the cuprate systems. They show up as phonon excitations due to the coupling of the phonon to the electrons and the anti-ferromagnetic gap. (author)

  18. Normal ground state of dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of the ground state of relativistic matter in a magnetic field are examined within the framework of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The main emphasis of this study is the normal ground state, which is realized at sufficiently high temperatures and/or sufficiently large chemical potentials. In contrast to the vacuum state, which is characterized by the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking, the normal state is accompanied by the dynamical generation of the chiral shift parameter Δ. In the chiral limit, the value of Δ determines a relative shift of the longitudinal momenta (along the direction of the magnetic field) in the dispersion relations of opposite chirality fermions. We argue that the chirality remains a good approximate quantum number even for massive fermions in the vicinity of the Fermi surface and, therefore, the chiral shift is expected to play an important role in many types of cold dense relativistic matter, relevant for applications in compact stars. The qualitative implications of the revealed structure of the normal ground state on the physics of protoneutron stars are discussed. A noticeable feature of the Δ parameter is that it is insensitive to temperature when T 0 , where μ 0 is the chemical potential, and increases with temperature for T>μ 0 . The latter implies that the chiral shift parameter is also generated in the regime relevant for heavy ion collisions.

  19. Some thermodynamical properties of normal (or ferromagnetic) metal / superconductor heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayssol, Jerome

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the orbital magnetism of a ballistic hybrid normal-superconductor ring. We have obtained the flux dependent excitation spectrum for arbitrary normal and superconductor lengths. We have introduced a new method to evaluate the current harmonics. We have described the cross-over from the, 'h/eh/e-periodic persistent current to the', h/2e-periodic Josephson current. In a second study, we have calculated the effect of intrinsic ordinary reflexion on the Josephson current in a ballistic superconductor-ferromagnetic-superconductor. The spectrum is strongly modified by gap openings but the current and the 0-π transition are only slightly modified up to very high spin polarisation. In a third study, we analyse the contain of some solutions of Usadel equation. The standard perturbation theory dressed by cooperons enables us to interpret those solutions in terms of diffusive paths connecting Andreev reflexion events. (author) [fr

  20. Qudit hypergraph states and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei-Lei; Zhen, Yi-Zheng; Cao, Wen-Fei; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2018-01-01

    Hypergraph states, a generalization of graph states, constitute a large class of quantum states with intriguing nonlocal properties, and they have promising applications in quantum information science and technology. In this paper, we study some features of an independently proposed generalization of hypergraph states to qudit hypergraph states, i.e., each vertex in the generalized hypergraph (multi-hypergraph) represents a d -level system instead of a two-level one. It is shown that multi-hypergraphs and d -level hypergraph states have a one-to-one correspondence, and the structure of a multi-hypergraph exhibits the entanglement property of the corresponding quantum state. We discuss their relationship with some well-known state classes, e.g., real equally weighted states and stabilizer states. The Bell nonlocality, an important resource in fulfilling many quantum information tasks, is also investigated.

  1. The United States and Iran: Prospects for Normalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, William

    1999-01-01

    .... Even then, normalization will not come quickly or easily. It will require steady, long-term US effort and will be complicated by two decades of hostility and by domestic political dynamics in both countries that hinder rational policy debate.

  2. Pressure effect on the superconducting and the normal state of β -B i2Pd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristáš, G.; Orendáč, Mat.; Gabáni, S.; Kačmarčík, J.; Gažo, E.; Pribulová, Z.; Correa-Orellana, A.; Herrera, E.; Suderow, H.; Samuely, P.

    2018-04-01

    The pressure effect up to 24.0 kbar on superconducting and normal-state properties of β -B i2Pd single crystal (Tc≈4.98 K at ambient pressure) has been investigated by measurements of the electrical resistivity. In addition, we have performed the heat capacity measurements in the temperature range 0.7-300 K at ambient pressure. The recent calculations of electronic density of states, electron-phonon interaction spectral function, and phonon density of states of β -B i2Pd [Zheng and Margine, Phys. Rev. B 95, 014512 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.014512], are used to fit the resistivity and the heat capacity data. In the superconducting state we have focused on the influence of pressure on the superconducting transition temperature Tc and upper critical field Hc 2 and a negative effect with d Tc/d p =-0.025 K /kbar and d Hc 2/d p =-8 mT /kbar is found. A simplified Bloch-Grüneisen model was used to analyze the pressure effect on the temperature dependence of the normal-state resistivity. The obtained results point to a decrease of the electron-phonon coupling parameter λ and to a shift of phonon frequencies to higher values with pressure. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the normal-state resistivity follows a T2 dependence above Tc up to about 25 K. Together with the enhanced value of Sommerfeld coefficient γ =13.23 mJ mo l-1K-2 these results point to a certain role of the electron-electron interaction in the superconducting pairing mechanism in β -B i2Pd .

  3. Magnetic properties of anyonic systems in a normal phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, I.E.; Naftulin, S.A.

    1992-08-01

    We apply the concept of fractional statistics to the two-dimensional conductors. The effective Lagrangian of an external magnetic field in anyon medium at finite temperature and density is presented. The diamagnetic response to the external field is studied at temperatures above T c (i.e. in the normal phase) for various values of external parameters. Oscillations of both thermodynamic (the de Haas - van Alphen effect) and kinetic (the Shubnikov - de Haas effect) quantities are re-examined. Numerous peculiarities arise from the fact that anyon systems possess a non-zero ''statistical'' flux Φ (which is known to be a manifestation of the spontaneous parity breakdown). The cyclotron resonance is suggested as a direct test on possible parity violation (which is the key point of anyonics). The cyclotron mass dependences on external parameters reported in a series of experimental articles (H. Kublbeck and J.P. Kotthaus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1019 (1975); G. Abstreiter, J.P. Kotthaus, J.F. Koch and G. Dorda, Phys. Rev. B14, 2480 (1976)) may be attributed to an unusual behaviour or magnetic permeability in anyon medium. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs

  4. Collective properties of nucleons in the abnormal-parity states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, K. H.; Kahane, S.; Raman, S.

    2000-01-01

    In the first part of this work, we study the quadrupole collective properties of N a =2, 4, 6, and 8 nucleons occupying the abnormal-parity intruder single-particle states with high angular momenta j a =(9/2), (11/2), (13/2), and (15/2). This study is essential for a detailed understanding of the contribution made by these nucleons to the quadrupole collectivity of the yrast states of deformed nuclei. The properties studied include (i) the distribution of the angular momenta J contained in the intrinsic state of N a particles in the |j a k a > states, (ii) the relationship between the quadrupole moment Q 0 (j a ,N a ) of such an intrinsic state and the maximum angular momentum J max contained in it, (iii) the complete set of reduced quadrupole matrix elements (J ' ||Q||J) for transitions between all the states |J> and |J ' > projected from the intrinsic state, (iv) the B(E2:J→J-2) values, (v) the transition moments Q t (J), and (vi) the spectroscopic quadrupole moment Q(J). We compare these properties with similar properties of an intrinsic state having SU(3) symmetry which contains the same set of angular momenta as contained in the intrinsic state of a particular number of nucleons in a specific j a configuration. In the second part, we use the input from the first part to study the collective properties of the coupled system of protons and neutrons in abnormal-parity states. We show that the SU(3)-like features observed for the individual groups of abnormal-parity nucleons become stronger for the coupled system. Finally, in the third part, we consider the yrast bands of well-deformed nuclei projected from their Nilsson intrinsic states of valence nucleons in a major shell. We specify the structure of the wave function of each projected yrast state |J> in terms of the nucleons in both normal- and abnormal-parity states. These wave functions can be used to determine the individual contributions of the nucleons in normal- and abnormal-parity states to any

  5. Magnetic properties of singlet ground state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederix, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments are described determining the properties of a magnetic system consisting of a singlet ground state. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 .2 1/2H 2 O has been studied which is a system of S = 1/2 alternating antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains. The static properties, spin lattice relaxation time and field-induced antiferromagnetically ordered state measurements are presented. Susceptibility and magnetic cooling measurements of other compounds are summarised. (Auth.)

  6. Identification of Raman peaks of high-Tc cuprates in normal state through density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory to explain and identify the Raman spectral peaks of high-T c cuprates R 2-x M x CuO 4 in the normal state. We used electronic Hamiltonian prescribed by Fulde in presence of anti-ferromagnetism. Phonon interaction to the hybridization between the conduction electrons of the system and the f-electrons has been incorporated in the calculation. The phonon spectral density is calculated by the Green's function technique of Zubarev at zero wave vector and finite (room) temperature limit. The four Raman active peaks (P 1 -P 4 ) representing the electronic states of the atomic sub-systems of the cuprate system are identified by the calculated quasi-particle energy bands and electron density of states (DOS). The effect of interactions on these peaks are also explained

  7. Completeness properties of the minimum uncertainty states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The completeness properties of the Schrodinger minimum uncertainty states (SMUS) and of some of their subsets are considered. The invariant measures and the resolution unity measures for the set of SMUS are constructed and the representation of squeezing and correlating operators and SMUS as superpositions of Glauber coherent states on the real line is elucidated.

  8. Unique properties associated with normal martensitic transition and strain glass transition – A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Ni, Yan; Gao, Jinghui; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Xiaobing; Wang, Yunzhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the unique properties of strain glass which is different from that of normal martensite. ► We describe the importance of point defects in the formation of strain glass and related properties. ► The role of point defect can be attributed to global transition temperature effect (GTTE) and local field effect (LFE). -- Abstract: The transition behavior and unique properties associated with normal martensitic transition and strain glass transition are investigated by computer simulations using the phase field method. The simulations are based on a physical model that assumes that point defects alter the thermodynamic stability of martensite and create local lattice distortion. The simulation results show that strain glass transition exhibits different properties from those found in normal martensitic transformations. These unique properties include diffuse scattering pattern, “smear” elastic modulus peak, disappearance of heat flow peak and non-ergodicity. These simulation predictions agree well with the experimental observations

  9. The Thalamostriatal System in Normal and Diseased States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoland eSmith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of our limited knowledge of the functional role of the thalamostriatal system, this massive network is often ignored in models of the pathophysiology of brain disorders of basal ganglia origin, such as Parkinson’s disease. However, over the past decade, significant advances have led to a deeper understanding of the anatomical, electrophysiological, behavioral and pathological aspects of the thalamostriatal system. The cloning of the vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (vGluT1 and vGluT2 has provided powerful tools to differentiate thalamostriatal from corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals, allowing us to carry out comparative studies of the synaptology and plasticity of these two systems in normal and pathological conditions. Findings from these studies have led to the recognition of two thalamostriatal systems, based on their differential origin from the caudal intralaminar nuclear group, the centre median/parafascicular (CM/Pf complex, or other thalamic nuclei. The recent use of optogenetic methods supports this model of the organization of the thalamostriatal systems, showing differences in functionality and glutamate receptor localization at thalamostriatal synapses from Pf and other thalamic nuclei. At the functional level, evidence largely gathered from thalamic recordings in awake monkeys strongly suggests that the thalamostriatal system from the CM/Pf is involved in regulating alertness and switching behaviors. Importantly, there is evidence that the caudal intralaminar nuclei and their axonal projections to the striatum partly degenerate in Parkinson’s disease and that CM/Pf deep brain stimulation may be therapeutically useful in several movement disorders.

  10. Effects of the normalizing time and temperature on the impact properties of ASTM A-516 grade 70 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, T.; Cescon, T.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of normalizing time and temperature, as well as the plate thickness, on the impact properties of ASTM A-516 grade 70 steel, is studied. Results show that different normalizing conditions may lead to equivalent microstructure with different impact properties. Normalizing conditions that cause low cooling rate in the critical zone exhibit banded microstructure with inferior impact properties. (Author) [pt

  11. Entanglement properties of boundary state and thermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wu-zhong

    2018-06-01

    We discuss the regularized boundary state {e}^{-{τ}_0H}\\Big|{.B>}_a on two aspects in both 2D CFT and higher dimensional free field theory. One is its entanglement and correlation properties, which exhibit exponential decay in 2D CFT, the parameter 1 /τ 0 works as a mass scale. The other concerns with its time evolution, i.e., {e}^{-itH}{e}^{-{τ}_0H}\\Big|{.B>}_a . We investigate the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger (KMS) condition on correlation function of local operators to detect the thermal properties. Interestingly we find the correlation functions in the initial state {e}^{-{τ}_0H}\\Big|{.B>}_a also partially satisfy the KMS condition. In the limit t → ∞, the correlators will exactly satisfy the KMS condition. We generally analyse quantum quench by a pure state and obtain some constraints on the possible form of 2-point correlation function in the initial state if assuming they satisfies KMS condition in the final state. As a byproduct we find in an large τ 0 limit the thermal property of 2-point function in {e}^{-{τ}_0H}\\Big|{.B>}_a also appears.

  12. Unusually large magnetic moments in the normal state and superconducting state of Sn nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Chi-Hang; Lee, Chi-Hung; Hsu, Chien-Kang; Li, Chi-Yen; Karna, Sunil K.; Wang, Chin-Wei; Wu, Chun-Ming; Li, Wen-Hsien, E-mail: whli@phy.ncu.edu.tw [National Central University, Department of Physics and Center for Neutron Beam Applications (China)

    2013-09-15

    We report on the observations of spontaneous magnetic moments in the normal as well as in the superconducting states of a 9 nm Sn nanoparticle assembly, through X-ray diffraction, magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility, and neutron diffraction measurements. The saturation magnetization reaches an unexpectedly large value of 1.04 emu/g at 5 K, with a temperature profile that can be described by Bloch's law with an exponent of b = 1.8. A magnetic moment of Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {mu}{sub Z} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 0.38 {mu}{sub B} develops after cooling from 260 to 4 K. Superconductivity develops below T{sub C} = 3.98 K, which is 7 % higher than the T{sub C} = 3.72 K of bulk Sn. Surprisingly, an addition magnetic moment of Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {mu}{sub Z} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 0.05 {mu}{sub B} develops upon entering the superconducting state.

  13. Normalized Mini-Mental State Examination for assessing cognitive change in population-based brain aging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipps, Viviane; Amieva, Hélène; Andrieu, Sandrine; Dufouil, Carole; Berr, Claudine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Proust-Lima, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in population-based longitudinal studies to quantify cognitive change. However, its poor metrological properties, mainly ceiling/floor effects and varying sensitivity to change, have largely restricted its usefulness. We propose a normalizing transformation that corrects these properties, and makes possible the use of standard statistical methods to analyze change in MMSE scores. The normalizing transformation designed to correct at best the metrological properties of MMSE was estimated and validated on two population-based studies (n = 4,889, 20-year follow-up) by cross-validation. The transformation was also validated on two external studies with heterogeneous samples mixing normal and pathological aging, and samples including only demented subjects. The normalizing transformation provided correct inference in contrast with models analyzing the change in crude MMSE that most often lead to biased estimates of risk factors and incorrect conclusions. Cognitive change can be easily and properly assessed with the normalized MMSE using standard statistical methods such as linear (mixed) models. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Earth's Outer Core Properties Estimated Using Bayesian Inversion of Normal Mode Eigenfrequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, J. C. E.; Cottaar, S.; Lekic, V.

    2016-12-01

    The outer core is arguably Earth's most dynamic region, and consists of an iron-nickel liquid with an unknown combination of lighter alloying elements. Frequencies of Earth's normal modes provide the strongest constraints on the radial profiles of compressional wavespeed, VΦ, and density, ρ, in the outer core. Recent great earthquakes have yielded new normal mode measurements; however, mineral physics experiments and calculations are often compared to the Preliminary reference Earth model (PREM), which is 35 years old and does not provide uncertainties. Here we investigate the thermo-elastic properties of the outer core using Earth's free oscillations and a Bayesian framework. To estimate radial structure of the outer core and its uncertainties, we choose to exploit recent datasets of normal mode centre frequencies. Under the self-coupling approximation, centre frequencies are unaffected by lateral heterogeneities in the Earth, for example in the mantle. Normal modes are sensitive to both VΦ and ρ in the outer core, with each mode's specific sensitivity depending on its eigenfunctions. We include a priori bounds on outer core models that ensure compatibility with measurements of mass and moment of inertia. We use Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques to explore different choices in parameterizing the outer core, each of which represents different a priori constraints. We test how results vary (1) assuming a smooth polynomial parametrization, (2) allowing for structure close to the outer core's boundaries, (3) assuming an Equation-of-State and adiabaticity and inverting directly for thermo-elastic parameters. In the second approach we recognize that the outer core may have distinct regions close to the core-mantle and inner core boundaries and investigate models which parameterize the well mixed outer core separately from these two layers. In the last approach we seek to map the uncertainties directly into thermo-elastic parameters including the bulk

  15. Study of coherent structures of turbulence with large wall-normal gradients in thermophysical properties using direct numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinink, Shawn K.; Yaras, Metin I.

    2015-01-01

    Forced-convection heat transfer in a heated working fluid at a thermodynamic state near its pseudocritical point is poorly predicted by correlations calibrated with data at subcritical temperatures and pressures. This is suggested to be primarily due to the influence of large wall-normal thermophysical property gradients that develop in proximity of the pseudocritical point on the concentration of coherent turbulence structures near the wall. The physical mechanisms dominating this influence remain poorly understood. In the present study, direct numerical simulation is used to study the development of coherent vortical structures within a turbulent spot under the influence of large wall-normal property gradients. A turbulent spot rather than a fully turbulent boundary layer is used for the study, for the coherent structures of turbulence in a spot tend to be in a more organized state which may allow for more effective identification of cause-and-effect relationships. Large wall-normal gradients in thermophysical properties are created by heating the working fluid which is near the pseudocritical thermodynamic state. It is found that during improved heat transfer, wall-normal gradients in density accelerate the growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanism in the shear layer enveloping low-speed streaks, causing it to roll up into hairpin vortices at a faster rate. It is suggested that this occurs by the baroclinic vorticity generation mechanism which accelerates the streamwise grouping of vorticity during shear layer roll-up. The increased roll-up frequency leads to reduced streamwise spacing between hairpin vortices in wave packets. The density gradients also promote the sinuous instability mode in low-speed streaks. The resulting oscillations in the streaks in the streamwise-spanwise plane lead to locally reduced spanwise spacing between hairpin vortices forming over adjacent low-speed streaks. The reduction in streamwise and spanwise spacing between

  16. Mechanical properties of the normal human cartilage-bone complex in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the age-related variations in the mechanical properties of the normal human tibial cartilage-bone complex and the relationships between cartilage and bone. DESIGN: A novel technique was applied to assess the mechanical properties of the cartilage and bone by mea...... that are of importance for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of degenerative joint diseases, such as arthrosis....

  17. Spectrum of {gamma} rays connecting superdeformed and normal states in {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.G.; Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Almost a hundred superdeformed bands were found in the mass 150 and 190 regions. Nevertheless, the energies and spins of the SD levels are still not measured (with one possible exception). Many attempts were made to decipher the highly-fragmented pathways connecting SD and normal states, but with hitherto no success. We adopted a new approach that consists of characterizing the overall spectral shape of the {gamma} rays linking SD and normal states.

  18. Multiply gapped density of states in a normal metal in contact with a superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reutlinger, Johannes; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Nazarov, Yuli V. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Glazman, Leonid I. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven CT 06511-8499 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The spectral properties of a normal metal adjacent to a superconductor are strongly dependent on the characteristic mesoscopic energy scale - the Thouless energy E{sub Th} - and the strength of the connection. In this work, we predict that the local density of states (LDOS), besides the well know minigap {proportional_to}E{sub Th}, can exhibit a multiple gap structure, which strongly depends on the type of the contact. For ballistic contacts we calculate these secondary gaps analytically in the framework of quantum circuit theory of mesoscopic transport. The secondary gaps are absent in the case of tunnel contacts. In the general case the equations are solved numerically for more realistic contacts, like for example diffusive connectors or dirty interfaces, which are characterized by continuous distributions of transmission eigenvalues between 0 and 1. We find that the gap vanishes in these cases, but the density of states is still suppressed around the superconducting gap edge. Distribution functions with a stronger weight at higher transmissions can be modeled through asymmetric ballistic double junctions, which even exhibit multiple gaps. Such spectral signatures are fundamental to disordered nanoscopic conductors and experimentally accessible.

  19. Stability of faults with heterogeneous friction properties and effective normal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingdi; Ampuero, Jean-Paul

    2018-05-01

    Abundant geological, seismological and experimental evidence of the heterogeneous structure of natural faults motivates the theoretical and computational study of the mechanical behavior of heterogeneous frictional fault interfaces. Fault zones are composed of a mixture of materials with contrasting strength, which may affect the spatial variability of seismic coupling, the location of high-frequency radiation and the diversity of slip behavior observed in natural faults. To develop a quantitative understanding of the effect of strength heterogeneity on the mechanical behavior of faults, here we investigate a fault model with spatially variable frictional properties and pore pressure. Conceptually, this model may correspond to two rough surfaces in contact along discrete asperities, the space in between being filled by compressed gouge. The asperities have different permeability than the gouge matrix and may be hydraulically sealed, resulting in different pore pressure. We consider faults governed by rate-and-state friction, with mixtures of velocity-weakening and velocity-strengthening materials and contrasts of effective normal stress. We systematically study the diversity of slip behaviors generated by this model through multi-cycle simulations and linear stability analysis. The fault can be either stable without spontaneous slip transients, or unstable with spontaneous rupture. When the fault is unstable, slip can rupture either part or the entire fault. In some cases the fault alternates between these behaviors throughout multiple cycles. We determine how the fault behavior is controlled by the proportion of velocity-weakening and velocity-strengthening materials, their relative strength and other frictional properties. We also develop, through heuristic approximations, closed-form equations to predict the stability of slip on heterogeneous faults. Our study shows that a fault model with heterogeneous materials and pore pressure contrasts is a viable framework

  20. Physical Properties Of Acupuncture Needles: Do Disposable Acupuncture Needles Break With Normal Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Orofacial Pain Graduate...JOURNAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ACUPUNCTURE NEEDLES: DO DISPOSABLE ACUPUNCTURE NEEDLES BREAK WITH NORMAL USE? James Kyle Vick DDS, Orofacial Pain ...MS CAPT, DC, USN Orofacial Pain Department Head Naval Postgraduate Dental School vi    TABLE OF CONTENTS GUIDELINE I. TITLE

  1. Phenomenological theory of the normal and superconductive states of Cu-O and Bi-O metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    The universal normal state anomalies in the CuO metals follow from a marginal Fermi liquid hypothesis: there exists a contribution to the polarizability over most of momentum space proportional to omega/T for omega/T much less than 1 and constant thereafter up to a cutoff omega(sub c). Using the same excitation spectrum, the properties of the superconductive state were calculated. The right order of T(sub c) can be obtained, the zero temperature gap, 2 delta (0)/T(sub c) and the nuclear relaxation rate near T(sub c). The possible microscopic physics leading to the marginal Fermi liquid hypothesis is discussed

  2. Optimization of Micro-Alloying Elements for Mechanical Properties in Normalized Cast Steel Using Taguchi Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokkalingam B.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Taguchi method is used to find out the effect of micro alloying elements like vanadium, niobium and titanium on the hardness and tensile strength of the normalized cast steel. Based on this method, plan of experiments were made by using orthogonal arrays to acquire the data on hardness and tensile strength. The signal to noise ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA are used to investigate the effect of these micro alloying elements on these two mechanical properties of the micro alloyed normalized cast steel. The results indicated that in the micro alloyed normalized cast steel both these properties increases when compared to non-micro-alloyed normalized cast steel. The effect of niobium addition was found to be significantly higher to obtain higher hardness and tensile strength when compared to other micro alloying elements. The maximum hardness of 200HV and the maximum tensile strength of 780 N/mm2 were obtained in 0.05%Nb addition micro alloyed normalized cast steel. Micro-alloyed with niobium normalized cast steel have the finest and uniform microstructure and fine pearlite colonies distributed uniformly in the ferrite. The optimum condition to obtain higher hardness and tensile strength were determined. The results were verified with experiments.

  3. Calculation of the spectrum of {gamma} rays connecting superdeformed and normally deformed nuclear states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossing, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The decay out of superdeformed states occurs by coupling to compound nuclear states of normal deformation. The coupling is very weak, resulting in mixing of the SD state with one or two normal compound states. With a high energy available for decay, a statistical spectrum ensues. The shape of this statistical spectrum contains information on the level densities of the excited states below the SD level. The level densities are sensitively affected by the pair correlations. Thus decay-out of a SD state (which presents us with a means to start a statistical cascade from a highly-excited sharp state) provides a method for investigating the reduction of pairing with increasing thermal excitation energy.

  4. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  5. Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Lightweight and Normal Weight Concretes Reinforced with Steel Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to conventional concrete, lightweight concrete is more brittle in nature however, in many situations its application is advantageous due to its lower weight. The associated brittleness issue can be, to some extent, addressed by incorporation of discrete fibers. It is now established that fibers modify some fresh and hardened concrete properties. However, evaluation of those properties for lightweight fiber-reinforced concrete (LWFC against conventional/normal weight concrete of similar strength class has not been done before. Current study not only discusses the change in these properties for lightweight concrete after the addition of steel fibers, but also presents a comparison of these properties with conventional concrete with and without fibers. Both the lightweight and conventional concrete were reinforced with similar types and quantity of fibers. Hooked end steel fibers were added in the quantities of 0, 20, 40 and 60kg/m3. For similar compressive strength class, results indicate that compared to normal weight fiber-reinforced concrete (NWFC, lightweight fiber-reinforced concrete (LWFC has better fresh concrete properties, but performs poorly when tested for hardened concrete properties.

  6. Acoustic properties of naturally produced clear speech at normal speaking rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jean C.; Braida, Louis D.

    2004-01-01

    Sentences spoken ``clearly'' are significantly more intelligible than those spoken ``conversationally'' for hearing-impaired listeners in a variety of backgrounds [Picheny et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 28, 96-103 (1985); Uchanski et al., ibid. 39, 494-509 (1996); Payton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 1581-1592 (1994)]. While producing clear speech, however, talkers often reduce their speaking rate significantly [Picheny et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 29, 434-446 (1986); Uchanski et al., ibid. 39, 494-509 (1996)]. Yet speaking slowly is not solely responsible for the intelligibility benefit of clear speech (over conversational speech), since a recent study [Krause and Braida, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2165-2172 (2002)] showed that talkers can produce clear speech at normal rates with training. This finding suggests that clear speech has inherent acoustic properties, independent of rate, that contribute to improved intelligibility. Identifying these acoustic properties could lead to improved signal processing schemes for hearing aids. To gain insight into these acoustical properties, conversational and clear speech produced at normal speaking rates were analyzed at three levels of detail (global, phonological, and phonetic). Although results suggest that talkers may have employed different strategies to achieve clear speech at normal rates, two global-level properties were identified that appear likely to be linked to the improvements in intelligibility provided by clear/normal speech: increased energy in the 1000-3000-Hz range of long-term spectra and increased modulation depth of low frequency modulations of the intensity envelope. Other phonological and phonetic differences associated with clear/normal speech include changes in (1) frequency of stop burst releases, (2) VOT of word-initial voiceless stop consonants, and (3) short-term vowel spectra.

  7. Theory of novel normal and superconducting states in doped oxide high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhumanov, S.

    2001-10-01

    A consistent and complete theory of the novel normal and superconducting (SC) states of doped high-T c superconductors (HTSC) is developed by combining the continuum model of carrier self-trapping, the tight-binding model and the novel Fermi-Bose-liquid (FBL) model. The ground-state energy of carriers in lightly doped HTSC is calculated within the continuum model and adiabatic approximation using the variational method. The destruction of the long-range antiferromagnetic (AF) order at low doping x≥ x cl ≅0.015, the formation of the in-gap states or bands and novel (bi)polaronic insulating phases at x c2 ≅0.06-0.08, and the new metal- insulator transition at x≅x c2 in HTSC are studied within the continuum model of impurity (defect) centers and large (bi)polarons by using the appropriate tight-binding approximations. It is found that the three-dimensional (3d) large (bi)polarons are formed at ε ∞ /ε 0 ≤0.1 and become itinerant when the (bi)polaronic insulator-to-(bi)polaronic metal transitions occur at x x c2 . We show that the novel pseudogapped metallic and SC states in HTSC are formed at x c2 ≤x≤x p ≅0.20-0.24. We demonstrate that the large polaronic and small BCS-like pairing pseudogaps opening in the excitation spectrum of underdoped (x c2 BCS =0.125), optimally doped (x BCS o ≅0.20) and overdoped (x>x o ) HTSC above T c are unrelated to superconductivity and they are responsible for the observed anomalous optical, transport, magnetic and other properties of these HTSC. We develop the original two-stage FBL model of novel superconductivity describing the combined novel BCS-like pairing scenario of fermions and true superfluid (SF) condensation scenario of composite bosons (i.e. bipolarons and cooperons) in any Fermi-systems, where the SF condensate gap Δ B and the BCS-like pairing pseudogap Δ F have different origins. The pair and single particle condensations of attracting 3d and two- dimensional (2d) composite bosons are responsible for

  8. Large-scale grain growth in the solid-state process: From "Abnormal" to "Normal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minhong; Han, Shengnan; Zhang, Jingwei; Song, Jiageng; Hao, Chongyan; Deng, Manjiao; Ge, Lingjing; Gu, Zhengfei; Liu, Xinyu

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal grain growth (AGG) has been a common phenomenon during the ceramic or metallurgy processing since prehistoric times. However, usually it had been very difficult to grow big single crystal (centimeter scale over) by using the AGG method due to its so-called occasionality. Based on the AGG, a solid-state crystal growth (SSCG) method was developed. The greatest advantages of the SSCG technology are the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of the technique. But the traditional SSCG technology is still uncontrollable. This article first summarizes the history and current status of AGG, and then reports recent technical developments from AGG to SSCG, and further introduces a new seed-free, solid-state crystal growth (SFSSCG) technology. This SFSSCG method allows us to repeatedly and controllably fabricate large-scale single crystals with appreciable high quality and relatively stable chemical composition at a relatively low temperature, at least in (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3(KNN) and Cu-Al-Mn systems. In this sense, the exaggerated grain growth is no longer 'Abnormal' but 'Normal' since it is able to be artificially controllable and repeated now. This article also provides a crystal growth model to qualitatively explain the mechanism of SFSSCG for KNN system. Compared with the traditional melt and high temperature solution growth methods, the SFSSCG method has the advantages of low energy consumption, low investment, simple technique, composition homogeneity overcoming the issues with incongruent melting and high volatility. This SFSSCG could be helpful for improving the mechanical and physical properties of single crystals, which should be promising for industrial applications.

  9. Properties of Nonabelian Quantum Hall States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven H.

    2004-03-01

    The quantum statistics of particles refers to the behavior of a multiparticle wavefunction under adiabatic interchange of two identical particles. While a three dimensional world affords the possibilities of Bosons or Fermions, the two dimensional world has more exotic possibilities such as Fractional and Nonabelian statistics (J. Frölich, in ``Nonperturbative Quantum Field Theory", ed, G. t'Hooft. 1988). The latter is perhaps the most interesting where the wavefunction obeys a ``nonabelian'' representation of the braid group - meaning that braiding A around B then B around C is not the same as braiding B around C then A around B. This property enables one to think about using these exotic systems for robust topological quantum computation (M. Freedman, A. Kitaev, et al, Bull Am Math Soc 40, 31 (2003)). Surprisingly, it is thought that quasiparticles excitations with such nonabelian statistics may actually exist in certain quantum Hall states that have already been observed. The most likely such candidate is the quantum Hall ν=5/2 state(R. L. Willett et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1776-1779 (1987)), thought to be a so-called Moore-Read Pfaffian state(G. Moore and N. Read, Nucl Phys. B360 362 (1991)), which can be thought of as a p-wave paired superconducting state of composite fermions(M. Greiter, X. G. Wen, and F. Wilczek, PRL 66, 3205 (1991)). Using this superconducting analogy, we use a Chern-Simons field theory approach to make a number of predictions as to what experimental signatures one should expect for this state if it really is this Moore-Read state(K. Foster, N. Bonesteel, and S. H. Simon, PRL 91 046804 (2003)). We will then discuss how the nonabelian statistics can be explored in detail using a quantum monte-carlo approach (Y. Tserkovnyak and S. H. Simon, PRL 90 106802 (2003)), (I. Finkler, Y. Tserkovnyak, and S. H. Simon, work in progress.) that allows one to explicitly drag one particle around another and observe the change in the wavefunctions

  10. Stewart analysis of apparently normal acid-base state in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moviat, M.; Boogaard, M. van den; Intven, F.; Voort, P. van der; Hoeven, H. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe Stewart parameters in critically ill patients with an apparently normal acid-base state and to determine the incidence of mixed metabolic acid-base disorders in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational multicenter study of

  11. Effect of annealing treatments on normal state resistivity of YBa 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of YBa2(Cu1-xTix)3Oy superconductor with x=0.00 , 0.01, 0.03 have been prepared by solide state reaction method. The effect of annealing treatments on normal electrical resistivity has been done using the bipolaron model. The results of this study show the increase of localized charge when the dopant content ...

  12. Normal state resistivity of single crystalline V3Si as a function of neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, R.; Viswanathan, R.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the normal state resistivity of a neutron damaged single crystal of V 3 Si shows two different regions of behavior: one for T/sub c/ equal to or greater than 10 0 K and another for T/sub c/ equal to or less than 10 0 K

  13. Studies of the transition temperature and normal state resistivity of Nb3Ge and Nb films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.; Weismann, H.; Gurvitch, M.; Goland, A.N.; Kammerer, O.F.; Strongin, M.

    1976-01-01

    Correlations between T/sub c/ and specific features of the normal state resistance vs temperature curves are discussed for both Nb 3 Ge and ion damaged Nb films. Of particular interest is the correlation between T/sub c/ and rho 0 in Nb 3 Ge films

  14. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

  15. ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED PROPERTIES OF NORMAL CONCRETES WITH THE GRINDED RUBBER FROM WORN OUT VEHICLE TYRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ołdakowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubber from the worn tyres is associated with a useless material, strenuous for environment, whose most popular recovery method until recently was storage (currently forbidden by law. The adoption and dissemination of new ecological standards, created not only by the European and national legislation, but also developing as a result of expanding ecological consciousness, forces the necessity of seeking efficient methods of utilization of the vehicle tyres. The exemplary solution for the problem of tyres withdrawn from the operation, presented in the article, is using them in the grinded form as a substitute for the natural aggregate for the production of normal concrete. The article presents the results of the tests of selected properties of the modified normal concrete, upon the basis of which it has been found that the rubber causes decrease of compression strength, concrete weight, limits water absorbability, and does not influence significantly the physical and chemical phenomena accompanying the composite structure formation.

  16. Microwave Absorption Properties of Co@C Nanofiber Composite for Normal and Oblique Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junming; Wang, Peng; Chen, Yuanwei; Wang, Guowu; Wang, Dian; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Tao; Li, Fashen

    2018-05-01

    Co@C nanofibers have been prepared by an electrospinning technique. Uniform morphology of the nanofibers and good dispersion of the magnetic cobalt nanoparticles in the carbon fiber frame were confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The electromagnetic parameters of a composite absorber composed of Co@C nanofibers/paraffin were measured from 2 GHz to 15 GHz. The electromagnetic wave absorption properties were simulated and investigated in the case of normal and oblique incidence. In the normal case, the absorber achieved absorption performance of - 40 dB at 7.1 GHz. When the angle of incidence was increased to 60°, the absorption effect with reflection loss (RL) exceeding - 10 dB could still be obtained. These results demonstrate that the reported Co@C nanofiber absorber exhibits excellent absorption performance over a wide range of angle of incidence.

  17. The relationship between passive stiffness and evoked twitch properties: the influence of muscle CSA normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, E D; Thompson, B J; Sobolewski, E J; Herda, T J; Costa, P B; Walter, A A; Cramer, J T

    2011-01-01

    Passive stiffness measurements are often used as a clinical tool to examine a muscle's passive lengthening characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between passive stiffness and evoked twitch properties prior to and following normalization of passive stiffness to muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Ten healthy volunteers (mean ± SD age = 23 ± 3 year) performed passive range of motion, evoked twitch, and muscle CSA assessments of the plantar flexor muscles. Passive stiffness was determined from the slope of the final 5° of the angle–torque curve. Peak twitch torque (PTT) and rate of torque development (RTD) were determined via transcutaneous electrical stimulation, and muscle CSA was assessed using a peripheral quantitative computed tomography scanner. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients (r) were used to assess the relationships between passive stiffness and PTT and RTD and normalized passive stiffness (passive stiffness . muscle CSA −1 ) and PTT and RTD. Significant positive relationships were observed between passive stiffness and PTT (P = 0.003, r = 0.828) and RTD (P = 0.003, r = 0.825). There were no significant relationships between normalized passive stiffness and PTT (P = 0.290, r = 0.372) or RTD (P = 0.353, r = 0.329) demonstrating that stiffness did not account for a significant portion of the variance in twitch properties. Passive stiffness was largely influenced by the amount of muscle tissue in this study. Future studies that examine muscle stiffness and its relationship with performance measures, among different populations, and following various interventions may consider normalizing stiffness measurements to muscle CSA

  18. EEG Oscillatory States: Universality, Uniqueness and Specificity across Healthy-Normal, Altered and Pathological Brain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies) that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations’ functional significance. The results suggested that (a) there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b) EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal. PMID:24505292

  19. Association of structural global brain network properties with intelligence in normal aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian U Fischer

    Full Text Available Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60-85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience.

  20. Association of Structural Global Brain Network Properties with Intelligence in Normal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Florian U.; Wolf, Dominik; Scheurich, Armin; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60–85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient) were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience. PMID:24465994

  1. Normalizing treatment influence on the forged steel SAE 8620 fracture properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Vida Gomes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In a PWR nuclear power plant, the reactor pressure vessel (RPV contains the fuel assemblies and reactor vessels internals and keeps the coolant at high temperature and high pressure during normal operation. The RPV integrity must be assured all along its useful life to protect the general public against a significant radiation liberation damage. One of the critical issues relative to the VPR structural integrity refers to the pressurized thermal shock (PTS accident evaluation. To better understand the effects of this kind of event, a PTS experiment has been planned using an RPV prototype. The RPV material fracture behavior characterization in the ductile-brittle transition region represents one of the most important aspects of the structural assessment process of RPV's under PTS. This work presents the results of fracture toughness tests carried out to characterize the RPV prototype material behavior. The test data includes Charpy energy curves, T0 reference temperatures for definition of master curves, and fracture surfaces observed in electronic microscope. The results are given for the vessel steel in the "as received" and normalized conditions. This way, the influence of the normalizing treatment on the fracture properties of the steel could be evaluated.

  2. Normal Mode Derived Models of the Physical Properties of Earth's Outer Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, J. C. E.; Cottaar, S.; Lekic, V.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's outer core, the largest reservoir of metal in our planet, is comprised of an iron alloy of an uncertain composition. Its dynamical behaviour is responsible for the generation of Earth's magnetic field, with convection driven both by thermal and chemical buoyancy fluxes. Existing models of the seismic velocity and density of the outer core exhibit some variation, and there are only a small number of models which aim to represent the outer core's density.It is therefore important that we develop a better understanding of the physical properties of the outer core. Though most of the outer core is likely to be well mixed, it is possible that the uppermost outer core is stably stratified: it may be enriched in light elements released during the growth of the solid, iron enriched, inner core; by elements dissolved from the mantle into the outer core; or by exsolution of compounds previously dissolved in the liquid metal which will eventually be swept into the mantle. The stratified layer may host MAC or Rossby waves and it could impede communication between the chemically differentiated mantle and outer core, including screening out some of the geodynamo's signal. We use normal mode center frequencies to estimate the physical properties of the outer core in a Bayesian framework. We estimate the mineral physical parameters needed to best produce velocity and density models of the outer core which are consistent with the normal mode observations. We require that our models satisfy realistic physical constraints. We create models of the outer core with and without a distinct uppermost layer and assess the importance of this region.Our normal mode-derived models are compared with observations of body waves which travel through the outer core. In particular, we consider SmKS waves which are especially sensitive to the uppermost outer core and are therefore an important way to understand the robustness of our models.

  3. Exogenous normal lymph alleviates microcirculation disturbances and abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with disseminated intravascular coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Chun-Yu; Zhao, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Hou, Ya-Li; Li, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances of the microcirculation and abnormal hemorheological properties are important factors that play an important role in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and result in organ dysfunction or failure. In the present study, we established an animal model of DIC using intravenous Dextran 500 in rats, and used exogenous normal lymph corresponding to 1/15 of whole blood volume for injection through the left jugular vein. We found that normal lymph could improve the blood pressure and survival time of rats with DIC. The results regarding the mesenteric microcirculation showed that the abnormality of the diameter of mesenteric microvessels and micro-blood flow speed in the DIC+lymph group was significantly less than in the DIC+saline group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and electrophoresis time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+saline group compared to the control group. The electrophoretic length and migration of erythrocytes from the DIC+saline and DIC+lymph groups were significantly slower than the control group. Blood relative viscosity, Hct, ESR, and electrophoretic time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+lymph group compared to the control group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity and reduced viscosity were significantly lower in the DIC+lymph group than in the DIC+saline group, and erythrocyte deformability index was also significantly higher than in the DIC+saline and control groups. These results suggest that exogenous normal lymph could markedly improve the acute microcirculation disturbance and the abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with DIC induced by Dextran 500

  4. Exogenous normal lymph alleviates microcirculation disturbances and abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Chun-Yu; Zhao, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Ping [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou (China); Hou, Ya-Li [Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou (China); Li, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Jing [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou (China)

    2013-02-01

    Disturbances of the microcirculation and abnormal hemorheological properties are important factors that play an important role in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and result in organ dysfunction or failure. In the present study, we established an animal model of DIC using intravenous Dextran 500 in rats, and used exogenous normal lymph corresponding to 1/15 of whole blood volume for injection through the left jugular vein. We found that normal lymph could improve the blood pressure and survival time of rats with DIC. The results regarding the mesenteric microcirculation showed that the abnormality of the diameter of mesenteric microvessels and micro-blood flow speed in the DIC+lymph group was significantly less than in the DIC+saline group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and electrophoresis time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+saline group compared to the control group. The electrophoretic length and migration of erythrocytes from the DIC+saline and DIC+lymph groups were significantly slower than the control group. Blood relative viscosity, Hct, ESR, and electrophoretic time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+lymph group compared to the control group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity and reduced viscosity were significantly lower in the DIC+lymph group than in the DIC+saline group, and erythrocyte deformability index was also significantly higher than in the DIC+saline and control groups. These results suggest that exogenous normal lymph could markedly improve the acute microcirculation disturbance and the abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with DIC induced by Dextran 500.

  5. Investigation of current redistribution in superstabilized superconducting winding when switching to the normal resistive state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the electromagnetic behavior of a layer of superstabilized superconductive composite conductors when switching instantaneously and uniformly to the normal resistive state. The Laplace transform was used to solve the current diffusion equation in the superstabilizing material. The value of power dissipated per unit volume, averaged over the layer thickness, was then computed using the ''pseudo''-convolution theorem in the complex plane. Last, we present a simple interpretation of the phenomenon with the help of two time constants

  6. Effect of normalization heat treatment on creep and tensile properties of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panneer Selvi, S.; Sakthivel, T.; Parameswaran, P.; Laha, K.

    2016-01-01

    Creep and tensile properties have been investigated on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel subjected to single and double normalization heat treatments. Optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopic investigation revealed the presence of refined prior austenite grain size and fine M 23 C 6 precipitates in the double normalized steel compared to the steel subjected to single normalization heat treatment. Increased creep strain and significant reduction in creep rupture life were observed with the double normalized steel in comparison with single normalized steel. Increased tensile ductility coupled with marginal decrease in tensile strength at higher test temperature was observed with double normalized steel compared to single normalized steel. It has been attributed to the presence of refined prior austenite grain size and coarsening of Nb rich MX precipitates in double normalized steel. (author)

  7. Localized massive halo properties in BAHAMAS and MACSIS simulations: scalings, log-normality, and covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahi, Arya; Evrard, August E.; McCarthy, Ian; Barnes, David J.; Kay, Scott T.

    2018-05-01

    Using tens of thousands of halos realized in the BAHAMAS and MACSIS simulations produced with a consistent astrophysics treatment that includes AGN feedback, we validate a multi-property statistical model for the stellar and hot gas mass behavior in halos hosting groups and clusters of galaxies. The large sample size allows us to extract fine-scale mass-property relations (MPRs) by performing local linear regression (LLR) on individual halo stellar mass (Mstar) and hot gas mass (Mgas) as a function of total halo mass (Mhalo). We find that: 1) both the local slope and variance of the MPRs run with mass (primarily) and redshift (secondarily); 2) the conditional likelihood, p(Mstar, Mgas| Mhalo, z) is accurately described by a multivariate, log-normal distribution, and; 3) the covariance of Mstar and Mgas at fixed Mhalo is generally negative, reflecting a partially closed baryon box model for high mass halos. We validate the analytical population model of Evrard et al. (2014), finding sub-percent accuracy in the log-mean halo mass selected at fixed property, ⟨ln Mhalo|Mgas⟩ or ⟨ln Mhalo|Mstar⟩, when scale-dependent MPR parameters are employed. This work highlights the potential importance of allowing for running in the slope and scatter of MPRs when modeling cluster counts for cosmological studies. We tabulate LLR fit parameters as a function of halo mass at z = 0, 0.5 and 1 for two popular mass conventions.

  8. Identification of Raman peaks of high-T{sub c} cuprates in normal state through density of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishoyi, K.C. [P.G. Department of Physics, F.M. College (Auto.), Balasore 756 001 (India)]. E-mail: bishoyi@iopb.res.in; Rout, G.C. [Condensed Matter Physics Group, Govt. Science College, Chatrapur 761 020, Orissa (India); Behera, S.N. [Physics Enclave, H.I.G.-23/1, Housing Board Phase-I, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 7510016 (India)

    2007-05-31

    We present a microscopic theory to explain and identify the Raman spectral peaks of high-T{sub c} cuprates R{sub 2-x}M{sub x}CuO{sub 4} in the normal state. We used electronic Hamiltonian prescribed by Fulde in presence of anti-ferromagnetism. Phonon interaction to the hybridization between the conduction electrons of the system and the f-electrons has been incorporated in the calculation. The phonon spectral density is calculated by the Green's function technique of Zubarev at zero wave vector and finite (room) temperature limit. The four Raman active peaks (P{sub 1}-P{sub 4}) representing the electronic states of the atomic sub-systems of the cuprate system are identified by the calculated quasi-particle energy bands and electron density of states (DOS). The effect of interactions on these peaks are also explained.

  9. Prediction of normalized biodiesel properties by simulation of multiple feedstock blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Manuel; Gonzalo, Alberto; Sánchez, José Luis; Arauzo, Jesús; Peña, José Angel

    2010-06-01

    A continuous process for biodiesel production has been simulated using Aspen HYSYS V7.0 software. As fresh feed, feedstocks with a mild acid content have been used. The process flowsheet follows a traditional alkaline transesterification scheme constituted by esterification, transesterification and purification stages. Kinetic models taking into account the concentration of the different species have been employed in order to simulate the behavior of the CSTR reactors and the product distribution within the process. The comparison between experimental data found in literature and the predicted normalized properties, has been discussed. Additionally, a comparison between different thermodynamic packages has been performed. NRTL activity model has been selected as the most reliable of them. The combination of these models allows the prediction of 13 out of 25 parameters included in standard EN-14214:2003, and confers simulators a great value as predictive as well as optimization tool. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of normal fault on initial state of stress in rock mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajduś Antoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of original state of stress in rock mass is a very difficult task for rock mechanics. Yet, original state of stress in rock mass has fundamental influence on secondary state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of mining headings. This, in turn, is the cause of the occurrence of a number of mining hazards, i.e., seismic events, rock bursts, gas and rock outbursts, falls of roof. From experience, it is known that original state of stress depends a lot on tectonic disturbances, i.e., faults and folds. In the area of faults, a great number of seismic events occur, often of high energies. These seismic events, in many cases, are the cause of rock bursts and damage to the constructions located inside the rock mass and on the surface of the ground. To estimate the influence of fault existence on the disturbance of original state of stress in rock mass, numerical calculations were done by means of Finite Element Method. In the calculations, it was tried to determine the influence of different factors on state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of a normal fault, i.e., the influence of normal fault inclination, deformability of rock mass, values of friction coefficient on the fault contact. Critical value of friction coefficient was also determined, when mutual dislocation of rock mass part separated by a fault is impossible. The obtained results enabled formulation of a number of conclusions, which are important in the context of seismic events and rock bursts in the area of faults.

  11. The influence of normal fault on initial state of stress in rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajduś, Antoni; Cała, Marek; Tajduś, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Determination of original state of stress in rock mass is a very difficult task for rock mechanics. Yet, original state of stress in rock mass has fundamental influence on secondary state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of mining headings. This, in turn, is the cause of the occurrence of a number of mining hazards, i.e., seismic events, rock bursts, gas and rock outbursts, falls of roof. From experience, it is known that original state of stress depends a lot on tectonic disturbances, i.e., faults and folds. In the area of faults, a great number of seismic events occur, often of high energies. These seismic events, in many cases, are the cause of rock bursts and damage to the constructions located inside the rock mass and on the surface of the ground. To estimate the influence of fault existence on the disturbance of original state of stress in rock mass, numerical calculations were done by means of Finite Element Method. In the calculations, it was tried to determine the influence of different factors on state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of a normal fault, i.e., the influence of normal fault inclination, deformability of rock mass, values of friction coefficient on the fault contact. Critical value of friction coefficient was also determined, when mutual dislocation of rock mass part separated by a fault is impossible. The obtained results enabled formulation of a number of conclusions, which are important in the context of seismic events and rock bursts in the area of faults.

  12. The relationship between corneal biomechanical properties and confocal microscopy findings in normal and keratoconic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurmeric, Volkan; Sahin, Afsun; Ozge, Gokhan; Bayer, Atilla

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between corneal biomechanical properties and confocal microscopy (CM) findings in normal and keratoconic eyes. The study consisted of 28 eyes of 28 healthy volunteers and 23 eyes of 15 patients with keratoconus. The diagnosis of keratoconus was made with corneal topography and clinical findings. The corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured by the ocular response analyzer. In vivo CM was performed with NIDEK Confoscan 3. CH and CRF were compared with corneal morphological findings (detailed cell counts of endothelial, stromal, and epithelial cells) in vivo. CH was 10.1 +/- 1.3 mm Hg in normal eyes and 7.4 +/- 1.5 mm Hg in keratoconic eyes (P < 0.0001). CRF was 10.1 +/- 1.8 mm Hg in normal eyes and 6.2 +/- 1.4 mm Hg in keratoconic eyes (P < 0.0001). CH and CRF were negatively correlated with full-thickness stromal keratocyte density (P < 0.01; r = -0.52 and P < 0.001; r = -0.67, respectively) in healthy eyes. Keratocyte density of the posterior half of the stroma was found to be significantly related with CRF in healthy eyes (beta = -0.404; P = 0.01). There was no significant relationship among CH, CRF, and CM findings in eyes with keratoconus. There is a significant relationship between CRF and keratocyte density of the posterior half of the stroma in healthy eyes. Our results suggest that corneal elasticity is related to not only stromal matrix but also cellular structure of the cornea.

