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Sample records for normal sleep sequence

  1. Normal sleep and its neurophysiological regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.F.; Talamini, L.M.; Watson, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Normal sleep consists of two states: NREM (light and deep sleep) and REM, alternating in a cyclical pattern. The sleep/wake rhythm is regulated by two processes: the sleep propensity, building up during wake, and the circadian rhythm, imposed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The arousal pathways in

  2. Normal form theory and spectral sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Jan A.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of unique normal form is formulated in terms of a spectral sequence. As an illustration of this technique some results of Baider and Churchill concerning the normal form of the anharmonic oscillator are reproduced. The aim of this paper is to show that spectral sequences give us a natural framework in which to formulate normal form theory. © 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  3. A global quantification of "normal" sleep schedules using smartphone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Olivia J; Cochran, Amy; Forger, Daniel B

    2016-05-01

    The influence of the circadian clock on sleep scheduling has been studied extensively in the laboratory; however, the effects of society on sleep remain largely unquantified. We show how a smartphone app that we have developed, ENTRAIN, accurately collects data on sleep habits around the world. Through mathematical modeling and statistics, we find that social pressures weaken and/or conceal biological drives in the evening, leading individuals to delay their bedtime and shorten their sleep. A country's average bedtime, but not average wake time, predicts sleep duration. We further show that mathematical models based on controlled laboratory experiments predict qualitative trends in sunrise, sunset, and light level; however, these effects are attenuated in the real world around bedtime. Additionally, we find that women schedule more sleep than men and that users reporting that they are typically exposed to outdoor light go to sleep earlier and sleep more than those reporting indoor light. Finally, we find that age is the primary determinant of sleep timing, and that age plays an important role in the variability of population-level sleep habits. This work better defines and personalizes "normal" sleep, produces hypotheses for future testing in the laboratory, and suggests important ways to counteract the global sleep crisis.

  4. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Korzyukov, Oleg; Roth, Thomas; Bowyer, Susan M; Drake, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP)--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS) (habitual total sleep time (TST) 7 h 32 m) vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS) (habitual TST ≤6 h). To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m) corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS), and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m) in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS), were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep), and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively). The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  5. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Gumenyuk

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS (habitual total sleep time (TST 7 h 32 m vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS (habitual TST ≤6 h. To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS, and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS, were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep, and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively. The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  6. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming

  7. Can telemetry data obviate the need for sleep studies in Pierre Robin Sequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, Nicole Leigh; Jabbour, Noel

    2017-09-01

    This study looks to correlate telemetry data gathered on patients with Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) with sleep study data. Strong correlation might allow obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to be reasonably predicted without the need for sleep study. Charts from forty-six infants with PRS who presented to our children's hospital between 2005 and 2015 and received a polysomnogram (PSG) prior to surgical intervention were retrospectively reviewed. Correlations and scatterplots were used to compare average daily oxygen nadir, overall oxygen nadir, and average number of daily desaturations from telemetry data with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen nadir on sleep study. Results were also categorized into groups of AHI ≥ or sleep study data. Patients with O2 nadir below 80% on telemetry were not more likely to have an O2 nadir below 80% on sleep study. Patients with an average O2 nadir below 80% did show some correlation with having an AHI greater than 10 on sleep study but this relationship did not reach significance. Of 22 patients who did not have any desaturations on telemetry below 80%, 16 (73%) had an AHI >10 on sleep study. In the workup of infants with PRS, the index of suspicion is high for OSA. In our series, telemetry data was not useful in ruling out severe OSA. Thus our data do not support forgoing sleep study in patients with PRS and concern for OSA despite normal telemetry patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The consolidation of implicit sequence memory in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Csabi

    Full Text Available Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA Syndrome is a relatively frequent sleep disorder characterized by disrupted sleep patterns. It is a well-established fact that sleep has beneficial effect on memory consolidation by enhancing neural plasticity. Implicit sequence learning is a prominent component of skill learning. However, the formation and consolidation of this fundamental learning mechanism remains poorly understood in OSA. In the present study we examined the consolidation of different aspects of implicit sequence learning in patients with OSA. We used the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task to measure general skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 10-hour offline period with sleep. Our data showed differences in offline changes of general skill learning between the OSA and control group. The control group demonstrated offline improvement from evening to morning, while the OSA group did not. In contrast, we did not observe differences between the groups in offline changes in sequence-specific learning. Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep in OSA differently affects neural circuits involved in the consolidation of sequence learning.

  9. Cataplexy with Normal Sleep Studies and Normal CSF Hypocretin: An Explanation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakatos, Panagis; Leschziner, Guy

    2016-03-01

    Patients with narcolepsy usually develop excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) before or coincide with the occurrence of cataplexy, with the latter most commonly associated with low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 levels. Cataplexy preceding the development of other features of narcolepsy is a rare phenomenon. We describe a case of isolated cataplexy in the context of two non-diagnostic multiple sleep latency tests and normal CSF-hypocretin-1 levels (217 pg/mL) who gradually developed EDS and low CSF-hypocretin-1 (< 110 pg/mL). © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  10. Gut microbiota and glucometabolic alterations in response to recurrent partial sleep deprivation in normal-weight young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Christian; Vogel, Heike; Jonas, Wenke; Woting, Anni; Blaut, Michael; Schürmann, Annette; Cedernaes, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    Changes to the microbial community in the human gut have been proposed to promote metabolic disturbances that also occur after short periods of sleep loss (including insulin resistance). However, whether sleep loss affects the gut microbiota remains unknown. In a randomized within-subject crossover study utilizing a standardized in-lab protocol (with fixed meal times and exercise schedules), we studied nine normal-weight men at two occasions: after two nights of partial sleep deprivation (PSD; sleep opportunity 02:45-07:00 h), and after two nights of normal sleep (NS; sleep opportunity 22:30-07:00 h). Fecal samples were collected within 24 h before, and after two in-lab nights, of either NS or PSD. In addition, participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test following each sleep intervention. Microbiota composition analysis (V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing) revealed that after two days of PSD vs. after two days of NS, individuals exhibited an increased Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, higher abundances of the families Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae, and lower abundance of Tenericutes (all P < 0.05) - previously all associated with metabolic perturbations in animal or human models. However, no PSD vs. NS effect on beta diversity or on fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations was found. Fasting and postprandial insulin sensitivity decreased after PSD vs. NS (all P < 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that short-term sleep loss induces subtle effects on human microbiota. To what extent the observed changes to the microbial community contribute to metabolic consequences of sleep loss warrants further investigations in larger and more prolonged sleep studies, to also assess how sleep loss impacts the microbiota in individuals who already are metabolically compromised.

  11. Determinants of perceived sleep quality in normal sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelema, M S; Regis, M; Haakma, R; van den Heuvel, E R; Markopoulos, P; Overeem, S

    2017-09-20

    This study aimed to establish the determinants of perceived sleep quality over a longer period of time, taking into account the separate contributions of actigraphy-based sleep measures and self-reported sleep indices. Fifty participants (52 ± 6.6 years; 27 females) completed two consecutive weeks of home monitoring, during which they kept a sleep-wake diary while their sleep was monitored using a wrist-worn actigraph. The diary included questions on perceived sleep quality, sleep-wake information, and additional factors such as well-being and stress. The data were analyzed using multilevel models to compare a model that included only actigraphy-based sleep measures (model Acti) to a model that included only self-reported sleep measures to explain perceived sleep quality (model Self). In addition, a model based on the self-reported sleep measures and extended with nonsleep-related factors was analyzed to find the most significant determinants of perceived sleep quality (model Extended). Self-reported sleep measures (model Self) explained 61% of the total variance, while actigraphy-based sleep measures (model Acti) only accounted for 41% of the perceived sleep quality. The main predictors in the self-reported model were number of awakenings during the night, sleep onset latency, and wake time after sleep onset. In the extended model, the number of awakenings during the night and total sleep time of the previous night were the strongest determinants of perceived sleep quality, with 64% of the variance explained. In our cohort, perceived sleep quality was mainly determined by self-reported sleep measures and less by actigraphy-based sleep indices. These data further stress the importance of taking multiple nights into account when trying to understand perceived sleep quality.

  12. Automatic sleep scoring in normals and in individuals with neurodegenerative disorders according to new international sleep scoring criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter S.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Jennum, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Medicine (AASM). Methods: A biomedical signal processing algorithm was developed, allowing for automatic sleep depth quantification of routine polysomnographic (PSG) recordings through feature extraction, supervised probabilistic Bayesian classification, and heuristic rule-based smoothing. The performance......Introduction: Reliable polysomnographic classification is the basis for evaluation of sleep disorders in neurological diseases. Aim: To develop a fully automatic sleep scoring algorithm on the basis of a reproduction of new international sleep scoring criteria from the American Academy of Sleep....... Conclusion: The developed algorithm was capable of scoring normal sleep with an accuracy around the manual inter-scorer reliability, it failed in accurately scoring abnormal sleep as encountered for the PD/MSA patients, which is due to the abnormal micro- and macrostructure pattern in these patients....

  13. Automatic Sleep Scoring in Normals and in Individuals with Neurodegenerative Disorders According to New International Sleep Scoring Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter S.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Leonthin, Helle

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a fully automatic sleep scoring algorithm on the basis of a reproduction of new international sleep scoring criteria from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. A biomedical signal processing algorithm was developed, allowing for automatic sleep depth....... Based on an observed reliability of the manual scorer of 92.5% (Cohen's Kappa: 0.87) in the normal group and 85.3% (Cohen's Kappa: 0.73) in the abnormal group, this study concluded that although the developed algorithm was capable of scoring normal sleep with an accuracy around the manual interscorer...... reliability, it failed in accurately scoring abnormal sleep as encountered for the Parkinson disease/multiple system atrophy patients....

  14. Automatic sleep scoring in normals and in individuals with neurodegenerative disorders according to new international sleep scoring criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter S; Sorensen, Helge B D; Jennum, Poul

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a fully automatic sleep scoring algorithm on the basis of a reproduction of new international sleep scoring criteria from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. A biomedical signal processing algorithm was developed, allowing for automatic sleep depth....... Based on an observed reliability of the manual scorer of 92.5% (Cohen's Kappa: 0.87) in the normal group and 85.3% (Cohen's Kappa: 0.73) in the abnormal group, this study concluded that although the developed algorithm was capable of scoring normal sleep with an accuracy around the manual interscorer...... reliability, it failed in accurately scoring abnormal sleep as encountered for the Parkinson disease/multiple system atrophy patients....

  15. Sleep-wake stability in narcolepsy patients with normal, low and unmeasurable hypocretin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mathias Hvidtfelt; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    movement (REM) sleep, and the occurrence of sleep onset REM (SOREM) in the nocturnal polysomnography were also measured. RESULTS: Participants with undetectable hypocretin-1 levels had significantly higher frequencies of transitions than controls and those with normal hypocretin-1 levels. Participants...... hypocretin-1 levels in particular, but also low hypocretin-1 levels, were associated with a less stable phenotype featuring more sleep state transitions and SOREM episodes. In addition, there was a distinction between nocturnal and diurnal REM sleep in hypocretin-deficient participants, expressed...... as increased diurnal REM sleep, which was not reflected in nocturnal sleep....

  16. Physiology of Normal Sleep: From Young to Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mohan Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human sleep, defined on the basis of electroencephalogram (EEG, electromyogram(EMG and electrooculogram (EOG, is divided into rapid eye movement (REM sleepand four stages of non–rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Collective monitoring andrecording of physiological data during sleep is called polysomnography. Sleep whichnormally starts with a period of NREM alternates with REM, about 4-5 times, everynight. Sleep pattern changes with increasing age. Newborns sleep for about 14-16hours in a day of 24 hours. Although there is a wide variation among individuals, sleepof 7-8.5 hours is considered fully restorative in adults. Apart from restorative andrecovery function, energy conservation could be one of the functions of sleep. The roleof sleep in neurogenesis, memory consolidation and brain growth has been suggested.Though progress in medical science has vastly improved our understanding of sleepphysiology, we still do not know all the functions of sleep.Key words : electroencephalogram, electromyogram, electrooculogram,polysomnography, REM sleep, non–REM sleep, newborns, circadian rhythm, autoregulation,sleep function

  17. Frequency of EEG arousals from nocturnal sleep in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R; Douglas, N J

    1995-06-01

    Brief arousals are clinically important and increasingly scored during polysomnography. However, the frequency of arousals during routine polysomnography in the normal population is unknown. We performed overnight polysomnography in the 55 of 59 control subjects from a family practice list who were approached and agreed to undergo polysomnography. Awakenings were scored according to the criteria of Rechtschaffen and Kales and briefer arousals according to three different criteria, including the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition. There was a mean of 4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1-15) Rechtschaffen and Kales awakenings per hour, whereas the ASDA definition gave 21 (95% CI, 7-56) per hour slept. Arousal frequencies increased significantly (p < 0.001) with age in our subjects, who ranged from the late teens to early 70s. The high upper limit of the frequency of brief arousals was not altered by exclusion of patients who snored or had witnessed apneas or daytime sleepiness. It is important that those scoring arousals on routine polysomnography recognize that high arousal frequencies occur in the normal population on 1-night polysomnography.

  18. Consolidating the effects of waking and sleep on motor-sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawn, Timothy P; Fenn, Kimberly M; Nusbaum, Howard C; Margoliash, Daniel

    2010-10-20

    Sleep is widely believed to play a critical role in memory consolidation. Sleep-dependent consolidation has been studied extensively in humans using an explicit motor-sequence learning paradigm. In this task, performance has been reported to remain stable across wakefulness and improve significantly after sleep, making motor-sequence learning the definitive example of sleep-dependent enhancement. Recent work, however, has shown that enhancement disappears when the task is modified to reduce task-related inhibition that develops over a training session, thus questioning whether sleep actively consolidates motor learning. Here we use the same motor-sequence task to demonstrate sleep-dependent consolidation for motor-sequence learning and explain the discrepancies in results across studies. We show that when training begins in the morning, motor-sequence performance deteriorates across wakefulness and recovers after sleep, whereas performance remains stable across both sleep and subsequent waking with evening training. This pattern of results challenges an influential model of memory consolidation defined by a time-dependent stabilization phase and a sleep-dependent enhancement phase. Moreover, the present results support a new account of the behavioral effects of waking and sleep on explicit motor-sequence learning that is consistent across a wide range of tasks. These observations indicate that current theories of memory consolidation that have been formulated to explain sleep-dependent performance enhancements are insufficient to explain the range of behavioral changes associated with sleep.

  19. Sleep habits, food intake, and physical activity levels in normal and overweight and obese Malaysian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, Somayyeh; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Sadeghilar, Aidin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between sleep habits (including bedtime, wake up time, sleep duration, and sleep disorder score) and physical characteristics, physical activity level, and food pattern in overweight and obese versus normal weight children. Case control study. 164 Malaysian boys and girls aged 6-€“12 years. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Subjects divided into normal weight (n = 82) and overweight/obese (n = 82) group based on World Health Organization 2007 BMI-for-age criteria and were matched one by one based on ethnicity, gender, and age plus minus one year. Questionnaires related to sleep habits, physical activity, and food frequency were proxy-reported by parents. Sleep disorder score was measured by Children Sleep Habit Questionnaire. Sleep disorder score and carbohydrate intake (%) to total energy intake were significantly higher in overweight/obese group (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). After adjusting for age and gender, sleep disorder score was correlated with BMI (r = 0.275, p < 0.001), weight (r = 0.253, p < 0.001), and WC (r = 0.293, p < 0.001). Based on adjusted odd ratio, children with shortest sleep duration were found to have 4.5 times higher odds of being overweight/obese (odd ratio: 4.536, 95% CI: 1.912-€“8.898) compared to children with normal sleep duration. The odds of being overweight/obese in children with sleep disorder score higher than 48 were 2.17 times more than children with sleep disorder score less than 48. Children who sleep lees than normal amount, had poor sleep quality, and consumed more carbohydrates were at higher risk of overweight/obesity. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gut microbiota and glucometabolic alterations in response to recurrent partial sleep deprivation in normal-weight young individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Benedict

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Changes to the microbial community in the human gut have been proposed to promote metabolic disturbances that also occur after short periods of sleep loss (including insulin resistance. However, whether sleep loss affects the gut microbiota remains unknown. Methods: In a randomized within-subject crossover study utilizing a standardized in-lab protocol (with fixed meal times and exercise schedules, we studied nine normal-weight men at two occasions: after two nights of partial sleep deprivation (PSD; sleep opportunity 02:45–07:00 h, and after two nights of normal sleep (NS; sleep opportunity 22:30–07:00 h. Fecal samples were collected within 24 h before, and after two in-lab nights, of either NS or PSD. In addition, participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test following each sleep intervention. Results: Microbiota composition analysis (V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that after two days of PSD vs. after two days of NS, individuals exhibited an increased Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, higher abundances of the families Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae, and lower abundance of Tenericutes (all P < 0.05 – previously all associated with metabolic perturbations in animal or human models. However, no PSD vs. NS effect on beta diversity or on fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations was found. Fasting and postprandial insulin sensitivity decreased after PSD vs. NS (all P < 0.05. Discussion: Our findings demonstrate that short-term sleep loss induces subtle effects on human microbiota. To what extent the observed changes to the microbial community contribute to metabolic consequences of sleep loss warrants further investigations in larger and more prolonged sleep studies, to also assess how sleep loss impacts the microbiota in individuals who already are metabolically compromised. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Insulin resistance

  1. the effect of ascorbic acid and propranolol on normal sleep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sleep promoting effects in the wistar rats in doses of propranolol. Conclusion: It is possible ... motor activities as swimming, flying, walking, running, rearing and hopping etc. ..... The Homotypical Cortex - The ssociation Areas. Physiological and ...

  2. Sleep and memory consolidation: motor performance and proactive interference effects in sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borragán, Guillermo; Urbain, Charline; Schmitz, Rémy; Mary, Alison; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    That post-training sleep supports the consolidation of sequential motor skills remains debated. Performance improvement and sensitivity to proactive interference are both putative measures of long-term memory consolidation. We tested sleep-dependent memory consolidation for visuo-motor sequence learning using a proactive interference paradigm. Thirty-three young adults were trained on sequence A on Day 1, then had Regular Sleep (RS) or were Sleep Deprived (SD) on the night after learning. After two recovery nights, they were tested on the same sequence A, then had to learn a novel, potentially competing sequence B. We hypothesized that proactive interference effects on sequence B due to the prior learning of sequence A would be higher in the RS condition, considering that proactive interference is an indirect marker of the robustness of sequence A, which should be better consolidated over post-training sleep. Results highlighted sleep-dependent improvement for sequence A, with faster RTs overnight for RS participants only. Moreover, the beneficial impact of sleep was specific to the consolidation of motor but not sequential skills. Proactive interference effects on learning a new material at Day 4 were similar between RS and SD participants. These results suggest that post-training sleep contributes to optimizing motor but not sequential components of performance in visuo-motor sequence learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep-wake stability in narcolepsy patients with normal, low and unmeasurable hypocretin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mathias Hvidtfelt; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Jennum, Poul

    2017-06-01

    To compare diurnal and nocturnal electrophysiological data from narcolepsy patients with undetectable (110 pg/mL) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 levels. A total of 109 narcolepsy patients and 37 controls were studied; all had available CSF hypocretin-1 measurements. The sleep laboratory studies were conducted between 2008 and 2014. The study retrospectively examined measurements of sleep stage transitions in diurnal and nocturnal continuous polysomnography. The percentage distribution of time awake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and the occurrence of sleep onset REM (SOREM) in the nocturnal polysomnography were also measured. Participants with undetectable hypocretin-1 levels had significantly higher frequencies of transitions than controls and those with normal hypocretin-1 levels. Participants with low hypocretin-1 levels showed more transitions than controls and, in some cases, also more than those with normal hypocretin-1. Participants with normal hypocretin-1 failed to show any significant difference from the controls, except in the overall diurnal transitions. Undetectable hypocretin-1 levels in particular, but also low hypocretin-1 levels, were associated with a less stable phenotype featuring more sleep state transitions and SOREM episodes. In addition, there was a distinction between nocturnal and diurnal REM sleep in hypocretin-deficient participants, expressed as increased diurnal REM sleep, which was not reflected in nocturnal sleep. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Personal sleep pattern visualization using sequence-based kernel self-organizing map on sound data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongle; Kato, Takafumi; Yamada, Tomomi; Numao, Masayuki; Fukui, Ken-Ichi

    2017-07-01

    We propose a method to discover sleep patterns via clustering of sound events recorded during sleep. The proposed method extends the conventional self-organizing map algorithm by kernelization and sequence-based technologies to obtain a fine-grained map that visualizes the distribution and changes of sleep-related events. We introduced features widely applied in sound processing and popular kernel functions to the proposed method to evaluate and compare performance. The proposed method provides a new aspect of sleep monitoring because the results demonstrate that sound events can be directly correlated to an individual's sleep patterns. In addition, by visualizing the transition of cluster dynamics, sleep-related sound events were found to relate to the various stages of sleep. Therefore, these results empirically warrant future study into the assessment of personal sleep quality using sound data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonism Normalizes Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard; Valladares, Edwin M.; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    Background In alcohol dependence, markers of inflammation are associated with increases in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is thought to be a prognostic indicator of alcohol relapse. This study was undertaken to test whether blockade of biologically active tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) normalizes REM sleep in alcohol-dependent adults. Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 18 abstinent alcohol-dependent male adults received a single dose of etanercept (25 mg) versus placebo in a counterbalanced order. Polysomnographic sleep was measured at baseline and for 3 nights after the acute dose of etanercept or placebo. Results Compared with placebo, administration of etanercept produced significant decreases in the amount and percentage of REM sleep. Decreases in REM sleep were robust and approached low levels typically found in age-comparable control subjects. Individual differences in biologically active drug as indexed by circulating levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II negatively correlated with the percentage of REM sleep. Conclusions Pharmacologic neutralization of TNF-α activity is associated with significant reductions in REM sleep in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. These data suggest that circulating levels of TNF-α may have a physiologic role in the regulation of REM sleep in humans. PMID:19185287

  6. Cued memory reactivation during slow-wave sleep promotes explicit knowledge of a motor sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, James N; El-Deredy, Wael; Parkes, Laura M; Hennies, Nora; Lewis, Penelope A

    2014-11-26

    Memories are gradually consolidated after initial encoding, and this can sometimes lead to a transition from implicit to explicit knowledge. The exact physiological processes underlying this reorganization remain unclear. Here, we used a serial reaction time task to determine whether targeted memory reactivation (TMR) of specific memory traces during slow-wave sleep promotes the emergence of explicit knowledge. Human participants learned two 12-item sequences of button presses (A and B). These differed in both cue order and in the auditory tones associated with each of the four fingers (one sequence had four higher-pitched tones). Subsequent overnight sleep was monitored, and the tones associated with one learned sequence were replayed during slow-wave sleep. After waking, participants demonstrated greater explicit knowledge (p = 0.005) and more improved procedural skill (p = 0.04) for the cued sequence relative to the uncued sequence. Furthermore, fast spindles (13.5-15 Hz) at task-related motor regions predicted overnight enhancement in procedural skill (r = 0.71, p = 0.01). Auditory cues had no effect on post-sleep memory performance in a control group who received TMR before sleep. These findings suggest that TMR during sleep can alter memory representations and promote the emergence of explicit knowledge, supporting the notion that reactivation during sleep is a key mechanism in this process. Copyright © 2014 Cousins et al.

  7. Upper-airway flow limitation and transcutaneous carbon dioxide during sleep in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpilä, Ville; Jernman, Riina; Lassila, Katariina; Uotila, Jukka; Huhtala, Heini; Mäenpää, Johanna; Polo, Olli

    2017-08-01

    Sleep during pregnancy involves a physiological challenge to provide sufficient gas exchange to the fetus. Enhanced ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia may protect from deficient gas exchange, but sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) may predispose to adverse events. The aim of this study was to analyze sleep and breathing in healthy pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls, with a focus on CO 2 changes and upper-airway flow limitation. Healthy women in the third trimester and healthy non-pregnant women with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited for polysomnography. Conventional analysis of sleep and breathing was performed. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcCO 2 ) was determined for each sleep stage. Flow-limitation was analyzed using the flattening index and TcCO 2 values were recorded for every inspiration. Eighteen pregnant women and 12 controls were studied. Pregnancy was associated with shorter sleep duration and more superficial sleep. Apnea-hypopnea index, arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation, flow-limitation, snoring or periodic leg movements were similar in the two groups. Mean SaO 2 and minimum SaO 2 were lower and average heart rate was higher in the pregnant group. TcCO 2 levels did not differ between groups but variance of TcCO 2 was smaller in pregnant women during non-rapid eye movement (NREM). TcCO 2 profiles showed transient TcCO 2 peaks, which seem specific to pregnancy. Healthy pregnancy does not predispose to SDB. Enhanced ventilatory control manifests as narrowing threshold of TcCO 2 between wakefulness and sleep. Pregnant women have a tendency for rapid CO 2 increases during sleep which might have harmful consequences if not properly compensated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of ascorbic acid and propranolol on normal sleep and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of ascorbic acid on open field locomotor activity and normal sleep in healthy adult rats and evaluate how these correlate with those of propranolol. MethodS: Eighty healthy adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups of 40 animals each group.

  9. Daytime sleep enhances consolidation of the spatial but not motoric representation of motor sequence memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Albouy

    Full Text Available Motor sequence learning is known to rely on more than a single process. As the skill develops with practice, two different representations of the sequence are formed: a goal representation built under spatial allocentric coordinates and a movement representation mediated through egocentric motor coordinates. This study aimed to explore the influence of daytime sleep (nap on consolidation of these two representations. Through the manipulation of an explicit finger sequence learning task and a transfer protocol, we show that both allocentric (spatial and egocentric (motor representations of the sequence can be isolated after initial training. Our results also demonstrate that nap favors the emergence of offline gains in performance for the allocentric, but not the egocentric representation, even after accounting for fatigue effects. Furthermore, sleep-dependent gains in performance observed for the allocentric representation are correlated with spindle density during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep of the post-training nap. In contrast, performance on the egocentric representation is only maintained, but not improved, regardless of the sleep/wake condition. These results suggest that motor sequence memory acquisition and consolidation involve distinct mechanisms that rely on sleep (and specifically, spindle or simple passage of time, depending respectively on whether the sequence is performed under allocentric or egocentric coordinates.

  10. Germline Variants in Targeted Tumor Sequencing Using Matched Normal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kasmintan A; Cheng, Donavan T; Joseph, Vijai; Prasad, Meera; Walsh, Michael; Zehir, Ahmet; Ni, Ai; Thomas, Tinu; Benayed, Ryma; Ashraf, Asad; Lincoln, Annie; Arcila, Maria; Stadler, Zsofia; Solit, David; Hyman, David M; Hyman, David; Zhang, Liying; Klimstra, David; Ladanyi, Marc; Offit, Kenneth; Berger, Michael; Robson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Tumor genetic sequencing identifies potentially targetable genetic alterations with therapeutic implications. Analysis has concentrated on detecting tumor-specific variants, but recognition of germline variants may prove valuable as well. To estimate the burden of germline variants identified through routine clinical tumor sequencing. Patients with advanced cancer diagnoses eligible for studies of targeted agents at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center are offered tumor-normal sequencing with MSK-IMPACT, a 341-gene panel. We surveyed the germline variants seen in 187 overlapping genes with Mendelian disease associations in 1566 patients who had undergone tumor profiling between March and October 2014. The number of presumed pathogenic germline variants (PPGVs) and variants of uncertain significance per person in 187 genes associated with single-gene disorders and the proportions of individuals with PPGVs in clinically relevant gene subsets, in genes consistent with known tumor phenotypes, and in genes with evidence of second somatic hits in their tumors. The mean age of the 1566 patients was 58 years, and 54% were women. Presumed pathogenic germline variants in known Mendelian disease-associated genes were identified in 246 of 1566 patients (15.7%; 95% CI, 14.0%-17.6%), including 198 individuals with mutations in genes associated with cancer susceptibility. Germline findings in cancer susceptibility genes were concordant with the individual's cancer type in only 81 of 198 cases (40.9%; 95% CI, 34.3%-47.9%). In individuals with PPGVs retained in the tumor, somatic alteration of the other allele was seen in 39 of 182 cases (21.4%; 95% CI, 16.1%-28.0%), of which 13 cases did not show a known correlation of the germline mutation and a known syndrome. Mutations in non-cancer-related Mendelian disease genes were seen in 55 of 1566 cases (3.5%; 95% CI, 27.1%-45.4%). Almost every individual had more than 1 variant of uncertain significance (1565 of 1566 patients; 99

  11. Unifying cancer and normal RNA sequencing data from different sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingguo; Armenia, Joshua; Zhang, Chao; Penson, Alexander V.; Reznik, Ed; Zhang, Liguo; Minet, Thais; Ochoa, Angelica; Gross, Benjamin E.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Betel, Doron; Taylor, Barry S.; Gao, Jianjiong; Schultz, Nikolaus

    2018-01-01

    Driven by the recent advances of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and an urgent need to decode complex human diseases, a multitude of large-scale studies were conducted recently that have resulted in an unprecedented volume of whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data, such as the Genotype Tissue Expression project (GTEx) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). While these data offer new opportunities to identify the mechanisms underlying disease, the comparison of data from different sources remains challenging, due to differences in sample and data processing. Here, we developed a pipeline that processes and unifies RNA-seq data from different studies, which includes uniform realignment, gene expression quantification, and batch effect removal. We find that uniform alignment and quantification is not sufficient when combining RNA-seq data from different sources and that the removal of other batch effects is essential to facilitate data comparison. We have processed data from GTEx and TCGA and successfully corrected for study-specific biases, enabling comparative analysis between TCGA and GTEx. The normalized datasets are available for download on figshare. PMID:29664468

  12. Opposite effects of sleep deprivation on the continuous reaction times in patients with liver cirrhosis and normal persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Mette Munk; Frøjk, Jesper; de Muckadell, Ove B Schaffalitzky; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    The continuous reaction times (CRT) method describes arousal functions. Reaction time instability in a patient with liver disease indicates covert hepatic encephalopathy (cHE). The effects of sleep deprivation are unknown although cirrhosis patients frequently suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to determine if sleep deprivation influences the CRT test. Eighteen cirrhosis patients and 27 healthy persons were tested when rested and after one night's sleep deprivation. The patients filled out validated sleep quality questionnaires. Seven patients (38%) had unstable reaction times (a CRTindex sleep that was not related to their CRT tests before or after the sleep deprivation. In the healthy participants, the sleep deprivation slowed their reaction times by 11% (p sleep deprivation normalized or improved the reaction time stability of the patients with a CRTindex below 1.9 and had no effect in the patients with a CRTindex above 1.9. There was no relation between reported sleep quality and reaction time results. Thus, in cirrhosis patients, sleep disturbances do not lead to 'falsely' slowed and unstable reaction times. In contrast, the acute sleep deprivation slowed and destabilized the reaction times of the healthy participants. This may have negative consequences for decision-making.

  13. Opposite effects of sleep deprivation on the continuous reaction times in patients with liver cirrhosis and normal persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Munk; Frøjk, Jesper; de Muckadell, Ove B Schaffalitzky

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to determine if sleep deprivation influences the CRT test. Eighteen cirrhosis patients and 27 healthy persons were tested when rested and after one night's sleep deprivation. The patients filled out validated sleep quality questionnaires. Seven patients (38 %) had unstable reaction times (a...... CRTindex change in the other patients' reaction speed or stability. Seven patients (38 %) reported poor sleep that was not related to their CRT tests before...... or after the sleep deprivation. In the healthy participants, the sleep deprivation slowed their reaction times by 11 % (p persons (25 %) destabilized them. The acute sleep deprivation normalized or improved the reaction time stability of the patients with a CRTindex below 1.9 and had...

  14. [Clinical correlation of hypnagogic hypersynchrony during sleep in normal children and those with learning disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos G de Alba, G; Fraire-Martínez, M I; Valenzuela-Romero, R

    One of the electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns that can be mistaken for paroxysmal clinical activity, when not taken into account and especially in children, is hypnagogic hypersynchrony (HH). This consists in generalised, paroxysmal, synchronic, symmetrical, slow, high voltage waves lasting 2 8 seconds, which appear in drowsiness and in stage I. It was observed that this pattern often appeared in children with learning disability (LD). AIMS. To correlate clinical data with the presence of HH during sleep in normal children and those with LD. We assessed 180 children between the ages of 6 12 years with normal neurological development, 130 of which suffered LD and 50 who did not have LD. EEG was performed with sleep deprivation, following the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology guidelines. The presence or absence of HH, together with its characteristics, was assessed. Of the children with LD, 35.38% displayed HH and of the children without LD, only 4% displayed HH. Since the characteristics of HH in the children with LD were different to previous descriptions, we put forward criteria with which to evaluate those differences. HH appeared more often in children with LD than in normal children. Qualitative, quantitative (p< 0.05) and morphological changes were found in the paroxysmal activity of HH during the stages of sleep in children with LD.

  15. Normal Morning MCH Levels and No Association with REM or NREM Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2017-01-01

    in rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid...... MCH levels. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that MCH levels in CSF collected in the morning are normal in narcolepsy and not associated with the clinical symptoms, REM sleep abnormalities, nor number of muscle movements during REM or NREM sleep of the patients. We conclude that morning lumbar CSF MCH......STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved...

  16. Functional MRI of the pharynx in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with rapid 2-D flash sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, L.; Guenther, E.; Gauger, J.; Nitz, W.; Kastenbauer, E.; Reiser, M.

    1996-01-01

    Functional imaging of the pharynx used to be the domain of cineradiography, CT and ultrafast CT. The development of modern MRI techniques led to new access to functional disorders of the pharynx. The aim of this study was to implement a new MRI technique to examine oropharyngeal obstructive mechanisms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Sixteen patients suffering from OSA and 6 healthy volunteers were examined on a 1.5 T whole-body imager ('Vision', Siemens, Erlangen Medical Engineering, Germany) using a circular polarized head coil. Imaging was performed with 2D flash sequences in midsagittal and axial planes. Patients and volunteers were asked to breathe normally through the nose and to simulate snoring and the Mueller maneuver during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior to MRI, all patients underwent an ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, functional fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy and polysomnography. A temporal resolution of 6 images/s and an in-plane resolution of 2.67x1.8 mm were achieved. The mobility of the tongue, soft palate and pharyngeal surface could be clearly delineated. The MRI findings correlated well with the clinical examinations. We propose ultrafast MRI as a reliable and non-invasive method of evaluating pharyngeal obstruction and their levels. (orig.) [de

  17. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-10-15

    Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Pbreakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pperformance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute (NHLBI). 1 Mood. Sleep affects your mood. Insufficient sleep can cause irritability that can lead to trouble with relationships, ... basics/understanding_sleep.htm#dynamic_activity Centers for Disease ... insufficient rest or sleep among adults—United States, 2008. MMWR, 58 (42), ...

  19. Does Sleep Facilitate the Consolidation of Allocentric or Egocentric Representations of Implicitly Learned Visual-Motor Sequence Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viczko, Jeremy; Sergeeva, Valya; Ray, Laura B.; Owen, Adrian M.; Fogel, Stuart M.

    2018-01-01

    Sleep facilitates the consolidation (i.e., enhancement) of simple, explicit (i.e., conscious) motor sequence learning (MSL). MSL can be dissociated into egocentric (i.e., motor) or allocentric (i.e., spatial) frames of reference. The consolidation of the allocentric memory representation is sleep-dependent, whereas the egocentric consolidation…

  20. Reliability of scoring arousals in normal children and children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tat Kong; Galster, Patricia; Lau, Tai Shing; Lutz, Janita M; Marcus, Carole L

    2004-09-15

    Scoring of arousals in children is based on an extension of adult criteria, as defined by the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA). By this, a minimum duration of 3 seconds is required. A few recent studies utilized modified criteria for the study of children, with durations as short as 1 second. However, the validity and reliability of scoring these shorter arousals have never been verified. Based on studies in adults, we hypothesized that interscorer agreement for scoring arousals shorter than 3 seconds was poor. Retrospective review of polysomnograms by 2 experienced sleep practitioners who independently scored arousals according to the ASDA 3-second criteria and modified duration criteria of 1 and 2 seconds. Academic hospital. 20 polysomnographic studies from children aged 3 to 8 years with mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and 16 polysomnographic studies from normal children. None. The intraclass correlation coefficient for scoring ASDA arousals was 0.90 (95% confidence interval: 0.81-0.95), indicating excellent interscorer agreement. The intraclass correlation coefficient for scoring modified 1-second and 2-second arousals were 0.35 (95% confidence interval: 0.02-0.61) and 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.65) respectively, indicating poor to fair interscorer agreement. Furthermore, modified 1-second and 2-second arousals accounted for less than 15% of all arousals scored. We conclude that there is much poorer interscorer agreement for scoring arousals shorter than 3 seconds, when compared to the standard ASDA criteria. We propose that scoring of arousals in children should follow the standard ASDA criteria.

  1. 24-h actigraphic monitoring of motor activity, sleeping and eating behaviors in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoni, Monica; Carissimi, Alicia; Fabbri, Marco; Filardi, Marco; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Natale, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Within a chronobiological perspective, the present study aimed to describe 24 h of sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and food intake patterns in different body mass index (BMI) categories of children through 7 days of actigraphic recording. Height and weight were objectively measured for BMI calculation in a sample of 115 Italian primary schoolchildren (10.21 ± 0.48 years, 62.61 % females). According to BMI values, 2.60 % were underweight, 61.70 % were of normal weight, 29.60 % were overweight and 6.10 % were obese. Participants wore a wrist actigraph continuously for 7 days to record motor activity and describe sleep-wake patterns. In addition, participants were requested to push the event-marker button of the actigraph each time they consumed food to describe their circadian eating patterns. BMI group differences were found for sleep quantity (i.e. midpoint of sleep and amplitude), while sleep quality, 24-h motor activity and food intake patterns were similar between groups. Regression analyses showed that BMI was negatively predicted by sleep duration on schooldays. BMI was also predicted by motor activity and by food intake frequencies recorded at particular times of day during schooldays and at the weekend. The circadian perspective seems to provide promising insight into childhood obesity, but this aspect needs to be further explored.

  2. Sleep, Cognition, and Normal Aging: Integrating a Half-Century of Multidisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Michael K.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is implicated in cognitive functioning in young adults. With increasing age there are substantial changes to sleep quantity and quality including changes to slow wave sleep, spindle density, and sleep continuity/fragmentation. A provocative question for the field of cognitive aging is whether such changes in sleep physiology affect cognition (e.g., memory consolidation). We review nearly a half-century of research studies across 7 diverse correlational and experimental literature domains, which historically have had little crosstalk. Broadly speaking, sleep and cognitive functions are often related in advancing age, though the prevalence of null effects (including correlations in the unexpected, negative direction) in healthy older adults indicates that age may be an effect modifier of these associations. We interpret the literature as suggesting that maintaining good sleep quality, at least in young adulthood and middle age, promotes better cognitive functioning and serves to protect against age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25620997

  3. On the normalization of the minimum free energy of RNAs by sequence length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Trotta

    Full Text Available The minimum free energy (MFE of ribonucleic acids (RNAs increases at an apparent linear rate with sequence length. Simple indices, obtained by dividing the MFE by the number of nucleotides, have been used for a direct comparison of the folding stability of RNAs of various sizes. Although this normalization procedure has been used in several studies, the relationship between normalized MFE and length has not yet been investigated in detail. Here, we demonstrate that the variation of MFE with sequence length is not linear and is significantly biased by the mathematical formula used for the normalization procedure. For this reason, the normalized MFEs strongly decrease as hyperbolic functions of length and produce unreliable results when applied for the comparison of sequences with different sizes. We also propose a simple modification of the normalization formula that corrects the bias enabling the use of the normalized MFE for RNAs longer than 40 nt. Using the new corrected normalized index, we analyzed the folding free energies of different human RNA families showing that most of them present an average MFE density more negative than expected for a typical genomic sequence. Furthermore, we found that a well-defined and restricted range of MFE density characterizes each RNA family, suggesting the use of our corrected normalized index to improve RNA prediction algorithms. Finally, in coding and functional human RNAs the MFE density appears scarcely correlated with sequence length, consistent with a negligible role of thermodynamic stability demands in determining RNA size.

  4. On the normalization of the minimum free energy of RNAs by sequence length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    The minimum free energy (MFE) of ribonucleic acids (RNAs) increases at an apparent linear rate with sequence length. Simple indices, obtained by dividing the MFE by the number of nucleotides, have been used for a direct comparison of the folding stability of RNAs of various sizes. Although this normalization procedure has been used in several studies, the relationship between normalized MFE and length has not yet been investigated in detail. Here, we demonstrate that the variation of MFE with sequence length is not linear and is significantly biased by the mathematical formula used for the normalization procedure. For this reason, the normalized MFEs strongly decrease as hyperbolic functions of length and produce unreliable results when applied for the comparison of sequences with different sizes. We also propose a simple modification of the normalization formula that corrects the bias enabling the use of the normalized MFE for RNAs longer than 40 nt. Using the new corrected normalized index, we analyzed the folding free energies of different human RNA families showing that most of them present an average MFE density more negative than expected for a typical genomic sequence. Furthermore, we found that a well-defined and restricted range of MFE density characterizes each RNA family, suggesting the use of our corrected normalized index to improve RNA prediction algorithms. Finally, in coding and functional human RNAs the MFE density appears scarcely correlated with sequence length, consistent with a negligible role of thermodynamic stability demands in determining RNA size.

  5. Seismic evidence of conjugate normal faulting: The 1994 Devil Canyon earthquake sequence near Challis, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, S.M.

    1994-08-01

    In this study, the term ''conjugate'' refers to faults that occur in two intersecting sets and coordinated kinematically, with each set being distinctive in both orientation and sense of shear (Davis, 1984). Contemporaneous activity along the conjugate faults is defined as occurring within the time frame of the mainshock-aftershock sequence (three weeks for this sequence and generally less than one month in other observed cases). Detailed recordings of microearthquakes from a dense array of temporary analog seismic stations are analyzed. The focal mechanisms and hypocenter spatial and temporal characteristics are combined with geological information to assess the style, geometry, timing, kinematics, and mechanics of conjugate normal faulting. The characteristics of conjugate normal faulting observed in the Devil Canyon sequence are compared to other conjugate normal faulting sequences, and strike-slip and thrust conjugate sequences worldwide

  6. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence; Mittermayer, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development. (orig.)

  7. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development. (orig.)

  8. Relationship of slow and rapid EEG components of CAP to ASDA arousals in normal sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, L; Smerieri, A; Rossi, M; Terzano, M G

    2001-12-15

    Besides arousals (according to the ASDA definition), sleep contains also K-complexes and delta bursts which, in spite of their sleep-like features, are endowed with activating effects on autonomic functions. The link between phasic delta activities and enhancement of vegetative functions indicates the possibility of physiological activation without sleep disruption (i.e., arousal without awakening). A functional connection seems to include slow (K-complexes and delta bursts) and rapid (arousals) EEG events within the comprehensive term of activating complexes. CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) is the spontaneous EEG rhythm that ties both slow and rapid activating complexes together during NREM sleep. The present study aims at exploring the relationship between arousals and CAP components in a selected sample of healthy sleepers. Polysomnographic analysis according to the scoring rules for sleep stages and arousals. CAP analysis included also tabulation of subtypes A1 (slow EEG activating complexes), A2 and A3 (activating complexes with fast EEG components). 40 sleep-lab accomplished recordings. Healthy subjects belonging to a wide age range (38 +/- 20 yrs.). N/A. Of all the arousals occurring in NREM sleep, 87% were inserted within CAP. Subtypes A2 and A3 of CAP corresponded strikingly with arousals (r=0.843; p<0.0001), while no statistical relationship emerged when arousals were matched with subtypes A1 of CAP. Subtypes A1 instead correlated positively with the percentages of deep sleep (r=0.366; p<0.02). The CAP subtype classification encompasses both the process of sleep maintenance (subtypes A1) and sleep fragmentation (subtypes A2 and A3), and provides a periodicity dimension to the activating events of NREM sleep.

  9. Increased daytime somnolence despite normal sleep patterns in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van Kralingen, Klaas W.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2007-01-01

    In patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA), increased fatigue scores on quality of life (QoL) have been reported. Because this may be related to altered sleep patterns, we evaluated daytime sleepiness and sleep patterns in patients successfully treated for NFMA in our

  10. Hypercapnic normalization of BOLD fMRI: comparison across field strengths and pulse sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Eric R.; Rostrup, Egill; Sidaros, Karam

    2004-01-01

    to be more accurately localized and quantified based on changes in venous blood oxygenation alone. The normalized BOLD signal induced by the motor task was consistent across different magnetic fields and pulse sequences, and corresponded well with cerebral blood flow measurements. Our data suggest...... size, as well as experimental, such as pulse sequence and static magnetic field strength (B(0)). Thus, it is difficult to compare task-induced fMRI signals across subjects, field strengths, and pulse sequences. This problem can be overcome by normalizing the neural activity-induced BOLD fMRI response...... for global stimulation, subjects breathed a 5% CO(2) gas mixture. Under all conditions, voxels containing primarily large veins and those containing primarily active tissue (i.e., capillaries and small veins) showed distinguishable behavior after hypercapnic normalization. This allowed functional activity...

  11. Music as a mnemonic to learn gesture sequences in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aline eMoussard; Emmanuel eBigand; Emmanuel eBigand; Isabelle ePeretz; Isabelle ePeretz; Isabelle ePeretz; Sylvie eBelleville; Sylvie eBelleville

    2014-01-01

    Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older adults (Controls) learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning proce...

  12. Music as a Mnemonic to Learn Gesture Sequences in Normal Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel; Belleville, Sylvie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy older adults (controls) learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning proce...

  13. Tracheal sound parameters of respiratory cycle phases show differences between flow-limited and normal breathing during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkas, A; Huupponen, E; Virkkala, J; Saastamoinen, A; Rauhala, E; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S-L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop new computational parameters to examine the characteristics of respiratory cycle phases from the tracheal breathing sound signal during sleep. Tracheal sound data from 14 patients (10 males and 4 females) were examined. From each patient, a 10 min long section of normal and a 10 min section of flow-limited breathing during sleep were analysed. The computationally determined proportional durations of the respiratory phases were first investigated. Moreover, the phase durations and breathing sound amplitude levels were used to calculate the area under the breathing sound envelope signal during inspiration and expiration phases. An inspiratory sound index was then developed to provide the percentage of this type of area during the inspiratory phase with respect to the combined area of inspiratory and expiratory phases. The proportional duration of the inspiratory phase showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing and inspiratory pause displayed an opposite difference. The inspiratory sound index showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing. The presented novel computational parameters could contribute to the examination of sleep-disordered breathing or as a screening tool

  14. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption during normal human sleep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ken [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1989-09-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), regional oxygen extraction fraction (rCEF) and regional cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (rCMRO{sub 2}) were measured using the continuous inhalation technique for {sup 15}O with positron emission tomography (PET) during both wakefulness and sleep. Ten paid volunteers, with a mean age of 21.6 yrs., were deprived of sleep for a period of approximately 20 hours, and the experiments were performed mostly in the morning. {sup 15}O activity of both whole blood and the plasma, pixel count of PET, total arterial blood oxygen content were used for analysis of rCBF, rOEF and rCMRO{sub 2}. PET scannings were carried out mostly during the very light non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, i.e. stage 1 and/or 2, and wakefulness. About 10 minutes after the start of continuous inhalation of {sup 15}O gas, the {sup 15}O activity of the brain was found to be in a steady-state condition. During this steady-state condition, PET scannings were performed for about 10 minutes. Regions of interest, square in shape and having an area of 2.8 cm{sup 3}, were set in each cortex on PET images of a horizontal cross-section of the brain, set at 45 mm above the orbitomeatal line. The rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} were analysed in 5 of 10 male subjects during both wakefulness and NREM sleep, and only 3 were done during three sleep stages, including REM sleep. Levels of rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} were found to be decreased in NREM sleep, and the decreasing rates were calculated at 10.2% and 7.6% from the level of wakefulness, respectively. There was no significant difference in the mean value of rOEF between wakefulness and NREM sleep. There were no significant regional differences found in the rate of decrease among the frontal, temporal and occipital cortices. It was considered that the decrease of rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} during NREM sleep suggested a decrease of the activity levels in the cerebral functions. (author).

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption during normal human sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ken

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), regional oxygen extraction fraction (rCEF) and regional cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (rCMRO 2 ) were measured using the continuous inhalation technique for 15 O with positron emission tomography (PET) during both wakefulness and sleep. Ten paid volunteers, with a mean age of 21.6 yrs., were deprived of sleep for a period of approximately 20 hours, and the experiments were performed mostly in the morning. 15 O activity of both whole blood and the plasma, pixel count of PET, total arterial blood oxygen content were used for analysis of rCBF, rOEF and rCMRO 2 . PET scannings were carried out mostly during the very light non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, i.e. stage 1 and/or 2, and wakefulness. About 10 minutes after the start of continuous inhalation of 15 O gas, the 15 O activity of the brain was found to be in a steady-state condition. During this steady-state condition, PET scannings were performed for about 10 minutes. Regions of interest, square in shape and having an area of 2.8 cm 3 , were set in each cortex on PET images of a horizontal cross-section of the brain, set at 45 mm above the orbitomeatal line. The rCBF and rCMRO 2 were analysed in 5 of 10 male subjects during both wakefulness and NREM sleep, and only 3 were done during three sleep stages, including REM sleep. Levels of rCBF and rCMRO 2 were found to be decreased in NREM sleep, and the decreasing rates were calculated at 10.2% and 7.6% from the level of wakefulness, respectively. There was no significant difference in the mean value of rOEF between wakefulness and NREM sleep. There were no significant regional differences found in the rate of decrease among the frontal, temporal and occipital cortices. It was considered that the decrease of rCBF and rCMRO 2 during NREM sleep suggested a decrease of the activity levels in the cerebral functions. (author)

  17. Gender differences in brain regional homogeneity of healthy subjects after normal sleep and after sleep deprivation: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xi-Jian; Gong, Hong-Han; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Fu-Qing; Min, You-Jiang; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Si-Yong; Liu, Bi-Xia; Xiao, Xiang-Zuo

    2012-06-01

    To explore the gender differences of brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) in healthy subjects during the resting-state, after normal sleep, and after sleep deprivation (SD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the ReHo method. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight males and eight females) each underwent the resting-state fMRI exams twice, i.e., once after normal sleep and again after 24h's SD. According to the gender and sleep, 16 subjects were all measured twice and divided into four groups: the male control group (MC), female control group (FC), male SD group (MSD), and female SD group (FSD). The ReHo method was used to calculate and analyze the data, SPM5 software was used to perform a two-sample T-test and a two-pair T-test with a P value right paracentral lobule (BA3/6), but in no obviously lower regions. Compared with the FC, the FSD showed significantly higher ReHo in bilateral parietal lobes (BA2/3), bilateral vision-related regions of occipital lobes (BA17/18/19), right frontal lobe (BA4/6), and lower ReHo in the right frontal lobe. Compared with the FC, the MC showed significantly higher ReHo in the left occipital lobe (BA18/19), and left temporal lobe (BA21), left frontal lobe, and lower ReHo in the right insula and in the left parietal lobe. Compared with the FSD, the MSD showed significantly higher ReHo in the left cerebellum posterior lobe (uvula/declive of vermis), left parietal lobe, and bilateral frontal lobes, and lower ReHo in the right occipital lobe (BA17) and right frontal lobe (BA4). The differences of brain activity in the resting state can be widely found not only between the control and SD group in a same gender group, but also between the male group and female group. Thus, we should take the gender differences into consideration in future fMRI studies, especially the treatment of brain-related diseases (e.g., depression). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Iterative normalization technique for reference sequence generation for zero-tail discrete fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    , and performing an iterative manipulation of the input sequence. The performing of the iterative manipulation of the input sequence may include, for example: computing frequency domain response of the sequence, normalizing elements of the computed frequency domain sequence to unitary power while maintaining phase...

  19. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance – Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Sørensen, Louise B.; Andersen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    % of expected learning within one school year (P breakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three...

  20. Acquired auditory agnosia in childhood and normal sleep electroencephalography subsequently diagnosed as Landau-Kleffner syndrome: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bogaert, Patrick; King, Mary D; Paquier, Philippe; Wetzburger, Catherine; Labasse, Catherine; Dubru, Jean-Marie; Deonna, Thierry

    2013-06-01

      We report three cases of Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) in children (two females, one male) in whom diagnosis was delayed because the sleep electroencephalography (EEG) was initially normal.   Case histories including EEG, positron emission tomography findings, and long-term outcome were reviewed.   Auditory agnosia occurred between the age of 2 years and 3 years 6 months, after a period of normal language development. Initial awake and sleep EEG, recorded weeks to months after the onset of language regression, during a nap period in two cases and during a full night of sleep in the third case, was normal. Repeat EEG between 2 months and 2 years later showed epileptiform discharges during wakefulness and strongly activated by sleep, with a pattern of continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep in two patients. Patients were diagnosed with LKS and treated with various antiepileptic regimens, including corticosteroids. One patient in whom EEG became normal on hydrocortisone is making significant recovery. The other two patients did not exhibit a sustained response to treatment and remained severely impaired.   Sleep EEG may be normal in the early phase of acquired auditory agnosia. EEG should be repeated frequently in individuals in whom a firm clinical diagnosis is made to facilitate early treatment. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Chunk concatenation evolves with practice and sleep-related enhancement consolidation in a complex arm movement sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blischke Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the notion of chunk concatenation being associated with sleep-related enhancement consolidation of motor sequence memory, thereby essentially contributing to improvements in sequence execution speed. To this end, element movement times of a multi-joint arm movement sequence incorporated in a recent study by Malangré et al. (2014 were reanalyzed. As sequence elements differed with respect to movement distance, element movement times had to be purged from differences solely due to varying trajectory lengths. This was done by dividing each element movement time per subject and trial block by the respective “reference movement time” collected from subjects who had extensively practiced each sequence element in isolation. Any differences in these “relative element movement times” were supposed to reflect element-specific “production costs” imposed solely by the sequence context. Across all subjects non-idiosyncratic, lasting sequence segmentation was shown, and four possible concatenation points (i.e. transition points between successive chunks within the original arm movement sequence were identified. Based on theoretical suppositions derived from previous work with the discrete sequence production task and the dual processor model (Abrahamse et al., 2013, significantly larger improvements in transition speed occurring at these four concatenation points as compared to the five fastest transition positions within the sequence (associated with mere element execution were assumed to indicate increased chunk concatenation. As a result, chunk concatenation was shown to proceed during acquisition with physical practice, and, most importantly, to significantly progress some more during retention following a night of sleep, but not during a waking interval.

  2. Recognition of sleep paralysis among normal adults in Canada and in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, K; Ogilvie, R D; Takeuchi, T

    2000-06-01

    There were no differences between Canada and Japan in the prevalence and symptoms of sleep paralysis (SP), but many more Canadians considered SP to be a dream. The difference was considered to be derived from the fact that there is a common expression for SP in Japan but there is not one in Canada. Then, we investigated why there are individuals who consider SP to be a dream and others who do not, and found that many Japanese who regarded it as a dream did not report the symptom of 'unable to move', while in Canada, self-evaluation of spirituality was different between the two groups.

  3. MR of normal pancreas : comparison of five pulse sequences and enhancing patterns on dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Hong, Sung Hwan; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    1997-01-01

    To compare T1-weighted FLASH and turbo spin echo (SE) T2-weighted sequences with conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences in imaging normal pancreas and to describe the enhancing patterns on dynamic MR imging. Forty-four patients with presumed hepatic hemangiomas were studied at 1.0T or 1.5T by using conventional SE sequences (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and heavily T2-weighted), turbo-SE T2-weighted sequences, and breath-hold T1-weighted FLASH sequences acquired before, immediately on, and at 1, 2, 3, and 5 or 10 minutes after injection of a bolus of gadopentetate dimeglumine. No patients had either a history or its clinical features of pancreatic disease. Images were quantitatively analyzed for signal-difference-to noise ratios (SD/Ns) between the pancreas and peripancreatic fat. Percentage enhancement of the pancreas was measured on each dynamic MR image. Conspicuity of the pancreatic border was qualitatively evaluated according to a consensus, reached by three radiologists. Turbo-SE T2-weighted images had a significantly higher SD/N ratio (p<0.001) and better conspicuity of the pancreatic border (p<0.001) than SE T2- and heavily T2-weighted images;T1-weighted SE images had a significantly higher SD/N ratio than T1-weighted FLASH images (p<0.001), but there was no significant difference between tham in qualitative analysis (p=0.346). Percentage enhancement immediately on and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 minutes after administration of contrast material was 39.9%, 44.5%, 42.9%, 40.8%, 36.3%, 29.9%, respectively, with peak enhancement at 1 minute. In MR imaging of normal pancreas, turbo-SE T2-weighted imaging is superior to SE T2- and heavily T2- weighted imaging, and SE T1-weighted imaging is superior to T1-weighted FLASH imaging. On serial gadolinium-enhanced FLASH imaging, normal pancreas shows peak enhancement at 1 minute

  4. A step to diagnosis of sleep apnea with next generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdha Pattanaik

    2017-12-01

    Aberrant respiratory control mechanisms have been implicated in dentofacial deformities, such as long face syndrome or adenoid facies. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a potentially life-threatening condition in which the patient suffers periodic cessation of breathing during sleep and is the most important etiological factor in the long face syndrome. The symptoms include loud snoring, irregular breathing patterns and restless movements during sleep which impairs the quality of life. The aim of this study is to determine the genetic association of obstructive sleep apnea associated genes (ACE, TNF-α, IL-6, 5-HTR2A, 5-HTR2C, 5-HTT, LEPR, PPAR-γ, ADRB, and APOE with specific primers in polymerized chain reaction through an extensive genome search in Odisha population.

  5. Sleep apnea predicts distinct alterations in glucose homeostasis and biomarkers in obese adults with normal and impaired glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Nathan R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notwithstanding previous studies supporting independent associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and prevalence of diabetes, the underlying pathogenesis of impaired glucose regulation in OSA remains unclear. We explored mechanisms linking OSA with prediabetes/diabetes and associated biomarker profiles. We hypothesized that OSA is associated with distinct alterations in glucose homeostasis and biomarker profiles in subjects with normal (NGM and impaired glucose metabolism (IGM. Methods Forty-five severely obese adults (36 women without certain comorbidities/medications underwent anthropometric measurements, polysomnography, and blood tests. We measured fasting serum glucose, insulin, selected cytokines, and calculated homeostasis model assessment estimates of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS and pancreatic beta-cell function (HOMA-B. Results Both increases in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI and the presence of prediabetes/diabetes were associated with reductions in HOMA-IS in the entire cohort even after adjustment for sex, race, age, and BMI (P = 0.003. In subjects with NGM (n = 30, OSA severity was associated with significantly increased HOMA-B (a trend towards decreased HOMA-IS independent of sex and adiposity. OSA-related oxyhemoglobin desaturations correlated with TNF-α (r=-0.76; P = 0.001 in women with NGM and with IL-6 (rho=-0.55; P = 0.035 in women with IGM (n = 15 matched individually for age, adiposity, and AHI. Conclusions OSA is independently associated with altered glucose homeostasis and increased basal beta-cell function in severely obese adults with NGM. The findings suggest that moderate to severe OSA imposes an excessive functional demand on pancreatic beta-cells, which may lead to their exhaustion and impaired secretory capacity over time. The two distinct biomarker profiles linking sleep apnea with NGM and IGM via TNF-α and IL-6 have been discerned in our study to suggest that sleep apnea and particularly

  6. Music as a mnemonic to learn gesture sequences in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline eMoussard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and healthy older adults (Controls learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning procedure such that participants had to imitate the gestures to-be-memorized in synchrony with the experimenter or after the experimenter during encoding. Results show different patterns of performance for the two groups. Overall, musical accompaniment had no impact on the Controls' performance, but improved those of AD participants. Conversely, synchronization of gestures during learning helped Controls but seemed to interfere with retention in AD. We discuss these findings regarding their relevance for a better understanding of auditory-motor memory, and we propose recommendations to maximize the mnemonic effect of music for motor sequence learning for dementia care.

  7. Music as a Mnemonic to Learn Gesture Sequences in Normal Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel; Belleville, Sylvie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy older adults (controls) learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning procedure such that participants had to imitate the gestures to-be-memorized in synchrony with the experimenter or after the experimenter during encoding. Results show different patterns of performance for the two groups. Overall, musical accompaniment had no impact on the controls’ performance but improved those of AD participants. Conversely, synchronization of gestures during learning helped controls but seemed to interfere with retention in AD. We discuss these findings regarding their relevance for a better understanding of auditory–motor memory, and we propose recommendations to maximize the mnemonic effect of music for motor sequence learning for dementia care. PMID:24860476

  8. Music as a mnemonic to learn gesture sequences in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel; Belleville, Sylvie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older adults (controls) learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning procedure such that participants had to imitate the gestures to-be-memorized in synchrony with the experimenter or after the experimenter during encoding. Results show different patterns of performance for the two groups. Overall, musical accompaniment had no impact on the controls' performance but improved those of AD participants. Conversely, synchronization of gestures during learning helped controls but seemed to interfere with retention in AD. We discuss these findings regarding their relevance for a better understanding of auditory-motor memory, and we propose recommendations to maximize the mnemonic effect of music for motor sequence learning for dementia care.

  9. visnormsc: A Graphical User Interface to Normalize Single-cell RNA Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lijun; Zhou, Nan

    2017-12-26

    Single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) allows the analysis of gene expression with high resolution. The intrinsic defects of this promising technology imports technical noise into the single-cell RNA-seq data, increasing the difficulty of accurate downstream inference. Normalization is a crucial step in single-cell RNA-seq data pre-processing. SCnorm is an accurate and efficient method that can be used for this purpose. An R implementation of this method is currently available. On one hand, the R package possesses many excellent features from R. On the other hand, R programming ability is required, which prevents the biologists who lack the skills from learning to use it quickly. To make this method more user-friendly, we developed a graphical user interface, visnormsc, for normalization of single-cell RNA-seq data. It is implemented in Python and is freely available at https://github.com/solo7773/visnormsc . Although visnormsc is based on the existing method, it contributes to this field by offering a user-friendly alternative. The out-of-the-box and cross-platform features make visnormsc easy to learn and to use. It is expected to serve biologists by simplifying single-cell RNA-seq normalization.

  10. Ih current is necessary to maintain normal dopamine fluctuations and sleep consolidation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gonzalo-Gomez

    Full Text Available HCN channels are becoming pharmacological targets mainly in cardiac diseases. But apart from their well-known role in heart pacemaking, these channels are widely expressed in the nervous system where they contribute to the neuron firing pattern. Consequently, abolishing Ih current might have detrimental consequences in a big repertoire of behavioral traits. Several studies in mammals have identified the Ih current as an important determinant of the firing activity of dopaminergic neurons, and recent evidences link alterations in this current to various dopamine-related disorders. We used the model organism Drosophila melanogaster to investigate how lack of Ih current affects dopamine levels and the behavioral consequences in the sleep:activity pattern. Unlike mammals, in Drosophila there is only one gene encoding HCN channels. We generated a deficiency of the DmIh core gene region and measured, by HPLC, levels of dopamine. Our data demonstrate daily variations of dopamine in wild-type fly heads. Lack of Ih current dramatically alters dopamine pattern, but different mechanisms seem to operate during light and dark conditions. Behaviorally, DmIh mutant flies display alterations in the rest:activity pattern, and altered circadian rhythms. Our data strongly suggest that Ih current is necessary to prevent dopamine overproduction at dark, while light input allows cycling of dopamine in an Ih current dependent manner. Moreover, lack of Ih current results in behavioral defects that are consistent with altered dopamine levels.

  11. Cone-beam CT analysis of patients with obstructive sleep apnea compared to normal controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Allison; Kalathingal Sajitha; De Rossi, Scott [Dept. of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta (United States); Cohen, Ruben [Park Avenue Oral and Facial Surgery, New York (United States); Loony, Stephen [Dept. of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Augusta University Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (United States)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the upper airway dimensions of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and control subjects using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit commonly applied in clinical practice in order to assess airway dimensions in the same fashion as that routinely employed in a clinical setting. This was a retrospective analysis utilizing existing CBCT scans to evaluate the dimensions of the upper airway in OSA and control subjects. The CBCT data of sixteen OSA and sixteen control subjects were compared. The average area, average volume, total volume, and total length of the upper airway were computed. Width and anterior-posterior (AP) measurements were obtained on the smallest axial slice. OSA subjects had a significantly smaller average airway area, average airway volume, total airway volume, and mean airway width. OSA subjects had a significantly larger airway length measurement. The mean A-P distance was not significantly different between groups. OSA subjects have a smaller upper airway compared to controls with the exception of airway length. The lack of a significant difference in the mean A-P distance may indicate that patient position during imaging (upright vs. supine) can affect this measurement. Comparison of this study with a future prospective study design will allow for validation of these results.

  12. Cone-beam CT analysis of patients with obstructive sleep apnea compared to normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, Allison; Kalathingal Sajitha; De Rossi, Scott; Cohen, Ruben; Loony, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the upper airway dimensions of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and control subjects using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit commonly applied in clinical practice in order to assess airway dimensions in the same fashion as that routinely employed in a clinical setting. This was a retrospective analysis utilizing existing CBCT scans to evaluate the dimensions of the upper airway in OSA and control subjects. The CBCT data of sixteen OSA and sixteen control subjects were compared. The average area, average volume, total volume, and total length of the upper airway were computed. Width and anterior-posterior (AP) measurements were obtained on the smallest axial slice. OSA subjects had a significantly smaller average airway area, average airway volume, total airway volume, and mean airway width. OSA subjects had a significantly larger airway length measurement. The mean A-P distance was not significantly different between groups. OSA subjects have a smaller upper airway compared to controls with the exception of airway length. The lack of a significant difference in the mean A-P distance may indicate that patient position during imaging (upright vs. supine) can affect this measurement. Comparison of this study with a future prospective study design will allow for validation of these results

  13. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xuming Liu,1 Zhihan Yan,2 Tingyu Wang,1 Xiaokai Yang,1 Feng Feng,3 Luping Fan,1 Jian Jiang4 1Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Department of Radiology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Peking Union Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL after normal sleep (NS and after sleep deprivation (SD. Methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results: Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL, left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the

  14. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with longer duration of insomnia in the Freiburg Insomnia Cohort compared to insomnia with normal sleep duration, but not with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Anna F; Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Kyle, Simon D; Baglioni, Chiara; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; McGinness, Alastair J; Riemann, Dieter; Spiegelhalder, Kai

    2017-01-01

    To replicate the association between insomnia with objective short sleep duration and hypertension, type 2 diabetes and duration of insomnia. Retrospective case-control study. Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center-University of Freiburg. 328 patients with primary insomnia classified according to DSM-IV criteria (125 males, 203 females, 44.3 ± 12.2 years). N/A. All participants were investigated using polysomnography, blood pressure measurements, and fasting routine laboratory. Insomnia patients with short sleep duration (insomnia compared to those with normal sleep duration (≥ 6 hours) in the first night of laboratory sleep. Insomnia patients who were categorised as short sleepers in either night were not more likely to suffer from hypertension (systolic blood pressure of ≥ 140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure of ≥ 90 mm Hg, or a previously established diagnosis). Data analysis showed that insomnia patients with objective short sleep duration were not more likely to suffer from type 2 diabetes (fasting plasma glucose level of ≥ 126 mg/dl, or a previously established diagnosis). However, the diabetes analysis was only based on a very small number of diabetes cases. As a new finding, insomnia patients who were categorised as short sleepers in either night presented with increases in liver enzyme levels. The finding on insomnia duration supports the concept of two distinct sub-groups of insomnia, namely insomnia with, and without, objectively determined short sleep duration. However, our data challenges previous findings that insomnia patients with short sleep duration are more likely to suffer from hypertension.

  15. Acute administration of fluoxetine normalizes rapid eye movement sleep abnormality, but not depressive behaviors in olfactory bulbectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Tu, Zhi-Cai; Xu, Xing-Yuan; Li, Rui; Qu, Wei-Min; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2012-01-01

    In humans, depression is associated with altered rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, the exact nature of the relationship between depressive behaviors and sleep abnormalities is debated. In this study, bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) was carried out to create a model of depression in rats. The sleep-wake profiles were assayed using a cutting-edge sleep bioassay system, and depressive behaviors were evaluated by open field and forced swimming tests. The monoamine content and monoamine metabolite levels in the brain were determined by a HPLC-electrochemical detection system. OBX rats exhibited a significant increase in REM sleep, especially between 15:00 and 18:00 hours during the light period. Acute treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately abolished the OBX-induced increase in REM sleep, but hyperactivity in the open field test and the time spent immobile in the forced swimming test remained unchanged. Neurochemistry studies revealed that acute administration of fluoxetine increased serotonin (5-HT) levels in the hippocampus, thalamus, and midbrain and decreased levels of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The ratio of 5-HIAA to 5-HT decreased in almost all regions of the brain. These results indicate that acute administration of fluoxetine can reduce the increase in REM sleep but does not change the depressive behaviors in OBX rats, suggesting that there was no causality between REM sleep abnormalities and depressive behaviors in OBX rats. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Forehead Skin Blood Flow in Normal Neonates during Active and Quiet Sleep, Measured with a Diode Laser Doppler Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suichies, H.E.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Okken, A.; Jentink, H.W.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Greve, Jan

    1988-01-01

    Changes in forehead skin blood flow during active and quiet sleep were determined in 16 healthy neonates using a recently developed semi-conductor laser Doppler flow meter without light conducting fibres. Measurements were carried out at a postnatal age varying from 5 hours to 7 days. The two sleep

  17. A novel BHLHE41 variant is associated with short sleep and resistance to sleep deprivation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Renata; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Goel, Namni; Cardinale, Christopher J; Dinges, David F; Kuna, Samuel T; Maislin, Greg; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Tufik, Sergio; Hogenesch, John B; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pack, Allan I

    2014-08-01

    Earlier work described a mutation in DEC2 also known as BHLHE41 (basic helix-loophelix family member e41) as causal in a family of short sleepers, who needed just 6 h sleep per night. We evaluated whether there were other variants of this gene in two well-phenotyped cohorts. Sequencing of the BHLHE41 gene, electroencephalographic data, and delta power analysis and functional studies using cell-based luciferase. We identified new variants of the BHLHE41 gene in two cohorts who had either acute sleep deprivation (n = 200) or chronic partial sleep deprivation (n = 217). One variant, Y362H, at another location in the same exon occurred in one twin in a dizygotic twin pair and was associated with reduced sleep duration, less recovery sleep following sleep deprivation, and fewer performance lapses during sleep deprivation than the homozygous twin. Both twins had almost identical amounts of non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. This variant reduced the ability of BHLHE41 to suppress CLOCK/BMAL1 and NPAS2/BMAL1 transactivation in vitro. Another variant in the same exome had no effect on sleep or response to sleep deprivation and no effect on CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Random mutagenesis identified a number of other variants of BHLHE41 that affect its function. There are a number of mutations of BHLHE41. Mutations reduce total sleep while maintaining NREM sleep and provide resistance to the effects of sleep loss. Mutations that affect sleep also modify the normal inhibition of BHLHE41 of CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Thus, clock mechanisms are likely involved in setting sleep length and the magnitude of sleep homeostasis. Pellegrino R, Kavakli IH, Goel N, Cardinale CJ, Dinges DF, Kuna ST, Maislin G, Van Dongen HP, Tufik S, Hogenesch JB, Hakonarson H, Pack AI. A novel BHLHE41 variant is associated with short sleep and resistance to sleep deprivation in humans. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1327-1336.

  18. GMPR: A robust normalization method for zero-inflated count data with application to microbiome sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Normalization is the first critical step in microbiome sequencing data analysis used to account for variable library sizes. Current RNA-Seq based normalization methods that have been adapted for microbiome data fail to consider the unique characteristics of microbiome data, which contain a vast number of zeros due to the physical absence or under-sampling of the microbes. Normalization methods that specifically address the zero-inflation remain largely undeveloped. Here we propose geometric mean of pairwise ratios—a simple but effective normalization method—for zero-inflated sequencing data such as microbiome data. Simulation studies and real datasets analyses demonstrate that the proposed method is more robust than competing methods, leading to more powerful detection of differentially abundant taxa and higher reproducibility of the relative abundances of taxa.

  19. GMPR: A robust normalization method for zero-inflated count data with application to microbiome sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Reeve, James; Zhang, Lujun; Huang, Shengbing; Wang, Xuefeng; Chen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Normalization is the first critical step in microbiome sequencing data analysis used to account for variable library sizes. Current RNA-Seq based normalization methods that have been adapted for microbiome data fail to consider the unique characteristics of microbiome data, which contain a vast number of zeros due to the physical absence or under-sampling of the microbes. Normalization methods that specifically address the zero-inflation remain largely undeveloped. Here we propose geometric mean of pairwise ratios-a simple but effective normalization method-for zero-inflated sequencing data such as microbiome data. Simulation studies and real datasets analyses demonstrate that the proposed method is more robust than competing methods, leading to more powerful detection of differentially abundant taxa and higher reproducibility of the relative abundances of taxa.

  20. Fluid-driven normal faulting earthquake sequences in the Taiwan orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-hua; Rau, Ruey-Juin; Lee, En-Jui

    2017-04-01

    Seismicity in the Central Range of Taiwan shows normal faulting mechanisms with T-axes directing NE, subparallel to the strike of the mountain belt. We analyze earthquake sequences occurred within 2012-2015 in the Nanshan area of northern Taiwan which indicating swarm behavior and migration characteristics. We select events larger than 2.0 from Central Weather Bureau catalog and use the double-difference relocation program hypoDD with waveform cross-correlation in the Nanshan area. We obtained a final count of 1406 (95%) relocated earthquakes. Moreover, we compute focal mechanisms using USGS program HASH by P-wave first motion and S/P ratio picking and 114 fault plane solutions with M 3.0-5.87 were determined. To test for fluid diffusion, we model seismicity using the equation of Shapiro et al. (1997) by fitting earthquake diffusing rate D during the migration period. According to the relocation result, seismicity in the Taiwan orogenic belt present mostly N25E orientation parallel to the mountain belt with the same direction of the tension axis. In addition, another seismic fracture depicted by seismicity rotated 35 degree counterclockwise to the NW direction. Nearly all focal mechanisms are normal fault type. In the Nanshan area, events show N10W distribution with a focal depth range from 5-12 km and illustrate fault plane dipping about 45-60 degree to SW. Three months before the M 5.87 mainshock which occurred in March, 2013, there were some foreshock events occurred in the shallow part of the fault plane of the mainshock. Half a year following the mainshock, earthquakes migrated to the north and south, respectively with processes matched the diffusion model at a rate of 0.2-0.6 m2/s. This migration pattern and diffusion rate offer an evidence of 'fluid-driven' process in the fault zone. We also find the upward migration of earthquakes in the mainshock source region. These phenomena are likely caused by the opening of the permeable conduit due to the M 5

  1. Large-scale Identification of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from Nicotianatabacum by Normalized cDNA Library Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez S Perez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An expressed sequence tags (EST resource for tobacco plants (Nicotianatabacum was established using high-throughput sequencing of randomly selected clones from one cDNA library representing a range of plant organs (leaf, stem, root and root base. Over 5000 ESTs were generated from the 3’ ends of 8000 clones, analyzed by BLAST searches and categorized functionally. All annotated ESTs were classified into 18 functional categories, unique transcripts involved in energy were the largest group accounting for 831 (32.32% of the annotated ESTs. After excluding 2450 non-significant tentative unique transcripts (TUTs, 100 unique sequences (1.67% of total TUTs were identified from the N. tabacum database. In the array result two genes strongly related to the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV were obtained, one basic form of pathogenesis-related protein 1 precursor (TBT012G08 and ubiquitin (TBT087G01. Both of them were found in the variety Hongda, some other important genes were classified into two groups, one of these implicated in plant development like those genes related to a photosynthetic process (chlorophyll a-b binding protein, photosystem I, ferredoxin I and III, ATP synthase and a further group including genes related to plant stress response (ubiquitin, ubiquitin-like protein SMT3, glycine-rich RNA binding protein, histones and methallothionein. The interesting finding in this study is that two of these genes have never been reported before in N. tabacum (ubiquitin-like protein SMT3 and methallothionein. The array results were confirmed using quantitative PCR.

  2. Establishing normal values for pediatric nighttime sleep measured by actigraphy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Barbara C; Short, Michelle A; Terrill, Philip; Rigney, Gabrielle; Haszard, Jillian J; Coussens, Scott; Foster-Owens, Mistral; Biggs, Sarah N

    2018-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of actigraphy in pediatric sleep studies, there are currently no age-related normative data. To systematically review the literature, calculate pooled mean estimates of actigraphy-derived pediatric nighttime sleep variables and to examine the magnitude of change with age. A systematic search was performed across eight databases of studies that included at least one actigraphy sleep variable from healthy children aged 0-18 years. Data suitable for meta-analysis were confined to ages 3-18 years with seven actigraphy variables analyzed using random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression performed using age as a covariate. In total, 1334 articles did not meet inclusion criteria; 87 had data suitable for review and 79 were suitable for meta-analysis. Pooled mean estimates for overnight sleep duration declined from 9.68 hours (3-5 years age band) to 8.98, 8.85, 8.05, and 7.4 for age bands 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-18 years, respectively. For continuous data, the best-fit (R2 = 0.74) equation for hours over the 0-18 years age range was 9.02 - 1.04 × [(age/10)^2 - 0.83]. There was a significant curvilinear association between both sleep onset and offset with age (p < .001). Sleep latency was stable at 19.4 min per night. There were significant differences among the older age groups between weekday and weekend/nonschool days (18 studies). Total sleep time in 15-18 years old was 56 min longer, and sleep onset and offset almost 1 and 2 hours later, respectively, on weekend or nonschool days. These normative values have potential application to assist the interpretation of actigraphy measures from nighttime recordings across the pediatric age range, and aid future research.

  3. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  4. Acetylcholine Neuromodulation in Normal and Abnormal Learning and Memory: Vigilance Control in Waking, Sleep, Autism, Amnesia and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Grossberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, is a neural model that explains how normal and abnormal brains may learn to categorize and recognize objects and events in a changing world, and how these learned categories may be remembered for a long time. This article uses ART to propose and unify the explanation of diverse data about normal and abnormal modulation of learning and memory by acetylcholine (ACh. In ART, vigilance control determines whether learned categories will be general and abstract, or specific and concrete. ART models how vigilance may be regulated by ACh release in layer 5 neocortical cells by influencing after-hyperpolarization (AHP currents. This phasic ACh release is mediated by cells in the nucleus basalis (NB of Meynert that are activated by unexpected events. The article additionally discusses data about ACh-mediated tonic control of vigilance. ART proposes that there are often dynamic breakdowns of tonic control in mental disorders such as autism, where vigilance remains high, and medial temporal amnesia, where vigilance remains low. Tonic control also occurs during sleep-wake cycles. Properties of Up and Down states during slow wave sleep arise in ACh-modulated laminar cortical ART circuits that carry out processes in awake individuals of contrast normalization, attentional modulation, decision-making, activity-dependent habituation, and mismatch-mediated reset. These slow wave sleep circuits interact with circuits that control circadian rhythms and memory consolidation. Tonic control properties also clarify how Alzheimer’s disease symptoms follow from a massive structural degeneration that includes undermining vigilance control by ACh in cortical layers 3 and 5. Sleep disruptions before and during Alzheimer’s disease, and how they contribute to a vicious cycle of plaque formation in layers 3 and 5, are also clarified from this perspective.

  5. Characterizing the heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancers using microdissected normal ductal epithelium and RNA-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovich, Milan; Clare, Susan E; Atale, Rutuja; Pardo, Ivanesa; Hancock, Bradley A; Solzak, Jeffrey P; Kassem, Nawal; Mathieson, Theresa; Storniolo, Anna Maria V; Rufenbarger, Connie; Lillemoe, Heather A; Blosser, Rachel J; Choi, Mi Ran; Sauder, Candice A; Doxey, Diane; Henry, Jill E; Hilligoss, Eric E; Sakarya, Onur; Hyland, Fiona C; Hickenbotham, Matthew; Zhu, Jin; Glasscock, Jarret; Badve, Sunil; Ivan, Mircea; Liu, Yunlong; Sledge, George W; Schneider, Bryan P

    2014-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are a heterogeneous set of tumors defined by an absence of actionable therapeutic targets (ER, PR, and HER-2). Microdissected normal ductal epithelium from healthy volunteers represents a novel comparator to reveal insights into TNBC heterogeneity and to inform drug development. Using RNA-sequencing data from our institution and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) we compared the transcriptomes of 94 TNBCs, 20 microdissected normal breast tissues from healthy volunteers from the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank, and 10 histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumor. Pathway analysis comparing TNBCs to optimized normal controls of microdissected normal epithelium versus classic controls composed of adjacent normal tissue revealed distinct molecular signatures. Differential gene expression of TNBC compared with normal comparators demonstrated important findings for TNBC-specific clinical trials testing targeted agents; lack of over-expression for negative studies and over-expression in studies with drug activity. Next, by comparing each individual TNBC to the set of microdissected normals, we demonstrate that TNBC heterogeneity is attributable to transcriptional chaos, is associated with non-silent DNA mutational load, and explains transcriptional heterogeneity in addition to known molecular subtypes. Finally, chaos analysis identified 146 core genes dysregulated in >90 % of TNBCs revealing an over-expressed central network. In conclusion, use of microdissected normal ductal epithelium from healthy volunteers enables an optimized approach for studying TNBC and uncovers biological heterogeneity mediated by transcriptional chaos.