  13. Thermodynamic Properties from Corresponding States Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen

    1980-01-01

    A corresponding states approach has been applied to the two-constant equations of state by Wilson, Soave, Peng—Robinson, Hamam et al., Lu et al., Simonet—Behar, and Chaudron et al. in order to obtain the equivalent shape-factor correlations. The correlations derived are compared with the Leach...

  14. Study of normal and shear material properties for viscoelastic model of asphalt mixture by discrete element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Stang, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture was studied by using discrete element method. The dynamic properties of asphalt mixture were captured by implementing Burger’s contact model. Different ways of taking into account of the normal and shear material properties of asphalt mi...

  15. Biophysical properties of the normal-sized aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome: evaluation with MR flow mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenink, M.; de Roos, A.; Mulder, B. J.; Verbeeten, B.; Timmermans, J.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Spaan, J. A.; van der Wall, E. E.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) flow mapping in the assessment of aortic biophysical properties in patients with Marfan syndrome and to detect differences in biophysical properties in the normal-sized aorta distal to the aortic root between these patients and

  16. Mood states, sympathetic activity, and in vivo beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bum-Hee; Kang, Eun-Ho; Ziegler, Michael G; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mood states and beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. We also examined if sympathetic nervous system activity is related to mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. Sixty-two participants aged 25-50 years were enrolled in this study. Mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Beta-adrenergic receptor function was determined using the chronotropic 25 dose isoproterenol infusion test. Level of sympathetic nervous system activity was estimated from 24-hr urine norepinephrine excretion. Higher tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and anger-hostility were related to decreased beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity (i.e., higher chronotropic 25 dose values), but tension-anxiety was the only remaining independent predictor of beta-adrenergic receptor function after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Urinary norepinephrine excretion was unrelated to either mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. These findings replicate previous reports that anxiety is related to decreased (i.e., desensitized) beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, even after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index.

  17. Magnetic Ground State Properties of Transition Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. K.; Madsen, J.; Poulsen, U. K.

    1977-01-01

    We review a simple one-electron theory of the magnetic and cohesive properties of ferro- and nearly ferromagnetic transition metals at 0 K. The theory is based on the density functional formalism, it makes use of the local spin density and atomic sphere approximations and it may, with further app...

  18. Features of the normal choriocapillaris with OCT-angiography: Density estimation and textural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Giovanni; Allegrini, Davide; Colombo, Leonardo; Rossetti, Luca M; Pece, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of our work is to perform an in depth analysis of the structural features of normal choriocapillaris imaged with OCT Angiography. Specifically, we provide an optimal radius for a circular Region of Interest (ROI) to obtain a stable estimate of the subfoveal choriocapillaris density and characterize its textural properties using Markov Random Fields. On each binarized image of the choriocapillaris OCT Angiography we performed simulated measurements of the subfoveal choriocapillaris densities with circular Regions of Interest (ROIs) of different radii and with small random displacements from the center of the Foveal Avascular Zone (FAZ). We then calculated the variability of the density measure with different ROI radii. We then characterized the textural features of choriocapillaris binary images by estimating the parameters of an Ising model. For each image we calculated the Optimal Radius (OR) as the minimum ROI radius required to obtain a standard deviation in the simulation below 0.01. The density measured with the individual OR was 0.52 ± 0.07 (mean ± STD). Similar density values (0.51 ± 0.07) were obtained using a fixed ROI radius of 450 μm. The Ising model yielded two parameter estimates (β = 0.34 ± 0.03; γ = 0.003 ± 0.012; mean ± STD), characterizing pixel clustering and white pixel density respectively. Using the estimated parameters to synthetize new random textures via simulation we obtained a good reproduction of the original choriocapillaris structural features and density. In conclusion, we developed an extensive characterization of the normal subfoveal choriocapillaris that might be used for flow analysis and applied to the investigation pathological alterations.

  19. Distribution Log Normal of 222 Rn in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the evaluation of the concentration of 222 Rn in air for Zacatecas is shown. The Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used as the technique for the realization of the measurements in large scale with cellulose nitrate LR-115, type 2, in open chambers of 222 Rn. The measurements were carried out during three months in different times of the year. In the results it is presented the log normal distribution, arithmetic mean and geometric media for the concentration at indoor and outdoor of residence constructions, the concentration at indoor of occupational constructions and in the 57 municipal heads of the state of Zacatecas. The statistics of the values in the concentration showed variation according to the time of the year, obtaining high quantities in winter seasons for both cases. The distribution of the concentration of 222 Rn is presented in the state map for each one of the municipalities, representing the measurement places in the entire state of Zacatecas. Finally the places where the values in the concentration of 222 Rn in air are near to the one limit settled down by the EPA of 148 Bq/m 3 are presented. (Author)

  20. Alpha particle spectra in coincidence with normal and superdeformed states in {sup 150}Tb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viesti, G.; Lunardon, M.; Bazzacco, D. [dell`Universita, Padova (Italy)]|[INFN, Padova (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The study of correlations between particle evaporation from highly excited compound nuclei at large angular momenta and the states in the final evaporation residues (ER) is a field of investigation which has been opened, in the last years, with the advent of the new large {gamma}-ray arrays. It is now possible to correlate the evaporation spectra to various bands with shapes ranging from spherical to superdeformed (SD) in the same final nucleus. It is generally accepted that the particle evaporation from the compound nucleus is chaotic and that only in the near-yrast {gamma} cascade, where the feeding of different classes of states takes place, the ordered motion is restored. The sensitivity of the particle spectra on the feeding of specific states in the residual nuclei can be taken as an indication that additional degrees of freedom might be important in the evaporation process or that particular regions of the phase space open to the decay populate preferentially some selected structures in the final cold nucleus. This latter point is important for the understanding of the feeding mechanism of SD states. Several experiments performed so far did not find a clear dependence of the shapes of the particle spectra on the excited states having different deformations in the ER. For example, the proton spectra in coincidence with transitions in the SD bands of {sup 133}Nd and {sup 152}Dy nuclei were found to be similar to those in coincidence with transitions in the normal deformed (ND) bands. Alpha particles have been proposed since long as a sensitive probe of the deformation of the emitting nucleus. Results are presented here of an experiment in which the authors have measured the energy spectra of alpha particles associated with different classes of states (ND and SD) in the {sup 150}Tb nucleus populated in the reaction {sup 37}Cl({sup 120}Sn, {alpha}3n{gamma}){sup 150}Tb.

  1. Properties of GD-152 collective states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Jindřich; Honusek, Milan; Dobeš, Jan; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Pronskikh, V. S.; Čaloun, Pavel; Lebeděv, NA.; Stegailov, V. I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2003), s. 605-626 ISSN 1434-6001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : interacting boson model * multipole-mixing ratios * negative parity states Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.097, year: 2003

  2. Excited state properties of aryl carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fuciman, M.; Chábera, P.; Župčanová, Anita; Hříbek, P.; Arellano, J.B.; Vácha, František; Pšenčík, J.; Polívka, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 13 (2010), s. 3112-3120 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * excited-states * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.454, year: 2010

  3. Normal-state conductance used to probe superconducting tunnel junctions for quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaparro, Carlos; Bavier, Richard; Kim, Yong-Seung; Kim, Eunyoung; Oh, Seongshik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Kline, Jeffrey S; Pappas, David P, E-mail: carlosch@physics.rutgers.ed, E-mail: ohsean@physics.rutgers.ed [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Here we report normal-state conductance measurements of three different types of superconducting tunnel junctions that are being used or proposed for quantum computing applications: p-Al/a-AlO/p-Al, e-Re/e-AlO/p-Al, and e-V/e-MgO/p-V, where p stands for polycrystalline, e for epitaxial, and a for amorphous. All three junctions exhibited significant deviations from the parabolic behavior predicted by the WKB approximation models. In the p-Al/a-AlO/p-Al junction, we observed enhancement of tunneling conductances at voltages matching harmonics of Al-O stretching modes. On the other hand, such Al-O vibration modes were missing in the epitaxial e-Re/e-AlO/p-Al junction. This suggests that absence or existence of the Al-O stretching mode might be related to the crystallinity of the AlO tunnel barrier and the interface between the electrode and the barrier. In the e-V/e-MgO/p-V junction, which is one of the candidate systems for future superconducting qubits, we observed suppression of the density of states at zero bias. This implies that the interface is electronically disordered, presumably due to oxidation of the vanadium surface underneath the MgO barrier, even if the interface was structurally well ordered, suggesting that the e-V/e-MgO/p-V junction will not be suitable for qubit applications in its present form. This also demonstrates that the normal-state conductance measurement can be effectively used to screen out low quality samples in the search for better superconducting tunnel junctions.

  4. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal breast tissue obtained from reduction surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; McCartney, Leah; Popovic, Dijana; Watkins, Cynthia B; Lindstrom, Mary J; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Magliocco, Anthony; Booske, John H; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C

    2007-05-21

    The efficacy of emerging microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques will depend, in part, on the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue. However, knowledge of these properties at microwave frequencies has been limited due to gaps and discrepancies in previously reported small-scale studies. To address these issues, we experimentally characterized the wideband microwave-frequency dielectric properties of a large number of normal breast tissue samples obtained from breast reduction surgeries at the University of Wisconsin and University of Calgary hospitals. The dielectric spectroscopy measurements were conducted from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. The tissue composition within the probe's sensing region was quantified in terms of percentages of adipose, fibroconnective and glandular tissues. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set obtained for each sample and determined median Cole-Cole parameters for three groups of normal breast tissues, categorized by adipose tissue content (0-30%, 31-84% and 85-100%). Our analysis of the dielectric properties data for 354 tissue samples reveals that there is a large variation in the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue due to substantial tissue heterogeneity. We observed no statistically significant difference between the within-patient and between-patient variability in the dielectric properties.

  5. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal breast tissue obtained from reduction surgeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; McCartney, Leah; Popovic, Dijana; Watkins, Cynthia B; Lindstrom, Mary J; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Magliocco, Anthony; Booske, John H; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of emerging microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques will depend, in part, on the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue. However, knowledge of these properties at microwave frequencies has been limited due to gaps and discrepancies in previously reported small-scale studies. To address these issues, we experimentally characterized the wideband microwave-frequency dielectric properties of a large number of normal breast tissue samples obtained from breast reduction surgeries at University of Wisconsin and University of Calgary hospitals. The dielectric spectroscopy measurements were conducted from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. The tissue composition within the probe's sensing region was quantified in terms of percentages of adipose, fibroconnective and glandular tissues. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set obtained for each sample and determined median Cole-Cole parameters for three groups of normal breast tissues, categorized by adipose tissue content (0-30%, 31-84% and 85-100%). Our analysis of the dielectric properties data for 354 tissue samples reveals that there is a large variation in the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue due to substantial tissue heterogeneity. We observed no statistically significant difference between the within-patient and between-patient variability in the dielectric properties

  6. Language Patterns Discriminate Mild Depression From Normal Sadness and Euthymic State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Daria; Cumming, Paul; Sloeva, Elena; Kuvshinova, Natalia; Romanov, Dmitry; Nosachev, Gennadii

    2018-01-01

    Deviations from typical word use have been previously reported in clinical depression, but language patterns of mild depression (MD), as distinct from normal sadness (NS) and euthymic state, are unknown. In this study, we aimed to apply the linguistic approach as an additional diagnostic key for understanding clinical variability along the continuum of affective states. We studied 402 written reports from 124 Russian-speaking patients and 77 healthy controls (HC), including 35 cases of NS, using hand-coding procedures. The focus of our psycholinguistic methods was on lexico-semantic [e.g., rhetorical figures (metaphors, similes)], syntactic [e.g., predominant sentence type (single-clause and multi-clause)], and lexico-grammatical [e.g., pronouns (indefinite, personal)] variables. Statistical evaluations included Cohen's kappa for inter-rater reliability measures, a non-parametric approach (Mann-Whitney U -test and Pearson chi-square test), one-way ANOVA for between-group differences, Spearman's and point-biserial correlations to analyze relationships between linguistic and gender variables, discriminant analysis (Wilks' λ) of linguistic variables in relation to the affective diagnostic types, all using SPSS-22 (significant, p  language, single-clause sentences domination over multi-clause, atypical word order, increased use of personal and indefinite pronouns, and verb use in continuous/imperfective and past tenses. In NS, as compared with HC, we found greater use of lexical repetitions, omission of words, and verbs in continuous and present tenses. MD was significantly differentiated from NS and euthymic state by linguistic variables [98.6%; Wilks' λ(40) = 0.009; p  language use distinguishing depression from NS and euthymic state, which points to a potential role of linguistic indicators in diagnosing affective states.

  7. Determination of oxidation state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapla-Masztafiak, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Lis, G.J.; Gajda, M.; Jasek, E. [Department of Histology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Kraków (Poland); Czubek, U. [Department of Coronary Disease, Jagiellonian University Medical College, John Paul II Hospital, Prądnicka 80, 31-202 Kraków (Poland); Bolechała, F. [Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Grzegórzecka 16, 31-531 Kraków (Poland); Borca, C. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kwiatek, W.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate changes in chemical state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves X-ray absorption spectroscopy was applied. Since Fe is suspected to play detrimental role in aortic valve stenosis pathogenesis the oxidation state of this element has been determined. The experimental material consisted of 10 μm sections of valves excised during routine surgery and from autopsies. The experiment was performed at the MicroXAS beamline of the SLS synchrotron facility in Villigen (Switzerland). The Fe K-edge XANES spectra obtained from tissue samples were carefully analyzed and compared with the spectra of reference compounds containing iron in various chemical structures. The analysis of absorption edge position and shape of the spectra revealed that both chemical forms of iron are presented in valve tissue but Fe{sup 3+} is the predominant form. Small shift of the absorption edge toward higher energy in the spectra from stenotic valve samples indicates higher content of the Fe{sup 3+} form in pathological tissue. Such a phenomenon suggests the role of Fenton reaction and reactive oxygen species in the etiology of aortic valve stenosis. The comparison of pre-edge regions of XANES spectra for control and stenotic valve tissue confirmed no differences in local symmetry or spin state of iron in analyzed samples.

  8. Primary transitions between the yrast superdeformed band and low-lying normal deformed states in {sup 194}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, K.; Bernstein, L.A.; Becker, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The observation of one-step `primary` gamma-ray transitions directly linking the superdeformed (SD) states to the normal deformed (ND) low-lying states of known excitation energies (E{sub x}), spins and parities (J{sup {pi}}) is crucial to determining the E{sub x} and J{sup {pi}} of the SD states. With this knowledge one can begin to address some of the outstanding problems associated with SD nuclei, such as the identical band issue, and one can also place more stringent restrictions on theoretical calculations which predict SD states and their properties. Brinkman, et al., used the early implementation of the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer array (32 detectors) and proposed a single, candidate {gamma} ray linking the {sup 194}Pb yrast SD band to the low-lying ND states in {sup 194}Pb. Using 55 detectors in the GAMMASPHERE array Khoo, et al., observed multiple links between the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg and the low-lying level scheme and conclusively determined E{sub x} and J of the yrast SD states. Here the authors report on an experiment in which Gammasphere with 88 detectors was used and the E{sub x} and J{sup {pi}} values of the yrast SD states in {sup 194}Pb were uniquely determined. Twelve one-step linking transitions between the yrast SD band and low-lying states in {sup 194}Pb have been identified, including the transition proposed by Brinkman. These transitions have been placed in the level scheme of {sup 194}Pb using coincidence relationships and agreements between the energies of the primary transitions and the energy differences in level spacings. Furthermore, measurements of angular asymmetries have yielded the multipolarities of the primaries which have allowed J{sup {pi}} assignments of the {sup 194}Pb SD states to be unambiguously determined for the first time without a priori assumptions about the character of SD bands. A study performed in parallel to this work using the EUROGAM-II array reports similar, but somewhat less extensive, results.

  9. Normal state resistance and low temperature magnetoresistance of superconducting cables for accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, W.B.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    The normal state resistivity of the superconducting NbTi cable used in accelerator magnets is usually specified by the resistance per unit length at room temperature (295 K) and the residual resistance ratio (RRR). Using these resistance parameters, the amount of copper in the multifilamentary wire can be calculated. This method is consistent with the traditional etch and weigh technique, and as such is a alternative and convenient way of specifying the copper to superconductor ratio. In principle the magnetoresistance can be calculated from the RRR and the ''Kohler Plot'', for copper. In practice however, measurements of magnetoresistance for a wide variety of SSC inner cables show considerable disagreement with calculation. In this paper the magnetoresistance data on cables with RRR ranging from 50 to 175 are analyzed taking into account the conductor geometry and the effect of the small interfilamentary spacing on the resistivity of copper. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Normal-state Nernst effect of a high-critical-temperature superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, S.; Ausloos, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed the data of Clayhold et al. for the Nernst effect in the normal state of a high critical superconductor, i.e., Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ . This requested to derive a kinetic expression for the Nernst effect, an expression able to take into account inelastic scattering and magnetic-field dependence. This was done along a relaxation time formalism for the solution of the Boltzmann equation but leaving a background term which can be calculated by the most appropriate method. The final calculation leads to the evaluation of the background term resulting from the thermoelectric field-free effect. In order to do this we have considered a model of Livanov and Sergeev. The Nernst effect is explained by a simple two band model for electrons and holes with different mobilities. The resulting fit to the experimental data looks rather convincing. Several predictions are made thereafter. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Prevalence of sarcopenia among older community-dwelling people with normal health and nutritional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Kerstin Khalaj; Dittmar, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed whether sarcopenia, a risk factor for disability in the aged, also occurs in healthy community-dwelling elders with normal nutritional state. As indicators, body cell mass (BCM) and lean body mass (LBM) were determined in 110 Germans (ages 60-83) using bioimpedance analysis. Nutritional status, muscle function, anthropometry, and physical activity level were investigated. Sarcopenia was already present in well nourished healthy elders. Its prevalence depended on the measure of muscle mass used (BCM percent, 22 percent males, 20 percent females; LBM percent, 4 percent males, 11 percent females). In conclusion, screening for presence of sarcopenia is needed in healthy, well-nourished elderly populations requiring an international standardization. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  12. Tunnel and thermal c-axis transport in BSCCO in the normal and pseudogap states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giura, M; Fastampa, R; Sarti, S; Pompeo, N; Silva, E

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of c-axis transport in double-layered cuprates, in particular with reference to Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ compounds. We exploit the effect of the two barriers on the thermal and tunnel transport. The resulting model is able to describe accurately the normal state c-axis resistivity in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ , from the underdoped side up to the strongly overdoped. We extend the model, without introducing additional parameters, in order to allow for the decrease of the barrier when an external voltage bias is applied. The extended model is found to describe properly the c-axis resistivity for small voltage bias above the pseudogap temperature T * , the c-axis resistivity for large voltage bias even below T c , and the differential dI/dV curves taken in mesa structures

  13. Electronic and ground state properties of ThTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Purvee, E-mail: purveebhardwaj@gmail.com; Singh, Sadhna, E-mail: drsadhna100@gmail.com [High Pressure Research Lab. Department of Physics Barkatullah University, Bhopal (MP) 462026 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The electronic properties of ThTe in cesium chloride (CsCl, B2) structure are investigated in the present paper. To study the ground state properties of thorium chalcogenide, the first principle calculations have been calculated. The bulk properties, including lattice constant, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are obtained. The calculated equilibrium structural parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical results.

  14. Analysis of 165Er excited state properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, V.A.; Budzynski, M.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown by the analysis of 165 Tm decay that the precision measurements of γ-ray and internal conversion electron intensities together with the measurements o.f angular correlation coefficients provide more data for the determination of γ-ray multipole composition and intensities of γ-transitions with small enerqy difference. The spin of the 589.868 ke tate is found to be I=1/2 - . Doublet transitions of different parity from the states 1103.495, 920.645 and 745.968 keV to the levels of the 590 keV region with energy difference ΔE=(108+-22) eV are identified

  15. 3D imaging of the mitochondrial redox state of rat hearts under normal and fasting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He N. Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The heart requires continuous ATP availability that is generated in the mitochondria. Although studies using the cell culture and perfused organ models have been carried out to investigate the biochemistry in the mitochondria in response to a change in substrate supply, mitochondrial bioenergetics of heart under normal feed or fasting conditions has not been studied at the tissue level with a sub-millimeter spatial resolution either in vivo or ex vivo. Oxidation of many food-derived metabolites to generate ATP in the mitochondria is realized through the NADH/NAD+ couple acting as a central electron carrier. We employed the Chance redox scanner — the low-temperature fluorescence scanner to image the three-dimensional (3D spatial distribution of the mitochondrial redox states in heart tissues of rats under normal feeding or an overnight starvation for 14.5 h. Multiple consecutive sections of each heart were imaged to map three redox indices, i.e., NADH, oxidized flavoproteins (Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD and the redox ratio NADH/Fp. The imaging results revealed the micro-heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of these redox indices. The quantitative analysis showed that in the fasted hearts the standard deviation of both NADH and Fp, i.e., SD_NADH and SD_Fp, significantly decreased with a p value of 0.032 and 0.045, respectively, indicating that the hearts become relatively more homogeneous after fasting. The fasted hearts contained 28.6% less NADH (p = 0.038. No significant change in Fp was found (p = 0.4. The NADH/Fp ratio decreased with a marginal p value (0.076. The decreased NADH in the fasted hearts is consistent with the cardiac cells' reliance of fatty acids consumption for energy metabolism when glucose becomes scarce. The experimental observation of NADH decrease induced by dietary restriction in the heart at tissue level has not been reported to our best knowledge. The Chance redox scanner demonstrated the

  16. 3D IMAGING OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL REDOX STATE OF RAT HEARTS UNDER NORMAL AND FASTING CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N; Zhou, Rong; Moon, Lily; Feng, Min; Li, Lin Z

    2014-03-01

    The heart requires continuous ATP availability that is generated in the mitochondria. Although studies using the cell culture and perfused organ models have been carried out to investigate the biochemistry in the mitochondria in response to a change in substrate supply, mitochondrial bioenergetics of heart under normal feed or fasting conditions has not been studied at the tissue level with a sub-millimeter spatial resolution either in vivo or ex vivo . Oxidation of many food-derived metabolites to generate ATP in the mitochondria is realized through the NADH/NAD + couple acting as a central electron carrier. We employed the Chance redox scanner - the low-temperature fluorescence scanner to image the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of the mitochondrial redox states in heart tissues of rats under normal feeding or an overnight starvation for 14.5 h. Multiple consecutive sections of each heart were imaged to map three redox indices, i.e., NADH, oxidized flavoproteins (Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)) and the redox ratio NADH/Fp. The imaging results revealed the micro-heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of these redox indices. The quantitative analysis showed that in the fasted hearts the standard deviation of both NADH and Fp, i.e., SD_NADH and SD_Fp, significantly decreased with a p value of 0.032 and 0.045, respectively, indicating that the hearts become relatively more homogeneous after fasting. The fasted hearts contained 28.6% less NADH ( p = 0.038). No significant change in Fp was found ( p = 0.4). The NADH/Fp ratio decreased with a marginal p value (0.076). The decreased NADH in the fasted hearts is consistent with the cardiac cells' reliance of fatty acids consumption for energy metabolism when glucose becomes scarce. The experimental observation of NADH decrease induced by dietary restriction in the heart at tissue level has not been reported to our best knowledge. The Chance redox scanner demonstrated the feasibility of 3D

  17. Possibility of producing the event-ready two-photon polarization entangled state with normal photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangbin

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme to produce the maximally two-photon polarization entangled state with single-photon sources and the passive linear optics devices. In particular, our scheme only requires the normal photon detectors which distinguish the vacuum and non-vacuum Fock number states. A sophisticated photon detector distinguishing between one-photon state and two-photon state is unnecessary in the scheme

  18. Generalized Spin Coherent States: Construction and Some Physical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrada, K.; El Baz, M.; Hassouni, Y.

    2009-12-01

    A generalized deformation of the su(2) algebra and a scheme for constructing associated spin coherent states is developed. The problem of resolving the unity operator in terms of these states is addressed and solved for some particular cases. The construction is carried using a deformation of Holstein-Primakoff realization of the su(2) algebra. The physical properties of these states is studied through the calculation of Mandel's parameter. (author)

  19. Fructose intake at current levels in the United States may cause gastrointestinal distress in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Peter L; Caviar, Elena M; McCallum, Richard W

    2005-10-01

    Fructose intake has increased considerably in the United States, primarily as a result of increased consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, fruits and juices, and crystalline fructose. The purpose was to determine how often fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, would result in malabsorption and/or symptoms in healthy persons. Fructose absorption was measured using 3-hour breath hydrogen tests and symptom scores were used to rate subjective responses for gas, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and loose stools. The study included 15 normal, free-living volunteers from a medical center community and was performed in a gastrointestinal specialty clinic. Subjects consumed 25- and 50-g doses of crystalline fructose with water after an overnight fast on separate test days. Mean peak breath hydrogen, time of peak, area under the curve (AUC) for breath hydrogen and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured during a 3-hour period after subjects consumed both 25- and 50-g doses of fructose. Differences in mean breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptom scores between doses were analyzed using paired t tests. Correlations among peak breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptoms were also evaluated. More than half of the 15 adults tested showed evidence of fructose malabsorption after 25 g fructose and greater than two thirds showed malabsorption after 50 g fructose. AUC, representing overall breath hydrogen response, was significantly greater after the 50-g dose. Overall symptom scores were significantly greater than baseline after each dose, but scores were only marginally greater after 50 g than 25 g. Peak hydrogen levels and AUC were highly correlated, but neither was significantly related to symptoms. Fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, may result in mild gastrointestinal distress in normal people. Additional study is warranted to evaluate the response to fructose-glucose mixtures (as in high-fructose corn syrup) and fructose taken with food in both normal people and those with

  20. Diversification of intrinsic motoneuron electrical properties during normal development and botulinum toxin-induced muscle paralysis in early postnatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, S T; Whelan, P J

    2010-05-01

    During early postnatal development, between birth and postnatal days 8-11, mice start to achieve weight-bearing locomotion. In association with the progression of weight-bearing locomotion there are presumed developmental changes in the intrinsic electrical properties of spinal -motoneurons. However, these developmental changes in the properties of -motoneuron properties have not been systematically explored in mice. Here, data are presented documenting the developmental changes of selected intrinsic motoneuron electrical properties, including statistically significant changes in action potential half-width, intrinsic excitability and diversity (quantified as coefficient of variation) of rheobase current, afterhyperpolarization half-decay time, and input resistance. In various adult mammalian preparations, the maintenance of intrinsic motoneuron electrical properties is dependent on activity and/or transmission-sensitive motoneuron-muscle interactions. In this study, we show that botulinum toxin-induced muscle paralysis led to statistically significant changes in the normal development of intrinsic motoneuron electrical properties in the postnatal mouse. This suggests that muscle activity during early neonatal life contributes to the development of normal motoneuron electrical properties.

  1. Language Patterns Discriminate Mild Depression From Normal Sadness and Euthymic State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Smirnova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesDeviations from typical word use have been previously reported in clinical depression, but language patterns of mild depression (MD, as distinct from normal sadness (NS and euthymic state, are unknown. In this study, we aimed to apply the linguistic approach as an additional diagnostic key for understanding clinical variability along the continuum of affective states.MethodsWe studied 402 written reports from 124 Russian-speaking patients and 77 healthy controls (HC, including 35 cases of NS, using hand-coding procedures. The focus of our psycholinguistic methods was on lexico-semantic [e.g., rhetorical figures (metaphors, similes], syntactic [e.g., predominant sentence type (single-clause and multi-clause], and lexico-grammatical [e.g., pronouns (indefinite, personal] variables. Statistical evaluations included Cohen’s kappa for inter-rater reliability measures, a non-parametric approach (Mann–Whitney U-test and Pearson chi-square test, one-way ANOVA for between-group differences, Spearman’s and point-biserial correlations to analyze relationships between linguistic and gender variables, discriminant analysis (Wilks’ λ of linguistic variables in relation to the affective diagnostic types, all using SPSS-22 (significant, p < 0.05.ResultsIn MD, as compared with healthy individuals, written responses were longer, demonstrated descriptive rather than analytic style, showed signs of spoken and figurative language, single-clause sentences domination over multi-clause, atypical word order, increased use of personal and indefinite pronouns, and verb use in continuous/imperfective and past tenses. In NS, as compared with HC, we found greater use of lexical repetitions, omission of words, and verbs in continuous and present tenses. MD was significantly differentiated from NS and euthymic state by linguistic variables [98.6%; Wilks’ λ(40 = 0.009; p < 0.001; r = 0.992]. The highest predictors in discrimination between

  2. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Influence of normal loads and sliding velocities on friction properties of engineering plastics sliding against rough counterfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuruzzaman, D M; Chowdhury, M A; Rahaman, M L; Oumer, A N

    2016-01-01

    Friction properties of plastic materials are very important under dry sliding contact conditions for bearing applications. In the present research, friction properties of engineering plastics such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and nylon are investigated under dry sliding contact conditions. In the experiments, PTFE and nylon slide against different rough counterfaces such as mild steel and stainless steel 316 (SS 316). Frictional tests are carried out at low loads 5, 7.5 and 10 N, low sliding velocities 0.5, 0.75 and 1 m/s and relative humidity 70%. The obtained results reveal that friction coefficient of PTFE increases with the increase in normal loads and sliding velocities within the observed range. On the other hand, frictional values of nylon decrease with the increase in normal loads and sliding velocities. It is observed that in general, these polymers show higher frictional values when sliding against SS 316 rather than mild steel. During running-in process, friction coefficient of PTFE and nylon steadily increases with the increase in rubbing time and after certain duration of rubbing, it remains at steady level. At identical operating conditions, the frictional values are significantly different depending on normal load, sliding velocity and material pair. It is also observed that in general, the influence of normal load on the friction properties of PTFE and nylon is greater than that of sliding velocity. (paper)

  4. Ground state magnetic properties of Fe nanoislands on Cu(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Tomoya; David, Melanie; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki; Dino, Wilson Agerico; Komori, Fumio

    2005-01-01

    We investigate magnetic properties of Fe nanoislands on Cu(111) in the relaxed structure within the density functional theory. We observe that the nanoislands exhibit the ferromagnetic properties with large magnetic moment. We find that the change in the magnetic moment of each Fe atom is induced by deposition on Cu(111) and structure relaxation of Fe nanoislands. Moreover, we examine the stability of ferromagnetic states of Fe nanoislands by performing the total energy calculations. (author)

  5. Magnetoresistive properties of non-uniform state of antiferromagnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    The phenomenological model of magnetoresistive properties of magneto-non-single-phase state of alloyed magnetic semiconductors is considered using the concept derived for a description of magnetoresistive effects in layered and granular magnetic metals. By assuming that there exists a magneto-non-single state in the manganites having the perovskite structure, it is possible to describe, in the framework of above approach, large magnetoresistive effects of manganite phases with antiferromagnetic order and semiconductor-type conductivity as well as those with antiferromagnetic properties and metallic-type conductivity

  6. The effect of inertia, viscous damping, temperature and normal stress on chaotic behaviour of the rate and state friction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nitish; Singh, Arun K.; Singh, Trilok N.

    2018-04-01

    A fundamental understanding of frictional sliding at rock surfaces is of practical importance for nucleation and propagation of earthquakes and rock slope stability. We investigate numerically the effect of different physical parameters such as inertia, viscous damping, temperature and normal stress on the chaotic behaviour of the two state variables rate and state friction (2sRSF) model. In general, a slight variation in any of inertia, viscous damping, temperature and effective normal stress reduces the chaotic behaviour of the sliding system. However, the present study has shown the appearance of chaos for the specific values of normal stress before it disappears again as the normal stress varies further. It is also observed that magnitude of system stiffness at which chaotic motion occurs, is less than the corresponding value of critical stiffness determined by using the linear stability analysis. These results explain the practical observation why chaotic nucleation of an earthquake is a rare phenomenon as reported in literature.

  7. Property measurements and inner state estimation of simulated fuel debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, S.; Kato, M.; Morimoto, K.; Washiya, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Fuel debris properties and inner state such as temperature profile were evaluated by using analysis of simulated fuel debris manufactured from UO{sub 2} and oxidized zircaloy. The center of the fuel debris was expected to be molten state soon after the melt down accident of LWRs because power density was very high. On the other hand, the surface of the fuel debris was cooled in the water. This large temperature gradient may cause inner stress and consequent cracks were expected. (author)

  8. Insulin binding properties of normal and transformed human epidermal cultured keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrando, P.; Ortonne, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Insulin binding to its receptors was studied in cultured normal and transformed (A431 line) human epidermal keratinocytes. The specific binding was a temperature-dependent, saturable process. Normal keratinocytes possess a mean value of about 80,000 receptors per cell. Fifteen hours exposure of the cells to insulin lowered their receptor number (about 65% loss in available sites); these reappeared when the hormone was removed from the culture medium. In the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, there is a net decrease in insulin binding (84% of the initial bound/free hormone ratio in comparison with normal cells) essentially related to a loss in receptor affinity for insulin. Thus, cultured human keratinocytes which express insulin receptors may be a useful tool in understanding skin pathology related to insulin disorders

  9. A 15O-H2O PET study of meditation and the resting state of normal consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Kjaer, T W; Friberg, L

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the neural structures subserving meditation can be reproducibly measured, and, if so, whether they are different from those supporting the resting state of normal consciousness. Cerebral blood flow distribution was investigated with the 15O-H20...... PET technique in nine young adults, who were highly experienced yoga teachers, during the relaxation meditation (Yoga Nidra), and during the resting state of normal consciousness. In addition, global CBF was measured in two of the subjects. Spectral EEG analysis was performed throughout...... the investigations. In meditation, differential activity was seen, with the noticeable exception of V1, in the posterior sensory and associative cortices known to participate in imagery tasks. In the resting state of normal consciousness (compared with meditation as a baseline), differential activity was found...

  10. Information processing in micro and meso-scale neural circuits during normal and disease states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Francisco

    Neural computation can occur at multiple spatial and temporal timescales. The sum total of all of these processes is to guide optimal behaviors within the context of the constraints imposed by the physical world. How the circuits of the brain achieves this goal represents a central question in systems neuroscience. Here I explore the many ways in which the circuits of the brain can process information at both the micro and meso scale. Understanding the way information is represented and processed in the brain could shed light on the neuropathology underlying complex neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia. Chapter 2 establishes an experimental paradigm for assaying patterns of microcircuit activity and examines the role of dopaminergic modulation on prefrontal microcircuits. We find that dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor activation results in an increase in spontaneous activity while dopamine type 1 (D1) activation does not. Chapter 3 of this dissertation presents a study that illustrates how cholingergic activation normally produces what has been suggested as a neural substrate of attention; pairwise decorrelation in microcircuit activity. This study also shows that in two etiologicall distinct mouse models of autism, FMR1 knockout mice and Valproic Acid exposed mice, this ability to decorrelate in the presence of cholinergic activation is lost. This represents a putative microcircuit level biomarker of autism. Chapter 4 examines the structure/function relationship within the prefrontal microcircuit. Spontaneous activity in prefrontal microcircuits is shown to be organized according to a small world architecture. Interestingly, this architecture is important for one concrete function of neuronal microcircuits; the ability to produce temporally stereotyped patterns of activation. In the final chapter, we identify subnetworks in chronic intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings using pairwise electrode coherence and dimensionality reduction

  11. Development of Normalization Factors for Canada and the United States and Comparison with European Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), normalization calculates the magnitude of an impact (midpoint or endpoint) relative to the total effect of a given reference. Using a country or a continent as a reference system is a first step towards global normalization. The goal of this wor...

  12. Properties of Normal and Recycled Brick Aggregates for Production of Medium Range (25–30 MPa Structural Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvash Chandra Paul

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the properties of normal and recycled brick aggregates to produce a medium range (25–30 MPa compressive strength of structural grade concrete. Up to date, brick aggregates are commonly used in structural concrete in some South Asian and African countries. Many concrete structures which were built in the last century are made from brick aggregates and some of them are already in a position of ending of their service life. At the same time, population and economic growth is forcing the demolition of many old structures. Therefore, there is a huge flow of construction and demolition waste and thereby it is necessary to recycle the waste to overcome the problem of occupying the landfill sites. For this study, recycled brick aggregates were collected from the various demolished building sites and their physical and mechanical performance were then compared with the concrete made from normal brick aggregates. It is found that the mechanical properties of recycled brick concrete are comparable to that of normal brick aggregate at medium strength level. The production cost of recycled brick concrete is also found to be 10–12% lower than normal brick aggregates.

  13. Effect of fatty acids on functional properties of normal wheat and waxy wheat starches: A structural basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Wang, Jinrong; Yu, Jinglin; Wang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three saturated fatty acids on functional properties of normal wheat and waxy wheat starches were investigated. The complexing index (CI) of normal wheat starch-fatty acid complexes decreased with increasing carbon chain length. In contrast, waxy wheat starch-fatty acid complexes presented much lower CI. V-type crystalline polymorphs were formed between normal wheat starch and three fatty acids, with shorter chain fatty acids producing more crystalline structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy presented the similar results with XRD. The formation of amylose-fatty acid complex inhibited granule swelling, gelatinization progression, retrogradation and pasting development of normal wheat starch, with longer chain fatty acids showing greater inhibition. Amylopectin can also form complexes with fatty acids, but the amount of complex was too little to be detected by XRD, FTIR, Raman and DSC. As a consequence, small changes were observed in the functional properties of waxy wheat starch with the addition of fatty acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hardness of the subchondral bone of the patella in the normal state, in chondromalacia, and in osteoarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkström, S; Goldie, I F

    1982-06-01

    The hardness of bone is its property of withstanding the impact of a penetrating agent. It has been found that articular degenerative changes in, for example, the tibia (knee) are combined with a decrease in the hardness of the subchondral bone. In this investigation the hardness of subchondral bone in chondromalacia and osteoarthrosis of the patella has been analysed and compared with normal subchondral bone. Using an indentation method originally described by Brinell the hardness of the subchondral bone was evaluated in 7 normal patellae, in 20 with chondromalacia and in 33 with osteoarthrosis. A microscopic and microradiographic study of the subchondral bone was carried out simultaneously. Hardness was lowest in the normal material. The mean hardness value beneath the degenerated cartilage differed only slightly from that of the normal material, but the variation of values was increased. The hardness in bone in the chondromalacia area was lower than the hardness in bone covered by surrounding normal cartilage. The mean hardness value in bone beneath normal parts of cartilage in specimens with chondromalacia was higher than the mean hardness value of the normal material. In the microscopic and microradiographic examination it became evident that there was a relationship between trabecular structure and subchondral bone hardness; high values: coarse and solid structure; low values: slender and less regular structure.

  15. Lifetime analysis of the ITER first wall under steady-state and off-normal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitteau, R; Sugihara, M; Raffray, R; Carpentier-Chouchana, S; Merola, M; Pitts, R A; Labidi, H; Stangeby, P

    2011-01-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium armor of the ITER first wall is evaluated for normal and off-normal operation. For the individual events considered, the lifetime spans between 930 and 35×10 6 discharges. The discrepancy between low and high estimates is caused by uncertainties about the behavior of the melt layer during off-normal events, variable plasma operation parameters and variability of the sputtering yields. These large uncertainties in beryllium armor loss estimates are a good example of the experimental nature of the ITER project and will not be truly resolved until ITER begins burning plasma operation.

  16. Development of Normalization Factors for Canada and the United States and Comparison with European Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Margni, Manuele

    2010-01-01

    In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), normalization calculates the magnitude of an impact (midpoint or endpoint) relative to the total effect of a given reference. The goal of this work is to calculate normalization factors for Canada and the US and to compare them with existing European normalization...... factors. The differences between geographical areas were highlighted by identifying and comparing the main contributors to a given impact category in Canada, the US and Europe. This comparison verified that the main contributors in Europe and in the US are also present in the Canadian inventory. It also...

  17. Effect of Coating Palm Oil Clinker Aggregate on the Engineering Properties of Normal Grade Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Abutaha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil clinker (POC is a waste material generated in large quantities from the palm oil industry. POC, when crushed, possesses the potential to serve as an aggregate for concrete production. Experimental investigation on the engineering properties of concrete incorporating POC as aggregate and filler material was carried out in this study. POC was partially and fully used to replace natural coarse aggregate. The volumetric replacements used were 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%. POC, being highly porous, negatively affected the fresh and hardened concrete properties. Therefore, the particle-packing (PP method was adopted to measure the surface and inner voids of POC coarse aggregate in the mixtures at different substitution levels. In order to enhance the engineering properties of the POC concrete, palm oil clinker powder (POCP was used as a filler material to fill up and coat the surface voids of POC coarse, while the rest of the mix constituents were left as the same. Fresh and hardened properties of the POC concrete with and without coating were determined, and the results were compared with the control concrete. The results revealed that coating the surface voids of POC coarse with POCP significantly improved the engineering properties as well as the durability performance of the POC concrete. Furthermore, using POC as an aggregate and filler material may reduce the continuous exploitation of aggregates from primary sources. Also, this approach offers an environmental friendly solution to the ongoing waste problems associated with palm oil waste material.

  18. Normal spectral emissivity of selected liquid metals and improved thermophysical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottlacher, G.; Seifter, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: Emissivity measurements on several liquid metals up to temperatures of 6000 K have been successfully established by linking a laser polarimetry technique to our well-known method for performing high speed measurements of thermophysical properties on liquid metal samples during microsecond pulse-heating experiments. Thermophysical properties measured with our experimental setup include temperature dependencies of heat capacity, enthalpy, electrical resistivity, density, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity up to the end of the stable liquid phase. During grant P12775-PHY additionally to the above listened properties the measurement of the change of the polarization of laser light reflected from the surface during pulse heating was enabled and thus now the temperature dependence of spectral emissivity at 684.5 nm by methods of ellipsometry is derived also. Several liquid metals and alloys have been investigated within this grant and a review of the data obtained will be given here. (author)

  19. An Equation of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of Cyclohexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yong, E-mail: Yong.Zhou2@honeywell.com; Liu, Jun [Honeywell Integrated Technology China Co. Ltd., 430 Li Bing Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai 201203 (China); Penoncello, Steven G. [Center for Applied Thermodynamic Studies, College of Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Lemmon, Eric W. [Applied Chemicals and Materials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    An equation of state for cyclohexane has been developed using the Helmholtz energy as the fundamental property with independent variables of density and temperature. Multi-property fitting technology was used to fit the equation of state to data for pρT, heat capacities, sound speeds, virial coefficients, vapor pressures, and saturated densities. The equation of state was developed to conform to the Maxwell criteria for two-phase vapor-liquid equilibrium states, and is valid from the triple-point temperature to 700 K, with pressures up to 250 MPa and densities up to 10.3 mol dm{sup −3}. In general, the uncertainties (k = 2, indicating a level of confidence of 95%) in density for the equation of state are 0.1% (liquid and vapor) up to 500 K, and 0.2% above 500 K, with higher uncertainties within the critical region. Between 283 and 473 K with pressures lower than 30 MPa, the uncertainty is as low as 0.03% in density in the liquid phase. The uncertainties in the speed of sound are 0.2% between 283 and 323 K in the liquid, and 1% elsewhere. Other uncertainties are 0.05% in vapor pressure and 2% in heat capacities. The behavior of the equation of state is reasonable within the region of validity and at higher and lower temperatures and pressures. A detailed analysis has been performed in this article.

  20. 22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... possession. (a) When a consular officer take articles of a decedent's personal property from a foreign... Department discharging the consular officer of any responsibility for the articles transferred. (b) A... effects; (2) Motor vehicles, airplanes or watercraft; (3) Toiletries, such as toothpaste or razors; (4...

  1. Normal age-related viscoelastic properties of chondrons and chondrocytes isolated from rabbit knee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Wang-ping; SUN Zhen-wei; LI Qi; LI Chun-jiang; WANG Li; CHEN Wei-yi; Jennifer Tickner; ZHENG Ming-hao; WEI Xiao-chun

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanical microenvironment of the chondrocytes plays an important role in cartilage homeostasis and in the health of the joint.The pericellular matrix,cellular membrane of the chondrocytes,and their cytoskeletal structures are key elements in the mechanical environment.The aims of this study are to measure the viscoelastic properties of isolated chondrons and chondrocytes from rabbit knee cartilage using micropipette aspiration and to determine the effect of aging on these properties.Methods Three age groups of rabbit knees were evaluated:(1) young (2 months,n=10);(2) adult (8 months,n=10);and (3) old (31 months,n=10).Chondrocytes were isolated from the right knee cartilage and chondrons were isolated from left knees using enzymatic methods.Micropipette aspiration combined with a standard linear viscoelastic solid model was used to quantify changes in the viscoelastic properties of chondrons and chondrocytes within 2 hours of isolation.The morphology and structure of isolated chondrons were evaluated by optical microscope using hematoxylin and eosin staining and collagen-6 immunofluorescence staining.Results In response to an applied constant 0.3-0.4 kPa of negative pressure,all chondrocytes exhibited standard linear viscoelastic solid properties.Model predictions of the creep data showed that the average equilibrium modulus (E∞),instantaneous modulus (E0).and apparent viscosity (μ) of old chondrocytes was significantly lower than the young and adult chondrocytes (P<0.001);however,no difference was found between young and adult chondrocytes (P>0.05).The adult and old chondrons generally possessed a thicker pericellular matrix (PCM) with more enclosed cells.The young and adult chondrons exhibited the same viscoelastic creep behavior under a greater applied pressure (1.0-1.1kPa) without the deformation seen in the old chondrons.The viscoelastic properties (E∞,E0,and u) of young and adult chondrons were significantly greater than that observed

  2. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivapragasam Gothai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera is an herb used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves extract are completely unknown. Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: The present study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 1-6

  3. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  4. Properties of states of low energy on cosmological spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis investigates properties of a class of physical states of the quantised scalar field in FRW spacetimes, namely the states of low energy (SLE's). These states are characterised by minimising the time-smeared energy density measured by an isotropic observer, where the smearing is performed with respect to a test function f of compact support. Furthermore, they share all spatial symmetries of the spacetime. Since SLE's are Hadamard states, expectations values of observables like the energy density can be rigorously defined via the so called point-splitting method. In a first step, this procedure is applied to the explicit calculation of the energy density in SLE's for the case of de Sitter space with flat spatial sections. In particular, the e ect of the choice of the mass m and the test function f is discussed. The obtained results motivate the question whether SLE's converge to a distinguished state (namely the Bunch Davies state) when the support of f is shifted to the infinite past. It is shown that this is indeed the case, even in the more general class of asymptotic de Sitter spacetimes, where an analogon of the Bunch Davies state can be defined. This result enables the interpretation of such distinguished states to be SLE's in the infinite past, independently of the form of the smearing function f. Finally, the role of SLE's for the semiclassical backreaction problem is discussed. We derive the semiclassical Friedmann equation in a perturbative approach over Minkowski space. This equation allows for a stability analysis of Minkowski space by the investigation of asymptotic properties of solutions. We also treat this problem using a numerical method.

  5. Properties of states of low energy on cosmological spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degner, Andreas

    2013-01-15

    The present thesis investigates properties of a class of physical states of the quantised scalar field in FRW spacetimes, namely the states of low energy (SLE's). These states are characterised by minimising the time-smeared energy density measured by an isotropic observer, where the smearing is performed with respect to a test function f of compact support. Furthermore, they share all spatial symmetries of the spacetime. Since SLE's are Hadamard states, expectations values of observables like the energy density can be rigorously defined via the so called point-splitting method. In a first step, this procedure is applied to the explicit calculation of the energy density in SLE's for the case of de Sitter space with flat spatial sections. In particular, the e ect of the choice of the mass m and the test function f is discussed. The obtained results motivate the question whether SLE's converge to a distinguished state (namely the Bunch Davies state) when the support of f is shifted to the infinite past. It is shown that this is indeed the case, even in the more general class of asymptotic de Sitter spacetimes, where an analogon of the Bunch Davies state can be defined. This result enables the interpretation of such distinguished states to be SLE's in the infinite past, independently of the form of the smearing function f. Finally, the role of SLE's for the semiclassical backreaction problem is discussed. We derive the semiclassical Friedmann equation in a perturbative approach over Minkowski space. This equation allows for a stability analysis of Minkowski space by the investigation of asymptotic properties of solutions. We also treat this problem using a numerical method.

  6. Investigating the Intersession Reliability of Dynamic Brain-State Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek M; Zhao, Yrian; Keilholz, Shella D; Schumacher, Eric H

    2018-06-01

    Dynamic functional connectivity metrics have much to offer to the neuroscience of individual differences of cognition. Yet, despite the recent expansion in dynamic connectivity research, limited resources have been devoted to the study of the reliability of these connectivity measures. To address this, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 100 Human Connectome Project subjects were compared across 2 scan days. Brain states (i.e., patterns of coactivity across regions) were identified by classifying each time frame using k means clustering. This was done with and without global signal regression (GSR). Multiple gauges of reliability indicated consistency in the brain-state properties across days and GSR attenuated the reliability of the brain states. Changes in the brain-state properties across the course of the scan were investigated as well. The results demonstrate that summary metrics describing the clustering of individual time frames have adequate test/retest reliability, and thus, these patterns of brain activation may hold promise for individual-difference research.

  7. Stability properties of nonlinear dynamical systems and evolutionary stable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleria, Iram, E-mail: iram@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió-AL (Brazil); Brenig, Leon [Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rocha Filho, Tarcísio M.; Figueiredo, Annibal [Instituto de Física and International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2017-03-18

    Highlights: • We address the problem of equilibrium stability in a general class of non-linear systems. • We link Evolutionary Stable States (ESS) to stable fixed points of square quasi-polynomial (QP) systems. • We show that an interior ES point may be related to stable interior fixed points of QP systems. - Abstract: In this paper we address the problem of stability in a general class of non-linear systems. We establish a link between the concepts of asymptotic stable interior fixed points of square Quasi-Polynomial systems and evolutionary stable states, a property of some payoff matrices arising from evolutionary games.

  8. Ground-state properties of a supersymmetric fermion chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendley, Paul; Hagendorf, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the ground state of a strongly interacting fermion chain with a supersymmetry. We conjecture a number of exact results, such as a hidden duality between weak and strong couplings. By exploiting a scale-free property of the perturbative expansions, we find exact expressions for the order parameters, yielding the critical exponents. We show that the ground state of this fermion chain and another model in the same universality class, the XYZ chain along a line of couplings, are both written in terms of the same polynomials. We demonstrate this explicitly for up to N = 24 sites and provide consistency checks for large N. These polynomials satisfy a recursion relation related to the Painlevé VI differential equation and, using a scale-free property of these polynomials, we derive a simple and exact formula for their N→∞ limit

  9. Normal mode splitting and ground state cooling in a Fabry—Perot optical cavity and transmission line resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hua-Jun; Mi Xian-Wu

    2011-01-01

    Optomechanical dynamics in two systems which are a transmission line resonator and Fabrya—Perot optical cavity via radiation—pressure are investigated by linearized quantum Langevin equation. We work in the resolved sideband regime where the oscillator resonance frequency exceeds the cavity linewidth. Normal mode splittings of the mechanical resonator as a pure result of the coupling interaction in the two optomechanical systems is studied, and we make a comparison of normal mode splitting of mechanical resonator between the two systems. In the optical cavity, the normal mode splitting of the movable mirror approaches the latest experiment very well. In addition, an approximation scheme is introduced to demonstrate the ground state cooling, and we make a comparison of cooling between the two systems dominated by two key factors, which are the initial bath temperature and the mechanical quality factor. Since both the normal mode splitting and cooling require working in the resolved sideband regime, whether the normal mode splitting influences the cooling of the mirror is considered. Considering the size of the mechanical resonator and precooling the system, the mechanical resonator in the transmission line resonator system is easier to achieve the ground state cooling than in optical cavity. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Analysis of normalized-characteristic curves and determination of the granulometric state of dissolved uranium dioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melichar, F.; Neumann, L.

    1977-01-01

    Methods are presented for the analysis of normalized-characteristic curves, which make it possible to determine the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion - the cumulative mass distribution of particles - as a function of the relative particle size. If the size of the largest particle in the dissolved polydispersion is known, these methods allow the determination of the dependence of cumulative mass ratios of particles on their absolute sizes. In the inverse method of the geometrical model for determining the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion, the polydispersion is represented by a finite number of monodispersions. An accurate analysis of normalized-characteristic equations leads to the Akselrud dissolution model. As against the other two methods, the latter allows the determination of the granulometric composition for an arbitrary number of particle sizes. The method of the granulometric atlas is a method for estimating the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion and is based on comparison of a normalized-characteristic curve for an unknown granulometric composition with an atlas of normalized-characteristic curves for selected granulometric spectra of polydispersions. (author)

  11. Preparation, distribution, stability and tumor imaging properties of [62Zn] Bleomycin complex in normal and tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian, A.R.; Fateh, B.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Karimian, A.; Matloobi, M.; Moradkhani, S.; Kamalidehghan, M.; Tabeie, F.

    2003-01-01

    Backgrounds: Bleomycin (BLM) has been labeled with radioisotopes and widely used in therapy and diagnosis. In this study BLM was labeled with [ 62 Zn] zinc chloride for oncologic PET studies. Materials and methods: The complex was obtained at the P H=2 normal saline at 90 d eg C in 60 min. Radio-TLC showed on overall radiochemical yield of 95-97% (radiochemical purity>97%). Stability of complex was checked in vitro in mice and human plasma/urine. Results: Preliminary in vitro studies performed to determined complex stability and distribution of [ 62 Zn] BLM in normal and fibrosarcoma tumors in mice according to bio-distribution/imaging studies. Conclusion: [ 62 Zn] BLM can be used in PET oncology studies due to its suitable physico-chemical propertied as a diagnostic complex behavior in higher animals

  12. Quantum Properties of the Superposition of Two Nearly Identical Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Anas; Yevick, David

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we examine the properties of the state obtained when two nearly identical coherent states are superimposed. We found that this state exhibits many nonclassical properties such as sub-Poissonian statistics, squeezing and a partially negative Wigner function. These and other properties indicate that such states, here termed near coherent states, are significantly closer to coherent states more than the generalized Schrördinger cat states. We finally provide an experimental procedure for generating the near coherent states.

  13. Food Service Guideline Policies on State Government-Controlled Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaganjor, Hatidza; Bishop Kendrick, Katherine; Warnock, Amy Lowry; Onufrak, Stephen; Whitsel, Laurie P; Ralston Aoki, Julie; Kimmons, Joel

    2016-09-13

    Food service guideline (FSG) policies can impact millions of daily meals sold or provided to government employees, patrons, and institutionalized persons. This study describes a classification tool to assess FSG policy attributes and uses it to rate FSG policies. Quantitative content analysis. State government facilities in the United States. Participants were from 50 states and District of Columbia in the United States. Frequency of FSG policies and percentage alignment to tool. State-level policies were identified using legal research databases to assess bills, statutes, regulations, and executive orders proposed or adopted by December 31, 2014. Full-text reviews were conducted to determine inclusion. Included policies were analyzed to assess attributes related to nutrition, behavioral supports, and implementation guidance. A total of 31 policies met the inclusion criteria; 15 were adopted. Overall alignment ranged from 0% to 86%, and only 10 policies aligned with a majority of the FSG policy attributes. Western states had the most FSG policies proposed or adopted (11 policies). The greatest number of FSG policies were proposed or adopted (8 policies) in 2011, followed by the years 2013 and 2014. The FSG policies proposed or adopted through 2014 that intended to improve the food and beverage environment on state government property vary considerably in their content. This analysis offers baseline data on the FSG landscape and information for future FSG policy assessments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. PREDICTION OF CHROMATIN STATES USING DNA SEQUENCE PROPERTIES

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabri, Rihab R.

    2013-06-01

    Activities of DNA are to a great extent controlled epigenetically through the internal struc- ture of chromatin. This structure is dynamic and is influenced by different modifications of histone proteins. Various combinations of epigenetic modification of histones pinpoint to different functional regions of the DNA determining the so-called chromatin states. How- ever, the characterization of chromatin states by the DNA sequence properties remains largely unknown. In this study we aim to explore whether DNA sequence patterns in the human genome can characterize different chromatin states. Using DNA sequence motifs we built binary classifiers for each chromatic state to eval- uate whether a given genomic sequence is a good candidate for belonging to a particular chromatin state. Of four classification algorithms (C4.5, Naive Bayes, Random Forest, and SVM) used for this purpose, the decision tree based classifiers (C4.5 and Random Forest) yielded best results among those we evaluated. Our results suggest that in general these models lack sufficient predictive power, although for four chromatin states (insulators, het- erochromatin, and two types of copy number variation) we found that presence of certain motifs in DNA sequences does imply an increased probability that such a sequence is one of these chromatin states.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, phase diagrams and superconducting and normal state magnetic properties of La2-xSrxCuO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.08) and electrochemically oxidized La2-xSrxCuO4+δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33, 0 ≤ δ ≤ 0.12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, F.

    1993-08-01

    La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) can all be intercalated with oxygen by a novel electrochemical oxidation method. Bulk superconductivity is found with an onset T c ∼ 40 K for the whole range 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.15; for x = 0.25 and 0.33, the electrochemical oxidation did not improve the superconducting properties. The magnetic susceptibility χ(T = 50--320 K) data for La 2 CuO 4.11 and La 1.92 Sr 0.08 CuO 4.07 are nearly identical with those of conventionally prepared La 1.85 Sr 0.15 CuO 4 , indicating that the hole doping level (p) in the CuO 2 planes of the three compounds is nearly the same. Combined thermogravimetric analysis and iodometric titration experiments indicate that part of the intercalated oxygen has a formal valence close to -1. The maximum doped-hole concentration in the CuO 2 planes that can be achieved from combined Sr-doping and electrochemical oxygen doping for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15 is p ∼ 0.16 holes/formula unit. Oxygen can also intercalate into single crystal La 2 CuO 4 through a slow electrochemical oxidation process. The required low current and long time for the charging process reflects that the oxygen intercalation for a single crystal is limited by its small specific surface area and long diffusion distance. The anisotropic superconducting, magnetic and transport properties are summarized and compared with those of polycrystalline La 2 CuO 4+δ as well as of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ and La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 single crystals. The single crystal La 2 CuO 4+δ has a maximum T c ∼ 40 K, which is lower than that (T c ∼ 42--45) of the corresponding polycrystalline samples. The magnetic phase diagram of La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 in the antiferromagnetic (AF) regime (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.02) has been derived from 139 La NQR studies from 4 to 250 K

  16. Thermodynamic properties and equation of state of liquid lead and lead bismuth eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, V. P.; Schuurmans, P.; Benamati, G.

    2008-06-01

    Since the 1950s, liquid lead (Pb) and lead-bismuth eutectic (Pb-Bi) have been studied in the USA, Canada and in the former-USSR as potential coolants for nuclear installations due to their very attractive thermophysical and neutronic properties. However, experimental data on the thermal properties of these coolants in the temperature range of interest are still incomplete and often contradictory. This makes it very difficult to perform design calculations and to analyse the normal and abnormal behaviour of nuclear installations where these coolants are expected to be used. Recently, a compilation of heavy liquid metal (HLM) properties along with recommendations for its use was prepared by the OECD/NEA Working Party on Fuel Cycle (WPFC) Expert Group on Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Technology. A brief review of this compilation and some new data are presented in this article. A set of correlations for the temperature dependence of the main thermodynamic properties of Pb and Pb-Bi(e) at normal pressure, and a set of simplified thermal and caloric equations of state for the liquid phase are proposed.

  17. Optoelectronic properties of valence-state-controlled amorphous niobium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozato, Takaki; Katase, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Katayama, Shota; Matsushima, Koichi; Itagaki, Naho; Yoshida, Hisao; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand the optoelectronic properties of amorphous niobium oxide (a-NbO x ), we have investigated the valence states, local structures, electrical resistivity, and optical absorption of a-NbO x thin films with various oxygen contents. It was found that the valence states of Nb ion in a-NbO x films can be controlled from 5+  to 4+  by reducing oxygen pressure during film deposition at room temperature, together with changing the oxide-ion arrangement around Nb ion from Nb2O5-like to NbO2-like local structure. As a result, a four orders of magnitude reduction in the electrical resistivity of a-NbO x films was observed with decreasing oxygen content, due to the carrier generation caused by the appearance and increase of an oxygen-vacancy-related subgap state working as an electron donor. The tunable optoelectronic properties of a-NbO x films by valence-state-control with oxygen-vacancy formation will be useful for potential flexible optoelectronic device applications.

  18. Static and dynamic properties of QCD bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubrak, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    The QCD phenomenology can be faced with the framework of the coupled quark DSE, meson BSE and baryon Faddeev equation, providing non-perturbative, continuum and Poincare invariant scientific approach. The research performed throughout this thesis is twofold. From one perspective we focus on the investigation of mass spectra for mesons with total spin quantum number J=3 and arising Regge-trajectory for natural parity states J PC =1 -- ,2 ++ ,3 -- within rainbow-ladder single gluon exchange model. The other findings are concerning the impact of the pion cloud effect on J>2 meson states, baryon masses, namely on Nucleon and Delta three-body bound states and meson dynamical properties like the pion form factor.

  19. Direct measurement of nonlinear properties of bipartite quantum states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Castagnoli, Giuseppe; Ekert, Artur; Horodecki, Paweł; Alves, Carolina Moura; Sergienko, Alexander Vladimir

    2005-12-09

    Nonlinear properties of quantum states, such as entropy or entanglement, quantify important physical resources and are frequently used in quantum-information science. They are usually calculated from a full description of a quantum state, even though they depend only on a small number of parameters that specify the state. Here we extract a nonlocal and a nonlinear quantity, namely, the Renyi entropy, from local measurements on two pairs of polarization-entangled photons. We also introduce a "phase marking" technique which allows the selection of uncorrupted outcomes even with nondeterministic sources of entangled photons. We use our experimental data to demonstrate the violation of entropic inequalities. They are examples of nonlinear entanglement witnesses and their power exceeds all linear tests for quantum entanglement based on all possible Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities.

  20. Structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, T.

    1995-01-01

    The structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics are reviewed. The low temperature phase transition of the copper halide-chalcogen compounds by specific heat measurements, electrical conductivity measurements and x-ray diffraction measurements are explained. The structures of solid state ionics investigated by the usual x-ray diffraction method and the anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) measurement are discussed. The expression of the diffuse scattering intensity including the correlations among the thermal displacements of atoms has been given and applied to α-AgI type solid state ionics and lithium sulphate. The presence of low-energy excitations in crystalline copper ion conductors and the superionic conducting glass is investigated by neutron inelastic scattering measurements. The relation between the excitation energy and the mass of the cations is discussed. (author). 141 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Properties of Sugarcane Fiber on the Strength of the Normal and Lightweight Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Khalid Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of natural fiber in construction are widely used in building materials engineering. However, using sugarcane fiber waste material as a natural in construction is very precious, because it can increase crack control and ductility, brittle concrete. Furthermore, the usage of sugarcane in construction can reduce of environmental pollution.In this study, a mixture of sugarcane fiber to be used in normal grade concrete and lightweight concrete to determine whether there is an increase in the compressive and tensile strength of the concrete. The objective of this study was to determine the compressive and tensile strength between control concrete and concrete mix with sugarcane fiber. In addition, the optimal volume of sugarcane fiber in the concrete mixture where the percentage of sugarcane fiber used was 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%. Compessive strength was tested on days 7 and 28 after curing test is carried out. Meanwhile, the tensile test, has been carried out to measure the tensile strength of sugarcane fiber relations in concrete mixes only at 28 day curing. Result of the testing showed that the optimum value containing admixtures of sugarcane is 0.5%. This percentage get the value of compressive strength is nearest with concrete control and the value of tensile strength is higher than concrete control and also the timing of concrete to cracked getting slower. Therefore, the use of sugarcane fiber suitable for addition that do not exceed 0.5% of the concrete mixture.

  2. Capacitor energy needed to induce transitions from the superconducting to the normal state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Ross, R.R.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a technique to turn a long length of superconducting wire normal by dumping a charged capacitor into it and justify some formulae needed in the design. The physical phenomenon is described. A formula for the energy to be stored in the capacitor is given. There are circumstances where the dc in an electrical circuit containing superconducting elements has to be turned off quickly and where the most convenient way to switch the current off is to turn a large portion or all of the superconducting wire normal. Such was the case of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) superconducting magnet as soon as a quench was detected. The technique used was the discharge of a capacitor into the coil center tap. It turned the magnet winding normal in ten milliseconds or so and provided an adequate quench protection. The technique of discharging a capacitor into a superconducting wire should have many other applications whenever a substantial resistance in a superconducting circuit has to be generated in that kind of time scale. The process involves generating a pulse of large currents in some part of the circuit and heating the wire up by ac losses until the value of the wire critical current is smaller than the dc current. Use of low inductance connections to the circuit is necessary. Then the dc gets turned off due to the resistance of the wire as in a magnet quench

  3. Efimov states and bound state properties in selected nuclear and molecular three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.S.

    1978-01-01

    The search is made among selected three-body systems for possible Efimov state behavior. In order to carry out this analysis of phenomenological potentials a new mathematical approach, the FCM (Faddeev-coordinate-momentum) technique, is developed. The analysis then proceeds through the framework of the Faddeev equations by employing the UPE (unitary pole expansion) to reduce these equations to numerically feasible form. The systems chosen for analysis are the 4 He trimer and the three-α model of 12 C. Efimov states are not found in 12 C, thus answering speculation among nuclear theorists. The 4 He trimer, on the other hand, manifests Efimov states for each potential considered and the characteristics of these states are extensively analyzed. Since Efimov states are predicted by all of the phenomenological potentials considered, these states would seem to be a realistically fundamental property of the 4 He trimer system

  4. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazebnik, Mariya [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Popovic, Dijana [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); McCartney, Leah [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Watkins, Cynthia B [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Lindstrom, Mary J [Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Harter, Josephine [Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sewall, Sarah [Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ogilvie, Travis [Department of Pathology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Magliocco, Anthony [Department of Pathology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Breslin, Tara M [Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Temple, Walley [Department of Surgery and Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Mew, Daphne [Department of Surgery and Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Booske, John H [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Okoniewski, Michal [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hagness, Susan C [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2007-10-21

    The development of microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques has been driven by reports of substantial contrast in the dielectric properties of malignant and normal breast tissues. However, definitive knowledge of the dielectric properties of normal and diseased breast tissues at microwave frequencies has been limited by gaps and discrepancies across previously published studies. To address these issues, we conducted a large-scale study to experimentally determine the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of a variety of normal, malignant and benign breast tissues, measured from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. Previously, we reported the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue samples obtained from reduction surgeries. Here, we report the dielectric properties of normal (adipose, glandular and fibroconnective), malignant (invasive and non-invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas) and benign (fibroadenomas and cysts) breast tissue samples obtained from cancer surgeries. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set of each characterized sample. Our analyses show that the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal adipose-dominated tissues in the breast is considerable, as large as 10:1, while the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal glandular/fibroconnective tissues in the breast is no more than about 10%.

  5. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; Popovic, Dijana; McCartney, Leah; Watkins, Cynthia B.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Ogilvie, Travis; Magliocco, Anthony; Breslin, Tara M.; Temple, Walley; Mew, Daphne; Booske, John H.; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C.

    2007-10-01

    The development of microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques has been driven by reports of substantial contrast in the dielectric properties of malignant and normal breast tissues. However, definitive knowledge of the dielectric properties of normal and diseased breast tissues at microwave frequencies has been limited by gaps and discrepancies across previously published studies. To address these issues, we conducted a large-scale study to experimentally determine the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of a variety of normal, malignant and benign breast tissues, measured from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. Previously, we reported the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue samples obtained from reduction surgeries. Here, we report the dielectric properties of normal (adipose, glandular and fibroconnective), malignant (invasive and non-invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas) and benign (fibroadenomas and cysts) breast tissue samples obtained from cancer surgeries. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set of each characterized sample. Our analyses show that the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal adipose-dominated tissues in the breast is considerable, as large as 10:1, while the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal glandular/fibroconnective tissues in the breast is no more than about 10%.

  6. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; Popovic, Dijana; McCartney, Leah; Watkins, Cynthia B; Lindstrom, Mary J; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Ogilvie, Travis; Magliocco, Anthony; Breslin, Tara M; Temple, Walley; Mew, Daphne; Booske, John H; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C

    2007-01-01

    The development of microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques has been driven by reports of substantial contrast in the dielectric properties of malignant and normal breast tissues. However, definitive knowledge of the dielectric properties of normal and diseased breast tissues at microwave frequencies has been limited by gaps and discrepancies across previously published studies. To address these issues, we conducted a large-scale study to experimentally determine the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of a variety of normal, malignant and benign breast tissues, measured from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. Previously, we reported the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue samples obtained from reduction surgeries. Here, we report the dielectric properties of normal (adipose, glandular and fibroconnective), malignant (invasive and non-invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas) and benign (fibroadenomas and cysts) breast tissue samples obtained from cancer surgeries. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set of each characterized sample. Our analyses show that the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal adipose-dominated tissues in the breast is considerable, as large as 10:1, while the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal glandular/fibroconnective tissues in the breast is no more than about 10%

  7. Complementary-relationship-based 30 year normals (1981-2010) of monthly latent heat fluxes across the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2015-11-01

    Thirty year normal (1981-2010) monthly latent heat fluxes (ET) over the conterminous United States were estimated by a modified Advection-Aridity model from North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) radiation and wind as well as Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) air and dew-point temperature data. Mean annual ET values were calibrated with PRISM precipitation (P) and validated against United States Geological Survey runoff (Q) data. At the six-digit Hydrologic Unit Code level (sample size of 334) the estimated 30 year normal runoff (P - ET) had a bias of 18 mm yr-1, a root-mean-square error of 96 mm yr-1, and a linear correlation coefficient value of 0.95, making the estimates on par with the latest Land Surface Model results but without the need for soil and vegetation information or any soil moisture budgeting.

  8. [Theory of exotic superconducting and normal states of heavy electron and high Tc materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses: quadrupole Kondo effect; heavy electron transport properties; quadrupolar fluctuation mechanism for high-T c superconductors; research accomplishments for the t--J model of high-T c superconductors; interpretation of high-T c superconductors experimental data; and dynamics of strongly correlated systems

  9. Changes in ultrasound shear wave elastography properties of normal breast during menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, P; Skórzewska, A; Opala, T

    2011-01-01

    Elastography is a novel technique capable of noninvasively assessing the elastic properties of breast tissue. Because the risk factors for breast cancer include hormonal status and proliferation, the aim of our study was to estimate the intensity of sonoelastographic changes during the menstrual cycle. Eight women aged 20-23 years with regular menstrual cycles underwent B-mode sonography and sonoelastography (ShearWave on Aixplorer, France) on days 3, 10, 17 and 24. Mean values of glandular and fat tissue elasticity did not change statistically significantly during the menstrual cycle as well as glandular to fat tissue ratio. During almost the whole cycle differences between outer and inner quadrants in glandular and fat tissue were statistically significant. The lowest values of elasticity occurred on the 10th day and the highest on the 24th of the menstrual cycle. There were statistically significant differences in elasticity between inner and outer quadrants of both breasts close to day 3 and 17 of the menstrual cycle.

  10. Study of the Correlations and the MAXI Hardness Ratio between the Anomalous and Normal Low States of LMC X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpin, Trevor; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    The bright, unusual black-hole X-ray binary LMC X-3 has been monitored virtually continuously by the Japanese MAXI X-ray All-Sky Monitor aboard the International Space Station (Matsuoka, et al., PASJ, 2009) from August 2009 to the present. Comparison with RXTE PCA and ASM light curves during the ~2.33-year period of overlap demonstrate that despite slight differences in energy-band boundaries both the ASM and MAXI faithfully reproduce characteristics of the high-amplitude, nonperiodic long-term variability, on the order of 100-300 days, clearly seen in the more sensitive PCA monitoring. The mechanism for this variability at a timescale many times longer than the 1.7-day orbital period is still unknown. Models to explain the long-term variability invoke mechanisms such as changes in mass transfer rate, and/or a precessing warped accretion disk. Observations of LMC X-3 have not definitely determined whether wind accretion or Roche-love overflow is the driver of the long-term variability. Recent MAXI monitoring of LMC X-3 includes excellent coverage of a rare anomalous low state (ALS) where the X-ray source cannot be distinguished from the background, as well as several normal low states, in which the source count rate passes smoothly through a low, yet detectable value. Pointed Swift XRT and UVOT observations also sample this ALS and one normal low state well. We combine these data sets to study the correlations between the wavelength regimes observed during the ALS versus the normal low. We also examine the behavior of the X-ray hardness ratios using XRT and MAXI monitoring data during the ALS versus the normal low state.

  11. [Carbon monoxide tests in a steady state. Uptake and transfer capacity, normal values and lower limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonatxo, M; Préfaut, C; Guerrero, H; Moutou, H; Bansard, X; Chardon, G

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish data which would best demonstrate the variations of different tests using Carbon Monoxide as a tracer gas (total and partial functional uptake coefficient and transfer capacity) to establish mean values and lower limits of normal of these tests. Multivariate statistical analysis was used; in the first stage a connection was sought between the fractional uptake coefficient (partial and total) to other parameters, comparing subjects and data. In the second stage the comparison was refined by eliminating the least useful data, trying, despite a small loss of material, to reveal the most important connections, linear or otherwise. The fractional uptake coefficients varied according to sex, also the variation of the partial alveolar-expired fractional uptake equivalent (DuACO) was largely a function of respiratory rate and tidal volume. The alveolar-arterial partial fractional uptake equivalent (DuaCO) depended more on respiratory frequency and age. Finally the total fractional uptake coefficient (DuCO) and the transfer capacity corrected per liter of ventilation (TLCO/V) were functions of these parameters. The last stage of this work, after taking account of the statistical observations consistent with the facts of these physiological hypotheses led to a search for a better way of approaching the laws linking the collected data to the fractional uptake coefficient. The lower limits of normal were arbitrarily defined, separating those 5% of subjects deviating most strongly from the mean. As a result, the relationship between the lower limit of normal and the theoretical mean value was 90% for the partial and total fractional uptake coefficient and 70% for the transfer capacity corrected per liter of ventilation.

  12. L-CYSTEINE INFLUENCE ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BREAD FROM HIGH EXTRACTION FLOURS WITH NORMAL GLUTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Stoica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing agents like L-cysteine are used in bread baking of strong flours, with short gluten to reduce mixing andfermentation time. The aim of this study is to determine if L-cysteine may be an improving agent for the quality of breadobtained from high extraction flours with normal gluten.The tested high extraction flour was analyzed by determination of several quality indicators such as wet gluten content,gluten deformation index, moisture, ash, Falling Number index and alveogram parameters of dough. The resultsindicate that flour has a normal gluten network, is “good” for bread making and has a normal α-amylase activity.After its addition to dough, L-cysteine improves the physical properties of bread made with high extraction flour. Theobserved increase for bread volume was maximum 10%, for porosity maximum 5,75% and for elasticity maximum2,58%, comparing with reference bread.The proposed solution can be assimilated into pan bread making technology.

  13. Food Service Guideline Policies on State Government Controlled Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaganjor, Hatidza; Bishop Kendrick, Katherine; Warnock, Amy Lowry; Onufrak, Stephen; Whitsel, Laurie P.; Ralston Aoki, Julie; Kimmons, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Food service guidelines (FSG) policies can impact millions of daily meals sold or provided to government employees, patrons, and institutionalized persons. This study describes a classification tool to assess FSG policy attributes and uses it to rate FSG policies. Design Quantitative content analysis. Setting State government facilities in the U.S. Subjects 50 states and District of Columbia. Measures Frequency of FSG policies and percent alignment to tool. Analysis State-level policies were identified using legal research databases to assess bills, statutes, regulations, and executive orders proposed or adopted by December 31, 2014. Full-text reviews were conducted to determine inclusion. Included policies were analyzed to assess attributes related to nutrition, behavioral supports, and implementation guidance. Results A total of 31 policies met inclusion criteria; 15 were adopted. Overall alignment ranged from 0% to 86%, and only 10 policies aligned with a majority of FSG policy attributes. Western States had the most FSG policy proposed or adopted (11 policies). The greatest number of FSG policies were proposed or adopted (8 policies) in 2011, followed by the years 2013 and 2014. Conclusion FSG policies proposed or adopted through 2014 that intended to improve the food and beverage environment on state government property vary considerably in their content. This analysis offers baseline data on the FSG landscape and information for future FSG policy assessments. PMID:27630113

  14. Properties of the electrostatically driven helical plasma state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Cihan; Finn, John M.; Nebel, Richard A.; Barnes, Daniel C.; Martin, Neal

    2018-02-01

    A novel plasma state has been found [Akçay et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 052503 (2017)] in the presence of a uniform applied axial magnetic field in periodic cylindrical geometry. This state is driven by external electrostatic fields provided by helical electrodes with a (m =1 ,n =1 ) (helical) symmetry where m and n represent the poloidal and axial harmonics. The resulting plasma is a function of the cylinder radius r safety factor q0(r ) just above the pitch of the electrodes m /n =1 in the interior, where the plasma is nearly force-free. However, at the edge the current density has a component perpendicular to the magnetic field B. This perpendicular current density drives nearly Alfvénic helical plasma flows, a notable feature of these states. This state is being studied for its possible application in DC electrical transformers. We present results on several issues of importance for these applications: the transient leading to the steady state; the twist and writhe of the field lines and their relation with the current density; the properties of the current density streamlines and length of the current density lines connected to the electrodes; the sensitivity to changes in the velocity boundary conditions; the effect of varying the radial resistivity profile; and the effects of a concentrated electrode potential.

  15. Institutional framework of state property pledge in nizhniy Novgorod Rregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat'yana Nikolaevna Danilova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Collateral legal relations are an important factor of the investment process development. They reduce opportunistic loan risks and increase partners’ confidence within the transaction. The mortgage fund of Nizhniy Novgorod region is nowadays involved in the implementation of investment and innovation projects up to 70%. Although theinstitutionalenvironment of regional collateral relation has drastically improved in the last 11 years, the current status is far away from the ideal. Imperfect legal framework of collateral legal relations with the public property leads not only to information asymmetry, but also to a reduced states’ incomefrom thesetransactions. The paper analyzes the current legislative pledge of state property, describes the main steps of its modernization, identifies the positive aspects and trends, as well as deficiencies, provides and gives a proof of necessary legal framework changes aimed at collateral financial relations efficiency improvement in the region

  16. Flowing cerebrospinal fluid in normal and hydrocephalic states: Appearance on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Kortman, K.E.; Burgoyne, B.; Eng, D.

    1986-01-01

    The signal intensity of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral aqueduct and lateral ventricles on magnetic resonance (MR) images was evaluated in 16 healthy individuals and in 32 patients with various forms of hydrocephalus (20 with chronic normal pressure hydrocephalus [NPH], seven with acute communicating hydrocephalus, and five with hydrocephalus ex vacuo [atrophy]). The low signal intensity frequently observed in the cerebral aqueduct is believed to reflect the pulsatile motion of CSF, which is related to the cardiac cycle. While this aqueductal flow void phenomenon can be observed in healthy individuals, it is most pronounced in patients with chronic, communicating NPH; is less evident in patients with acute, communicating hydrocephalus and is least evident in patients with atrophy. Ventricular compliance is known to be essentially normal in atrophy, mildly decreased in acute, communicating hydrocephalus; and severely decreased in NPH. The degree of aqueductal signal loss is believed to reflect the velocity of the pulsatile CSF motion, which in turn depends on the relative ventricular compliance and surface area

  17. Normal pure states of the von Nuemann algebra of bounded operators as Kaehler manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirelli, R.; Lanzavecchia, P.; Mania, A.

    1983-01-01

    The projective space of a complex Hilbert space H is considered both as a Kaehler manifold and as the set of pure states of the von Neumann algebra B(H). A link is given between these two structures. Special attention is devoted to topology, orientation and automorphisms of the structures and Wigner's theorem. (author)

  18. Efficient Computation of Transition State Resonances and Reaction Rates from a Quantum Normal Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, Roman; Waalkens, Holger; Wiggins, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    A quantum version of a recent formulation of transition state theory in phase space is presented. The theory developed provides an algorithm to compute quantum reaction rates and the associated Gamov-Siegert resonances with very high accuracy. The algorithm is especially efficient for

  19. Spectrum of {gamma} rays from the decay of SD to normal states in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassmann, D.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In B.a.7. we propose that the statistical spectrum emitted from a sharp single excited state serves as a probe of pairing in excited states. A specific test of this proposal is the comparison of the spectra from even-even and odd-even nuclei. Whereas a pair gap exists in an even-even nucleus, it gets filled in an odd-even nucleus. Consequently, low-energy transitions can arise in the latter case, whereas they are calculated to be absent in the former case because very few levels exist in the cold gap region. In addition, transitions between 1.4 - 2.2 MeV, which {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes} across the gap, are predicted to have lower yield in the odd-even nuclei. Serendipitously, decay from a superdeformed state serves as a good initial excited sharp state. We extracted the spectrum pairwise-coincident with SD lines in {sup 191}Hg from Gammasphere data and compared it with the equivalent spectra from the even-even nuclei {sup 192,194}Hg. The differences that are predicted to occur are indeed observed. Thus, the data support our proposal that the reduction of pairing with thermal excitation energy can be probed with statistical decay spectra.

  20. Excitation of non-normal parity states by inelastic proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, G. T. [Indiana Univ. (USA). Cyclotron Facility; Ikegami, Hidetsugu; Muraoka, Mitsuo [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1980-01-01

    This is a review of the works done at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. The purposes of works are to find excitations that should have especially simple particle-hole structure in proton inelastic scattering, to use the data on these excitations to try to understand the mechanism and the effective interaction for the (p, p') reaction in this energy range, and to go on to study the nuclear structure involved in less simple excitation. As an example, the single-nucleon level diagram for the region of Si-28 is presented. A high spin state was made, and its spin-parity was 6/sup -/. It was tried to interpret the data in terms of a on-step distorted-wave impulse approximation. The optical model parameters derived from the extensive and precise elastic scattering results were used. The cross sections for the excitation of the 6/sup -/ states found in various reactions were not large. The T = 1 state is mainly excited by the direct tensor interaction, while the T = 0 state gets its strength mainly from the knock-on exchange contribution of both the tensor and spin-orbit interactions. Experiments on Pb-208 and Fe-54 are being performed.

  1. Temperature dependence of velocity of sound in high-Tc superconductors in normal state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    A microscopic theoretical calculation of temperature dependence of velocity of sound in high temperature superconductors is addressed in this paper. The influence of model parameters of the system in its normal phase is investigated through numerical calculations. The results at the room temperature as well as low temperatures (∼ 25 K), are discussed. The dimensionless parameters involved in the calculations are the electron-phonon coupling (g), staggered magnetic field (h), hybridization (V), position of the f-level (d), temperature (t) and the conduction band width (ω). The model Hamiltonian contains the antiferromagnetism in conduction electrons of cooper and the electron-phonon interaction through the hybridization between conduction electrons and f-electrons of impurity atoms. The phonon Green's functions are calculated by Zubarev's technique. The velocity of sound is calculated in the long wavelength and finite temperature limit. (author)

  2. The steady-state of the (Normalized) LMS is schur convex

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hujaili, Khaled A.

    2016-06-24

    In this work, we demonstrate how the theory of majorization and schur-convexity can be used to assess the impact of input-spread on the Mean Squares Error (MSE) performance of adaptive filters. First, we show that the concept of majorization can be utilized to measure the spread in input-regressors and subsequently order the input-regressors according to their spread. Second, we prove that the MSE of the Least Mean Squares Error (LMS) and Normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithms are schur-convex, that is, the MSE of the LMS and the NLMS algorithms preserve the majorization order of the inputs which provide an analytical justification to why and how much the MSE performance of the LMS and the NLMS algorithms deteriorate as the spread in input increases. © 2016 IEEE.

  3. Pediatric and adult MRI atlas of bone marrow. Normal appearances, variants and diffuse disease states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiology, OH (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive atlas is unique in being devoted to the MRI appearances of bone marrow in the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and children. Normal MRI findings, including common variants and degenerative changes, are first documented. MRI appearances in the entire spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow disorders are then presented, with accompanying explanatory text. Among the conditions considered are multiple myeloma, the acute and chronic leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, storage disorders, and infections. Characteristic changes to bone marrow following various forms of treatment are also displayed and discussed. The selected images reflect the use of a variety of sequences and techniques, such as fat suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.

  4. The steady-state of the (Normalized) LMS is schur convex

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hujaili, Khaled A.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Moinuddin, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate how the theory of majorization and schur-convexity can be used to assess the impact of input-spread on the Mean Squares Error (MSE) performance of adaptive filters. First, we show that the concept of majorization can be utilized to measure the spread in input-regressors and subsequently order the input-regressors according to their spread. Second, we prove that the MSE of the Least Mean Squares Error (LMS) and Normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithms are schur-convex, that is, the MSE of the LMS and the NLMS algorithms preserve the majorization order of the inputs which provide an analytical justification to why and how much the MSE performance of the LMS and the NLMS algorithms deteriorate as the spread in input increases. © 2016 IEEE.

  5. Uninstructed BIAT faking when ego depleted or in normal state: differential effect on brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Englert, Christoph; Brand, Ralf; Kissler, Johanna

    2016-05-03

    Deception can distort psychological tests on socially sensitive topics. Understanding the cerebral processes that are involved in such faking can be useful in detection and prevention of deception. Previous research shows that faking a brief implicit association test (BIAT) evokes a characteristic ERP response. It is not yet known whether temporarily available self-control resources moderate this response. We randomly assigned 22 participants (15 females, 24.23 ± 2.91 years old) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design. Participants first completed a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on doping attitudes as a baseline measure and were then instructed to fake a negative doping attitude both when self-control resources were depleted and non-depleted. Cerebral activity during BIAT performance was assessed using high-density EEG. Compared to the baseline BIAT, event-related potentials showed a first interaction at the parietal P1, while significant post hoc differences were found only at the later occurring late positive potential. Here, significantly decreased amplitudes were recorded for 'normal' faking, but not in the depletion condition. In source space, enhanced activity was found for 'normal' faking in the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Behaviorally, participants were successful in faking the BIAT successfully in both conditions. Results indicate that temporarily available self-control resources do not affect overt faking success on a BIAT. However, differences were found on an electrophysiological level. This indicates that while on a phenotypical level self-control resources play a negligible role in deliberate test faking the underlying cerebral processes are markedly different.

  6. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - El Nino Warm Water Pool Returns to Near Normal State, Mar, 14, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Mar. 14, 1998 and sea surface height is an indicator of the heat content of the ocean. The image shows that the sea surface height along the central equatorial Pacific has returned to a near normal state. Oceanographers indicate this is a classic pattern, typical of a mature El Nino condition. Remnants of the El Nino warm water pool, shown in red and white, are situated to the north and south of the equator. These sea surface height measurements have provided scientists with a detailed view of how the 1997-98 El Nino's warm pool behaves because the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite measures the changing sea surface height with unprecedented precision. In this image, the white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level. The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using satellite imagery, buoy and ship data, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), has continued to issue an advisory indicating the so-called El Nino weather

  7. Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Rowe, D. L.

    2002-04-01

    Links between electroencephalograms (EEGs) and underlying aspects of neurophysiology and anatomy are poorly understood. Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters. A simple ordered arousal sequence in a reduced parameter space is inferred and found to be consistent with experimentally determined parameters of waking states. Instabilities arise at spectral peaks of the major clinically observed EEG rhythms-mainly slow wave, delta, theta, alpha, and sleep spindle-with each instability zone lying near its most common experimental precursor arousal states in the reduced space. Theta, alpha, and spindle instabilities evolve toward low-dimensional nonlinear limit cycles that correspond closely to EEGs of petit mal seizures for theta instability, and grand mal seizures for the other types. Nonlinear stimulus-induced entrainment and seizures are also seen, EEG spectra and potentials evoked by stimuli are reproduced, and numerous other points of experimental agreement are found. Inverse modeling enables physiological parameters underlying observed EEGs to be determined by a new, noninvasive route. This model thus provides a single, powerful framework for quantitative understanding of a wide variety of brain phenomena.

  8. Correcting human heart 31P NMR spectra for partial saturation. Evidence that saturation factors for PCr/ATP are homogeneous in normal and disease states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Paul A.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Weiss, Robert G.

    Heart PCr/ATP ratios measured from spatially localized 31P NMR spectra can be corrected for partial saturation effects using saturation factors derived from unlocalized chest surface-coil spectra acquired at the heart rate and approximate Ernst angle for phosphor creatine (PCr) and again under fully relaxed conditions during each 31P exam. To validate this approach in studies of normal and disease states where the possibility of heterogeneity in metabolite T1 values between both chest muscle and heart and normal and disease states exists, the properties of saturation factors for metabolite ratios were investigated theoretically under conditions applicable in typical cardiac spectroscopy exams and empirically using data from 82 cardiac 31P exams in six study groups comprising normal controls ( n = 19) and patients with dilated ( n = 20) and hypertrophic ( n = 5) cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease ( n = 16), heart transplants ( n = 19), and valvular heart disease ( n = 3). When TR ≪ T1,(PCr), with T1(PCr) ⩾ T1(ATP), the saturation factor for PCr/ATP lies in the range 1.5 ± 0.5, regardless of the T1 values. The precise value depends on the ratio of metabolite T1 values rather than their absolute values and is insensitive to modest changes in TR. Published data suggest that the metabolite T1 ratio is the same in heart and muscle. Our empirical data reveal that the saturation factors do not vary significantly with disease state, nor with the relative fractions of muscle and heart contributing to the chest surface-coil spectra. Also, the corrected myocardial PCr/ATP ratios in each normal or disease state bear no correlation with the corresponding saturation factors nor the fraction of muscle in the unlocalized chest spectra. However, application of the saturation correction (mean value, 1.36 ± 0.03 SE) significantly reduced scatter in myocardial PCr/ATP data by 14 ± 11% (SD) ( p ⩽ 0.05). The findings suggest that the relative T1 values of PCr and ATP are

  9. Superconducting and normal state properties of niobium-potasium chloride composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boysel, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The electrical resistivity, current-voltage characteristics, critical currents, and DC magnetic susceptibility of composites consisting of 50 μm grains of Nb randomly dispersed in a KCl medium were measured. Data were taken between 1.2K and 20K in magnetic fields from 0 to +- 5G. The resistivity and current-voltage characteristics were measured using a standard four-terminal AC technique with a voltage sensitivity of 1 to 2nV, and the magnetic susceptibility was measured using an rf SQUID magnetometer. We found that samples with rho/sub n/ 2 . For 0.1Ω-cm 10Ω-cm there was no superconducting transition. The susceptibility decreased slowly below the grain transition temperature T/sub infinity/ and even below T/sub c/ in samples which underwent resistive transitions. The shape of the resistive transitions and the kink structure in the I-V's require a phase coherent transition model to adequately describe them. However, the poor fit of the theory to our data, the existence of the voltage steps, and the changing susceptibility below the resistive transition indicate that sample disorder plays a more important role in the superconducting transition of composites than is currently accounted for by phase coherent transition theories

  10. A general native-state method for determination of proliferation capacity of human normal and tumor tissues in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.M.; Connors, K.M.; Meerson-Monosov, A.Z.; Herrera, H.; Price, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    An important need in cancer research and treatment is a physiological means in vitro by which to assess the proliferation capacity of human tumors and corresponding normal tissue for comparison. The authors have recently developed a native-state, three-dimensional, gel-supported primary culture system that allows every type of human cancer to grow in vitro at more than 90% frequency, with maintenance of tissue architecture, tumor-stromal interaction, and differentiated functions. Here they demonstrate that the native-state culture system allows proliferation indices to be determined for all solid cancer types explanted directly from surgery into long-term culture. Normal tissues also proliferate readily in this system. The degree of resolution of measurement of cell proliferation by histological autoradiography within the cultured tissues is greatly enhanced with the use of epi-illumination polarization microscopy. The histological status of the cultured tissues can be assessed simultaneously with the proliferation status. Carcinomas generally have areas of high epithelial proliferation with quiescent stromal cells. Sarcomas have high proliferation of cells of mesenchymal organ. Normal tissues can also proliferate at high rates. An image analysis system has been developed to automate proliferation determination. The high-resolution physiological means described here to measure the proliferation capacity of tissues will be important in further understanding of the deregulation of cell proliferation in cancer as well as in cancer prognosis and treatment

  11. Waste tyre rubberized concrete: properties at fresh and hardened state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, M A; Leuzzi, F

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of various concrete mixtures at fresh and hardened state, obtained by a partial substitution of coarse and fine aggregate with different volume percentages of waste tyres rubber particles, having the same dimensions of the replaced aggregate. Workability, unit weight, compressive and flexural strength and post-cracking behaviour were evaluated and a comparison of the results for the different rubcrete mixtures were proposed in order to define the better mix proportions in terms of mechanical properties of the rubberized concrete. Results showed in this paper were also compared to data reported in literature. Moreover, a preliminary geometrical, physical and mechanical characterization on scrap tyre rubber shreds was made. The rubberized concrete mixtures showed lower unit weight compared to plain concrete and good workability. The results of compressive and flexural tests indicated a larger reduction of mechanical properties of rubcrete when replacing coarse aggregate rather than fine aggregate. On the other hand, the post-cracking behaviour of rubberized concrete was positively affected by the substitution of coarse aggregate with rubber shreds, showing a good energy absorption and ductility indexes in the range observed for fibrous concrete, as suggested by standard (ASTM C1018-97, 1997). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interfacial properties at the organic-metal interface probed using quantum well states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Kai; Nakayama, Yasuo; Wang, Chin-Yung; Hsu, Jer-Chia; Pan, Chih-Hao; Machida, Shin-ichi; Pi, Tun-Wen; Ishii, Hisao; Tang, S.-J.

    2012-10-01

    Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the interfacial properties between the long-chain normal-alkane molecule n-CH3(CH2)42CH3 [tetratetracontane (TTC)] and uniform Ag films using the Ag quantum well states. The entire quantum well state energy band dispersions were observed to shift toward the Fermi level with increasing adsorption coverage of TTC up to 1 monolayer (ML). However, the energy shifts upon deposition of 1 ML of TTC are approximately inversely dependent on the Ag film thickness, indicating a quantum-size effect. In the framework of the pushback and image-force models, we applied the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule with the modified Coulomb image potential for the phase shift at the TTC/Ag interface to extract the dielectric constant for 1 ML of TTC.

  13. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L.; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane

  14. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington dos Santos Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5'ε, HindIII-Gγ, HindIII-ªγ, HincII-'ψβ1 and HincII-3''ψβ1 were analyzed in three populations (n = 114 from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the "quilombo community", from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+----,3(----+,4(-+--+and6(-++-+onthe βA chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (-++++and 14 (++--+, were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16 had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin and CAR (Central African Republic, with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

  15. Influence of the Kozloduy NPP on the health state of personnel at a normal operation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliznakov, V [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    Medical observation of the Kozloduy NPP personnel has been carried out for 20 years (1974-1993). The general disease incidence with temporary incapacity of the Kozloduy workers is lower than the general data for the country and workers at thermal power stations in particular. No cases of radiation injuries have been registered. The level of cumulative radiation doses varies from 50 to 620 mSv for the full working period of the personnel. Data about dependence of peripheral blood indicators on the cumulative dose are presented. It is concluded that the health state of the Kozloduy personnel is very good and does not indicate any specific pathology. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Influence of the Kozloduy NPP on the health state of personnel at a normal operation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakov, V.

    1995-01-01

    Medical observation of the Kozloduy NPP personnel has been carried out for 20 years (1974-1993). The general disease incidence with temporary incapacity of the Kozloduy workers is lower than the general data for the country and workers at thermal power stations in particular. No cases of radiation injuries have been registered. The level of cumulative radiation doses varies from 50 to 620 mSv for the full working period of the personnel. Data about dependence of peripheral blood indicators on the cumulative dose are presented. It is concluded that the health state of the Kozloduy personnel is very good and does not indicate any specific pathology. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Study on electric parameters of wild and cultivated cotton forms being in normal state and irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazirov, N.N.; Kamalov, N.; Norbaev, N.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation effect on electric conductivity of tissues in case of alternating current, electrical capacity and cell impedance has been studied. Gamma irradiation of seedlings results in definite changes of electric factors of cells (electric conductivity, electric capacity, impedance). It is shown that especially strong changes have been revealed during gamma irradiation of radiosensitive wild form of cotton plants. The deviation of cell electric factors from the standard depends on the violation of evolutionally composed ion heterogeneity and cell colloid system state, which results in changes in their structure and metabolism in them

  18. Neuropsychological profile in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease and normal global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jin; Zheng, Xiyuan; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wenhui; Cao, Hongmei; Qin, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments have been reported to be more common in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and education levels play an important role in intelligence. The studies on cognitive impairments in Chinese PD patients with higher education levels and normal global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination Score (MMSE) have not been reported. We enrolled 69 consecutive PD patients with over 6 years education levels and a MMSE score above 24 (of 30) and performed a battery of neuropsychological scales. There are extensive cognitive domain impairments in PD patients with "normal" global cognitive according to MMSE. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a highly sensitive scale to screen cognitive impairments in PD. The cutoff score of 28 on the MMSE screening for cognitive impairment in Chinese PD patients with high education levels may be more appropriate.

  19. Influence of Rock Properties on Wear of M and SR Grade Rubber with Varying Normal Load and Sliding Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Samir Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubbers are interesting materials and are extensively used in many mining industries for material transportation. Wear of rubber is a very complex phenomenon to understand. The present study aims to explain the influence of rock properties on wear of M and SR grade rubber used in top cover of conveyor belts. Extensive laboratory experiments were conducted under four combinations of normal load and sliding speed. The wear of both the rubber types were analyzed based on the rock properties like shear strength, abrasivity index and fractal dimension. A fully instrumented testing set up was used to study the wear of rubber samples under different operating conditions. In general, wear was higher for M grade rubber compared to SR grade rubber. Increase in shear strength of rocks depicts decreasing trend for the wear of M and SR grade rubber at lower load conditions. Moreover, a higher load combination displays no definite trend in both the rubbers. The strong correlation between the wear of rubber and frictional power for all rubber-rock combinations has given rise to the parameter A, which reflects the relative compatibility between the rubber and rock. Increase of Cerchar’s Abrasivity Index of rocks shows gradual enhancement in wear for M grade rubber in all the load and speed combinations whereas, it fails in SR grade rubber due to its higher strength. The wear of rubber tends to decrease marginally with the surface roughness of rocks at highest normal load and sliding speed in M grade rubber. However, the wear of M and SR grade rubber is influenced by the surface roughness of rocks.

  20. Measurement properties of screening and diagnostic tools for autism spectrum adults of mean normal intelligence: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, A; Russet, F; Mottron, L

    2017-07-01

    The autism spectrum (AS) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental variant associated with lifelong challenges. Despite the relevant importance of identifying AS in adults for epidemiological, public health, and quality of life issues, the measurement properties of the tools currently used to screen and diagnose adults without intellectual disabilities (ID) have not been assessed. This systematic review addresses the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the reported AS screening and diagnostic tools used in adults without ID. Electronic databases and bibliographies were searched, and identified papers evaluated against inclusion criteria. The PRISMA statement was used for reporting the review. We evaluated the quality of the papers using the COSMIN Checklist for psychometric data, and QUADAS-2 for diagnostic data. For the COSMIN assessment, evidence was considered to be strong when several methodologically good articles, or one excellent article, reported consistent evidence for or against a measurement property. For the QUADAS ratings, evidence was considered to be "satisfactory" if at least one study was rated with a low risk of bias and low concern about applicability. We included 38 articles comprising 32 studies, five reviews, and one book chapter and assessed nine tools (three diagnostic and six screening, including eight of their short versions). Among screening tools, only AQ-50, AQ-S, and RAADS-R and RAADS-14 were found to provide satisfactory or intermediate values for their psychometric properties, supported by strong or moderate evidence. Nevertheless, risks of bias and concerns on the applicability of these tools limit the evidence on their diagnostic properties. We found that none of the gold standard diagnostic tools used for children had satisfactory measurement properties. There is limited evidence for the measurement properties of the screening and diagnostic tools used for AS adults with a mean normal range of measured intelligence. This may lessen

  1. Molecular and excited state properties of isomeric scarlet disperse dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jihye; Szymczyk, Malgorzata; Mehraban, Nahid; Ding, Yi; Parrillo-Chapman, Lisa; El-Shafei, Ahmed; Freeman, Harold S.

    2018-06-01

    This work was part of an investigation aimed at characterizing the molecular and excited state properties of currently available disperse dyes developed to provide stability to extensive sunlight exposures when adsorbed on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers. Having completed the characterization of yellow, magenta, and cyan disperse dyes for PET-based fabrics used outdoors, our attention turned to the colors designed to enhance the color gamut of a standard 4-member (cyan/yellow/magenta/black) color set. The present study pertained specifically to the characterization of commercially available scarlet dyes. In this regard, HPLC analysis showed that a scarlet product used for PET coloration was mainly a 70/30 mixture of dyes, and the use of HRMS and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that these two dyes were azo compounds derived from isomeric pyridine-based couplers which differed in the location of the primary amino (sbnd NH2) and anilino (sbnd NHPh) groups attached to the pyridine ring. One dye structure has the sbnd NHPh group para to the azo group (Sc2), while the other has that group in the ortho position (Sc3). The presence of either ortho substituent provides photostabilization through intramolecular H-bonding with the azo moiety. Further, results from molecular modeling studies showed that the lower excited state oxidation potential of Sc3 relative to that of Sc2 allows Sc3 to function as an energy quencher for the excited state of Sc2 - through thermodynamically favorable electron transfer.

  2. 26 CFR 1.956-2 - Definition of United States property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., which is— (i) Tangible property (real or personal) located in the United States; (ii) Stock of a... year ending June 30, 1964, R Corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property for... United States property during its taxable year 1965, S Corporation's increase in earnings invested in...

  3. Thermoelectric Power and Normal State of the High - Tc Copper Oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodenough, J.B.; Zhou, J.S.; Besuker, G.I.

    1995-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the thermoelectric power and resistance for the system La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 , 0≤ x ≤0.30, are presented and interpreted. The following model emerges: (1) In the underdoped region 0 2 sheets by Sr substitution form non-adiabatic large polarons containing 6 ± 1 Cu atoms; a cooperative pseudo Jahn-Teller vibronic coupling increases the size of the polaron, but a contraction of the equilibrium Cu-O distance inside the polaron limits the size. Polaron motion occurs via a tunneling of one Cu - O bond at a time. A dynamic segregation into a hole-poor parent phase and a hole-rich superconductive phase occurs below 150K. (2) The range 0.10 2 sheet. In the polaron liquid, pairs of polarons form zig-zag polaron chains; these chains form an ordered array of alternating polaron and parent-phase stripes. Complete ordering of the stripes occurs below Tc. (4) In the overdoped region x>0.27, polaron overcrowding suppresses polaron formation; however, the vibronic coupling stabilized by the dynamic pseudo Jahn -Teller deformations persists to give unusual properties to the overdoped metallic phase. (author)

  4. Effect of normal impurities on anisotropic superconductors with variable density of states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M. D.; Carbotte, J. P.