  6. Effects of daytime food intake on memory consolidation during sleep or sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Herzog

    Full Text Available Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin, the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption. To these aims, 14 healthy normal-weight men learned a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory and a list of semantically associated word pairs (declarative memory. After the learning period, standardized meals were administered, equaling either ∼50% or ∼150% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. In the morning, after sleep or wakefulness, memory consolidation was tested. Plasma glucose was measured both before learning and retrieval. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed by electroencephalography (EEG. Independent of energy intake, subjects recalled significantly more word pairs after sleep than they did after SD. When subjects stayed awake and received an energy oversupply, the number of correctly recalled finger sequences was equal to those seen after sleep. Plasma glucose did not differ among conditions, and sleep time in the sleep conditions was not influenced by the energy intake interventions. These data indicate that the daytime energy intake level affects neither sleep's capacity to boost the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories, nor sleep's quality. However, high energy intake was followed by an improved procedural but not declarative memory consolidation under conditions of SD. This suggests that the formation of procedural memory is not only triggered by sleep but is also

  7. Effects of daytime food intake on memory consolidation during sleep or sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nina; Friedrich, Alexia; Fujita, Naoko; Gais, Steffen; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Benedict, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin), the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD) could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption. To these aims, 14 healthy normal-weight men learned a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory) and a list of semantically associated word pairs (declarative memory). After the learning period, standardized meals were administered, equaling either ∼50% or ∼150% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. In the morning, after sleep or wakefulness, memory consolidation was tested. Plasma glucose was measured both before learning and retrieval. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed by electroencephalography (EEG). Independent of energy intake, subjects recalled significantly more word pairs after sleep than they did after SD. When subjects stayed awake and received an energy oversupply, the number of correctly recalled finger sequences was equal to those seen after sleep. Plasma glucose did not differ among conditions, and sleep time in the sleep conditions was not influenced by the energy intake interventions. These data indicate that the daytime energy intake level affects neither sleep's capacity to boost the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories, nor sleep's quality. However, high energy intake was followed by an improved procedural but not declarative memory consolidation under conditions of SD. This suggests that the formation of procedural memory is not only triggered by sleep but is also sensitive to the

  8. Sporadic occurrence of completely lateralized vertex sharp transients of sleep is a normal phenomenon: a retrospective, blinded, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, J Nicholas; Mytinger, John R

    2015-04-01

    Vertex sharp transients (VSTs) of sleep often lateralize to the left or right frontocentral regions and can be mistaken as epileptiform. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of completely lateralized VSTs in pediatric-aged individuals and to assess their significance by comparing cohorts with and without epilepsy. The authors hypothesized that completely lateralized VSTs are normal and occur with similar frequencies in patients with and without epilepsy. The authors conducted a retrospective, blinded, case-control study comparing completely lateralized VSTs within a 5-minute EEG sleep epoch between cohorts of 100 patients with epilepsy and 100 age- and gender-matched controls. The number of patients with completely lateralized VSTs was not significantly different between cases (62%) and controls (65%) (P = 0.66). The median number of completely lateralized VSTs was small but not significantly different between cases (median 3) and controls (median 4) (P = 0.11). The presence of completely lateralized VSTs in cases (generalized vs. focal epilepsy) was not significantly different (P > 0.95). This is the first systematic study of the prevalence and significance of completely lateralized VSTs of sleep. This study provides class III evidence that completely lateralized VSTs, occurring in a sporadic fashion, are a normal phenomenon and should not be confused with epileptiform discharges.

  9. Normal Morning Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Levels and No Association with Rapid Eye Movement or Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2017-01-01

    in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid...... MCH levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that MCH levels in CSF collected in the morning are normal in narcolepsy and not associated with the clinical symptoms, REM sleep abnormalities, nor number of muscle movements during REM or NREM sleep of the patients. We conclude that morning lumbar CSF MCH......STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved...

  10. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDiekelmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i cueing memory reactivation during sleep, (ii stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations, and (iii targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications.

  11. Speech Motor Sequence Learning: Acquisition and Retention in Parkinson Disease and Normal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Jason A.; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the current investigation was to examine speech motor sequence learning in neurologically healthy younger adults, neurologically healthy older adults, and individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) over a 2-day period. Method: A sequential nonword repetition task was used to examine learning over 2 days. Participants practiced a…

  12. Effective Normalization for Copy Number Variation Detection from Whole Genome Sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janevski, A.; Varadan, V.; Kamalakaran, S.; Banerjee, N.; Dimitrova, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Whole genome sequencing enables a high resolution view ofthe human genome and provides unique insights into genome structureat an unprecedented scale. There have been a number of tools to infer copy number variation in the genome. These tools while validatedalso include a number of

  13. Sequence of activation of template biosyntheses in normal and transformed human cells after synchronization with a double thimidine block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, S.B.; Boikov, P.Ya.; Ebralidze, L.K.; Stepanova, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    The sequences of synthesis of DNA, RNA, and various groups of proteins in normal and transformed human fibroblasts was studied in the first mitotic cycle synchronization of the cells by a double thymidine block. Two peculiarities of the synthesis of acid-soluble histone and acid-insoluble proteins in the normal and transformed cells, were detected: (1) in normal fibroblasts the synthesis of the two groups of proteins is a minimum before DNA replication, and the greatest activity is achieved in the G 2 phase; in transformed cells protein synthesis is a maximum after the removal of the thymine block, while in the G 2 phase it is decreased; (2) in normal fibroblasts the synthesis of acid-insoluble proteins is a maximum before the maximum synthesis of DNA, and that of acid-soluble proteins is a maximum after the maximum of DNA synthesis. The opposite picture is observed in transformed cells. RNA synthesis in normal and transformed cells is activated at the end of the G 2 phase. In normal cells the synthesis of proteins is coupled with the activation of RNA synthesis, while in transformed cells protein synthesis is evidently transferred to the following mitotic cycle. Especially pronounced differences were detected in the expression of certain LMG proteins. Thus, in transformed cells the regulation of the coupling of the template syntheses is modified

  14. Probabilistic Inference on Multiple Normalized Signal Profiles from Next Generation Sequencing: Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Peng, Chengbin; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    With the prevalence of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with sequencing (ChIP-Seq) technology, massive ChIP-Seq data has been accumulated. The ChIP-Seq technology measures the genome-wide occupancy of DNA-binding proteins in vivo. It is well-known that different DNA-binding protein occupancies may result in a gene being regulated in different conditions (e.g. different cell types). To fully understand a gene's function, it is essential to develop probabilistic models on multiple ChIP-Seq profiles for deciphering the gene transcription causalities. In this work, we propose and describe two probabilistic models. Assuming the conditional independence of different DNA-binding proteins' occupancies, the first method (SignalRanker) is developed as an intuitive method for ChIP-Seq genome-wide signal profile inference. Unfortunately, such an assumption may not always hold in some gene regulation cases. Thus, we propose and describe another method (FullSignalRanker) which does not make the conditional independence assumption. The proposed methods are compared with other existing methods on ENCODE ChIP-Seq datasets, demonstrating its regression and classification ability. The results suggest that FullSignalRanker is the best-performing method for recovering the signal ranks on the promoter and enhancer regions. In addition, FullSignalRanker is also the best-performing method for peak sequence classification. We envision that SignalRanker and FullSignalRanker will become important in the era of next generation sequencing. FullSignalRanker program is available on the following website: http://www.cs.toronto.edu/∼wkc/FullSignalRanker/ © 2015 IEEE.

  15. Probabilistic Inference on Multiple Normalized Signal Profiles from Next Generation Sequencing: Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2015-04-20

    With the prevalence of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with sequencing (ChIP-Seq) technology, massive ChIP-Seq data has been accumulated. The ChIP-Seq technology measures the genome-wide occupancy of DNA-binding proteins in vivo. It is well-known that different DNA-binding protein occupancies may result in a gene being regulated in different conditions (e.g. different cell types). To fully understand a gene\\'s function, it is essential to develop probabilistic models on multiple ChIP-Seq profiles for deciphering the gene transcription causalities. In this work, we propose and describe two probabilistic models. Assuming the conditional independence of different DNA-binding proteins\\' occupancies, the first method (SignalRanker) is developed as an intuitive method for ChIP-Seq genome-wide signal profile inference. Unfortunately, such an assumption may not always hold in some gene regulation cases. Thus, we propose and describe another method (FullSignalRanker) which does not make the conditional independence assumption. The proposed methods are compared with other existing methods on ENCODE ChIP-Seq datasets, demonstrating its regression and classification ability. The results suggest that FullSignalRanker is the best-performing method for recovering the signal ranks on the promoter and enhancer regions. In addition, FullSignalRanker is also the best-performing method for peak sequence classification. We envision that SignalRanker and FullSignalRanker will become important in the era of next generation sequencing. FullSignalRanker program is available on the following website: http://www.cs.toronto.edu/∼wkc/FullSignalRanker/ © 2015 IEEE.

  16. Polymorphisms in promoter sequences of MDM2, p53, and p16INK4a genes in normal Japanese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Ohsaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has been conducted to identify sequence polymorphisms of gene promoter regions in patients and control subjects, including normal individuals, and to determine the influence of these polymorphisms on transcriptional regulation in cells that express wild-type or mutant p53. In this study we isolated genomic DNA from whole blood of healthy Japanese individuals and sequenced the promoter regions of the MDM2, p53, and p16INK4a genes. We identified polymorphisms comprising 3 nucleotide substitutions at exon 1 and intron 1 regions of the MDM2 gene and 1 nucleotide insertion at a poly(C nucleotide position in the p53 gene. The Japanese individuals also exhibited p16INK4a polymorphisms at several positions, including position -191. Reporter gene analysis by using luciferase revealed that the polymorphisms of MDM2, p53, and p16INK4a differentially altered luciferase activities in several cell lines, including the Colo320DM, U251, and T98G cell lines expressing mutant p53. Our results indicate that the promoter sequences of these genes differ among normal Japanese individuals and that polymorphisms can alter gene transcription activity.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal pituitary gland using ultrashort TE (UTE) pulse sequences (REV 1.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portman, Olivia; Flemming, Stephen; Cox, Jeremy P.D.; Johnston, Desmond G.; Bydder, Graeme M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the normal pituitary gland in male subjects with ultrashort echo time (TE) pulse sequences, describe its appearance and measure its signal intensity before and after contrast enhancement. Eleven male volunteers (mean age 57.1 years; range 36-81 years) were examined with a fat-suppressed ultrashort TE (= 0.08 ms) pulse sequence. The studies were repeated after the administration of intravenous gadodiamide. The MR scans were examined for gland morphology and signal intensity before and after enhancement. Endocrinological evaluation included baseline pituitary function tests and a glucagon stimulatory test to assess pituitary cortisol and growth hormone reserve. High signal intensity was observed in the anterior pituitary relative to the brain in nine of the 11 subjects. These regions involved the whole of the anterior pituitary in three subjects, were localised to one side in two examples and were seen inferiorly in three subjects. Signal intensities relative to the brain increased with age, with a peak around the sixth or seventh decade and decreasing thereafter. Overall, the pituitary function tests were considered to be within normal limits and did not correlate with pituitary gland signal intensity. The anterior pituitary shows increased signal intensity in normal subjects when examined with T 1 -weighted ultrashort TE pulse sequences. The cause of this increased intensity is unknown, but fibrosis and iron deposition are possible candidates. The variation in signal intensity with age followed the temporal pattern of iron content observed at post mortem. No relationship with endocrine status was observed. (orig.)

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal pituitary gland using ultrashort TE (UTE) pulse sequences (REV 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portman, Olivia; Flemming, Stephen; Cox, Jeremy P.D.; Johnston, Desmond G. [Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, St Mary' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Bydder, Graeme M. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the normal pituitary gland in male subjects with ultrashort echo time (TE) pulse sequences, describe its appearance and measure its signal intensity before and after contrast enhancement. Eleven male volunteers (mean age 57.1 years; range 36-81 years) were examined with a fat-suppressed ultrashort TE (= 0.08 ms) pulse sequence. The studies were repeated after the administration of intravenous gadodiamide. The MR scans were examined for gland morphology and signal intensity before and after enhancement. Endocrinological evaluation included baseline pituitary function tests and a glucagon stimulatory test to assess pituitary cortisol and growth hormone reserve. High signal intensity was observed in the anterior pituitary relative to the brain in nine of the 11 subjects. These regions involved the whole of the anterior pituitary in three subjects, were localised to one side in two examples and were seen inferiorly in three subjects. Signal intensities relative to the brain increased with age, with a peak around the sixth or seventh decade and decreasing thereafter. Overall, the pituitary function tests were considered to be within normal limits and did not correlate with pituitary gland signal intensity. The anterior pituitary shows increased signal intensity in normal subjects when examined with T{sub 1}-weighted ultrashort TE pulse sequences. The cause of this increased intensity is unknown, but fibrosis and iron deposition are possible candidates. The variation in signal intensity with age followed the temporal pattern of iron content observed at post mortem. No relationship with endocrine status was observed. (orig.)

  19. A strand specific high resolution normalization method for chip-sequencing data employing multiple experimental control measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enroth, Stefan; Andersson, Claes; Andersson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing is becoming the standard tool for investigating protein-DNA interactions or epigenetic modifications. However, the data generated will always contain noise due to e.g. repetitive regions or non-specific antibody interactions. The noise will appear in the form of a backg......, the background is only used to adjust peak calling and not as a pre-processing step that aims at discerning the signal from the background noise. A normalization procedure that extracts the signal of interest would be of universal use when investigating genomic patterns....

  20. Fragmentation of Rapid Eye Movement and Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep without Total Sleep Loss Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Fear Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael L; Katsuyama, Ângela M; Duge, Leanne S; Sriram, Chaitra; Krushelnytskyy, Mykhaylo; Kim, Jeansok J; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2016-11-01

    Sleep is important for consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories. It is hypothesized that the temporal sequence of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is critical for the weakening of nonadaptive memories and the subsequent transfer of memories temporarily stored in the hippocampus to more permanent memories in the neocortex. A great body of evidence supporting this hypothesis relies on behavioral, pharmacological, neural, and/or genetic manipulations that induce sleep deprivation or stage-specific sleep deprivation. We exploit an experimental model of circadian desynchrony in which intact animals are not deprived of any sleep stage but show fragmentation of REM and NREM sleep within nonfragmented sleep bouts. We test the hypothesis that the shortening of NREM and REM sleep durations post-training will impair memory consolidation irrespective of total sleep duration. When circadian-desynchronized animals are trained in a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear-conditioning task they show normal short-term memory but impaired long-term memory consolidation. This impairment in memory consolidation is positively associated with the post-training fragmentation of REM and NREM sleep but is not significantly associated with the fragmentation of total sleep or the total amount of delta activity. We also show that the sleep stage fragmentation resulting from circadian desynchrony has no effect on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and no effect on hippocampus-independent cued fear-conditioning memory. Our findings in an intact animal model, in which sleep deprivation is not a confounding factor, support the hypothesis that the stereotypic sequence and duration of sleep stages play a specific role in long-term hippocampus-dependent fear memory consolidation. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Sequence analysis of annually normalized citation counts: an empirical analysis based on the characteristic scores and scales (CSS) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Ye, Adam Y; Ye, Fred Y

    2017-01-01

    In bibliometrics, only a few publications have focused on the citation histories of publications, where the citations for each citing year are assessed. In this study, therefore, annual categories of field- and time-normalized citation scores (based on the characteristic scores and scales method: 0 = poorly cited, 1 = fairly cited, 2 = remarkably cited, and 3 = outstandingly cited) are used to study the citation histories of papers. As our dataset, we used all articles published in 2000 and their annual citation scores until 2015. We generated annual sequences of citation scores (e.g., [Formula: see text]) and compared the sequences of annual citation scores of six broader fields (natural sciences, engineering and technology, medical and health sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences, and humanities). In agreement with previous studies, our results demonstrate that sequences with poorly cited (0) and fairly cited (1) elements dominate the publication set; sequences with remarkably cited (3) and outstandingly cited (4) periods are rare. The highest percentages of constantly poorly cited papers can be found in the social sciences; the lowest percentages are in the agricultural sciences and humanities. The largest group of papers with remarkably cited (3) and/or outstandingly cited (4) periods shows an increasing impact over the citing years with the following orders of sequences: [Formula: see text] (6.01%), which is followed by [Formula: see text] (1.62%). Only 0.11% of the papers ( n  = 909) are constantly on the outstandingly cited level.

  2. Ostriches sleep like platypuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Lesku

    Full Text Available Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement (REM sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas, the most basal (or 'ancient' group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus, a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.

  3. A Hierarchical Poisson Log-Normal Model for Network Inference from RNA Sequencing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallopin, Mélina; Rau, Andrea; Jaffrézic, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Gene network inference from transcriptomic data is an important methodological challenge and a key aspect of systems biology. Although several methods have been proposed to infer networks from microarray data, there is a need for inference methods able to model RNA-seq data, which are count-based and highly variable. In this work we propose a hierarchical Poisson log-normal model with a Lasso penalty to infer gene networks from RNA-seq data; this model has the advantage of directly modelling discrete data and accounting for inter-sample variance larger than the sample mean. Using real microRNA-seq data from breast cancer tumors and simulations, we compare this method to a regularized Gaussian graphical model on log-transformed data, and a Poisson log-linear graphical model with a Lasso penalty on power-transformed data. For data simulated with large inter-sample dispersion, the proposed model performs better than the other methods in terms of sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. These results show the necessity of methods specifically designed for gene network inference from RNA-seq data. PMID:24147011

  4. Spectral Sequences of Type Ia Supernovae. I. Connecting Normal and Subluminous SNe Ia and the Presence of Unburned Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heringer, E.; Kerkwijk, M. H. van [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Sim, S. A. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kerzendorf, W. E. [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are generally agreed to arise from thermonuclear explosions of carbon–oxygen white dwarfs. The actual path to explosion, however, remains elusive, with numerous plausible parent systems and explosion mechanisms suggested. Observationally, SNe Ia have multiple subclasses, distinguished by their light curves and spectra. This raises the question of whether these indicate that multiple mechanisms occur in nature or that explosions have a large but continuous range of physical properties. We revisit the idea that normal and 91bg-like SNe can be understood as part of a spectral sequence in which changes in temperature dominate. Specifically, we find that a single ejecta structure is sufficient to provide reasonable fits of both the normal SN Ia SN 2011fe and the 91bg-like SN 2005bl, provided that the luminosity and thus temperature of the ejecta are adjusted appropriately. This suggests that the outer layers of the ejecta are similar, thus providing some support for a common explosion mechanism. Our spectral sequence also helps to shed light on the conditions under which carbon can be detected in premaximum SN Ia spectra—we find that emission from iron can “fill in” the carbon trough in cool SNe Ia. This may indicate that the outer layers of the ejecta of events in which carbon is detected are relatively metal-poor compared to events in which carbon is not detected.

  5. Use of Non-Normalized, Non-Amplified cDNA for 454-Based RNA Sequencing of Fleshy Melon Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Portnoy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The melon ( L. fruit is an important crop and model system for the genomic study of both fleshy fruit development and the Cucurbitaceae family. To obtain an accurate representation of the melon fruit transcriptome based on expressed sequence tag (EST abundance in 454-pyrosequencing data, we prepared double-stranded complementary DNA (cDNA of melon without the usual amplification and normalization steps. A purification step was also included to eliminate small fragments. Complementary DNAs were obtained from 14 individual fruit libraries derived from two genotypes, separated into flesh and peel tissues, and sampled throughout fruit development. Pyrosequencing was performed using Genome Sequencer FLX (GS FLX technology, resulting in 1,215,359 reads, with mean length of >200 nucleotides. The global digital expression data was validated by comparative reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR of 40 selected genes and expression patterns were similar for the two methods. The results indicate that high-quality, nonbiased cDNA for next-generation sequencing can be prepared from mature, fleshy fruit, which are notorious for difficulties in ribonucleic acid (RNA preparation.

  6. Organelle Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Help to Distinguish Carpelloid Stamen and Normal Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources in Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2015-01-01

    We previously discovered carpelloid stamens when breeding cytoplasmic male sterile lines in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). In this study, hybrids and multiple backcrosses were produced from different cytoplasmic male sterile carpelloid stamen sources and maintainer lines. Carpelloid stamens caused dysplasia of the flower structure and led to hooked or coiled siliques with poor seed setting, which were inherited in a maternal fashion. Using four distinct carpelloid stamens and twelve distinct normal stamens from cytoplasmic male sterile sources and one maintainer, we used 21 mitochondrial simple sequence repeat (mtSSR) primers and 32 chloroplast SSR primers to identify a mitochondrial marker, mtSSR2, that can differentiate between the cytoplasm of carpelloid and normal stamens. Thereafter, mtSSR2 was used to identify another 34 broccoli accessions, with an accuracy rate of 100%. Analysis of the polymorphic sequences revealed that the mtSSR2 open reading frame of carpelloid stamen sterile sources had a deletion of 51 bases (encoding 18 amino acids) compared with normal stamen materials. The open reading frame is located in the coding region of orf125 and orf108 of the mitochondrial genomes in Brassica crops and had the highest similarity with Raphanus sativus and Brassica carinata. The current study has not only identified a useful molecular marker to detect the cytoplasm of carpelloid stamens during broccoli breeding, but it also provides evidence that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited and provides a basis for studying the effect of the cytoplasm on flower organ development in plants. PMID:26407159

  7. Ganzfeld stimulation or sleep enhance long term motor memory consolidation compared to normal viewing in saccadic adaptation paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Voges

    Full Text Available Adaptation of saccade amplitude in response to intra-saccadic target displacement is a type of implicit motor learning which is required to compensate for physiological changes in saccade performance. Once established trials without intra-saccadic target displacement lead to de-adaptation or extinction, which has been attributed either to extra-retinal mechanisms of spatial constancy or to the influence of the stable visual surroundings. Therefore we investigated whether visual deprivation ("Ganzfeld"-stimulation or sleep can partially maintain this motor learning compared to free viewing of the natural surroundings. Thirty-five healthy volunteers performed two adaptation blocks of 100 inward adaptation trials - interspersed by an extinction block - which were followed by a two-hour break with or without visual deprivation (VD. Using additional adaptation and extinction blocks short and long (4 weeks term memory of this implicit motor learning were tested. In the short term, motor memory tested immediately after free viewing was superior to adaptation performance after VD. In the long run, however, effects were opposite: motor memory and relearning of adaptation was superior in the VD conditions. This could imply independent mechanisms that underlie the short-term ability of retrieving learned saccadic gain and its long term consolidation. We suggest that subjects mainly rely on visual cues (i.e., retinal error in the free viewing condition which makes them prone to changes of the visual stimulus in the extinction block. This indicates the role of a stable visual array for resetting adapted saccade amplitudes. In contrast, visual deprivation (GS and sleep, might train subjects to rely on extra-retinal cues, e.g., efference copy or prediction to remap their internal representations of saccade targets, thus leading to better consolidation of saccadic adaptation.

  8. Sleep enforces the temporal order in memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Drosopoulos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temporal sequence represents the main principle underlying episodic memory. The storage of temporal sequence information is thought to involve hippocampus-dependent memory systems, preserving temporal structure possibly via chaining of sequence elements in heteroassociative networks. Converging evidence indicates that sleep enhances the consolidation of recently acquired representations in the hippocampus-dependent declarative memory system. Yet, it is unknown if this consolidation process comprises strengthening of the temporal sequence structure of the representation as well, or is restricted to sequence elements independent of their temporal order. To address this issue we tested the influence of sleep on the strength of forward and backward associations in word-triplets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects learned a list of 32 triplets of unrelated words, presented successively (A-B-C in the center of a screen, and either slept normally or stayed awake in the subsequent night. After two days, retrieval was assessed for the triplets sequentially either in a forward direction (cueing with A and B and asking for B and C, respectively or in a backward direction (cueing with C and B and asking for B and A, respectively. Memory was better for forward than backward associations (p<0.01. Sleep did not affect backward associations, but enhanced forward associations, specifically for the first (AB transitions (p<0.01, which were generally more difficult to retrieve than the second transitions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that consolidation during sleep strengthens the original temporal sequence structure in memory, presumably as a result of a replay of new representations during sleep in forward direction. Our finding suggests that the temporally directed replay of memory during sleep, apart from strengthening those traces, could be the key mechanism that explains how temporal order is integrated and maintained in

  9. Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mini Series #5 Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD NORMAL AIRWAY Good quality sleep is important for ... with asthma and/or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) may have sleep issues that can lead to ...

  10. Expert and crowd-sourced validation of an individualized sleep spindle detection method employing complex demodulation and individualized normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eRay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A spindle detection method was developed that: 1 extracts the signal of interest (i.e., spindle-related phasic changes in sigma relative to ongoing background sigma activity using complex demodulation, 2 accounts for variations of spindle characteristics across the night, scalp derivations and between individuals, and 3 employs a minimum number of sometimes arbitrary, user-defined parameters. Complex demodulation was used to extract instantaneous power in the spindle band. To account for intra- and inter-individual differences, the signal was z-score transformed using a 60s sliding window, per channel, over the course of the recording. Spindle events were detected with a z-score threshold corresponding to a low probability (e.g., 99th percentile. Spindle characteristics, such as amplitude, duration and oscillatory frequency, were derived for each individual spindle following detection, which permits spindles to be subsequently and flexibly categorized as slow or fast spindles from a single detection pass. Spindles were automatically detected in 15 young healthy subjects. Two experts manually identified spindles from C3 during Stage 2 sleep, from each recording; one employing conventional guidelines, and the other, identifying spindles with the aid of a sigma (11-16 Hz filtered channel. These spindles were then compared between raters and to the automated detection to identify the presence of true positives, true negatives, false positives and false negatives. This method of automated spindle detection resolves or avoids many of the limitations that complicate automated spindle detection, and performs well compared to a group of non-experts, and importantly, has good external validity with respect to the extant literature in terms of the characteristics of automatically detected spindles.

  11. of psychological stress (ID 1598, 1601), maintenance of normal sleep (ID 1222, 1737, 2004) and reduction of menstrual discomfort (ID 1599) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and improvement of cognitive function, alleviation of psychological stress, maintenance of normal sleep and reduction of menstrual discomfort. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...

  12. Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Bradley L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shott, Sally R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A.; Chini, Barbara A.; Amin, Raouf S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, Bradley L.; Donnelly, Lane F.; Shott, Sally R.; Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A.; Chini, Barbara A.; Amin, Raouf S.

    2006-01-01

    Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome. (orig.)

  14. MicroRNA and piRNA profiles in normal human testis detected by next generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are the class of small endogenous RNAs that play an important regulatory role in cells by negatively affecting gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. There have been extensive studies aiming to discover miRNAs and to analyze their functions in the cells from a variety of species. However, there are no published studies of miRNA profiles in human testis using next generation sequencing (NGS technology. RESULTS: We employed Solexa sequencing technology to profile miRNAs in normal human testis. Total 770 known and 5 novel human miRNAs, and 20121 piRNAs were detected, indicating that the human testis has a complex population of small RNAs. The expression of 15 known and 5 novel detected miRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR. We have also predicted the potential target genes of the abundant known and novel miRNAs, and subjected them to GO and pathway analysis, revealing the involvement of miRNAs in many important biological phenomenon including meiosis and p53-related pathways that are implicated in the regulation of spermatogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports the first genome-wide miRNA profiles in human testis using a NGS approach. The presence of large number of miRNAs and the nature of their target genes suggested that miRNAs play important roles in spermatogenesis. Here we provide a useful resource for further elucidation of the regulatory role of miRNAs and piRNAs in the spermatogenesis. It may also facilitate the development of prophylactic strategies for male infertility.

  15. Comparison of lesion conspicuity of radiofrequency ablation zones among MR sequences according to time in the normal rabbit liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Myong Seo; Kim, Seung Kwon; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Kwag, Hyon Joo

    2007-01-01

    To compare the lesion conspicuity of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) zones among MR sequences according to time in the normal rabbit liver. RFA zones were created in 12 rabbit livers with a 17-gauge internally cooled electrode (1-cm active tip, 30 Watts, 3 minutes). Three rabbits were sacrificed immediately, three days, two weeks, and six weeks after the RFA procedure, respectively. Before sacrifice, T1-, T2-weighted images (WI), and gadolinium-enhanced (GE)-T1WI images were obtained. The lesion conspicuity of the RAF zone and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the RFA zone to the liver parenchyma were analyzed and compared among the MR sequences according to time. On T1WI, the RFA zones were only clearly seen on acute phase. On T2WI, the RFA zones were clearly seen on all phases except the hyperacute phase. On GE T1WI, the RFA zones were clearly seen on all phases. The CNRs of the RFA zone to the liver parenchyma of GE-T1WI (8.1-12.4) were significantly higher than the CNRs of TIWI (1.6-2.7) and T2WI (1.7-6.3) on all phases (ρ < 0.05), but the visual lesion conspicuity between GE T1WI and T2WI were similar. On hyperacute phase, GE T1WI showed better lesion conspicuity of the RFA zone than T1WI and T2WI. On other phases, GE T1WI and T2WI showed similar lesion conspicuity

  16. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment

  17. Iterative normalization technique for reference sequence generation for zero-tail discrete fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for generating sequences for zero-tail discrete fourier transform (DFT)-spread-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) (ZT DFT-s-OFDM) reference signals. One method includes adding a zero vector to an input sequence...... of each of the elements, converting the sequence to time domain, generating a zero-padded sequence by forcing a zero head and tail of the sequence, and repeating the steps until a final sequence with zero-tail and flat frequency response is obtained....

  18. Patients cured from craniopharyngioma or nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA) suffer similarly from increased daytime somnolence despite normal sleep patterns compared to healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van Kralingen, Klaas W.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Rabe, Klaus F.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Adults patients previously treated for craniopharyngioma have increased general and physical fatigue compared to healthy controls. This could be related to disturbed sleep patterns. The aim of this study was to compare sleepiness and sleep patterns in those patients to healthy controls and to

  19. The Neuroprotective Aspects of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Andy R; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of. When one sleeps, the brain reorganizes and recharges itself, and removes toxic waste byproducts which have accumulated throughout the day. This evidence demonstrates that sleeping can clear the brain and help maintain its normal functioning. Multiple studies have been done to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation; more recently some have been conducted to show the effects of sleep restriction, which is a much more common occurrence, have the same effects as total sleep deprivation. Each phase of the sleep cycle restores and rejuvenates the brain for optimal function. When sleep is deprived, the active process of the glymphatic system does not have time to perform that function, so toxins can build up, and the effects will become apparent in cognitive abilities, behavior, and judgment. As a background for this paper we have reviewed literature and research of sleep phases, effects of sleep deprivation, and the glymphatic system of the brain and its restorative effect during the sleep cycle.

  20. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  1. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  2. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm and its comparative analysis with that of normal cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondrial genome has unique features such as large size, frequent recombination and incorporation of foreign DNA. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is caused by rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome, and a novel chimeric open reading frame (ORF created by shuffling of endogenous sequences is often responsible for CMS. The Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm is one of the most extensively studied cytoplasms in Brassicaceae. Although the gene orf138 has been isolated as a determinant of Ogura-type CMS, no homologous sequence to orf138 has been found in public databases. Therefore, how orf138 sequence was created is a mystery. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two radish mitochondrial genomes, namely, Ogura- and normal-type genomes, and analyzed them to reveal the origin of the gene orf138. Results Ogura- and normal-type mitochondrial genomes were assembled to 258,426-bp and 244,036-bp circular sequences, respectively. Normal-type mitochondrial genome contained 33 protein-coding and three rRNA genes, which are well conserved with the reported mitochondrial genome of rapeseed. Ogura-type genomes contained same genes and additional atp9. As for tRNA, normal-type contained 17 tRNAs, while Ogura-type contained 17 tRNAs and one additional trnfM. The gene orf138 was specific to Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and no sequence homologous to it was found in normal-type genome. Comparative analysis of the two genomes revealed that radish mitochondrial genome consists of 11 syntenic regions (length >3 kb, similarity >99.9%. It was shown that short repeats and overlapped repeats present in the edge of syntenic regions were involved in recombination events during evolution to interconvert two types of mitochondrial genome. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome has four unique regions (2,803 bp, 1,601 bp, 451 bp and 15,255 bp in size that are non-syntenic to normal-type genome, and the gene orf138

  3. Sleep in athletes and the effects of Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roky, Rachida; Herrera, Christopher Paul; Ahmed, Qanta

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is now considered as a new frontier in performance enhancement. This article presents background content on sleep function, sleep needs and methods of sleep investigation along with data on the potential effects of Ramadan fasting on sleep in normal individuals and athletes. Accumulated sleep loss has negative impacts on cognitive function, mood, daytime sleepiness and performance. Sleep studies in athletes fasting during Ramadan are very rare. Most of them have demonstrated that during this month, sleep duration decreased and sleep timing shifted. But the direct relation between sleep changes and performance during Ramadan is not yet elucidated. Objective sleep patterns can be investigated using polysomnography, actigraphy, and standardised questionnaires and recorded in daily journals or sleep logs. The available data on sleep indicate that team doctors and coaches should consider planning sleep schedule and napping; implementing educational programmes focusing on the need for healthy sleep; and consider routine screening for sleep loss in athletes of all age groups and genders.

  4. Effects of different sleep deprivation protocols on sleep perception in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Leonardo I; Pinto, Luciano R; Perlis, Michael L; Martins, Raquel; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2014-10-01

    To investigate whether different protocols of sleep deprivation modify sleep perception. The effects of total sleep deprivation (TD) and selective rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RD) on sleep perception were analyzed in normal volunteers. Thirty-one healthy males with normal sleep were randomized to one of three conditions: (i) normal uninterrupted sleep; (ii) four nights of RD; or (iii) two nights of TD. Morning perception of total sleep time was evaluated for each condition. Sleep perception was estimated using total sleep time (in hours) as perceived by the volunteer divided by the total sleep time (in hours) measured by polysomnography (PSG). The final value of this calculation was defined as the perception index (PI). There were no significant differences among the three groups of volunteers in the total sleep time measured by PSG or in the perception of total sleep time at baseline condition. Volunteers submitted to RD exhibited lower sleep PI scores as compared with controls during the sleep deprivation period (P sleep deprivation reduced the ability of healthy young volunteers to perceive their total sleep time when compared with time measured by PSG. The data reinforce the influence of sleep deprivation on sleep perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intraoral pH and temperature during sleep with and without mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J E; Waddell, J N; Lyons, K M; Kieser, J A

    2016-05-01

    To measure and compare the intraoral pH and temperature of individuals during sleep with and without mouth breathing. Ten healthy participants [mean age = 25·8 (± 4·3)] wore a custom-made appliance fitted with a pH probe and thermocouple for two sets of 48 h. Continuous pH and temperature measurements were taken from the palatal aspect of the upper central incisors. To simulate mouth breathing during sleep, participants wore a nose clip for two nights of the four, with the first group (n = 5) wearing the nose clip during the first night and the rest (n = 5) wearing the nose clip during the second night of sleep to balance any potential bias from the wearing sequence. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. The mean intraoral pH during daytime was 7·3 (± 0·4) and during sleep was 7·0 (± 0·5). The mean intraoral pH during sleep with mouth breathing was 6·6 (± 0·5), which was statistically significant compared with the normal sleep condition (P pH decreased slowly over the hours of sleep in all participants. When sleeping with forced mouth breathing, intraoral pH showed a greater fall over a longer period of time. The mean intraoral temperature was 33·1 °C (± 5·2) during daytime and 33·3 °C (± 6·1) during sleep, with no statistical significance between sleep with and without mouth breathing (P > 0·05). The results suggest that mouth breathing during sleep is related to a decrease in intraoral pH compared with normal breathing during sleep, and this has been proposed as a causal factor for dental erosion and caries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas....... As every organ in the body is affected by sleep directly or indirectly, sleep and sleep-associated disorders are frequent and only now starting to be understood....

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of a Picorna-Like Virus Associated with Gill Tissue in Clinically Normal Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Adams, Cynthia R.; Galbraith, Heather; Aunins, Aaron; Cornman, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a picorna-like virus associated with brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, gill tissue. The draft genome comprises 8,681 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tract, and contains two open reading frames. It is most similar to picorna-like viruses that infect invertebrates.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of a Picorna-Like Virus Associated with Gill Tissue in Clinically Normal Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Adams, Cynthia R; Galbraith, Heather; Aunins, Aaron; Cornman, Robert S

    2017-10-12

    Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a picorna-like virus associated with brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis , gill tissue. The draft genome comprises 8,681 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tract, and contains two open reading frames. It is most similar to picorna-like viruses that infect invertebrates.