    1982-06-01

    We develop a generalized BCS theory of impure superconductors with an anisotropic electron-electron interaction represented by the factorizable model introduced by Markowitz and Kadanoff, and a variable electronic density of states N(ɛ), assumed to peak at the Fermi energy, which is modeled by a Lorentzian superimposed on a uniform background. As the impurity scattering is increased, the enhancement of T c by both the anisotropy and the peak in N(ɛ) is washed out. The reduction is investigated for different values of the anisotropy and different peak heights and widths. It is concluded that the effects of anisotropy and the peak are reduced together in such a way that any effect due to anisotropy is not easily distinguishable from that due to the peak.

  5. Effect of normal impurities on anisotropic superconductors with variable density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, M.D.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    We develop a generalized BCS theory of impure superconductors with an anisotropic electron--electron interaction represented by the factorizable model introduced by Markowitz and Kadanoff, and a variable electronic density of states N(epsilon-c), assumed to peak at the Fermi energy, which is modeled by a Lorentzian superimposed on a uniform background. As the impurity scattering is increased, the enhancement of T/sub c/ by both the anisotropy and the peak in N(epsilon-c) is washed out. The reduction is investigated for different values of the anisotropy and different peak heights and widths. It is concluded that the effects of anisotropy and the peak are reduced together in such a way that any effect due to anisotropy is not easily distinguishable from that due to the peak

  6. How Can Polarization States of Reflected Light from Snow Surfaces Inform Us on Surface Normals and Ultimately Snow Grain Size Measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. M.; Flanner, M.; Yang, P.; Yi, B.; Huang, X.; Feldman, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Snow Grain Size and Pollution (SGSP) algorithm is a method applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data to estimate snow grain size from space-borne measurements. Previous studies validate and quantify potential sources of error in this method, but because it assumes flat snow surfaces, however, large scale variations in surface normals can cause biases in its estimates due to its dependence on solar and observation zenith angles. To address these variations, we apply the Monte Carlo method for photon transport using data containing the single scattering properties of different ice crystals to calculate polarization states of reflected monochromatic light at 1500nm from modeled snow surfaces. We evaluate the dependence of these polarization states on solar and observation geometry at 1500nm because multiple scattering is generally a mechanism for depolarization and the ice crystals are relatively absorptive at this wavelength. Using 1500nm thus results in a higher number of reflected photons undergoing fewer scattering events, increasing the likelihood of reflected light having higher degrees of polarization. In evaluating the validity of the model, we find agreement with previous studies pertaining to near-infrared spectral directional hemispherical reflectance (i.e. black-sky albedo) and similarities in measured bidirectional reflectance factors, but few studies exist modeling polarization states of reflected light from snow surfaces. Here, we present novel results pertaining to calculated polarization states and compare dependences on solar and observation geometry for different idealized snow surfaces. If these dependencies are consistent across different ice particle shapes and sizes, then these findings could inform the SGSP algorithm by providing useful relationships between measurable physical quantities and solar and observation geometry to better understand variations in snow surface normals from remote sensing observations.

  7. Temperature dependence of hole mobility in Mott insulators: Normal-state resistivity of high-T/sub c/ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.

    1989-01-01

    We consider the diffusion of a hole injected in a Mott insulator described by a one-band Hubbard Hamiltonian at half-filling and in the atomic limit. The diffusion coefficient turns out to be temperature independent exactly giving 1/T dependence for the drift mobility via the Einstein relation. This is in marked disagreement with the (1/T)/sup 1/2/ dependence obtaining in the self-retracing path approximation at low temperatures. We note the possible relevance of our result to the linear T dependence of the normal-state resistivity observed in the high-T/sub c/ oxide superconductors

  8. Protonation states of histidine and other key residues in deoxy normal human adult hemoglobin by neutron protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevsky, Andrey; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Shibayama, Naoya; Park, Sam-Yong; Ishikawa, Takuya; Mustyakimov, Marat; Fisher, S. Zoe; Langan, Paul; Morimoto, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Using neutron diffraction analysis, the protonation states of 35 of 38 histidine residues were determined for the deoxy form of normal human adult hemoglobin. Distal and buried histidines may contribute to the increased affinity of the deoxy state for hydrogen ions and its decreased affinity for oxygen compared with the oxygenated form. The protonation states of the histidine residues key to the function of deoxy (T-state) human hemoglobin have been investigated using neutron protein crystallography. These residues can reversibly bind protons, thereby regulating the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. By examining the OMIT F o − F c and 2F o − F c neutron scattering maps, the protonation states of 35 of the 38 His residues were directly determined. The remaining three residues were found to be disordered. Surprisingly, seven pairs of His residues from equivalent α or β chains, αHis20, αHis50, αHis58, αHis89, βHis63, βHis143 and βHis146, have different protonation states. The protonation of distal His residues in the α 1 β 1 heterodimer and the protonation of αHis103 in both subunits demonstrates that these residues may participate in buffering hydrogen ions and may influence the oxygen binding. The observed protonation states of His residues are compared with their ΔpK a between the deoxy and oxy states. Examination of inter-subunit interfaces provided evidence for interactions that are essential for the stability of the deoxy tertiary structure

  9. Energy information needs for U. S. state-level policy making: Minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. What energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. The authors find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments.

  10. Energy-information needs for US state-level policy making: minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. Hence, we ask: what energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. We find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments. 7 references, 6 tables.

  11. [Basophilic line of the articular cartilage in normal and various pathological states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, L R

    1987-04-01

    Epiphyses of long tubular bones in the man and animals of various age, as well as experimental material of the adjuvant arthritis, with special reference to the basal part of the articular cartilage have been studied by means of histological, histochemical and histometrical methods. The structural-chemical organization of the basophilic line (tidemark) of the articular cartilage ensures its barrier role and participation in regulating selective permeability. Reconstruction of the tidemark in the process of physiological ageing and in cases of the articular pathology is aimed to preserve its integrity and in this way a complete differentiation of the noncalcified and calcified structures is secured. Disturbance of the basophilic line results in changes of the articular selective permeability, in invasion of vessels and structural elements of the bone marrow, and in development of profound distrophic and destructive changes of the cartilage--in deforming artrosis. Deflations in the structural-chemical organization of the tidemark indicate certain disturbances in the state of the system articular cartilage--subchondral bone. These data can be of prognostic importance.

  12. Equation of state and thermodynamic properties of BCC metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Van Hung, N.T. Hoa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The moment method in statistical dynamics is used to study the equation of state and thermodynamic properties of the bcc metals taking into account the anharmonicity effects of the lattice vibrations and hydrostatic pressures. The explicit expressions of the lattice constant, thermal expansion  oefficient, and the specific heats of the bcc metals are derived within the fourth order moment approximation. The termodynamic quantities of W, Nb, Fe,and Ta metals are calculated as a function of the pressure, and they are in good agreement with the corresponding results obtained from the first principles calculations and experimental results. The effective pair potentials work well for the calculations of bcc metals.

  13. Ground-state properties of neutron magic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, G., E-mail: gauravphy@gmail.com [Govt. Women Engineering College, Department of Physics (India); Kaushik, M. [Shankara Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (India)

    2017-03-15

    A systematic study of the ground-state properties of the entire chains of even–even neutron magic nuclei represented by isotones of traditional neutron magic numbers N = 8, 20, 40, 50, 82, and 126 has been carried out using relativistic mean-field plus Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer approach. Our present investigation includes deformation, binding energy, two-proton separation energy, single-particle energy, rms radii along with proton and neutron density profiles, etc. Several of these results are compared with the results calculated using nonrelativistic approach (Skyrme–Hartree–Fock method) along with available experimental data and indeed they are found with excellent agreement. In addition, the possible locations of the proton and neutron drip-lines, the (Z, N) values for the new shell closures, disappearance of traditional shell closures as suggested by the detailed analyzes of results are also discussed in detail.

  14. A particle-number conserving microscopic approach to octupole deformation of normal deformed and superdeformed states in 194Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhan Hao, T.V.; Phu Dat, D.H.; Hoang Tung, N.; Tran, H.N.

    2015-01-01

    The left–right asymmetric deformation of normal deformed (ND) and superdeformed (SD) states of 194 Pb has been investigated in the framework of the parity-symmetry projection of the highly truncated diagonalization approach (HTDA), which is suited to treat the correlations in an explicitly particle-number conserving microscopic approach. A Skyrme energy density functional using the SIII and SkM* interactions has been considered to treat the particle–hole channel, whereas a density-independent δ force has been adopted for the residual interaction. The obtained results are compared with previous approaches. The calculated octupole phonon excitation energy is found to be in good qualitative agreement with available data in the ND state. (author)

  15. Cerebral blood flow measured by arterial spin labeling MRI at resting state in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Gordon, Marc L; Goldberg, Terry E

    2017-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging uses arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this review, based on ASL studies in the resting state, we discuss state-of-the-art technical and data processing improvements in ASL, and ASL CBF changes in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other types of dementia. We propose that vascular and AD risk factors should be considered when evaluating CBF changes in aging, and that other validated biomarkers should be used as inclusion criteria or covariates when evaluating CBF changes in MCI and AD. With improvements in hardware and experimental design, ASL is proving to be an increasingly promising tool for exploring pathogenetic mechanisms, early detection, monitoring disease progression and pharmacological response, and differential diagnosis of AD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary study to evaluate the validity of the mini-mental state examination in a normal population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükdeveci, Ayse A; Kutlay, Sehim; Elhan, Atilla H; Tennant, Alan

    2005-03-01

    Although the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in clinical practice, normative scores for a healthy population have not been documented in Turkey. The aim in this study was to validate the MMSE in a healthy population and to provide normal scores. Internal construct validity of the Turkish version of MMSE among a preliminary sample of 406 normal people was assessed by Rasch unidimensional measurement model. Scores of the normal sample varied according to age and education but not according to sex. The data derived from this sample showed poor fit to the Rasch model (mean item fit, -2.082, SD 3.022). Only four of 11 items met model expectations. There was also differential item functioning by education and age for most items. Thus the internal construct validity of the Turkish MMSE in a normative sample could not be demonstrated by Rasch analysis. The scale failed modern psychometric criteria for scalability. We would therefore suggest other large normative MMSE data sets to be tested in terms of internal construct validity. If these findings are replicated, the validity of MMSE norms and their consequent use in clinical practice should be reconsidered.

  17. Impact of calcification state on the inherent optical properties of Emiliania huxleyi coccoliths and coccolithophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of coccoliths and coccolithophores is important in oceanic radiative transfer simulations and remote sensing implementations. In this study, the invariant imbedding T-matrix method (II-TM) is employed to investigate the IOPs of coccoliths and coccolithophores. The Emiliania huxleyi (Ehux) coccolith and coccolithophore models are built based on observed biometric parameters including the eccentricity, the number of slits, and the rim width of detached coccoliths. The calcification state that specifies the amount of calcium of a single coccolith is critical in the determination of the size–volume/mass relationship (note, the volume/mass of coccoltihs at different calcification states are different although the diameters are the same). The present results show that the calcification state, namely, under-calcification, normal-calcification, or over-calcification, significantly influences the backscattering cross section and the phase matrix. Furthermore, the linear depolarization ratio of the light scattered by coccoliths is sensitive to the degree of calcification, and provides a potentially valuable parameter for interpreting oceanic remote sensing data. The phase function of an ensemble of randomly oriented coccolithophores has a similar pattern to that of individual coccoliths, but the forward scattering is dominant in the coccolithophores due to the large geometric cross sections. The linear depolarization ratio associated with coccolithophores is found to be larger than that for coccoliths as polarization is more sensitive to multiple scattering than the phase function. The simulated coccolithophore phase matrix numerical results are compared with laboratory measurements. For scattering angles larger than 100°, an increase of the phase function with respect to the scattering angle is confirmed based on the present coccolithophore model while the spherical approximation fails. - Highlights: • Realistic

  18. Implementing a finite-state off-normal and fault response system for disruption avoidance in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidietis, N. W.; Choi, W.; Hahn, S. H.; Humphreys, D. A.; Sammuli, B. S.; Walker, M. L.

    2018-05-01

    A finite-state off-normal and fault response (ONFR) system is presented that provides the supervisory logic for comprehensive disruption avoidance and machine protection in tokamaks. Robust event handling is critical for ITER and future large tokamaks, where plasma parameters will necessarily approach stability limits and many systems will operate near their engineering limits. Events can be classified as off-normal plasmas events, e.g. neoclassical tearing modes or vertical displacements events, or faults, e.g. coil power supply failures. The ONFR system presented provides four critical features of a robust event handling system: sequential responses to cascading events, event recovery, simultaneous handling of multiple events and actuator prioritization. The finite-state logic is implemented in Matlab®/Stateflow® to allow rapid development and testing in an easily understood graphical format before automated export to the real-time plasma control system code. Experimental demonstrations of the ONFR algorithm on the DIII-D and KSTAR tokamaks are presented. In the most complex demonstration, the ONFR algorithm asynchronously applies ‘catch and subdue’ electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) injection scheme to suppress a virulent 2/1 neoclassical tearing mode, subsequently shuts down ECCD for machine protection when the plasma becomes over-dense, and enables rotating 3D field entrainment of the ensuing locked mode to allow a safe rampdown, all in the same discharge without user intervention. When multiple ONFR states are active simultaneously and requesting the same actuator (e.g. neutral beam injection or gyrotrons), actuator prioritization is accomplished by sorting the pre-assigned priority values of each active ONFR state and giving complete control of the actuator to the state with highest priority. This early experience makes evident that additional research is required to develop an improved actuator sharing protocol, as well as a methodology to

  19. Quantification of the clustering properties of nuclear states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Dickmann, F.

    1985-05-01

    The amount of particular type of clustering in a nuclear state is defined in this paper as the norm square of the projection of the wave function onto the particular cluster model subspace. It is pointed out that, although the clusters can not be localized in space by measurement, the amount of clustering characterizes the cluster formation in close analogy with a quantum mechanical probability. The cluster model component of the wave function is proved to have a variational property. This facilitates the computation of the amount of clustering. The model dependence of the amounts of various clusterings and their relationship to the corresponding spectroscopic factors are studied via numerical examples for two models of sup(6)Li. It is concluded that, in a relative sense, the spectroscopic factor, which is more directly related to experiment, is also characteristic of the clustering contents of different states of the same nucleus, but it can not be used for comparisons between different nuclei or clusterings. (author)

  20. Thermodynamic and kinetic properties of amorphous and liquid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granato, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The magnitude and temperature dependence of the liquid state shear modulus G, specific heat C p , diffusivity D, and viscosity η should all be closely related, according to the interstitialcy model, if a recent proposal by Dyre et al. is generally true. They suppose that the viscosity is given by η = η 0 exp (F/kT), where η 0 is a reference viscosity and F is given by the work required to shove aside neighboring particle in a diffusion process, where F = GV c and V c is a characteristic volume. In the interstitialcy model the high frequency thermodynamic liquid state shear modulus is given by G(T) = G 0 exp [-γ(T/T 0 - 1)], where G 0 is the shear modulus at a reference temperature T 0 , which can be taken as the glass temperature. The resulting non-Arrhenius behavior of the viscosity is compared with experimental data. A critical quantitative analysis for a Zr 41.2 Ti 13.8 Cu 12.5 Ni 10 Be 225 alloy does not support the shoving model, but the thermodynamic properties can be understood in terms of mixed interstitials composed of metal-beryllium complexes

  1. Toxic properties of nanostructures: current state of question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovskaya, E.G.; Smol'nik, N.S.; Mel'nov, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Manifestation of the toxic properties of engineered nanomaterials in the interaction with biological objects defined unusual physicochemical properties, structural features and the size of nanoparticles. (authors)

  2. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukauskas, A; Vaicekauskas, R; Shur, M S

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  3. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukauskas, A [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, bldg. III, Vilnius, LT-10222 (Lithuania); Vaicekauskas, R [Department of Computer Science, Vilnius University, Naugarduko g. 24, Vilnius, LT-03225 (Lithuania); Shur, M S, E-mail: arturas.zukauskas@ff.vu.l [Department of Electrical, Computer, and System Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-09-08

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  4. Spin fluctuations in liquid 3He: a strong-coupling calculation of T/sub c/ and the normal-state distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, D.; Layzer, A.

    1975-01-01

    The Berk--Schrieffer method of strong-coupling superconductivity for nearly ferromagnetic systems is generalized to arbitrary L-state pairing and realistic (hard-core) potentials. Application to 3 He yields a P-state transition but very low values for T/sub c/ and an unsatisfactory normal-state momentum distribution

  5. Effect of altered thyroid state on the in situ mechanical properties of adult cat soleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. R.; Zhong, H.; Hodgson, J. A.; Grossman, E. J.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the responsiveness of cat hindlimb muscles to thyroid manipulation, adult female cats were made hypothyroid (thyroidectomy plus tapazole treatment), hyperthyroid (synthroid pellets), or maintained euthyroid. After 4 months, the hypothyroid soleus had slower time-to-peak (TPT, 80%) and half-relaxation (HRT) times, whereas the hyperthyroid soleus had faster TPT (20%) and HRT than euthyroid cats. The tension at low stimulation frequencies (5-15 Hz) was higher in hypothyroid and lower in hyperthyroid cats compared to euthyroid cats. Muscle weight, maximum twitch and tetanic (Po) tensions, and maximum rates of shortening (Vmax) were similar across groups. The soleus of hypothyroid cats was more fatigable than normal. The myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition, based on gel electrophoresis, was unaffected by thyroid hormone manipulation. Based on the reaction of monoclonal antibodies for specific MHCs, some fast fibers in the hypothyroid cats coexpressed developmental MHC. These data indicate that 4 months of an altered thyroid state result in changes in the isometric twitch speed properties of the cat soleus, but not the tension-related or isotonic properties. Further, a chronic decrease in thyroid hormone had a greater impact than a chronic increase in thyroid hormone on the mechanical properties of the adult cat soleus. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. An efficient reliable method to estimate the vaporization enthalpy of pure substances according to the normal boiling temperature and critical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmandoust, Babak; Sanjari, Ehsan; Vatani, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    The heat of vaporization of a pure substance at its normal boiling temperature is a very important property in many chemical processes. In this work, a new empirical method was developed to predict vaporization enthalpy of pure substances. This equation is a function of normal boiling temperature, critical temperature, and critical pressure. The presented model is simple to use and provides an improvement over the existing equations for 452 pure substances in wide boiling range. The results s...

  7. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodin, P; Martinsen, S; Mannerkorpi, K; Löfgren, M; Bileviciute-Ljungar, I; Kosek, E; Fransson, P

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity.

  8. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Flodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM. However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity.

  9. Evaluation of normal values of Ca-15-3 and PSA for the people of Northern State of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bafaraj, S.M.I.

    2007-06-01

    In this study blood samples were collected from 665 female from Northern State of Sudan, 606 of those females are married and only 59 females are singles. These samples were used to estimate the normal CA 15-3 which was found to be similar to the international one and that is ranged from zero to 35 mlu/ml. When the same techniques were used using samples collected from patients who have been clinically diagnosed as breast cancer, CA 15-3 levels were found to be higher in most of these samples and the other finding is that the risk of getting breast cancer is starting from age 25 years. On the other hand , 650 males were participated in this study to estimate normal value of PSA, of them 553 were married. And again the levels estimated for this marker was found to be the same as that used globally which is ranged from zero to four ng/ml. When blood samples from prostate patients were assayed for PSA, the results showed high levels of this marker in almost all the samples as expected but the important finding is that prostate cancer is age depend. At the end of the project, many recommendations highlighted to be considered in the near future.(Author)

  10. Ground state properties of MnB{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Jan Lennart; Steinki, Nico; Schulze Grachtrup, Dirk; Menzel, Dirk; Suellow, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik der Kondensierten Materie, TU Braunschweig (Germany); Knappschneider, Arno; Albert, Barbara [Eduard-Zintl-Institut fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Recently, single crystalline MnB{sub 4} was synthesized for the first time, yielding microscale crystals with dimensions of the order of 200 μm. Based on band structure calculations, it was argued that the material is semiconducting as result of a Peierls distortion. Conversely, in a study of polycrystalline material it was concluded that the material is a weakly ferromagnetic metal. To establish if MnB{sub 4} is a semiconductor we have carried out single crystal four point resistivity measurements. For this purpose a setup for measuring microscale samples was developed and characterized. Qualitatively, we find semiconducting behavior (increasing resistivity for decreasing temperature), although a band gap could not be derived because of a non-linear Arrhenius plot. Our data are consistent with MnB{sub 4} being a pseudogap/small gap material as proposed. A pronounced sample dependence of the transport properties points to the presence of impurity states. For the single crystals no ferromagnetic signatures could be obtained, suggesting an extrinsic cause of it in polycrystalline material.

  11. Normal-state transport parameters of epitaxial thin films of YBa2Cu3O/sub 7-//sub δ/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormer, H.L.; Levi, A.F.J.; Baldwin, K.W.; Anzlowar, M.; Boebinger, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    We report on a striking correlation in the electrical transport behavior of very high-quality (j/sub c/∼3.4 x 10 6 A/cm 2 at T = 77 K) epitaxial thin films of high-T/sub c/ Y-Ba-Cu-O in the normal state. With increasing superconducting performance, as characterized by the transition temperature, transition-temperature width, and critical current density, the resistivity rho, and the Hall coefficient R/sub H/, both assume remarkably simple temperature dependences rho = αT and R/sub H//sup -1/ = βT leading to a Hall mobility μ/sub H/proportionalT/sup -2/. The magnetoresistance at 10 T is less than Δrho/rho<10/sup -3/. We discuss an extreme two-carrier model to assess the T dependence of R/sub H/. .AE

  12. Excited-state properties from ground-state DFT descriptors: A QSPR approach for dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, Guillaume; Jacquemin, Denis; Wathelet, Valérie; Perpète, Eric A; Rotureau, Patricia; Adamo, Carlo

    2010-02-26

    This work presents a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR)-based approach allowing an accurate prediction of the excited-state properties of organic dyes (anthraquinones and azobenzenes) from ground-state molecular descriptors, obtained within the (conceptual) density functional theory (DFT) framework. The ab initio computation of the descriptors was achieved at several levels of theory, so that the influence of the basis set size as well as of the modeling of environmental effects could be statistically quantified. It turns out that, for the entire data set, a statistically-robust four-variable multiple linear regression based on PCM-PBE0/6-31G calculations delivers a R(adj)(2) of 0.93 associated to predictive errors allowing for rapid and efficient dye design. All the selected descriptors are independent of the dye's family, an advantage over previously designed QSPR schemes. On top of that, the obtained accuracy is comparable to the one of the today's reference methods while exceeding the one of hardness-based fittings. QSPR relationships specific to both families of dyes have also been built up. This work paves the way towards reliable and computationally affordable color design for organic dyes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermophysical properties of sodium in the liquid and gaseous states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurnay, K.

    1981-02-01

    A system of temperature and density dependent thermal-property-functions has been developed and checked for the sodium, using all of the accessible experimental data and the mutual relationships of the properties. In extending these properties beyond the range of the measurements substance independent physical relations have been used. The property-descriptions are valid for all temperatures above the melting point of the sodium and for all densities below the melting density of the liquid. The system consists of the following thermal properties: pressure, heat capacity at constant volume, thermal conductivity. (orig.) [de

  14. Current Law Limits the State Department's Authority to Manage Certain Overseas Properties Cost Effectively

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Jess

    2002-01-01

    The Department of State is the central manager for real estate at U.S. embassies and consulates and has the statutory authority to sell properties and use the sales proceeds to acquire and maintain other overseas properties...

  15. Magnetic properties of the charged Anderson-Brinkman-Morel state: Absence of Hc1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, T.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic properties of the charged Anderson-Brinkman-Morel state are investigated theoretically as a special case of time-reversal-symmetry-breaking superconductivity. The magnetic field is expressed as a superposition of the one from the supercurrent j s (r) and that from the magnetic moment l(r) due to the internal motion of each Cooper pair. This procedure enables us to get rid of the paradox in zero external field that the moments are ordered (l=const) with no magnetic field nor supercurrent, leading to a natural conclusion that there is indeed a field due to l(r) which is screened almost completely by j s (r). If the system size is large enough compared with the penetration depth, the direction l(r) changes gradually toward the surface and the current j s (r) flows over the bulk. This means that the system is essentially nonuniform and forms a coreless vortex in zero external field. As for the magnetization process, the lattice of coreless vortices grows from the infinitesimal external field without H c1 (i.e., no Meissner state), which is subsequently followed by the first-order transition to the lattice with cores. Finally, the transition to the normal state occurs at H c2 enhanced over that of the conventional type-II superconductor due to the field l. An example of the magnetization curve is also given

  16. Magnetic properties of the charged Anderson-Brinkman-Morel state: Absence of Hc1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, T.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic properties of the charged Anderson-Brinkman-Morel (ABM) state are investigated theoretically as a special case of time-reversal-symmetry-breaking (T-symmetry breaking) superconductivity, the possibility of which is discussed in heavy-fermion and high T c superconductors. In the ABM state there are two sources of current: The one from the supercurrent j s (r) and that from the moment l(r) due to the internal motion of Cooper pairs. In zero external field, the field h m (r) from l(r) is screened almost completely by j s (r), as expected, with l(r) changing gradually towards the surface and j s (r) flowing over the bulk. This means changing gradually towards the surface and j s (r) flowing over the bulk. This means that the system as a whole is a nonsingular vortex. As for the magnetization process, the lattice of nonsingular vortices grows from the infinitesimal external field without H c1 , subsequently followed by the first-order transition to the lattice with singular cores. Finally, the transition to the normal state occurs at H c2 which is enhanced over that of the conventional type-II superconductor due to the field l. (orig.)

  17. Intraocular pressure measurements and corneal biomechanical properties using a dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer, after several keratoplasty techniques, versus normal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, J; Granget, E; Ho Wang Yin, G; Sampo, M; Hoffart, L

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical properties of the cornea and their impact on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement after lamellar keratoplasty, compared to healthy eyes, using a non-contact tonometer with a Scheimpflug camera. This study, from 2014 to 2015, included 22 primary DSAEK, 5 DALK, 6 DSAEK after PK, and 50 control eyes. Using a non-contact tonometer with a high-speed Scheimpflug camera (CORVIS ST, Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany), several biomechanical parameters were recorded, including radius at highest concavity (R hc ) and defomation amplitude (DA). Central corneal thickness (CCT) and uncorrected IOP, were also recorded. For the control eyes only, a corrected IOP was calculated, based on age, central corneal thickness, and biomechanical parameters. R hc was significantly lower after DALK (R hc =5.54±0.71, P=0.007) and DSAEK (R hc =6.26±0.77, P=0.042) compared to control eyes (R hc =6.82±0.76). DA was higher after DALK and DSAEK, but not significantly (respectively 1.24±0.09 P=0.41 and 1.22±0.15, P=0.923) compared to normal eyes (1.18±0.15). Uncorrected IOP was not significantly different between post-keratoplasty and control eyes. In control eyes, the corrected IOP (15.23±1.88) was lower than the uncorrected IOP (16.10±2.34); a statistically significant positive correlation between R hc and CCT (R 2 =0.6020, P<0001), and a significant negative correlation between DA and CCT (R 2 =-0.641, P<0.0001) were found. Our study showed that, after lamellar keratoplasty, corneal biomechanics are altered. Corneas with higher ocular rigidity will show a lower DA and a higher R hc . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Objective classification of latent behavioral states in bio-logging data using multivariate-normal hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Joe Scutt; Patterson, Toby A; Leroy, Bruno; Pilling, Graham M; Nicol, Simon J

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of complex time-series data from ecological system study requires quantitative tools for objective description and classification. These tools must take into account largely ignored problems of bias in manual classification, autocorrelation, and noise. Here we describe a method using existing estimation techniques for multivariate-normal hidden Markov models (HMMs) to develop such a classification. We use high-resolution behavioral data from bio-loggers attached to free-roaming pelagic tuna as an example. Observed patterns are assumed to be generated by an unseen Markov process that switches between several multivariate-normal distributions. Our approach is assessed in two parts. The first uses simulation experiments, from which the ability of the HMM to estimate known parameter values is examined using artificial time series of data consistent with hypotheses about pelagic predator foraging ecology. The second is the application to time series of continuous vertical movement data from yellowfin and bigeye tuna taken from tuna tagging experiments. These data were compressed into summary metrics capturing the variation of patterns in diving behavior and formed into a multivariate time series used to estimate a HMM. Each observation was associated with covariate information incorporating the effect of day and night on behavioral switching. Known parameter values were well recovered by the HMMs in our simulation experiments, resulting in mean correct classification rates of 90-97%, although some variance-covariance parameters were estimated less accurately. HMMs with two distinct behavioral states were selected for every time series of real tuna data, predicting a shallow warm state, which was similar across all individuals, and a deep colder state, which was more variable. Marked diurnal behavioral switching was predicted, consistent with many previous empirical studies on tuna. HMMs provide easily interpretable models for the objective classification of

  19. Liquid state properties of certain noble and transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, G.M.; Rahman, A.; Khaleque, M.A.; Rashid, R.I.M.A.; Mujibur Rahman, S.M.

    1998-07-01

    Certain structural, thermodynamic and atomic transport properties of a number of liquid noble and transition metals are reported. The underlying theory combines together a simple form of the N-body potential and the thermodynamically self-consistent variational modified hypernetted chain (VMHNC) theory of liquid. The static structure factors calculated by using the VMHNC resemble the hard sphere (HS) values. Consequently the HS model is used to calculate the thermodynamic properties viz. specific heat, entropy, isothermal compressibility and atomic transport properties. (author)

  20. An assessment of interstate safety investment properties in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) commissioned the current study, targeting the entire interstate : mainline network in Washington State, to provide strategic direction to multi-biennial investment interstate locations that of...

  1. Model-based analysis and control of a network of basal ganglia spiking neurons in the normal and Parkinsonian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Khalil, Hassan K.; Oweiss, Karim G.

    2011-08-01

    Controlling the spatiotemporal firing pattern of an intricately connected network of neurons through microstimulation is highly desirable in many applications. We investigated in this paper the feasibility of using a model-based approach to the analysis and control of a basal ganglia (BG) network model of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) spiking neurons through microstimulation. Detailed analysis of this network model suggests that it can reproduce the experimentally observed characteristics of BG neurons under a normal and a pathological Parkinsonian state. A simplified neuronal firing rate model, identified from the detailed HH network model, is shown to capture the essential network dynamics. Mathematical analysis of the simplified model reveals the presence of a systematic relationship between the network's structure and its dynamic response to spatiotemporally patterned microstimulation. We show that both the network synaptic organization and the local mechanism of microstimulation can impose tight constraints on the possible spatiotemporal firing patterns that can be generated by the microstimulated network, which may hinder the effectiveness of microstimulation to achieve a desired objective under certain conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that the feedback control design aided by the mathematical analysis of the simplified model is indeed effective in driving the BG network in the normal and Parskinsonian states to follow a prescribed spatiotemporal firing pattern. We further show that the rhythmic/oscillatory patterns that characterize a dopamine-depleted BG network can be suppressed as a direct consequence of controlling the spatiotemporal pattern of a subpopulation of the output Globus Pallidus internalis (GPi) neurons in the network. This work may provide plausible explanations for the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease and pave the way towards a model-based, network level analysis and closed

  2. Generalized time evolution of the homogeneous cooling state of a granular gas with positive and negative coefficient of normal restitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Nagi

    2018-04-01

    The homogeneous cooling state (HCS) of a granular gas described by the inelastic Boltzmann equation is reconsidered. As usual, particles are taken as inelastic hard disks or spheres, but now the coefficient of normal restitution α is allowed to take negative values , which is a simple way of modeling more complicated inelastic interactions. The distribution function of the HCS is studied at the long-time limit, as well as intermediate times. At the long-time limit, the relevant information of the HCS is given by a scaling distribution function , where the time dependence occurs through a dimensionless velocity c. For , remains close to the Gaussian distribution in the thermal region, its cumulants and exponential tails being well described by the first Sonine approximation. In contrast, for , the distribution function becomes multimodal, its maxima located at , and its observable tails algebraic. The latter is a consequence of an unbalanced relaxation–dissipation competition, and is analytically demonstrated for , thanks to a reduction of the Boltzmann equation to a Fokker–Plank-like equation. Finally, a generalized scaling solution to the Boltzmann equation is also found . Apart from the time dependence occurring through the dimensionless velocity, depends on time through a new parameter β measuring the departure of the HCS from its long-time limit. It is shown that describes the time evolution of the HCS for almost all times. The relevance of the new scaling is also discussed.

  3. optical, electrical and solid state properties of nano crystalline zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vincent

    electrical conductivity decreases as the energy increases while the optical conductivity increases gradually ... reflection coatings on window glass, video screen, camera ... are used for photo-thermal-devices. .... Transmission measurements were performed at normal ... The absorption coefficient (α) was determined from the.

  4. Ground state structures and properties of small hydrogenated silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    To understand the structural evolutions and properties of silicon cluster due to hydrogenation ... partly due to the growing importance of these systems in applications like .... of the system. Using the Lagrangian (1), equations of motions for the.

  5. 12 CFR 617.7630 - Does this Federal requirement affect any state property laws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does this Federal requirement affect any state property laws? 617.7630 Section 617.7630 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS Right of First Refusal § 617.7630 Does this Federal requirement affect any state property...

  6. Reconciling State Aid and Property Tax Relief for Urban Schools: Birthing a New STAR in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae Ho; Killeen, Kieran M.

    2007-01-01

    Similar to many property tax relief programs, New York State's School Tax Relief (STAR) program has been shown to exacerbate school resource inequities across urban, suburban, and rural schools. STAR's inherent conflict with the wealth equalization policies of New York State's school finance system are highlighted in a manner that effectively…

  7. State property tax programs promoting sustainable forests in the United States: A review of program structure and administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Kilgore; Paul Ellefson; Travis Funk; Gregory E. Frey

    2018-01-01

    Financial incentives offered by state property tax programs are a means of promoting goods and services from private forestland. Identified by a 50-state review in 2014–2015, these incentives often require adherence to several conditions including valid ownership and use of forestland, correct size of parcel and suitable forest...

  8. Solid state protein monolayers: Morphological, conformational, and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, P. P.; Biasco, A.; Frascerra, V.; Calabi, F.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.; Verbeet, M. Ph.; de Waal, E.; Canters, G. W.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the morphological, conformational, and electron-transfer (ET) function of the metalloprotein azurin in the solid state, by a combination of physical investigation methods, namely atomic force microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. We demonstrate that a "solid state protein film" maintains its nativelike conformation and ET function, even after removal of the aqueous solvent.

  9. 77 FR 27669 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... contracts. The temporary regulations provide that certain obligations of United States persons arising from upfront payments made by controlled foreign corporations pursuant to contracts that are cleared by a... the meaning of section 956(c)) for obligations of United States persons arising from certain upfront...

  10. An efficient reliable method to estimate the vaporization enthalpy of pure substances according to the normal boiling temperature and critical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Mehmandoust

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat of vaporization of a pure substance at its normal boiling temperature is a very important property in many chemical processes. In this work, a new empirical method was developed to predict vaporization enthalpy of pure substances. This equation is a function of normal boiling temperature, critical temperature, and critical pressure. The presented model is simple to use and provides an improvement over the existing equations for 452 pure substances in wide boiling range. The results showed that the proposed correlation is more accurate than the literature methods for pure substances in a wide boiling range (20.3–722 K.

  11. An efficient reliable method to estimate the vaporization enthalpy of pure substances according to the normal boiling temperature and critical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmandoust, Babak; Sanjari, Ehsan; Vatani, Mostafa

    2014-03-01

    The heat of vaporization of a pure substance at its normal boiling temperature is a very important property in many chemical processes. In this work, a new empirical method was developed to predict vaporization enthalpy of pure substances. This equation is a function of normal boiling temperature, critical temperature, and critical pressure. The presented model is simple to use and provides an improvement over the existing equations for 452 pure substances in wide boiling range. The results showed that the proposed correlation is more accurate than the literature methods for pure substances in a wide boiling range (20.3-722 K).

  12. Infrared studies of the superconducting energy gap and normal-state dynamics of the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, Z.; Collins, R.T.; Holtzberg, F.; Feild, C.; Koren, G.; Gupta, A.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed study of infrared properties (reflectivity, conductivity, and dielectric response), emphasizing reproducible results from fully oxygenated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 crystals (T c congruent 93 K) and films, is presented. The extrapolated values of σ 1 (ω) at low frequency are roughly consistent with the measured temperature-dependent dc resistivity. Although not well understood, this infrared conductivity can be interpreted in terms of a frequency-dependent scattering rate of ∼kT+ℎω, with a low-frequency mass enhancement of roughly 2 to 4 associated with a carrier-spin related interaction. Infrared measurements polarized along the c axis suggest a conductivity anisotropy of roughly 40:1 near T c in the normal state. In the superconducting state an energy scale of 2Δ c congruent 3kT c is suggested by c-axis polarized measurements, while a much larger characteristic energy of 2Δ a-b congruent 8kT c is evident in the (a-b)-plane conductivity. From the area missing from the conductivity up to this very large gap, a reasonable estimate (congruent 1700 A) for the (a-b)-plane penetration depth is obtained. Evidence for non-BCS temperature dependence, strong pair breaking scattering, and possible fluctuation effects is discussed. A comparison to infrared data from Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8-y shows a similarly large energy scale, 2Δ a-b congruent 8kT c ; for the cubic Ba 0.6 K 0.4 BiO 3 superconductor a more conventional energy scale, 2Δ congruent 4kT c is observed

  13. Software for determining the direction of movement, shear and normal stresses of a fault under a determined stress state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez del Castillo, Alejandra; Alaniz-Álvarez, Susana Alicia; Nieto-Samaniego, Angel Francisco; Xu, Shunshan; Ochoa-González, Gil Humberto; Velasquillo-Martínez, Luis Germán

    2017-07-01

    In the oil, gas and geothermal industry, the extraction or the input of fluids induces changes in the stress field of the reservoir, if the in-situ stress state of a fault plane is sufficiently disturbed, a fault may slip and can trigger fluid leakage or the reservoir might fracture and become damaged. The goal of the SSLIPO 1.0 software is to obtain data that can reduce the risk of affecting the stability of wellbores. The input data are the magnitudes of the three principal stresses and their orientation in geographic coordinates. The output data are the slip direction of a fracture in geographic coordinates, and its normal (σn) and shear (τ) stresses resolved on a single or multiple fracture planes. With this information, it is possible to calculate the slip tendency (τ/σn) and the propensity to open a fracture that is inversely proportional to σn. This software could analyze any compressional stress system, even non-Andersonian. An example is given from an oilfield in southern Mexico, in a region that contains fractures formed in three events of deformation. In the example SSLIPO 1.0 was used to determine in which deformation event the oil migrated. SSLIPO 1.0 is an open code application developed in MATLAB. The URL to obtain the source code and to download SSLIPO 1.0 are: http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/ alaniz/main_code.txt, http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/ alaniz/ SSLIPO_pkg.exe.

  14. Fluid phases of hydrogen-bound states and thermodynamical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeling, W.; Kraeft, W.D.

    1985-08-01

    The fluid phases of hydrogen and especially the existence of two critical points, the density dependence of the two - particle states and the effective interactions are discussed. An effective Schroedinger equation and a Saha equation are given. (author)

  15. Impact of calcification state on the inherent optical properties of Emiliania huxleyi coccoliths and coccolithophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of coccoliths and coccolithophores is important in oceanic radiative transfer simulations and remote sensing implementations. In this study, the invariant imbedding T-matrix method (II-TM) is employed to investigate the IOPs of coccoliths and coccolithophores. The Emiliania huxleyi (Ehux) coccolith and coccolithophore models are built based on observed biometric parameters including the eccentricity, the number of slits, and the rim width of detached coccoliths. The calcification state that specifies the amount of calcium of a single coccolith is critical in the determination of the size-volume/mass relationship (note, the volume/mass of coccoltihs at different calcification states are different although the diameters are the same). The present results show that the calcification state, namely, under-calcification, normal-calcification, or over-calcification, significantly influences the backscattering cross section and the phase matrix. Furthermore, the linear depolarization ratio of the light scattered by coccoliths is sensitive to the degree of calcification, and provides a potentially valuable parameter for interpreting oceanic remote sensing data. The phase function of an ensemble of randomly oriented coccolithophores has a similar pattern to that of individual coccoliths, but the forward scattering is dominant in the coccolithophores due to the large geometric cross sections. The linear depolarization ratio associated with coccolithophores is found to be larger than that for coccoliths as polarization is more sensitive to multiple scattering than the phase function. The simulated coccolithophore phase matrix numerical results are compared with laboratory measurements. For scattering angles larger than 100°, an increase of the phase function with respect to the scattering angle is confirmed based on the present coccolithophore model while the spherical approximation fails.

  16. Transport Properties of the Metallic State of TMTSF-DMTCNQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechgaard, Klaus; Andersen, Jan Rud; Andrieux, A.

    1979-01-01

    The authors report the transport properties (longitudinal and transverse conductivity, magnetoresistance and thermopower) of TMTSF-DMTCNQ for pressures up to 13 kbar and temperatures down to 1.2K together with the phase diagram which results from these measurements. The most striking results...... at any temperature (σ∥≳105 (Ωcm)-1) and an enormous magnetoresistance Δρ/ρ≈15) is found for a field of 75 kOe perpendicular to the conducting chains...

  17. A comparative study of functional properties of normal and wooden breast broiler chicken meat with NaCl addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Tong; Zhao, Xue; Han, Minyi; Cai, Linlin; Deng, Shaolin; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian

    2017-09-01

    The selection of broilers for augmented growth rate and breast has brought about wooden-breast (WB) muscle abnormalities, which caused substantial economic losses. The objective of this study was to compare water holding capacity, water mobility and distribution, salt-soluble protein (SSP) content, and protein profiles of normal and WB chicken meat with different additions of NaCl. Thirty WB and 30 normal chicken breasts were selected from a deboning line of a major Chinese processing plant at 2 to 3 h post mortem. Two different meat batters were formulated to 150 mg/g meat protein and different NaCl contents (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). Results indicated that as NaCl contents increased, the cooking loss of meat batters decreased (P meat showed different protein profiles, with myosin heavy chain exhibiting a higher intensity at ≥3% salt level. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR)revealed an increased T22 and higher P22 in raw WB meat compared to normal meat (P meat batters, WB meat batters had reduced T21 and lower immobilized water proportions at low NaCl contents (meat gels. Meat gels prepared from WB had a lower proportion of water within the myofibrillar protein matrix and a greater proportion of exuded bulk water at NaCl contents meat, meat batters and gels, water distribution and mobility of WB exhibited significant differences compared to normal meat. The addition of NaCl affected water mobility and distributions in meat batters, with a level of 3% NaCl eliminating the differences between processed normal and WB meat products. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Spectroscopic properties of the S1 state of linear carotenoids after excess energy excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentyna; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Fuciman, Marcel; Polívka, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    Properties of the S1 state of neurosporene, spheroidene and lycopene were studied after excess energy excitation in the S2 state. Excitation of carotenoids into higher vibronic levels of the S2 state generates excess vibrational energy in the S1 state. The vibrationally hot S1 state relaxes faster when carotenoid is excited into the S2 state with excess energy, but the S1 lifetime remains constant regardless of which vibronic level of the S2 state is excited. The S∗ signal depends on excitation energy only for spheroidene, which is likely due to asymmetry of the molecule, facilitating conformations responsible for the S∗ signal.

  19. Physical properties of 134 soils in six northeastern states

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. R. Eschner; B. O. Jones; R. C. Moyle

    1957-01-01

    From June 1954 to July 1955 the Vicksburg Infiltration Project collected and analyzed samples from 134 sites in six Northeastern States; the samples included 79 soil series and 114 soil types. This work was done to supply the U. S. Army with information needed for specialized research on military traffic ability. The basic data are herein presented because of their...

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Michael N.; Charter, Richard A.; Mostafavi, Beeta; Nibut, Lorraine P.; Smith, Whitney E.

    2005-01-01

    Criterion-referenced (Livingston) and norm-referenced (Gilmer-Feldt) techniques were used to measure the internal consistency reliability of Folsteins Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) on a large sample (N = 418) of elderly medical patients. Two administration and scoring variants of the MMSE Attention and Calculation section (Serial 7s only…

  1. PREDICTION OF CHROMATIN STATES USING DNA SEQUENCE PROPERTIES

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabri, Rihab R.

    2013-01-01

    to a particular chromatin state. Of four classification algorithms (C4.5, Naive Bayes, Random Forest, and SVM) used for this purpose, the decision tree based classifiers (C4.5 and Random Forest) yielded best results among those we evaluated. Our results

  2. Sealing properties of a self-etching primer system to normal caries-affected and caries-infected dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Won; Son, H-H; Yoshiyama, Masatoshi; Tay, Franklin R; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Pashley, David H

    2003-09-01

    To compare the ability of an experimental antibacterial self-etching primer adhesive system to seal exposure sites in normal, caries-affected and caries-infected human dentin. 30 extracted human third molars were used within 1 month of extraction. 10 intact normal teeth comprised the normal group. 20 teeth with occlusal caries that radiographically extended halfway to the pulp were excavated using caries-detector solution (CDS) and a #4 round carbide bur in a slowspeed handpiece. Half of those teeth were fully excavated free of CDS-stained material without exposing the pulp, and were designated as the caries-affected dentin group. The remaining 10 teeth were excavated as close to the pulp as possible without obtaining an exposure, but whose dentin continued to stain red with CDS; this group was designated as the caries-infected dentin group. The remaining dentin thickness in all of the specimens in the other two groups was then reduced to the same extent as the caries-infected group. Direct exposures of the pulp chamber were made with a 1/4 round bur in the normal dentin or a 25 gauge needle in the other two groups. After measuring the fluid flow through the exposure, the sites were then sealed with an experimental antibacterial fluoride-containing self-etching primer adhesive systems (ABF). Fluid conductance was remeasured every week for 16 weeks. The fluid conductance through the exposure fell 99% in all groups following resin sealing. The seals of normal and caries-affected dentin remained relatively stable over the 16 weeks, while the seals of caries-infected dentin gradually deteriorated, reaching significance at 8 weeks. TEM examination revealed very thin (ca. 0.5 mm) hybrid layers in normal dentin, 3-4 microm thick hybrid layers in caries-affected dentin and 40 microm thick hybrid layers in caries-infected dentin. The tubules of caries-infected dentin were enlarged and filled with bacteria. Resin tags passed around these bacteria in the top 20-40 microm

  3. A simple model for normal state in- and out-of-plane resistivities of hole doped cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqib, S.H., E-mail: shnaqib.physicsru@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Azam, M. Afsana [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, DUET, Gazipur, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Uddin, M. Borhan [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of CSE, International Islamic University Chittagong, Sitakunda, IIUC Rd, Kumira 4314 Bangladesh (Bangladesh); Cole, J.R. [Cambridge Flow Solutions Ltd., Histon, Cambridge CB24 9AD (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • In- and out-of-plane charge transport have been investigated for hole doped cuprates. • Effect of quantum critical point (QCP) on non-Fermi liquid behavior has been explored. • The impact of pseudogap (PG) on carrier scattering rate has been studied. • In- and out-of plane resistivities have been modeled by considering the QCP and the PG. • The model explains the non-Fermi liquid charge transport in hole doped cuprates. - Abstract: The highly anisotropic and qualitatively different nature of the normal state in- and out-of-plane charge dynamics in high-T{sub c} cuprates cannot be accommodated within the conventional Boltzmann transport theory. The variation of in-plane and out-of-plane resistivities with temperature and hole content are anomalous and cannot be explained by Fermi-liquid theory. In this study, we have proposed a simple phenomenological model for the dc resistivity of cuprates by incorporating two firmly established generic features of all hole doped cuprate superconductors—(i) the pseudogap in the quasiparticle energy spectrum and (ii) the T-linear resistivity at high temperatures. This T-linear behavior over an extended temperature range can be attributed to a quantum criticality, affecting the electronic phase diagram of cuprates. Experimental in-plane and out-of-plane resistivities (ρ{sub p}(T) and ρ{sub c}(T), respectively) of double-layer Y(Ca)123 have been analyzed using the proposed model. This phenomenological model describes the temperature and the hole content dependent resistivity over a wide range of temperature and hole content, p. The characteristic PG energy scale, ε{sub g}(p), extracted from the analysis of the resistivity data, agrees quite well with those found in variety of other experiments. Various other extracted parameters from the analysis of ρ{sub p}(T) and ρ{sub c}(T) data showed systematic trends with changing hole concentration. We have discussed important features found from the analysis in

  4. Thermal coagulation-induced changes of the optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro in the spectral range 400-1100 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Huilan; Xing Da; Wei Huajiang; Gu Huaimin; Wu Guoyong; Lu Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    The absorption coefficients, the reduced scattering coefficients and the optical penetration depths for native and coagulated human normal and adenomatous colon tissues in vitro were determined over the range of 400-1100 nm using a spectrophotometer with an internal integrating sphere system, and the inverse adding-doubling method was applied to calculate the tissue optical properties from diffuse reflectance and total transmittance measurements. The experimental results showed that in the range of 400-1100 nm there were larger absorption coefficients (P < 0.01) and smaller reduced scattering coefficients (P < 0.01) for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, and there were smaller optical penetration depths for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, especially in the near-infrared wavelength. Thermal coagulation induced significant increase of the absorption coefficients and reduced scattering coefficients for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues, and significantly reduced decrease of the optical penetration depths for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues. The smaller optical penetration depth for coagulated adenomatous colon tissues is a disadvantage for laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is necessary to adjust the application parameters of lasers to achieve optimal therapy

  5. Quantum states with topological properties via dipolar interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, David

    2015-06-25

    This thesis proposes conceptually new ways to realize materials with topological properties by using dipole-dipole interactions. First, we study a system of ultracold dipolar fermions, where the relaxation mechanism of dipolar spins can be used to reach the quantum Hall regime. Second, in a system of polar molecules in an optical lattice, dipole-dipole interactions induce spin-orbit coupling terms for the rotational excitations. In combination with time-reversal symmetry breaking this leads to topological bands with Chern numbers greater than one.