  9. Extensive structural variations between mitochondrial genomes of CMS and normal peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) revealed by complete nucleotide sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yeong Deuk; Choi, Yoomi; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Dong; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2014-07-04

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an inability to produce functional pollen that is caused by mutation of the mitochondrial genome. Comparative analyses of mitochondrial genomes of lines with and without CMS in several species have revealed structural differences between genomes, including extensive rearrangements caused by recombination. However, the mitochondrial genome structure and the DNA rearrangements that may be related to CMS have not been characterized in Capsicum spp. We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the pepper CMS line FS4401 (507,452 bp) and the fertile line Jeju (511,530 bp). Comparative analysis between mitochondrial genomes of peppers and tobacco that are included in Solanaceae revealed extensive DNA rearrangements and poor conservation in non-coding DNA. In comparison between pepper lines, FS4401 and Jeju mitochondrial DNAs contained the same complement of protein coding genes except for one additional copy of an atp6 gene (ψatp6-2) in FS4401. In terms of genome structure, we found eighteen syntenic blocks in the two mitochondrial genomes, which have been rearranged in each genome. By contrast, sequences between syntenic blocks, which were specific to each line, accounted for 30,380 and 17,847 bp in FS4401 and Jeju, respectively. The previously-reported CMS candidate genes, orf507 and ψatp6-2, were located on the edges of the largest sequence segments that were specific to FS4401. In this region, large number of small sequence segments which were absent or found on different locations in Jeju mitochondrial genome were combined together. The incorporation of repeats and overlapping of connected sequence segments by a few nucleotides implied that extensive rearrangements by homologous recombination might be involved in evolution of this region. Further analysis using mtDNA pairs from other plant species revealed common features of DNA regions around CMS-associated genes. Although large portion of sequence context was

  10. Alcohol and the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colrain, Ian M; Nicholas, Christian L; Baker, Fiona C

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol acts as a sedative that interacts with several neurotransmitter systems important in the regulation of sleep. Acute administration of large amounts of alcohol prior to sleep leads to decreased sleep-onset latency and changes in sleep architecture early in the night, when blood alcohol levels are high, with subsequent disrupted, poor-quality sleep later in the night. Alcohol abuse and dependence are associated with chronic sleep disturbance, lower slow-wave sleep, and more rapid-eye-movement sleep than normal, that last long into periods of abstinence and may play a role in relapse. This chapter outlines the evidence for acute and chronic alcohol effects on sleep architecture and sleep electroencephalogram, evidence for tolerance with repeated administration, and possible underlying neurochemical mechanisms for alcohol's effects on sleep. Also discussed are sex differences as well as effects of alcohol on sleep homeostasis and circadian regulation. Evidence for the role of sleep disruption as a risk factor for developing alcohol dependence is discussed in the context of research conducted in adolescents. The utility of sleep-evoked potentials in the assessment of the effects of alcoholism on sleep and the brain and in abstinence-mediated recovery is also outlined. The chapter concludes with a series of questions that need to be answered to determine the role of sleep and sleep disturbance in the development and maintenance of problem drinking and the potential beneficial effects of the treatment of sleep disorders for maintenance of abstinence in alcoholism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Possession of ATM Sequence Variants as Predictor for Late Normal Tissue Responses in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Alice Y.; Fan, Grace; Atencio, David P.; Green, Sheryl; Formenti, Silvia C.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Iyengar, Preetha B.A.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Stock, Richard G.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Rosenstein, Barry S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The ATM gene product is a central component of cell cycle regulation and genomic surveillance. We hypothesized that DNA sequence alterations in ATM predict for adverse effects after external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 131 patients with a minimum of 2 years follow-up who had undergone breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy were screened for sequence alterations in ATM using DNA from blood lymphocytes. Genetic variants were identified using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late morbidity scoring schemes for skin and subcutaneous tissues were applied to quantify the radiation-induced effects. Results: Of the 131 patients, 51 possessed ATM sequence alterations located within exons or in short intron regions flanking each exon that encompass putative splice site regions. Of these 51 patients, 21 (41%) exhibited a minimum of a Grade 2 late radiation response. In contrast, of the 80 patients without an ATM sequence variation, only 18 (23%) had radiation-induced adverse responses, for an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.2). Fifteen patients were heterozygous for the G→A polymorphism at nucleotide 5557, which causes substitution of asparagine for aspartic acid at position 1853 of the ATM protein. Of these 15 patients, 8 (53%) exhibited a Grade 2-4 late response compared with 31 (27%) of the 116 patients without this alteration, for an odds ratio of 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-9.4). Conclusion: Sequence variants located in the ATM gene, in particular the 5557 G→A polymorphism, may predict for late adverse radiation responses in breast cancer patients

  12. Functional neuroimaging of sleep disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Chun; Zhao Jun; Guan Yihui

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect the health and normal life of human badly. However, the pathophysiology underlying adult sleep disorders is still unclear. Functional neuroimaging can be used to investigate whether sleep disorders are associated with specific changes in brain structure or regional activity. This paper reviews functional brain imaging findings in major intrinsic sleep disorders (i.e., idiopathic insomnia, narcolepsy, and obstructive sleep apnea) and in abnormal motor behavior during sleep (i.e., periodic limb movement disorder and REM sleep behavior disorder). Metabolic/functional investigations (positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging) are mainly reviewed, as well as neuroanatomical assessments (voxel-based morphometry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Meanwhile, here are some brief introduction of different kinds of sleep disorders. (authors)

  13. Mutation Detection in Patients With Advanced Cancer by Universal Sequencing of Cancer-Related Genes in Tumor and Normal DNA vs Guideline-Based Germline Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelker, Diana; Zhang, Liying; Kemel, Yelena; Stadler, Zsofia K; Joseph, Vijai; Zehir, Ahmet; Pradhan, Nisha; Arnold, Angela; Walsh, Michael F; Li, Yirong; Balakrishnan, Anoop R; Syed, Aijazuddin; Prasad, Meera; Nafa, Khedoudja; Carlo, Maria I; Cadoo, Karen A; Sheehan, Meg; Fleischut, Megan H; Salo-Mullen, Erin; Trottier, Magan; Lipkin, Steven M; Lincoln, Anne; Mukherjee, Semanti; Ravichandran, Vignesh; Cambria, Roy; Galle, Jesse; Abida, Wassim; Arcila, Marcia E; Benayed, Ryma; Shah, Ronak; Yu, Kenneth; Bajorin, Dean F; Coleman, Jonathan A; Leach, Steven D; Lowery, Maeve A; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Kantoff, Philip W; Sawyers, Charles L; Dickler, Maura N; Saltz, Leonard; Motzer, Robert J; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Scher, Howard I; Baselga, Jose; Klimstra, David S; Solit, David B; Hyman, David M; Berger, Michael F; Ladanyi, Marc; Robson, Mark E; Offit, Kenneth

    2017-09-05

    Guidelines for cancer genetic testing based on family history may miss clinically actionable genetic changes with established implications for cancer screening or prevention. To determine the proportion and potential clinical implications of inherited variants detected using simultaneous sequencing of the tumor and normal tissue ("tumor-normal sequencing") compared with genetic test results based on current guidelines. From January 2014 until May 2016 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 10 336 patients consented to tumor DNA sequencing. Since May 2015, 1040 of these patients with advanced cancer were referred by their oncologists for germline analysis of 76 cancer predisposition genes. Patients with clinically actionable inherited mutations whose genetic test results would not have been predicted by published decision rules were identified. Follow-up for potential clinical implications of mutation detection was through May 2017. Tumor and germline sequencing compared with the predicted yield of targeted germline sequencing based on clinical guidelines. Proportion of clinically actionable germline mutations detected by universal tumor-normal sequencing that would not have been detected by guideline-directed testing. Of 1040 patients, the median age was 58 years (interquartile range, 50.5-66 years), 65.3% were male, and 81.3% had stage IV disease at the time of genomic analysis, with prostate, renal, pancreatic, breast, and colon cancer as the most common diagnoses. Of the 1040 patients, 182 (17.5%; 95% CI, 15.3%-19.9%) had clinically actionable mutations conferring cancer susceptibility, including 149 with moderate- to high-penetrance mutations; 101 patients tested (9.7%; 95% CI, 8.1%-11.7%) would not have had these mutations detected using clinical guidelines, including 65 with moderate- to high-penetrance mutations. Frequency of inherited mutations was related to case mix, stage, and founder mutations. Germline findings led to discussion or initiation of

  14. Sleep Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  15. A computational approach to distinguish somatic vs. germline origin of genomic alterations from deep sequencing of cancer specimens without a matched normal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James X Sun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A key constraint in genomic testing in oncology is that matched normal specimens are not commonly obtained in clinical practice. Thus, while well-characterized genomic alterations do not require normal tissue for interpretation, a significant number of alterations will be unknown in whether they are germline or somatic, in the absence of a matched normal control. We introduce SGZ (somatic-germline-zygosity, a computational method for predicting somatic vs. germline origin and homozygous vs. heterozygous or sub-clonal state of variants identified from deep massively parallel sequencing (MPS of cancer specimens. The method does not require a patient matched normal control, enabling broad application in clinical research. SGZ predicts the somatic vs. germline status of each alteration identified by modeling the alteration's allele frequency (AF, taking into account the tumor content, tumor ploidy, and the local copy number. Accuracy of the prediction depends on the depth of sequencing and copy number model fit, which are achieved in our clinical assay by sequencing to high depth (>500x using MPS, covering 394 cancer-related genes and over 3,500 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Calls are made using a statistic based on read depth and local variability of SNP AF. To validate the method, we first evaluated performance on samples from 30 lung and colon cancer patients, where we sequenced tumors and matched normal tissue. We examined predictions for 17 somatic hotspot mutations and 20 common germline SNPs in 20,182 clinical cancer specimens. To assess the impact of stromal admixture, we examined three cell lines, which were titrated with their matched normal to six levels (10-75%. Overall, predictions were made in 85% of cases, with 95-99% of variants predicted correctly, a significantly superior performance compared to a basic approach based on AF alone. We then applied the SGZ method to the COSMIC database of known somatic variants

  16. Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axelsson, J.; Ingre, M.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Olsson, A.; Lekander, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether sleep deprived people are perceived as less healthy, less attractive, and more tired than after a normal night's sleep. Design Experimental study. Setting Sleep laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants 23 healthy, sleep deprived adults (age 18-31) who were

  17. In-school Snacking, Breakfast Consumption, and Sleeping Patterns of Normal and Overweight Iranian High School Girls: A Study in Urban and Rural Areas in Guilan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddah, Mohsen; Rashidi, Arash; Mohammadpour, Behnoush; Vafa, Reza; Karandish, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of snacking during school hours, sleep time, and breakfast consumption by weight status of Iranian high school girls in urban and rural areas in Guilan Province, Iran. Design: Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire and measure of body weight and height. Setting: High schools in urban and…

  18. New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes for radiation molecular cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Repin Mikhail V

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this work is to obtain the correct relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes for the use at FISH analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. Results The relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the male and female human diploid genomes have been calculated from the publicly available international Human Genome Project data. New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of human chromosomes were compared with the data recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2001. The differences in the values of the relative DNA contents of chromosomes obtained by using different approaches for 15 human chromosomes, mainly for large chromosomes, were below 2%. For the chromosomes 13, 17, 20 and 22 the differences were above 5%. Conclusion New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes were obtained. This approach, based on the genome sequence, can be recommended for the use in radiation molecular cytogenetics.

  19. RNA-sequence data normalization through in silico prediction of reference genes: the bacterial response to DNA damage as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Bork A; Karlsson, Torgny; Källman, Thomas; Wagner, E Gerhart H; Grabherr, Manfred G

    2017-01-01

    Measuring how gene expression changes in the course of an experiment assesses how an organism responds on a molecular level. Sequencing of RNA molecules, and their subsequent quantification, aims to assess global gene expression changes on the RNA level (transcriptome). While advances in high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technologies allow for inexpensive data generation, accurate post-processing and normalization across samples is required to eliminate any systematic noise introduced by the biochemical and/or technical processes. Existing methods thus either normalize on selected known reference genes that are invariant in expression across the experiment, assume that the majority of genes are invariant, or that the effects of up- and down-regulated genes cancel each other out during the normalization. Here, we present a novel method, moose 2 , which predicts invariant genes in silico through a dynamic programming (DP) scheme and applies a quadratic normalization based on this subset. The method allows for specifying a set of known or experimentally validated invariant genes, which guides the DP. We experimentally verified the predictions of this method in the bacterium Escherichia coli , and show how moose 2 is able to (i) estimate the expression value distances between RNA-seq samples, (ii) reduce the variation of expression values across all samples, and (iii) to subsequently reveal new functional groups of genes during the late stages of DNA damage. We further applied the method to three eukaryotic data sets, on which its performance compares favourably to other methods. The software is implemented in C++ and is publicly available from http://grabherr.github.io/moose2/. The proposed RNA-seq normalization method, moose 2 , is a valuable alternative to existing methods, with two major advantages: (i) in silico prediction of invariant genes provides a list of potential reference genes for downstream analyses, and (ii) non-linear artefacts in RNA-seq data

  20. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality and architecture as well as sleep's homeostatic and circadian controls change with healthy aging. Changes include reductions in slow-wave sleep's (SWS) percent and spectral power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), number and amplitude of sleep spindles, rapid eye movement (REM) density and the amplitude of circadian rhythms, as well as a phase advance (moved earlier in time) of the brain's circadian clock. With mild cognitive impairment (MCI) there are further reductions of sleep quality, SWS, spindles, and percent REM, all of which further diminish, along with a profound disruption of circadian rhythmicity, with the conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sleep disorders may represent risk factors for dementias (e.g., REM Behavior Disorder presages Parkinson's disease) and sleep disorders are themselves extremely prevalent in neurodegenerative diseases. Working memory , formation of new episodic memories, and processing speed all decline with healthy aging whereas semantic, recognition, and emotional declarative memory are spared. In MCI, episodic and working memory further decline along with declines in semantic memory. In young adults, sleep-dependent memory consolidation (SDC) is widely observed for both declarative and procedural memory tasks. However, with healthy aging, although SDC for declarative memory is preserved, certain procedural tasks, such as motor-sequence learning, do not show SDC. In younger adults, fragmentation of sleep can reduce SDC, and a normative increase in sleep fragmentation may account for reduced SDC with healthy aging. Whereas sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy can impair SDC in the absence of neurodegenerative changes, the incidence of sleep disorders increases both with normal aging and, further, with neurodegenerative disease. Specific features of sleep architecture, such as sleep spindles and SWS are strongly linked to SDC. Diminution of these features with healthy aging

  1. Development of normal fetal brain by MRI with a half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meilan; Liu Xuejun; Wang Jianhong; Zhao Cheng; Li Xiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate normal maturation of the fetal brain with half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) MRI. Methods: The normal brains of 25 fetuses of 12-38 weeks gestational age were examined in utero with half-Fourier RARE imaging. Gyrus maturation, gray and white matter differentiation, ventricle-to-brain diameter ratio, and subarachnoid space size were evaluated with respect to gestational age. Results: At 12-23 weeks, the brain had a smooth surface, and two or three layers were differentiated in the cerebral cortex. At 24-26 weeks, only a few shallow grooves were seen in the central sulcus, and three layers, including the immature cortex, intermediate zone, and germinal matrix, were differentiated in all fetuses. At 27-29 weeks, sulcus formation was observed in various regions of the brain parenchyma, and the germinal matrix became invisible. Sulcation was seen in the whole cerebral cortex from 30 weeks on. However, the cortex did not undergo infolding, and opercular formation was not seen before 33 weeks. At 23 weeks and earlier, the cerebral ventricles were large; thereafter, they gradually became smaller. The subarachnoid space overlying the cortical convexities was slightly dilated at all gestational ages, most markedly at 21-26 weeks. Conclusion: Changes in brain maturation proceed through stages in an orderly and predictable fashion and can be evaluated reliably with half-Fourier RARE MRI. (authors)

  2. MRI of normal pancreas : comparison of T2-weighted pulse sequences using turbo spin echo, turbo spin echo with fat suppression, HASTE and HASTE with fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Jang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Sang Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    1998-01-01

    To compare various breath-hold T2 weighted sequences in imaging normal pancreas with a phased-array coil. HASTE showed higher SD/N than TSE or FS-HASTE (p<0.01). TSE was superior to TSE in the delineation of pancreatic duct (p<0.001). TSE showed more artifacts than FS-TSE (p<0.001): HASTE and FS-HASTE showed no artifact. TSE is better than HASTE for the delineation of pancreatic margin but HASTE shows less artifacts and a more conspicuous pancreatic duct. Fat suppression decreases artifacts but makes the pancreatic margin indistinct. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  3. Chromosome-wide mapping of DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells reveals pervasive methylation of gene-associated and conserved intergenic sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Marzo Angelo M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation has been linked to genome regulation and dysregulation in health and disease respectively, and methods for characterizing genomic DNA methylation patterns are rapidly emerging. We have developed/refined methods for enrichment of methylated genomic fragments using the methyl-binding domain of the human MBD2 protein (MBD2-MBD followed by analysis with high-density tiling microarrays. This MBD-chip approach was used to characterize DNA methylation patterns across all non-repetitive sequences of human chromosomes 21 and 22 at high-resolution in normal and malignant prostate cells. Results Examining this data using computational methods that were designed specifically for DNA methylation tiling array data revealed widespread methylation of both gene promoter and non-promoter regions in cancer and normal cells. In addition to identifying several novel cancer hypermethylated 5' gene upstream regions that mediated epigenetic gene silencing, we also found several hypermethylated 3' gene downstream, intragenic and intergenic regions. The hypermethylated intragenic regions were highly enriched for overlap with intron-exon boundaries, suggesting a possible role in regulation of alternative transcriptional start sites, exon usage and/or splicing. The hypermethylated intergenic regions showed significant enrichment for conservation across vertebrate species. A sampling of these newly identified promoter (ADAMTS1 and SCARF2 genes and non-promoter (downstream or within DSCR9, C21orf57 and HLCS genes hypermethylated regions were effective in distinguishing malignant from normal prostate tissues and/or cell lines. Conclusions Comparison of chromosome-wide DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells revealed significant methylation of gene-proximal and conserved intergenic sequences. Such analyses can be easily extended for genome-wide methylation analysis in health and disease.

  4. Sleep spindle density in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Nikolic, Miki; Hvidtfelt, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) show alterations in sleep stage transitions, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep due to the loss of hypocretinergic signaling. However, the sleep microstructure has not yet been evaluated in these patients. We aimed to evaluate whether...... the sleep spindle (SS) density is altered in patients with NT1 compared to controls and patients with narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). METHODS: All-night polysomnographic recordings from 28 NT1 patients, 19 NT2 patients, 20 controls (C) with narcolepsy-like symptoms, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin...... levels and multiple sleep latency tests, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were included. Unspecified, slow, and fast SS were automatically detected, and SS densities were defined as number per minute and were computed across sleep stages and sleep cycles. The between-cycle trends of SS densities in N2...

  5. Sleep less and bite more: sleep disorders associated with occlusal loads during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Okura, Kazuo; Abe, Susumu; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2013-04-01

    Occlusal overload during sleep is a significant clinical issue that has negative impacts on the maintenance of teeth and the longevity of dental prostheses. Sleep is usually viewed as an 'out-of-functional' mode for masticatory muscles. However, orodental structures and prostheses are not free from occlusal loads during sleep since masticatory muscles can be activated at a low level within normal sleep continuity. Thus, an increase in masticatory muscle contractions, by whatever the cause, can be associated with a risk of increased occlusal loads during sleep. Among such conditions, sleep bruxism (SB) is a type of sleep-related movement disorders with potential load challenge to the tooth and orofacial structures. Patients with SB usually report frequent tooth grinding noises during sleep and there is a consecutive increase in number and strength of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA). Other types of masticatory muscle contractions can be non-specifically activated during sleep, such as brief contractions with tooth tapping, sleep talking, non-rhythmic contractions related to non-specific body movements, etc.; these occur more frequently in sleep disorders. Studies have shown that clinical signs and symptoms of SB can be found in patients with sleep disorders. In addition, sleep becomes compromised with aging process, and a prevalence of most sleep disorders is high in the elderly populations, in which prosthodontic rehabilitations are more required. Therefore, the recognition and understanding of the role of sleep disorders can provide a comprehensive vision for prosthodontic rehabilitations when prosthodontists manage complex orodental cases needing interdisciplinary collaborations between dentistry and sleep medicine. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mean Platelet Volume, Vitamin D and C Reactive Protein Levels in Normal Weight Children with Primary Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Anna Maria; Occasi, Francesca; Di Mauro, Federica; Lollobrigida, Valeria; Di Fraia, Marco; Savastano, Vincenzo; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Nicita, Francesco; Spalice, Alberto; Duse, Marzia

    2016-01-01

    Studies on Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) in children with Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) report conflicting results and the hypothesis of an intermittent hypoxemia leading to a systemic inflammation is reaching consensus. Vitamin D exerts anti-inflammatory properties and its deficiency has been supposed to play a role in sleep disorders. Emerging interest is rising about Primary Snoring (PS) since it is reasonable that also undetectable alteration of hypoxia might predispose to an increased production of inflammatory mediators. In this perspective, in a group of children affected by SDB, our aim was to investigate MPV, vitamin D and C Reactive Protein (CRP) levels, which had been previously evaluated separately in different studies focused only on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). We enrolled 137 children: 70 healthy controls (HC), 67 affected by SDB undergoing a polysomnographic evaluation, 22 with a diagnosis of PS and 45 with a diagnosis of OSAS. All patients underwent routine biochemical evaluations including blood cell counts, CRP and vitamin D. Children affected by SDB had a mean age of 8.49±2.19 and were prevalently males (23 females, 34%; 44 males, 66%). MPV levels were higher in OSAS and PS when compared to HC; platelet count (PLT) and CRP levels were higher while Vitamin D levels were lower in children with SDB when compared to HC. MPV levels were correlated with PLT (r = -0.54; pchildren with PS as well as in children with OSAS, and supports the underlying inflammation, hence, highlighting the importance of an early diagnosis of this previously considered benign form of SDB.

  7. Knowledge of childhood sleep: a possible variable in under or misdiagnosis of childhood sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Kimberly A; Richdale, Amanda L

    2011-12-01

    Evidence demonstrates that health professionals have limited knowledge about childhood sleep, frequently do not screen for these problems and often rely on parents to raise sleep issues at clinic visits. However, little is known about parents' sleep knowledge. The goal of this study was to assess parents' knowledge of sleep and specifically: (i) sleep aspects related to the age of children; (ii) developmentally normal sleep; and (iii) sleep problems that may lead to parents' ability to raise sleep issues at clinic visits. This study evaluated the knowledge of 170 parents of children aged 2-17 years about infant, child and adolescent sleep patterns and problems. The majority of parents could not answer correctly questions about developmental sleep patterns or sleep problems, but were more likely to answer correctly questions about normal infant sleep patterns and about sleep problems during waking hours. Parents also were more likely to answer 'don't know' to questions about: (i) older children and adolescents; (ii) sleep apnea; and (iii) dreams and nightmares. The implications of these findings for the identification, intervention and prevention of childhood sleep problems are discussed. 2011 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Finite-size effects in transcript sequencing count distribution: its power-law correction necessarily precedes downstream normalization and comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wing-Cheong; Ng, Hong-Kiat; Tantoso, Erwin; Soong, Richie; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2018-02-12

    signal-to-noise ratio by 50% and the statistical/detection sensitivity by as high as 30% regardless of the downstream mapping and normalization methods. Most importantly, the power-law correction improves concordance in significant calls among different normalization methods of a data series averagely by 22%. When presented with a higher sequence depth (4 times difference), the improvement in concordance is asymmetrical (32% for the higher sequencing depth instance versus 13% for the lower instance) and demonstrates that the simple power-law correction can increase significant detection with higher sequencing depths. Finally, the correction dramatically enhances the statistical conclusions and eludes the metastasis potential of the NUGC3 cell line against AGS of our dilution analysis. The finite-size effects due to undersampling generally plagues transcript count data with reproducibility issues but can be minimized through a simple power-law correction of the count distribution. This distribution correction has direct implication on the biological interpretation of the study and the rigor of the scientific findings. This article was reviewed by Oliviero Carugo, Thomas Dandekar and Sandor Pongor.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage in the knee. Evaluation of 3D-fat-saturation FLASH sequence in normal volunteer and patient with osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Katsuhiko

    1996-01-01

    MR imaging of normal and abnormal articular cartilage of the knee was performed using 3D-fat-saturation FLASH sequence (FSF). Contrast-to-noise ratios between the cartilage and fluid, and cartilage and bone marrow were evaluated respectively in 10 normal volunteers. The optimal imaging parameters were determined as flip angle of 40deg and TE of 10 ms. Good correlation was noted between MR images and macroscopic appearance of the hyaline cartilages in the cadaver knees. Comparison of MR and radiographic findings was made in 39 cases of osteoarthritis. MR was significantly more sensitive than radiography in detecting cartilage abnormalities. In patient with radiographically normal joint spaces, cartilage abnormality was detected by MRI in the medial compartment of 13 cases and the lateral compartment of 19 cases. Signal intensity of joint effusion was sufficiently suppressed and did not hamper evaluation of the cartilages. FSF method was considered as a valuable imaging technique in the evaluation of cartilage abnormalities of the knee. (author)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage in the knee. Evaluation of 3D-fat-saturation FLASH sequence in normal volunteer and patient with osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Katsuhiko [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-07-01

    MR imaging of normal and abnormal articular cartilage of the knee was performed using 3D-fat-saturation FLASH sequence (FSF). Contrast-to-noise ratios between the cartilage and fluid, and cartilage and bone marrow were evaluated respectively in 10 normal volunteers. The optimal imaging parameters were determined as flip angle of 40deg and TE of 10 ms. Good correlation was noted between MR images and macroscopic appearance of the hyaline cartilages in the cadaver knees. Comparison of MR and radiographic findings was made in 39 cases of osteoarthritis. MR was significantly more sensitive than radiography in detecting cartilage abnormalities. In patient with radiographically normal joint spaces, cartilage abnormality was detected by MRI in the medial compartment of 13 cases and the lateral compartment of 19 cases. Signal intensity of joint effusion was sufficiently suppressed and did not hamper evaluation of the cartilages. FSF method was considered as a valuable imaging technique in the evaluation of cartilage abnormalities of the knee. (author)

  11. Sleep and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwoo Kang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep architecture and sleep patterns normally change with aging. In preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the accumulation of amyloid plaques begins 10 to 20 years before any cognitive symptoms progress. Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ is secreted during physiological synaptic activity. Since synaptic activity is correlated with sleep and awake state, a degree of Aβ fluctuates in a diurnal sleep pattern. In animal and human studies, a degree of sleep quality showed a significant correlation with brain levels of Aβ and a risk of AD. Conversely, Aβ aggregation would debilitate neuronal function in brain regions critical to sleep and wake promotion. This bidirectional relationship can be explained as positive feedback loop and associated factors that influence this relationship. In AD, the degree of sleep disturbances is much more severe compared with in the normal elderly. Further, Sundowning syndrome and a reduction of melatonin level cause a stressful neuropsychiatric symptoms and a disruption of physiological sleep rhythm, respectively. In AD patients, a correlation between sleep architectural modifications and learning performances has been reported. Moreover, executive function and emotional reactivity might be attenuated by sleep disturbances, too. However, sleep disturbance does not impact cognitive functions of all patients with AD. This could support an individual and potentially genetically determined susceptibility. Sleep disturbances have an important effect on patients and caregivers. It has a critical value to confirm and treat individuals with sleep disorders and to explore whether good quality of sleep in humans can decrease the progression of preclinical to symptomatic AD.

  12. Sleep after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Skarbye, M; Wildschiødtz, G

    1996-01-01

    .01). SWS was absent in four of the patients after operation, whereas in six patients it was within the normal range (5-20% of the night). The proportion of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was not significantly changed after operation. There were no changes in arterial oxygen saturation on the postoperative...... compared with the preoperative night. Comparison of our results with previous studies on SWS and REM sleep disturbances after open laparotomy, suggests that the magnitude of surgery or administration of opioids, or both, may be important factors in the development of postoperative sleep disturbances.......The sleep pattern and oxygenation of 10 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were studied on the night before operation and the first night after operation. Operations were performed during general anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia was achieved without the administration...

  13. Mean Platelet Volume, Vitamin D and C Reactive Protein Levels in Normal Weight Children with Primary Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Zicari

    Full Text Available Studies on Mean Platelet Volume (MPV in children with Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB report conflicting results and the hypothesis of an intermittent hypoxemia leading to a systemic inflammation is reaching consensus. Vitamin D exerts anti-inflammatory properties and its deficiency has been supposed to play a role in sleep disorders. Emerging interest is rising about Primary Snoring (PS since it is reasonable that also undetectable alteration of hypoxia might predispose to an increased production of inflammatory mediators. In this perspective, in a group of children affected by SDB, our aim was to investigate MPV, vitamin D and C Reactive Protein (CRP levels, which had been previously evaluated separately in different studies focused only on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS.We enrolled 137 children: 70 healthy controls (HC, 67 affected by SDB undergoing a polysomnographic evaluation, 22 with a diagnosis of PS and 45 with a diagnosis of OSAS. All patients underwent routine biochemical evaluations including blood cell counts, CRP and vitamin D.Children affected by SDB had a mean age of 8.49±2.19 and were prevalently males (23 females, 34%; 44 males, 66%. MPV levels were higher in OSAS and PS when compared to HC; platelet count (PLT and CRP levels were higher while Vitamin D levels were lower in children with SDB when compared to HC. MPV levels were correlated with PLT (r = -0.54; p<0.001, vitamin D (r = -0.39; p<0.001 and CRP (r = 0.21; p<0.01. A multiple regression was run to predict MPV levels from vitamin D, CRP and PLT and these variables significantly predicted MPV (F = 17.42, p<0.0001; adjusted R2 = 0.37. Only platelet count and vitamin D added statistically significantly to the prediction (p<0.05.The present study provides evidence of higher MPV and lower vitamin D levels in children with PS as well as in children with OSAS, and supports the underlying inflammation, hence, highlighting the importance of an early diagnosis of this

  14. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  17. Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  18. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of normal renal transplants. An evaluation of a T1-weighted dynamic echo-planar sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, B.; Blancho, G.; Havet, T.; Leaute, F.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential usefulness of dynamic MR with echoplanar imaging (EPI) in assessing the renal function in patients with renal allografts. Material and methods: Using a T1-weighted sequence, EPI was performed after injection of a Gd-chelate in 17 patients with normally functioning renal allografts. Time-intensity curves were plotted from the signal intensity (SI) measurements of the cortex and the medulla. Results: The pattern of corticomedullar differentiation (CMD) observed after constrast enhancement was divided into four phases using the T1-EPI. After a rapid decrease in the SI of cortical structures, and a subsequent return to precontrast levels, a gradual fall in the SI of the medulla was observed. The average time between the two periods of signal loss was 60 s. Conclusion: This study illustrated the potential use of dynamic T1-EPI to demonstrate contrast-induced CMD in renal allografts. (orig.)

  19. Associations between sleep duration, sleep quality and diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Y Q Tan

    Full Text Available Abnormal durations of sleep have been associated with risk of diabetes. However, it is not clear if sleep duration is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR.In a cross-sectional study, we included 1,231 (Malay, n = 395; Indian, n = 836 adults (mean age 64.4 ± 9.0 years, 50.4% female with diabetes from the second visit of two independent population-based cohort studies (2011-15 in Singapore. Self-reported habitual sleep duration was categorized as short (<6 h, normal (6≤ h <8, and long (≥8 h. Questionnaires were administered to detect risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia, all of which may indicate poor quality of sleep. The associations between sleep-related characteristics with moderate DR and vision-threatening DR (VTDR were analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders.Prevalence of moderate DR and VTDR in the study population were 10.5% and 6.3% respectively. The mean duration of sleep was 6.4 ± 1.5 h. Compared to normal sleep duration, both short and long sleep durations were associated with moderate DR with multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of 1.73 (1.03-2.89 and 2.17 (1.28-3.66 respectively. Long sleep duration (2.37 [1.16-4.89], high risk of OSA (2.24 [1.09-4.75], and excessive daytime sleepiness (3.27 [1.02-10.30] were separately associated with VTDR.Sleep duration had a U-shaped association with moderate DR; long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness and high risk of OSA were positively associated with VTDR.

  20. Comprehensive processing of high-throughput small RNA sequencing data including quality checking, normalization, and differential expression analysis using the UEA sRNA Workbench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Matthew; Mohorianu, Irina; Stocks, Matthew; Applegate, Christopher; Dalmay, Tamas; Moulton, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Recently, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) has revealed compelling details about the small RNA (sRNA) population in eukaryotes. These 20 to 25 nt noncoding RNAs can influence gene expression by acting as guides for the sequence-specific regulatory mechanism known as RNA silencing. The increase in sequencing depth and number of samples per project enables a better understanding of the role sRNAs play by facilitating the study of expression patterns. However, the intricacy of the biological hypotheses coupled with a lack of appropriate tools often leads to inadequate mining of the available data and thus, an incomplete description of the biological mechanisms involved. To enable a comprehensive study of differential expression in sRNA data sets, we present a new interactive pipeline that guides researchers through the various stages of data preprocessing and analysis. This includes various tools, some of which we specifically developed for sRNA analysis, for quality checking and normalization of sRNA samples as well as tools for the detection of differentially expressed sRNAs and identification of the resulting expression patterns. The pipeline is available within the UEA sRNA Workbench, a user-friendly software package for the processing of sRNA data sets. We demonstrate the use of the pipeline on a H. sapiens data set; additional examples on a B. terrestris data set and on an A. thaliana data set are described in the Supplemental Information A comparison with existing approaches is also included, which exemplifies some of the issues that need to be addressed for sRNA analysis and how the new pipeline may be used to do this. © 2017 Beckers et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  1. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  2. Three dimensional and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear. Normal ears and anomaly scanned with 3D-CISS sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edamatsu, Hideo; Uechi, Yoko; Honjyo, Shiro; Yamashita, Koichi; Tonami, Hisao.

    1997-01-01

    The MRI system used in this study was a new scanning sequence, 3D-CISS (Three dimensional-constructive interference in steady state) with 1.5 Tesla. Ten normal ears and one ear with Mondini type anomaly were scanned and reconstructed. In imagings of normal inner ears, the cochlea has three spiral layers; basal, middle and apical turns. Each turn was separated into three parts; the scala vestibuli, osseous spiral lamina and scala tympani. Three semicircular ducts, utricle and saccule were also reconstructed in one frame. In the inner ear of Mondini anomaly, 3D MRI showed cochlear aplasia, hypoplasia of semicircular ducts and widely dilated vestibule. The imaging was identical with findings of ''common cavity''. The anomaly was easily recognized in 3D MRI more than in 2D imagings. The detailed and cubic imagings of the Mondini anomaly in 3D MRI could not be observed with conventional 2D MRI. 3D MRI is not invasive method and can scan a target very quickly. (author)

  3. Transcriptome profiling of the cancer, adjacent non-tumor and distant normal tissues from a colorectal cancer patient by deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan'an Wu

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the world. A genome-wide screening of transcriptome dysregulation between cancer and normal tissue would provide insight into the molecular basis of CRC initiation and progression. Compared with microarray technology, which is commonly used to identify transcriptional changes, the recently developed RNA-seq technique has the ability to detect other abnormal regulations in the cancer transcriptome, such as alternative splicing, novel transcripts or gene fusion. In this study, we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing at ~50× coverage on CRC, adjacent non-tumor and distant normal tissue. The results revealed cancer-specific, differentially expressed genes and differential alternative splicing, suggesting that the extracellular matrix and metabolic pathways are activated and the genes related to cell homeostasis are suppressed in CRC. In addition, one tumor-restricted gene fusion, PRTEN-NOTCH2, was also detected and experimentally confirmed. This study reveals some common features in tumor invasion and provides a comprehensive survey of the CRC transcriptome, which provides better insight into the complexity of regulatory changes during tumorigenesis.

  4. Gene discovery from Jatropha curcas by sequencing of ESTs from normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library from developing seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugantham Priyanka Annabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas L. is promoted as an important non-edible biodiesel crop worldwide. Jatropha oil, which is a triacylglycerol, can be directly blended with petro-diesel or transesterified with methanol and used as biodiesel. Genetic improvement in jatropha is needed to increase the seed yield, oil content, drought and pest resistance, and to modify oil composition so that it becomes a technically and economically preferred source for biodiesel production. However, genetic improvement efforts in jatropha could not take advantage of genetic engineering methods due to lack of cloned genes from this species. To overcome this hurdle, the current gene discovery project was initiated with an objective of isolating as many functional genes as possible from J. curcas by large scale sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results A normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas. The cDNA library contained about 1 × 106 clones and average insert size of the clones was 2.1 kb. Totally 12,084 ESTs were sequenced to average high quality read length of 576 bp. Contig analysis revealed 2258 contigs and 4751 singletons. Contig size ranged from 2-23 and there were 7333 ESTs in the contigs. This resulted in 7009 unigenes which were annotated by BLASTX. It showed 3982 unigenes with significant similarity to known genes and 2836 unigenes with significant similarity to genes of unknown, hypothetical and putative proteins. The remaining 191 unigenes which did not show similarity with any genes in the public database may encode for unique genes. Functional classification revealed unigenes related to broad range of cellular, molecular and biological functions. Among the 7009 unigenes, 6233 unigenes were identified to be potential full-length genes. Conclusions The high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas for the first time and 7009 unigenes coding

  5. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linden M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Linden,1,2 Marie Dietz,1 Christian Veauthier,3 Ingo Fietze3 1Research Group Psychosomatic Rehabilitation, Charité University Medicine Berlin, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Rehabilitation Centre Seehof, Teltow, 3Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Objective: To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients.Method: A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80 and good sleepers (PSQI <6, n=19. They then underwent a polysomnography and in the morning rated their previous night’s sleep using a published protocol (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin morning protocol [MP].Results: In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnography. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes, evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often, and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective

  6. Mammalian sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  7. Relationships between questionnaire ratings of sleep quality and polysomnography in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerlund, A.; Trolle-Lagerros, Y.; Kecklund, L.G.; Axelsson, J.; Akerstedt, T.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between polysomnographic sleep and subjective habitual sleep quality and restoration from sleep. Thirty-one normal sleepers completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire and multiple home polysomnography recordings (n = 2-5). Using linear regression, sleep

  8. Sleep disorders - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  9. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  10. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth / For Parents / Obstructive Sleep Apnea What's ... How Is Sleep Apnea Treated? Print What Is Sleep Apnea? Brief pauses in breathing during sleep are ...

  11. Sleep transitions in hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Jennum, Poul

    2013-08-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by instability of sleep-wake, tonus, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep regulation. It is associated with severe hypothalamic hypocretin deficiency, especially in patients with cataplexy (loss of tonus). As the hypocretin neurons coordinate and stabilize the brain's sleep-wake pattern, tonus, and REM flip-flop neuronal centers in animal models, we set out to determine whether hypocretin deficiency and/or cataplexy predicts the unstable sleep-wake and REM sleep pattern of the human phenotype. We measured the frequency of transitions in patients with narcolepsy between sleep-wake states and to/from REM and NREM sleep stages. Patients were subdivided by the presence of +/- cataplexy and +/- hypocretin-1 deficiency. Sleep laboratory studies conducted from 2001-2011. In total 63 narcolepsy patients were included in the study. Cataplexy was present in 43 of 63 patients and hypocretin-1 deficiency was present in 37 of 57 patients. Hypocretin-deficient patients with narcolepsy had a significantly higher frequency of sleep-wake transitions (P = 0.014) and of transitions to/from REM sleep (P = 0.044) than patients with normal levels of hypocretin-1. Patients with cataplexy had a significantly higher frequency of sleep-wake transitions (P = 0.002) than those without cataplexy. A multivariate analysis showed that transitions to/from REM sleep were predicted mainly by hypocretin-1 deficiency (P = 0.011), whereas sleep-wake transitions were predicted mainly by cataplexy (P = 0.001). In human narcolepsy, hypocretin deficiency and cataplexy are both associated with signs of destabilized sleep-wake and REM sleep control, indicating that the disorder may serve as a human model for the sleep-wake and REM sleep flip-flop switches.

  12. Heart rate variability: a tool to explore the sleeping brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Chouchou, Florian; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is divided into two main sleep stages: (1) non-rapid eye movement sleep (non-REMS), characterized among others by reduced global brain activity; and (2) rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), characterized by global brain activity similar to that of wakefulness. Results of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, which is widely used to explore autonomic modulation, have revealed higher parasympathetic tone during normal non-REMS and a shift toward sympathetic predominance during normal REMS. M...

  13. Construction and evaluation of normalized cDNA libraries enriched with full-length sequences for rapid discovery of new genes from Sisal (Agave sisalana Perr.) different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Zhao; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Lu, Jun-Ying; Li, Jun-Feng

    2012-10-12

    To provide a resource of sisal-specific expressed sequence data and facilitate this powerful approach in new gene research, the preparation of normalized cDNA libraries enriched with full-length sequences is necessary. Four libraries were produced with RNA pooled from Agave sisalana multiple tissues to increase efficiency of normalization and maximize the number of independent genes by SMART™ method and the duplex-specific nuclease (DSN). This procedure kept the proportion of full-length cDNAs in the subtracted/normalized libraries and dramatically enhanced the discovery of new genes. Sequencing of 3875 cDNA clones of libraries revealed 3320 unigenes with an average insert length about 1.2 kb, indicating that the non-redundancy of libraries was about 85.7%. These unigene functions were predicted by comparing their sequences to functional domain databases and extensively annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Comparative analysis of sisal unigenes and other plant genomes revealed that four putative MADS-box genes and knotted-like homeobox (knox) gene were obtained from a total of 1162 full-length transcripts. Furthermore, real-time PCR showed that the characteristics of their transcripts mainly depended on the tight expression regulation of a number of genes during the leaf and flower development. Analysis of individual library sequence data indicated that the pooled-tissue approach was highly effective in discovering new genes and preparing libraries for efficient deep sequencing.

  14. Small RNA Sequencing Uncovers New miRNAs and moRNAs Differentially Expressed in Normal and Primary Myelofibrosis CD34+ Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Guglielmelli

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN are chronic myeloid cancers thought to arise at the level of CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. They include essential thrombocythemia (ET, polycythemia vera (PV and primary myelofibrosis (PMF. All can progress to acute leukemia, but PMF carries the worst prognosis. Increasing evidences indicate that deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs might plays an important role in hematologic malignancies, including MPN. To attain deeper knowledge of short RNAs (sRNAs expression pattern in CD34+ cells and of their possible role in mediating post-transcriptional regulation in PMF, we sequenced with Illumina HiSeq2000 technology CD34+ cells from healthy subjects and PMF patients. We detected the expression of 784 known miRNAs, with a prevalence of miRNA up-regulation in PMF samples, and discovered 34 new miRNAs and 99 new miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs, in CD34+ cells. Thirty-seven small RNAs were differentially expressed in PMF patients compared with healthy subjects, according to microRNA sequencing data. Five miRNAs (miR-10b-5p, miR-19b-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-379-5p, and miR-543 were deregulated also in PMF granulocytes. Moreover, 3'-moR-128-2 resulted consistently downregulated in PMF according to RNA-seq and qRT-PCR data both in CD34+ cells and granulocytes. Target predictions of these validated small RNAs de-regulated in PMF and functional enrichment analyses highlighted many interesting pathways involved in tumor development and progression, such as signaling by FGFR and DAP12 and Oncogene Induced Senescence. As a whole, data obtained in this study deepened the knowledge of miRNAs and moRNAs altered expression in PMF CD34+ cells and allowed to identify and validate a specific small RNA profile that distinguishes PMF granulocytes from those of normal subjects. We thus provided new information regarding the possible role of miRNAs and, specifically, of new moRNAs in this disease.

  15. Sleep and Premenstrual Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehan, Shazia; Auguste, Evan; Hussain, Mahjabeen; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Brzezinski, Amon; Gupta, Ravi; Attarian, Hrayr; Jean-Louis, Giradin; McFarlane, Samy I.

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is unknown; it may be due to the normal effect of hormones during the menstrual cycle as it occurs in the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.PMS affects women of childbearing age and remits with the onset of menstruation. The menstrual phase is known to influence stage 2 and REM sleep in women, irrespective of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Women with PMDD showed a decreased response to melatonin in their luteal phase as compared to the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. However, melatonin duration or timing of offset in the morning has not been reported to correlate with the mood. Rather, improvement in mood-related symptoms of PMDD has been found to be influenced by sleep deprivation, be it sleep restrictions in early or late night. Sleep disturbance and decreased melatonin secretions due to hormonal fluctuations during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle could explain the sleep complaints of PMDD. PMID:28239684

  16. Sequencing and annotation of the chloroplast DNAs and identification of polymorphisms distinguishing normal male-fertile and male-sterile cytoplasms of onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kohn, Christopher; Kiełkowska, Agnieszka; Havey, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Male-sterile (S) cytoplasm of onion is an alien cytoplasm introgressed into onion in antiquity and is widely used for hybrid seed production. Owing to the biennial generation time of onion, classical crossing takes at least 4 years to classify cytoplasms as S or normal (N) male-fertile. Molecular markers in the organellar DNAs that distinguish N and S cytoplasms are useful to reduce the time required to classify onion cytoplasms. In this research, we completed next-generation sequencing of the chloroplast DNAs of N- and S-cytoplasmic onions; we assembled and annotated the genomes in addition to identifying polymorphisms that distinguish these cytoplasms. The sizes (153 538 and 153 355 base pairs) and GC contents (36.8%) were very similar for the chloroplast DNAs of N and S cytoplasms, respectively, as expected given their close phylogenetic relationship. The size difference was primarily due to small indels in intergenic regions and a deletion in the accD gene of N-cytoplasmic onion. The structures of the onion chloroplast DNAs were similar to those of most land plants with large and small single copy regions separated by inverted repeats. Twenty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms, two polymorphic restriction-enzyme sites, and one indel distributed across 20 chloroplast genes in the large and small single copy regions were selected and validated using diverse onion populations previously classified as N or S cytoplasmic using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Although cytoplasmic male sterility is likely associated with the mitochondrial DNA, maternal transmission of the mitochondrial and chloroplast DNAs allows for polymorphisms in either genome to be useful for classifying onion cytoplasms to aid the development of hybrid onion cultivars.

  17. Sleep and Development in Genetically Tractable Model Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Biron, David

    2016-05-01

    Sleep is widely recognized as essential, but without a clear singular function. Inadequate sleep impairs cognition, metabolism, immune function, and many other processes. Work in genetic model systems has greatly expanded our understanding of basic sleep neurobiology as well as introduced new concepts for why we sleep. Among these is an idea with its roots in human work nearly 50 years old: sleep in early life is crucial for normal brain maturation. Nearly all known species that sleep do so more while immature, and this increased sleep coincides with a period of exuberant synaptogenesis and massive neural circuit remodeling. Adequate sleep also appears critical for normal neurodevelopmental progression. This article describes recent findings regarding molecular and circuit mechanisms of sleep, with a focus on development and the insights garnered from models amenable to detailed genetic analyses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. The Sleep Disorder in Anti-lgLON5 Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaig, Carles; Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; Graus, Francesc

    2018-05-23

    To review the clinical and polysomnographic features of the sleep disorder occurring in the recently described anti-IgLON5 disease. The hallmark of the disease is the presence of antibodies against IgLON5, a neural cell adhesion molecule of unknown function. The disease presents a robust HLA association, and the neuropathological examination shows a novel neuronal tauopathy with predominant hypothalamic and brainstem involvement. Most patients (> 80%) present sleep-related vocalizations with movements and behaviors and sleep-disordered breathing. Polysomnographic studies show (1) a complex NREM sleep parasomnia at sleep initiation characterized by undifferentiated NREM or poorly structured N2 sleep with sleep-talking or mumbling, and simple or finalistic movements followed by normal periods of N3 or N2 NREM sleep, (2) REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and (3) obstructive sleep apnea with stridor. The last two features appear mainly in periods where NREM sleep normalizes. Identification of the anti-IgLON5 sleep disorder is important to suspect the disease. The combination of abnormal NREM sleep initiation, followed by normal periods of NREM sleep and RBD, represents a novel parasomnia.

  19. Sleep problems and obstructive sleep apnea in children with down syndrome, an overwiew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Mieke; Verhulst, Stijn; Wojciechowski, Marek; Van de Heyning, Paul; Boudewyns, An

    2016-03-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a high prevalence of sleep problems, including behavioural sleep disturbances and obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep problems are associated with a wide range of adverse health effects. Since children with DS are already known to have many comorbidities, they are particularly susceptible for the negative impact of sleep problems. Aim of this study is (1) to evaluate the prevalence of sleep problems in children with DS, (2) compare the prevalence of sleep problems in children with DS with a community sample of typical developing school-aged children, and (3) to correlate the existence of sleep problems in children with DS and OSA. Children enrolled at the multidisciplinary Down team of the University Hospital Antwerp and seen at the ENT department were eligible for this study. The prevalence of sleep problems was evaluated by the use of the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and a full overnight polysomnography was performed to screen for obstructive sleep apnea. Parents of fifty-four children with DS, aged 7.5 years (5.4-11.6), completed the CSHQ and an overall prevalence of sleep problems was found in 74.1%. In 57.1% of the children OSA was diagnosed with a median obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI) 7.25/h (5.7-9.8). Overall sleep problems were not age-or gender related, however boys suffer more from daytime sleepiness. Symptoms of sleep disordered breathing correlate with parasomnias, a longer sleep duration and more daytime sleepiness. No correlation was found between sleep problems and underlying OSA. Children with Down syndrome have a significantly higher prevalence of sleep problems, compared to normal developing healthy school-aged children. We didn't find any correlation between the parental report of sleep problems and underlying OSA, or OSA severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential modulation of global and local neural oscillations in REM sleep by homeostatic sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bowon; Kocsis, Bernat; Hwang, Eunjin; Kim, Youngsoo; Strecker, Robert E; McCarley, Robert W; Choi, Jee Hyun

    2017-02-28

    Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases. This pattern followed a common rule despite marked topographic differences. The findings suggest that REM sleep slow oscillations may translate top-down homeostatic control to widely separated brain regions whereas fast oscillations synchronizing local neuronal ensembles escape this global command. These patterns of EEG oscillation changes are interpreted to reconcile two prevailing theories of the function of sleep, synaptic homeostasis and sleep dependent memory consolidation.

  1. Preserved sleep microstructure in blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, Sébrina; Christensen, Julie A.E.; Jennum, Poul

    2018-01-01

    , as light is the primary zeitgeber of the master biological clock found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a greater number of sleep disturbances is often reported in blind individuals. Here, we examined various electroencephalographic microstructural components of sleep, both...... during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, between blind individuals, including both of early and late onset, and normal-sighted controls. During wakefulness, occipital alpha oscillations were lower, or absent in blind individuals. During sleep, differences were observed across...... electrode derivations between the early and late blind samples, which may reflect altered cortical networking in early blindness. Despite these differences in power spectra density, the electroencephalography microstructure of sleep, including sleep spindles, slow wave activity, and sawtooth waves, remained...

  2. Future Directions in Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    It is critical for psychologists to gain a better understanding about the intersection between sleep and developmental psychopathology. However, while many strive to answer the question of whether sleep causes developmental psychopathology, or vice versa, ultimately the relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology is complex and dynamic. This article considers future directions in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology that go beyond this mechanistic question, highlighting areas important to address for clinicians and researchers who strive to better understand how best to serve children and adolescents with developmental psychopathology. Questions are presented about what is normal in terms of sleep across development, the role of individual variability in terms of sleep needs and vulnerability to sleep loss, and how sleep may serve as a risk or resilience factor for developmental psychopathology, concluding with considerations for interventions.

  3. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  4. Cell Injury and Repair Resulting from Sleep Loss and Sleep Recovery in Laboratory Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Carol A.; Henchen, Christopher J.; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Design: Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements and Results: Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Two days of recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. Conclusions: These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. Citation: Everson CA, Henchen CJ, Szabo A, Hogg N. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats

  5. The genome-wide landscape of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in response to sleep deprivation impacts on synaptic plasticity genes

    OpenAIRE

    Massart, R; Freyburger, M; Suderman, M; Paquet, J; El Helou, J; Belanger-Nelson, E; Rachalski, A; Koumar, O C; Carrier, J; Szyf, M; Mongrain, V

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is critical for normal brain function and mental health. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of sleep loss on both cognition and the sleep electroencephalogram remain mostly unknown. Acute sleep loss impacts brain gene expression broadly. These data contributed to current hypotheses regarding the role for sleep in metabolism, synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. These changes in gene expression likely underlie increased sleep intensity following sleep deprivation ...

  6. Sleep-related declarative memory consolidation and verbal replay during sleep talking in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevra Uguccioni

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine if sleep talkers with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD would utter during REM sleep sentences learned before sleep, and to evaluate their verbal memory consolidation during sleep. METHODS: Eighteen patients with RBD and 10 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16 words from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test and a 220-263 word long modified Story Recall Test in the evening, followed by nocturnal video-polysomnography and morning recall (night-time consolidation. In 9 patients with RBD, daytime consolidation (morning learning/recall, evening recall was also evaluated with the modified Story Recall Test in a cross-over order. Two RBD patients with dementia were studied separately. Sleep talking was recorded using video-polysomnography, and the utterances were compared to the studied texts by two external judges. RESULTS: Sleep-related verbal memory consolidation was maintained in patients with RBD (+24±36% words as in controls (+9±18%, p=0.3. The two demented patients with RBD also exhibited excellent nighttime consolidation. The post-sleep performance was unrelated to the sleep measures (including continuity, stages, fragmentation and apnea-hypopnea index. Daytime consolidation (-9±19% was worse than night-time consolidation (+29±45%, p=0.03 in the subgroup of 9 patients with RBD. Eleven patients with RBD spoke during REM sleep and pronounced a median of 20 words, which represented 0.0003% of sleep with spoken language. A single patient uttered a sentence that was judged to be semantically (but not literally related to the text learned before sleep. CONCLUSION: Verbal declarative memory normally consolidates during sleep in patients with RBD. The incorporation of learned material within REM sleep-associated sleep talking in one patient (unbeknownst to himself at the semantic level suggests a replay at a highly cognitive creative level.

  7. Automatic REM sleep detection associated with idiopathic rem sleep Behavior Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, J; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Sorensen, H B D

    2011-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a strong early marker of later development of Parkinsonism. Currently there are no objective methods to identify and discriminate abnormal from normal motor activity during REM sleep. Therefore, a REM sleep detection without the use of chin...... electromyography (EMG) is useful. This is addressed by analyzing the classification performance when implementing two automatic REM sleep detectors. The first detector uses the electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG) and EMG to detect REM sleep, while the second detector only uses the EEG and EOG....

  8. Objective measures of sleep and dim light melatonin onset in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Pallesen, Ståle; Vedaa, Oystein; Nordhus, Inger H; Sørensen, Eli; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-08-01

    Delayed sleep phase disorder is characterized by a delay in the timing of the major sleep period relative to conventional norms. The sleep period itself has traditionally been described as normal. Nevertheless, it is possible that sleep regulatory mechanism disturbances associated with the disorder may affect sleep duration and/or architecture. Polysomnographic data that may shed light on the issue are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine polysomnographic measures of sleep in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder, and to compare findings to that of healthy controls. A second aim was to estimate dim light melatonin onset as a marker of circadian rhythm and to investigate the phase angle relationship (time interval) between dim light melatonin onset and the sleep period. Data from 54 adolescents and young adults were analysed, 35 diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder and 19 healthy controls. Results show delayed timing of sleep in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but once sleep was initiated no group differences in sleep parameters were observed. Dim light melatonin onset was delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but no difference in phase angle was observed between the groups. In conclusion, both sleep and dim light melatonin onset were delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder. The sleep period appeared to occur at the same circadian phase in both groups, and once sleep was initiated no differences in sleep parameters were observed. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Healthy Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality sleep, ask yourself Do you have trouble getting up in the morning? Do you have trouble focusing during the day? Do you doze off during the day? If you answered yes to these three questions, you should work on ...

  10. Sleep-Dependent Modulation of Metabolic Rate in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Bethany A; Slocumb, Melissa E; Chaitin, Hersh; DiAngelo, Justin R; Keene, Alex C

    2017-08-01

    Dysregulation of sleep is associated with metabolic diseases, and metabolic rate (MR) is acutely regulated by sleep-wake behavior. In humans and rodent models, sleep loss is associated with obesity, reduced metabolic rate, and negative energy balance, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms governing interactions between sleep and metabolism. We have developed a system to simultaneously measure sleep and MR in individual Drosophila, allowing for interrogation of neural systems governing interactions between sleep and metabolic rate. Like mammals, MR in flies is reduced during sleep and increased during sleep deprivation suggesting sleep-dependent regulation of MR is conserved across phyla. The reduction of MR during sleep is not simply a consequence of inactivity because MR is reduced ~30 minutes following the onset of sleep, raising the possibility that CO2 production provides a metric to distinguish different sleep states in the fruit fly. To examine the relationship between sleep and metabolism, we determined basal and sleep-dependent changes in MR is reduced in starved flies, suggesting that starvation inhibits normal sleep-associated effects on metabolic rate. Further, translin mutant flies that fail to suppress sleep during starvation demonstrate a lower basal metabolic rate, but this rate was further reduced in response to starvation, revealing that regulation of starvation-induced changes in MR and sleep duration are genetically distinct. Therefore, this system provides the unique ability to simultaneously measure sleep and oxidative metabolism, providing novel insight into the physiological changes associated with sleep and wakefulness in the fruit fly. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Night sleep in patients with vegetative state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Yuri G; Gais, Steffen; Müller, Friedemann; Schönauer, Monika; Schäpers, Barbara; Born, Jan; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2017-10-01

    Polysomnographic recording of night sleep was carried out in 15 patients with the diagnosis vegetative state (syn. unresponsive wakefulness syndrome). Sleep scoring was performed by three raters, and confirmed by means of a spectral power analysis of the electroencephalogram, electrooculogram and electromyogram. All patients but one exhibited at least some signs of sleep. In particular, sleep stage N1 was found in 13 patients, N2 in 14 patients, N3 in nine patients, and rapid eye movement sleep in 10 patients. Three patients exhibited all phenomena characteristic for normal sleep, including spindles and rapid eye movements. However, in all but one patient, sleep patterns were severely disturbed as compared with normative data. All patients had frequent and long periods of wakefulness during the night. In some apparent rapid eye movement sleep episodes, no eye movements were recorded. Sleep spindles were detected in five patients only, and their density was very low. We conclude that the majority of vegetative state patients retain some important circadian changes. Further studies are necessary to disentangle multiple factors potentially affecting sleep pattern of vegetative state patients. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Pediatric sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  13. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... falling asleep; Sleep hygiene References American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Insomnia. Updated March 4, 2015. SleepEducation.org. sleepeducation. ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 86. ...

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration), obstructive sleep apnoea and mixed or complex sleep apnoea.1. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common of these three disorders and is defined as airway obstruction during sleep, accompanied by at least ...

  15. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J W; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Experimental laboratory study. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P sleep deprivation (P sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life.

  16. Sleep in Othello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  17. Sleep Tips: 7 Steps to Better Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... factors that can interfere with a good night's sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to unexpected ...

  18. Sleep-related laryngospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnheer, R; Henz, S; Knoblauch, A

    1997-09-01

    The term "sleep-related laryngospasm" refers to episodic, abrupt interruption of sleep accompanied by feelings of acute suffocation followed by stridor. The condition is included in the diagnostic and coding manual of the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA), but there are few references in the peer-reviewed literature. Our description of the distinct clinical picture associated with this condition is based on an analysis of the histories of a series of 10 patients. The patients and their families gave precise, uniform accounts of the dramatic attacks. Diagnostic work-up included pulmonary and gastroenterological assessment. All patients reported sudden awakening from sleep due to feelings of acute suffocation, accompanied by intense fear. Apnoea lasting 5-45 s was followed by stridor. Breathing returned to normal within minutes. Patients were left exhausted by the attacks. Nine of our 10 patients had evidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux and six responded to antireflux therapy. We conclude that the nocturnal choking attacks (and the occasional daytime attacks experienced by some of the patients) are caused by laryngospasm. The pathogenesis of the apparent underlying laryngeal irritability is unknown. The condition may be related to a gastro-oesophageal reflux.

  19. Sleep in Othello

    OpenAIRE

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep.

  20. Sleep in intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if improving intensive care unit (ICU) environment would enhance sleep quality, assessed by polysomnography (PSG), in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial, crossover design. The night intervention "quiet routine...... Medicine) sleep scoring criteria were insufficient for the assessment of polysomnograms. Modified classification for sleep scoring in critically ill patients, suggested by Watson et al. (Crit Care Med 2013;41:1958-1967), was used. RESULTS: Sound level analysis showed insignificant effect...... patients. We were not able to further reduce the already existing low noise levels in the ICU and did not find any association between the environmental intervention and the presence of normal sleep characteristics in the PSG....

  1. A review of current sleep screening applications for smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Joachim; Roebuck, Aoife; Domingos, João S; Gederi, Elnaz; Clifford, Gari D

    2013-07-01

    Sleep disorders are a common problem and contribute to a wide range of healthcare issues. The societal and financial costs of sleep disorders are enormous. Sleep-related disorders are often diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram, or sleep study involving the measurement of brain activity through the electroencephalogram. Other parameters monitored include oxygen saturation, respiratory effort, cardiac activity (through the electrocardiogram), as well as video recording, sound and movement activity. Monitoring can be costly and removes the patients from their normal sleeping environment, preventing repeated unbiased studies. The recent increase in adoption of smartphones, with high quality on-board sensors has led to the proliferation of many sleep screening applications running on the phone. However, with the exception of simple questionnaires, no existing sleep-related application available for smartphones is based on scientific evidence. This paper reviews the existing smartphone applications landscape used in the field of sleep disorders and proposes possible advances to improve screening approaches.

  2. Sleep disorders associated with primary mitochondrial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Ryan J; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2014-11-15

    Primary mitochondrial diseases are caused by heritable or spontaneous mutations in nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. Such pathological mutations are relatively common in humans and may lead to neurological and neuromuscular complication that could compromise normal sleep behavior. To gain insight into the potential impact of primary mitochondrial disease and sleep pathology, we reviewed the relevant English language literature in which abnormal sleep was reported in association with a mitochondrial disease. We examined publication reported in Web of Science and PubMed from February 1976 through January 2014, and identified 54 patients with a proven or suspected primary mitochondrial disorder who were evaluated for sleep disturbances. Both nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA mutations were associated with abnormal sleep patterns. Most subjects who underwent polysomnography had central sleep apnea, and only 5 patients had obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four patients showed decreased ventilatory drive in response to hypoxia and/ or hyperapnea that was not considered due to weakness of the intrinsic muscles of respiration. Sleep pathology may be an underreported complication of primary mitochondrial diseases. The probable underlying mechanism is cellular energy failure causing both central neurological and peripheral neuromuscular degenerative changes that commonly present as central sleep apnea and poor ventilatory response to hyperapnea. Increased recognition of the genetics and clinical manifestations of mitochondrial diseases by sleep researchers and clinicians is important in the evaluation and treatment of all patients with sleep disturbances. Prospective population-based studies are required to determine the true prevalence of mitochondrial energy failure in subjects with sleep disorders, and conversely, of individuals with primary mitochondrial diseases and sleep pathology. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  3. Automatic REM Sleep Detection Associated with Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2011-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a strong early marker of later development of Parkinsonism. Currently there are no objective methods to identify and discriminate abnormal from normal motor activity during REM sleep. Therefore, a REM sleep detection without the use of chin...... electromyography (EMG) is useful. This is addressed by analyzing the classification performance when implementing two automatic REM sleep detectors. The first detector uses the electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG) and EMG to detect REM sleep, while the second detector only uses the EEG and EOG......, an automatic computerized REM detection algorithm has been implemented, using wavelet packet combined with artificial neural network. Results: When using the EEG, EOG and EMG modalities, it was possible to correctly classify REM sleep with an average Area Under Curve (AUC) equal to 0:900:03 for normal subjects...

  4. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Carol A; Henchen, Christopher J; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Insufficient sleep in adolescents: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Judith A; Weiss, Miriam R

    2017-08-01

    Insufficient sleep poses an important and complicated set of health risks in the adolescent population. Not only is deficient sleep (defined as both sleep duration inadequate to meet sleep needs and sleep timing misaligned with the body's circadian rhythms) at epidemic levels in this population, but the contributing factors are both complex and numerous and there are a myriad of negative physical and mental health, safety and performance consequences. Causes of inadequate sleep identified in this population include internal biological processes such as the normal shift (delay) in circadian rhythm that occurs in association with puberty and a developmentally-based slowing of the "sleep drive", and external factors including extracurricular activities, excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media, caffeine intake and early school start times. Consequences range from inattentiveness, reduction in executive functioning and poor academic performance to increased risk of obesity and cardio-metabolic dysfunction, mood disturbances which include increased suicidal ideation, a higher risk of engaging in health risk behaviors such as alcohol and substance use, and increased rates of car crashes, occupational injuries and sports-related injuries. In response to these concerns, a number of promising measures have been proposed to reduce the burden of adolescent sleep loss, including healthy sleep education for students and families, and later school start times to allow adolescents to obtain sufficient and appropriately-timed sleep.

  6. Sleep instability and cognitive status in drug-resistant epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alessandra Marques; Bruni, Oliviero; Ferri, Raffaele; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2012-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the sleep habits of children with drug resistant epilepsy and to correlate sleep abnormalities with epilepsy and level of intelligence. Twenty five subjects with drug resistant epilepsy (14 males, age range 2-16.4 years) were recruited for this study. A control group was formed by 23 normal children. Two instruments to assess sleep habits were administered to the patients with epilepsy: a questionnaire on sleep habits (to preschool children) and a questionnaire on sleep behavior (for children aged more than seven years old); a cognitive test (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-WISC) was also performed. Patients underwent a complete polysomnographic study and sleep parameters, including CAP, were analyzed and correlated according to cognitive-behavioral measures in children with epilepsy. Children with drug-resistant epilepsy and severe mental retardation showed sleep abnormalities such as low sleep efficiency, high percentage of wakefulness after sleep onset, reduced slow wave sleep, and reduced REM sleep. Sleep microstructure evaluated by means of CAP analysis showed a decrease in A1 index during N3 in patients with more severe cognitive impairment. Children with epilepsy and cognitive impairment (n=10) had higher Sleep Behavior Questionnaire for Children (SBQC) total scores (65.60 ± 18.56) compared to children with epilepsy and normal IQ (50.00 ± 10.40), pintellectual disability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleep enhances memory consolidation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2014-06-01

    Sleep is an active state that plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. It has been found to enhance explicit memories in both adults and children. However, in contrast to adults, children do not always show a sleep-related improvement in implicit learning. The majority of research on sleep-dependent memory consolidation focuses on adults; hence, the current study examined sleep-related effects on two tasks in children. Thirty-three typically developing children aged 6-12 years took part in the study. Actigraphy was used to monitor sleep. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation was assessed using a novel non-word learning task and the Tower of Hanoi cognitive puzzle, which involves discovering an underlying rule to aid completion. Children were trained on the two tasks and retested following approximately equal retention intervals of both wake and sleep. After sleep, children showed significant improvements in performance of 14% on the non-word learning task and 25% on the Tower of Hanoi task, but no significant change in score following the wake retention interval. Improved performance on the Tower of Hanoi may have been due to children consolidating explicit aspects of the task, for example rule-learning or memory of previous sequences; thus, we propose that sleep is necessary for consolidation of explicit memory in children. Sleep quality and duration were not related to children's task performance. If such experimental sleep-related learning enhancement is generalizable to everyday life, then it is clear that sleep plays a vital role in children's educational attainment. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Sleep Disturbances in Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Yasova Barbeau, Daphna; Weiss, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environmen...

  9. Porcine transcriptome analysis based on 97 non-normalized cDNA libraries and assembly of 1,021,891 expressed sequence tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Hedegaard, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    public databases. The Sino-Danish ESTs were generated from one normalized and 97 non-normalized cDNA libraries representing 35 different tissues and three developmental stages. RESULTS: Using the Distiller package, the ESTs were assembled to roughly 48,000 contigs and 73,000 singletons, of which...... with the greatest number of different expressed genes, whereas tissues with more specialized function, such as developing liver, have fewer expressed genes. There are at least 65 high confidence housekeeping gene candidates and 876 cDNA library-specific gene candidates. We identified differential expression...

  10. The role of sleep duration and sleep disordered breathing in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Gooley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many women experience sleep problems during pregnancy. This includes difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep due to physiologic changes that occur as pregnancy progresses, as well as increased symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB. Growing evidence indicates that sleep deficiency alters glucose metabolism and increases risk of diabetes. Poor sleep may exacerbate the progressive increase in insulin resistance that normally occurs during pregnancy, thus contributing to the development of maternal hyperglycemia. Here, we critically review evidence that exposure to short sleep duration or SDB during pregnancy is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Several studies have found that the frequency of GDM is higher in women exposed to short sleep compared with longer sleep durations. Despite mixed evidence regarding whether symptoms of SDB (e.g., frequent snoring are associated with GDM after adjusting for BMI or obesity, it has been shown that clinically-diagnosed SDB is prospectively associated with GDM. There are multiple mechanisms that may link sleep deprivation and SDB with insulin resistance, including increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, sympathetic activity, and cortisol. Despite emerging evidence that sleep deficiency and SDB are associated with increased risk of GDM, it has yet to be demonstrated that improving sleep in pregnant women (e.g., by extending sleep duration or treating SDB protects against the development of hyperglycemia. If a causal relationship can be established, behavioral therapies for improving sleep can potentially be used to reduce the risk and burden of GDM. Keywords: Pregnancy, Sleep duration, Sleep disordered breathing, Gestational diabetes, Women, Metabolism

  11. Altered sleep-wake patterns in blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, S.; Gacon, C.; Jennum, P.

    2016-01-01

    discuss variability in the sleep–wake pattern between blind and normal-sighted individuals. Methods Thirty-day actigraphy recordings were collected from 11 blind individuals without residual light perception and 11 age- and sex-matched normal-sighted controls. From these recordings, we extracted...... the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and chronotype, using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Results Although no group differences were found when averaging over the entire recording period, we found a greater variability throughout the 30-days in both sleep efficiency and timing of the night-time sleep...

  12. The emotional brain and sleep: an intimate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Marie; Cluydts, Raymond

    2010-08-01

    Research findings confirm our own experiences in life where daytime events and especially emotionally stressful events have an impact on sleep quality and well-being. Obviously, daytime emotional stress may have a differentiated effect on sleep by influencing sleep physiology and dream patterns, dream content and the emotion within a dream, although its exact role is still unclear. Other effects that have been found are the exaggerated startle response, decreased dream recall and elevated awakening thresholds from rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep, increased or decreased latency to REM-sleep, increased REM-density, REM-sleep duration and the occurrence of arousals in sleep as a marker of sleep disruption. However, not only do daytime events affect sleep, also the quality and amount of sleep influences the way we react to these events and may be an important determinant in general well-being. Sleep seems restorative in daily functioning, whereas deprivation of sleep makes us more sensitive to emotional and stressful stimuli and events in particular. The way sleep impacts next day mood/emotion is thought to be affected particularly via REM-sleep, where we observe a hyperlimbic and hypoactive dorsolateral prefrontal functioning in combination with a normal functioning of the medial prefrontal cortex, probably adaptive in coping with the continuous stream of emotional events we experience. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Does sleep quality affect involuntary attention switching system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Juha; Huotilainen, Minna; Pakarinen, Satu; Siren, Teo; Alho, Kimmo; Aronen, Eeva T

    2005-12-30

    We studied the relationship between sleep quality and quantity and subsequently recorded automatically evoked event-related potential (ERP) responses. In previous studies decrement of attentional processing has been associated with changes in sleep. Sleep is shown to associate also with ERPs elicited by unattended sound stream, however, there is no consensus on these effects. A recent study suggested that the early anterior P3a to novel stimuli in attended stream is attenuated and the late parietal P3a is strengthened by total sleep deprivation. We carried out 72-h consecutive actigraphy measurements in a naturalistic setting to collect information about variation in sleep duration, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, and percentage of sleep. MMN and P3a deflections to infrequent changes in sound duration and pitch in unattended sound stream were obtained in a separate recording session from the same subjects when they were awake. No significant correlations were found between sleep and MMN parameters, indicating that MMN is resistant to normal variation in sleep. However, P3a to both pitch and duration changes correlated positively with sleep onset latency, and P3a to duration changes correlated negatively with sleep efficiency and percentage of sleep. The correlation was higher in the posterior scalp areas. Our results suggest that the involuntary attention switching system, reflected by the P3a is sensitized as a function of decreased sleep quality.

  14. Sleep Applications to Assess Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietze, Ingo

    2016-12-01

    This article highlights the potential uses that smartphone applications may have for helping those with sleep problems. Applications in smartphones offer the promised possibility of detection of sleep. From the author's own experience, one can also conclude that sleep applications are approximately as good as polysomnography in detection of sleep time, similar to the conventional wearable actimeters. In the future, sleep applications will help to further enhance awareness of sleep health and to distinguish those who actually poorly and only briefly sleep from those who suffer more likely from paradox insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Total sleep time severely drops during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Leger

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Restricted sleep duration among young adults and adolescents has been shown to increase the risk of morbidities such as obesity, diabetes or accidents. However there are few epidemiological studies on normal total sleep time (TST in representative groups of teen-agers which allow to get normative data. PURPOSE: To explore perceived total sleep time on schooldays (TSTS and non schooldays (TSTN and the prevalence of sleep initiating insomnia among a nationally representative sample of teenagers. METHODS: Data from 9,251 children aged 11 to 15 years-old, 50.7% of which were boys, as part of the cross-national study 2011 HBSC were analyzed. Self-completion questionnaires were administered in classrooms. An estimate of TSTS and TSTN (week-ends and vacations was calculated based on specifically designed sleep habits report. Sleep deprivation was estimated by a TSTN - TSTS difference >2 hours. Sleep initiating nsomnia was assessed according to International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD 2. Children who reported sleeping 7 hours or less per night were considered as short sleepers. RESULTS: A serious drop of TST was observed between 11 yo and 15 yo, both during the schooldays (9 hours 26 minutes vs. 7 h 55 min.; p<0.001 and at a lesser extent during week-ends (10 h 17 min. vs. 9 h 44 min.; p<0.001. Sleep deprivation concerned 16.0% of chidren aged of 11 yo vs. 40.5% of those of 15 yo (p<0.001. Too short sleep was reported by 2.6% of the 11 yo vs. 24.6% of the 15 yo (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Despite the obvious need for sleep in adolescence, TST drastically decreases with age among children from 11 to 15 yo which creates significant sleep debt increasing with age.

  16. 16S rRNA Amplicon Sequencing Demonstrates that Indoor-Reared Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris Harbor a Core Subset of Bacteria Normally Associated with the Wild Host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Meeus

    Full Text Available A MiSeq multiplexed 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the gut microbiota of wild and indoor-reared Bombus terrestris (bumblebees confirmed the presence of a core set of bacteria, which consisted of Neisseriaceae (Snodgrassella, Orbaceae (Gilliamella, Lactobacillaceae (Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacteriaceae (Bifidobacterium. In wild B. terrestris we detected several non-core bacteria having a more variable prevalence. Although Enterobacteriaceae are unreported by non next-generation sequencing studies, it can become a dominant gut resident. Furthermore the presence of some non-core lactobacilli were associated with the relative abundance of bifidobacteria. This association was not observed in indoor-reared bumblebees lacking the non-core bacteria, but having a more standardized microbiota compared to their wild counterparts. The impact of the bottleneck microbiota of indoor-reared bumblebees when they are used in the field for pollination purpose is discussed.

  17. Partial sleep in the context of augmentation of brain function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan N. Pigarev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inability to solve complex problems or errors in decision making is often attributed to poor brain processing, and raises the issue of brain augmentation. Investigation of neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex in the sleep-wake cycle offers insights into the mechanisms underlying the reduction in mental abilities for complex problem solving. Some cortical areas may transit into a sleep state while an organism is still awake. Such local sleep would reduce behavioral ability in the tasks for which the sleeping areas are crucial. The studies of this phenomenon have indicated that local sleep develops in high order cortical areas. This is why complex problem solving is mostly affected by local sleep, and prevention of local sleep might be a potential way of augmentation of brain function. For this approach to brain augmentation not to entail negative consequences for the organism, it is necessary to understand the functional role of sleep. Our studies have given an unexpected answer to this question. It was shown that cortical areas that process signals from extero- and proprioreceptors during wakefulness, switch to the processing of interoceptive information during sleep. It became clear that during sleep all computational power of the brain is directed to the restoration of the vital functions of internal organs. These results explain the logic behind the initiation of total and local sleep. Indeed, a mismatch between the current parameters of any visceral system and the genetically determined normal range would provide the feeling of tiredness, or sleep pressure. If an environmental situation allows falling asleep, the organism would transit to a normal total sleep in all cortical areas. However, if it is impossible to go to sleep immediately, partial sleep may develop in some cortical areas in the still behaviorally awake organism. This local sleep may reduce both the intellectual power and the restorative function of sleep for visceral

  18. Comparing sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur'aini Nur'aini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disturbances commonly occur in adolescents. Socioeconomic levels, lifestyle, and urban or suburban environments influence the sleep patterns of adolescents. The modernization process in urban environments is marked by the development of information technology media, and the lack of parental monitoring potentially influencing adolescent sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances may affect children's physical growth, as well as their emotional, cognitive, and social development. Objective To assess for sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents, and to determine the factors that influence the prevalence of sleep disturbances. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 12 to 15-year-old junior high school students in urban (n=350 and suburban (n=350 environments in the city of Medan, North Sumatera. The study was undertaken from May to June 2010 using the Sleep Disorders Scale for Children (SDSC, a set of questionnaires. The SDSC was filled out by parents based on what they remembered about their children's sleep patterns in the prior 6 months. Results In the urban group, there were 133 (38.0% subjects with sleep disturbances, 182 (52.0% were borderline, and 35 (10.0% were normal. In the suburban group, there were 132 (37.7% subjects with sleep disturbances, 180 (51.4% were borderline, and 38 (10.9% were normal. The most influential factors for sleep disturbances in urban and suburban youth were environmental noise (P=0.001 and consuming beverages that contain caffeine (P=0.001. There were three types of sleep disorders that significantly found more in urban adolescents: disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, disorders of excessive somnolence, and sleep hyperhidrosis. Conclusion The prevalence of sleep disturbances do not differ between urban and suburban adolescents. Howevet; there are significant differences in the types of sleep disorders experienced. The most influential factors on sleep disturbance in both

  19. Sleep walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleepwalking. In: Chokroverty S, Thomas RJ, eds. Atlas of Sleep Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:380- ... of Clinical Neurology, SUNY Stony Brook, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ... NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  20. Sleep Characteristics of Self-Reported Long Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-reported long habitual sleep durations (≥ 9 h per night) consistently predict increased mortality. We compared objective sleep parameters of self-reported long versus normal duration sleepers to determine whether long sleepers truly sleep more or have an underlying sleep abnormality. Methods: Older men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) were recruited for a comprehensive sleep assessment, which included wrist actigraphy, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a question about usual nocturnal sleep duration. Results: Of the 3134 participants (mean age 76.4 ± 5.6; 89.9% Caucasian), 1888 (60.2%) reported sleeping 7-8 h (normal sleepers) and 174 (5.6%) reported ≥ 9 h (long sleepers). On actigraphy, long sleepers spent on average 63.0 min more per night in bed (P sleep stage distribution did not differ. After adjusting for differences in demographics, comorbidities, and medication usage, self-reported long sleepers continued to spend more time in bed and sleep more, based on both actigraphy and PSG. Each additional 30 min in bed or asleep as measured by actigraphy increased the odds of being a self-reported long-sleeper 1.74-fold and 1.33-fold, respectively (P sleep disorders. Citation: Patel SR; Blackwell T; Ancoli-Israel S; Stone KL. Sleep characteristics of self-reported long sleepers. SLEEP 2012;35(5):641-648. PMID:22547890

  1. Gastrointestinal physiology and digestive disorders in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaly, Travis; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2009-11-01

    The dynamic interplay of the digestive system and sleep is an excellent example of brain-body interaction. New advances in measuring techniques provide an opportunity to evaluate physiology that is dependent upon the sleep/wake state or circadian rhythm and potentially differentiate between normal and pathological conditions. Sleep-related changes in gastrointestinal physiology create vulnerabilities to digestive issues such as reflux, whereas disorders such as duodenal ulcers raise the importance of circadian variations in digestive system function. Advances in the area of normal sleep physiology have furthered our understanding of the underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome, and the mechanisms by which sleep disruption may aggravate inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, important early work has shown that the treatment of digestive disorders such as reflux can improve sleep quality just as the improvement in sleep may aid in the treatment of digestive disorders. For the clinician, these forward steps in our knowledge mark the start of an era in which understanding the effects of the sleep/wake state and circadian rhythms on gastrointestinal physiology promise to yield novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  2. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, G J; Kato, T; Kolta, A; Sessle, B J

    2003-01-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is reported by 8% of the adult population and is mainly associated with rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) characterized by repetitive jaw muscle contractions (3 bursts or more at a frequency of 1 Hz). The consequences of SB may include tooth destruction, jaw pain, headaches, or the limitation of mandibular movement, as well as tooth-grinding sounds that disrupt the sleep of bed partners. SB is probably an extreme manifestation of a masticatory muscle activity occurring during the sleep of most normal subjects, since RMMA is observed in 60% of normal sleepers in the absence of grinding sounds. The pathophysiology of SB is becoming clearer, and there is an abundance of evidence outlining the neurophysiology and neurochemistry of rhythmic jaw movements (RJM) in relation to chewing, swallowing, and breathing. The sleep literature provides much evidence describing the mechanisms involved in the reduction of muscle tone, from sleep onset to the atonia that characterizes rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Several brainstem structures (e.g., reticular pontis oralis, pontis caudalis, parvocellularis) and neurochemicals (e.g., serotonin, dopamine, gamma aminobutyric acid [GABA], noradrenaline) are involved in both the genesis of RJM and the modulation of muscle tone during sleep. It remains unknown why a high percentage of normal subjects present RMMA during sleep and why this activity is three times more frequent and higher in amplitude in SB patients. It is also unclear why RMMA during sleep is characterized by co-activation of both jaw-opening and jaw-closing muscles instead of the alternating jaw-opening and jaw-closing muscle activity pattern typical of chewing. The final section of this review proposes that RMMA during sleep has a role in lubricating the upper alimentary tract and increasing airway patency. The review concludes with an outline of questions for future research.

  3. Sleep disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Eliane Aversa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The precise function of sleep in animals and human beings is still unknown, and any sort of physical, social or psychological variation may change the normal sleep-wake cycle. PURPOSE: This research aims is to determine the sleep disorders (SD for each of the three trimesters of the pregnancy comparing them to the pre-pregnancy state (PG. METHOD: SD were investigated in three hundred pregnant women 11- to 40-years-old through with a brief clinical interview based on directed questions. One hundred pregnant women were considered for each trimester. RESULTS: The rate of pregnant women with insomnia increased by 23% in the 2nd trimester (p< 0.005; the rate for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS by 15% in the 1st trimester (p<0.003, 55% in the 2nd trimester (p<0.001 and by 14% in the 3rd trimester (p<0.002; the rate for mild sleepiness increased by 33% in the 2nd trimester (p<0.002 and by 48% in the 3rd trimester (p<0.001; the rate for specific awakenings increased by 63% in the 1st trimester, by 80% in the 2nd trimester and by 84% in the 3rd trimester (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: SD were more frequent during pregnancy comparatively to PG state, mostly at the expenses of EDS and specific awakenings.

  4. Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances Post-Infection Sleep and Promotes Survival during Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Methods and Results: Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Conclusions: Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection. Citation: Kuo TH, Williams JA. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila. SLEEP 2014;37(5):859-869. PMID:24790264

  5. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  6. Fiber and Saturated Fat Are Associated with Sleep Arousals and Slow Wave Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Roberts, Amy; Shechter, Ari; Choudhury, Arindam Roy

    2016-01-01

    Sleep restriction alters food intake, but less is known about how dietary patterns affect sleep. Current goals were to determine whether: (1) sleep is different after consumption of a controlled diet vs. an ad libitum diet, and (2) dietary intake during ad libitum feeding is related to nocturnal sleep. Twenty-six normal weight adults (30-45 y), habitually sleeping 7-9 h/night, participated in a randomized-crossover inpatient study with 2 phases of 5 nights: short (4 h in bed) or habitual (9 h in bed) sleep. Only data from the habitual sleep phase were used for the present analyses. During the first 4 days, participants consumed a controlled diet; on day 5, food intake was self-selected. Linear regression was used to determine relations between daytime food intake and nighttime sleep on day 5. Sleep duration did not differ after 3 days of controlled feeding vs. a day of ad libitum intake. However, sleep after ad libitum eating had less slow wave sleep (SWS, P = 0.0430) and longer onset latency (P = 0.0085). Greater fiber intake predicted less stage 1 (P = 0.0198) and more SWS (P = 0.0286). Percent of energy from saturated fat predicted less SWS (P = 0.0422). Higher percent of energy from sugar and other carbohydrates not considered sugar or fiber was associated with arousals (P = 0.0320 and 0.0481, respectively). Low fiber and high saturated fat and sugar intake is associated with lighter, less restorative sleep with more arousals. Diet could be useful in the management of sleep disorders but this needs to be tested. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, #NCT00935402. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  7. Effects of Inhalation Aromatherapy on Symptoms of Sleep Disturbance in the Elderly with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Emiko

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of inhalation aromatherapy on sleep disturbance in elderly individuals with dementia. In 19 subjects, normal sleep was observed for a 20-day control period, inhalation aromatherapy was then applied for a 20-day intervention period, and the control and intervention periods were compared. During the intervention period, essential oils were placed nightly on towels around the subjects' pillows. The measured sleep conditions were sleep latency, total sleep time, sleep efficacy, duration of the longest sustained sleep period, wake time after sleep onset, early morning awakening, total daytime sleep, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Total sleep time was significantly longer in the intervention period than in the control period (p aromatherapy on symptoms of sleep disturbance in elderly individuals with dementia. PMID:28400839

  8. Consumer sleep tracking devices: a review of mechanisms, validity and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Mansukhani, Subir; Mansukhani, Meghna P

    2016-05-01

    Consumer sleep tracking devices such as fitness trackers and smartphone apps have become increasingly popular. These devices claim to measure the sleep duration of their users and in some cases purport to measure sleep quality and awaken users from light sleep, potentially improving overall sleep. Most of these devices appear to utilize data generated from in-built accelerometers to determine sleep parameters but the exact mechanisms and algorithms are proprietary. The growing literature comparing these devices against polysomnography/actigraphy shows that they tend to underestimate sleep disruptions and overestimate total sleep times and sleep efficiency in normal subjects. In this review, we evaluate the current literature comparing the accuracy of consumer sleep tracking devices against more conventional methods used to measure sleep duration and quality. We discuss the current technology that these devices utilize as well as summarize the value of these devices in clinical evaluations and their potential limitations.