  6. Psychomertic Properties Spielberger\\'s State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 Among of Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodayari-Fard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since Spielberger's State–Trait Anger Expression Inventory–2 (STAXI–2 has enormous potential for research and therapy, the current study aimed to investigate psychometric properties and normalization of STAXI–2 among Iranian college students. Materials & Methods: Descriptive–survey research method, developing an instrument one, was used. 1140 students (Mean age=21.92, SD=2.89 were drawn from Tehran University via cluster sampling method. 554 (48.6% and 586 (51.4% participants were females and males respectively. Among participants 1080 were singles. The participants were asked to complete two instruments. One of these instruments STAXI–2 and other was one of Multi–dimensional Anger Inventory, Over controlled Hostility Scale, Oxford Happiness inventory, Emotional and NEO– Five Factor Inventory. Results: There were not observed significant differences between females and males participants in most sub–scales of STAXI–2. Also data analysis demonstrated that STAXI–2 and its subscales had significant relationship with parallel instruments. Moreover, the results showed significant mean differences between two groups including high and low emotion intelligence groups and all subscales of STAXI–2. Factor analysis also extracted as many as factors in any part of STAXI–2 in comparison with original version. Based on T scores, separate norms tables were reported. Conclusion: STAXI–2 has an appropriate validity and reliability to measure anger in Iranian young population. Therefore, STAXI–2 as a state and trait assessment device can be used in clinical sets and research

  7. Properties of the Excited States of Molecular Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-13

    FIg. 1). techniques have beest applied to the study of quartet states of Oi. The four potential curves most relevant Guyon et al., using a synchrotron...8217 a’ a a C ’U ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 2 2,~ C a ’I C~- C ’ 𔃺 𔃺 𔃺 ’ ’ C- ~ C-E-38- ’- u A() A09a 265 SRI INTERNATIONAL 14FNLO PARK CA MOLECULAR PHYSICS LAB F

  8. Effect of dielectric medium on the nonclassical properties of nonlinear sphere coherent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Amooghorban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of a medium with dissipation and dispersion and also the curvature of the physical space on the properties of the incident quantum states, we use the quantization of electromagnetic field based on phenomenological approach to obtain input-output relations between radiations on both sides of dielectric slab. By using these relations the fidelity, the Wigner function, and also the quantum correlation of the outgoing state through dielectric slab are obtained for a situation in which the rightward incident state is a nonlinear coherent state on a sphere and the leftward incident state is a vacuum state. Here, the incident states are considered monochromatic and the modeling of the medium is given by the Lorentz' model. Accordingly, we study nonclassical properties of the output states such as the quantum entanglement. It will be observed that the nonclassical properties of the outgoing states depend strongly on the optical property of the medium and also on the curvature of the physical state.

  9. Impact of solid state fermentation on nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-Min; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2017-02-15

    To improve the nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran, yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were used for fermenting wheat bran in solid state. Appearance properties, nutritional properties, microstructure, hydration properties and flavor of raw bran and fermented bran were evaluated. After treatments, water extractable arabinoxylans were 3-4 times higher than in raw bran. Total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber increased after solid state fermentation. Over 20% of phytic acid was degraded. Microstructure changes and protein degradation were observed in fermented brans. Water holding capacity and water retention capacity of fermented brans were improved. Results suggest that solid state fermentation is an effective way to improve the properties of wheat brans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of the anisotropic stress state on the intermediate strain properties of granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Goudarzy, M.; Kö nig, D.; Santamarina, Carlos; Schanz, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the effect of anisotropic stress state on intermediate strain properties of cylindrical samples containing spherical glass particles. Tests were carried out with the modified resonant column device available at Ruhr

  11. STATE DEPARTMENT: Sale of Unneeded Overseas Property Has Increased, but Further Improvements Are Necessary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... In 1996, we reported that the State Department did not have an effective process for identifying and selling unneeded overseas real estate, and that decisions concerning the sale of some properties...

  12. Public-Private Partnership Potential in Property Management of Russia and Belarus Union State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Vihrjan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a possibility of implementation of an institute of public-private partnership, mainly concessions, as a notable component of management system of the Union State's of Russia and Belarus Property.

  13. Industrial property for science’s management, technology and innovation in Cuban State companies

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Villavicencio, Dulce María; Suárez Gutiérrez, Evelio; Moreno Cruz, Marta Milagros; Correa Álvarez, Pascual

    2017-01-01

    The paper synthesizes some research on industrial property aspects from the socio-legal perspective and financial accounting. Its focus to the socialist state enterprise adaptation in his economic fact, social and environmental responsibility as a fundamental Cuban model reach, competitiveness and high performance in socialist state enterprise. It outlines criteria on the ordering and implementation of industrial property through the management of science and technology, protection and dissem...

  14. Comparative Study of Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Normal, Disordered and Inverse Spinel Type Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Zviagin, Vitaly; Richter, Peter; Böntgen, Tammo; Lorenz, Michael; Ziese, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Salvan, Georgeta; Grundmann, Marius; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Co$_3$O$_4$, ZnFe$_2$O$_4$, CoFe$_2$O$_4$, ZnCo$_2$O$_4$, and Fe$_3$O$_4$ thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition at high and low temperatures resulting in crystalline single-phase normal, inverse, as well as disordered spinel oxide thin films with smooth surface morphology. The dielectric function, determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry in a wide spectral range from 0.5 eV to 8.5 eV, is compared with the magneto-optical response of the dielectric tensor, investigated by magne...

  15. Chemical and physical properties of the normal and aging lens: spectroscopic (UV, fluorescence, phosphorescence, and NMR) analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerman, S.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro [UV absorption, fluorescence, phosphorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] spectroscopic studies on the normal human lens demonstrate age-related changes which can be correlated with biochemical and photobiologic mechanisms occurring during our lifetime. Chronic cumulative UV exposure results in an age-related increase of photochemically induced chromophores and in color of the lens nucleus. This enables the lens to filter the incident UV radiation, thereby protecting the underlying aging retina from UV photodamage. We have measured the age-related increase in lens fluorescence in vivo on more than 300 normal subjects (1st to 9th decade) by UV slitlamp densitography. These data show a good correlation with the in vitro lens fluorescence studies reported previously and demonstrate that molecular photodamage can be monitored in the lens. In vitro NMR (human and animal lenses) and in vivo experiments currently in progress are rapidly elucidating the physicochemical basis for transparency and the development of light scattering areas. Surface scanning NMR can monitor organophosphate metabolism in the ocular lens in vivo as well as in vitro. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using biophysical methods (optical spectroscopy and NMR analyses) to delineate age-related parameters in the lens, in vivo as well as in vitro. 46 references

  16. Solving the critical state using flux line properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A M

    2014-01-01

    A method of solving the critical state in superconductors using the vector potential and commercial software (FlexPDE) is described. It avoids both time dependence and power law resistivity. It uses a material parameter which describes how far flux lines move before most become unpinned. This allows small oscillations and minor hysteresis loops to be modelled. The theory is applied to the problem of demagnetisation in bulks due to crossed fields. It may explain why experimental results do not agree with theory. The theory can be extended to coils, and two and three dimensions. This requires the introduction of a scalar potential V o . This is not the usual scalar potential, which is due to electrostatic charges as the field is run up, but the integral of this value at the final field after charges have dissipated. (paper)

  17. Normal and malignant epithelial cells with stem-like properties have an extended G2 cell cycle phase that is associated with apoptotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biddle Adrian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subsets of cells with stem-like properties have been previously isolated from human epithelial cancers and their resistance to apoptosis-inducing stimuli has been related to carcinoma recurrence and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents of cells with stem-like properties in both normal and malignant human epithelia. Methods Cells isolated from fresh human head and neck carcinomas (n = 11, cell lines derived from head and neck, prostate and breast human carcinomas (n = 7, and from normal human oral mucosa (n = 5, were exposed to various apoptosis-inducing stimuli (UV, Tumour Necrosis Factor, Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Neocarzinostatin. Flow cytometry for CD44 and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA expression, colony morphology, tumour sphere formation and rapid adherence assays were used to identify the subset of cells with stem-like properties. Apoptosis, cell cycle and expression of various cell cycle checkpoint proteins were assessed (Western Blot, qPCR. The role of G2-checkpoint regulators Chk1 and Chk2 was investigated by use of debromohymenialdisine (DBH and siRNA. Results In both cancer biopsies and carcinoma cell lines a subset of CD44high cells showed increased clonogenicity, a significantly lower rate of apoptosis, and a significantly higher proportion of cells in the G2-phase of the cell cycle. An inverse correlation between the percentage of cells in G2-phase and the rate of apoptosis was found. Pulse-chase with iododeoxyuridine (IdU demonstrated that CD44high carcinoma cells spent longer time in G2, even in un-treated controls. These cells expressed higher levels of G2 checkpoint proteins, and their release from G2 with BDH or Chk1 siRNA increased their rate of apoptosis. Low passage cultures of normal keratinocytes were also found to contain a subset of CD44high cells showing increased clonogenicity, and a similar pattern of G2-block

  18. Normal and malignant epithelial cells with stem-like properties have an extended G2 cell cycle phase that is associated with apoptotic resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Lisa J; Costea, Daniela Elena; Gammon, Luke; Fazil, Bilal; Biddle, Adrian; Mackenzie, Ian C

    2010-01-01

    Subsets of cells with stem-like properties have been previously isolated from human epithelial cancers and their resistance to apoptosis-inducing stimuli has been related to carcinoma recurrence and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents of cells with stem-like properties in both normal and malignant human epithelia. Cells isolated from fresh human head and neck carcinomas (n = 11), cell lines derived from head and neck, prostate and breast human carcinomas (n = 7), and from normal human oral mucosa (n = 5), were exposed to various apoptosis-inducing stimuli (UV, Tumour Necrosis Factor, Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Neocarzinostatin). Flow cytometry for CD44 and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA) expression, colony morphology, tumour sphere formation and rapid adherence assays were used to identify the subset of cells with stem-like properties. Apoptosis, cell cycle and expression of various cell cycle checkpoint proteins were assessed (Western Blot, qPCR). The role of G2-checkpoint regulators Chk1 and Chk2 was investigated by use of debromohymenialdisine (DBH) and siRNA. In both cancer biopsies and carcinoma cell lines a subset of CD44 high cells showed increased clonogenicity, a significantly lower rate of apoptosis, and a significantly higher proportion of cells in the G2-phase of the cell cycle. An inverse correlation between the percentage of cells in G2-phase and the rate of apoptosis was found. Pulse-chase with iododeoxyuridine (IdU) demonstrated that CD44 high carcinoma cells spent longer time in G2, even in un-treated controls. These cells expressed higher levels of G2 checkpoint proteins, and their release from G2 with BDH or Chk1 siRNA increased their rate of apoptosis. Low passage cultures of normal keratinocytes were also found to contain a subset of CD44 high cells showing increased clonogenicity, and a similar pattern of G2-block associated with apoptotic resistance. These data

  19. Development of the apparatus for measuring magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets in arbitrary directions under compressive stress normal to their surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Maeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In designing motors, one must grasp the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets considering actual conditions in motors. Especially important is grasping the stress dependence of magnetic power loss. This paper describes a newly developed apparatus to measure two-dimensional (2-D magnetic properties (properties under the arbitrary alternating and the rotating flux conditions of electrical steel sheets under compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. The apparatus has a 2-D magnetic excitation circuit to generate magnetic fields in arbitrary directions in the evaluation area. It also has a pressing unit to apply compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. During measurement, it is important to apply uniform stress throughout the evaluation area. Therefore, we have developed a new flux density sensor using needle probe method. It is composed of thin copper foils sputtered on electrical steel sheets. By using this sensor, the stress can be applied to the surface of the specimen without influence of this sensor. This paper described the details of newly developed apparatus with this sensor, and measurement results of iron loss by using are shown.

  20. Development of the apparatus for measuring magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets in arbitrary directions under compressive stress normal to their surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yoshitaka; Urata, Shinya; Nakai, Hideo; Takeuchi, Yuuya; Yun, Kyyoul; Yanase, Shunji; Okazaki, Yasuo

    2017-05-01

    In designing motors, one must grasp the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets considering actual conditions in motors. Especially important is grasping the stress dependence of magnetic power loss. This paper describes a newly developed apparatus to measure two-dimensional (2-D) magnetic properties (properties under the arbitrary alternating and the rotating flux conditions) of electrical steel sheets under compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. The apparatus has a 2-D magnetic excitation circuit to generate magnetic fields in arbitrary directions in the evaluation area. It also has a pressing unit to apply compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. During measurement, it is important to apply uniform stress throughout the evaluation area. Therefore, we have developed a new flux density sensor using needle probe method. It is composed of thin copper foils sputtered on electrical steel sheets. By using this sensor, the stress can be applied to the surface of the specimen without influence of this sensor. This paper described the details of newly developed apparatus with this sensor, and measurement results of iron loss by using are shown.

  1. Processing and properties of solid state nitrided stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennhard, C.A.P.

    1993-02-01

    The properties of austenitic steels and duplex-steels are significantly improved by nitrogen (N) addition. In the present investigation, new alloys were produced and characterized using the high solid N-solubility and diffusion alloying from the gas phase. Most suitable base materials are powder, wire or sheet because of the short diffusion distance. PM-materials were in-can nitrided or treated in a fluidized bed and compacted by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or hot extrusion. The impact toughness level of PM alloys at room temperature is about 120 to 200 J, compared to 250 to 300 J for steels with equal strength that are produced by ingot metallurgy (IM). The toughness can be improved by high temperature deformation such as forging, hot rolling or hot extrusion or by removing the oxide layer on the particle surface by hydrogen gas reduction. A duplex steel with 22 Cr, 5.6 Ni and 2.7 Mo was transformed to a fully austenitic steel with over 500 MPa yield strength by increasing the N content from 0.2 to 0.65 weight-percent. The expensive Ni can successfully be replaced by N. Nitrided wire material is the base material for cold deformed high-strength wire. The improved strain hardening rate of nitrogen alloyed steels helps to achieve ductile and corrosion resistant materials with strength up to 2200 MPa. Sheet materials were diffusion bonded in the HIP or compacted in a 5000 kN press immediately after in-can nitriding to form solid blocks. Nitrided powder, wire and sheet materials lead to near net shape products that cannot be produced by conventional ingot metallurgy or would require the expensive high-pressure metallurgy. (author) 67 figs., tabs., 70 refs

  2. Electromagnetic properties of the three-nucleon ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strueve, W.

    1985-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the three-nucleon ground state are calculated on the base of an exact solution of the Faddeev equations. In a Hilbert space of nucleons and a possible Δ-isobar the effects of a non-perturbative description of the Δ-isobar on the magnetic form factors are studied. Pure nucleonic current operators with two- and three-particle character can be described in the extended Hilbert space by simpler one-body operators. Additionally nonrelativistic meson-exchange corrections due to π and ρ exchange are calculated consistently with the requirements of current conservation. Further relativistic corrections are estimated on selected examples. The calculations yield a total magnetic contribution of the Δ-isobar which is smaller than hitherto assumed, a static approximation of the Δ propagation is proved as inadmissible and must be rejected. Together with the meson-exchange corrections a well agreement with the experimental data at low momentum transfers results. Especially the magnetic moments and magnetization radii can be explained. For higher momentum transfers the results show the importance of further corrections. The regard of selected relativistic corrections leads to a good description of the experimental magnetic form factors. Also by this way the position of the minimum and the height of the second maximum in the 3 He charge form factor can be explained. The comparison with the latest experimental results reveals furthermore unresolved problems in the description of the 3 H charge form factor. (orig.) [de

  3. Stability and related properties of vacua and ground states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wreszinski, Walter F.; Jaekel, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the formal non-relativistic limit (nrl) of the :φ 4 : s+1 relativistic quantum field theory (rqft), where s is the space dimension. Following the work of R. Jackiw [R. Jackiw, in: A. Ali, P. Hoodbhoy (Eds.), Beg Memorial Volume, World Scientific, Singapore, 1991], we show that, for s = 2 and a given value of the ultraviolet cutoff κ, there are two ways to perform the nrl: (i) fixing the renormalized mass m 2 equal to the bare mass m 0 2 ; (ii) keeping the renormalized mass fixed and different from the bare mass m 0 2 . In the (infinite-volume) two-particle sector the scattering amplitude tends to zero as κ → ∞ in case (i) and, in case (ii), there is a bound state, indicating that the interaction potential is attractive. As a consequence, stability of matter fails for our boson system. We discuss why both alternatives do not reproduce the low-energy behaviour of the full rqft. The singular nature of the nrl is also nicely illustrated for s = 1 by a rigorous stability/instability result of a different nature

  4. Influence of ground state correlations on the properties of the first 2+ and 3- states in some Sm isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navrotskaya-Rybarska, V.; Stoyanova, O.; Stoyanov, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of ground state correlations and of their coupling with the phonon amplitudes on the properties of the first collective states is investigated in some Sm isotopes. Equations for the eXcited state energies are derived using the variational principle. Formulae for the gap and quasiparticle energies are given. The numerical calculations are performed for sup(144-150)Sm. The energies of the 2 + - and 3 - - states and the B(E2) and B(E3) electric transition probability values are presented. The effects studied are shown to be small for sup(144-146)Sm but the collectivity of the 2sub(1)sup(+) and 3sub(1)sup(-) states decreases strongly for 150 Sm [ru

  5. Properties of hadronic final states in diffractive deep inelastic ep scattering at DESY HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of the hadronic final state of diffractive deep inelastic scattering events ep→eXp were studied in the kinematic range 4 X 2 2 , 70 P <0.03 with the ZEUS detector at the DESY ep collider HERA using an integrated luminosity of 13.8 pb-1. The events were tagged by identifying the diffractively scattered proton using the leading proton spectrometer. The properties of the hadronic final state X were studied in its center-of-mass frame using thrust, thrust angle, sphericity, energy flow, transverse energy flow, and 'seagull' distributions. As the invariant mass of the system increases, the final state becomes more collimated, more aligned, and more asymmetric in the average transverse momentum with respect to the direction of the virtual photon. Comparisons of the properties of the hadronic final state with predictions from various Monte Carlo model generators suggest that the final state is dominated by qq-barg states at the parton level

  6. One-dimensional time-dependent conduction states and temperature distribution along a normal zone during a quench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.

    1991-01-01

    The quench simulations of a superconducting (s.c.) magnet requires some assumptions about the evolution of the normal zone and its temperature profile. The axial evolution of the normal zone is considered through the longitudinal quench velocity. However, the transversal quench propagation may be considered through the transversal quench velocity or with the turn-to-turn time delay quench propagation. The temperature distribution has been assumed adiabatic-like or cosine-like in two different computer programs. Although both profiles are different, they bring about more or less the same qualitative quench results differing only in about 8%. Unfortunately, there are not experimental data for the temperature profile along the conductor in a quench event to have a realistic comparison. Little attention has received the temperature profile, mainly because it is not so critical parameter in the quench analysis. Nonetheless, a confident quench analysis requires that the temperature distribution along the normal zone be taken into account with good approximation. In this paper, an analytical study is made about the temperature profile

  7. Generation of a Kind of Displaced Thermal States in the Diffusion Process and its Statistical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang-Guo, Meng; Hong-Yi, Fan; Ji-Suo, Wang

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a kind of displaced thermal states (DTS) and explores how this kind of optical field emerges using the entangled state representation. The results show that the DTS can be generated by a coherent state passing through a diffusion channel with the diffusion coefficient ϰ only when there exists κ t = (e^{\\hbar ν /kBT} - 1 )^{-1}. Also, its statistical properties, such as mean photon number, Wigner function and entropy, are investigated.

  8. A human pericardium biopolymeric scaffold for autologous heart valve tissue engineering: cellular and extracellular matrix structure and biomechanical properties in comparison with a normal aortic heart valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Frantisek; Schornik, David; Masin, Jaroslav; Filova, Elena; Mirejovsky, Tomas; Burdikova, Zuzana; Svindrych, Zdenek; Chlup, Hynek; Horny, Lukas; Daniel, Matej; Machac, Jiri; Skibová, Jelena; Pirk, Jan; Bacakova, Lucie

    2018-04-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and the biomechanical properties of human pericardium (HP) with the normal human aortic heart valve (NAV). HP tissues (from 12 patients) and NAV samples (from 5 patients) were harvested during heart surgery. The main cells in HP were pericardial interstitial cells, which are fibroblast-like cells of mesenchymal origin similar to the valvular interstitial cells in NAV tissue. The ECM of HP had a statistically significantly (p structures of the two tissues, the dense part of fibrous HP (49 ± 2%) and the lamina fibrosa of NAV (47 ± 4%), was similar. In both tissues, the secant elastic modulus (Es) was significantly lower in the transversal direction (p structure and has the biomechanical properties required for a tissue from which an autologous heart valve replacement may be constructed.

  9. Anisotropy of the Elastic Properties of Normal and Pathological Myocardium: Angular Dependence of Ultrasonic Backscatter, Attenuation, and Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Edward Dennis

    The focus of this thesis is the measurement of anisotropies in the ultrasonic parameters of soft tissues. The goal is to contribute to a better understanding of the physics which underlies the interaction of ultrasonic waves with inhomogeneous and anisotropic media. Broadband measurements using a piezoelectric transducer are reported for investigations of excised specimens of human and canine myocardial tissue. Emphasis is placed on identifying the effect that the muscle fiber orientation, relative to the direction of insonification, has on the propagation and scattering properties of ultrasonic waves. Results of the anisotropy of backscatter, the anisotropy of attenuation, and the anisotropy of quasilongitudinal velocity are presented for data obtained in 2^ circ increments through the full 360 ^circ relative to the myofibers. Measured velocities are used in conjunction with measured specimen densities to determine the elastic stiffness constants c_{11} and c_ {33} and to estimate specific mechanical moduli for thin layers of myocardium.

  10. The properties of genome conformation and spatial gene interaction and regulation networks of normal and malignant human cell types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    Full Text Available The spatial conformation of a genome plays an important role in the long-range regulation of genome-wide gene expression and methylation, but has not been extensively studied due to lack of genome conformation data. The recently developed chromosome conformation capturing techniques such as the Hi-C method empowered by next generation sequencing can generate unbiased, large-scale, high-resolution chromosomal interaction (contact data, providing an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the spatial structure of a genome and its applications in gene regulation, genomics, epigenetics, and cell biology. In this work, we conducted a comprehensive, large-scale computational analysis of this new stream of genome conformation data generated for three different human leukemia cells or cell lines by the Hi-C technique. We developed and applied a set of bioinformatics methods to reliably generate spatial chromosomal contacts from high-throughput sequencing data and to effectively use them to study the properties of the genome structures in one-dimension (1D and two-dimension (2D. Our analysis demonstrates that Hi-C data can be effectively applied to study tissue-specific genome conformation, chromosome-chromosome interaction, chromosomal translocations, and spatial gene-gene interaction and regulation in a three-dimensional genome of primary tumor cells. Particularly, for the first time, we constructed genome-scale spatial gene-gene interaction network, transcription factor binding site (TFBS - TFBS interaction network, and TFBS-gene interaction network from chromosomal contact information. Remarkably, all these networks possess the properties of scale-free modular networks.

  11. Revealing kinetics and state-dependent binding properties of IKur-targeting drugs that maximize atrial fibrillation selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinwood, Nicholas; Dobrev, Dobromir; Morotti, Stefano; Grandi, Eleonora

    2017-09-01

    The KV1.5 potassium channel, which underlies the ultra-rapid delayed-rectifier current (IKur) and is predominantly expressed in atria vs. ventricles, has emerged as a promising target to treat atrial fibrillation (AF). However, while numerous KV1.5-selective compounds have been screened, characterized, and tested in various animal models of AF, evidence of antiarrhythmic efficacy in humans is still lacking. Moreover, current guidelines for pre-clinical assessment of candidate drugs heavily rely on steady-state concentration-response curves or IC50 values, which can overlook adverse cardiotoxic effects. We sought to investigate the effects of kinetics and state-dependent binding of IKur-targeting drugs on atrial electrophysiology in silico and reveal the ideal properties of IKur blockers that maximize anti-AF efficacy and minimize pro-arrhythmic risk. To this aim, we developed a new Markov model of IKur that describes KV1.5 gating based on experimental voltage-clamp data in atrial myocytes from patient right-atrial samples in normal sinus rhythm. We extended the IKur formulation to account for state-specificity and kinetics of KV1.5-drug interactions and incorporated it into our human atrial cell model. We simulated 1- and 3-Hz pacing protocols in drug-free conditions and with a [drug] equal to the IC50 value. The effects of binding and unbinding kinetics were determined by examining permutations of the forward (kon) and reverse (koff) binding rates to the closed, open, and inactivated states of the KV1.5 channel. We identified a subset of ideal drugs exhibiting anti-AF electrophysiological parameter changes at fast pacing rates (effective refractory period prolongation), while having little effect on normal sinus rhythm (limited action potential prolongation). Our results highlight that accurately accounting for channel interactions with drugs, including kinetics and state-dependent binding, is critical for developing safer and more effective pharmacological anti

  12. Omentin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing properties, is negatively associated with insulin resistance in normal gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Benny; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Hemi, Rina; Yinon, Yoav; Schiff, Eyal; Mashiach, Roy; Kanety, Hannah; Sivan, Eyal

    2015-05-01

    Omentin, a newly identified adipokine, enhances insulin mediated glucose uptake in human adipocytes, thus, inducing systemic insulin-sensitizing effect. The aims of this study were to determine whether circulating maternal omentin levels are associated with insulin resistance indices and to assess which compartment, maternal, fetal, or placental, is the source of omentin in maternal circulation. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, and omentin were determined in 25 healthy pregnant women at the third trimester, before and 3 days after elective cesarean section. Cord blood omentin was measured in the 25 term neonates. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to evaluate insulin sensitivity before and after delivery. Antepartum maternal omentin levels were negatively correlated with insulin levels (r=-0.41, P=0.04) and positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S; r=0.4, P=0.04). Postpartum omentin levels were negatively correlated with maternal body mass index (r=-0.44, P=0.02). Median maternal omentin levels was comparable before and after delivery (57.2, inter-quartile range: 38.2-76.2 ng/mL vs. 53.4, 39.8-69.4 ng/mL, respectively, P=0.25) and highly correlated (r=0.83, Pinsulin resistance indices, suggesting that this adipokine may play a role in metabolic adaptations of normal gestation. The strong correlation between anteparum and postpartum maternal omentin levels, as well as the lack of association between maternal and neonatal omentin levels, suggest that placental or fetal compartments are unlikely as the main source of circulating maternal omentin.

  13. Temporal and spectral properties of esophageal mucosal blood perfusion: a comparison between normal subjects and nutcracker esophagus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifan, A; Jiang, Y; Mittal, R K

    2017-02-01

    The mechanism of esophageal pain in patients with nutcracker esophagus (NE) and other esophageal motor disorders is not known. Our recent study shows that baseline esophageal mucosal perfusion, measured by laser Doppler perfusion monitoring, is lower in NE patients compared to controls. The goal of our current study was to perform a more detailed analysis of esophageal mucosal blood perfusion (EMBP) waveform of NE patients and controls to determine the optimal EMBP biomarkers that combined with suitable statistical learning models produce robust discrimination between the two groups. Laser Doppler recordings of 10 normal subjects (mean age 43 ± 15 years, 8 males) and 10 patients (mean age 47 ± 5.5 years., 8 males) with NE were analyzed. Time and frequency domain features were extracted from the first twenty-minute recordings of the EMBP waveforms, statistically ranked according to four independent evaluation criterions, and analyzed using two statistical learning models, namely, logistic regression (LR) and support vector machines (SVM). The top three ranked predictors between the two groups were the 0.5 and 0.75 perfusion quantile values followed by the surface of the EMBP power spectrum in the frequency domain. ROC curve ranking produced a cross-validated AUC (area under the curve) of 0.93 for SVM and 0.90 for LR. We show that as a group NE patients have lower perfusion values compared to controls, however, there is an overlap between the two groups, suggesting that not all NE patients suffer from low mucosal perfusion levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Characteristics of Endotoxin-Altering Fractions Derived from Normal Serum III. Isolation and Properties of Horse Serum alpha(2)-Macroglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, M; Konno, S

    1970-05-01

    The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an alpha(2)-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III(0), whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate.

  15. Characteristics of Endotoxin-Altering Fractions Derived from Normal Serum III. Isolation and Properties of Horse Serum α2-Macroglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Morimasa; Konno, Seishi

    1970-01-01

    The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an α2-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III0, whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate. Images PMID:16557754

  16. Correlation properties of entangled multiphoton states and Bernstein’s paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirkin, A. S.; Belyaeva, O. V.; Belinsky, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    A normally ordered characteristic function (NOCF) of Bose operators is calculated for a number of discrete-variable entangled states (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Werner (W) qubit states and a cluster state). It is shown that such NOCFs contain visual information on two types of correlations: pseudoclassical and quantum correlations. The latter manifest themselves in the interference terms of the NOCFs and lead to quantum paradoxes, whereas the pseudoclassical correlations of photons and their cumulants satisfy the relations for classical random variables. Three- and four-qubit states are analyzed in detail. An implementation of an analog of Bernstein’s paradox on discrete quantum variables is discussed. A measure of quantumness of an entangled state is introduced that is not related to the entropy approach. It is established that the maximum of the degree of quantumness substantiates the numerical values of the coefficients in multiqubit vector states derived from intuitive considerations.

  17. Correlation properties of entangled multiphoton states and Bernstein's paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirkin, A. S., E-mail: aschirkin@rambler.ru; Belyaeva, O. V., E-mail: lisenok.msu@gmail.com; Belinsky, A. V., E-mail: belinsky@inbox.ru [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-15

    A normally ordered characteristic function (NOCF) of Bose operators is calculated for a number of discrete-variable entangled states (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Werner (W) qubit states and a cluster state). It is shown that such NOCFs contain visual information on two types of correlations: pseudoclassical and quantum correlations. The latter manifest themselves in the interference terms of the NOCFs and lead to quantum paradoxes, whereas the pseudoclassical correlations of photons and their cumulants satisfy the relations for classical random variables. Three- and four-qubit states are analyzed in detail. An implementation of an analog of Bernstein's paradox on discrete quantum variables is discussed. A measure of quantumness of an entangled state is introduced that is not related to the entropy approach. It is established that the maximum of the degree of quantumness substantiates the numerical values of the coefficients in multiqubit vector states derived from intuitive considerations.

  18. Comparative analysis of morphological and topometric parameters of lumbar spine in normal state and in degenerative-dystrophic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimova Е.А.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to carry out comparative analysis and identify patterns of topographic variation patterns of lumbar spine in normal and degenerative changes. Material and methods. CT- and MRT-grams for men and women I (M1-22-35 years; W — 21-35 years and II (M2-36-60 years; W2-36-55 years periods of mature age with no signs of trauma, scoliosis and systemic diseases of the spine (n=140 and CT- and MRT-grams in patients with revealed degenerative changes in the lumbar spine degree II-III (n=120. The pictures with digital PACS system measure the height of the vertebral body, intervertebral disc height, vertical, horizontal diameter and the area of intervertebral foramen. Results. The height of the lumbar vertebral bodies normally increased from27,90±0,38mmatthe level of L, to 29,93±0,33 mm Lm, and then decreased to 24,35±0,27 mm at level L^, in osteochondrosis it is statistically significantly lower at all levels on average by 20%. The height of the intervertebral disc with osteochondrosis below at all levels by an average of 25% of its value in the range 5,27±0,19 to 6,13±0,17mm, while the normal disc height varies from 6,88±030 to 9,36±0,28mm. The area of intervertebral holes normally ranging from 103,29±5,78 to 127,99±5,92mm2, with osteochondrosis aperture area is reduced to a greater extent by decreasing the vertical diameter in comparison with the horizontal. Conclusion. For the studied parameters characteristic topographic variability has been determined. The maximum values parameters are marked at the top of the lumbar lordosis, at chest height, lumbar and lumbosacral junctions sizes are reduced. In osteochondrosis the intervertebral disc height and the height of lumbar vertebral bodies are reduced; intervertebral foramina area is also reduced to a greater extent by reducing the vertical diameter than the horizontal one.

  19. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function

  20. Hematopoietic properties of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/immunoglobulin (G-CSF/IgG-Fc fusion proteins in normal and neutropenic rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George N Cox

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF in vitro bioactivity is preserved when the protein is joined via a flexible 7 amino acid linker to an immunoglobulin-1 (IgG1-Fc domain and that the G-CSF/IgG1-Fc fusion protein possessed a longer circulating half-life and improved hematopoietic properties compared to G-CSF in normal rats. We have extended this analysis by comparing the relative hematopoietic potencies of G-CSF/IgG1-Fc to G-CSF in normal mice and to G-CSF and polyethylene glycol (PEG -modified G-CSF in neutropenic rats. Mice were treated for 5 days using different doses and dosing regimens of G-CSF/IgG1-Fc or G-CSF and circulating neutrophil levels in the animals measured on Day 6. G-CSF/IgG1-Fc stimulated greater increases in blood neutrophils than comparable doses of G-CSF when administered using daily, every other day or every third day dosing regimens. In rats made neutropenic with cyclophosphamide, G-CSF/IgG1-Fc accelerated recovery of blood neutrophils to normal levels (from Day 9 to Day 5 when administered as 5 daily injections or as a single injection on Day 1. By contrast, G-CSF accelerated neutrophil recovery when administered as 5 daily injections, but not when administered as a single injection. G-CSF/IgG1-Fc was as effective as PEG-G-CSF at accelerating neutrophil recovery following a single injection in neutropenic rats. G-CSF/IgG1-Fc and G-CSF/IgG4-Fc fusion proteins in which the 7 amino acid linker was deleted also were effective at accelerating neutrophil recovery following a single injection in neutropenic rats. These studies confirm the enhanced in vivo hematopoietic properties of G-CSF/IgG-Fc fusion proteins.

  1. Phase Properties of Photon-Added Coherent States for Nonharmonic Oscillators in a Nonlinear Kerr Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhsh, F.; Honarasa, G.

    2018-04-01

    The potential of nonharmonic systems has several applications in the field of quantum physics. The photon-added coherent states for annharmonic oscillators in a nonlinear Kerr medium can be used to describe some quantum systems. In this paper, the phase properties of these states including number-phase Wigner distribution function, Pegg-Barnett phase distribution function, number-phase squeezing and number-phase entropic uncertainty relations are investigated. It is found that these states can be considered as the nonclassical states.

  2. Reducing properties, energy efficiency and carbohydrate metabolism in hyperhydric and normal carnation shoots cultured in vitro: a hypoxia stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Shady; Fernández-García, Nieves; Piqueras, Abel; Hellín, Eladio; Olmos, Enrique

    2005-06-01

    Hyperhydricity is considered as a physiological disorder that can be induced by different stressing conditions. In the present work we have studied the metabolic and energetic states of hyperhydric carnation shoots. We have evaluated the hypothesis that hypoxia stress is the main factor affecting the metabolism of hyperhydric leaves. Our results indicate a low level of ATP in hyperhydric tissues, but only slight modifications in pyridine nucleotide contents. Concurrently, the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) activity in hyperhydric leaves was increased but glucokinase (GK; EC 2.7.1.2) activity was unchanged. We have observed that the metabolism of pyruvate was altered in hyperhydric tissues by the induction of pyruvate synthesis via NADP-dependent malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40). The enzymes of the fermentative metabolism pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) were highly increased in hyperhydric leaves. Sucrose metabolism was modified in hyperhydric leaves with a high increase in the activity of both synthesis and catabolic enzymes. The analysis of the sucrose, glucose and fructose contents indicated that all of these sugars were accumulated in hyperhydric leaves. However, the pinitol content was drastically decreased in hyperhydric leaves. We consider that these results suggest that hyperhydric leaves of carnation have adapted to hypoxia stress conditions by the induction of the oxidative pentose phosphate and fermentative pathways.

  3. Quantum entanglement and nonlocality properties of two-mode Gaussian squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao-Hua, Xiang; Bin, Shao; Ke-Hui, Song

    2009-01-01

    Quantum entanglement and nonlocality properties of a family of two-mode Gaussian pure states have been investigated. The results show that the entanglement of these states is determined by both the two-mode squeezing parameter and the difference of the two single-mode squeezing parameters. For the same two-mode squeezing parameter, these states show larger entanglement than the usual two-mode squeezed vacuum state. The violation of Bell inequality depends strongly on all the squeezing parameters of these states and disappears completely in the limit of large squeezing. In particular, these states can exhibit much stronger violation of local realism than two-mode squeezed vacuum state in the range of experimentally available squeezing values. (general)

  4. Properties of the triplet metastable states of the alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; Bromley, M.W.J.

    2004-01-01

    The static and dynamic properties of the alkaline-earth-metal atoms in their metastable state are computed in a configuration interaction approach with a semiempirical model potential for the core. Among the properties determined are the scalar and tensor polarizabilities, the quadrupole moment, some of the oscillator strengths, and the dispersion coefficients of the van der Waals interaction. A simple method for including the effect of the core on the dispersion parameters is described

  5. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schiöth, H B

    2016-11-01

    In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese and normal-weight females, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations were measured in the morning following an overnight fast in 17 obese (age: 39±11 years, body mass index (BMI): 42.3±4.8 kg m - 2 ) and 12 normal-weight females (age: 36±12 years, BMI: 22.7±1.8 kg m - 2 ), both before and 30 min after consumption of a standardized meal (~260 kcal). Compared with normal-weight controls, obese females had increased low-frequency activity in clusters located in the putamen, claustrum and insula (Pfood intake. Self-reported hunger dropped and plasma glucose concentrations increased after food intake (Pfood intake under the experimental settings applied in the current study. Future studies involving males and females, as well as utilizing repeated post-prandial resting-state fMRI scans and various types of meals are needed to further investigate how food intake alters resting-state brain activity in obese humans.

  6. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  7. Molecular and solid-state properties of tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate)-aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Richard L.; Kress, Joel D.; Campbell, I. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    We use a hybrid density-functional-theory approach to calculate ground-state electronic properties and a time-dependent density-functional-theory approach to investigate the excited state electronic properties of molecular tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate)-aluminum, Alq. The calculated molecular results are compared with measurements on dense solid-state films of Alq. We specifically consider: the optical absorption spectrum near the fundamental absorption threshold, the ionization potential, the single-particle energy gap, the static dielectric constant, and the electric-field dependence of the electron mobility. We find that the molecular calculations can describe the optical absorption spectrum near the fundamental absorption threshold without significant corrections for solid-state effects. The energies of the triplet excited states are computed and the lowest triplet is found to lie 0.64 eV below the lowest excited singlet state. In contrast, large dielectric corrections must be included for the molecular calculations to describe the ionization potential and single-particle energy gap. When these dielectric corrections are made, using the calculated molecular polarizability, which accurately gives the measured static dielectric constant, both the ionization potential and single-particle energy gap are well described. The calculated molecular dipole moment can be used to interpret the electric-field dependence of the electron mobility. The solid-state properties, determined from the molecular calculations, are then used in a device model to describe the measured current-voltage characteristics in Alq diodes. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  8. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Flodin; S. Martinsen; K. Mannerkorpi; M. Löfgren; I. Bileviciute-Ljungar; E. Kosek; P. Fransson

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown ...

  9. Gap states and edge properties of rectangular graphene quantum dot in staggered potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Y. H.; Eric Yang, S.-R.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate edge properties of a gapful rectangular graphene quantum dot in a staggered potential. In such a system gap states with discrete and closely spaced energy levels exist that are spatially located on the left or right zigzag edge. We find that, although the bulk states outside the energy gap are nearly unaffected, spin degeneracy of each gap state is lifted by the staggered potential. We have computed the occupation numbers of spin-up and -down gap states at various values of the strength of the staggered potential. The electronic and magnetic properties of the zigzag edges depend sensitively on these numbers. We discuss the possibility of applying this system as a single electron spintronic device.

  10. Vitamin D levels in patients with albinism compared with those in normally pigmented Black patients attending dermatology clinics in the Free State province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Walt, Johanna E C; Sinclair, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Associations between vitamin D deficiency and a broad variety of independent diseases, including several bone diseases, various types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, have been suggested. It is therefore important to detect and treat vitamin D deficiency in high-risk groups. Because patients with albinism (PWA) practice a policy of strict sun avoidance, they may be at risk for low levels of vitamin D. This study was conducted in patients attending dermatology clinics in the Free State, South Africa, to determine sun avoidance behavior in the patient population and to compare 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in PWA with those in normally pigmented Black patients attending the same clinics. Serum 25(OH)D levels were assessed in 50 PWA and 50 normally pigmented Black control subjects. Questionnaires on sun exposure avoidance behaviors were administered to all participants. The present study showed no statistically significant difference in median 25(OH)D levels between PWA and controls with normally pigmented Black skin. Rather, the study found a tendency for controls to have lower 25(OH)D levels. A total of 53% (n = 53) of all study participants (PWA and controls) had a 25(OH)D level of albinism attending dermatology clinics in the Free State, South Africa, need not be viewed as specifically at risk for low vitamin D levels. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. The proposals on cooperation to foreign centers of science on thermophysical properties of reactor materials in a broad band of pressure and temperatures realized at normal transient and emergency operation activity of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortov, V.E.

    1996-01-01

    The proposals on cooperation in the area of thermophysical properties of reactor materials in a broad band of pressure and temperature realized at normal transient and emergency operation activity of nuclear power plants are discussed. 1 fig

  12. Local Properties of Solutions to Non-Autonomous Parabolic PDEs with State-Dependent Delays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezunenko, Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 56-71 ISSN 2158-611X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/12/2431 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : partial differential equations * state-dependent delay * invariance principle Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/rezunenko- local properties of solutions to non-autonomous parabolic PDEs with state-dependent delay s.pdf

  13. Relationship between atomically related core levels and ground state properties of solids: first-principles calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vackář, Jiří; Šipr, Ondřej; Šimůnek, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 4 (2008), 045112/1-045112/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100514; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100637 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : core levels * ab-initio calculations * electronic states * ground state properties Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  14. [Water-exchange processes in hyaline cartilage and its basic components in a normal state and in osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, S S; Chkhol, K Z; Bykov, V A; Roshchina, A A; Iakovleva, L V; Koroleva, O A; Omel'ianenko, N P; Rebrov, L B

    2000-01-01

    The content of different forms of tissue water was studied in the normal articular cartilage and osteoarthrosis cartilage and its structural components: collagen, potassium hyaluronate, sodium chondroitinsulphate and its complexes. In the components of cartilage matrix a few of fractions of bound water different in the strength of binding are present. At the maximal humidity, all water in collagen binds with the active groups of biopolymers and in the glycosaminoglycans, in addition to bound water, are present, two crystal forms of freezing water (free water) at least. The quantity of free water in the collagen-chondroitin sulphat membrane, is increased with the increase of chondroitin sulphate. In the collagen-hyaluronate complex, fraction of free water is found only at the low concentration of hyaluronate kalium. It was shown that in the hyalin cartilage, in different from the other connective tissue (skin, achilles tendon), the most part of water is free water and its quantity is increased in the osteoarthrosis. It is supposed that the rearrangement of binding and free-water fractions in the osteoarthrosis is the result of deficiency of hyaluronic acid and therefore this may be regarded in the improvement of methods of treatment. This scientific and methodical approach allow to receive information on the forms and binding energy of water in the biological tissues, which is absorbed from fluids and steam phase and determine characters of the pathological changes.

  15. Theoretical study of the density of states and magnetic properties of LaCoO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Min; Zhang, Weiyi; Hu, Cheng; Ming, Naiben

    1998-05-01

    The density of states and magnetic properties of low-spin, high-spin, and mixing states of LaCoO3 have been studied within the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation. The real-space recursion method is adopted for computing the electronic structure of the disordered system. The paramagnetic high-spin state is dealt with using the usual binary alloy coherent potential approximation (CPA); an extended trinary alloy CPA approximation is developed to describe the mixing state. In agreement with experiments, our results show that the main features of the quasiparticle spectra in the mixing state are not a sensitive function of the high-spin component, but the spectrum does get broadened due to spin scattering. The increasing of the high-spin component also results in a pileup of the density of states at the Fermi energy which indicates an insulator to metal phase transition. Some limitations of the present approach are also discussed.

  16. Superconductivity and normal state properties of non-centrosymmetric CePt3Si: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, E.; Bonalde, I.; Sigrist, M.

    2005-01-01

    Ternary CePt 3 Si crystallizes in the tetragonal P4mm structure which lacks a center of inversion. Antiferromagnetic order sets in at T N approx 22 K followed by superconductivity (SC) below Tc approx 0.75 K. Large values of H' c2 approx -8.5 T/K and H c2 (0) approx 5T were derived, referring to Cooper pairs formed out of heavy quasiparticles. The mass enhancement originates from Kondo interactions with a characteristic temperature T K approx 8 K. CePt 3 Si follows the general features of correlated electron systems and can be arranged within the Kadowaki-Woods plot next to the unconventional SC UPt 3 . NMR and mSR results show that both magnetic order and SC coexist on a microscopic scale without having spatial segregation of both phenomena. The absence of an inversion symmetry gives rise to a lifting of the degeneracy of electronic bands by spin-orbit coupling. As a consequence, the SC order parameter may have uncommon features as indicated from a very unique NMR relaxation rate 1/T 1 and a linear temperature dependence of the penetration depth λ

  17. Theory of the Andreev reflection and the density of states in proximity contact normal-superconducting infinite double-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagato, Yasushi; Nagai, Katsuhiko

    1993-01-01

    Proximity contact N-S double-layer with infinite layer widths is studied in the clean limit. The finite reflection at the interface is taken into account. Starting from a recent theory of finite width double-layer by Ashida et al., the authors obtain explicit expressions for the quasi-classical Green's function which already satisfy the boundary condition and include no exploding terms at infinities. The self-consistent pair potentials are obtained numerically with sufficient accuracy. The Andreev reflection at the N-S interface is discussed on the basis of the self-consistent pair potential. It is shown that there exists a resonance state in a potential valley formed between the depressed pair potential and the partially reflecting interface, which leads to a peak of the Andreev reflection coefficient with the height unity slightly below the bulk superconductor energy gap. They also find general relationship between the Andreev reflection coefficient and the local density of states of the superconductor just at the interface

  18. Observations of Co-variation in Cloud Properties and their Relationships with Atmospheric State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Fridlind, A. M.; Arnold, T. G.; Yorks, J. E.; Heymsfield, G. M.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Um, J.

    2017-12-01

    Radiative properties of upper tropospheric ice clouds are generally not well represented in global and cloud models. Cloud top height, cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical thickness, cloud water path, particle size and ice crystal shape all serve as observational targets for models to constrain cloud properties. Trends or biases in these cloud properties could have profound effects on the climate since they affect cloud radiative properties. Better understanding of co-variation between these cloud properties and linkages with atmospheric state variables can lead to better representation of clouds in models by reducing biases in their micro- and macro-physical properties as well as their radiative properties. This will also enhance our general understanding of cloud processes. In this analysis we look at remote sensing, in situ and reanalysis data from the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), Cloud Radar System (CRS), GEOS-5 reanalysis data and GOES imagery obtained during the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) airborne campaign. The MAS, CPL and CRS were mounted on the ER-2 high-altitude aircraft during this campaign. In situ observations of ice size and shape were made aboard the DC8 and WB57 aircrafts. We explore how thermodynamic phase, ice effective radius, particle shape and radar reflectivity vary with altitude and also investigate how these observed cloud properties vary with cloud type, cloud top temperature, relative humidity and wind profiles. Observed systematic relationships are supported by physical interpretations of cloud processes and any unexpected differences are examined.

  19. Effect of stress, strain and optical properties in vacuum and normal annealed ZnO thin films using RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Santhosh; Purvaja, K.; Harinee, N.; Venkateswaran, C.

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide thin films have been deposited on quartz substrate using RF magnetron sputtering. The deposited films were subjected to different annealing atmosphere at a fixed temperature of 500 °C for 5h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveals the shift in the peak of both normal annealed and vacuum annealed thin films when compared to as-deposited ZnO film. The crystallite size, intrinsic stress and other parameters were calculated from XRD data. The surface morphology of the obtained films were studied using Atomic force microscopy (AFM). From Uv-Visible spectroscopy, the peak at 374 nm of all the films is characteristics of ZnO. The structural, thermal stability and optical properties of the annealed ZnO films are discussed in detail.

  20. Ground state properties of exotic nuclei in deformed medium mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manju; Chatterjee, R.; Singh, Jagjit; Shubhchintak

    2017-01-01

    The dipole moment, size of the nucleus and other ground state properties of deformed nuclei 37 Mg and 31 Ne are presented. Furthermore with this deformed wave function the electric dipole strength distribution for deformed nuclei 37 Mg and 31 Ne is calculated. This will allow us to investigate the two dimensional scaling phenomenon with two parameters: quadrupole deformation and separation energy

  1. Teaching the Properties of Chromium's Oxidation States with a Case Study Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdilek, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how a mixed-method case study affects pre-service science teachers' awareness of hexavalent chromium pollution and content knowledge about the properties of chromium's different oxidation states. The study was conducted in Turkey with 55 sophomores during the fall semester of 2013-2014. The students…

  2. Financing Schools and Property Tax Relief -- A State Responsibility. The Report in Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Washington, DC.

    This report is the first response to President Nixon's request to the Commission for an evaluation of the proposed replacement of school property taxes by a Federal value added tax. The report findings reveal that a federal program to bring tax relief is neither necessary nor desirable, and the Commission suggests that the States assume a greater…

  3. Quantum properties of counterpropagating two-photon states generated in a planar waveguide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina ml., Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2008), 013803/1-013803/14 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum properties * two-photon states Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.908, year: 2008

  4. Stability properties of a heat equation with state-dependent parameters and asymmetric boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backi, Christoph Josef; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Leth, John

    2015-01-01

    In this work the stability properties of a partial differential equation (PDE) with state-dependent parameters and asymmetric boundary conditions are investigated. The PDE describes the temperature distribution inside foodstuff, but can also hold for other applications and phenomena. We show...

  5. Ground state structures and properties of Si3Hn (n= 1–6) clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ground state structures and properties of Si3H (1 ≤ ≤ 6) clusters have been calculated using Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics with simulated annealing and steepest descent optimization methods. We have studied cohesive energy per particle and first excited electronic level gap of the clusters as a function of ...

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children in a Large Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, Sarah L.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Schiffman, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children (PSWQ-C; Chorpita, Tracey, Brown, Collica, & Barlow, 1997) is a 14-item self-report measure of worry in children and adolescents. Although the PSWQ-C has demonstrated favorable psychometric properties in small clinical and large community samples, this study represents the first psychometric…

  7. 26 CFR 301.7505-1 - Sale of personal property acquired by the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by the United States in payment of or as security for debts arising under the internal revenue laws... substantially higher price may be obtained, the sale may be held outside his district. (ii) Rejection of bids... any and all bids and withdraw the property from the sale. When it appears to the internal revenue...

  8. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  9. Enhancement of relaxation rates in the normal state of superconductor PuRhGa5:NQR relaxation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, H.; Kambe, S.; Tokunaga, Y.; Fujimoto, T.; Walstedt, R.E.; Yasuoka, H.; Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Yamamoto, E.; Nakamura, A.; Shiokawa, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Arai, Y.; Matsuda, T.D.; Haga, Y.; Onuki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation rates (1/T 1 ) have been measured under zero field using nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) lines in superconductor PuRhGa 5 and Pauli-paramagnet LuCoGa 5 . In the reference LuCoGa 5 with fully-occupied 4f shell, the 1/T 1 shows the constant behavior of (T 1 T) -1 =0.495+/-0.002(sK) -1 . On the other hand, in PuRhGa 5 , 1/T 1 is much larger than in LuCoGa 5 and the 1/T 1 ∝T behavior below ∼30K is seen, where its (T 1 T) -1 value is 3.27+/-0.005(sK) -1 . These results suggest a development of coherent Fermi liquid state incorporated with 5f electrons below ∼30K in PuRhGa 5

  10. Estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity and air permeability from soil physical properties using state-space analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe; Møldrup, Per; Nielsen, Don

    2003-01-01

    and gaseous chemicals in the vadose zone. In this study, three modeling approaches were used to identify the dependence of saturated hydraulic conductivity (K-S) and air permeability at -100 cm H2O soil-water potential (k(a100)) on soil physical properties in undisturbed soil: (i) Multiple regression, (ii......) ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) modeling, and (iii) State-space modeling. In addition to actual soil property values, ARIMA and state-space models account for effects of spatial correlation in soil properties. Measured data along two 70-m-long transects at a 20-year old constructed......Estimates of soil hydraulic conductivity (K) and air permeability (k(a)) at given soil-water potentials are often used as reference points in constitutive models for K and k(a) as functions of moisture content and are, therefore, a prerequisite for predicting migration of water, air, and dissolved...