  9. Sleep and Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleep and Newborns KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleep and Newborns ... night it is. How Long Will My Newborn Sleep? Newborns should get 14 to 17 hours of ...

  10. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sleep Apnea Information Page Sleep Apnea Information Page What research is being done? ... Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to sleep apnea in laboratories at the NIH, and also ...

  11. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  12. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find a Sleep Center Use the following fields to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests ...

  13. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation Therapy External Beam Radiation Internal Radiation Therapy Side Effects Chemotherapy Immunotherapy ... asleep, sleeping, or waking from sleep, such as walking, talking, or eating. Sleep disorders keep you from ...

  14. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  15. Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Smith, Kelly E; Nguyen, Linda; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Jackson, Garrett J; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L; Miller, Diane B

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The consequences of disrupted sleep following injury range from deranged metabolomics and blood brain barrier compromise to altered neuroplasticity and degeneration. There are several theories for why sleep is necessary (e.g., glymphatic clearance and metabolic regulation) and these may help explain how sleep disruption contributes to degeneration within the brain. Experimental data indicate disrupted sleep allows hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β plaques to accumulate. As sleep disruption may act as a cellular stressor, target areas warranting further scientific investigation include the increase in endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress following acute periods of sleep deprivation. Potential treatment options for restoring the normal sleep cycle include melatonin derivatives and cognitive behavioral therapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. New technology to assess sleep apnea: wearables, smartphones, and accessories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzel, Thomas; Schöbel, Christoph; Fietze, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    Sleep medicine has been an expanding discipline during the last few decades. The prevalence of sleep disorders is increasing, and sleep centers are expanding in hospitals and in the private care environment to meet the demands. Sleep medicine has evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders. However, the number of sleep centers and caregivers in this area is not sufficient. Many new methods for recording sleep and diagnosing sleep disorders have been developed. Many sleep disorders are chronic conditions and require continuous treatment and monitoring of therapy success. Cost-efficient technologies for the initial diagnosis and for follow-up monitoring of treatment are important. It is precisely here that telemedicine technologies can meet the demands of diagnosis and therapy follow-up studies. Wireless recording of sleep and related biosignals allows diagnostic tools and therapy follow-up to be widely and remotely available. Moreover, sleep research requires new technologies to investigate underlying mechanisms in the regulation of sleep in order to better understand the pathophysiology of sleep disorders. Home recording and non-obtrusive recording over extended periods of time with telemedicine methods support this research. Telemedicine allows recording with little subject interference under normal and experimental life conditions. PMID:29707207

  17. Improvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea With Weight Loss is Dependent on Body Position During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Simon A; Khoo, Jun K; Edwards, Bradley A; Landry, Shane A; Naughton, Matthew T; Dixon, John B; Hamilton, Garun S

    2017-05-01

    Weight loss fails to resolve obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in most patients; however, it is unknown as to whether weight loss differentially affects OSA in the supine compared with nonsupine sleeping positions. We aimed to determine if weight loss in obese patients with OSA results in a greater reduction in the nonsupine apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) compared with the supine AHI, thus converting participants into supine-predominant OSA. Post hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of weight loss (bariatric surgery vs. medical weight loss) on OSA in 60 participants with obesity (body mass index: >35 and sleep study at 2 years. Eight of 37 (22%) patients demonstrated a normal nonsupine AHI (sleep avoidance may cure their OSA. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Bioconductor workflow for single-cell RNA sequencing: Normalization, dimensionality reduction, clustering, and lineage inference [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Perraudeau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel single-cell transcriptome sequencing assays allow researchers to measure gene expression levels at the resolution of single cells and offer the unprecendented opportunity to investigate at the molecular level fundamental biological questions, such as stem cell differentiation or the discovery and characterization of rare cell types. However, such assays raise challenging statistical and computational questions and require the development of novel methodology and software. Using stem cell differentiation in the mouse olfactory epithelium as a case study, this integrated workflow provides a step-by-step tutorial to the methodology and associated software for the following four main tasks: (1 dimensionality reduction accounting for zero inflation and over dispersion and adjusting for gene and cell-level covariates; (2 cell clustering using resampling-based sequential ensemble clustering; (3 inference of cell lineages and pseudotimes; and (4 differential expression analysis along lineages.

  19. Dopaminergic Neurogenetics of Sleep Disorders in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Khurshid, Khurshid A; Gold, Mark S

    2014-02-18

    It is well-known that sleep has a vital function especially as it relates to prevention of substance-related disorders as discussed in the DSM-V. We are cognizant that certain dopaminergic gene polymorphisms have been associated with various sleep disorders. The importance of "normal dopamine homeostasis" is tantamount for quality of life especially for the recovering addict. Since it is now know that sleep per se has been linked with metabolic clearance of neurotoxins in the brain, it is parsonomiuos to encourage continued research in sleep science, which should ultimately result in attenuation of sleep deprivation especially associated with substance related disorders.

  20. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Patients Have Worse Sleep Quality Compared to Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Luciana Balester Mello; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Palombini, Luciana Oliveira; E Silva, Luciana Oliveira; Hoshino, Wilson; Guimarães, Thaís Moura; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia; Togeiro, Sonia Maria

    2016-01-01

    To compare sleep quality and sustained attention of patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS), mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and normal individuals. UARS criteria were presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale-ESS-≥ 10) and/or fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale-MFIS-≥ 38) associated to Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≤ 5 and Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) > 5 events/hour of sleep or more than 30% of total sleep time with flow limitation. Mild OSA was considered if the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10) and/or fatigue (MFIS ≥ 38) associated to AHI ≥ 5 and ≤ 15 events/hour. "Control group" criteria were AHI sleep, clinical, neurological or psychiatric disorder. 115 individuals (34 UARS and 47 mild OSA patients and 34 individuals in "control group"), adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and schooling years, performed sleep questionnaires and sustained attention evaluation. Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) was performed five times (each two hours) from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. UARS patients had worse sleep quality (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-FOSQ-and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI: p sleep quality, more fatigue and a worse early morning sustained attention compared to mild OSA. These last had a worse sustained attention than controls.

  1. Sleep Spindles in the Right Hemisphere Support Awareness of Regularities and Reflect Pre-Sleep Activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Bruns, Eike; Kirov, Roumen; Verleger, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    The present study explored the sleep mechanisms which may support awareness of hidden regularities. Before sleep, 53 participants learned implicitly a lateralized variant of the serial response-time task in order to localize sensorimotor encoding either in the left or right hemisphere and induce implicit regularity representations. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded at multiple electrodes during both task performance and sleep, searching for lateralized traces of the preceding activity during learning. Sleep EEG analysis focused on region-specific slow (9-12 Hz) and fast (13-16 Hz) sleep spindles during nonrapid eye movement sleep. Fast spindle activity at those motor regions that were activated during learning increased with the amount of postsleep awareness. Independently of side of learning, spindle activity at right frontal and fronto-central regions was involved: there, fast spindles increased with the transformation of sequence knowledge from implicit before sleep to explicit after sleep, and slow spindles correlated with individual abilities of gaining awareness. These local modulations of sleep spindles corresponded to regions with greater presleep activation in participants with postsleep explicit knowledge. Sleep spindle mechanisms are related to explicit awareness (1) by tracing the activation of motor cortical and right-hemisphere regions which had stronger involvement already during learning and (2) by recruitment of individually consolidated processing modules in the right hemisphere. The integration of different sleep spindle mechanisms with functional states during wake collectively supports the gain of awareness of previously experienced regularities, with a special role for the right hemisphere. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  2. Slow wave and REM sleep deprivation effects on explicit and implicit memory during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sarah J; Solomons, Luke C; Steier, Joerg; Kabra, Neeraj; Burnside, Anna; Pengo, Martino F; Moxham, John; Goldstein, Laura H; Kopelman, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    It has been debated whether different stages in the human sleep cycle preferentially mediate the consolidation of explicit and implicit memories, or whether all of the stages in succession are necessary for optimal consolidation. Here we investigated whether the selective deprivation of slow wave sleep (SWS) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep over an entire night would have a specific effect on consolidation in explicit and implicit memory tasks. Participants completed a set of explicit and implicit memory tasks at night, prior to sleep. They had 1 control night of undisturbed sleep and 2 experimental nights, during which either SWS or REM sleep was selectively deprived across the entire night (sleep conditions counterbalanced across participants). Polysomnography recordings quantified precisely the amount of SWS and REM sleep that occurred during each of the sleep conditions, and spindle counts were recorded. In the morning, participants completed the experimental tasks in the same sequence as the night before. SWS deprivation disrupted the consolidation of explicit memories for visuospatial information (ηp2 = .23), and both SWS (ηp2 = .53) and REM sleep (ηp2 = .52) deprivation adversely affected explicit verbal recall. Neither SWS nor REM sleep deprivation affected aspects of short-term or working memory, and did not affect measures of verbal implicit memory. Spindle counts did not correlate significantly with memory performance. These findings demonstrate the importance of measuring the sleep cycles throughout the entire night, and the contribution of both SWS and REM sleep to memory consolidation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and Disorders of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Joanna; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-04-01

    Sleep-wake cycles are known to be disrupted in people with neurodegenerative disorders. These findings are now supported by data from animal models for some of these disorders, raising the question of whether the disrupted sleep/circadian regulation contributes to the loss of neural function. As circadian rhythms and sleep consolidation also break down with normal aging, changes in these may be part of what makes aging a risk factor for disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mechanisms underlying the connection between circadian/sleep dysregulation and neurodegeneration remain unclear, but several recent studies provide interesting possibilities. While mechanistic analysis is under way, it is worth considering treatment of circadian/sleep disruption as a means to alleviate symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep staging with movement-related signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, B H; Shankar, K

    1993-05-01

    Body movement related signals (i.e., activity due to postural changes and the ballistocardiac effort) were recorded from six normal volunteers using the static-charge-sensitive bed (SCSB). Visual sleep staging was performed on the basis of simultaneously recorded EEG, EMG and EOG signals. A statistical classification technique was used to determine if reliable sleep staging could be performed using only the SCSB signal. A classification rate of between 52% and 75% was obtained for sleep staging in the five conventional sleep stages and the awake state. These rates improved from 78% to 89% for classification between awake, REM and non-REM sleep and from 86% to 98% for awake versus asleep classification.

  5. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shakankiry HM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M El ShakankiryKing Fahd University Hospital, Al Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child's development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group.Keywords: sleep physiology, sleep disorders, childhood, epilepsy

  6. Sleep: A Health Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183

  7. A pilot study of a novel smartphone application for the estimation of sleep onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hannah; Lack, Leon; Lovato, Nicole

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the accuracy of Sleep On Cue: a novel iPhone application that uses behavioural responses to auditory stimuli to estimate sleep onset. Twelve young adults underwent polysomnography recording while simultaneously using Sleep On Cue. Participants completed as many sleep-onset trials as possible within a 2-h period following their normal bedtime. On each trial, participants were awoken by the app following behavioural sleep onset. Then, after a short break of wakefulness, commenced the next trial. There was a high degree of correspondence between polysomnography-determined sleep onset and Sleep On Cue behavioural sleep onset, r = 0.79, P Sleep On Cue overestimated sleep-onset latency by 3.17 min (SD = 3.04). When polysomnography sleep onset was defined as the beginning of N2 sleep, the discrepancy was reduced considerably (M = 0.81, SD = 1.96). The discrepancy between polysomnography and Sleep On Cue varied between individuals, which was potentially due to variations in auditory stimulus intensity. Further research is required to determine whether modifications to the stimulus intensity and behavioural response could improve the accuracy of the app. Nonetheless, Sleep On Cue is a viable option for estimating sleep onset and may be used to administer Intensive Sleep Retraining or facilitate power naps in the home environment. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  9. The glycan-specific sulfotransferase (R77W)GalNAc-4-ST1 putatively responsible for peeling skin syndrome has normal properties consistent with a simple sequence polymorphisim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiete, Dorothy; Mi, Yiling; Beranek, Mary; Baenziger, Nancy L; Baenziger, Jacques U

    2017-05-01

    Expanded access to DNA sequencing now fosters ready detection of site-specific human genome alterations whose actual significance requires in-depth functional study to rule in or out disease-causing mutations. This is a particular concern for genomic sequence differences in glycosyltransferases, whose implications are often difficult to assess. A recent whole-exome sequencing study identifies (c.229 C > T) in the GalNAc-4-ST1 glycosyltransferase (CHST8) as a disease-causing missense R77W mutation yielding the genodermatosis peeling skin syndrome (PSS) when homozygous. Cabral et al. (Genomics. 2012;99:202-208) cite this sequence change as reducing keratinocyte GalNAc-4-ST1 activity, thus decreasing glycosaminoglycan sulfation, as the mechanism for this blistering disorder. Such an identification could point toward potential clinical and/or prenatal diagnosis of a harmful medical condition. However, GalNAc-4-ST1 has minimal activity toward glycosaminoglycans, instead modifying terminal β1,4-linked GalNAc on N- and O-linked oligosaccharides on specific glycoproteins. We find expression, processing and catalytic activity of GalNAc-4-ST1 completely equivalent between wild type and (R77W) sulfotransferases. Moreover, keratinocytes have little or no GalNAc-4-ST1 mRNA, indicating that they do not express GalNAc-4-ST1. In addition, loss-of-function of GalNAc-4-ST1 primarily presents as reproductive system aberrations rather than skin effects. These findings, an allele frequency of 0.004357, and a 10-fold difference in prevalence of CHST8 (c.299 C > T, R77W) across different ethnic groups, suggest that this sequence represents a "passenger" distributed polymorphism, a simple sequence variant form of the enzyme having normal activity, rather than a "driver" disease-causing mutation that accounts for PSS. This study presents an example for guiding biomedical research initiatives, as well as medical and personal/family perspectives, regarding newly-identified genomic sequence

  10. A large scale analysis of cDNA in Arabidopsis thaliana: generation of 12,028 non-redundant expressed sequence tags from normalized and size-selected cDNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamizu, E; Nakamura, Y; Sato, S; Tabata, S

    2000-06-30

    For comprehensive analysis of genes expressed in the model dicotyledonous plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were accumulated. Normalized and size-selected cDNA libraries were constructed from aboveground organs, flower buds, roots, green siliques and liquid-cultured seedlings, respectively, and a total of 14,026 5'-end ESTs and 39,207 3'-end ESTs were obtained. The 3'-end ESTs could be clustered into 12,028 non-redundant groups. Similarity search of the non-redundant ESTs against the public non-redundant protein database indicated that 4816 groups show similarity to genes of known function, 1864 to hypothetical genes, and the remaining 5348 are novel sequences. Gene coverage by the non-redundant ESTs was analyzed using the annotated genomic sequences of approximately 10 Mb on chromosomes 3 and 5. A total of 923 regions were hit by at least one EST, among which only 499 regions were hit by the ESTs deposited in the public database. The result indicates that the EST source generated in this project complements the EST data in the public database and facilitates new gene discovery.

  11. Psychometric properties and clinical relevance of the adolescent sleep hygiene scale in Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Eduard J; van Kampen, Ris K A; van Kooten, Tamar; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated reliability, validity, and clinical relevance of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS) in Dutch adolescents. The Dutch translation of the ASHS was administered to 186 normal-sleeping adolescents and 112 adolescents with insomnia. Their sleep variables were measured using sleep logs and questionnaires. From the insomnia group, scores were also obtained after six weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (n=58) or waiting list (n=22). The full scale of the ASHS had acceptable internal consistency. The results showed moderate to strong correlations of the ASHS (domains) with sleep quality, sleep duration and chronic sleep reduction. Furthermore, the Dutch ASHS was able to discriminate between normal sleepers and adolescents with insomnia, and scores of adolescents with insomnia improved after treatment. These findings confirm the importance of sleep hygiene in adolescent sleep, and contribute to the validity of the ASHS and its applicability in research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  13. Perceived Immune Status and Sleep: A Survey among Dutch Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk A. M. T. Donners

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced immune functioning may have a negative impact on sleep and health, and vice versa. A survey among Dutch young adults (18–35 years old was administered to collect information on perception of reduced immunity and its relationship to sleep disorders, sleep duration, and quality. Sleep disorders were assessed with the SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales of sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder, and daily functioning. Dutch young adults (N = 574 completed the survey. Among them, subjects (N = 209; 36.4% reported perceived reduced immunity. Relative to those with a normal immune status, subjects reporting reduced immunity had significantly higher scores (p=0.0001 on sleep apnea (2.6 versus 3.6, insomnia (5.1 versus 6.8, and circadian rhythm disorder (2.1 versus 2.7. Subjects reporting reduced immunity also had significantly poorer daily functioning scores (5.4 versus 7.6, p=0.0001. No differences were observed in total sleep time, but those reporting reduced immunity had significantly poorer ratings of sleep quality (6.8 versus 7.2, p=0.0001. Our findings suggest that perceived reduced immunity is associated with sleep disturbances, impaired daily functioning, and a poorer sleep quality. Experimental studies including the assessment of immune biomarkers and objective measures of sleep (polysomnography should confirm the current observations.

  14. The Impact of Sleep Deprivation on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trošt Bobić, Tatjana; Šečić, Ana; Zavoreo, Iris; Matijević, Valentina; Filipović, Branimir; Kolak, Željka; Bašić Kes, Vanja; Ciliga, Dubravka; Sajković, Dubravka

    2016-09-01

    Each sleep phase is characterized by specific chemical, cellular and anatomic events of vital importance for normal neural functioning. Different forms of sleep deprivation may lead to a decline of cognitive functions in individuals. Studies in this field make a distinction between total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction, and the situation of sleep disruption. Investigations covering the acute effects of sleep deprivation on the brain show that the discovered behavioral deficits in most cases regenerate after two nights of complete sleep. However, some studies done on mice emphasize the possible chronic effects of long-term sleep deprivation or chronic restriction on the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. In order to better understand the acute and chronic effects of sleep loss, the mechanisms of neural adaptation in the situations of insufficient sleep need to be further investigated. Future integrative research on the impact of sleep deprivation on neural functioning measured through the macro level of cognitive functions and the micro molecular and cell level could contribute to more accurate conclusions about the basic cellular mechanisms responsible for the detected behavioral deficits occurring due to sleep deprivation.

  15. Arousal from sleep mechanisms in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Kato, Ineko; Richardson, Heidi L; Yang, Joel S C; Montemitro, Enza; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2010-08-01

    Arousals from sleep allow sleep to continue in the face of stimuli that normally elicit responses during wakefulness and also permit awakening. Such an adaptive mechanism implies that any malfunction may have clinical importance. Inadequate control of arousal in infants and children is associated with a variety of sleep-related problems. An excessive propensity to arouse from sleep favors the development of repeated sleep disruptions and insomnia, with impairment of daytime alertness and performance. A lack of an adequate arousal response to a noxious nocturnal stimulus reduces an infant's chances of autoresuscitation, and thus survival, increasing the risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The study of arousability is complicated by many factors including the definition of an arousal; the scoring methodology; the techniques used (spontaneous arousability versus arousal responses to endogenous or exogenous stimuli); and the confounding factors that complicate the determination of arousal thresholds by changing the sleeper's responses to a given stimulus such as prenatal drug, alcohol, or cigarette use. Infant age and previous sleep deprivation also modify thresholds. Other confounding factors include time of night, sleep stages, the sleeper's body position, and sleeping conditions. In this paper, we will review these different aspects for the study of arousals in infants and also report the importance of these studies for the understanding of the pathophysiology of some clinical conditions, particularly SIDS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Female impulsive aggression: a sleep research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Putkonen, Hanna; Sailas, Eila; Takala, Pirjo; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    The rate of violent crimes among girls and women appears to be increasing. One in every five female prisoners has been reported to have antisocial personality disorder. However, it has been quite unclear whether the impulsive, aggressive behaviour among women is affected by the same biological mechanisms as among men. Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Most psychiatric disorders are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS), the physiologically significant, refreshing part of sleep. Among men with antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, increased SWS has been reported, reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of human sleep patterns. In our preliminary study among medication-free, detoxified female homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder, the same profound abnormality in sleep architecture was found. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive aggression seem to share similar features in both sexes.

  17. Sleep and the Cardiovascular System in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Grace R; Pinto, Swaroop

    2017-06-01

    Subspecialty pediatric practice provides comprehensive medical care for a range of ages, from premature infants to children, and often includes adults with complex medical and surgical issues that warrant multidisciplinary care. Normal physiologic variations involving different body systems occur during sleep and these vary with age, stage of sleep, and underlying health conditions. This article is a concise review of the cardiovascular (CV) physiology and pathophysiology in children, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) contributing to CV morbidity, congenital and acquired CV pathology resulting in SDB, and the relationship between SDB and CV morbidity in different clinical syndromes and systemic diseases in the expanded pediatric population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimizing Sleep in Older Adults: Treating Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Alexandra M.; Canham, Sarah L.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.

    2013-01-01

    As the world’s population ages, the elevated prevalence of insomnia in older adults is a growing concern. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty falling or remaining asleep, or by non-restorative sleep, and resultant daytime dysfunction. In addition to being at elevated risk for primary insomnia, older adults are at greater risk for comorbid insomnia, which results from, or occurs in conjunction with another medical or psychiatric condition. In this review, we discuss normal changes in sleep...

  19. Are You Sleep Deprived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Are You Sleep Deprived? Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... even if you think you've had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. There are ...

  20. The Sleeping Cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canto, Cathrin B; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology,

  1. Daily rhythms of the sleep-wake cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waterhouse Jim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount and timing of sleep and sleep architecture (sleep stages are determined by several factors, important among which are the environment, circadian rhythms and time awake. Separating the roles played by these factors requires specific protocols, including the constant routine and altered sleep-wake schedules. Results from such protocols have led to the discovery of the factors that determine the amounts and distribution of slow wave and rapid eye movement sleep as well as to the development of models to determine the amount and timing of sleep. One successful model postulates two processes. The first is process S, which is due to sleep pressure (and increases with time awake and is attributed to a 'sleep homeostat'. Process S reverses during slow wave sleep (when it is called process S'. The second is process C, which shows a daily rhythm that is parallel to the rhythm of core temperature. Processes S and C combine approximately additively to determine the times of sleep onset and waking. The model has proved useful in describing normal sleep in adults. Current work aims to identify the detailed nature of processes S and C. The model can also be applied to circumstances when the sleep-wake cycle is different from the norm in some way. These circumstances include: those who are poor sleepers or short sleepers; the role an individual's chronotype (a measure of how the timing of the individual's preferred sleep-wake cycle compares with the average for a population; and changes in the sleep-wake cycle with age, particularly in adolescence and aging, since individuals tend to prefer to go to sleep later during adolescence and earlier in old age. In all circumstances, the evidence that sleep times and architecture are altered and the possible causes of these changes (including altered S, S' and C processes are examined.

  2. REM Sleep EEG Instability in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Clonazepam Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Silvani, Alessandro; Zucconi, Marco; Bruni, Oliviero; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Manconi, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to analyze quantitatively rapid eye movement (REM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in controls, drug-naïve idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder patients (iRBD), and iRBD patients treated with clonazepam. Twenty-nine drug-naïve iRBD patients (mean age 68.2 years), 14 iRBD patients under chronic clonazepam therapy (mean age 66.3 years), and 21 controls (mean age 66.8 years) were recruited. Power spectra were obtained from sleep EEG (central derivation), using a 2-second sliding window, with 1-second steps. The power values of each REM sleep EEG spectral band (one every second) were normalized with respect to the average power value obtained during sleep stage 2 in the same individual. In drug-naïve patients, the normalized power values showed a less pronounced REM-related decrease of power in all bands with frequency sleep EEG structure changes found in this study disclose subtle but significant alterations in the cortical electrophysiology of RBD that might represent the early expression of the supposed neurodegenerative processes already taking place at this stage of the disease and might be the target of better and effective future therapeutic strategies for this condition. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  4. Sleep and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Maryann C; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Sleep is a complex physiologic state, the importance of which has long been recognized. Lack of sleep is detrimental to humans and animals. Over the past decade, an important link between sleep and cognitive processing has been established. Sleep plays an important role in consolidation of different types of memory and contributes to insightful, inferential thinking. While the mechanism by which memories are processed in sleep remains unknown, several experimental models have been proposed. This article explores the link between sleep and cognition by reviewing (1) the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition, (2) the influence of sleep on consolidation of declarative and non-declarative memory, and (3) some proposed models of how sleep facilitates memory consolidation in sleep. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Sleep: a reality or dream for the hospitalized adult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulling, C; Seaman, S

    1993-01-01

    Nursing research literature is examined to determine the extent of sleep loss for the hospitalized adult. Research from the patient's perspective, nurses' assessment of patient's sleep and somnographic studies are considered. Although these three methods are inconsistent in the exact extent of sleep loss, all suggest that hospitalized patients experience less sleep than their normal pattern. Reasons for patients losing sleep are explored. Environmental factors in critical care areas are the most cited reason for loss of sleep yet other reasons are suggested. Consequences of sleep loss are explored. Some nursing interventions offered in the existing literature are examined for their feasibility. Finally, directions for future research are offered from this review of the literature.

  6. DEPTracker – Sleep Pattern Tracking with Accelerometer Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Havn, Ib; Svane Hansen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep pattern changes are known to be an early indicator of effective medical treatment of patients with a depression diagnosis. Existing methods to detect REM sleep pattern changes are known to be inaccurate, costly, or otherwise inadequate in normal settings...... of this patient group. In this paper, we demonstrate DEPTracker, a system capable of detecting sleep patterns, and in particular REM sleep. We show that DEPTracker is an accurate, cost-effective and suitable approach for sleep pattern detection in general. Details of the technology used, combining accelerometer...... technology with digital signal analysis is given and illustrates that the system is able to successfully detect REM sleep. The project demonstrates that accelerometers can be mounted on an eye lid and eye movements can be detected, sampled and stored in a database for online real-time analysis or post-sleep...

  7. How (and why) the immune system makes us sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeri, Luca; Opp, Mark R

    2009-03-01

    Good sleep is necessary for physical and mental health. For example, sleep loss impairs immune function, and sleep is altered during infection. Immune signalling molecules are present in the healthy brain, where they interact with neurochemical systems to contribute to the regulation of normal sleep. Animal studies have shown that interactions between immune signalling molecules (such as the cytokine interleukin 1) and brain neurochemical systems (such as the serotonin system) are amplified during infection, indicating that these interactions might underlie the changes in sleep that occur during infection. Why should the immune system cause us to sleep differently when we are sick? We propose that the alterations in sleep architecture during infection are exquisitely tailored to support the generation of fever, which in turn imparts survival value.

  8. SLEEP phenomena as an early biomarker for Parkinsonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic Rapid-Eye-Movement (REM) sleep Behavior Disorder (iRBD) is one of the most potential biomarkers for Parkinson's Disease (PD) and some atypical PD (AP). It is characterized by REM sleep with abnormal high surface EMG (sEMG) activity. Some twitching during REM sleep is normal, but no one...... has defined what normal is, and no well-defined methodology for measuring muscle activity in REM sleep exists. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of detecting abnormal high muscle activity during REM sleep in subjects diagnosed with iRBD. This has been achieved by considering...... the abnormal high muscle activity during REM sleep in iRBD subjects as an outlier detection problem, while exploiting that iRBD muscle activity is more grouped. It was possible to correctly discriminate all iRBD subjects from healthy elderly control subjects and subjects diagnosed with periodic limb movement...

  9. Sleep disturbance in mental health problems and neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson KN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kirstie N Anderson1 Andrew J Bradley2,3 1Department of Neurology, Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; 2Eli Lilly and Company Limited, Lilly House, Basingstoke, UK; 3Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK Abstract: Sleep has been described as being of the brain, by the brain, and for the brain. This fundamental neurobiological behavior is controlled by homeostatic and circadian (24-hour processes and is vital for normal brain function. This review will outline the normal sleep–wake cycle, the changes that occur during aging, and the specific patterns of sleep disturbance that occur in association with both mental health disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. The role of primary sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and REM sleep behavior disorder as potential causes or risk factors for particular mental health or neurodegenerative problems will also be discussed. Keywords: sleep, mental health, neurodegenerative disorders, cognition

  10. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Paul; Dunne, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  11. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Oliveiero; Novelli, Luana

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect between 20% and 30% of young children, and include problems getting to sleep (dyssomnias) or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  12. Interfering with theories of sleep and memory: sleep, declarative memory, and associative interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Hulbert, Justin C; Stickgold, Robert; Dinges, David F; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2006-07-11

    Mounting behavioral evidence in humans supports the claim that sleep leads to improvements in recently acquired, nondeclarative memories. Examples include motor-sequence learning; visual-discrimination learning; and perceptual learning of a synthetic language. In contrast, there are limited human data supporting a benefit of sleep for declarative (hippocampus-mediated) memory in humans (for review, see). This is particularly surprising given that animal models (e.g.,) and neuroimaging studies (e.g.,) predict that sleep facilitates hippocampus-based memory consolidation. We hypothesized that we could unmask the benefits of sleep by challenging the declarative memory system with competing information (interference). This is the first study to demonstrate that sleep protects declarative memories from subsequent associative interference, and it has important implications for understanding the neurobiology of memory consolidation.

  13. Adolescents' sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K

    2009-05-01

    Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. General education classes were randomly selected from a convenience sample of three high schools in the Midwest. Three hundred eighty-four ninth- to twelfth-grade students (57%) completed a self-administered valid and reliable questionnaire on sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep. Most respondents (91.9%) obtained inadequate sleep (sleep each week night. The majority indicated that not getting enough sleep had the following effects on them: being more tired during the day (93.7%), having difficulty paying attention (83.6%), lower grades (60.8%), increase in stress (59.0%), and having difficulty getting along with others (57.7%). Some students reported engaging in harmful behaviors to help them sleep: taking sleeping pills (6.0%), smoking a cigarette to relax (5.7%), and drinking alcohol in the evening (2.9%). Students who received fewer hours of sleep were significantly more likely to report being stressed (p = .02) and were more likely to be overweight (p = .04). Inadequate sleep time may be contributing to adolescent health problems such as increased stress and obesity. Findings indicate a need for sleep hygiene education for adolescents and their parents. A long-term solution to chronic sleep deprivation among high school students could include delaying high school start times, such as was done successfully in the Minneapolis Public School District.

  14. Sleep Misperception in Chronic Insomnia Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Implications for Clinical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su Jung; Suh, Sooyeon; Ong, Jason; Joo, Eun Yeon

    2016-11-15

    To investigate whether sleep perception (SP), defined by the ratio of subjective and objective total sleep time, and habitual sleep time in various sleep disorders may be based on comorbid insomnia status. We enrolled 420 patients (age 20-79 y) who underwent polysomnography (PSG). They were divided into three groups based on chief complaints: chronic insomnia (CI, n = 69), patients with both obstructive sleep apnea and insomnia (OSA-I, n = 49) or OSA only (OSA, n = 149). Healthy volunteers were also recruited (normal controls [NC], n = 80). We compared differences in PSG parameters and habitual sleep duration and investigated the discrepancy between objective and subjective total sleep time (TST) and sleep latency among four groups. Subjective TST was defined as sleep time perceived by participants the next morning of PSG. SP for TST was highest in the OSA group (median 92.9%), and lowest in the CI group (80.3%). SP of the NC group (91.4%) was higher than the CI, but there was no difference between OSA-I and OSA groups. OSA-I had higher depressive mood compared to the OSA group (p insomnia and arousal index of PSG. Insomnia patients with (OSA-I) or without OSA (CI) reported the smallest discrepancy between habitual sleep duration and objective TST. Patients with OSA with or without insomnia have different PSG profiles, which suggests that objective measures of sleep are an important consideration for differentiating subtypes of insomnia and tailoring proper treatment. A commentary on this articles appears in this issue on page 1437. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  15. [Quantified research about the effects of sleep quality on attention in class and acadamic achievements in primary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Yun; Qian, Yan-Fei; Gong, Sheng-Cheng; Tan, Mo; Tan, Xin; Yang, Yan; Li, Ling-Di; Huang, Chao-Quan

    2011-12-01

    To study the adverse effects of sleep problems and sleep insufficiency on attention in class and pupils' acadamic achievements. A total of 1138 students from four primary schools at ages of 6-12 years were randomly sampled from four districts of Changsha city, Hunan Province June 2009 to April 2010. The inquired items included sleep problems, sleep time, sleep quality, attention in class and academic achievements. Teachers and parents observed the pupils according to the unified requirements for 3 months and then filled out the questionnaires. The total valid inquiry tables were 1091 with the answering rate of 95.87%, including 549 boys and 542 girls. The sleep quality was more poor in children with sleep problems or sleep insufficiency than in children with normal sleep. The sleep quality was reduced and aggravated along with the increasing sleep problems and the reducing sleep time. The attention in class and academic achievements in children with sleep problems or sleep insufficiency were more poor than in children with normal sleep. The sleep quality index was negatively correlated with attention in class and academic achievements. The attention in class was positively correlated with academic achievements. The decline in sleep quality directly affects the attention in class and reduce the academic achievements in primary school children.

  16. Feasibilty of a sleep intervention during adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ann M; VonEssen, Susanna; Khun, Brett R; Piper, Barbara F; Farr, Lynne; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Lynch, James C; Higginbotham, Patti

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of an intervention designed to promote sleep and modify fatigue during four cycles of adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy. Prospective, repeated measures, quasi-experimental feasibility study. Midwestern urban oncology clinics. 25 women between the ages of 40-65 (mean = 54.3) with stage I-II breast cancer receiving doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. Each woman developed, reinforced, and revised an individualized sleep promotion plan (ISPP) with four components: sleep hygiene, relaxation therapy, stimulus control, and sleep restriction techniques. A daily diary, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a wrist actigraph, and the Piper Fatigue Scale were used to collect data two days before and seven days after each treatment. Adherence, sleep and wake outcomes, and fatigue. Adherence rates with the components of the ISPP varied during treatments one through four: sleep hygiene (68%-78%), relaxation therapy (57%-67%), stimulus control (46%-67%), and sleep restriction (76%-80%). Mean sleep and wake outcomes at baseline, peak, and rebound times were that (a) sleep latency remained brief (less than 30 minutes per night), (b) time awake after sleep onset exceeded the desired less than 30 minutes per night, (c) sleep efficiency scores remained stable at 85%-90%, (d) total rest time remained stable at 8-10 hours per night, (e) subjective ratings of feelings on arising were stable, and (f) nighttime awakenings were 8-10 per night. Fatigue outcomes were that fatigue was stable two days after each treatment and mean daily fatigue intensity was lower at treatment three than at treatment one but rebounded at treatment four. The intervention was feasible, adherence rates improved over time, and most sleep and wake patterns were consistent with normal values. Revisions will focus on decreasing nighttime awakenings. Adopting behaviors to promote sleep may assist in maintaining sleep and managing fatigue during chemotherapy.

  17. Impact of sleep disturbances in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbaran, Ziba; Keefer, Laurie; Farhadi, Ashkan; Stepanski, Edward; Sedghi, Shahriar; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2007-11-01

    Normal sleep is paramount for a healthy lifestyle and high quality of life. Sleep modulates the immune system and thus affects the course of several chronic inflammatory conditions. There are no reported studies that address the role of sleep disturbance in the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to characterize sleep disturbance in IBD using validated measures of sleep and quality of life. A self-administered, mail-in questionnaire package was sent to 205 subjects after a brief instruction. The questionnaire package was composed of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a measure of disease severity and the IBD-Quality of Life Questionnaire. A total of 119 subjects were recruited (58% response rate): 80 with inactive IBD, 24 with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 15 healthy controls. The IBD subjects reported significantly prolonged sleep latency, frequent sleep fragmentation, higher rate of using sleeping pills, decreased day-time energy, increased tiredness and poor overall sleep quality compared to healthy controls. The abnormal sleep patterns in IBD subjects were similar to IBS subjects. The reported sleep quality was correlated with IBD disease severity score (r(2) = 0.55, P = 0.02). Both IBD and IBS subjects thought that sleep and their disease status were correlated. The results show that IBD patients have significant sleep disturbance even when their disease is not active. This problem might affect quality of life, gastrointestinal symptoms and coping ability, and might potentially modify disease severity or increase risk of flare-up. Regardless of the primary or secondary origin of this problem, sleep disturbance should be addressed in the clinical management of patients with IBD.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Bamshad, Michael; Noonan, Carolyn; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Watson, Nathaniel F

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins. Academic clinical research center. 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a "normal" (7-9 h/24) and "short" (sleeping twin. Fasting peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was assessed for mtDNA copy number via the n-fold difference between qPCR measured mtDNA and nuclear DNA creating an mtDNA measure without absolute units. We used generalized estimating equation linear regression models accounting for the correlated data structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.06, 0.95; P sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.51. Reduced sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number in sleep duration discordant monozygotic twins offering a potential mechanism whereby short sleep impairs health and longevity through mitochondrial stress. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the

  20. Sleep apnoea in patients with quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, R. D.; Mykytyn, I.; Sajkov, D.; Flavell, H.; Marshall, R.; Antic, R.; Thornton, A. T.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of, and the factors contributing towards, sleep disordered breathing in patients with quadriplegia. METHODS--Forty representative quadriplegic patients (time since injury > 6 months, injury level C8 and above, Frankel category A, B, or C; mean (SE) age 35.0 (1.7) years) had home sleep studies in which EEG, EOG, submental EMG, body movement, nasal airflow, respiratory effort, and pulse oximetry (SpO2) were measured. Patients reporting post traumatic amnesia of > 24 hours, drug or alcohol abuse or other major medical illness were excluded from the study. A questionnaire on medications and sleep was administered and supine blood pressure, awake SpO2, spirometric values, height, and neck circumference were measured. RESULTS--A pattern of sustained hypoventilation was not observed in any of the patients. Sleep apnoeas and hypopnoeas were, however, common. Eleven patients (27.5%) had a respiratory disturbance index (RDI, apnoeas plus hypopnoeas per hour of sleep) of > or = 15, with nadir SpO2 ranging from 49% to 95%. Twelve of the 40 (30%) had an apnoea index (AI) of > or = 5 and, of these, nine (75%) had predominantly obstructive apnoeas-that is, > 80% of apnoeas were obstructive or mixed. This represents a prevalence of sleep disordered breathing more than twice that observed in normal populations. For the study population RDI correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and neck circumference. RDI was higher in patients who slept supine compared with those in other postures. Daytime sleepiness was a common complaint in the study population and sleep architecture was considerably disturbed with decreased REM sleep and increased stage 1 non-REM sleep. CONCLUSIONS--Sleep disordered breathing is common in quadriplegic patients and sleep disturbance is significant. The predominant type of apnoea is obstructive. As with non-quadriplegic patients with sleep apnoea, sleep disordered breathing in

  1. The Sleeping Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Cathrin B; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-05-01

    We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology, cerebro-cerebellar interactions during sleep, or the contributions of sleep to cerebellum-dependent memory consolidation. Likewise, we do not understand why cerebellar malfunction can lead to changes in the sleep-wake cycle and sleep disorders. In this review, we evaluate how sleep and cerebellar processing may influence one another and highlight which scientific routes and technical approaches could be taken to uncover the mechanisms underlying these interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of sleep on nocturnal urine output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2005-01-01

    sleep and the sequence was randomized. During these nights with sleep deprivation, participants were in lying position in a dimly lit room and physical activities, food and fluid intake were not allowed. Smoking was not allowed throughout the entire experimental protocol. Determinations of electrolytes...... sleep related physiological mechanisms into consideration. In the present study we report that acute sleep deprivation has a dramatic effect on the volume of nocturnal urine production in both genders although the effect is more pronounced in males. Natriuresis and kaliuresis were observed on nights...

  3. Predicting EEG complexity from sleep macro and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N; Mendez, M O; Rosso, V; Parrino, L; Grassi, A; Terzano, M; Bianchi, A M; Cerutti, S

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the relation between the complexity of electroencephalography (EEG) signal, as measured by fractal dimension (FD), and normal sleep structure in terms of its macrostructure and microstructure. Sleep features are defined, encoding sleep stage and cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) related information, both in short and long term. The relevance of each sleep feature to the EEG FD is investigated, and the most informative ones are depicted. In order to quantitatively assess the relation between sleep characteristics and EEG dynamics, a modeling approach is proposed which employs subsets of the sleep macrostructure and microstructure features as input variables and predicts EEG FD based on these features of sleep micro/macrostructure. Different sleep feature sets are investigated along with linear and nonlinear models. Findings suggest that the EEG FD time series is best predicted by a nonlinear support vector machine (SVM) model, employing both sleep stage/transitions and CAP features at different time scales depending on the EEG activation subtype. This combination of features suggests that short-term and long-term history of macro and micro sleep events interact in a complex manner toward generating the dynamics of sleep

  4. Napping reverses increased pain sensitivity due to sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Léger, Damien; Medkour, Terkia; Dubois, Alexandre; Bayon, Virginie; Chennaoui, Mounir; Perrot, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To investigate pain sensitivity after sleep restriction and the restorative effect of napping. A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with continuous polysomnography monitoring was performed. Laboratory-based study. 11 healthy male volunteers. Volunteers attended two three-day sessions: "sleep restriction" alone and "sleep restriction and nap". Each session involved a baseline night of normal sleep, a night of sleep deprivation and a night of free recovery sleep. Participants were allowed to sleep only from 02:00 to 04:00 during the sleep deprivation night. During the "sleep restriction and nap" session, volunteers took two 30-minute naps, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Quantitative sensory testing was performed with heat, cold and pressure, at 10:00 and 16:00, on three areas: the supraspinatus, lower back and thigh. After sleep restriction, quantitative sensory testing revealed differential changes in pain stimuli thresholds, but not in thermal threshold detection: lower back heat pain threshold decreased, pressure pain threshold increased in the supraspinatus area and no change was observed for the thigh. Napping restored responses to heat pain stimuli in the lower back and to pressure stimuli in the supraspinatus area. Sleep restriction induces different types of hypersensitivity to pain stimuli in different body areas, consistent with multilevel mechanisms, these changes being reversed by napping. The napping restorative effect on pain thresholds result principally from effects on pain mechanisms, since it was independent of vigilance status.