  11. Resting-state functional connectivity predicts the strength of hemispheric lateralization for language processing in temporal lobe epilepsy and normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaëlle E; Pustina, Dorian; Skidmore, Christopher; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R; Tracy, Joseph I

    2015-01-01

    In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), determining the hemispheric specialization for language before surgery is critical to preserving a patient's cognitive abilities post-surgery. To date, the major techniques utilized are limited by the capacity of patients to efficiently realize the task. We determined whether resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a reliable predictor of language hemispheric dominance in right and left TLE patients, relative to controls. We chose three subregions of the inferior frontal cortex (pars orbitalis, pars triangularis, and pars opercularis) as the seed regions. All participants performed both a verb generation task and a resting-state fMRI procedure. Based on the language task, we computed a laterality index (LI) for the resulting network. This revealed that 96% of the participants were left-hemisphere dominant, although there remained a large degree of variability in the strength of left lateralization. We tested whether LI correlated with rsFC values emerging from each seed. We revealed a set of regions that was specific to each group. Unique correlations involving the epileptic mesial temporal lobe were revealed for the right and left TLE patients, but not for the controls. Importantly, for both TLE groups, the rsFC emerging from a contralateral seed was the most predictive of LI. Overall, our data depict the broad patterns of rsFC that support strong versus weak left hemisphere language laterality. This project provides the first evidence that rsFC data may potentially be used on its own to verify the strength of hemispheric dominance for language in impaired or pathologic populations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Classification of single normal and Alzheimer’s disease individuals from cortical sources of resting state EEG rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eBabiloni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown abnormal power and functional connectivity of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG rhythms in groups of Alzheimer’s disease (AD compared to healthy elderly (Nold subjects. Here we tested the best classification rate of 120 AD patients and 100 matched Nold subjects using EEG markers based on cortical sources of power and functional connectivity of these rhythms. EEG data were recorded during resting state eyes-closed condition. Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA estimated the power and functional connectivity of cortical sources in frontal, central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic regions. Delta (2-4 Hz, theta (4-8 Hz, alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz, alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz, beta 1 (13-20 Hz, beta 2 (20-30 Hz, and gamma (30-40 Hz were the frequency bands of interest. The classification rates of interest were those with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC higher than 0.7 as a threshold for a moderate classification rate (i.e. 70%. Results showed that the following EEG markers overcame this threshold: (i central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 1 current density; (ii central, parietal, occipital temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 2 current density; (iii frontal theta/alpha 1 current density; (iv occipital delta/alpha 1 inter-hemispherical connectivity; (v occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1 right and left intra-hemispherical connectivity; and (vi parietal-limbic alpha 1 right intra-hemispherical connectivity. Occipital delta/alpha 1 current density showed the best classification rate (sensitivity of 73.3%, specificity of 78%, accuracy of 75.5%, and AUROC of 82%. These results suggest that EEG source markers can classify Nold and AD individuals with a moderate classification rate higher than 80%.

  13. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schi?th, H B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. OBJECTIVE: To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese...

  14. Industrial property for science’s management, technology and innovation in Cuban State companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce María Contreras Villavicencio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper synthesizes some research on industrial property aspects from the socio-legal perspective and financial accounting. Its focus to the socialist state enterprise adaptation in his economic fact, social and environmental responsibility as a fundamental Cuban model reach, competitiveness and high performance in socialist state enterprise. It outlines criteria on the ordering and implementation of industrial property through the management of science and technology, protection and dissemination of knowledge results as alternatives of regulation in chain of value to full cycle of innovation, dynamics of intangible heritage and relationships, exchange with marketing as business philosophy of business application. Strategies are proposed regarding the rights of this institution in the economic-organization management state.

  15. Effect of normalization and tempering on microstructure and mechanical properties of V-groove and narrow-groove P91 pipe weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Chandan [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Mahapatra, M.M. [School of Mechanical Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751013 (India); Kumar, Pradeep; Saini, N. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2017-02-08

    In Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), The Nb-V modified 9Cr-1Mo (P91) creep strength enhanced ferritic (CSEF) steel is currently considered as a candidate material for reactor internals and reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). After the welding of P91 steel, the inhomogeneous microstructure of weldment is a serious issue because it promotes the well-known Type IV cracking in P91 weldments. The present research work is focused on how the microstructure evolve in various zone of P91 pipe weldment during the sub-critical post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and normalized and tempered (N&T) heat treatment. The effect of PWHT and N&T heat treatment are also considered on tensile properties and hardness variation of P91 weldments. To characterize the sample scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical micrograph was used. It was observed that the N&T heat treatment provides the homogeneous microstructure compared to PWHT. The superior mechanical properties was also measured in N&T condition compared to PWHT. Study of fracture surface morphology of tensile tested specimen in different heat treatment condition is also presented.

  16. Effect of normalization and tempering on microstructure and mechanical properties of V-groove and narrow-groove P91 pipe weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Chandan; Mahapatra, M.M.; Kumar, Pradeep; Saini, N.

    2017-01-01

    In Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), The Nb-V modified 9Cr-1Mo (P91) creep strength enhanced ferritic (CSEF) steel is currently considered as a candidate material for reactor internals and reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). After the welding of P91 steel, the inhomogeneous microstructure of weldment is a serious issue because it promotes the well-known Type IV cracking in P91 weldments. The present research work is focused on how the microstructure evolve in various zone of P91 pipe weldment during the sub-critical post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and normalized and tempered (N&T) heat treatment. The effect of PWHT and N&T heat treatment are also considered on tensile properties and hardness variation of P91 weldments. To characterize the sample scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical micrograph was used. It was observed that the N&T heat treatment provides the homogeneous microstructure compared to PWHT. The superior mechanical properties was also measured in N&T condition compared to PWHT. Study of fracture surface morphology of tensile tested specimen in different heat treatment condition is also presented.

  17. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  18. Coexpression of Human α- and Circularly Permuted β-Globins Yields a Hemoglobin with Normal R State but Modified T State Properties†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundson, Anna L.; Taber, Alexandria M.; van der Walde, Adella; Lin, Danielle H.; Olson, John S.; Anthony-Cahill, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, a circularly permuted human β-globin (cpβ) has been coexpressed with human α-globin in bacterial cells and shown to associate to form α-cpβ hemoglobin in solution. Flash photolysis studies of α-cpβ show markedly biphasic CO and O2 kinetics with the amplitudes for the fast association phases being dominant due the presence of large amounts of high-affinity liganded hemoglobin dimers. Extensive dimerization of liganded but not deoxygenated α-cpβ was observed by gel chromatography. The rate constants for O2 and CO binding to the R state forms of α-cpβ are almost identical to those of native HbA (k′R(CO) ≈ 5.0 μM−1 s−1; k′R(O2) ≈ 50 μM−1 s−1), and the rate of O2 dissociation from fully oxygenated α-cpβ is also very similar to that observed for HbA (kR(O2) ≈ 21–28 s−1). When the equilibrium deoxyHb form of α-cpβ is reacted with CO in rapid mixing experiments, the observed time courses are monophasic and the observed bimolecular association rate constant is ∼1.0 μM−1 s−1, which is intermediate between the R state rate measured in partial photolysis experiments (∼5 μM−1 s−1) and that observed for T state deoxyHbA (k′T(CO) ≈ 0.1 to 0.2 μM−1 s−1). Thus the deoxygenated permutated β subunits generate an intermediate, higher affinity, deoxyHb quaternary state. This conclusion is supported by equilibrium oxygen binding measurements in which α-cpβ exhibits a P50 of ∼1.5 mmHg and a low n-value (∼1.3) at pH 7, 20 °C, compared to 8.5 mmHg and n ≈ 2.8 for native HbA under identical, dilute conditions. PMID:19397368

  19. Semi-analytical quasi-normal mode theory for the local density of states in coupled photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We present and validate a semi-analytical quasi-normal mode (QNM) theory for the local density of states (LDOS) in coupled photonic crystal (PhC) cavity-waveguide structures. By means of an expansion of the Green's function on one or a few QNMs, a closed-form expression for the LDOS is obtained, ......-trivial spectrum with a peak and a dip is found, which is reproduced only when including both the two relevant QNMs in the theory. In both cases, we find relative errors below 1% in the bandwidth of interest.......We present and validate a semi-analytical quasi-normal mode (QNM) theory for the local density of states (LDOS) in coupled photonic crystal (PhC) cavity-waveguide structures. By means of an expansion of the Green's function on one or a few QNMs, a closed-form expression for the LDOS is obtained......, and for two types of two-dimensional PhCs, with one and two cavities side-coupled to an extended waveguide, the theory is validated against numerically exact computations. For the single cavity, a slightly asymmetric spectrum is found, which the QNM theory reproduces, and for two cavities a non...

  20. Heat Capacity and Thermal Conductance Measurements of a Superconducting-Normal Mixed State by Detection of Single 3 eV Photons in a Magnetic Penetration Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Balvin, M. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Denis, K. L.; Lee, S.-J.; Nagler, P. C.; Smith, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report on measurements of the detected signal pulses in a molybdenum-gold Magnetic Penetration Thermometer (MPT) in response to absorption of one or more 3 eV photons. We designed and used this MPT sensor for x-ray microcalorimetry. In this device, the diamagnetic response of a superconducting MoAu bilayer is used to sense temperature changes in response to absorbed photons, and responsivity is enhanced by a Meissner transition in which the magnetic flux penetrating the sensor changes rapidly to minimize free energy in a mixed superconducting normal state. We have previously reported on use of our MPT to study a thermal phonon energy loss to the substrate when absorbing x-rays. We now describe results of extracting heat capacity C and thermal conductance G values from pulse height and decay time of MPT pulses generated by 3 eV photons. The variation in C and G at temperatures near the Meissner transition temperature (set by an internal magnetic bias field) allow us to probe the behavior in superconducting normal mixed state of the condensation energy and the electron cooling power resulting from quasi-particle recombination and phonon emission. The information gained on electron cooling power is also relevant to the operation of other superconducting detectors, such as Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors.

  1. Modeling of dielectric properties of complex fluids with an equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Thomsen, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    permittivity) can be modeled simultaneously with thermodynamic properties. The static permittivity is calculated from an extension of the framework developed by Onsager, Kirkwood, and Fröhlich to associating mixtures. The thermodynamic properties are calculated from the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation...... of state that includes the Wertheim association model as formulated in the statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) to account for hydrogen bonding molecules. We show that, by using a simple description of the geometry of the association, we may calculate the Kirkwood g-factor as a function...

  2. Ground-state properties of K-isotopes from laser and $\\beta$-NMR spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Lievens, P; Rajabali, M M; Krieger, A R

    By combining high-resolution laser spectroscopy with $\\beta$-NMR spectroscopy on polarized K-beams we aim to establish the ground-state spins and magnetic moments of the neutron-rich $^{48,49,50,51}$K isotopes from N=29 to N=32. Spins and magnetic moments of the odd-K isotopes up to N=28 reveal an inversion of the ground-state, from the normal $\\,{I}$=3/2 ($\\pi{d}_{3/2}^{-1}$) in $^{41-45}$K$\\to\\,{I}$=1/2 ($\\pi{s}_{1/2}^{-1}$) in $^{47}$K. This inversion of the proton single particle levels is related to the strong proton $d_{3/2}$ - neutron $f_{7/2}$ interaction which lowers the energy of the $\\pi{d}_{3/2}$ single particle state when filling the $\

  3. Comparison between photon annihilation-then-creation and photon creation-then-annihilation thermal states: Non-classical and non-Gaussian properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xue-Xiang; Yuan, Hong-Chun; Wang, Yan

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the nonclassical properties of arbitrary number photon annihilation-then-creation operation (AC) and creation-then-annihilation operation (CA) to the thermal state (TS), whose normalization factors are related to the polylogarithm function. Then we compare their quantum characters, such as photon number distribution, average photon number, Mandel Q-parameter, purity and the Wigner function. Because of the noncommutativity between the annihilation operator and the creation operator, the ACTS and the CATS have different nonclassical properties. It is found that nonclassical properties are exhibited more strongly after AC than after CA. In addition we also examine their non-Gaussianity. The result shows that the ACTS can present a slightly bigger non-Gaussianity than the CATS.

  4. Comparison between photon annihilation-then-creation and photon creation-then-annihilation thermal states: Non-classical and non-Gaussian properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xue-Xiang; Wang Yan; Yuan Hong-Chun

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nonclassical properties of arbitrary number photon annihilation-then-creation operation (AC) and creation-then-annihilation operation (CA) to the thermal state (TS), whose normalization factors are related to the polylogarithm function. Then we compare their quantum characters, such as photon number distribution, average photon number, Mandel Q-parameter, purity and the Wigner function. Because of the noncommutativity between the annihilation operator and the creation operator, the ACTS and the CATS have different nonclassical properties. It is found that nonclassical properties are exhibited more strongly after AC than after CA. In addition we also examine their non-Gaussianity. The result shows that the ACTS can present a slightly bigger non-Gaussianity than the CATS. (general)

  5. Adsorption properties versus oxidation states of rutile TiO2(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Umberto; Hammer, Bjørk

    2011-01-01

    Using density functional theory we have studied the adsorption properties of different atoms and molecules deposited on a stoichiometric, reduced, and oxidized rutile TiO2(110) surface. Depending on the oxidation state of the surface, electrons can flow from or to the substrate and, therefore...... of the charge flow depends on the oxidation state of the rutile surface and on the adsorption site. Generally, the charging effect leads to more stable complexes. However, the increase in the binding energy of the adsorbates is highly dependent on the electronic states of the surface prior to the adsorption...... event. In this work we have analyzed in details these mechanisms and we have also established a direct correlation between the enhanced binding energy of the adsorbates and the induced gap states...

  6. Analysis of physical properties controlling steady-state infiltration rates on tropical savannah soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.

    1993-10-01

    A knowledge of physical properties influencing the steady-state infiltration rates (ic) of soils is needed for the hydrologic modelling of the infiltration process. In this study evidence is provided to show that effective porosity (Pe) (i.e. the proportion of macro pore spaces with equivalent radius of > 15 μm) and dry bulk density are the most important soil physical properties controlling the steady-state infiltration rates on a tropical savannah with varying land use histories. At a macro porosity value of ≤ 5.0% the steady-state infiltration rate is zero. Total porosity and the proportion of water-retaining pores explained only a small fraction of the variation in this property. Steady-state infiltration rates can also be estimated from either the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) by the equation, i c = 31.1 + 1.06 (Ks), (R 2 = 0.8104, p ≤ 0.001) or the soil water transmissivity (A) by the equation, i c = 30.0 + 29.9(A), (R 2 = 0.8228, ρ ≤ 0.001). The Philip two-parameter model under predicted steady-state infiltration rates generally. Considering the ease of determination and reliability it is suggested that effective porosity be used to estimate the steady-state infiltration rates of these other soils with similar characteristics. The model is, i c 388.7(Pe) - 10.8(R 2 = 0.7265, p ≤ 0.001) where i c is in (cm/hr) and Pe in (cm 3 /cm 3 ). (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Shielding property for thermal equilibrium states in the quantum Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móller, N. S.; de Paula, A. L.; Drumond, R. C.

    2018-03-01

    We show that Gibbs states of nonhomogeneous transverse Ising chains satisfy a shielding property. Namely, whatever the fields on each spin and exchange couplings between neighboring spins are, if the field in one particular site is null, then the reduced states of the subchains to the right and to the left of this site are exactly the Gibbs states of each subchain alone. Therefore, even if there is a strong exchange coupling between the extremal sites of each subchain, the Gibbs states of the each subchain behave as if there is no interaction between them. In general, if a lattice can be divided into two disconnected regions separated by an interface of sites with zero applied field, then we can guarantee a similar result only if the surface contains a single site. Already for an interface with two sites we show an example where the property does not hold. When it holds, however, we show that if a perturbation of the Hamiltonian parameters is done in one side of the lattice, then the other side is completely unchanged, with regard to both its equilibrium state and dynamics.

  8. Thermodynamic properties and equation of state of zircon ZrSiO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, R.; Chaplot, S.L.; Choudhury, N.

    1998-01-01

    The silicate mineral zircon is a host material for radioactive materials in the earth's crust and is a natural candidate for usage as a nuclear waste storage material. Lattice dynamical calculations have been carried out to understand its thermodynamic properties and high pressure behavior. The calculated phonon density of states, variation of phonon frequencies with pressure and equation of state are in good agreement with the available experimental data. One of the zone center optic mode involving SiO 4 rotations becomes soft at 47 GPa

  9. Theoretical radiative properties between states of the triplet manifold of NH radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owono Owono, L.C.; Jaidane, N.; Ben Lakhdar, Z.

    2007-12-01

    Ab initio transition dipole moments between states of the triplet manifold of NH radical are presented. This enables the computation of various radiative characteristics such as Einstein coefficients, radiative lifetimes and oscillator strengths. These properties concern valence and Rydberg states as well for which spectroscopic parameters are rather scarce and sometimes inexistent. Our results show good agreement with available experimental data in comparison to other theoretical numbers reported in the literature. This helps to build confidence on the quantities for which data were not found for comparative purposes. It is expected that the present study may enhance further astrophysical and laboratory investigations. (author)

  10. Membrane potential and response properties of populations of cortical neurons in the high conductance state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Bote, Ruben; Parga, Nestor

    2005-01-01

    Because of intense synaptic activity, cortical neurons are in a high conductance state. We show that this state has important consequences on the properties of a population of independent model neurons with conductance-based synapses. Using an adiabaticlike approximation we study both the membrane potential and the firing probability distributions across the population. We find that the latter is bimodal in such a way that at any particular moment some neurons are inactive while others are active. The population rate and the response variability are also characterized

  11. T-4 handbook of material properties data bases. Volume 1c. Equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holian, K.S.

    1984-11-01

    This manual is a compilation of descriptions of the equations of state (EOS) in the T-4 computerized library of material properties tables. The introduction gives a brief descriptions of the library and of the physics theories and models which were used to calculate the equations of state. Then each EOS is described in detail. First, various physical parameters of each theoretical EOS are tabulated and compared with experiments when available. Then the method of generating the EOS is briefly described. Finally, the tabels are plotted in terms of pressure and energy vs density along line of constant temperature

  12. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version-reintegration to normal living index (C-RNLI) for identifying participation restriction among community-dwelling frail older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Justina Yat-Wa; Ma, Ka Wai

    2017-01-31

    The Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNLI) was developed to measure reintegration to normal living after major traumas/illnesses. Its psychometric properties remain unknown when used to measure participation restriction under the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF) framework. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version-RNLI to measure WHO-ICF participation restriction among community-dwelling pre-frail and frail older people. A cross-sectional study was conducted in community and day-care centres in Hong Kong between May 2015 and January 2016. Through face-to-face interviews, information was collected on the participants' demographic background, medical history, frailty status, depressive mood, functional performance in daily activities, and participation restriction. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct and convergent validity of the C-RNLI were assessed. Two hundred and ninety-nine pre-frail or frail community-dwelling older people with a mean age of 79.53 were recruited. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the C-RNLI has a two-factor structure comprised of "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events". The test-retest coefficient was 0.71. The Cronbach's alpha of the total C-RNLI score, and those of the factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" were 0.88, 0.82 and 0.84, respectively. Pre-frail older people had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -5.05, older people. Older people from community centres had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -4.48, older people from day-care centres. The factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" of the C-RNLI were significantly convergent with depressive mood (r s  = -0

  13. Concentration state dependence of the rheological and structural properties of reconstituted silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chunli; Holland, Chris; Porter, David; Shao, Zhengzhong; Vollrath, Fritz

    2009-10-12

    The ability to control the processing of artificial silk is key to the successful application of this important and high performance biopolymer. Understanding where our current reconstitution process can be improved will not only aid us in the creation of better materials, but will also provide insight into the natural material along the way. This study aims to understand what proportion of reconstituted silk contributes to its rheological properties and what conformational state the silk proteins are in. It shows, for the first time, that a change in rheological properties can be related to a change in silk structures present in solution and reveals a low concentration gel state for silk that may have important implications for future successful artificial processing of silk.

  14. Superconducting properties of the η-pairing state in the Penson-Kolb-Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czart, W.R.; Robaszkiewicz, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Penson-Kolb-Hubbard model, i.e. the Hubbard model with the pair-hopping interaction J is studied. We focus on the properties of the superconducting state with the Cooper-pair center-of mass momentum q Q(η-phase). The transition into the η-phase, which is favorized by the repulsive J (J c |, dependent on band filling, on-site interaction U and band structure, and the system never exhibits standard BCS-like features. This is in obvious contrast with the properties of the isotropic s-wave state, stabilized by the attractive J and attractive U, which exhibit at T = 0 a smooth crossover from the BCS-like limit to that of tightly bound pairs with increasing pairing strength. (author)

  15. A comparative icMRCI study of some NO+, NO and NO- electronic ground state properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, R.; Fiser, J.

    2004-01-01

    Potential energy, electric field gradient (EFG) at both nuclei, and electric dipole moment functions for the electronic ground states of NO + , NO and NO - were calculated at the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (icMRCI) level using augmented correlation-consistent basis sets. The changes in the EFG's with internuclear separation R were used to interpret the character of bonding in the triad of NO species. The vibrational dependences of the electric properties were estimated and the EFG's were employed to determine the 14 N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants. The effects of the choice of the basis set and reference configuration space were investigated. While the results obtained for NO + and NO served primarily to assess the quality of calculations by comparison with available experimental and theoretical data, new information was obtained on NO - , including electric property functions and some notions about the existence of metastable states

  16. Proceedings of the workshop on 'anomalous electronic states and physical properties in high-temperature superconductors'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masatoshi; Kajimoto, Ryoichi

    2007-03-01

    A workshop entitled 'Anomalous Electronic States and Physical Properties in High-Temperature Superconductors' was held on November 7-8, 2006 at Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University. In the workshop, leading scientists in the field of high-T c superconductivity, both experimentalists and theorists, gathered in a hall to report the recent progress of the study, clarify the problems to be solved, and discuss the future prospects. The workshop was jointly organized by Specially Promoted Research of MEXT, Development of the 4D Spaces Access Neutron Spectrometer and Elucidation of the Mechanism of Oxide High-T c Superconductivity' (repr. by M. Arai, JAEA) and by the Inter-university Cooperative Research Program of the Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 'Anomalous Electronic States and Physical Properties in High-Temperature Superconductors' (repr. by T. Tohyama, Kyoto Univ.). This report includes abstracts and materials of the presentations in the workshop. (author)

  17. Psychometric properties of startle and corrugator response in NPU, affective picture viewing, and resting state tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jesse T; Bradford, Daniel E; Curtin, John J

    2016-08-01

    The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation of critical psychometric properties of commonly used psychophysiology laboratory tasks/measures within the NIMH RDoC. Participants (N = 128) completed the no-shock, predictable shock, unpredictable shock (NPU) task, affective picture viewing task, and resting state task at two study visits separated by 1 week. We examined potentiation/modulation scores in NPU (predictable or unpredictable shock vs. no-shock) and affective picture viewing tasks (pleasant or unpleasant vs. neutral pictures) for startle and corrugator responses with two commonly used quantification methods. We quantified startle potentiation/modulation scores with raw and standardized responses. We quantified corrugator potentiation/modulation in the time and frequency domains. We quantified general startle reactivity in the resting state task as the mean raw startle response during the task. For these three tasks, two measures, and two quantification methods, we evaluated effect size robustness and stability, internal consistency (i.e., split-half reliability), and 1-week temporal stability. The psychometric properties of startle potentiation in the NPU task were good, but concerns were noted for corrugator potentiation in this task. Some concerns also were noted for the psychometric properties of both startle and corrugator modulation in the affective picture viewing task, in particular, for pleasant picture modulation. Psychometric properties of general startle reactivity in the resting state task were good. Some salient differences in the psychometric properties of the NPU and affective picture viewing tasks were observed within and across quantification methods. © 2016 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. 26 CFR 1.897-1 - Taxation of foreign investment in United States real property interests, definition of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of foreign investment in United States... Provisions § 1.897-1 Taxation of foreign investment in United States real property interests, definition of... respect to the taxation of foreign investments in U.S. real property interests and related matters. This...

  19. 36 CFR 1280.2 - What property is under the control of the Archivist of the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What property is under the control of the Archivist of the United States? 1280.2 Section 1280.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Are the General...

  20. Specific heat of the 38-K superconductor MgB_2 in the normal and superconducting state: bulk evidence for a double gap

    OpenAIRE

    Junod, Alain; Wang, Yuxing; Bouquet, Frederic; Toulemonde, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    The specific heat of two polycrystalline samples of MgB_2 is presented and analyzed (2 - 300 K, 0 - 16 T), together with magnetic properties. The main characteristics are a low density of states at the Fermi level, high phonon frequencies, and an anomalous temperature- and field- dependence of the specific heat at T < T_c. A two-gap model with a gap ratio of 3:1 fits the specific heat in zero field. The smaller gap is washed out by a field of 0.5 T.

  1. Defect states in hexagonal boron nitride: Assignments of observed properties and prediction of properties relevant to quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, A.; Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Ford, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Key properties of nine possible defect sites in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), VN,VN -1,CN,VNO2 B,VNNB,VNCB,VBCN,VBCNS iN , and VNCBS iB , are predicted using density-functional theory and are corrected by applying results from high-level ab initio calculations. Observed h-BN electron-paramagnetic resonance signals at 22.4, 20.83, and 352.70 MHz are assigned to VN,CN, and VNO2 B , respectively, while the observed photoemission at 1.95 eV is assigned to VNCB . Detailed consideration of the available excited states, allowed spin-orbit couplings, zero-field splitting, and optical transitions is made for the two related defects VNCB and VBCN . VNCB is proposed for realizing long-lived quantum memory in h-BN. VBCN is predicted to have a triplet ground state, implying that spin initialization by optical means is feasible and suitable optical excitations are identified, making this defect of interest for possible quantum-qubit operations.

  2. Left ventricular function impairment in patients with normal-weight obesity: contribution of abdominal fat deposition, profibrotic state, reduced insulin sensitivity, and proinflammatory activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Wojciech; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Derzhko, Roksolana; Przewlocka-Kosmala, Monika; Mysiak, Andrzej; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grazyna

    2012-05-01

    Obesity predisposes to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and heart failure; however, the risk of these complications has not been assessed in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) but increased body fat content (normal-weight obesity, NWO). We hypothesized that LV performance in NWO may be impaired and sought to investigate potential contributors to cardiac functional abnormalities. One hundred sixty-eight subjects (age, 38±7 years) with BMI affecting the myocardium were classified on the basis of body fat content into 2 groups: with NWO and without NWO. Echocardiographic indices of LV systolic and diastolic function, including myocardial velocities and deformation, serological fibrosis markers, indicators of proinflammatory activation, and metabolic control, were evaluated. Subjects with NWO demonstrated impaired LV systolic and diastolic function, increased fibrosis intensity (assessed by procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide [PICP]), impaired insulin sensitivity, and increased proinflammatory activation as compared with individuals with normal body fat. The independent correlates of LV systolic and diastolic function variables were as follows: for strain, IL-18 (β=-0.17, P<0.006), C-reactive protein (β=-0.20, P<0.002) and abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.20, P<0.003); for tissue S velocity, PICP (β=-0.21, P<0.002) and abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.43, P<0.0001); for tissue E velocity, abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.30, P<0.0001), PICP (β=-0.31, P<0.0001) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA IR; β=-0.20, P<0.002); and for E/e'-PICP, IL-18 (both β=0.18, P<0.01) and HOMA IR (β=0.16, P<0.04). In patients with NWO, subclinical disturbances of LV function are independently associated with the extent of abdominal fat deposit, profibrotic state (as reflected by circulating PICP), reduced insulin sensitivity, and proinflammatory activation.

  3. Property Accounting. A Handbook of Standard Terminology and a Guide for Classifying Information about Education Property. State Educational Records and Reports Series: Handbook III, Revised 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Ivan N.

    This handbook is offered as a resource for local, intermediate, state, and federal education officials to assist in the identification, organization, and definition of data and information about education property. An introduction and directions are followed by a discussion of concepts associated with property accounting and some general…

  4. Unified description of astrophysical properties of neutron stars independent of the equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, George

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, a lot of work was done that has revealed some very interesting properties of neutron stars. One can relate the first few multipole moments of a neutron star, or quantities that can be derived from them, with relations that are independent of the equation of state (EoS). This is a very significant result that has great implications for the description of neutron stars and in particular for the description of the spacetime around them. Additionally, it was recently shown that there is a four-parameter analytic spacetime, known as the two-soliton spacetime, which can accurately capture the properties of the geometry around neutron stars. This allows for the possibility of describing in a unified formalism the astrophysically relevant properties of the spacetime around a neutron star independently of the particulars of the EoS for the matter of the star. More precisely, the description of these astrophysical properties is done using an EoS omniscient spacetime that can describe the exterior of any neutron star. In the present work, we investigate properties such as the location of the innermost stable circular orbit RISCO (or the surface of the star when the latter overcomes the former), the various frequencies of perturbed circular equatorial geodesics, the efficiency of an accretion disc, its temperature distribution, and other properties associated with the emitted radiation from the disc, in a way that holds for all possible choices of a realistic EoS for the neutron star. Furthermore, we provide proof of principle that if one were to measure the right combinations of pairs of these properties, with the additional knowledge of the mass of the neutron star, one could determine the EoS of the star.

  5. Scattering Properties of Ground-State 23Na Vapor Using Generalized Scattering Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harazneh, A. A.; Sandouqa, A. S.; Joudeh, B. R.; Ghassib, H. B.

    2018-04-01

    The scattering properties of ground-state 23Na vapor are investigated within the framework of the Galitskii-Migdal-Feynman formalism. Viewed as a generalized scattering theory, this formalism is used to calculate the medium phase shifts. The scattering properties of the system—the total, viscosity, spin-exchange, and average cross sections—are then computed using these phase shifts according to standard recipes. The total cross section is found to exhibit the Ramsauer-Townsend effect as well as resonance peaks. These peaks are caused by the large difference between the potentials for electronic spin-singlet and spin-triplet states. They represent quasi-bound states in the system. The results obtained for the complex spin-exchange cross sections are particularly highlighted because of their importance in the spectroscopy of the Na2 dimer. So are the results for the scattering lengths pertaining to both singlet and triplet states. Wherever possible, comparison is made with other published results.

  6. Constraining nuclear photon strength functions by the decay properties of photo-excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, J.; Savran, D.; Krtička, M.; Ahmed, M. W.; Beller, J.; Fiori, E.; Glorius, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Löher, B.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Rusev, G.; Scheck, M.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Silva, J.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Zweidinger, M.

    2013-12-01

    A new approach for constraining the low-energy part of the electric dipole Photon Strength Function (E1-PSF) is presented. Experiments at the Darmstadt High-Intensity Photon Setup and the High Intensity γ→-Ray Source have been performed to investigate the decay properties of 130Te between 5.50 and 8.15 MeV excitation energy. In particular, the average γ-ray branching ratio to the ground state and the population intensity of low-lying excited states have been studied. A comparison to the statistical model shows that the latter is sensitive to the low-energy behavior of the E1-PSF, while the average ground state branching ratio cannot be described by the statistical model in the energy range between 5.5 and 6.5 MeV.

  7. Dependence of isobar-analog state properties on variable part of Coulomb potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhafarov, I.G.; Kuliev, A.A.; Salamov, D.I.

    1986-01-01

    Within the framework of the self-consistent approach and with the method of strength functions the fragmentation of isobar-analog state (IAS) properties for all isobarie 0 + -states is investigated. Microscopic values of IAS energy, matrix elements of allowed and forbidden Fermi transitions as well as isospin impurity values in ground states of parent nuclei are obtained. Numerical calculations carried out for 42 Ca 42 Sc, 48 Ca 48 Sc, 64 Zn 64 Ga, 66 Zn 66 Ga, 90 Zr 90 Nb, 208 Pb 208 Bi isobaric nuclei with Woods-Saxon potential, are compared with predictions of different approches and experiment. The developed model by the authors permits to describe sufficiently well the experimental data

  8. Study of polonium isotopes ground state properties by simultaneous atomic- and nuclear-spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Koester, U H; Kalaninova, Z; Imai, N

    2007-01-01

    We propose to systematically study the ground state properties of neutron deficient $^{192-200}$Po isotopes by means of in-source laser spectroscopy using the ISOLDE laser ion source coupled with nuclear spectroscopy at the detection setup as successfully done before by this collaboration with neutron deficient lead isotopes. The study of the change in mean square charge radii along the polonium isotope chain will give an insight into shape coexistence above the mid-shell N = 104 and above the closed shell Z = 82. The hyperfine structure of the odd isotopes will also allow determination of the nuclear spin and the magnetic moment of the ground state and of any identifiable isomer state. For this study, a standard UC$_{x}$ target with the ISOLDE RILIS is required for 38 shifts.

  9. Ketamine changes the local resting-state functional properties of anesthetized-monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jia-Sheng; Liu, Zuxiang; Zhao, Can; Wei, Rui-Han; Zhao, Wen; Tian, Peng-Yu; Zhou, Xia; Yang, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xiao-Guang

    2017-11-01

    Ketamine is a well-known anesthetic. 'Recreational' use of ketamine common induces psychosis-like symptoms and cognitive impairments. The acute and chronic effects of ketamine on relevant brain circuits have been studied, but the effects of single-dose ketamine administration on the local resting-state functional properties of the brain remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of single-dose ketamine administration on the brain local intrinsic properties. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to explore the ketamine-induced alterations of brain intrinsic properties. Seven adult rhesus monkeys were imaged with rs-fMRI to examine the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) in the brain before and after ketamine injection. Paired comparisons were used to detect the significantly altered regions. Results showed that the fALFF of the prefrontal cortex (p=0.046), caudate nucleus (left side, p=0.018; right side, p=0.025), and putamen (p=0.020) in post-injection stage significantly increased compared with those in pre-injection period. The ReHo of nucleus accumbens (p=0.049), caudate nucleus (p=0.037), and hippocampus (p=0.025) increased after ketamine injection, but that of prefrontal cortex decreased (pketamine administration can change the regional intensity and synchronism of brain activity, thereby providing evidence of ketamine-induced abnormal resting-state functional properties in primates. This evidence may help further elucidate the effects of ketamine on the cerebral resting status. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Decay properties of the key resonant states in 8Li(α,n)11B for primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubono, S.; Ikeda, N.; Tanaka, M.H.; Nomura, T.; Katayama, I.; Fuchi, Y.; Kawashima, H.; Kajino, T.

    1991-01-01

    The particle decay property of the key resonant states in the reaction 8 Li(α, n) 11 B for the inhomogeneous big bang models was studied experimentally. The sum of the branching ratios of the 10.572 MeV state for the neutron decays to the excited states in 11 B is as large as for the ground state, indicating that the neutron decays to excited states are crucial and enhance the reaction rate for heavy element synthesis considerably. (orig.)

  11. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  12. The influence of the anisotropic stress state on the intermediate strain properties of granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Goudarzy, M.

    2017-07-20

    This paper shows the effect of anisotropic stress state on intermediate strain properties of cylindrical samples containing spherical glass particles. Tests were carried out with the modified resonant column device available at Ruhr-Universität Bochum. Dry samples were subjected to two anisotropic stress states: (a) cell pressure, σ′h, constant and vertical stress, σ′v, increased (stress state GB-I) and (b) σ′v/σ′h equal to 2 (stress state GB-II). The experimental results revealed that the effect of stress state GB-II on the modulus and damping ratio was more significant and obvious than stress state GB-I. The effect of the anisotropic stress state was explained through the impact of confining pressure and anisotropic stress components on the stiffness and damping ratio. The results showed that: (a) G(γ) increased, η(γ) decreased and their strain non-linearity decreased with an increase in the confining pressure component σ′vσ′h; (b) G(γ) decreased, η(γ) increased and their strain non-linearity increased with an increase in the anisotropic stress component, σ′v/σ′h. The analysis of results revealed that reference shear strain was also affected by anisotropic stress state. Therefore, an empirical relationship was developed to predict the reference shear strain, as a function of confining pressure and anisotropic stress components. Additionally, the damping ratio was written as a function of the minimum damping ratio and the reference shear strain.

  13. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket module under normal operation steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Arena, P. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Aubert, J. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovì, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Chiovaro, P., E-mail: pierluigi.chiovaro@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Giammusso, R. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Li Puma, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Tincani, A. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A DEMO WCLL blanket module thermo-mechanical behaviour has been investigated. • Two models of the WCLL blanket module have been set-up adopting a code based on FEM. • The water flow domain in the module has been considered. • A set of uncoupled steady state thermo-mechanical analyses has been carried out. • Critical temperature is not overcome. Safety verifications are generally satisfied. - Abstract: Within the framework of DEMO R&D activities, a research cooperation has been launched between ENEA, the University of Palermo and CEA to investigate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the outboard equatorial module of the DEMO1 Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) blanket under normal operation steady state scenario. The research campaign has been carried out following a theoretical–computational approach based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. In particular, two different 3D FEM models (Model 1 and Model 2), reproducing respectively the central and the lateral poloidal–radial slices of the WCLL blanket module, have been set up. A particular attention has been paid to the modelling of water flow domain, within both the segment box channels and the breeder zone tubes, to simulate realistically the coolant-box thermal coupling. Results obtained are herewith reported and critically discussed.

  14. Copper NMR and hole depletion in the normal state of Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLaughlin, D.E.; Reyes, A.P.; Takigawa, M.; Hammel, P.C.; Heffner, R.H.; Thompson, J.D.; Crow, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Normal-state copper NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation rates 1/T 1 have been measured in the planar cuprate system YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . With Pr doping the Knight shift K decreases and develops a temperature dependence at both plane and chain sites. Analysis of the bulk susceptibility and NMR data indicate that pair breaking and hole depletion both take part in the suppression of the superconducting transition temperature T c . The Knight shift behavior resembles that in oxygen-deficient YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y , as does the temperature dependence of 1/T 1 for plane Cu sites and magnetic field perpendicular to the c axis. This agreement leads to a consistent picture of the role of antiferromagnetic fluctuations in these materials. An analysis of the data in the framework of the phenomenological theory of Millis, Monien, and Pines is given. In the end compound PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 the NMR signal from plane Cu sites indicates antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering at a Neel temperature ∼280 K, and in the AF state yields an internal field similar to those found in AF YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6 and La 2 CuO 4 . 32 refs., 7 figs

  15. Gender differences in brain regional homogeneity of healthy subjects after normal sleep and after sleep deprivation: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xi-Jian; Gong, Hong-Han; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Fu-Qing; Min, You-Jiang; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Si-Yong; Liu, Bi-Xia; Xiao, Xiang-Zuo

    2012-06-01

    To explore the gender differences of brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) in healthy subjects during the resting-state, after normal sleep, and after sleep deprivation (SD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the ReHo method. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight males and eight females) each underwent the resting-state fMRI exams twice, i.e., once after normal sleep and again after 24h's SD. According to the gender and sleep, 16 subjects were all measured twice and divided into four groups: the male control group (MC), female control group (FC), male SD group (MSD), and female SD group (FSD). The ReHo method was used to calculate and analyze the data, SPM5 software was used to perform a two-sample T-test and a two-pair T-test with a P value right paracentral lobule (BA3/6), but in no obviously lower regions. Compared with the FC, the FSD showed significantly higher ReHo in bilateral parietal lobes (BA2/3), bilateral vision-related regions of occipital lobes (BA17/18/19), right frontal lobe (BA4/6), and lower ReHo in the right frontal lobe. Compared with the FC, the MC showed significantly higher ReHo in the left occipital lobe (BA18/19), and left temporal lobe (BA21), left frontal lobe, and lower ReHo in the right insula and in the left parietal lobe. Compared with the FSD, the MSD showed significantly higher ReHo in the left cerebellum posterior lobe (uvula/declive of vermis), left parietal lobe, and bilateral frontal lobes, and lower ReHo in the right occipital lobe (BA17) and right frontal lobe (BA4). The differences of brain activity in the resting state can be widely found not only between the control and SD group in a same gender group, but also between the male group and female group. Thus, we should take the gender differences into consideration in future fMRI studies, especially the treatment of brain-related diseases (e.g., depression). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation between the state of cure of thermosetting resins and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffane, N.; Benameur, T.; Granger, R.; Vergnaud, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Thermosetting resins, in the same way as polymers, are more and more used for coating metal sheets, in order to bring various interesting properties. An important problem arises with the cure of the thermoset, the process of cure being complex with heating conduction and convection and the heat generated by the cure reaction. The kinetics of the heat evolved from the overall cure reaction is determined through calorimetry experiments in scanning mode. The state of cure at time t is expressed by the heat generated by reaction up to time t as a fraction of the total heat generated. A numerical model taking all the facts into account is able to evaluate the profile of the state of cure developed through the thickness of the thermoset. The state of cure which derives from a theoretical point of view is correlated with some properties of interest for the coating, such as the hardness and the resistance to liquids. The resistance to water and ethanol is evaluated by determining the kinetics of absorption which is controlled by diffusion. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Timing analysis of safety properties using fault trees with time dependencies and timed state-charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magott, Jan; Skrobanek, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Behavior in time domain is often crucial for safety critical systems. Standard fault trees cannot express time-dependent behavior. In the paper, timing analysis of safety properties using fault trees with time dependencies (FTTDs) and timed state-charts is presented. A new version of timed state-charts (TSCs) is also proposed. These state-charts can model the dynamics of technical systems, e.g. controllers, controlled objects, and people. In TSCs, activity and communication times are represented by time intervals. In the proposed approach the structure of FTTD is fixed by a human. Time properties of events and gates of FTTD are expressed by time intervals, and are calculated using TSCs. The minimal and maximal values of these time intervals of FTTD can be calculated by finding paths with minimal and maximal time lengths in TSCs, which is an NP-hard problem. In order to reduce the practical complexity of computing the FTTD time parameters, some reductions of TSCs are defined in the paper, such as sequential, alternative, loop (iteration), and parallel. Some of the reductions are intuitive, in case of others—theorems are required. Computational complexity of each reduction is not greater than linear in the size of reduced TSC. Therefore, the obtained results enable decreasing of the costs of FTTD time parameters calculation when system dynamics is expressed by TSCs. Case study of a railroad crossing with a controller that controls semaphores, gate, light-audio signal close to the gate will be analyzed.

  18. Equation of state for dense nucleonic matter from metamodeling. II. Predictions for neutron star properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margueron, Jérôme; Hoffmann Casali, Rudiney; Gulminelli, Francesca

    2018-02-01

    Employing recently proposed metamodeling for the nucleonic matter equation of state, we analyze neutron star global properties such as masses, radii, momentum of inertia, and others. The impact of the uncertainty on empirical parameters on these global properties is analyzed in a Bayesian statistical approach. Physical constraints, such as causality and stability, are imposed on the equation of state and different hypotheses for the direct Urca (dUrca) process are investigated. In addition, only metamodels with maximum masses above 2 M⊙ are selected. Our main results are the following: the equation of state exhibits a universal behavior against the dUrca hypothesis under the condition of charge neutrality and β equilibrium; neutron stars, if composed exclusively of nucleons and leptons, have a radius of 12.7 ±0.4 km for masses ranging from 1 up to 2 M⊙ ; a small radius lower than 11 km is very marginally compatible with our present knowledge of the nuclear empirical parameters; and finally, the most important empirical parameters which are still affected by large uncertainties and play an important role in determining the radius of neutrons stars are the slope and curvature of the symmetry energy (Lsym and Ksym) and, to a lower extent, the skewness parameters (Qsat /sym).

  19. The steady-state and time-resolved photophysical properties of a dimeric indium phthalocyanine complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Araki, Yasuyuki; Dini, Danilo; Liu Ying; Ito, Osamu; Fujitsuka, Mamoru

    2006-01-01

    The steady-state and time-resolved photophysical properties and some molecular orbital calculation results of a dimeric indium phthalocyanine complex with an indium-indium bond, i.e., [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 .2tmed, have been described. The results regarding triplet excited state lifetimes can be ascribed to strong intramolecular interactions existing only in the excited state of this dimer because no significant difference in the absorption spectra of the tBu 4 PcInCl monomer and the [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 .2tmed dimer is observed, suggesting that no ground-state interaction can be assessed. The deactivation processes of the excited singlet state of [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 .2tmed are apparently faster than that of μ-oxo-bridged PcIn dimer [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 O. Molecular orbital calculation on the PcIn dimer shows no node between two indium atoms was found in the HOMO - 2 of the PcIn-InPc dimer, suggesting that bonding electrons distribute between two indium atoms

  20. When does State Interference with Property (now Amount to Expropriation? An Analysis of the Agri SA Court's State Acquisition Requirement (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Jacobus Marais

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Section 25 of the Constitution provides two ways in which the state may interfere with property rights, namely deprivation (section 25(1 and expropriation (section 25(2. As only the latter requires compensation, there is an incentive for property holders to label any infringement with their property as expropriation in the hope of being compensated for their losses. It is therefore essential to have a principled distinction between deprivation and expropriation, especially given the danger that uncertainty in this regard can hold for legitimate land reform initiatives, which often entail severe limitations on property. This contribution attends to Agri South Africa v Minister for Minerals and Energy 2013 4 SA 1 (CC, where the Constitutional Court recently revisited this distinction and held that the distinguishing feature of expropriation is that it entails state acquisition of property. Without state acquisition the interference can (at most amount to deprivation. Unfortunately, viewing state acquisition as the "key requirement" for expropriation is problematic. Firstly, it ignores the true nature of this feature in that it is only a consequence of a valid expropriation rather than a pre-requisite for it – at least in terms of pre-constitutional law. It is therefore inaccurate, concerning both pre- and post-constitutional expropriation case law, to regard acquisition as an indispensable requirement for expropriation. Secondly, limiting the constitutional property inquiry to whether or not the state acquired property appears inadequate as a means of solving difficult cases where the state acquires property pursuant to infringements like taxation and criminal forfeiture. As both these examples result in state acquisition, there must be another explanation of why they do not amount to expropriation.

  1. Photon statistical properties of photon-added two-mode squeezed coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xue-Fen; Wang Shuai; Tang Bin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate photon statistical properties of the multiple-photon-added two-mode squeezed coherent states (PA-TMSCS). We find that the photon statistical properties are sensitive to the compound phase involved in the TMSCS. Our numerical analyses show that the photon addition can enhance the cross-correlation and anti-bunching effects of the PA-TMSCS. Compared with that of the TMSCS, the photon number distribution of the PA-TMSCS is modulated by a factor that is a monotonically increasing function of the numbers of adding photons to each mode; further, that the photon addition essentially shifts the photon number distribution. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  2. Impact properties of geopolymeric concrete: a state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chi; Xie, Jianhe; Zhang, Bingxue; Yuan, Bing; Wang, Chonghao

    2018-01-01

    The application of geopolymer instead of cement in construction engineering provides an effective way to achieve sustainable development. A large number of studies have shown that geopolymeric concrete (GC) has excellent static performance. However, there are relatively few studies on the dynamic performance of GC which is of dominate importance in cases such as explosion, earthquake and other impact loads. This paper presents a brief review of recent research on the impact properties of GC, in order to facilitate the research development in this field. The effects of strain rate, fiber type, alkali type, elevated temperature, water environment and flow state on the impact resistance performance of GC were analysed. Research findings revealed that GC exhibited better impact properties than ordinary Portland concrete (OPC).

  3. Bound state properties of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haonan; Jiang, Wentao; Song, Yipu; Duan, Luming

    2017-06-01

    The few-layer graphene quantum dot provides a promising platform for quantum computing with both spin and valley degrees of freedom. Gate-defined quantum dots in particular can avoid noise from edge disorders. In connection with the recent experimental efforts (Song et al 2016 Nano Lett. 16 6245), we investigate the bound state properties of trilayer graphene (TLG) quantum dots (QDs) through numerical simulations. We show that the valley degeneracy can be lifted by breaking the time reversal symmetry through the application of a perpendicular magnetic field. The spectrum under such a potential exhibits a transition from one group of Landau levels to another group, which can be understood analytically through perturbation theory. Our results provide insight into the transport property of TLG QDs, with possible applications to study of spin qubits and valleytronics in TLG QDs.

  4. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  5. [Aberrant topological properties of whole-brain functional network in chronic right-sided sensorineural hearing loss: a resting-state functional MRI study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Liu, Bin; Xu, Yangwen; Yang, Ming; Feng, Yuan; Huang, Yaqing; Huan, Zhichun; Hou, Zhaorui

    2015-02-03

    To investigate the topological properties of the functional brain network in unilateral sensorineural hearing loss patients. In this study, we acquired resting-state BOLD- fMRI data from 19 right-sided SNHL patients and 31 healthy controls with normal hearing and constructed their whole brain functional networks. Two-sample two-tailed t-tests were performed to investigate group differences in topological parameters between the USNHL patients and the controls. Partial correlation analysis was conducted to determine the relationships between the network metrics and USNHL-related variables. Both USNHL patients and controls exhibited small-word architecture in their brain functional networks within the range 0. 1 - 0. 2 of sparsity. Compared to the controls, USNHL patients showed significant increase in characteristic path length and normalized characteristic path length, but significant decrease in global efficiency. Clustering coefficient, local efficiency and normalized clustering coefficient demonstrated no significant difference. Furthermore, USNHL patients exhibited no significant association between the altered network metrics and the duration of USNHL or the severity of hearing loss. Our results indicated the altered topological properties of whole brain functional networks in USNHL patients, which may help us to understand pathophysiologic mechanism of USNHL patients.

  6. Structural, compositional, and sensorial properties of United States commercial ice cream products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Maya M; Hartel, Richard W

    2014-10-01

    Commercial vanilla ice cream products from the United States (full fat, low fat, and nonfat) were analyzed for their structural, behavioral (i.e., melt rate and drip-through), compositional, and sensorial attributes. Mean size distributions of ice crystals and air cells, drip-through rates, percent partially coalesced fat, percent overrun and total fat, and density were determined. A trained panel carried out sensory analyses in order to determine correlations between ice cream microstructure attributes and sensory properties using a Spectrum(TM) descriptive analysis. Analyses included melt rate, breakdown, size of ice particulates (iciness), denseness, greasiness, and overall creaminess. To determine relationships and interactions, principle component analysis and multivariate pairwise correlation were performed within and between the instrumental and sensorial data. Greasiness and creaminess negatively correlated with drip-through rate and creaminess correlated with percent total fat and percent fat destabilization. Percent fat did not determine the melt rate on a sensorial level. However, drip-through rate at ambient temperatures was predicted by total fat content of the samples. Based on sensory analysis, high-fat products were noted to be creamier than low and nonfat products. Iciness did not correlate with mean ice crystal size and drip-through rate did not predict sensory melt rate. Furthermore, on a sensorial level, greasiness positively correlated with total percent fat destabilization and mean air cell size positively correlated with denseness. These results indicate that commercial ice cream products vary widely in composition, structure, behavior, and sensory properties. There is a wide range of commercial ice creams in the United States market, ranging from full fat to nonfat. In this research we showed that these ice creams vary greatly in their microstructures, behaviors (the melt/drip-though, collapse, and/or stand up properties of ice cream

  7. State property tax incentives for promoting ecosystem goods and services from private forest land in the United States: a review and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; Paul B. Ellefson; Travis J. Funk; Gregory E. Frey

    2017-01-01

    Financial incentives provided by State property tax programs are a means of promoting ecosystem services from private forest land. Identified by this 50-State 2015 review, categories of ecosystem services frequently promoted by such programs are open space and scenic resources, conservation of...