  5. Napping reverses increased pain sensitivity due to sleep restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Faraut

    Full Text Available To investigate pain sensitivity after sleep restriction and the restorative effect of napping.A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with continuous polysomnography monitoring was performed.Laboratory-based study.11 healthy male volunteers.Volunteers attended two three-day sessions: "sleep restriction" alone and "sleep restriction and nap". Each session involved a baseline night of normal sleep, a night of sleep deprivation and a night of free recovery sleep. Participants were allowed to sleep only from 02:00 to 04:00 during the sleep deprivation night. During the "sleep restriction and nap" session, volunteers took two 30-minute naps, one in the morning and one in the afternoon.Quantitative sensory testing was performed with heat, cold and pressure, at 10:00 and 16:00, on three areas: the supraspinatus, lower back and thigh. After sleep restriction, quantitative sensory testing revealed differential changes in pain stimuli thresholds, but not in thermal threshold detection: lower back heat pain threshold decreased, pressure pain threshold increased in the supraspinatus area and no change was observed for the thigh. Napping restored responses to heat pain stimuli in the lower back and to pressure stimuli in the supraspinatus area.Sleep restriction induces different types of hypersensitivity to pain stimuli in different body areas, consistent with multilevel mechanisms, these changes being reversed by napping. The napping restorative effect on pain thresholds result principally from effects on pain mechanisms, since it was independent of vigilance status.

  6. Sleep disorder among medical students: relationship to their academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza M; Alrowais, Norah A; Bin-Saad, Norah S; Al-Subaie, Nourah M; Haji, Alhan M A; Alhaqwi, Ali I

    2012-01-01

    Medical students are exposed to a significant level of pressure due to academic demands. Their sleep pattern is characterized by insufficient sleep duration, delayed sleep onset, and occurrence of napping episodes during the day. To examine the prevalence of sleep disorder among medical students and investigate any relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance. This is a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire-based study. The participants were medical students of the first, second, and third academic years. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was also included to identify sleep disorder and grade point average was recorded for academic performance. There were 491 responses with a response rate of 55%. The ESS score demonstrated that 36.6% of participants were considered to have abnormal sleep habits, with a statistically significant increase in female students (p = 0.000). Sleeping between 6-10 h per day was associated with normal ESS scores (p = 0.019) as well as the academic grades ≥ 3.75. Abnormal ESS scores were associated with lower academic achievement (p = 0.002). A high prevalence of sleep disorder was found in this group of students, specifically female students. Analysis of the relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance indicates a significant relationship between abnormal ESS scores, total sleeping hours, and academic performance.

  7. Sleep promotes the extraction of grammatical rules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L C Nieuwenhuis

    Full Text Available Grammar acquisition is a high level cognitive function that requires the extraction of complex rules. While it has been proposed that offline time might benefit this type of rule extraction, this remains to be tested. Here, we addressed this question using an artificial grammar learning paradigm. During a short-term memory cover task, eighty-one human participants were exposed to letter sequences generated according to an unknown artificial grammar. Following a time delay of 15 min, 12 h (wake or sleep or 24 h, participants classified novel test sequences as Grammatical or Non-Grammatical. Previous behavioral and functional neuroimaging work has shown that classification can be guided by two distinct underlying processes: (1 the holistic abstraction of the underlying grammar rules and (2 the detection of sequence chunks that appear at varying frequencies during exposure. Here, we show that classification performance improved after sleep. Moreover, this improvement was due to an enhancement of rule abstraction, while the effect of chunk frequency was unaltered by sleep. These findings suggest that sleep plays a critical role in extracting complex structure from separate but related items during integrative memory processing. Our findings stress the importance of alternating periods of learning with sleep in settings in which complex information must be acquired.

  8. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  9. Sleep disturbances in drug naïve Parkinson′s disease (PD patients and effect of levodopa on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Parkinson′s disease (PD is associated with sleep disturbances, attributed to the neurodegenerative process and therapeutic drugs. Studies have found levodopa to increase wakefulness in some patients while increasing sleepiness in others. Aims: To confirm sleep disturbances in drug naïve PD patients and understand the impact of levodopa on their sleep. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three drug naοve PD patients and 31 age-gender matched controls were compared using the Parkinson′s Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. A polysomnogram objectively compared sleep quality. Of the 23 patients, the 12 initiated on levodopa were reassessed subjectively and through polysomnography after 2 months of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation, median, and range. Continuous variables were analyzed by Student′s T test for normally distributed data and Mann-Whitney U test for skewed data. Discrete variables were compared by Chi Square tests (Pearson Chi square Test or Fisher′s Exact Test. Wilcoxon signed ranks test was applied in the analysis of paired data pre- and post-levodopa. A P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Statistical analysis of the data was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 12. Results: Drug naïve PD patients had lower PDSS scores than controls. The sleep architecture changes observed on polysomnogram were reduced NREM Stage III and REM sleep and increased sleep latency and wake after sleep onset time. Following levodopa, improved sleep efficiency with reduced sleep latency and wake after sleep onset time was noted, coupled with improved PDSS scores. However, NREM Stage III and REM sleep duration did not increase. Discussion: PD patients take longer to fall asleep and have difficulty in sleep maintenance. Sleep maintenance is affected by nocturia, REM behavioral disorder, nocturnal cramps, akinesia, and

  10. Sleep from an islamic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of All?h (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects ...

  11. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).

  12. Understanding the physiology of sleep and promoting effective routines with infants in hospital and at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Doreen

    2017-05-09

    Sleep is a biological necessity. Infants are unique individuals and what can be regarded as normal for one infant and his or her family may be considered a problem for another. Genetics, lifestyles, roles and responsibilities all influence sleep. This article explores the physiology of infant sleep and reviews how sleep is influenced by culture, events such as a hospital admission and parenting styles. It considers how the children's nurse can help and support a family who may feel that they have infant sleep-related issues. A good sleep pattern is essential for a child to succeed at school, reach their full potential and maintain their health and well-being.

  13. Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: A 36-Hour Sleep Deprivation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jacqueline; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In space, astronauts may experience effects of cumulative sleep loss due to demanding work schedules that can result in cognitive performance impairments, mood state deteriorations, and sleep-wake cycle disruption. Individuals who experience sleep deprivation of six hours beyond normal sleep times experience detrimental changes in their mood and performance states. Hence, the potential for life threatening errors increases exponentially with sleep deprivation. We explored the effects of 36-hours of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance, mood states, and physiological responses to identify which metrics may best predict fatigue induced performance decrements of individuals.

  14. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A

    2014-05-01

    Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection.

  15. Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances...... in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. METHODS: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis....... RESULTS: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high...

  16. Effects of sleep deprivation with reference to military operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giam, G C

    1997-01-01

    . Sleep lost need not be replaced hour-for-hour. Therefore, after operations, personnel need continuous sleep for only 10 to 12 hours as longer sleep increases sleep inertia and delays getting back to normal schedules.

  17. Quantifying sleep architecture dynamics and individual differences using big data and Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetton, Benjamin D; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Cellini, Nicola; Shelton, Christian; Mednick, Sara C

    2018-01-01

    The pattern of sleep stages across a night (sleep architecture) is influenced by biological, behavioral, and clinical variables. However, traditional measures of sleep architecture such as stage proportions, fail to capture sleep dynamics. Here we quantify the impact of individual differences on the dynamics of sleep architecture and determine which factors or set of factors best predict the next sleep stage from current stage information. We investigated the influence of age, sex, body mass index, time of day, and sleep time on static (e.g. minutes in stage, sleep efficiency) and dynamic measures of sleep architecture (e.g. transition probabilities and stage duration distributions) using a large dataset of 3202 nights from a non-clinical population. Multi-level regressions show that sex effects duration of all Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) stages, and age has a curvilinear relationship for Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO) and slow wave sleep (SWS) minutes. Bayesian network modeling reveals sleep architecture depends on time of day, total sleep time, age and sex, but not BMI. Older adults, and particularly males, have shorter bouts (more fragmentation) of Stage 2, SWS, and they transition less frequently to these stages. Additionally, we showed that the next sleep stage and its duration can be optimally predicted by the prior 2 stages and age. Our results demonstrate the potential benefit of big data and Bayesian network approaches in quantifying static and dynamic architecture of normal sleep.

  18. Sleep-wake patterns and their influence on school performance in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João; Nelas, Paula; Chaves, Cláudia; Ferreira, Manuela; Coutinho, Emília; Cunha, Madalena

    2014-11-01

    To characterise sleep-wake patterns and their influence on academic performance for a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Cross-sectional, analytical-explanatory, correlational epidemiological research. The protocol includes the composite morningness questionnaire (Barton et al, 1985 adapted by Silva et al, 1985), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (Murray, 1991), chronic fatigue scale (Smith et al, 1995), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Buysse, 1988), Educational Achievement (Fermin, 2005), personal and academic data. 2094 students (55.3% girls; 16-23 years old; M=16.82±1.25) attending secondary school in central Portugal. Living in urban areas, living with their parents and about 57.1% are in a family with reasonable economic resources. Adolescents' sleep patterns reveal that they sleep on average between 8-9 hours a night, do not use medication to sleep, with sleep latency within the normal range, with good sleep efficiency, without daytime dysfunction and with undisturbed sleep, predominantly intermediate chronotype. Minor drowsiness, increased sleep efficiency, improved subjective sleep satisfaction, less sleep disturbance, less daytime dysfunction, not consuming hypnotic medications, associated with better academic performance. Morningness/eveningness, sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction and sleep latency emerge as predictors of academic performance. The chronotype interacts to predict the quality of sleep enhancing it as a mediator of school performance. Sleep and associated individual characteristics should be considered in the diagnosis and intervention process in secondary education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of exercise on self-rated sleep among adults with chronic sleep complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Erlacher, Carmen; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether and to what extent the observed effects on self-rated sleep in a previous study using a combined treatment program with physical exercise and sleep education can be attributed by the physical activity (PA) component. Methods: The present study reports supplementary analysis of an already described and published study. Data were provided by a nonclinical sample of 98 normal-active adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining o...

  20. A role for clock genes in sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Paul

    2013-10-01

    The timing and quality of both sleep and wakefulness are thought to be regulated by the interaction of two processes. One of these two processes keeps track of the prior sleep-wake history and controls the homeostatic need for sleep while the other sets the time-of-day that sleep preferably occurs. The molecular pathways underlying the latter, circadian process have been studied in detail and their key role in physiological time-keeping has been well established. Analyses of sleep in mice and flies lacking core circadian clock gene proteins have demonstrated, however, that besides disrupting circadian rhythms, also sleep homeostatic processes were affected. Subsequent studies revealed that sleep loss alters both the mRNA levels and the specific DNA-binding of the key circadian transcriptional regulators to their target sequences in the mouse brain. The fact that sleep loss impinges on the very core of the molecular circadian circuitry might explain why both inadequate sleep and disrupted circadian rhythms can similarly lead to metabolic pathology. The evidence for a role for clock genes in sleep homeostasis will be reviewed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  2. Teenagers and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OSA causes daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep ... 30 apneas during a seven-hour sleep. In severe cases, periods of not breathing may last for ...

  4. Isolated sleep paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 103. ... Blaivas, DO, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, VA New Jersey Health Care System, Clinical Assistant ...

  5. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 156. Ibrahim S, Foldvary-Shaefer N. Sleep disorders in pregnancy: implications, evaluation, and treatment. Neurologic ...

  6. Sleep Apnea Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include being overweight and having a large neck. Losing even 10 percent of body weight can help reduce the number of times a person with sleep apnea stops breathing during sleep. African-Americans, Pacific ...

  7. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The National Sleep Foundation estimates that 18 million adults have obstructive sleep apnea and it is likely ... Maxillofacial Surgeon (OMS). An estimated 18-20 million adults in the US suffer from OSA. What Is ...

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SM. Obstructive sleep apnea: clinical features, evaluation, and principles of management. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  10. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and even life-threatening condition. The risks of undiagnosed OSA are ... sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and even life-threatening condition. The risks of undiagnosed OSA are ...

  11. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleeping During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleeping During Pregnancy What's in ...

  12. Oculomotor impairment during chronic partial sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M; Thomas, M; Thorne, D; Sing, H; Redmond, D; Rowland, L; Johnson, D; Hall, S; Krichmar, J; Balkin, T

    2003-04-01

    The effects of chronic partial sleep (sleep deprivation) and extended sleep (sleep augmentation) followed by recovery sleep on oculomotor function were evaluated in normal subjects to explore the usefulness of oculomotor assessment for alertness monitoring in fitness-for-duty testing. Sixty-six commercial drivers (24-62 years, 50m/16f) participated in a 15 day study composed of 3 training days with 8h time in bed per night, 7 experimental days with subjects randomly assigned to either 3, 5, 7, or 9h time in bed, and 3 recovery nights with 8h time in bed. Data from 57 subjects were used. Saccadic velocity (SV), initial pupil diameter (IPD), latency to pupil constriction (CL), and amplitude of pupil constriction (CA) were assessed and correlated with the sleep latency test (SLT), the Stanford sleepiness scale (SSS), and simulated driving performance. Regression analyses showed that SV slowed significantly in the 3 and 5h groups, IPD decreased significantly in the 9h group, and CL increased significantly in the 3h group. SLT and SSS significantly correlated with SV, IPD, CL, and driving accidents for the 3h group, and with CL for the 5h group. Analyses also showed a significant negative correlation between decreasing SV and increasing driving accidents in the 3h group and a significant negative correlation between IPD and driving accidents for the 7h group. The results demonstrate a sensitivity primarily of SV to sleepiness, and a correlation of SV and IPD to impaired simulated driving performance, providing evidence for the potential utility of oculomotor indicators in the detection of excessive sleepiness and deterioration of complex motor performance with chronic partial sleep restriction. This paper shows a relationship between sleep deprivation and oculomotor measures, and suggests a potential utility for oculometrics in assessing operational performance readiness under sleep restricted conditions.

  13. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways involving sympathetic overstimulation, hormonal imbalance, and subclinical inflammation. This paper reviews sleep and metabolism, and how sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may be altering human metabolism.

  14. The Functions of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Z Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a ubiquitous component of animal life including birds and mammals. The exact function of sleep has been one of the mysteries of biology. A considerable number of theories have been put forward to explain the reason(s for the necessity of sleep. To date, while a great deal is known about what happens when animals sleep, there is no definitive comprehensive explanation as to the reason that sleep is an inevitable part of animal functioning. It is well known that sleep is a homeostatically regulated body process, and that prolonged sleep deprivation is fatal in animals. In this paper, we present some of the theories as to the functions of sleep and provide a review of some hypotheses as to the overall physiologic function of sleep. To better understand the purpose for sleeping, we review the effects of sleep deprivation on physical, neurocognitive and psychic function. A better understanding of the purpose for sleeping will be a great advance in our understanding of the nature of the animal kingdom, including our own.

  15. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  16. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests Treatment ... Sleep talking is very common. It is reported in 50% of young children. About 5% of adults are reported to talk in their sleep. It ...

  17. Sleep structure in blindness is influenced by circadian desynchrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, Sébrina; Jennum, Poul; Nielsen, Tore

    2018-01-01

    We examined the structure, duration and quality of sleep, including non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep, in 11 blind individuals without conscious light perception and 11 age- and sex-matched sighted controls. Because blindness is associated with a greater incidence of free......-running circadian rhythms, we controlled for circadian phase by a measure of melatonin onset timing. When circadian rhythm was entrained and melatonin onset occurred at normal times, sleep structure did not differ between blind and sighted individuals. On the other hand, an abnormal timing of the circadian phase......, including delayed, shifted and unclassifiable melatonin onsets, led to larger rapid eye movement sleep latencies and increased wake times. No differences were observed for stages of non-rapid eye movement sleep, either between congenital and late blind and sighted individuals, or across the different...

  18. ERK phosphorylation regulates sleep and plasticity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Vanderheyden

    Full Text Available Given the relationship between sleep and plasticity, we examined the role of Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK in regulating baseline sleep, and modulating the response to waking experience. Both sleep deprivation and social enrichment increase ERK phosphorylation in wild-type flies. The effects of both sleep deprivation and social enrichment on structural plasticity in the LNvs can be recapitulated by expressing an active version of ERK (UAS-ERK(SEM pan-neuronally in the adult fly using GeneSwitch (Gsw Gsw-elav-GAL4. Conversely, disrupting ERK reduces sleep and prevents both the behavioral and structural plasticity normally induced by social enrichment. Finally, using transgenic flies carrying a cAMP response Element (CRE-luciferase reporter we show that activating ERK enhances CRE-Luc activity while disrupting ERK reduces it. These data suggest that ERK phosphorylation is an important mediator in transducing waking experience into sleep.

  19. A moderate increase of physiological CO2 in a critical range during stable NREM sleep episode: A potential gateway to REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha eMadan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is characterized as rapid eye movement (REM and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Studies suggest that wake-related neurons in the basal forebrain, posterior hypothalamus and brainstem and NREM sleep-related neurons in the anterior-hypothalamic area inhibit each other, thus alternating sleep-wakefulness. Similarly, pontine REM-ON and REM-OFF neurons reciprocally inhibit each other for REM sleep modulation. It has been proposed that inhibition of locus coeruleus (LC REM-OFF neurons is pre-requisite for REM sleep genesis, but it remains ambiguous how REM-OFF neurons are hyperpolarized at REM sleep onset. The frequency of breathing pattern remains high during wake, slows down during NREM sleep but further escalates during REM sleep. As a result, brain CO2 level increases during NREM sleep, which may alter REM sleep manifestation. It has been reported that hypocapnia decreases REM sleep while hypercapnia increases REM sleep periods. The groups of brainstem chemosensory neurons, including those present in LC, sense the alteration in CO2 level and respond accordingly. For example; one group of LC neurons depolarize while other hyperpolarize during hypercapnia. In another group, hypercapnia initially depolarizes but later hyperpolarizes LC neurons. Besides chemosensory functions, LC’s REM-OFF neurons are an integral part of REM sleep executive machinery. We reason that increased CO2 level during a stable NREM sleep period may hyperpolarize LC neurons including REM-OFF, which may help initiate REM sleep. We propose that REM sleep might act as a sentinel to help maintain normal CO2 level for unperturbed sleep.

  20. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  1. Developmental Changes in Sleep Oscillations during Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckehard Olbrich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although quantitative analysis of the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG has uncovered important aspects of brain activity during sleep in adolescents and adults, similar findings from preschool-age children remain scarce. This study utilized our time-frequency method to examine sleep oscillations as characteristic features of human sleep EEG. Data were collected from a longitudinal sample of young children (n=8; 3 males at ages 2, 3, and 5 years. Following sleep stage scoring, we detected and characterized oscillatory events across age and examined how their features corresponded to spectral changes in the sleep EEG. Results indicated a developmental decrease in the incidence of delta and theta oscillations. Spindle oscillations, however, were almost absent at 2 years but pronounced at 5 years. All oscillatory event changes were stronger during light sleep than slow-wave sleep. Large interindividual differences in sleep oscillations and their characteristics (e.g., “ultrafast” spindle-like oscillations, theta oscillation incidence/frequency also existed. Changes in delta and spindle oscillations across early childhood may indicate early maturation of the thalamocortical system. Our analytic approach holds promise for revealing novel types of sleep oscillatory events that are specific to periods of rapid normal development across the lifespan and during other times of aberrant changes in neurobehavioral function.

  2. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A J; Webb-Mitchell, R; Hazu, A; Slater, N; Middleton, B; Gallagher, P; McAllister-Williams, H; Anderson, K N

    2017-07-01

    Subjective reports of insomnia and hypersomnia are common in bipolar disorder (BD). It is unclear to what extent these relate to underlying circadian rhythm disturbance (CRD). In this study we aimed to objectively assess sleep and circadian rhythm in a cohort of patients with BD compared to matched controls. Forty-six patients with BD and 42 controls had comprehensive sleep/circadian rhythm assessment with respiratory sleep studies, prolonged accelerometry over 3 weeks, sleep questionnaires and diaries, melatonin levels, alongside mood, psychosocial functioning and quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. Twenty-three (50%) patients with BD had abnormal sleep, of whom 12 (52%) had CRD and 29% had obstructive sleep apnoea. Patients with abnormal sleep had lower 24-h melatonin secretion compared to controls and patients with normal sleep. Abnormal sleep/CRD in BD was associated with impaired functioning and worse QoL. BD is associated with high rates of abnormal sleep and CRD. The association between these disorders, mood and functioning, and the direction of causality, warrants further investigation.

  3. Lack of sleep is associated with internet use for leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that excessive internet use may cause lack of sleep. However, recent studies have hypothesized that lack of sleep may instigate internet use for leisure. To elucidate the potential effects of sleep time on internet use, we explored the different associations between sleep time and internet use according to its purpose. The population-based, cross-sectional study group from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) collected data from 57,425 middle school students in 2014 and 2015. Sleep time over the past 7 days was classified into the following groups: Internet use time per day was separately surveyed for leisure and for study and categorized as follows: 0 h; > 0 h, ≤ 1 h (1 h); > 1 h, ≤ 2 h (2 h); and > 2 h (2+ h) per day. Information on age, sex, region of residence, body mass index (BMI), economic level, parental education level, stress level, school performance level, and sleep satisfaction were retrieved. The relationships between sleep time and internet use time for leisure/study were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression with complex sampling. In the subgroup analysis according to sleep satisfaction (good, normal, and poor), the associations of sleep time with internet use for leisure were analyzed using the same methods. Compared to 9+ h of sleep, less sleep was related to a long internet use time (2+ h) for leisure (adjusted odds ratio, AOR [95% confidence interval, CI] of sleep: 8 h = 1.23 [1.14-1.32]; 7 h = 1.42 [1.31-1.54]; and 6 h = 1.56 [1.44-1.70]; P internet use time (2+ h) for study was evident only for 6 h of sleep (AOR of sleep: 8 h = 0.84 [0.84-1.04]; 7 h = 1.05 [0.94-1.17]; and 6 h = 1.32 [1.27-1.59]; P internet use time for leisure in all sleep satisfaction groups, although the relationship was more significant in the lower sleep satisfaction group. Less sleep was significantly related to long-term use of the internet for leisure, whereas this association was not definite for internet

  4. Short Sleep Makes Declarative Memories Vulnerable to Stress in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Axelsson, Emil K; Yeganeh, Adine; Vogel, Heike; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of nocturnal sleep duration for the retrieval of oversleep consolidated memories, both prior to and after being cognitively stressed for ∼30 minutes the next morning. Participants learned object locations (declarative memory task comprising 15 card pairs) and a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory task comprising 5 digits) in the evening. After learning, participants either had a sleep opportunity of 8 hours (between ∼23:00 and ∼07:00, full sleep condition) or they could sleep between ∼03:00 and ∼07:00 (short sleep condition). Retrieval of both memory tasks was tested in the morning after each sleep condition, both before (∼08:30) and after being stressed (∼09:50). Sleep laboratory. 15 healthy young men. The analyses demonstrated that oversleep memory changes did not differ between sleep conditions. However, in their short sleep condition, following stress hallmarked by increased subjective stress feelings, the men were unable to maintain their pre-stress performance on the declarative memory task, whereas their performance on the procedural memory task remained unchanged. While men felt comparably subjectively stressed by the stress intervention, overall no differences between pre- and post-stress recalls were observed following a full night of sleep. The findings suggest that 8-h sleep duration, within the range recommended by the US National Sleep Foundation, may not only help consolidate newly learned procedural and declarative memories, but also ensure full access to both during periods of subjective stress. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. [Sleep disorders associated with essential tremor and Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juping; Yao, Jianxin; Chen, Li; Miao, Hong; Mao, Chengjie; Liu, Chunfeng

    2015-01-20

    To evaluate the sleep quality and explore the manifestations of sleep disorders for 62 essential tremor (ET) patients, 60 normal controls and 62 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. A total of 62 ET patients, 60 normal controls and 62 PD patients from June 2009 to December 2013 were recruited. All of them were outpatients at Second Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University and Hospital of Changshu Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Sleep was assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The global PSQI score was 4.7 ± 2.5 in controls, 6.0 ± 4.0 in ET cases and 7.4 ± 3. 7 in PD cases. PD cases had the highest PSQI score, followed by ET (intermediate) and lowest scores in controls (F = 9.022, P = 0.000). A poor quality of sleep was observed in normal controls (23/62, 38.3%) compared to ET cases (34/62, 54.8%) and PD cases (40/62, 64.5%) (χ² = 8.555, P = 0.014 when comparing all three groups and χ² = 1.206, P = 0.272 when ET vs PD). The ESS score increased from normal controls (4.4 ± 2.5) to ET cases (6.3 ± 4.8) and PD cases (8.2 ± 4.2). An ESS score ≥ 10 (an indicator of greater than normal levels of daytime sleepiness) was observed in 6 (10.0%) normal controls, compared to ET cases (16, 25.8%) and PD cases (20, 32.3%) (χ² = 9.047, P = 0.011 when comparing all three groups and χ² = 0.626, P = 0.429 when ET vs PD). For normal controls, ET and PD patients, the factor scores of subjective sleep were 0.6 ± 0.7, 0.8 ± 0.8 and 1.1 ± 0.7; the factor scores of quality sleep latency 0.6 ± 0.7, 0.9 ± 0.9 and 1.1 ± 1.0; the factor scores of sleep duration 0.6 ± 0.8, 0.7 ± 1.0 and 1.0 ± 0.9; the factor scores of sleep efficiency 0.6 ± 0.8, 0.9 ± 0.9 and 1.0 ± 1.0; the factor scores of sleep disturbances 1.2 ± 0.6, 1.2 ± 0.5 and 1.7 ± 0.7; the factor scores of daytime dysfunction 1.2 ± 1.0, 1.3 ± 1.0 and 2.0 ± 1.1 respectively. There were inter-group statistical differences in subjective sleep (F = 7

  6. Early Automatic Detection of Parkinson's Disease Based on Sleep Recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sorensen, Helge B D; Nikolic, Miki

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Idiopathic rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is most likely the earliest sign of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) and consequently increased muscle activity. However, some muscle twitching in normal subjects occurs...... during REM sleep. PURPOSE: There are no generally accepted methods for evaluation of this activity and a normal range has not been established. Consequently, there is a need for objective criteria. METHOD: In this study we propose a full-automatic method for detection of RSWA. REM sleep identification...... the number of outliers during REM sleep was used as a quantitative measure of muscle activity. RESULTS: The proposed method was able to automatically separate all iRBD test subjects from healthy elderly controls and subjects with periodic limb movement disorder. CONCLUSION: The proposed work is considered...

  7. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFernandes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on neurogenesis.

  8. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  9. Cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Peter L; Gianaros, Peter J; Marsland, Anna L; Hall, Martica H; Siegle, Greg J; Dahl, Ronald E; Buysse, Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Psychological stress and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent and are both implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Given the common co-occurrence of psychological distress and sleep disturbances including short sleep duration, this study examined the combined effects of these two factors on blood pressure reactivity to immediate mental challenge tasks after well-rested and sleep-deprived experimental conditions. Participants (n = 20) were healthy young adults free from current or past sleep, psychiatric, or major medical disorders. Using a within-subjects crossover design, we examined acute stress reactivity under two experimental conditions: after a night of normal sleep in the laboratory and after a night of total sleep deprivation. Two standardized psychological stress tasks were administered, a Stroop color-word naming interference task and a speech task, which were preceded by a prestress baseline period and followed by a poststress recovery period. Each period was 10 minutes in duration, and blood pressure recordings were collected every 2.5 minutes throughout each period. Mean blood pressure responses during stress and recovery periods were examined with a mixed-effects analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline blood pressure. There was a significant interaction between sleep deprivation and stress on systolic blood pressure (F(2,82.7) = 4.05, p = .02). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the sleep deprivation condition compared with the normal sleep condition during the speech task and during the two baseline periods. Sleep deprivation amplified systolic blood pressure increases to psychological stress. Sleep loss may increase cardiovascular risk by dysregulating stress physiology.

  10. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sunil; Kavuru, Mani

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways i...

  11. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Patients Have Worse Sleep Quality Compared to Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Balester Mello de Godoy

    Full Text Available To compare sleep quality and sustained attention of patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS, mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA and normal individuals.UARS criteria were presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale-ESS-≥ 10 and/or fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale-MFIS-≥ 38 associated to Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI ≤ 5 and Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI > 5 events/hour of sleep or more than 30% of total sleep time with flow limitation. Mild OSA was considered if the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10 and/or fatigue (MFIS ≥ 38 associated to AHI ≥ 5 and ≤ 15 events/hour. "Control group" criteria were AHI < 5 events/hour and RDI ≤ 5 events/hour and ESS ≤ 9, without any sleep, clinical, neurological or psychiatric disorder. 115 individuals (34 UARS and 47 mild OSA patients and 34 individuals in "control group", adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI and schooling years, performed sleep questionnaires and sustained attention evaluation. Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT was performed five times (each two hours from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.UARS patients had worse sleep quality (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-FOSQ-and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI: p < 0.05 and more fatigue than mild OSA patients (p = 0.003 and scored significantly higher in both Beck inventories than "control group" (p < 0.02. UARS patients had more lapses early in the morning (in time 1 compared to the results in the afternoon (time 5 than mild OSA (p = 0.02. Mild OSA patients had more lapses in times 2 than in time 5 compared to "control group" (p = 0.04.UARS patients have a worse sleep quality, more fatigue and a worse early morning sustained attention compared to mild OSA. These last had a worse sustained attention than controls.

  12. Regulation of sleep by neuropeptide Y-like system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia He

    Full Text Available Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY, a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF, is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1 on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies.

  13. Sleep Patterns in Chinese Preschool Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ran; Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Chun-Lei

    2018-04-15

    This study aimed to (1) provide data on normal sleep patterns in Chinese preschool children, (2) identify cross-cultural differences of sleep patterns among children from China and other countries, (3) estimate the prevalence of sleep duration not meeting the optimal amount, and (4) characterize delayed weekend sleep pattern. A population-based sample of 1,610 children aged 3-6 years was recruited from 10 cities across China. Parents completed questions about their child's sleep patterns adapted from the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). The mean bedtime was 9:31 PM, wake time was 7:27 AM, nighttime sleep duration was 9 hours 30 minutes, daytime sleep duration was 1 hour 31 minutes, and total sleep duration was 11 hours 2 minutes. The children had a shorter nighttime sleep duration but longer daytime naps, resulting in no differences in total sleep duration compared with counterparts predominantly in the west. Of the children, 85.3% met the recommended amount of sleep of 10 to 13 hours, and 10.8% slept fewer than 10 hours. The prevalence of sleep less than 10 hours was higher in older children and children from eastern China. Children went to bed and woke up more than 30 minutes later on weekends than weekdays, accounting for 40.1% and 50%, respectively. Children in western China showed longer delay than children in eastern China ( P < .05). Age- and region-specific variability of sleep patterns are reported as well as insufficient sleep and delayed weekend sleep pattern in Chinese preschool children. The cross-cultural difference of sleep patterns was in temporal placement rather than sleep duration. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  14. Glymphatic MRI in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringstad, Geir; Vatnehol, Svein Are Sirirud; Eide, Per Kristian

    2017-10-01

    The glymphatic system has in previous studies been shown as fundamental to clearance of waste metabolites from the brain interstitial space, and is proposed to be instrumental in normal ageing and brain pathology such as Alzheimer's disease and brain trauma. Assessment of glymphatic function using magnetic resonance imaging with intrathecal contrast agent as a cerebrospinal fluid tracer has so far been limited to rodents. We aimed to image cerebrospinal fluid flow characteristics and glymphatic function in humans, and applied the methodology in a prospective study of 15 idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (mean age 71.3 ± 8.1 years, three female and 12 male) and eight reference subjects (mean age 41.1 + 13.0 years, six female and two male) with suspected cerebrospinal fluid leakage (seven) and intracranial cyst (one). The imaging protocol included T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with equal sequence parameters before and at multiple time points through 24 h after intrathecal injection of the contrast agent gadobutrol at the lumbar level. All study subjects were kept in the supine position between examinations during the first day. Gadobutrol enhancement was measured at all imaging time points from regions of interest placed at predefined locations in brain parenchyma, the subarachnoid and intraventricular space, and inside the sagittal sinus. Parameters demonstrating gadobutrol enhancement and clearance in different locations were compared between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and reference subjects. A characteristic flow pattern in idiopathic normal hydrocephalus was ventricular reflux of gadobutrol from the subarachnoid space followed by transependymal gadobutrol migration. At the brain surfaces, gadobutrol propagated antegradely along large leptomeningeal arteries in all study subjects, and preceded glymphatic enhancement in adjacent brain tissue, indicating a pivotal role of intracranial pulsations for glymphatic function. In

  15. A novel sleep optimisation programme to improve athletes' well-being and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryswyk, Emer; Weeks, Richard; Bandick, Laura; O'Keefe, Michaela; Vakulin, Andrew; Catcheside, Peter; Barger, Laura; Potter, Andrew; Poulos, Nick; Wallace, Jarryd; Antic, Nick A

    2017-03-01

    To improve well-being and performance indicators in a group of Australian Football League (AFL) players via a six-week sleep optimisation programme. Prospective intervention study following observations suggestive of reduced sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness in an AFL group. Athletes from the Adelaide Football Club were invited to participate if they had played AFL senior-level football for 1-5 years, or if they had excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] >10), measured via ESS. An initial education session explained normal sleep needs, and how to achieve increased sleep duration and quality. Participants (n = 25) received ongoing feedback on their sleep, and a mid-programme education and feedback session. Sleep duration, quality and related outcomes were measured during week one and at the conclusion of the six-week intervention period using sleep diaries, actigraphy, ESS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Profile of Mood States, Training Distress Scale, Perceived Stress Scale and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Sleep diaries demonstrated an increase in total sleep time of approximately 20 min (498.8 ± 53.8 to 518.7 ± 34.3; p sleep efficiency (p sleep efficiency, fatigue and vigour indicate that a sleep optimisation programme may improve athletes' well-being. More research is required into the effects of sleep optimisation on athletic performance.

  16. Internalizing and externalizing traits predict changes in sleep efficiency in emerging adulthood: An actigraphy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eYaugher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on psychopathology and experimental studies of sleep restriction support a relationship between sleep disruption and both internalizing and externalizing disorders. The objective of the current study was to extend this research by examining sleep, impulsivity, antisocial personality traits, and internalizing traits in a university sample. Three hundred and eighty six individuals (161 males between the ages of 18 and 27 years (M = 18.59, SD = 0.98 wore actigraphs for 7 days and completed established measures of disorder-linked personality traits and sleep quality (i.e., Personality Assessment Inventory, Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. As expected, sleep measures and questionnaire scores fell within the normal range of values and sex differences in sleep and personality were consistent with previous research results. Similar to findings in predominantly male forensic psychiatric settings, higher levels of impulsivity predicted poorer subjective sleep quality in both women and men. Consistent with well-established associations between depression and sleep, higher levels of depression in both sexes predicted poorer subjective sleep quality. Bidirectional analyses showed that better sleep efficiency decreases depression. Finally, moderation analyses showed that gender does have a primary role in sleep efficiency and marginal effects were found. The observed relations between sleep and personality traits in a typical university sample add to converging evidence of the relationship between sleep and psychopathology and may inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology in young adulthood.

  17. Effects of Inhalation Aromatherapy on Symptoms of Sleep Disturbance in the Elderly with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Takeda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of inhalation aromatherapy on sleep disturbance in elderly individuals with dementia. In 19 subjects, normal sleep was observed for a 20-day control period, inhalation aromatherapy was then applied for a 20-day intervention period, and the control and intervention periods were compared. During the intervention period, essential oils were placed nightly on towels around the subjects’ pillows. The measured sleep conditions were sleep latency, total sleep time, sleep efficacy, duration of the longest sustained sleep period, wake time after sleep onset, early morning awakening, total daytime sleep, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Total sleep time was significantly longer in the intervention period than in the control period (p<0.05. The duration of the longest sustained sleep period was significantly longer in the intervention period than in the control period (p<0.05. Early morning awakening in the intervention period was significantly less compared to that in the control period (p<0.05. Total daytime sleep could not be adequately measured and was omitted from the analysis. No significant differences in other sleep conditions were observed. These results indicated positive effects of inhalation aromatherapy on symptoms of sleep disturbance in elderly individuals with dementia.

  18. Sleep and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M

    Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

  19. Removal of unwanted variation reveals novel patterns of gene expression linked to sleep homeostasis in murine cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Gerstner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Why we sleep is still one of the most perplexing mysteries in biology. Strong evidence indicates that sleep is necessary for normal brain function and that sleep need is a tightly regulated process. Surprisingly, molecular mechanisms that determine sleep need are incompletely described. Moreover, very little is known about transcriptional changes that specifically accompany the accumulation and discharge of sleep need. Several studies have characterized differential gene expression changes following sleep deprivation. Much less is known, however, about changes in gene expression during the compensatory response to sleep deprivation (i.e. recovery sleep. Results In this study we present a comprehensive analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation and subsequent recovery sleep on gene expression in the mouse cortex. We used a non-traditional analytical method for normalization of genome-wide gene expression data, Removal of Unwanted Variation (RUV. RUV improves detection of differential gene expression following sleep deprivation. We also show that RUV normalization is crucial to the discovery of differentially expressed genes associated with recovery sleep. Our analysis indicates that the majority of transcripts upregulated by sleep deprivation require 6 h of recovery sleep to return to baseline levels, while the majority of downregulated transcripts return to baseline levels within 1–3 h. We also find that transcripts that change rapidly during recovery (i.e. within 3 h do so on average with a time constant that is similar to the time constant for the discharge of sleep need. Conclusions We demonstrate that proper data normalization is essential to identify changes in gene expression that are specifically linked to sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. Our results provide the first evidence that recovery sleep is comprised of two waves of transcriptional regulation that occur at different times and affect functionally

  20. DSM-5 Insomnia and Short Sleep: Comorbidity Landscape and Racial Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Drake, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. Methods: This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification (never vs. remitted vs. current) and self-reported habitual sleep duration (normal vs. short). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Results: Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Conclusions: Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease

  1. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  2. Sleep and psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Vivien C.; Guilleminault, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders constitute 15.4% of the disease burden in established market economies. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, and the relationship is often bidirectional. This paper reviews the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders, their clinical presentation, and their association with sleep disorders. Among the psychiatric disorders reviewed are affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder), substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. The spectrum of associated sleep disorders includes insomnia, hypersomnia, nocturnal panic, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, restless legs/periodic limb movements of sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, and parasomnias. The effects on sleep of various psychotropic medications utilized to treat the above psychiatric disorders are summarized. PMID:16416705

  3. Sleep-wake and melatonin pattern in craniopharyngioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Line; Jennum, Poul; Gammeltoft, Steen; Poulsgaard, Lars; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Klose, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    To assess the influence of craniopharyngioma or consequent surgery on melatonin secretion, and the association with fatigue, sleepiness, sleep pattern and sleep quality. Cross-sectional study. A total of 15 craniopharyngioma patients were individually matched to healthy controls. In this study, 24-h salivary melatonin and cortisol were measured. Sleep-wake patterns were characterised by actigraphy and sleep diaries recorded for 2 weeks. Sleepiness, fatigue, sleep quality and general health were assessed by Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Short-Form 36. Patients had increased mental fatigue, daytime dysfunction, sleep latency and lower general health (all, P≤0.05), and they tended to have increased daytime sleepiness, general fatigue and impaired sleep quality compared with controls. The degree of hypothalamic injury was associated with an increased BMI and lower mental health (P=0.01). High BMI was associated with increased daytime sleepiness, daytime dysfunction, mental fatigue and lower mental health (all, P≤0.01). Low midnight melatonin was associated with reduced sleep time and efficiency (P≤0.03) and a tendency for increased sleepiness, impaired sleep quality and physical health. Midnight melatonin remained independently related to sleep time after adjustment for cortisol. Three different patterns of melatonin profiles were observed; normal (n=6), absent midnight peak (n=6) and phase-shifted peak (n=2). Only patients with absent midnight peak had impaired sleep quality, increased daytime sleepiness and general and mental fatigue. Craniopharyngioma patients present with changes in circadian pattern and daytime symptoms, which may be due to the influence of the craniopharyngioma or its treatment on the hypothalamic circadian and sleep regulatory nuclei. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Sleep to the beat: A nap favours consolidation of timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Ilse M; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Van Someren, Eus J W; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that sleep is important for procedural learning, but few studies have investigated the effect of sleep on the temporal aspects of motor skill learning. We assessed the effect of a 90-min day-time nap on learning a motor timing task, using 2 adaptations of a serial interception sequence learning (SISL) task. Forty-two right-handed participants performed the task before and after a 90-min period of sleep or wake. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded throughout. The motor task consisted of a sequential spatial pattern and was performed according to 2 different timing conditions, that is, either following a sequential or a random temporal pattern. The increase in accuracy was compared between groups using a mixed linear regression model. Within the sleep group, performance improvement was modeled based on sleep characteristics, including spindle- and slow-wave density. The sleep group, but not the wake group, showed improvement in the random temporal, but especially and significantly more strongly in the sequential temporal condition. None of the sleep characteristics predicted improvement on either general of the timing conditions. In conclusion, a daytime nap improves performance on a timing task. We show that performance on the task with a sequential timing sequence benefits more from sleep than motor timing. More important, the temporal sequence did not benefit initial learning, because differences arose only after an offline period and specifically when this period contained sleep. Sleep appears to aid in the extraction of regularities for optimal subsequent performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Sleep and Sleep Problems: From Birth to 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mond, Courtney; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is an important aspect of a child's early development and is essential to family well-being. During their first 3 years, infants and toddlers spend more than 50% of their lives sleeping. However, concerns about sleep and sleep problems are among the most common issues brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although sleep is one of the…

  6. Epigenetic Loss of MLH1 Expression in Normal Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Clones is Defined by the Promoter CpG Methylation Pattern Observed by High-Throughput Methylation Specific Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Jonathan; Nickel-Meester, Gabrielle; Qing, Yulan; Santos-Guasch, Gabriela; Drake, Ellen; PingfuFu; Sun, Shuying; Bai, Xiaodong; Wald, David; Arts, Eric; Gerson, Stanton L

    Normal human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC) lose expression of MLH1 , an important mismatch repair (MMR) pathway gene, with age. Loss of MMR leads to replication dependent mutational events and microsatellite instability observed in secondary acute myelogenous leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. Epigenetic CpG methylation upstream of the MLH1 promoter is a contributing factor to acquired loss of MLH1 expression in tumors of the epithelia and proximal mucosa. Using single molecule high-throughput bisulfite sequencing we have characterized the CpG methylation landscape from -938 to -337 bp upstream of the MLH1 transcriptional start site (position +0), from 30 hematopoietic colony forming cell clones (CFC) either expressing or not expressing MLH1 . We identify a correlation between MLH1 promoter methylation and loss of MLH1 expression. Additionally, using the CpG site methylation frequencies obtained in this study we were able to generate a classification algorithm capable of sorting the expressing and non-expressing CFC. Thus, as has been previously described for many tumor cell types, we report for the first time a correlation between the loss of MLH1 expression and increased MLH1 promoter methylation in CFC derived from CD34 + selected hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

  7. Apnea-induced rapid eye movement sleep disruption impairs human spatial navigational memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P; Osorio, Ricardo S; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-10-29

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414571-07$15.00/0.