  8. Presteady-state and steady-state kinetic properties of human cytochrome c oxidase. Identification of rate-limiting steps in mammalian cytochrome c oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Gorren, A. C.; Dekker, H. L.; Nieboer, P.; van Gelder, B. F.; Muijsers, A. O.

    1992-01-01

    Human cytochrome c oxidase was purified in a fully active form from heart and skeletal muscle. The enzyme was selectively solubilised with octylglucoside and KCl from submitochondrial particles followed by ammonium sulphate fractionation. The presteady-state and steady-state kinetic properties of

  9. Dry fracture method for simultaneous measurement of in-situ stress state and material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Oka, S.; Kikuchi, S.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the dry fracture principle, a computerized borehole probe has been developed to measure stress state and material properties, simultaneously. The probe is designed to obtain a series of measurements in a continuing sequence along a borehole length, without any interruptive measures, such as resetting packers, taking indentation of borehole wall, overcoming, etc. The new dry fracture probe for the single fracture method is designed to overcome the difficulties posed by its ancestor which was based on the double fracture method. The accuracy of the single fracture method is confirmed by a close agreement with the theory, FE modeling and laboratory testing

  10. Structure functions and final-state properties in deeply inelastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharraziha, H.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, we give a description of the detailed structure of the proton and a description of the final-state properties in electron-proton scattering. Qualitative results, in a purely gluonic scenario with the leading log approximation, and quantitative results, where quarks are included and some sub-leading corrections have been made, are presented. The quantitative results are in fair agreement with available experimental data and a Monte Carlo event generator for electron-proton scattering is presented. Further, a computer program for calculating QCD colour factors is presented

  11. Andreev reflection properties in a parallel mesoscopic circuit with Majorana bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Jin-Tao; Han, Yu [Physics Department, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Gong, Wei-Jiang, E-mail: gwj@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-03-15

    We investigate the Andreev reflection in a parallel mesoscopic circuit with Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that in such a structure, the Andreev current can be manipulated in a highly efficient way, by the adjustment of bias voltage, dot levels, inter-MBS coupling, and the applied magnetic flux. Besides, the dot-MBS coupling manner is an important factor to modulate the Andreev current, because it influences the period of the conductance oscillation. By discussing the underlying quantum interference mechanism, the Andreev-reflection property is explained in detail. We believe that all the results can assist to understand the nontrivial role of the MBSs in driving the Andreev reflection.

  12. Toward an accurate description of solid-state properties of superheavy elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwerdtfeger Peter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades cold and hot fusion experiments lead to the production of new elements for the Periodic Table up to nuclear charge 118. Recent developments in relativistic quantum theory have made it possible to obtain accurate electronic properties for the trans-actinide elements with the aim to predict their potential chemical and physical behaviour. Here we report on first results of solid-state calculations for Og (element 118 to support future atom-at-a-time gas-phase adsorption experiments on surfaces such as gold or quartz.

  13. The fermionic projector in a time-dependent external potential: Mass oscillation property and Hadamard states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Murro, Simone; Röken, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We give a non-perturbative construction of the fermionic projector in Minkowski space coupled to a time-dependent external potential which is smooth and decays faster than quadratically for large times. The weak and strong mass oscillation properties are proven. We show that the integral kernel of the fermionic projector is of the Hadamard form, provided that the time integral of the spatial sup-norm of the potential satisfies a suitable bound. This gives rise to an algebraic quantum field theory of Dirac fields in an external potential with a distinguished pure quasi-free Hadamard state.

  14. The fermionic projector in a time-dependent external potential: Mass oscillation property and Hadamard states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finster, Felix; Murro, Simone; Röken, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We give a non-perturbative construction of the fermionic projector in Minkowski space coupled to a time-dependent external potential which is smooth and decays faster than quadratically for large times. The weak and strong mass oscillation properties are proven. We show that the integral kernel of the fermionic projector is of the Hadamard form, provided that the time integral of the spatial sup-norm of the potential satisfies a suitable bound. This gives rise to an algebraic quantum field theory of Dirac fields in an external potential with a distinguished pure quasi-free Hadamard state.

  15. The fermionic projector in a time-dependent external potential: Mass oscillation property and Hadamard states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, Felix, E-mail: finster@ur.de, E-mail: simone.murro@ur.de, E-mail: Christian.Roeken@mathematik.ur.de; Murro, Simone, E-mail: finster@ur.de, E-mail: simone.murro@ur.de, E-mail: Christian.Roeken@mathematik.ur.de; Röken, Christian, E-mail: finster@ur.de, E-mail: simone.murro@ur.de, E-mail: Christian.Roeken@mathematik.ur.de [Fakultät für Mathematik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    We give a non-perturbative construction of the fermionic projector in Minkowski space coupled to a time-dependent external potential which is smooth and decays faster than quadratically for large times. The weak and strong mass oscillation properties are proven. We show that the integral kernel of the fermionic projector is of the Hadamard form, provided that the time integral of the spatial sup-norm of the potential satisfies a suitable bound. This gives rise to an algebraic quantum field theory of Dirac fields in an external potential with a distinguished pure quasi-free Hadamard state.

  16. Solid state polymerization: its action on thermal and rheological properties of PET/PC reactive blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid state polymerization (SSP of PET/PC reactive extrusion blends - with and without cobalt catalyst - at different polymer ratios was studied. Thermal and rheological evaluations were performed. DSC results showed changes in the PET's Tg, Tch, Tm and Xc.. The melt flow rate (MFR decreased for PET and the blends. The intrinsic viscosity increased. The variation in calorimetric and rheological properties might be attributed to the PET's chain extension reactions - esterification and transesterification. These reactions led to an increase in the PET's molar mass, consequently shifting the PET's Tg to lower temperature and PET's crystallization, besides reducing the blend miscibility and flowability.

  17. Estimation of the thermophysical and mechanical properties and the equation of state of Li2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1985-01-01

    Correlation methods based on Knoop microhardness and melting points are developed for estimating tensile strength. Young modulus, and Poisson ratio for Li 2 O as a function of grain size, porosity, and temperature. Generalized expressions for extrapolating the existing data on thermal conductivity and thermal expansivity are given. These derived thermophysical data are combined to predict thermal stress factors for Li 2 O. Based on the available vapor pressure data on Li 2 O and empirical correlations for the equation of state in the liquid and vapor phases, estimates of the properties of Li 2 O are made: an approximate critical temperature of 6800+-800 K is obtained. (author)

  18. The normal state resistivity of CaTh- and La-doped Y(Nd-123 superconductors in the bipolaron model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghorbani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline samples of Y1-2xCaxThxBa2Cu3O7-δ (with 0.00 ≤x ≤ 0.075 and NdBa2-xLaxCu3O7-δ (with 0.0≤x≤ 0.30 were prepared by the standard solid state method. The transport and superconducting properties have been studied by the resistivity measurements as a function of temperature and doping concentration. Data of resistivity as a function of temperature was analyzed in terms of the bipolaran model. The model well described resistivity data up to near the critical temperature. Obtained results suggested that the hole localization is the main reason for superconducting suppression in the charge neutral doped cuprates and the La doped Nd-123 in addition charge filling.

  19. Mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete state-of-the-art report of the RILEM technical committee 228-MPS on mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Schutter, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The State-of-the-Art Report of RILEM Technical Committee 228-MPS on Mechanical properties of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) summarizes an extensive body of information related to mechanical properties and mechanical behaviour of SCC. Due attention is given to the fact that the composition of SCC varies significantly. A wide range of  mechanical properties are considered, including compressive strength, stress-strain relationship, tensile and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity, shear strength, effect of elevated temperature, such as fire spalling and residual properties after fire, in-situ properties, creep, shrinkage, bond properties, and structural behaviour. A chapter on fibre-reinforced SCC is included, as well as a chapter on specialty SCC, such as light-weight SCC, heavy-weight SCC, preplaced aggregate SCC, special fibre reinforced SCC, and underwater concrete.

  20. Electronic processes in organic electronics bridging nanostructure, electronic states and device properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kudo, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Takashi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The book covers a variety of studies of organic semiconductors, from fundamental electronic states to device applications, including theoretical studies. Furthermore, innovative experimental techniques, e.g., ultrahigh sensitivity photoelectron spectroscopy, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and a material processing method with optical-vortex and polarization-vortex lasers, are introduced. As this book is intended to serve as a textbook for a graduate level course or as reference material for researchers in organic electronics and nanoscience from electronic states, fundamental science that is necessary to understand the research is described. It does not duplicate the books already written on organic electronics, but focuses mainly on electronic properties that arise from the nature of organic semiconductors (molecular solids). The new experimental methods introduced in this book are applicable to various materials (e.g., metals, inorganic and organic mater...

  1. The influence of nonlocal hybridization on ground-state properties of the Falicov-Kimball model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkasovsky, Pavol

    2005-01-01

    The density matrix renormalization group is used to examine effects of nonlocal hybridization on ground-state properties of the Falicov-Kimball model (FKM) in one dimension. Special attention is devoted to the problem of hybridization-induced insulator-metal transition. It is shown that the picture of insulator-metal transitions found for the FKM with nonlocal hybridization strongly differs from one found for the FKM without hybridization (as well as with local hybridization). The effect of nonlocal hybridization is so strong that it can induce the insulator-metal transition, even in the half-filled band case where the ground states of the FKM without hybridization are insulating for all finite Coulomb interactions. Outside the half-filled band case the metal-insulator transition driven by pressure is found for finite values of nonlocal hybridization

  2. Ground state properties of new element Z=113 and its alpha decay chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai Fei; Chen Dinghan; Xu Chang; Ren Zhongzhou

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigate the ground state properties of the new element 278 113 and of the α-decay chain with different models, where the new element Z=113 has been produced at RIKEN in Japan by cold-fusion reaction. The experimental decay energies are reproduced by the deformed relativistic mean-field model, by the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) model, and by the macroscopic-microscopic model. Theoretical half-lives also reasonably agree with the data. Calculations further show that prolate deformation is important for the ground states of the nuclei in the α-decay chain of 278 113. The common points and differences among different models are compared and discussed. (author)

  3. Coherent states, 6j symbols and properties of the next to leading order asymptotic expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiński, Wojciech, E-mail: wkaminsk@fuw.edu.pl [Wydział Fizyki, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Hoża 69, 00-681, Warsaw (Poland); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Steinhaus, Sebastian, E-mail: steinhaus.sebastian@gmail.com [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We present the first complete derivation of the well-known asymptotic expansion of the SU(2) 6j symbol using a coherent state approach, in particular we succeed in computing the determinant of the Hessian matrix. To do so, we smear the coherent states and perform a partial stationary point analysis with respect to the smearing parameters. This allows us to transform the variables from group elements to dihedral angles of a tetrahedron resulting in an effective action, which coincides with the action of first order Regge calculus associated to a tetrahedron. To perform the remaining stationary point analysis, we compute its Hessian matrix and obtain the correct measure factor. Furthermore, we expand the discussion of the asymptotic formula to next to leading order terms, prove some of their properties and derive a recursion relation for the full 6j symbol.

  4. Coherent states, 6j symbols and properties of the next to leading order asymptotic expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiński, Wojciech; Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    We present the first complete derivation of the well-known asymptotic expansion of the SU(2) 6j symbol using a coherent state approach, in particular we succeed in computing the determinant of the Hessian matrix. To do so, we smear the coherent states and perform a partial stationary point analysis with respect to the smearing parameters. This allows us to transform the variables from group elements to dihedral angles of a tetrahedron resulting in an effective action, which coincides with the action of first order Regge calculus associated to a tetrahedron. To perform the remaining stationary point analysis, we compute its Hessian matrix and obtain the correct measure factor. Furthermore, we expand the discussion of the asymptotic formula to next to leading order terms, prove some of their properties and derive a recursion relation for the full 6j symbol

  5. Coherent states, 6j symbols and properties of the next to leading order asymptotic expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Wojciech; Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    We present the first complete derivation of the well-known asymptotic expansion of the SU(2) 6j symbol using a coherent state approach, in particular we succeed in computing the determinant of the Hessian matrix. To do so, we smear the coherent states and perform a partial stationary point analysis with respect to the smearing parameters. This allows us to transform the variables from group elements to dihedral angles of a tetrahedron resulting in an effective action, which coincides with the action of first order Regge calculus associated to a tetrahedron. To perform the remaining stationary point analysis, we compute its Hessian matrix and obtain the correct measure factor. Furthermore, we expand the discussion of the asymptotic formula to next to leading order terms, prove some of their properties and derive a recursion relation for the full 6j symbol.

  6. Equation of state for thermodynamic properties of pure and mixtures liquid alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousazadeh, M.H.; Faramarzi, E.; Maleki, Z.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an equation of state based on statistical-mechanical perturbation theory for pure and mixtures alkali metals. Thermodynamic properties were calculated by the equation of state, based on the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The model uses two parameters for a monatomic system, segment size, σ, and segment energy, ε. In this work, we calculate the saturation and compressed liquid density, heat capacity at constant pressure and constant volume, isobaric expansion coefficient, for which accurate experimental data exist in the literatures. Results on the density of binary and ternary alkali metal alloys of Cs-K, Na-K, Na-K-Cs, at temperatures from the freezing point up to several hundred degrees above the boiling point are presented. The calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  7. State-selective multireference coupled-cluster theory: In pursuit of property calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, K.B.; Piecuch, P.; Pal, S.; Adamowicz, L.

    1996-01-01

    In this work, we examine the efficiency of the recently developed [P. Piecuch et al., J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6732 (1993)] state-selective (SS) multi-reference (MR) coupled-cluster (CC) method for calculation of molecular properties. In our earlier papers, we demonstrated that the SSMRCC method with inclusion of single, double, and internal and semi-internal triple excitations [SSCCSD(T) approach] is capable of providing an accurate description of the ground-state potential energy surfaces. In this paper, we present the dipole moment and polarizability values of the HF molecule at equilibrium and stretched geometries calculated using finite field technique and SSCCSD(T) ansatz. The calculations use double zeta quality basis sets with and without polarization functions. Molecular orbital basis sets include both relaxed and nonrelaxed orbitals. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Ground state properties of the bond alternating spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Paul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground state properties, dispersion relations and scaling behaviour of spin gap of a bond alternating spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg chain have been studied where the exchange interactions on alternate bonds are ferromagnetic (FM and antiferromagnetic (AFM in two separate cases. The resulting models separately represent nearest neighbour (NN AFM-AFM and AFM-FM bond alternating chains. Ground state energy has been estimated analytically by using both bond operator and Jordan-Wigner representations and numerically by using exact diagonalization. Dispersion relations, spin gap and several ground state orders have been obtained. Dimer order and string orders are found to coexist in the ground state. Spin gap is found to develop as soon as the non-uniformity in alternating bond strength is introduced in the AFM-AFM chain which further remains non-zero for the AFM-FM chain. This spin gap along with the string orders attribute to the Haldane phase. The Haldane phase is found to exist in most of the anisotropic region similar to the isotropic point.

  10. Distinguished quantum states in a class of cosmological spacetimes and their Hadamard property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moretti, Valter [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica; Ist. Nazionale di Alta Matematica, Unita locale di Trento (Italy); Ist. Nazionale di Fisica, Povo (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    In a recent paper, we proved that a large class of spacetimes, not necessarily homogeneous or isotropic and relevant at a cosmological level, possesses a preferred codimension one submanifold, i.e., the past cosmological horizon, on which it is possible to encode the information of a scalar field theory living in the bulk. Such bulk-to-boundary reconstruction procedure entails the identification of a preferred quasifree algebraic state for the bulk theory, enjoying remarkable properties concerning invariance under isometries (if any) of the bulk and energy positivity, and reducing to well-known vacua in standard situations. In this paper, specialising to open FRW models, we extend previously obtained results and we prove that the preferred state is of Hadamard form, hence the backreaction on the metric is finite and the state can be used as a starting point for renormalisation procedures. That state could play a distinguished role in the discussion of the evolution of scalar fluctuations of the metric, an analysis often performed in the development of any model describing the dynamic of an early Universe which undergoes an inflationary phase of rapid expansion in the past. (orig.)

  11. Distinguished quantum states in a class of cosmological spacetimes and their Hadamard property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2008-12-01

    In a recent paper, we proved that a large class of spacetimes, not necessarily homogeneous or isotropic and relevant at a cosmological level, possesses a preferred codimension one submanifold, i.e., the past cosmological horizon, on which it is possible to encode the information of a scalar field theory living in the bulk. Such bulk-to-boundary reconstruction procedure entails the identification of a preferred quasifree algebraic state for the bulk theory, enjoying remarkable properties concerning invariance under isometries (if any) of the bulk and energy positivity, and reducing to well-known vacua in standard situations. In this paper, specialising to open FRW models, we extend previously obtained results and we prove that the preferred state is of Hadamard form, hence the backreaction on the metric is finite and the state can be used as a starting point for renormalisation procedures. That state could play a distinguished role in the discussion of the evolution of scalar fluctuations of the metric, an analysis often performed in the development of any model describing the dynamic of an early Universe which undergoes an inflationary phase of rapid expansion in the past. (orig.)

  12. Deterioration of mechanical properties of high strength structural steel S460N under transient state fire condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Xuhong; Bijlaard, Frans S.K.; Kolstein, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanical properties of S460N under transient state fire condition are obtained. ► Elevated-temperature mechanical properties of steels are dependent on steel grades. ► No design standard is applicable to HSS S460N under transient state fire condition. ► Specific statements on various HSS in fire should be proposed in design standards. ► Research results offer accurate material property for structural design engineers. -- Abstract: 911 World Trade Centre Tragedy put fire safety of constructional steel structures into question. Since then, more and more research attention has been paid to the elevated-temperature mechanical properties of structural steels, which is a critical basis of evaluating the fire performance of steel structures. In the literature the available mechanical properties of structural steels under fire conditions were mainly obtained from steady state test method, as steady state test method is easier to perform than transient state test method and offers stress–strain curves directly. However, the transient state fire condition is considered to be more realistic to represent the real condition when constructions are exposed to fire. In order to reveal the deterioration of mechanical properties of the commonly used high strength structural steel S460N under transient state fire condition, tensile tests were conducted under various constant stress levels up to 800 MPa. The reduction factors of elastic modulus, yield and ultimate strengths of S460N under transient state fire condition were obtained and compared with current leading design standards and available literature. The application of such accurate elevated-temperature mechanical properties reduction factors of S460N can ensure a safe fire-resistance design and evaluation of steel structures with high strength steel S460N under transient state fire condition. This experimental study also supports other relative research on fire performance of steel structures with

  13. Unraveling the Solution-State Supramolecular Structures of Donor-Acceptor Polymers and their Influence on Solid-State Morphology and Charge-Transport Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Qing; Yao, Ze-Fan; Lei, Ting; Dou, Jin-Hu; Yang, Chi-Yuan; Zou, Lin; Meng, Xiangyi; Ma, Wei; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Polymer self-assembly in solution prior to film fabrication makes solution-state structures critical for their solid-state packing and optoelectronic properties. However, unraveling the solution-state supramolecular structures is challenging, not to mention establishing a clear relationship between the solution-state structure and the charge-transport properties in field-effect transistors. Here, for the first time, it is revealed that the thin-film morphology of a conjugated polymer inherits the features of its solution-state supramolecular structures. A "solution-state supramolecular structure control" strategy is proposed to increase the electron mobility of a benzodifurandione-based oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) (BDOPV)-based polymer. It is shown that the solution-state structures of the BDOPV-based conjugated polymer can be tuned such that it forms a 1D rod-like structure in good solvent and a 2D lamellar structure in poor solvent. By tuning the solution-state structure, films with high crystallinity and good interdomain connectivity are obtained. The electron mobility significantly increases from the original value of 1.8 to 3.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . This work demonstrates that "solution-state supramolecular structure" control is critical for understanding and optimization of the thin-film morphology and charge-transport properties of conjugated polymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Hybrid lead halide perovskites for light energy conversion: Excited state properties and photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Joseph S.

    The burgeoning class of metal halide perovskites constitutes a paradigm shift in the study and application of solution-processed semiconductors. Advancements in thin film processing and our understanding of the underlying structural, photophysical, and electronic properties of these materials over the past five years have led to development of perovskite solar cells with power conversion efficiencies that rival much more mature first and second-generation commercial technologies. It seems only a matter of time before the real-world impact of these compounds is put to the test. Like oxide perovskites, metal halide perovskites have ABX3 stoichiometry, where typically A is a monovalent cation, B a bivalent post-transition metal, and X a halide anion. Characterizing the behavior of photogenerated charges in metal halide perovskites is integral for understanding the operating principles and fundamental limitations of perovskite optoelectronics. The majority of studies outlined in this dissertation involve fundamental study of the prototypical organic-inorganic compound methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI 3). Time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy serves as a principle tool in these investigations. Excitation of a semiconductor can lead to formation of a number different excited state species and electronic complexes. Through analysis of excited state decay kinetics and optical nonlinearities in perovskite thin films, we identify spontaneous formation of a large fraction of free electrons and holes, whose presence is requisite for efficient photovoltaic operation. Following photogeneration of charge carriers in a semiconductor absorber, these species must travel large distances across the thickness of the material to realize large external quantum efficiencies and efficient carrier extraction. Using a powerful technique known as transient absorption microscopy, we directly image long-range carrier diffusion in a CH3NH3PbI 3 thin film. Charges are unambiguously shown to

  15. A theoretical study on the geometry and spectroscopic properties of ground-state and local minima isomers of (CuS)n=2-6 clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ceballos, Jonathan C.; Posada-Borbón, Alvaro; Herrera-Urbina, Ronaldo; Aceves, R.; Juárez-Sánchez, J. Octavio; Posada-Amarillas, Alvaro

    2018-03-01

    Spectroscopic properties of gas-phase copper sulfide clusters (CuS)n (n = 2-6) are calculated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD) DFT approaches. The energy landscape of the potential energy surface is explored through a basin-hopping DFT methodology. Ground-state and low-lying isomer structures are obtained. The global search was performed at the B3PW91/SDD level of theory. Normal modes are calculated to validate the existence of optimal cluster structures. Energetic properties are obtained for the ground-state and isomer clusters and their relative energies are evaluated for probing isomerization. This is a few tenths of an eV, except for (CuS)2 cluster, which presents energy differences of ∼1 eV. Notable differences in the infrared spectra exist between the ground-state and first isomer structures, even for the (CuS)5 cluster, which has in both configurations a core copper pyramid. TDDFT provides the simulated absorption spectrum, presenting a theoretical description of optical absorption bands in terms of electronic excitations in the UV and visible regions. Results exhibit a significant dependence of the calculated UV/vis spectra on clusters size and shape regarding the ground state structures. Optical absorption is strong in the UV region, and weak or forbidden in the visible region of the spectrum.

  16. Effect of fiber surface state on mechanical properties of Cf/Si-O-C composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Song; Chen Zhaohui; Ma Qingsong; Hu Haifeng; Zheng Wenwei

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional braided carbon fiber reinforced silicon oxycarbide composites (3D-B C f /Si-O-C) were fabricated via a polysiloxane infiltration and pyrolysis route. The effects of fiber surface state on microstructure and mechanical properties of C f /Si-O-C composites were investigated. The change of carbon fiber surface state was achieved via heat treatment in vacuum. The results showed that heat treatment decreased carbon fiber surface activity due to the decrease of the amount of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. The C f /Si-O-C composites fabricated from the carbon fiber with low surface activity had excellent mechanical properties, which resulted from perfect interfacial bonding and good in situ fiber strength. The flexural strength and fracture toughness of the C f /Si-O-C composites from the treated fiber were 534 MPa and 23.4 MPa m 1/2 , respectively, which were about 7 and 11 times more than those of the composites from the as-received carbon fiber, respectively

  17. Ground-state and dynamical properties of two-dimensional dipolar Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedinpour, Saeed H.; Asgari, Reza; Tanatar, B.; Polini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We study the ground-state properties of a two-dimensional spin-polarized fluid of dipolar fermions within the Euler–Lagrange Fermi-hypernetted-chain approximation. Our method is based on the solution of a scattering Schrödinger equation for the “pair amplitude” √(g(r)), where g(r) is the pair distribution function. A key ingredient in our theory is the effective pair potential, which includes a bosonic term from Jastrow–Feenberg correlations and a fermionic contribution from kinetic energy and exchange, which is tailored to reproduce the Hartree–Fock limit at weak coupling. Very good agreement with recent results based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations is achieved over a wide range of coupling constants up to the liquid-to-crystal quantum phase transition. Using the fluctuation–dissipation theorem and a static approximation for the effective inter-particle interactions, we calculate the dynamical density–density response function, and furthermore demonstrate that an undamped zero-sound mode exists for any value of the interaction strength, down to infinitesimally weak couplings. -- Highlights: •We have studied the ground state properties of a strongly correlated two-dimensional fluid of dipolar fermions. •We have calculated the effective inter-particle interaction and the dynamical density–density response function. •We have shown that an undamped zero sound mode exists at any value of the interaction strength

  18. Modification of solid-state property of sulfasalazine by using the supercritical antisolvent process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Yi; Su, Chie-Shaan

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process was used to recrystallize an active pharmaceutical ingredient, sulfasalazine, to modify the solid-state properties including particle size, crystal habit and polymorphic form. Supercritical CO2 and tetrahydrofuran were used as the antisolvent and solvent, respectively. SAS results obtained from different operating temperatures (35, 45, 55 and 65 °C) were compared and discussed. The results indicate that at 55 °C, spherical sulfasalazine crystals were produced and that their mean particle size was micronized to approximately 1 μm. In addition, according to the analytical results of powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), a novel polymorphic form of sulfasalazine was obtained after SAS. Furthermore, the spectroscopic and thermal behavior of produced sulfasalazine crystals were also studied by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Finally, SAS results obtained from different operating temperature was discussed on the basis of the mixture critical point (MCP) of CO2 and tetrahydrofuran. Operation at slightly higher than the MCP is favorable for recrystallization of sulfasalazine through SAS. These results demonstrate that the SAS process is an efficient tool for controlling and modifying the solid-state property of sulfasalazine.

  19. Effect of chitosan ethers on fresh state properties of lime mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyšvařil, M.; Žižlavský, T.

    2017-10-01

    The fresh state properties of mortars are eminently important since determine the material workability and also have a great influence on its hardened state characteristics. In this paper, the behaviour of fresh lime mortars modified by etherified derivatives of chitosan (hydroxypropylchitosan (HPCH) and carboxymethylchitosan (CMCH)) is assessed with the purpose of exploring a new application of such derivatives as lime mortar admixtures. The rheological parameters (relative yield stress, consistency coefficient and fluidity index) and viscoelastic properties were correlated with flow table tests, relative density measurements, water retention abilities of mortars and air content in mortars. Results were seen to be strongly dependent on substituents of the chitosan. Non-ionic derivative (HPCH) had a plasticizing influence on the mortars; the ionic CMCH showed the thickening effect. The effect of chitosan ethers was found to be dosage-dependent. CMCH had low impact on water retention, while HPCH displayed high water retention capability. It was concluded, that the ionic derivative (CMCH) is very similar by its viscosity enhancing effect to starch ether.

  20. State-specific transport properties of electronically excited Ar and C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, a theoretical model of state-resolved transport properties in electronically excited atomic species developed earlier is applied to argon and carbon atomic species. It is shown that for Ar and C, similarly to the case of atomic nitrogen and oxygen, the Slater-like models can be applied to calculate diameters of electronically excited atoms. Using the Slater-like model it is shown that for half-filled N (2 px1py1pz1) and full-filled Ar (3 px2py2pz2) electronic shells the growth of atomic radius goes slowly compared to C (2 px1py1) and O (2 px2py1pz1). The effect of collision diameters on the transport properties of Ar and C is evaluated. The influence of accounted number of electronic levels on the transport coefficients is examined for the case of Boltzmann distributions over electronic energy levels. It is emphasized that in the temperature range 1000-14000 K, for Boltzmann-like distributions over electronic states the number of accounted electronic levels do not influence the transport coefficients. Contrary to this, for higher temperatures T > 14000 K this effect becomes of importance, especially for argon.

  1. Effect of surface stress state on dissolution property of Alloy 690 in simulated primary water condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Shim, Hee-Sang; Lee, Eun Hee; Seo, Myung Ji; Han, Jung Ho; Hur, Do Haeng

    2014-01-01

    The dissolution control of nickel is important to reduce the radioactive dose rate and deterioration of fuel performance in the operation of nuclear power plants (PWR). The corrosion properties are affected by the metal surface residual stress introduced in manufacture process such as work hardening. This work studied the effect of surface modification on the release rate of Alloy 690, nickel-base alloy for a steam generator tube, in the test condition of simulated primary water chemistry in PWRs. The surface stress modification was applied by the electro-polishing and shot peening method. Shot peening process was applied using ceramic beads with different intensities through the variation of air pressure. The corrosion release tests performed at 330degC with LiOH 2 ppm and H 3 BO 4 1200 ppm, DH(dissolved hydrogen) 35 cc/kg (STP) and about 20 ppb of DO(dissolved oxygen) condition. The corrosion release rate was evaluated by a gravimetric analysis method and the surface analysed by SEM and optical microscope. The surface residual stress was measured by an X-ray diffractometer, and the distribution of stress state was evaluated by a micro-hardness tester. The metal ion release rate of alloy 690 was evaluated from the influence of the stress state on the metal surface. The oxide property and structure was affected by the residual stress in the oxide layer. (author)

  2. Ground-state properties of anyons in a one-dimensional lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guixin; Eggert, Sebastian; Pelster, Axel

    2015-12-01

    Using the Anyon-Hubbard Hamiltonian, we analyze the ground-state properties of anyons in a one-dimensional lattice. To this end we map the hopping dynamics of correlated anyons to an occupation-dependent hopping Bose-Hubbard model using the fractional Jordan-Wigner transformation. In particular, we calculate the quasi-momentum distribution of anyons, which interpolates between Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics. Analytically, we apply a modified Gutzwiller mean-field approach, which goes beyond a classical one by including the influence of the fractional phase of anyons within the many-body wavefunction. Numerically, we use the density-matrix renormalization group by relying on the ansatz of matrix product states. As a result it turns out that the anyonic quasi-momentum distribution reveals both a peak-shift and an asymmetry which mainly originates from the nonlocal string property. In addition, we determine the corresponding quasi-momentum distribution of the Jordan-Wigner transformed bosons, where, in contrast to the hard-core case, we also observe an asymmetry for the soft-core case, which strongly depends on the particle number density.

  3. Efficient Syntheses of Novel Fluoro-Substituted Pentacenes and Azapentacenes: Molecular and Solid-State Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaben, Jonas; Münster, Niels; Klues, Michael; Breuer, Tobias; Hofmann, Philipp; Harms, Klaus; Witte, Gregor; Koert, Ulrich

    2015-09-21

    Non-symmetrical 6,13-disubstituted pentacenes bearing trifluoromethyl and aryl substituents have been synthesized starting from pentacenequinone. Diazapentacenes with a variety of fluorine substituents were prepared either via a Hartwig-Buchwald aryl amination route or by a SNAr strategy. As a result of a non-symmetric substitution pattern containing electron-donating substituents in combination with electron-accepting fluorine substituents, the synthesized compounds feature distinct molecular dipoles. All compounds are analyzed regarding their optoelectronic properties in solution with special focus on the frontier orbital energies as well as their molecular packing in the crystal structures. The analyses of isolated molecules are complemented by thin-film studies to examine their solid-state properties. A precise comparison between these and the molecular properties gave detailed insights into the exciton binding energies of these compounds, which are explained by means of a simple model considering the molecular packing and polarizabilities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Convergence of Ground and Excited State Properties of Divacancy Defects in 4H-SiC with Computational Cell Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    SiC with Computational Cell Size by Ariana Beste and DeCarlos E Taylor Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Laboratory Convergence of Ground and Excited State Properties of Divacancy Defects in 4H-SiC with Computational Cell Size by Ariana Beste...Ground and Excited State Properties of Divacancy Defects in 4H-SiC with Computational Cell Size 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  5. Diffusive and quantum effects of water properties in different states of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Shao-Nung; Chen, Li-Jen; Lin, Shiang-Tai

    2014-01-01

    The enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of water are important physical quantities for understanding many interesting phenomena in biological systems. However, conventional approaches require different treatments to incorporate quantum and diffusive effects of water in different states of matter. In this work, we demonstrate the use of the two-phase thermodynamic (2PT) model as a unified approach to obtain the properties of water over the whole phase region of water from short (∼20 ps) classical molecular dynamics trajectories. The 2PT model provides an effective way to separate the diffusive modes (gas-like component) from the harmonic vibrational modes (solid-like component) in the vibrational density of states (DoS). Therefore, both diffusive and quantum effect can be properly accounted for water by applying suitable statistical mechanical weighting functions to the DoS components. We applied the 2PT model to systematically examine the enthalpy, entropy, and their temperature dependence of five commonly used rigid water models. The 2PT results are found to be consistent with those obtained from more sophisticated calculations. While the thermodynamic properties determined from different water models are largely similar, the phase boundary determined from the equality of free energy is very sensitive to the small inaccuracy in the values of enthalpy and absolute entropy. The enthalpy, entropy, and diffusivity of water are strongly interrelated, which challenge further improvement of rigid water model via parameter fitting. Our results show that the 2PT is an efficient method for studying the properties of water under various chemical and biological environments

  6. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Nitrate (NO3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Nitrate (NO3) for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of NO3 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  7. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Total Inorganic Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Total Inorganic Nitrogen for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of Total Inorganic Nitrogen deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  8. Dually supplied T-junctions in arteriolo-arteriolar anastomosis in mice: key to local hemodynamic homeostasis in normal and ischemic states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Haruki; Tatarishvili, Jemal; Tomita, Minoru; Tomita, Yutaka; Unekawa, Miyuki; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2009-10-01

    The functional role of arteriolo-arteriolar anastomosis (AAA) between the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and anterior cerebral artery in local hemodynamics is unknown, and was investigated here. Blood flow in AAAs was examined using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled red blood cells (RBCs) as a flow indicator in 16 anesthetized C57BL/6J mice before and after MCA occlusion up to 7 experimental days. We observed paradoxical flow in AAAs; labeled RBCs entered from both the MCA and anterior cerebral artery sides and the opposing flows met at a branching T-junction, where the flows combined and passed into a penetrating arteriole. The dually fed T-junction was not fixed in position, but functionally jumped to adjacent T-junctions in response to changing hemodynamic conditions. On MCA occlusion, RBC flow from the MCA side immediately stopped. After a period of "hesitation," blood started to move retrogradely in one of the MCA branches toward the MCA stem. The retrograde blood flow was statistically significantly (P<0.05), serving to feed blood to other MCA branches after a lag period. In capillaries, MCA occlusion induced immediate RBC disappearance in the ischemic core and to a lesser extent in the marginal zone near AAAs. At day 3 after ischemia, we recognized the beginning of remodeling with angiogenesis centering on AAAs. AAAs appear to play a key role in local hemodynamic homeostasis, both in the normal state and in the development of collateral channels and revascularization during ischemia.

  9. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Ammonium (NH4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of ammonium (NH4) for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of NH4 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  10. A new algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma based on in vivo analysis of optical properties by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A

    2016-01-01

    properties for discrimination of AK from SCC and from normal sun exposed skin and to subdifferentiate AKs. METHODS: The technique of semi-log plot has been implemented on HD-OCT signals. This permitted the in vivo measurement of OCT signals coming from the skin entrance up to the superficial reticular dermis...... involvement, non-Bowenoid AK with follicular involvement, Bowenoid AK, hypertrophic and lichenoid form of AK and squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3D microarchitectural structures with in vivo analysis of optical...... properties of tissue scatterers in AK/SCC lesions and normal sun-exposed skin. In vivoHD-OCT analysis of optical properties permits AK discrimination from SCC and AK subdifferentiation with higher accuracy than in vivoHD-OCT analysis of morphology alone....

  11. Relationships among oxidation-reduction and acid-base properties of the actinides in high oxidation states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    The first chemical identification of plutonium, its subsequent isolation on the macroscopic scale, and more recent chemical separation schemes were achieved by taking advantage of the differences among the oxidation states of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. Many acid-base properties modify the relative stabilities of oxidation states of the actinides. In the solid state, strongly basic compounds such as Cs 2 O yield complex oxides with oxidation states of Np(VII), Pu(VI), and Am(VI) whereas more acidic compounds such as CsF yield complex fluorides with lower oxidation states. In aqueous solution, high basicity and strongly covalent complexes favor high oxidation states. In nonaqueous solvent systems, high acidity generally favors low oxidation states. This paper elucidates and attempts to interpret the effects of these acid-base properties in a systematic fashion

  12. Variability of soil fertility properties in areas planted to sugarcane in the State of Goias, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Avelino Cardoso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil sampling should provide an accurate representation of a given area so that recommendations for amendments of soil acidity, fertilization and soil conservation may be drafted to increase yield and improve the use of inputs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of soil fertility properties of Oxisols in areas planted to sugarcane in the State of Goias, Brazil. Two areas of approximately 8,100 m² each were selected, representing two fields of the Goiasa sugarcane mill in Goiatuba. The sugarcane crop had a row spacing of 1.5 m and subsamples were taken from 49 points in the row and 49 between the row with a Dutch auger at depths of 0.0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m, for a total of 196 subsamples for each area. The samples were individually subjected to chemical analyses of soil fertility (pH in CaCl2, potential acidity, organic matter, P, K, Ca and Mg and particle size analysis. The number of subsamples required to compose a sample within the acceptable ranges of error of 5, 10, 20 and 40 % of each property were computed from the coefficients of variation and the Student t-value for 95 % confidence. The soil properties under analysis exhibited different variabilities: high (P and K, medium (potential acidity, Ca and Mg and low (pH, organic matter and clay content. Most of the properties analyzed showed an error of less than 20 % for a group of 20 subsamples, except for P and K, which were capable of showing an error greater than 40 % around the mean. The extreme variability in phosphorus, particularly at the depth of 0.2-0.4 m, attributed to banded application of high rates of P fertilizers at planting, places limitations on assessment of its availability due to the high number of subsamples required for a composite sample.

  13. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  14. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  15. Helical Propensity Affects the Conformational Properties of the Denatured State of Cytochrome c'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Travis A; Bowler, Bruce E

    2018-01-23

    Changing the helical propensity of a polypeptide sequence might be expected to affect the conformational properties of the denatured state of a protein. To test this hypothesis, alanines at positions 83 and 87 near the center of helix 3 of cytochrome c' from Rhodopseudomonas palustris were mutated to serine to decrease the stability of this helix. A set of 13 single histidine variants in the A83S/A87S background were prepared to permit assessment of the conformational properties of the denatured state using histidine-loop formation in 3 M guanidine hydrochloride. The data are compared with previous histidine-heme loop formation data for wild-type cytochrome c'. As expected, destabilization of helix 3 decreases the global stabilities of the histidine variants in the A83S/A87S background relative to the wild-type background. Loop stability versus loop size data yields a scaling exponent of 2.1 ± 0.2, similar to the value of 2.3 ± 0.2 obtained for wild-type cytochrome c'. However, the stabilities of all histidine-heme loops, which contain the helix 3 sequence segment, are increased in the A83S/A87S background compared to the wild-type background. Rate constants for histidine-heme loop breakage are similar for the wild-type and A83S/A87S variants. However, for histidine-heme loops that contain the helix 3 sequence segment, the rate constants for loop formation increase in the A83S/A87S background compared to the wild-type background. Thus, residual helical structure appears to stiffen the polypeptide chain slowing loop formation in the denatured state. The implications of these results for protein folding mechanisms are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Black carbon mixing state impacts on cloud microphysical properties: effects of aerosol plume and environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Ping Pui; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew

    2016-05-27

    Black carbon (BC) is usually mixed with other aerosol species within individual aerosol particles. This mixture, along with the particles' size and morphology, determines the particles' optical and cloud condensation nuclei properties, and hence black carbon's climate impacts. In this study the particle-resolved aerosol model PartMC-MOSAIC was used to quantify the importance of black carbon mixing state for predicting cloud microphysical quantities. Based on a set of about 100 cloud parcel simulations a process level analysis framework was developed to attribute the response in cloud microphysical properties to changes in the underlying aerosol population ("plume effect") and the cloud parcel cooling rate ("parcel effect"). It shows that the response of cloud droplet number concentration to changes in BC emissions depends on the BC mixing state. When the aerosol population contains mainly aged BC particles an increase in BC emission results in increasing cloud droplet number concentrations ("additive effect"). In contrast, when the aerosol population contains mainly fresh BC particles they act as sinks for condensable gaseous species, resulting in a decrease in cloud droplet number concentration as BC emissions are increased ("competition effect"). Additionally, we quantified the error in cloud microphysical quantities when neglecting the information on BC mixing state, which is often done in aerosol models. The errors ranged from -12% to +45% for the cloud droplet number fraction, from 0% to +1022% for the nucleation-scavenged black carbon (BC) mass fraction, from -12% to +4% for the effective radius, and from -30% to +60% for the relative dispersion.

  17. Radiation heredity: unusual structural-phase states and metallic crystals properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhov, V.D.; Skakov, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Some experimental results allowing to judge about possibilities of unusual structural phase states formation during use irradiation and high temperature treatment of metallic crystals are considered. During study of pure (99.99 %) and especially pure (99.999 %) aluminium it was established, that after heating of preliminary irradiated samples in reactor, and non-irradiated ones up to temperatures above melting point (660 deg C), but not higher than 820 deg C, and cooling an microstructure and substructure of both irradiated and non-irradiated metals have been essentially distinguished with each other. If first of them had typically polycrystal construction, that second one was monocrystal with good developed initial substructure. Radiation effects have been preserved even in liquid metal if it was not overheated higher critical point, which is determined by phase transition from quasi-liquid state to true liquid one. During study of irradiation and postradiation treatment of structure and properties of intermetallides Fe 3 Al it was revealed, that in initially irradiated regulated alloys the radiation effect is preserving at heating of above 0.85 T melt (that essentially exceed order-disorder transition temperature) (550 deg C) in non-irradiated alloys of prolonged exposure and hardening. At that, irradiated-hardened alloy distinguishing from not hardened one by lattice parameter (on 0.1 %), by configuration of nearest surrounding of iron atoms in elementary cell, by regulating extent of different kind of atoms in lattice knocks. It was revealed, that at fluence (5·10 24 n·m 2 ) an appearance of new phases, distinguishing from matrix by component content. It was shown, that irradiation and post-radiation treatment are methods for creation unusual structural-phase states and attach to metals and alloys new properties

  18. Electronic properties of excited states in single InAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warming, Till

    2009-01-01

    The application of quantum-mechanical effects in semiconductor nanostructures enables the realization of novel opto-electronic devices. Examples are given by single-photon emitters and emitters of entangled photon pairs, both being essential for quantum cryptography, or for qubit systems as needed for quantum computing. InAs/GaAs quantum dots are one of the most promising candidates for such applications. A detailed knowledge of the electronic properties of quantum dots is a prerequisite for this development. The aim of this work is an experimental access to the detailed electronic structure of the excited states in single InAs/GaAs quantum dots including few-particle effects and in particular exchange interaction. The experimental approach is micro photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (μPLE). One of the main difficulties using μPLE to probe single QDs is the unambiguous assignment of the observed resonances in the spectrum to specific transitions. By comparing micro photoluminescence (μPL) and μPLE spectra, the identification of the main resonances becomes possible. The key is given by the fine structure of the hot trion. Excitation spectroscopy on single charged QDs enables for the first time the complete observation of a non-trivial fine structure of an excitonic complex in a QD, the hot trion. Modelling based on eight-band k.p theory in combination with a configuration interaction scheme is in excellent agreement. Therewith the simulation also enables realistic predictions on the fine structure of the ground-state exciton which is of large importance for single quantum dot devices. Theory concludes from the observed transitions that the structural symmetry of the QDs is broken. Micro photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy combined with resonantly excited micro photoluminescence enables an optical access to the single particle states of the hole without the influence of few-particle coulomb interactions. Based on this knowledge the exciton binding

  19. Triplet excited state properties in variable gap π-conjugated donor–acceptor–donor chromophores

    KAUST Repository

    Cekli, Seda; Winkel, Russell W.; Alarousu, Erkki; Mohammed, Omar F.; Schanze, Kirk S.

    2016-01-01

    A series of variable band-gap donor–acceptor–donor (DAD) chromophores capped with platinum(II) acetylide units has been synthesized and fully characterized by electrochemical and photophysical methods, with particular emphasis placed on probing triplet excited state properties. A counter-intuitive trend of increasing fluorescence quantum efficiency and lifetime with decreasing excited state energy (optical gap) is observed across the series of DAD chromophores. Careful study of the excited state dynamics, including triplet yields (as inferred from singlet oxygen sensitization), reveals that the underlying origin of the unusual trend in the fluorescence parameters is that the singlet–triplet intersystem crossing rate and yield decrease with decreasing optical gap. It is concluded that the rate of intersystem crossing decreases as the LUMO is increasingly localized on the acceptor unit in the DAD chromophore, and this result is interpreted as arising because the extent of spin–orbit coupling induced by the platinum heavy metal centers decreases as the LUMO is more localized on the acceptor. In addition to the trend in intersystem crossing, the results show that the triplet decay rates follow the Energy Gap Law correlation over a 1.8 eV range of triplet energy and 1000-fold range of triplet decay rates. Finally, femtosecond transient absorption studies for the DAD chromophores reveals a strong absorption in the near-infrared region which is attributed to the singlet excited state. This spectral band appears to be general for DAD chromophores, and may be a signature of the charge transfer (CT) singlet excited state.

  20. Triplet excited state properties in variable gap π-conjugated donor–acceptor–donor chromophores

    KAUST Repository

    Cekli, Seda

    2016-02-12

    A series of variable band-gap donor–acceptor–donor (DAD) chromophores capped with platinum(II) acetylide units has been synthesized and fully characterized by electrochemical and photophysical methods, with particular emphasis placed on probing triplet excited state properties. A counter-intuitive trend of increasing fluorescence quantum efficiency and lifetime with decreasing excited state energy (optical gap) is observed across the series of DAD chromophores. Careful study of the excited state dynamics, including triplet yields (as inferred from singlet oxygen sensitization), reveals that the underlying origin of the unusual trend in the fluorescence parameters is that the singlet–triplet intersystem crossing rate and yield decrease with decreasing optical gap. It is concluded that the rate of intersystem crossing decreases as the LUMO is increasingly localized on the acceptor unit in the DAD chromophore, and this result is interpreted as arising because the extent of spin–orbit coupling induced by the platinum heavy metal centers decreases as the LUMO is more localized on the acceptor. In addition to the trend in intersystem crossing, the results show that the triplet decay rates follow the Energy Gap Law correlation over a 1.8 eV range of triplet energy and 1000-fold range of triplet decay rates. Finally, femtosecond transient absorption studies for the DAD chromophores reveals a strong absorption in the near-infrared region which is attributed to the singlet excited state. This spectral band appears to be general for DAD chromophores, and may be a signature of the charge transfer (CT) singlet excited state.

  1. Rigorous construction and Hadamard property of the Unruh state in Schwarzschild spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    The discovery of the radiation properties of black holes prompted the search for a natural candidate quantum ground state for a massless scalar field theory on Schwarzschild spacetime, here considered in the Eddington-Finkelstein representation. Among the several available proposals in the literature, an important physical role is played by the so-called Unruh state which is supposed to be appropriate to capture the physics of a black hole formed by spherically symmetric collapsing matter. Within this respect, we shall consider a massless Klein-Gordon field and we shall rigorously and globally construct such state, that is on the algebra of Weyl observables localised in the union of the static external region, the future event horizon and the non-static black hole region. Eventually, out of a careful use of microlocal techniques, we prove that the built state fulfils, where defined, the so-called Hadamard condition; hence, it is perturbatively stable, in other words realizing the natural candidate with which one could study purely quantum phenomena such as the role of the back reaction of Hawking's radiation. From a geometrical point of view, we shall make a profitable use of a bulk-to-boundary reconstruction technique which carefully exploits the Killing horizon structure as well as the conformal asymptotic behaviour of the underlying background. From an analytical point of view, our tools will range from Hoermander's theorem on propagation of singularities, results on the role of passive states, and a detailed use of the recently discovered peeling behaviour of the solutions of the wave equation in Schwarzschild spacetime. (orig.)

  2. Rigorous construction and Hadamard property of the Unruh state in Schwarzschild spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moretti, Valter [Trento Univ., Povo (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Povo (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica ' ' F. Severi' ' , GNFM, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The discovery of the radiation properties of black holes prompted the search for a natural candidate quantum ground state for a massless scalar field theory on Schwarzschild spacetime, here considered in the Eddington-Finkelstein representation. Among the several available proposals in the literature, an important physical role is played by the so-called Unruh state which is supposed to be appropriate to capture the physics of a black hole formed by spherically symmetric collapsing matter. Within this respect, we shall consider a massless Klein-Gordon field and we shall rigorously and globally construct such state, that is on the algebra of Weyl observables localised in the union of the static external region, the future event horizon and the non-static black hole region. Eventually, out of a careful use of microlocal techniques, we prove that the built state fulfils, where defined, the so-called Hadamard condition; hence, it is perturbatively stable, in other words realizing the natural candidate with which one could study purely quantum phenomena such as the role of the back reaction of Hawking's radiation. From a geometrical point of view, we shall make a profitable use of a bulk-to-boundary reconstruction technique which carefully exploits the Killing horizon structure as well as the conformal asymptotic behaviour of the underlying background. From an analytical point of view, our tools will range from Hoermander's theorem on propagation of singularities, results on the role of passive states, and a detailed use of the recently discovered peeling behaviour of the solutions of the wave equation in Schwarzschild spacetime. (orig.)

  3. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  4. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xuming Liu,1 Zhihan Yan,2 Tingyu Wang,1 Xiaokai Yang,1 Feng Feng,3 Luping Fan,1 Jian Jiang4 1Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Department of Radiology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Peking Union Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL after normal sleep (NS and after sleep deprivation (SD. Methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results: Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL, left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the

  5. Synthesising and comparing electrical properties of NTC thermistors prepared from nano powder and solid state reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, N.; Ghanbari Shohany, B.; Hosseini, S. M.; Kompany, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this research, NTC thermistors with composition of NiMn 2-x Co x O 4 (x = 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6) prepared by two methods: solid state reaction and sol-gel (gel-combustion). The average particle size was monitored and structure of the calcinated powders have been investigated using x-ray diffraction and tunneling electron microscopy techniques. The average particle size was estimated to be about 65 nm with the cubic and cubic + tetragonal phases for low and high cobalt concentrations, respectively. The grain size of samples verifies with scanning electron microscopy images. Upon increasing the cobalt fraction, the grain size of samples increases from about 2μm to a few μm in size. The electrical properties of these thermistors depend on the grain size. The grain size of samples made from sol-gel is smaller than from solid state reaction under the same condition. For longer sintering time of the samples prepared by gel-combustion method, the grain size was increased then the electrical parameters of nano powder improved and we obtain better results than the samples prepared from solid state reaction.

  6. Microstructure, ferromagnetic and photoluminescence properties of ITO and Cr doped ITO nanoparticles using solid state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S. Harinath [Thin Films Laboratory, Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamilnadu, India. (India); Kaleemulla, S., E-mail: skaleemulla@gmail.com [Thin Films Laboratory, Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamilnadu, India. (India); Rao, N. Madhusudhana [Thin Films Laboratory, Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamilnadu, India. (India); Rao, G. Venugopal [Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102, Tamilnadu (India); Krishnamoorthi, C. [Thin Films Laboratory, Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamilnadu, India. (India)

    2016-11-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) (In{sub 0.95}Sn{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr doped indium-tin-oxide (In{sub 0.90}Sn{sub 0.05}Cr{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared using simple low cost solid state reaction method and characterized by different techniques to study their structural, optical and magnetic properties. Microstructures, surface morphology, crystallite size of the nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). From these methods it was found that the particles were about 45 nm. Chemical composition and valence states of the nanoparticles were studied using energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From these techniques it was observed that the elements of indium, tin, chromium and oxygen were present in the system in appropriate ratios and they were in +3, +4, +3 and −2 oxidation states. Raman studies confirmed that the nanoparticle were free from unintentional impurities. Two broad emission peaks were observed at 330 nm and 460 nm when excited wavelength of 300 nm. Magnetic studies were carried out at 300 K and 100 K using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and found that the ITO nanoparticles were ferromagnetic at 100 K and 300 K. Where-as the room temperature ferromagnetism completely disappeared in Cr doped ITO nanoparticles at 100 K and 300 K.

  7. Microstructure, ferromagnetic and photoluminescence properties of ITO and Cr doped ITO nanoparticles using solid state reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S. Harinath; Kaleemulla, S.; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Rao, G. Venugopal; Krishnamoorthi, C.

    2016-11-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) (In0.95Sn0.05)2O3 and Cr doped indium-tin-oxide (In0.90Sn0.05Cr0.05)2O3 nanoparticles were prepared using simple low cost solid state reaction method and characterized by different techniques to study their structural, optical and magnetic properties. Microstructures, surface morphology, crystallite size of the nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). From these methods it was found that the particles were about 45 nm. Chemical composition and valence states of the nanoparticles were studied using energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From these techniques it was observed that the elements of indium, tin, chromium and oxygen were present in the system in appropriate ratios and they were in +3, +4, +3 and -2 oxidation states. Raman studies confirmed that the nanoparticle were free from unintentional impurities. Two broad emission peaks were observed at 330 nm and 460 nm when excited wavelength of 300 nm. Magnetic studies were carried out at 300 K and 100 K using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and found that the ITO nanoparticles were ferromagnetic at 100 K and 300 K. Where-as the room temperature ferromagnetism completely disappeared in Cr doped ITO nanoparticles at 100 K and 300 K.

  8. Physicochemical properties and thermal stability of quercetin hydrates in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, G.S., E-mail: greicefarm@yahoo.com.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Carini, J.P. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Honorato, S.B.; Ayala, A.P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, CEP 60.455-970, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Moreira, J.C.F. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600, CEP 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bassani, V.L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin raw materials may present different degree of hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal stability of quercetin in the solid state depends on its degree of hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin dehydrate is thermodynamically more stable than the other crystal forms. - Abstract: In the present work three samples of quercetin raw materials (QCTa, QCTb and QCTc), purchased from different Brazilian suppliers, were characterized employing scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, simultaneous thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and variable temperature-powder X-ray diffraction, in order to know their physicochemical properties, specially the thermal stability in solid state. The results demonstrated that the raw materials of quercetin analyzed present distinct crystalline structures, ascribed to the different degree of hydration of their crystal lattice. The thermal stability of these quercetin raw materials in the solid state was highly dependent on their degree of hydration, where QCTa (quercetin dihydrate) was thermodynamically more stable than the other two samples.

  9. 77 FR 24571 - Blocking the Property and Suspending Entry Into the United States of Certain Persons With Respect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Human Rights Abuses by the Governments of Iran and Syria via Information Technology By the authority... Property and Suspending Entry Into the United States of Certain Persons With Respect to Grave Human Rights... United States of America, hereby determine that the commission of serious human rights abuses against the...

  10. Equation of state and thermmodynamic properties of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (refrigerant R134a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas'kov, E.T.

    1995-01-01

    An equation of state and tables of thermodynamic properties of R134a in the saturation state and in the one-phase region are obtained in the temperature interval 320-500 K at pressures ranging from 0.01 to 7.5 MPa

  11. Normal modes of weak colloidal gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsigmond; Swan, James W.

    2018-01-01

    The normal modes and relaxation rates of weak colloidal gels are investigated in calculations using different models of the hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. The relaxation spectrum is computed for freely draining, Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa, and accelerated Stokesian dynamics approximations of the hydrodynamic mobility in a normal mode analysis of a harmonic network representing several colloidal gels. We find that the density of states and spatial structure of the normal modes are fundamentally altered by long-ranged hydrodynamic coupling among the particles. Short-ranged coupling due to hydrodynamic lubrication affects only the relaxation rates of short-wavelength modes. Hydrodynamic models accounting for long-ranged coupling exhibit a microscopic relaxation rate for each normal mode, λ that scales as l-2, where l is the spatial correlation length of the normal mode. For the freely draining approximation, which neglects long-ranged coupling, the microscopic relaxation rate scales as l-γ, where γ varies between three and two with increasing particle volume fraction. A simple phenomenological model of the internal elastic response to normal mode fluctuations is developed, which shows that long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions play a central role in the viscoelasticity of the gel network. Dynamic simulations of hard spheres that gel in response to short-ranged depletion attractions are used to test the applicability of the density of states predictions. For particle concentrations up to 30% by volume, the power law decay of the relaxation modulus in simulations accounting for long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions agrees with predictions generated by the density of states of the corresponding harmonic networks as well as experimental measurements. For higher volume fractions, excluded volume interactions dominate the stress response, and the prediction from the harmonic network density of states fails. Analogous to the Zimm model in polymer

  12. Modeling of Dielectric Properties of Aqueous Salt Solutions with an Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Thomsen, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    The static permittivity is the most important physical property for thermodynamic models that account for the electrostatic interactions between ions. The measured static permittivity in mixtures containing electrolytes is reduced due to kinetic depolarization and reorientation of the dipoles...... methodology for obtaining the static permittivity over wide ranges of temperatures, pressures, and compositions for use within an equation of state for mixed solvents containing salts. The static permittivity is calculated from a new extension of the framework developed by Onsager, Kirkwood, and Fröhlich...... to associating mixtures. Wertheim’s association model as formulated in the statistical associating fluid theory is used to account for hydrogen-bonding molecules and ion–solvent association. Finally, we compare the Debye–Hückel Helmholtz energy obtained using an empirical model with the new physical model...

  13. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF NONAQUEOUS SINGLE SALT SOLUTIONS USING THE Q-ELECTROLATTICE EQUATION OF STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuber

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe correlation of thermodynamic properties of nonaqueous electrolyte solutions is relevant to design and operation of many chemical processes, as in fertilizer production and the pharmaceutical industry. In this work, the Q-electrolattice equation of state (EOS is used to model vapor pressure, mean ionic activity coefficient, osmotic coefficient, and liquid density of sixteen methanol and ten ethanol solutions containing single strong 1:1 and 2:1 salts. The Q-electrolattice comprises the lattice-based Mattedi-Tavares-Castier (MTC EOS, the Born term and the explicit MSA term. The model requires two adjustable parameters per ion, namely the ionic diameter and the solvent-ion interaction energy. Predictions of osmotic coefficient at 298.15 K and liquid density at different temperatures are also presented.

  14. Semiempirical Quantum-Chemical Orthogonalization-Corrected Methods: Benchmarks for Ground-State Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dral, Pavlo O; Wu, Xin; Spörkel, Lasse; Koslowski, Axel; Thiel, Walter

    2016-03-08

    The semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected OMx methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by including additional interactions in the electronic structure calculation. When augmented with empirical dispersion corrections, the resulting OMx-Dn approaches offer a fast and robust treatment of noncovalent interactions. Here we evaluate the performance of the OMx and OMx-Dn methods for a variety of ground-state properties using a large and diverse collection of benchmark sets from the literature, with a total of 13035 original and derived reference data. Extensive comparisons are made with the results from established semiempirical methods (MNDO, AM1, PM3, PM6, and PM7) that also use the NDDO (neglect of diatomic differential overlap) integral approximation. Statistical evaluations show that the OMx and OMx-Dn methods outperform the other methods for most of the benchmark sets.

  15. Jarosite added concrete along with fly ash: Properties and characteristics in fresh state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyansha Mehra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of different properties and characteristics of jarosite added concrete along with fly ash during its fresh state. Jarosite is an industrial by product from zinc manufacturing industry obtained through hydrometallurgical process from its sulphide ore. It has been tried to incorporate jarosite in concrete as sand replacement. Different concrete mixtures have been prepared for three water–cement ratios (0.40, 0.45 and 0.50 and 5 jarosite replacement levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Cement has been partially replaced (25% by fly ash in all the concrete mixtures. Density, workability and setting & hardening of fresh concrete has been evaluated and analyzed. Keeping the environmental suitability of concrete in mind, toxicity leaching characteristic potential test has been performed on raw jarosite and concrete samples.

  16. Study of the optical properties of aerosols in the Sao Paulo State by LIDAR Raman technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Renata Facundes da

    2010-01-01

    The investigation reported in this dissertation has been divided in two parts. The first part was made to carry out an independent calibration of a Raman LIDAR system for water vapor in the CLA installed using a methodology that was developed at Howard University, based on a careful analysis of the efficiency of the optical system components aimed at determining the efficiency and displaying the spectral response of the system. After this study, which led to a better understanding of the eld of instrumental system, the second part, presents a preliminary study of the optical properties of aerosols in the troposphere by evaluating parameters such as, for example, the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, SR and LR, using a mobile Raman LIDAR system developed by Raymetrics LIDAR Systems, during campaigns conducted in some research institutes in the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  17. Solid-state synthesis and electrical properties of polyaniline/Cu-montmorillonite nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekri-Abbes, Imene; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the solid-state synthesis of polyaniline/Cu-montmorillonite nanocomposite is reported. Mixture of anilinium chlorure and Cu exchanged montmorillonite was grinded at room temperature while we vary the molar rate of aniline to interlayer Cu 2+ cations (R) from 0.5 to 6. The properties of the hybrid compounds are characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, SEM, FTIR and impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the structure and the conductivity of PANI in hybrid materials depend on R. The ac conduction showed a regime of constant dc conductivity at low frequencies and a crossover to a frequency-dependent regime of the type A ω s at high frequencies.

  18. Liver transplantation nearly normalizes brain spontaneous activity and cognitive function at 1 month: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yue; Huang, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhong, Jianhui; Ji, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Chen, Lihua; Zuo, Panli; Zhang, Long Jiang; Shen, Wen

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the short-term brain activity changes in cirrhotic patients with Liver transplantation (LT) using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Twenty-six cirrhotic patients as transplant candidates and 26 healthy controls were included in this study. The assessment was repeated for a sub-group of 12 patients 1 month after LT. ReHo values were calculated to evaluate spontaneous brain activity and whole brain voxel-wise analysis was carried to detect differences between groups. Correlation analyses were performed to explore the relationship between the change of ReHo with the change of clinical indexes pre- and post-LT. Compared to pre-LT, ReHo values increased in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right supplementary motor area (SMA), right STG and left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in patients post-LT. Compared to controls, ReHo values of post-LT patients decreased in the right precuneus, right SMA and increased in bilateral temporal pole, left caudate, left MFG, and right STG. The changes of ReHo in the right SMA, STG and IFG were correlated with change of digit symbol test (DST) scores (P brain activity of most brain regions with decreased ReHo in pre-LT was substantially improved and nearly normalized, while spontaneous brain activity of some brain regions with increased ReHo in pre-LT continuously increased. ReHo may provide information on the neural mechanisms of LT' effects on brain function.

  19. Spatiotemporal predictions of soil properties and states in variably saturated landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Trenton E.; Loecke, Terrance D.; Burgin, Amy J.; Zhou, Yuzhen; Le, Tri; Moscicki, David

    2017-07-01

    Understanding greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from landscapes with variably saturated soil conditions is challenging given the highly dynamic nature of GHG fluxes in both space and time, dubbed hot spots, and hot moments. On one hand, our ability to directly monitor these processes is limited by sparse in situ and surface chamber observational networks. On the other hand, remote sensing approaches provide spatial data sets but are limited by infrequent imaging over time. We use a robust statistical framework to merge sparse sensor network observations with reconnaissance style hydrogeophysical mapping at a well-characterized site in Ohio. We find that combining time-lapse electromagnetic induction surveys with empirical orthogonal functions provides additional environmental covariates related to soil properties and states at high spatial resolutions ( 5 m). A cross-validation experiment using eight different spatial interpolation methods versus 120 in situ soil cores indicated an 30% reduction in root-mean-square error for soil properties (clay weight percent and total soil carbon weight percent) using hydrogeophysical derived environmental covariates with regression kriging. In addition, the hydrogeophysical derived environmental covariates were found to be good predictors of soil states (soil temperature, soil water content, and soil oxygen). The presented framework allows for temporal gap filling of individual sensor data sets as well as provides flexible geometric interpolation to complex areas/volumes. We anticipate that the framework, with its flexible temporal and spatial monitoring options, will be useful in designing future monitoring networks as well as support the next generation of hyper-resolution hydrologic and biogeochemical models.

  20. Ground-state properties of rare-earth metals: an evaluation of density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Söderlind, Per; Turchi, P E A; Landa, A; Lordi, V

    2014-01-01

    The rare-earth metals have important technological applications due to their magnetic properties, but are scarce and expensive. Development of high-performance magnetic materials with less rare-earth content is desired, but theoretical modeling is hampered by complexities of the rare earths electronic structure. The existence of correlated (atomic-like) 4f electrons in the vicinity of the valence band makes any first-principles theory challenging. Here, we apply and evaluate the efficacy of density-functional theory for the series of lanthanides (rare earths), investigating the influence of the electron exchange and correlation functional, spin-orbit interaction, and orbital polarization. As a reference, the results are compared with those of the so-called ‘standard model’ of the lanthanides in which electrons are constrained to occupy 4f core states with no hybridization with the valence electrons. Some comparisons are also made with models designed for strong electron correlations. Our results suggest that spin–orbit coupling and orbital polarization are important, particularly for the magnitude of the magnetic moments, and that calculated equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, and magnetic moments show correct trends overall. However, the precision of the calculated properties is not at the level of that found for simpler metals in the Periodic Table of Elements, and the electronic structures do not accurately reproduce x-ray photoemission spectra. (paper)

  1. Combined, solid-state molecular property and gamma spectrometers for CBRNE detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ben; Grate, Jay; Pearson, Brett; Gallagher, Neal; Wise, Barry; Whitten, Ralph; Adams, Jesse

    2013-05-01

    Nevada Nanotech Systems, Inc. (Nevada Nano) has developed a multi-sensor solution to Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives (CBRNE) detection that combines the Molecular Property Spectrometer™ (MPS™)—a micro-electro-mechanical chip-based technology capable of measuring a variety of thermodynamic and electrostatic molecular properties of sampled vapors and particles—and a compact, high-resolution, solid-state gamma spectrometer module for identifying radioactive materials, including isotopes used in dirty bombs and nuclear weapons. By conducting multiple measurements, the system can provide a more complete characterization of an unknown sample, leading to a more accurate identification. Positive identifications of threats are communicated using an integrated wireless module. Currently, system development is focused on detection of commercial, military and improvised explosives, radioactive materials, and chemical threats. The system can be configured for a variety of CBRNE applications, including handheld wands and swab-type threat detectors requiring short sample times, and ultra-high sensitivity detectors in which longer sampling times are used. Here we provide an overview of the system design and operation and present results from preliminary testing.

  2. Electronic Properties of Corrugated Graphene, the Heisenberg Principle and Wormhole Geometry in Solid State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasov, Victor; Saxena, Avadh

    2010-12-01

    Adopting a purely two dimensional relativistic equation for graphene's carriers contradicts the Heisenberg uncertainty principle since it requires setting off-the-surface coordinate of a three-dimensional wavefunction to zero. Here we present a theoretical framework for describing graphene's massless relativistic carriers in accordance with this most fundamental of all quantum principles. A gradual confining procedure is used to restrict the dynamics onto a surface and in the process the embedding of this surface into the three dimensional world is accounted for. As a result an invariant geometric potential arises which scales linearly with the Mean curvature and shifts the Fermi energy of the material proportional to bending. Strain induced modification of the electronic properties or 'straintronics' is clearly an important field of study in graphene. This opens a venue to producing electronic devices, MEMS and NEMS where the electronic properties are controlled by geometric means and no additional alteration of graphene is necessary. The appearance of this geometric potential also provides us with clues as to how quantum dynamics looks like in the curved space-time of general relativity. In this context, we explore a two-dimensional cross-section of the wormhole geometry realized with graphene as a solid state thought experiment. (author)

  3. In the absence of private property rights: Political control and state corporatism during Putin's first tenure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vanteeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Russia's choice of economic organization, which is based on the renewed role of the state, is a response to the existence of severe transaction costs, and subsequent mitigation of contractual incompleteness in the absence of a strong property rights system. Ill-defined property rights have historically hampered formation of business classes in Russia, reducing the necessity for appropriate market infrastructure. This also implied that if Russia's political and economic system had more than one competing hierarchy, the objective of the elites would not have entailed long-term economic growth, as gains from short-term wealth tunneling would have been much larger. As in the early 2000s Russian investment projects were generally defined by large sunk costs and long-term to maturity, under a weak legal system a new substitute governing mechanism, which took form of the state–private co-partnership system, has arisen in order to reduce hold-up costs leading to high levels of underinvestment.

  4. On the relationship between LTL normal forms and Büchi automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jianwen; Pu, Geguang; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the problem of translating LTL formulas to Büchi automata. We first translate the given LTL formula into a special disjuctive-normal form (DNF). The formula will be part of the state, and its DNF normal form specifies the atomic properties that should hold immediately...

  5. Influence of nanoparticles accumulation on optical properties of human normal and cancerous liver tissue in vitro estimated by OCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Fang; Wei, Huajiang; Guo, Zhouyi; Ye, Xiangping; Hu, Kun; Wu, Guoyong; Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen; He, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the potential use of nanoparticles as contrast agents by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in liver tissue was demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles (average size of 25 and 70 nm), were studied in human normal and cancerous liver tissues in vitro, respectively. Each sample was monitored with SD-OCT functional imaging for 240 min. Continuous OCT monitoring showed that, after application of gold nanoparticles, the OCT signal intensities of normal liver and cancerous liver tissue both increase with time, and the larger nanoparticles tend to produce a greater signal enhancement in the same type of tissue. The results show that the values of attenuation coefficients have significant differences between normal liver tissue and cancerous liver tissue. In addition, 25 nm gold nanoparticles allow higher penetration depth than 70 nm gold nanoparticles in liver tissues. (paper)

  6. State University’s Institusional Repository as a Storage for Civitas Academia Intelectul Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Puspita Srirahayu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works - works the academic community that has not been published so that the intellectual property of an educational institution is not widely known by the general public. Institutional repository created and used to manage the results of these works that can be accessed by all people. This study aimed to describe the institutional repository of high perguruang country in Java Timursebagai container to the intellectual academic community views of content, the software used unit that houses, and ratings on Webometrik. This study uses a quantitative approach with descriptive methods. The population used in this study are all the institutional repository of public universities in East Java, which already are online. The sampling technique is the total sampling. The results of this study found that 50% of state universities in East Java has an IR that can be accessed via the internet, 100% of existing IR content is scientific output, the software used various existing GDL, DSpace, Eprints and others, and IR state universities in Java East 66.7% was ranked in webometrik

  7. Solid-State Synthesis and Effect of Temperature on Optical Properties of CuO Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.C.Vidyasagar; Y.Arthoba Naik; T.G.Venkatesha; R.Viswanatha

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of band energies through size control offers new ways to control photoresponse and photoconversion efficiency of the solar cell. The P-type semiconductor of copper oxide is an important functional material used for photovoltaic cells. Cu O is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it has high solar absorbance and a low thermal emittance. The present work describes the synthesis and characterization of semiconducting Cu O nanoparticles via one-step, solid-state reaction in the presence of Polyethylene glycol400 as size controlling agent for the preparation of Cu O nanoparticles at different temperatures. Solid-state mechanochemical processing, which is not only a physical size reduction process in conventional milling but also a chemical reaction, is mechanically activated at the nanoscale during grinding. The present method is a simple and efficient method of preparing nanoparticles with high yield at low cost. The structural and chemical composition of the nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometer, respectively. Optical properties and band gap of Cu O nanoparticles were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. These results showed that the band gap energy decreased with increase of annealing temperature, which can be attributed to the improvement in grain size of the samples.

  8. Optical properties of ultraviolet-light soaked states in polyfluorene thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, Kohei [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Takahashi, Hideaki [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Naito, Hiroyoshi [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: naito@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp

    2006-06-19

    Optical properties of ultraviolet (UV)-light soaked states in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (F8) have been studied. F8 thin films, synthesized by Suzuki and Yamamoto coupling reactions, were irradiated by a He-Cd laser ({lambda} = 325 nm) and the UV-light-soaked states were characterized by photoluminescence (PL), optical absorption, Fourier transform infrared absorption and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis measurements. A photo-induced decrease in PL intensity and PL color change were found in UV-light-soaked F8 thin films. It is shown that the decrease in PL intensity is due to the increase in oxygen-related PL quenching centers and that the PL color change is due to the appearance of 2.2-eV emission bands whose origin is identified to be an exciplex formed between an oxygen-related defect and its nearest F8 polymer chain. The oxygen-related defect, which forms the exciplex, can result from a keto defect (fluorenone) because of the similarity in PL spectra between UV-light-soaked F8 and fluorene-fluorenone copolymers.

  9. Optical properties of ultraviolet-light soaked states in polyfluorene thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Kohei; Takahashi, Hideaki; Naito, Hiroyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Optical properties of ultraviolet (UV)-light soaked states in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (F8) have been studied. F8 thin films, synthesized by Suzuki and Yamamoto coupling reactions, were irradiated by a He-Cd laser (λ = 325 nm) and the UV-light-soaked states were characterized by photoluminescence (PL), optical absorption, Fourier transform infrared absorption and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis measurements. A photo-induced decrease in PL intensity and PL color change were found in UV-light-soaked F8 thin films. It is shown that the decrease in PL intensity is due to the increase in oxygen-related PL quenching centers and that the PL color change is due to the appearance of 2.2-eV emission bands whose origin is identified to be an exciplex formed between an oxygen-related defect and its nearest F8 polymer chain. The oxygen-related defect, which forms the exciplex, can result from a keto defect (fluorenone) because of the similarity in PL spectra between UV-light-soaked F8 and fluorene-fluorenone copolymers

  10. Electronic and interface state density properties of Cu/n-Si MIS-type diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin [Physics Department, Firat University, Elazig 23169 (Turkey)]. E-mail: fyhanoglu@firat.edu.tr

    2007-05-01

    Electronic and interface-state density properties of the Cu/n-Si diode were investigated by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage (C-V) analyses. The electronic parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance of the diode were determined by performing different plots. The barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance values of the diode were found to be 0.69 eV, 5.31 and 7.63 k{omega}, respectively. The obtained ideality factor confirms that the Cu/n-Si device has a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) configuration. The conductance mechanism of the Cu/n-Si diode is in agreement with typical of hopping conduction in polycrystalline and amorphous materials. The interface state density of the diode was found to vary from 1.45x10{sup 13} (eV{sup -1} cm{sup 2}) at E {sub C}-0.45 eV to 0.88x10{sup 13} (eV{sup -1} cm{sup 2}) at E {sub C}-0.66 eV.

  11. Molecular dynamics studies of transport properties and equation of state of supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwobi, Obika C.

    Many chemical propulsion systems operate with one or more of the reactants above the critical point in order to enhance their performance. Most of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods used to predict these flows require accurate information on the transport properties and equation of state at these supercritical conditions. This work involves the determination of transport coefficients and equation of state of supercritical fluids by equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on parallel computers using the Green-Kubo formulae and the virial equation of state, respectively. MD involves the solution of equations of motion of a system of molecules that interact with each other through an intermolecular potential. Provided that an accurate potential can be found for the system of interest, MD can be used regardless of the phase and thermodynamic conditions of the substances involved. The MD program uses the effective Lennard-Jones potential, with system sizes of 1000-1200 molecules and, simulations of 2,000,000 time-steps for computing transport coefficients and 200,000 time-steps for pressures. The computer code also uses linked cell lists for efficient sorting of molecules, periodic boundary conditions, and a modified velocity Verlet algorithm for particle displacement. Particle decomposition is used for distributing the molecules to different processors of a parallel computer. Simulations have been carried out on pure argon, nitrogen, oxygen and ethylene at various supercritical conditions, with self-diffusion coefficients, shear viscosity coefficients, thermal conductivity coefficients and pressures computed for most of the conditions. Results compare well with experimental and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) values. The results show that the number of molecules and the potential cut-off radius have no significant effect on the computed coefficients, while long-time integration is necessary for accurate determination of the

  12. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  13. Ab initio calculation of the transition-state properties and addition rate constants for H + C2H2 and selected isotopic analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.B.; Wagner, A.F.; Bowman, J.M.; Schatz, G.C.; Christoffel, K.

    1982-01-01

    GVB-POL-CI ab initio calculations of the geometries, energetics, and normal mode frequencies of C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 3 , and the transition state for the addition reaction of H + C 2 H 2 are presented. In addition, normal mode frequencies for the isotopic variants D + C 2 D 2 , D + C 2 H 2 , and H + C 2 D 2 are preented. These results are compared to experimental values for C 2 H 2 and to ab initio values of Hagase and Kern, and semiempirical values of Keil, Lynch, Cowfer, and Michael. The results are also used to calculate the apparent bimolecular addition rate constant using conventional RRKM theory for chemical activation. The calculated rate constants and their isotopic variants are compared as a function of temperature and pressure to available experimental information. The agreement is little different from that obtained by Keil et al. with a similar calculation using semiempirical values for acetylene, transition-state, and vinyl radical properties. In particular, the calculated high-pressure limit of the rate constant appears to be at least 1 order of magnitude higher than the experimental limit. Several possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed

  14. EnviroAtlas - Average Direct Normal Solar resources kWh/m2/Day by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The annual average direct normal solar resources by 12-Digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) was estimated from maps produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for...

  15. On applicability of PCA, voxel-wise variance normalization and dimensionality assumptions for sliding temporal window sICA in resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Jukka J; Abou Elseoud, Ahmed; Ollila, Esa; Haapea, Marianne; Starck, Tuomo; Nikkinen, Juha; Tervonen, Osmo; Silven, Olli

    2013-10-01

    Subject-level resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) spatial independent component analysis (sICA) may provide new ways to analyze the data when performed in the sliding time window. However, whether principal component analysis (PCA) and voxel-wise variance normalization (VN) are applicable pre-processing procedures in the sliding-window context, as they are for regular sICA, has not been addressed so far. Also model order selection requires further studies concerning sliding-window sICA. In this paper we have addressed these concerns. First, we compared PCA-retained subspaces concerning overlapping parts of consecutive temporal windows to answer whether in-window PCA and VN can confound comparisons between sICA analyses in consecutive windows. Second, we compared the PCA subspaces between windowed and full data to assess expected comparability between windowed and full-data sICA results. Third, temporal evolution of dimensionality estimates in RS-fMRI data sets was monitored to identify potential challenges in model order selection in a sliding-window sICA context. Our results illustrate that in-window VN can be safely used, in-window PCA is applicable with most window widths and that comparisons between windowed and full data should not be performed from a subspace similarity point of view. In addition, our studies on dimensionality estimates demonstrated that there are sustained, periodic and very case-specific changes in signal-to-noise ratio within RS-fMRI data sets. Consequently, dimensionality estimation is needed for well-founded model order determination in the sliding-window case. The observed periodic changes correspond to a frequency band of ≤0.1 Hz, which is commonly associated with brain activity in RS-fMRI and become on average most pronounced at window widths of 80 and 60 time points (144 and 108 s, respectively). Wider windows provided only slightly better comparability between consecutive windows, and 60 time point or shorter windows also provided the

  16. Vapour-liquid equilibrium properties for two- and three-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluids from equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulero, A.; Cuadros, F; Faundez, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    Vapour-liquid equilibrium properties for both three- and two-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluids were obtained using simple cubic-in-density equations of state proposed by the authors. Results were compared with those obtained by other workers from computer simulations and also with results given by other more complex semi-theoretical or semi-empirical equations of state. In the three-dimensional case good agreement is found for all properties and all temperatures. In the two-dimensional case only the coexistence densities were compared, producing good agreement for low temperatures only. The present work is the first to give numerical data for the vapour-liquid equilibrium properties of Lennard-Jones fluids calculated from equations of state. Copyright (1999) CSIRO Australia

  17. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA

  18. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the UK. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA observed in

  19. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. McMeeking

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2 measurements of refractory BC (rBC mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM. We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA. We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA did change for

  20. Structure-Property Relationships of Solid State Additive Manufactured Aluminum Alloy 2219 and Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Almeyda, Oscar G.

    In this investigation, the processing-structure-property relations are correlated for solid state additively manufactured (SSAM) Inconel 625 (IN 625) and a SSAM aluminum alloy 2219 (AA2219). This is the first research of these materials processed by a new SSAM method called additive friction stir (AFS). The AFS process results in a refined grain structure by extruding solid rod through a rotating tool generating heat and severe plastic deformation. In the case of the AFS IN625, the IN625 alloy is known for exhibiting oxidation resistance and temperature mechanical stability, including strength and ductility. This study is the first to investigate the beneficial grain refinement and densification produced by AFS in IN625 that results in advantageous mechanical properties (YS, UTS, epsilonf) at both quasi-static and high strain rate. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) observed dynamic recrystallization and grain refinement during the layer deposition in the AFS specimens, where the results identified fine equiaxed grain structures formed by dynamic recrystallization (DRX) with even finer grain structures forming at the layer interfaces. The EBSD quantified grains as fine as 0.27 microns in these interface regions while the average grain size was approximately 1 micron. Additionally, this is the first study to report on the strain rate dependence of AFS IN625 through quasi-static (QS) (0.001/s) and high strain rate (HR) (1500/s) tensile experiments using a servo hydraulic frame and a direct tension-Kolsky bar, respectively, which captured both yield and ultimate tensile strengths increasing as strain rate increased. Fractography performed on specimens showed a ductile fracture surface on both QS, and HR. Alternatively, the other AFS material system investigated in this study, AA2219, is mostly used for aerospace applications, specifically for rocket fuel tanks. EBSD was performed in the cross-section of the AA2219, also exhibiting DRX with equiaxed microstructure

  1. Available states and available space: static properties that predict self-diffusivity of confined fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, Gaurav; Krekelberg, William P; Pond, Mark J; Truskett, Thomas M; Mittal, Jeetain; Shen, Vincent K; Errington, Jeffrey R

    2009-01-01

    Although classical density functional theory provides reliable predictions for the static properties of simple equilibrium fluids under confinement, a theory of comparative accuracy for the transport coefficients has yet to emerge. Nonetheless, there is evidence that knowledge of how confinement modifies static behavior can aid in forecasting dynamics. Specifically, recent molecular simulation studies have shown that the relationship between excess entropy and self-diffusivity of a bulk equilibrium fluid changes only modestly when the fluid is isothermally confined, indicating that knowledge of the former might allow semi-quantitative predictions of the latter. Do other static measures, such as those that characterize free or available volume, also strongly correlate with single-particle dynamics of confined fluids? Here, we investigate this question for both the single-component hard-sphere fluid and hard-sphere mixtures. Specifically, we use molecular simulations and fundamental measure theory to study these systems at approximately 10 3 equilibrium state points. We examine three different confining geometries (slit pore, square channel, and cylindrical pore) and the effects of particle packing fraction and particle–boundary interactions. Although average density fails to predict some key qualitative trends for the self-diffusivity of confined fluids, we provide strong empirical evidence that a new generalized measure of available volume for inhomogeneous fluids correlates excellently with self-diffusivity across a wide parameter space in these systems, approximately independently of the degree of confinement. An important consequence, which we demonstrate here, is that density functional theory predictions of this static property can be used together with knowledge of bulk fluid behavior to semi-quantitatively estimate the self-diffusion coefficient of confined fluids under equilibrium conditions

  2. Physical properties of lead free solders in liquid and solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhiaoui, Souad

    2007-04-17

    The European legislation prohibits the use of lead containing solders in Europe. However, lead free solders have a higher melting point (typical 20%) and their mechanical characteristics are worse. Additional problems are aging and adhesion of the solder on the electronic circuits. Thus, research activities must focus on the optimization of the properties of Sn-Ag-Cu based lead free solders chosen by the industry. Two main objectives are treated in this work. In the center of the first one is the study of curious hysteresis effects of metallic cadmium-antimony alloys after thermal cycles by measuring electronic transport phenomena (thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity). The second objective, within the framework of ''cotutelle'' between the universities of Metz and of Chemnitz and supported by COST531, is to study more specifically lead free solders. A welding must well conduct electricity and well conduct and dissipate heat. In Metz, we determined the electrical conductivity, the thermoelectric power and the thermal conductivity of various lead free solders (Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Cu, Sn-Ag, Sn-Sb) as well in the liquid as well in the solid state. The results have been compared to classical lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders. In Chemnitz we measured the surface tension, the interfacial tension and the density of lead free solders. We also measured the viscosity of these solders without and with additives, in particular nickel. These properties were related to the industrial problems of wettability and spreadability. Lastly, we solidified alloys under various conditions. We observed undercooling. We developed a technique of mixture of nanocrystalline powder with lead free solders ''to sow'' the liquid bath in order to obtain ''different'' solids which were examined using optical and electron microscopy. (orig.)

  3. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Ammonium (NH4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average normalized atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms, of Ammonium (NH4) for the year 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. Estimates of NH4 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus

  4. DNA-mediated gene transfer into human diploid fibroblasts derived from normal and ataxia-telangiectasia donors: parameters for DNA transfer and properties of DNA transformants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenham, P.G.; Webb, M.B.T.; Masson, W.K.; Cox, R.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was made of the feasibility of DNA-mediated gene transfer into human diploid fibroblasts derived from patients with the radiation sensitive syndrome ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and from a normal donor. Although they are markedly different in their growth characteristics, both normal and A-T strains give similar frequencies for DNA transfer in a model system using the recombinant plasmid pSV2-gpt. pSV2-gpt DNA transformants arise with a frequency between 10 -5 and 10 -4 per viable cell. Analysis of such transformants, although possible, is severely handicapped by the limited clonal life span of diploid human cells. Despite these problems it may be concluded that diploid human fibroblasts are competent recipients for DNA-mediated gene transfer and the putative repair deficiency of A-T does not markedly effect the efficiency of this process. (author)

  5. A critical commentary on Derek Morgan's unpublished manuscript: 'coming Back to Life: The Normal Chaos of Medical Law' and how to deal with property in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    This article is an analysis of Derek Morgan's manuscript-'Coming Back to Life: The Normal Chaos of Medical Law', which remained unpublished at his death in 2011. Morgan made two claims in the manuscript: (1) medical practitioners and patients approach health from the different perspectives of 'reason' and 'emotion' respectively, while medical law treads the line between these ultimately resulting in 'normal chaos'. (2) In this respect, medical law ought to be coaxed 'back to life' so that it can address broader principles and values in respect to practical resolution; however, it has, in the face of this chaos, become dull in its ambitions. In this article, I first analyse these two claims in detail, before, second, illustrating the 'normal chaos' of medical law using the debate over ownership of human cells and tissues. I draw my own conclusions as to whether Morgan's final thesis was successful. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Extracting real-crack properties from non-linear elastic behaviour of rocks: abundance of cracks with dominating normal compliance and rocks with negative Poisson ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Zaitsev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of examination of experimental data on non-linear elasticity of rocks using experimentally determined pressure dependences of P- and S-wave velocities from various literature sources are presented. Overall, over 90 rock samples are considered. Interpretation of the data is performed using an effective-medium description in which cracks are considered as compliant defects with explicitly introduced shear and normal compliances without specifying a particular crack model with an a priori given ratio of the compliances. Comparison with the experimental data indicated abundance (∼ 80 % of cracks with the normal-to-shear compliance ratios that significantly exceed the values typical of conventionally used crack models (such as penny-shaped cuts or thin ellipsoidal cracks. Correspondingly, rocks with such cracks demonstrate a strongly decreased Poisson ratio including a significant (∼ 45 % portion of rocks exhibiting negative Poisson ratios at lower pressures, for which the concentration of not yet closed cracks is maximal. The obtained results indicate the necessity for further development of crack models to account for the revealed numerous examples of cracks with strong domination of normal compliance. Discovering such a significant number of naturally auxetic rocks is in contrast to the conventional viewpoint that occurrence of a negative Poisson ratio is an exotic fact that is mostly discussed for artificial structures.

  7. Local CC2 response method for triplet states based on Laplace transform: excitation energies and first-order properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundorfer, Katrin; Kats, Daniel; Korona, Tatiana; Schütz, Martin

    2010-12-28

    A new multistate local CC2 response method for calculating excitation energies and first-order properties of excited triplet states in extended molecular systems is presented. The Laplace transform technique is employed to partition the left/right local CC2 eigenvalue problems as well as the linear equations determining the Lagrange multipliers needed for the properties. The doubles part in the equations can then be inverted on-the-fly and only effective equations for the singles part must be solved iteratively. The local approximation presented here is adaptive and state-specific. The density-fitting method is utilized to approximate the electron-repulsion integrals. The accuracy of the new method is tested by comparison to canonical reference values for a set of 12 test molecules and 62 excited triplet states. As an illustrative application example, the lowest four triplet states of 3-(5-(5-(4-(bis(4-(hexyloxy)phenyl)amino)phenyl)thiophene-2-yl)thiophene-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid, an organic sensitizer for solar-cell applications, are computed in the present work. No triplet charge-transfer states are detected among these states. This situation contrasts with the singlet states of this molecule, where the lowest singlet state has been recently found to correspond to an excited state with a pronounced charge-transfer character having a large transition strength.

  8. Extraversion and neuroticism relate to topological properties of resting-state brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing; Xu, Qiang; Duan, Xujun; Liao, Wei; Ding, Jurong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Yuan; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2013-01-01

    With the advent and development of modern neuroimaging techniques, there is an increasing interest in linking extraversion and neuroticism to anatomical and functional brain markers. Here, we aimed to test the theoretically derived biological personality model as proposed by Eysenck using graph theoretical analyses. Specifically, the association between the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks and extraversion/neuroticism was explored. To construct functional brain networks, functional connectivity among 90 brain regions was measured by temporal correlation using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 71 healthy subjects. Graph theoretical analysis revealed a positive association of extraversion scores and normalized clustering coefficient values. These results suggested a more clustered configuration in brain networks of individuals high in extraversion, which could imply a higher arousal threshold and higher levels of arousal tolerance in the cortex of extraverts. On a local network level, we observed that a specific nodal measure, i.e., betweenness centrality (BC), was positively associated with neuroticism scores in the right precentral gyrus (PreCG), right caudate nucleus, right olfactory cortex, and bilateral amygdala. For individuals high in neuroticism, these results suggested a more frequent participation of these specific regions in information transition within the brain network and, in turn, may partly explain greater regional activation levels and lower arousal thresholds in these regions. In contrast, extraversion scores were positively correlated with BC in the right insula, while negatively correlated with BC in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG), indicating that the relationship between extraversion and regional arousal is not as simple as proposed by Eysenck.

  9. Extraversion and Neuroticism relate to topological properties of resting-state brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing eGao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the advent and development of modern neuroimaging techniques, there is an increasing interest in linking extraversion and neuroticism to anatomical and functional brain markers. Here we aimed to test the theoretically derived biological personality model as proposed by Eysenck using graph theoretical analyses. Specifically, the association between the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks and extraversion/neuroticism was explored. To construct functional brain networks, functional connectivity among 90 brain regions was measured by temporal correlation using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data of 71 healthy subjects. Graph theoretical analysis revealed a positive association of extraversion scores and normalized clustering coefficient values. These results suggested a more clustered configuration in brain networks of individuals high in extraversion, which could imply a higher arousal threshold and higher levels of arousal tolerance in the cortex of extraverts. On a local network level, we observed that a specific nodal measure, i.e. betweenness centrality (BC, was positively associated with neuroticism scores in the right precentral gyrus, right caudate nucleus, right olfactory cortex and bilateral amygdala. For individuals high in neuroticism, these results suggested a more frequent participation of these specific regions in information transition within the brain network and, in turn, may partly explain greater regional activation levels and lower arousal thresholds in these regions. In contrast, extraversion scores were positively correlated with BC in the right insula, while negatively correlated with BC in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, indicating that the relationship between extraversion and regional arousal is not as simple as proposed by Eysenck.

  10. The ground state properties of In(Ga)As/GaAs low strain quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieczarka, Maciej, E-mail: maciej.pieczarka@pwr.edu.pl; Sęk, Grzegorz

    2016-08-15

    We present theoretical studies on the confined states in low-strain In(Ga)As quantum dots (QDs). The 8-band k·p model together with the continuum elasticity theory and piezoelectric fields were employed to calculate the potential and confined electron and hole eigenstates. We focused on low-indium-content QDs with distinct in-plane asymmetry, which are naturally formed in the low strain regime of the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode. It has been found that the naturally thick wetting layer together with piezoelectric potential affect the total confinement potential to such extent that the hole eigenstates can get the spatial in-plane orientation orthogonal to the main axis of the dot elongation. This can influence both, qualitatively and quantitatively, many of the electronic and optical properties, as e.g. the polarization selection rules for the optical transition or the transitions oscillator strength. Eventually, importance of the degree of the shape asymmetry or the dots’ size, and differences between the low-strain (low-In-content) QDs and pure InAs dots formed in high strain conditions are discussed.

  11. Steady-State Thermal Properties of Rectangular Straw-Bales (RSB for Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Conti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Straw is an inevitable product of cereal production and is available in huge quantities in the world. In order to use straw-bales as a building material, the characteristic values of the thermal performances should be determined. To not lose the benefits of the cheapness and sustainability of the material, the characteristics must be determined with simple and inexpensive means and procedures. This research aims to implement tools and methods focused at the determination of the thermal properties of straw-bales. For this study, the guidelines dictated by ASTM and ISO were followed. A measurement system consisting of a Metering Chamber (MC was realized. The MC was placed inside a Climate Chamber (CC. During the test, a known quantity of energy is introduced inside MC. When the steady-state is reached, all the energy put into MC passes through its walls in CC, where it is absorbed by the air-conditioner. A series of thermopiles detect the temperature of the surfaces of the measurement system and of the specimen. Determining the amount of energy transmitted by the various parts of MC and by the specimen, it is possible to apply Fourier’s law to calculate the thermal conductivity of the specimen.

  12. Ground-state and spectral properties of an asymmetric Hubbard ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Anas; Jeckelmann, Eric; Hohenadler, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We investigate a ladder system with two inequivalent legs, namely, a Hubbard chain and a one-dimensional electron gas. Analytical approximations, the density-matrix renormalization group method, and continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulations are used to determine ground-state properties, gaps, and spectral functions of this system at half-filling. Evidence for the existence of four different phases as a function of the Hubbard interaction and the rung hopping is presented. First, a Luttinger liquid exists at very weak interchain hopping. Second, a Kondo-Mott insulator with spin and charge gaps induced by an effective rung exchange coupling is found at moderate interchain hopping or strong Hubbard interaction. Third, a spin-gapped paramagnetic Mott insulator with incommensurate excitations and pairing of doped charges is observed at intermediate values of the rung hopping and the interaction. Fourth, the usual correlated band insulator is recovered for large rung hopping. We show that the wave numbers of the lowest single-particle excitations are different in each insulating phase. In particular, the three gapped phases exhibit markedly different spectral functions. We discuss the relevance of asymmetric two-leg ladder systems as models for atomic wires deposited on a substrate.

  13. Differential properties of Aspergillus niger tannase produced under solid-state and submerged fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renovato, Jaqueline; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V; Bergman, Carl; Rodríguez, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noe

    2011-09-01

    Significant differences on structure, stability, and catalytic properties of tannase were found when this enzyme was produced under solid-state and submerged fermentations (SSF and SmF) by Aspergillus niger. The specific activity was 5.5 times higher on SSF than in SmF. Significant differences in isoelectric points of tannases were found. The pH optima for both types of enzyme was found at 6 and the pH stability of SSF and SmF tannase were at 6 and 5-8, respectively. The optimal temperature range was from 50 to 60 °C for SmF tannase and 60 °C for SSF tannase, and both enzyme types showed tolerance to high temperatures (60-70 °C). The SSF tannase showed a major specificity for methyl gallate substrate while SmF tannase for tannic acid. All metal ions tested, had an activity inhibition from 30-46% on SSF tannase. SDS-PAGE analysis as well as gel localization studies of both SSF and SmF purified tannases showed a single band with a molecular weight of 102 and 105 kDa, respectively. Different levels of glycosylation were found among SSF and SmF purified tannases. This is the first report about structural differences among tannase produced under SSF and SmF and this study provides basis for explanation of the stability and catalytic differences observed previously for this two tannase types.

  14. Physical Properties and Evolutionary States of EA-type Eclipsing Binaries Observed by LAMOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S.-B.; Zhang, J.; He, J.-J.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E.-G.; Shi, X.-D.; Zhou, X.; Han, Z.-T.

    2018-03-01

    About 3196 EA-type binaries (EAs) were observed by LAMOST by 2017 June 16 and their spectral types were derived. Meanwhile, the stellar atmospheric parameters of 2020 EAs were determined. In this paper, those EAs are cataloged and their physical properties and evolutionary states are investigated. The period distribution of EAs suggests that the period limit of tidal locking for the close binaries is about 6 days. It is found that the metallicity of EAs is higher than that of EW-type binaries (EWs), indicating that EAs are generally younger than EWs and they are the progenitors of EWs. The metallicities of long-period EWs (0.4values of Log (g) are usually smaller than those of EAs. These support the evolutionary process that EAs evolve into long-period EWs through the combination of angular momentum loss (AML) via magnetic braking and case A mass transfer. For short-period EWs, their metallicities are lower than those of EAs, while their gravitational accelerations are higher. These reveal that they may be formed from cool short-period EAs through AML via magnetic braking with little mass transfer. For some EWs with high metallicities, they may be contaminated by material from the evolution of unseen neutron stars and black holes or they have third bodies that may help them to form rapidly through a short timescale of pre-contact evolution. The present investigation suggests that the modern EW populations may have formed through a combination of these mechanisms.

  15. Three-body unitary transformations, three-body forces, and trinucleon bound state properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftel, M.I.

    1976-01-01

    A three-body unitary transformation method for the study of three-body forces is presented. Starting with a three-body Hamiltonian with two-body forces, unitary transformations are introduced to generate Hamiltonians that have both two- and three-body forces. For cases of physical interest, the two-body forces of the altered Hamiltonians are phase equivalent (for two-body scattering) to the original and the three-body force vanishes when any interparticle distance is large. Specific examples are presented. Applications for studying the possible role of three-body forces in accounting for trinucleon bound state properties are examined. Calculations of the 3 He and 3 H charge form factors and Coulomb energy difference with hyperspherical radial transformations and with conventional N-N potentials are performed. The form factor calculations demonstrate how the proposed method can help obtain improved agreement with experiment by the introduction of appropriate three-body forces. Calculations of the Coulomb energy difference confirm previous estimates concerning charge symmetry breaking in the N-N interaction

  16. 25 CFR 1.4 - State and local regulation of the use of Indian property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise governing, regulating, or controlling the use or development of any real or personal property... property. In determining whether, or to what extent, such laws, ordinances, codes, resolutions, rules or...

  17. A review on melt-state viscoelastic properties of polymer nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hyoung, JC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The mixing of polymer matrices with nanoparticles to form composite materials has been an area of great research interest. The mechanical and rheological properties of such composite materials are directly related to the properties of the matrix...

  18. Quantum properties of a superposition of squeezed displaced two-mode vacuum and single-photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Orany, Faisal A A; Obada, A-S F; M Asker, Zafer; Perina, J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study some quantum properties of a superposition of displaced squeezed two-mode vacuum and single-photon states, such as the second-order correlation function, the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, quadrature squeezing, quasiprobability distribution functions and purity. These type of states include two mechanisms, namely interference in phase space and entanglement. We show that these states can exhibit sub-Poissonian statistics, squeezing and deviate from the classical Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Moreover, the amount of entanglement in the system can be increased by increasing the squeezing mechanism. In the framework of the quasiprobability distribution functions, we show that the single-mode state can tend to the thermal state based on the correlation mechanism. A generation scheme for such states is given.

  19. Photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer in 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid in homogeneous solvents and micro-heterogeneous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India); Singh, T. Sanjoy [Department of Chemistry, Assam University, Silchar 788011, Assam (India); Baul, Tushar S. Basu [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India); Mitra, Sivaprasad, E-mail: smitra@nehu.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India)

    2014-04-15

    A systematic study on the photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) behavior of 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid, is reported using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in homogeneous solvents as well as in different micro-heterogeneous environments. Depending on the nature of intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB), the salicylic acid derivative may exist in two different ground state conformers (I and II). Structure I having IHB between the carbonyl oxygen and phenolic hydrogen can undergo ESIPT upon excitation as evidenced by largely Stokes-shifted fluorescence at ∼455 nm; whereas, normal fluorescence in the blue side of the spectrum (∼410 nm) is due to the spontaneous emission from conformer II. The results in homogeneous solvents were compared with those in bio-mimicking environments of β-cyclodextrin (CD) and surfactants. The intensity of the ESIPT fluorescence increases substantially upon encapsulation of the probe into the cyclodextrin as well as micellar nano-cavities. Detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data indicates that the probe forms 1:1 complex with CD in aqueous medium. Binding constant of the probe with the micelles as well as critical micelle concentration was obtained from the variation of fluorescence intensity on increasing concentration of different surfactants in aqueous medium. -- Highlights: • Steady state and time resolved fluorescence study on ESIPT in HMBA. • Dual fluorescence corresponding to the pro- and non-ESIPT structures. • Modulation of ESIPT fluorescence in micro-heterogeneous environments. • 1:1 stoichiometry for interaction with cyclodextrin. • Calculation of binding constant and other physico-chemical properties from fluorescence titration data in surfactants.

  20. Photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer in 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid in homogeneous solvents and micro-heterogeneous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki; Singh, T. Sanjoy; Baul, Tushar S. Basu; Mitra, Sivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study on the photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) behavior of 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid, is reported using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in homogeneous solvents as well as in different micro-heterogeneous environments. Depending on the nature of intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB), the salicylic acid derivative may exist in two different ground state conformers (I and II). Structure I having IHB between the carbonyl oxygen and phenolic hydrogen can undergo ESIPT upon excitation as evidenced by largely Stokes-shifted fluorescence at ∼455 nm; whereas, normal fluorescence in the blue side of the spectrum (∼410 nm) is due to the spontaneous emission from conformer II. The results in homogeneous solvents were compared with those in bio-mimicking environments of β-cyclodextrin (CD) and surfactants. The intensity of the ESIPT fluorescence increases substantially upon encapsulation of the probe into the cyclodextrin as well as micellar nano-cavities. Detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data indicates that the probe forms 1:1 complex with CD in aqueous medium. Binding constant of the probe with the micelles as well as critical micelle concentration was obtained from the variation of fluorescence intensity on increasing concentration of different surfactants in aqueous medium. -- Highlights: • Steady state and time resolved fluorescence study on ESIPT in HMBA. • Dual fluorescence corresponding to the pro- and non-ESIPT structures. • Modulation of ESIPT fluorescence in micro-heterogeneous environments. • 1:1 stoichiometry for interaction with cyclodextrin. • Calculation of binding constant and other physico-chemical properties from fluorescence titration data in surfactants