  8. Free recall of word lists under total sleep deprivation and after recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Valverde Zanini, Gislaine; Tufik, Sérgio; Andersen, Monica Levy; da Silva, Raquel Cristina Martins; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Rodrigues, Camila Cruz; Pompéia, Sabine

    2012-02-01

    One task that has been used to assess memory effects of prior total sleep deprivation (TSD) is the immediate free recall of word lists; however, results have been mixed. A possible explanation for this is task impurity, since recall of words from different serial positions reflects use of distinct types of memory (last words: short-term memory; first and intermediate words: episodic memory). Here we studied the effects of 2 nights of TSD on immediate free recall of semantically unrelated word lists considering the serial position curve. Random allocation to a 2-night TSD protocol followed by one night of recovery sleep or to a control group. Study conducted under continuous behavioral monitoring. 24 young, healthy male volunteers. 2 nights of total sleep deprivation (TSD) and one night of recovery sleep. Participants were shown five 15 unrelated word-lists at baseline, after one and 2 nights of TSD, and after one night of recovery sleep. We also investigated the development of recall strategies (learning) and susceptibility to interference from previous lists. No free recall impairment occurred during TSD, irrespective of serial position. Interference was unchanged. Both groups developed recall strategies, but task learning occurred earlier in controls and was evident in the TSD group only after sleep recovery. Prior TSD spared episodic memory, short-term phonological memory, and interference, allowed the development of recall strategies, but may have decreased the advantage of using these strategies, which returned to normal after recovery sleep.

  9. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  10. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction.

  11. Sleep from an islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allβh (God and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh, Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  12. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-05-01

    Sleep rebound-the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation-is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the duration and depth of sleep after

  13. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Sleep Continuity and Slow Wave Sleep as Predictors of Cognition, Mood, and Subjective Sleep Quality in Healthy Men and Women, Aged 20–84 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro della Monica

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its sub-states are assumed to be important for brain function across the lifespan but which aspects of sleep associate with various aspects of cognition, mood and self-reported sleep quality has not yet been established in detail. Sleep was quantified by polysomnography, quantitative Electroencephalogram (EEG analysis and self-report in 206 healthy men and women, aged 20–84 years, without sleep complaints. Waking brain function was quantified by five assessments scheduled across the day covering objectively assessed performance across cognitive domains including sustained attention and arousal, decision and response time, motor and sequence control, working memory, and executive function as well as self-reports of alertness, mood and affect. Controlled for age and sex, self-reported sleep quality was negatively associated with number of awakenings and positively associated with the duration of Rapid Eye Movement (REM sleep, but no significant associations with Slow Wave Sleep (SWS measures were observed. Controlling only for age showed that associations between objective and subjective sleep quality were much stronger in women than in men. Analysis of 51 performance measures demonstrated that, after controlling for age and sex, fewer awakenings and more REM sleep were associated significantly with better performance on the Goal Neglect task, which is a test of executive function. Factor analysis of the individual performance measures identified four latent variables labeled Mood/Arousal, Response Time, Accuracy, and Visual Perceptual Sensitivity. Whereas Mood/Arousal improved with age, Response Times became slower, while Accuracy and Visual perceptual sensitivity showed little change with age. After controlling for sex and age, nominally significant association between sleep and factor scores were observed such that Response Times were faster with more SWS, and Accuracy was reduced where individuals woke more often or had less REM

  14. Leg Movement Activity During Sleep in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Garbazza

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To conduct a first detailed analysis of the pattern of leg movement (LM activity during sleep in adult subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD compared to healthy controls.Methods: Fifteen ADHD patients and 18 control subjects underwent an in-lab polysomnographic sleep study. The periodic character of LMs was evaluated with established markers of “periodicity,” i.e., the periodicity index, intermovement intervals, and time distribution of LM during sleep, in addition to standard parameters such as the periodic leg movement during sleep index (PLMSI and the periodic leg movement during sleep arousal index (PLMSAI. Subjective sleep and psychiatric symptoms were assessed using several, self-administered, screening questionnaires.Results: Objective sleep parameters from the baseline night did not significantly differ between ADHD and control subjects, except for a longer sleep latency (SL, a longer duration of the periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS in REM sleep and a higher PLMSI also in REM sleep. Data from the sleep questionnaires showed perception of poor sleep quality in ADHD patients.Conclusions: Leg movements during sleep in ADHD adults are not significantly more frequent than in healthy controls and the nocturnal motor events do not show an increased periodicity in these patients. The non-periodic character of LMs in ADHD has already been shown in children and seems to differentiate ADHD from other pathophysiological related conditions like restless legs syndrome (RLS or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD. The reduced subjective sleep quality reported by ADHD adults contrasted with the normal objective polysomnographic parameters, which could suggest a sleep-state misperception in these individuals or more subtle sleep abnormalities not picked up by the traditional sleep staging.

  15. Associations between insomnia, sleep duration and poor work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Yan; Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Li, Fuye; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint effect of insomnia and objective sleep duration on poor work ability. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2820 Chinese manufacturing workers were categorized as insomnia patients and individuals with normal sleeping pattern by interview according to DSM-IV criteria. Sleep duration was classified into four categories: ≥7h, 6-7h, 5-6h, and Work ability was assessed using the Chinese Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Regression analysis examined the independent and joint association of sleep duration and insomnia with poor work ability, after adjusting for various confounding factors. Insomnia and objective short sleep duration were both independently associated with poor work ability. Compared with the normal sleeping and ≥7h sleep duration group, the highest risk of poor work ability was in the insomnia patients with work ability. Objective sleep duration should be taken into consideration when assessing the work ability of people with insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep-related disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crinion, Sophie J

    2014-02-01

    Sleep may have several negative consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sleep is typically fragmented with diminished slow wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep, which likely represents an important contributing factor to daytime symptoms such as fatigue and lethargy. Furthermore, normal physiological adaptations during sleep, which result in mild hypoventilation in normal subjects, are more pronounced in COPD, which can result in clinically important nocturnal oxygen desaturation. The co-existence of obstructive sleep apnea and COPD is also common, principally because of the high prevalence of each disorder, and there is little convincing evidence that one disorder predisposes to the other. Nonetheless, this co-existence, termed the overlap syndrome, typically results in more pronounced nocturnal oxygen desaturation and there is a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in such patients. Management of sleep disorders in patients with COPD should address both sleep quality and disordered gas exchange. Non-invasive pressure support is beneficial in selected cases, particularly during acute exacerbations associated with respiratory failure, and is particularly helpful in patients with the overlap syndrome. There is limited evidence of benefit from pressure support in the chronic setting in COPD patients without obstructive sleep apnea.

  17. Blood-gene expression reveals reduced circadian rhythmicity in individuals resistant to sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnardottir, Erna S; Nikonova, Elena V; Shockley, Keith R; Podtelezhnikov, Alexei A; Anafi, Ron C; Tanis, Keith Q; Maislin, Greg; Stone, David J; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J; Pack, Allan I

    2014-10-01

    To address whether changes in gene expression in blood cells with sleep loss are different in individuals resistant and sensitive to sleep deprivation. Blood draws every 4 h during a 3-day study: 24-h normal baseline, 38 h of continuous wakefulness and subsequent recovery sleep, for a total of 19 time-points per subject, with every 2-h psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) assessment when awake. Sleep laboratory. Fourteen subjects who were previously identified as behaviorally resistant (n = 7) or sensitive (n = 7) to sleep deprivation by PVT. Thirty-eight hours of continuous wakefulness. We found 4,481 unique genes with a significant 24-h diurnal rhythm during a normal sleep-wake cycle in blood (false discovery rate [FDR] sleep. After accounting for circadian effects, two genes (SREBF1 and CPT1A, both involved in lipid metabolism) exhibited small, but significant, linear changes in expression with the duration of sleep deprivation (FDR sleep deprivation was a reduction in the amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of expression of normally cycling probe sets. This reduction was noticeably higher in behaviorally resistant subjects than sensitive subjects, at any given P value. Furthermore, blood cell type enrichment analysis showed that the expression pattern difference between sensitive and resistant subjects is mainly found in cells of myeloid origin, such as monocytes. Individual differences in behavioral effects of sleep deprivation are associated with differences in diurnal amplitude of gene expression for genes that show circadian rhythmicity. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. The effects of sleep extension on sleep and cognitive performance in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Outcome variables were objectively measured sleep and cognitive performance. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by

  19. A review of current sleep screening applications for smartphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, Joachim; Roebuck, Aoife; Domingos, João S; Gederi, Elnaz; Clifford, Gari D

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are a common problem and contribute to a wide range of healthcare issues. The societal and financial costs of sleep disorders are enormous. Sleep-related disorders are often diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram, or sleep study involving the measurement of brain activity through the electroencephalogram. Other parameters monitored include oxygen saturation, respiratory effort, cardiac activity (through the electrocardiogram), as well as video recording, sound and movement activity. Monitoring can be costly and removes the patients from their normal sleeping environment, preventing repeated unbiased studies. The recent increase in adoption of smartphones, with high quality on-board sensors has led to the proliferation of many sleep screening applications running on the phone. However, with the exception of simple questionnaires, no existing sleep-related application available for smartphones is based on scientific evidence. This paper reviews the existing smartphone applications landscape used in the field of sleep disorders and proposes possible advances to improve screening approaches. (topical review)

  20. DSM-5 Insomnia and Short Sleep: Comorbidity Landscape and Racial Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-12-01

    We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification ( never vs. remitted vs. current ) and self-reported habitual sleep duration ( normal vs. short ). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease and psychiatric illness. © 2016 Associated

  1. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  2. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in older adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in older adults involve any disrupted sleep ...

  3. Healthy People 2020: Sleep Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve health, productivity, wellness, quality of life, and safety on roads and in the workplace. Overview Poor sleep health ... adopt strategies that reduce risks to health and safety. Without sleep health education, individuals often prioritize other activities over sleep and ...

  4. [Sleep disorders and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryo; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that patients with epilepsy often have insomnia and/or daytime sleepiness; the symptomatologic features differ in seizure types. Not only the administration of anti-epileptics, but also inappropriate sleep hygiene cause daytime sleepiness. In subjective assessment of sleepiness, we need to pay attention if it can correctly assess or not. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with epilepsy is approximately 10-30%. Sleep apnea deteriorates the seizure control because of worsen sleep condition by sleep apnea, especially in elderly patients. Some researchers report that continuous positive airway pressure was effective for seizure control. Patients with epilepsy occasionally have REM sleep behavior disorder as comorbidity. Examination using polysomnography is required for differential diagnosis.

  5. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wittert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture.

  6. Sleep-EEG in dizygotic twins discordant for Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bódizs, Róbert; Gombos, Ferenc; Szocs, Katalin; Réthelyi, János M; Gerván, Patrícia; Kovács, Ilona

    2014-01-30

    Reports on twin pairs concordant and discordant for Williams syndrome were published before, but no study unravelled sleep physiology in these cases yet. We aim to fill this gap by analyzing sleep records of a twin pair discordant for Williams syndrome extending our focus on presleep wakefulness and sleep spindling. We performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification of the 7q11.23 region of a 17 years old dizygotic opposite-sex twin pair discordant for Williams syndrome. Polysomnography of laboratory sleep at this age was analyzed and followed-up after 1.5 years by ambulatory polysomnography. Sleep stages scoring, EEG power spectra and sleep spindle analyses were carried out. The twin brother showed reduced levels of amplification for all of the probes in the 7q11.23 region indicating a typical deletion spanning at least 1.038 Mb between FKBP6 and CLIP2. The results of the twin sister showed normal copy numbers in the investigated region. Lower sleep times and efficiencies, as well as higher slow wave sleep percents of the twin brother were evident during both recordings. Roughly equal NREM, Stage 2 and REM sleep percents were found. EEG analyses revealed state and derivation-independent decreases in alpha power, lack of an alpha spectral peak in presleep wakefulness, as well as higher NREM sleep sigma peak frequency in the twin brother. Faster sleep spindles with lower amplitude and shorter duration characterized the records of the twin brother. Spectra show a striking reliability and correspondence between the two situations (laboratory vs. home records). Alterations in sleep and specific neural oscillations including the alpha/sigma waves are inherent aspects of Williams syndrome.

  7. Impact of partial sleep deprivation on immune markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, A; Mustafa, F B; Earnest, A; Gen, L; Macary, P A

    2013-10-01

    Sleep quality is considered to be an important predictor of immunity. Lack of sleep therefore may reduce immunity, thereby increasing the susceptibility to respiratory pathogens. A previous study showed that reduced sleep duration was associated with an increased likelihood of the common cold. It is important to understand the role of sleep in altering immune responses to understand how sleep deprivation leads to an increased susceptibility to the common cold or other respiratory infections. We sought to examine the impact of partial sleep deprivation on various immune markers. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were partially sleep deprived for one night. We took blood samples before the sleep deprivation, immediately after, and 4 and 7 days after sleep deprivation. We measured various immune markers and used a generalized estimating equation (GEE) to examine the differences in the repeated measures. CD4, CD8, CD14, and CD16 all showed significant time-dependent changes, but CD3 did not. The most striking time-dependent change was observed for the mitogen proliferation assay and for HLA-DR. There was a significant decrease in the mitogen proliferation values and HLA-DR immediately after the sleep deprivation experiment, which started to rise again on day 4 and normalized by day 7. The transiently impaired mitogen proliferation, the decreased HLA-DR, the upregulated CD14, and the variations in CD4 and CD8 that we observed in temporal relationship with partial sleep deprivation could be one possible explanation for the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections reported after reduced sleep duration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Neuromuscular Disease: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboussouan, Loutfi S; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo

    2017-10-01

    Normal sleep-related rapid eye movement sleep atonia, reduced lung volumes, reduced chemosensitivity, and impaired airway dilator activity become significant vulnerabilities in the setting of neuromuscular disease. In that context, the compounding effects of respiratory muscle weakness and disease-specific features that promote upper airway collapse or cause dilated cardiomyopathy contribute to various sleep-disordered breathing events. The reduction in lung volumes with neuromuscular disease is further compromised by sleep and the supine position, exaggerating the tendency for upper airway collapse and desaturation with sleep-disordered breathing events. The most commonly identified events are diaphragmatic/pseudo-central, due to a decrease in the rib cage contribution to the tidal volume during phasic rapid eye movement sleep. Obstructive and central sleep apneas are also common. Noninvasive ventilation can improve survival and quality of sleep but should be used with caution in the context of dilated cardiomyopathy or significant bulbar symptoms. Noninvasive ventilation can also trigger sleep-disordered breathing events, including ineffective triggering, autotriggering, central sleep apnea, and glottic closure, which compromise the potential benefits of the intervention by increasing arousals, reducing adherence, and impairing sleep architecture. Polysomnography plays an important diagnostic and therapeutic role by correctly categorizing sleep-disordered events, identifying sleep-disordered breathing triggered by noninvasive ventilation, and improving noninvasive ventilation settings. Optimal management may require dedicated hypoventilation protocols and a technical staff well versed in the identification and troubleshooting of respiratory events. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New technology to assess sleep apnea: wearables, smartphones, and accessories [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Penzel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine has been an expanding discipline during the last few decades. The prevalence of sleep disorders is increasing, and sleep centers are expanding in hospitals and in the private care environment to meet the demands. Sleep medicine has evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders. However, the number of sleep centers and caregivers in this area is not sufficient. Many new methods for recording sleep and diagnosing sleep disorders have been developed. Many sleep disorders are chronic conditions and require continuous treatment and monitoring of therapy success. Cost-efficient technologies for the initial diagnosis and for follow-up monitoring of treatment are important. It is precisely here that telemedicine technologies can meet the demands of diagnosis and therapy follow-up studies. Wireless recording of sleep and related biosignals allows diagnostic tools and therapy follow-up to be widely and remotely available. Moreover, sleep research requires new technologies to investigate underlying mechanisms in the regulation of sleep in order to better understand the pathophysiology of sleep disorders. Home recording and non-obtrusive recording over extended periods of time with telemedicine methods support this research. Telemedicine allows recording with little subject interference under normal and experimental life conditions.

  10. Brain and muscle oxygenation monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during all-night sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Khatami, Ramin

    2013-03-01

    The hemodynamic changes during natural human sleep are still not well understood. NIRS is ideally suited for monitoring the hemodynamic changes during sleep due to the properties of local measurement, totally safe application and good tolerance to motion. Several studies have been conducted using NIRS in both normal subjects and patients with various sleep disorders during sleep to characterize the hemodynamic changing patterns during different sleep stages and during different symptoms such as obstructive apneas. Here we assessed brain and muscle oxygenation changes in 7 healthy adults during all-night sleep with combined polysomnography measurement to test the notion if hemodynamic changes in sleep are indeed brain specific. We found that muscle and brain showed similar hemodynamic changes during sleep initiation. A decrease in HbO2 and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) while an increase in HHb was observed immediately after sleep onset, and an opposite trend was found after transition with progression to deeper slow-wave sleep (SWS) stage. Spontaneous low frequency oscillations (LFO) and very low frequency oscillations (VLFO) were smaller (Levene's test, psleep (LS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep in both brain and muscle. Spectral analysis of the NIRS signals measured from brain and muscle also showed reductions in VLFO and LFO powers during SWS with respect to LS and REM sleep. These results indicate a systemic attenuation rather than local cerebral reduction of spontaneous hemodynamic activity in SWS. A systemic physiological mechanism may exist to regulate the hemodynamic changes in brain and muscle during sleep.

  11. Association of sleep impairments and gastrointestinal disorders in the context of the visceral theory of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigarev, Ivan N; Pigareva, Marina L

    2017-01-01

    It was noticed long ago that sleep disorders or interruptions to the normal sleep pattern were associated with various gastrointestinal disorders. We review the studies which established the causal link between these disorders and sleep impairment. However, the mechanism of interactions between the quality of sleep and gastrointestinal pathophysiology remained unclear. Recently, the visceral theory of sleep was formulated. This theory proposes that the same brain structures, and particularly the same cortical sensory areas, which in wakefulness are involved in processing of the exteroceptive information, switch during sleep to the processing of information coming from various visceral systems. We review the studies which demonstrated that neurons of the various cortical areas (occipital, parietal, frontal) during sleep began to fire in response to activation coming from the stomach and small intestine. These data demonstrate that, during sleep, the computational power of the central nervous system, including all cortical areas, is engaged in restoration of visceral systems. Thus, the general mechanism of the interaction between quality of sleep and health became clear.

  12. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory.

  13. The inappropriate occurrence of rapid eye movement sleep in narcolepsy is not due to a defect in homeostatic regulation of rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Alexis; Meftah, Soraya; Arthaud, Sébastien; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Peyron, Christelle

    2018-06-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 is a disabling disorder with four primary symptoms: excessive-daytime-sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. The later three symptoms together with a short rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency have suggested impairment in REM sleep homeostatic regulation with an enhanced propensity for (i.e. tendency to enter) REM sleep. To test this hypothesis, we challenged REM sleep homeostatic regulation in a recognized model of narcolepsy, the orexin knock-out (Orex-KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. We first performed 48 hr of REM sleep deprivation using the classic small-platforms-over-water method. We found that narcoleptic mice are similarly REM sleep deprived to WT mice. Although they had shorter sleep latency, Orex-KO mice recovered similarly to WT during the following 10 hr of recovery. Interestingly, Orex-KO mice also had cataplexy episodes immediately after REM sleep deprivation, anticipating REM sleep rebound, at a time of day when cataplexy does not occur in baseline condition. We then evaluated REM sleep propensity using our new automated method of deprivation that performs a specific and efficient REM sleep deprivation. We showed that REM sleep propensity is similar during light phase in Orex-KO and WT mice. However, during the dark phase, REM sleep propensity was not suppressed in Orex-KO mice when hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides are normally released. Altogether our data suggest that in addition to the well-known wake-promoting role of hypocretin/orexin, these neuropeptides would also suppress REM sleep. Therefore, hypocretin/orexin deficiency would facilitate the occurrence of REM sleep at any time of day in an opportunistic manner as seen in human narcolepsy.

  14. Evaluation of an automated single-channel sleep staging algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ying Wang,1 Kenneth A Loparo,1,2 Monica R Kelly,3 Richard F Kaplan1 1General Sleep Corporation, Euclid, OH, 2Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 3Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: We previously published the performance evaluation of an automated electroencephalography (EEG-based single-channel sleep–wake detection algorithm called Z-ALG used by the Zmachine® sleep monitoring system. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of a new algorithm called Z-PLUS, which further differentiates sleep as detected by Z-ALG into Light Sleep, Deep Sleep, and Rapid Eye Movement (REM Sleep, against laboratory polysomnography (PSG using a consensus of expert visual scorers. Methods: Single night, in-lab PSG recordings from 99 subjects (52F/47M, 18–60 years, median age 32.7 years, including both normal sleepers and those reporting a variety of sleep complaints consistent with chronic insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome, as well as those taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor/serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant medications, previously evaluated using Z-ALG were re-examined using Z-PLUS. EEG data collected from electrodes placed at the differential-mastoids (A1–A2 were processed by Z-ALG to determine wake and sleep, then those epochs detected as sleep were further processed by Z-PLUS to differentiate into Light Sleep, Deep Sleep, and REM. EEG data were visually scored by multiple certified polysomnographic technologists according to the Rechtschaffen and Kales criterion, and then combined using a majority-voting rule to create a PSG Consensus score file for each of the 99 subjects. Z-PLUS output was compared to the PSG Consensus score files for both epoch-by-epoch (eg, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa and sleep stage-related statistics (eg, Latency to Deep Sleep, Latency to REM

  15. Sleep disturbance and neurocognitive function during the recovery from a sport-related concussion in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyun, Regina O; Milewski, Matthew D; Hafeez, Imran

    2015-03-01

    Sleep disturbances are a hallmark sign after a sport-related concussion (SRC). Poor sleep has been shown to adversely affect baseline neurocognitive test scores, but it is not comprehensively understood how neurocognitive function is affected by disrupted sleep during recovery from a concussion. To identify the correlation between adolescent athletes' neurocognitive function and their self-reported sleep quantity and sleep disturbance symptoms during recovery from SRC. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognition Testing (ImPACT) data were retrospectively collected for 545 adolescent athletes treated for SRC at a sports medicine concussion clinic. Patients were stratified into groups based on 2 criteria: self-reported sleep duration and self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms during postinjury ImPACT testing. Sleep duration was classified as short (9 hours). Sleep disturbance symptoms were self-reported as part of the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) as either sleeping less than normal, sleeping more than normal, or having trouble falling asleep. One-way analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effects that sleep duration as well as self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms had on composite scores. A total of 1067 ImPACT tests were analyzed: test 1, 545; test 2, 380; and test 3, 142. Sleeping fewer than 7 hours the night before testing correlated with higher PCSS scores (P sleeping longer than 9 hours correlated with worse visual memory (P = .01), visual motor speed (P sleep disturbance symptoms, patients demonstrated worse composite scores during ImPACT testing when they self-reported sleeping more than normal (ImPACT test 1: verbal memory, P sleep had been disrupted. Adolescent patients who perceive that their sleep is somehow disrupted after SRC may report a greater number of concussion symptoms during their recovery. In addition, the study results suggest that sleeping more than normal may

  16. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called "sharp-wave ripple" seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep-REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity-might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function.

  17. Sleep Apnea Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep ...

  18. [Sleep disorders in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O V; Akarachkova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature on sleep disorders in epilepsy over the last two decades is presented. Paroxysmal phenomena of epileptic origin, nonepileptic paroxysms, antiepileptic drugs, polypragmasia and comorbid depression may affect sleep in epilepsy.Shortening of sleep time may cause seizures, hallucinations and depression because sleep plays an important role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the brain both in healthy people and in patients with epilepsy. According to the literature data, drugs (short treatment courses of hypnotics) or nonpharmacological methods should be used for treatment insomnia inpatients with epilepsy.

  19. Sleep Disorders: Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Deepa

    2017-09-01

    Insomnia is the most common type of sleep disorder in the family medicine population. It is defined as a persistent difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or a report of nonrestorative sleep, accompanied by related daytime impairment. Insomnia is a significant public health problem because of its high prevalence and management challenges. There is increasing evidence of a strong association between insomnia and various medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Diagnosis of insomnia and treatment planning rely on a thorough sleep history to address contributing and precipitating factors as well as maladaptive behaviors resulting in poor sleep. Using a sleep diary or sleep log is more accurate than patient recall to determine sleep patterns. A sleep study is not routinely indicated for evaluation of insomnia. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the mainstay of treatment and is a safe and effective approach. The key challenge of CBT-I is the lack of clinicians to implement it. The newer generation nonbenzodiazepines (eg, zolpidem, zaleplon) are used as first-line pharmacotherapy for chronic insomnia. Newer drugs active on targets other than the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor are now available, but clear treatment guidelines are needed. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  20. Sleep and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Pregnancy Cognitive Development parenting poor sleep Work stress Time change beds School Symptoms mental fatigue Headache mortality pain Apetite Technology Telemedicine Movies Imported Diagnostics ...

  1. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age.

  2. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  3. The impact of prolonged violent video-gaming on adolescent sleep: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Gradisar, Michael; Drummond, Aaron; Lovato, Nicole; Wessel, Jason; Micic, Gorica; Douglas, Paul; Delfabbro, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Video-gaming is an increasingly prevalent activity among children and adolescents that is known to influence several areas of emotional, cognitive and behavioural functioning. Currently there is insufficient experimental evidence about how extended video-game play may affect adolescents' sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of adolescents' prolonged exposure to violent video-gaming on sleep. Seventeen male adolescents (mean age = 16 ± 1 years) with no current sleep difficulties played a novel, fast-paced, violent video-game (50 or 150 min) before their usual bedtime on two different testing nights in a sleep laboratory. Objective (polysomnography-measured sleep and heart rate) and subjective (single-night sleep diary) measures were obtained to assess the arousing effects of prolonged gaming. Compared with regular gaming, prolonged gaming produced decreases in objective sleep efficiency (by 7 ± 2%, falling below 85%) and total sleep time (by 27 ± 12 min) that was contributed by a near-moderate reduction in rapid eye movement sleep (Cohen's d = 0.48). Subjective sleep-onset latency significantly increased by 17 ± 8 min, and there was a moderate reduction in self-reported sleep quality after prolonged gaming (Cohen's d = 0.53). Heart rate did not differ significantly between video-gaming conditions during pre-sleep game-play or the sleep-onset phase. Results provide evidence that prolonged video-gaming may cause clinically significant disruption to adolescent sleep, even when sleep after video-gaming is initiated at normal bedtime. However, physiological arousal may not necessarily be the mechanism by which technology use affects sleep. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Prevalence and Phenotype of Sleep Disorders in 60 Adults With Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergan, Adelina; Coupaye, Muriel; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Attali, Valérie; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Arnulf, Isabelle; Poitou, Christine; Redolfi, Stefania

    2017-12-01

    Excessive sleepiness is a common symptom in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), and it negatively impacts the quality of life. Obstructive sleep apnea and narcolepsy phenotypes have been reported in PWS. We characterized sleep disorders in a large cohort of adults with PWS. All consecutive patients with genetically confirmed PWS unselected for sleep-related symptoms, underwent a clinical interview, polysomnography, and multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT, n = 60), followed by long-term (24 hours) polysomnography (n = 22/60). Among 60 adults evaluated (57% female, aged 25 ± 10 years, body mass index: 39 ± 12 kg/m2), 67% reported excessive sleepiness. According to the sleep study results, 43% had a previously unrecognized hypersomnia disorder, 15% had an isolated sleep breathing disorder, 12% had combined hypersomnia disorder and untreated breathing sleep disorder, and only 30% had normal sleep. Isolated hypersomnia disorder included narcolepsy in 35% (type 1, n = 1, and type 2, n = 8), hypersomnia in 12% (total sleep time >11 hours, n = 2, and MSLT sleep onset in REM periods and MSLT >8 minutes, n = 10, and 8 minutes Sleep breathing disorders, isolated and combined, included obstructive sleep apnea (n = 14, already treated in seven), sleep hypoxemia (n = 1) and previously undiagnosed hypoventilation (n = 5). Modafinil was taken by 16 patients (well tolerated in 10), resulting in improved sleepiness over a mean 5-year follow-up period. Sleepiness affects more than half of adult patients with PWS, with a variety of hypersomnia disorder (narcolepsy, hypersomnia, and borderline phenotypes) and breathing sleep disorders. Earlier diagnosis and management of sleep disorders may improve sleepiness, cognition, and behavior in these patients. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society]. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Sleep and melatonin secretion abnormalities in children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goril, Shery; Zalai, Dora; Scott, Louise; Shapiro, Colin M

    2016-07-01

    Caregivers describe significant sleep disturbances in the vast majority of children and adolescents, which is diagnosed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but objective data on sleep disorders in this population are almost completely lacking. Animal models suggest that intrauterine alcohol exposure may disrupt sleep wake patterns, cause sleep fragmentation, and specifically affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus, thus disrupting melatonin secretion. The objective of this pioneering study was to evaluate sleep and melatonin abnormalities in children with FASD using objective, gold-standard measures. Children and adolescents (N = 36, 6-18 years) with FASD participated in clinical assessments by sleep specialists, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) test in a pediatric sleep laboratory. PSG was analyzed according to standardized scoring guidelines and sleep architecture was compared with normative data. DLMOs were determined and melatonin secretion curves were evaluated qualitatively to classify melatonin profiles. Sleep disorders were evaluated according to international diagnostic criteria. There was a high prevalence (58%) of sleep disorders. The most common sleep problems were parasomnias (27.9%) and insomnia (16.8%). The sleep studies showed lower than normal sleep efficiency and high rates of sleep fragmentation. Most participants (79%) had an abnormal melatonin profile. This study led to the recognition that both sleep and melatonin secretion abnormalities are present in children with FASD. Therefore, to be effective in managing the sleep problems in children with FASD, one needs to consider both the sleep per se and a possible malfunction of the circadian regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain Structural Changes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Paul M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Woo, Mary A.; Valladares, Edwin M.; Yan-Go, Frisca L.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Determine whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subjects show indications of axonal injury. Design: We assessed fiber integrity in OSA and control subjects with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We acquired four whole-brain DTI series from each subject. The four series were realigned, and the diffusion tensor calculated at each voxel. Fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of fiber integrity, was derived from the diffusion tensor, resulting in a whole brain FA “map.” The FA maps were spatially normalized, smoothed, and compared using voxel-based statistics to determine differences between OSA and control groups, with age as a covariate (P Valladares EM; Yan-Go FL; Harper RM. Brain structural changes in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2008;31(7):967-977. PMID:18652092

  7. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  8. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascetti GG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use

  9. Association of Sleep Disturbances With Reduced Semen Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have found an association between sleep duration and morbidity and mortality, but no previous studies have examined the association between sleep disturbances and semen quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 953 young Danish men from the general population who were...... recruited in Copenhagen at the time of determination of fitness for military service between January 2008 and June 2011. All of the men delivered a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, underwent a physical examination, and answered a questionnaire including information about sleep disturbances. Sleep...... score of 11-20. This appears to be the first study to find associations between sleep disturbances and semen quality. In future studies, investigators should attempt to elucidate mechanistic explanations and prospectively assess whether semen quality improves after interventions restoring a normal...

  10. Delayed sleep phase cases and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nievergelt Caroline M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD is a condition in which patients have difficulty falling asleep before the early morning hours and commonly have trouble awakening before late morning or even early afternoon. Several studies have suggested that variations in habitual bedtime are 40–50% heritable. Methods We recruited a case series of 205 participants, along with 221 controls (DSPD-C with normal sleep, roughly matched for age, gender, and ancestry. A representative sample of San Diego adults recruited some years before was already available to confirm the control group. Both DSPD and DSPD-C provided blood or saliva samples for DNA and completed extensive questionnaires about sleep habits, sleep history, family history, sleep quality, morningness-eveningness traits, depression, mania, and seasonality of symptoms. The DSPD group wore wrist actigraphs for a median of 13.2 days. The representative sample collected previously had undergone actigraphic recordings, from which 48 hours of data were generally available. Results The DSPD and DSPD-C samples showed almost no overlap on morningness-eveningness scores. DSPD cases went to bed and arose about 3 hours later than the DSPD-C and the representative sample. DSPD cases reported more difficulties with sleep, poorer sleep quality, and more depression, but there was no significant difference in a history of mania. DSPD cases reported more family history of late bedtimes, but female DSPD reported that their fathers' bedtimes were later than the fathers of male DSPD. Conclusion These results indicate a DSPD phenotype is familial and associated with unipolar depression.

  11. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Emil K.; Bostr?m, Adrian E.; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schi?th, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applyin...

  12. Short-term sleep disturbance-induced stress does not affect basal pain perception, but does delay postsurgical pain recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Po-Kai; Cao, Jing; Wang, Hongzhen; Liang, Lingli; Zhang, Jun; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sleep disturbance-induced stress is known to increase basal pain sensitivity. However, most surgical patients frequently report short-term sleep disturbance/deprivation during pre- and post-operation periods and have normal pain perception pre-surgery. Whether this short-term sleep disturbance affects postsurgical pain is elusive. We here reported that pre- or post-exposure to rapid eye movement sleep disturbance (REMSD) 6 h daily for 3 consecutive days did not alter basal responses t...

  13. Sleep Structure in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Gulcin; Oztura, Ibrahim; Hiz, Semra; Akdogan, Ozlem; Karaarslan, Dilay; Ozek, Handan; Akay, Aynur

    2015-10-01

    The authors evaluated basic sleep architecture and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep alterations in drug-naïve attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without psychiatric or other comorbidities. This cross-sectional case-control study included 28 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 15 healthy controls. This subjective studies revealed that children with ADHD had a worse sleep quality and increased daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography data showed that the sleep macrostructure was not significantly different in children with ADHD. Sleep microstructure was altered in ADHD children by means of reduced total cyclic alternating pattern rate and duration of cyclic alternating pattern sequences. This reduction was associated with a selective decrease of A1 index during stage 2 NREM. SpO2 in total sleep was slightly decreased; however, the incidence of sleep disordered breathing showed no significant difference. The authors suggest that cyclic alternating pattern scoring would provide a further insight to obtain a better understanding of the sleep structure in children with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Sleep disorders and work performance: findings from the 2008 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Leslie M; Arnedt, J Todd; Rosekind, Mark R; Belenky, Gregory; Balkin, Thomas J; Drake, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is common among workers, and has been associated with negative work outcomes, including absenteeism and occupational accidents. The objective of the present study is to characterize reciprocal relationships between sleep and work. Specifically, we examined how sleep impacts work performance and how work affects sleep in individuals not at-risk for a sleep disorder; assessed work performance outcomes for individuals at-risk for sleep disorders, including insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS); and characterized work performance impairments in shift workers (SW) at-risk for shift work sleep disorders relative to SW and day workers. One-thousand Americans who work 30 h per week or more were asked questions about employment, work performance and sleep in the National Sleep Foundation's 2008 Sleep in America telephone poll. Long work hours were associated with shorter sleep times, and shorter sleep times were associated with more work impairments. Thirty-seven percent of respondents were classified as at-risk for any sleep disorder. These individuals had more negative work outcomes as compared with those not at-risk for a sleep disorder. Presenteeism was a significant problem for individuals with insomnia symptoms, OSA and RLS as compared with respondents not at-risk. These results suggest that long work hours may contribute to chronic sleep loss, which may in turn result in work impairment. Risk for sleep disorders substantially increases the likelihood of negative work outcomes, including occupational accidents, absenteeism and presenteeism. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. The Biology of REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peever, John; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    Considerable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep have occurred over the past decade. Much of this progress can be attributed to the development of new neuroscience tools that have enabled high-precision interrogation of brain circuitry linked with REM sleep control, in turn revealing how REM sleep mechanisms themselves impact processes such as sensorimotor function. This review is intended to update the general scientific community about the recent mechanistic, functional and conceptual developments in our current understanding of REM sleep biology and pathobiology. Specifically, this review outlines the historical origins of the discovery of REM sleep, the diversity of REM sleep expression across and within species, the potential functions of REM sleep (e.g., memory consolidation), the neural circuits that control REM sleep, and how dysfunction of REM sleep mechanisms underlie debilitating sleep disorders such as REM sleep behaviour disorder and narcolepsy. PMID:26766231

  16. Insomnia Patients With Objective Short Sleep Duration Have a Blunted Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Christina J; Edinger, Jack D; Krystal, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with insomnia and objective short sleep duration insomnia (CBT-I) when compared to individuals with insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h. Secondary analyses of a randomized, clinical trial with 60 adult participants (n = 31 women) from a single academic medical center. Outpatient treatment lasted 8 weeks, with a final follow-up conducted at 6 months. Mixed-effects models controlling for age, sex, CBT-I treatment group assignment, and treatment provider examined sleep parameters gathered via actigraphy, sleep diaries, and an Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire (ISQ) across the treatment and follow-up period. Six months post-CBT-I treatment, individuals with insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h fared significantly better on clinical improvement milestones than did those with insomnia and short sleep duration insomnia and normal sleep duration had significantly higher insomnia remission (ISQ 80%; χ2[1, N = 60] = 21, p 50% decline in MWASO (χ2[1, N = 60] = 60, p insomnia and short sleep duration. Additionally, those with insomnia and normal sleep duration had more success decreasing their total wake time (TWT) at the 6-month follow-up compared to those with insomnia and short sleep duration (χ2[2, N = 60] = 44.1, p insomnia remission, with the area under the curve = 0.986. Findings suggest that individuals with insomnia and objective short sleep duration insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h. Using an actigraphy TST cutoff of 6 hours to classify sleep duration groups was highly accurate and provided good discriminant value for determining insomnia remission. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Behavioral Profiles Associated with Objective Sleep Duration in Young Children with Insomnia Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Susan L; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Mayes, Susan D; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2017-02-01

    Based on previous studies reporting on the association of objective sleep duration and physiologic changes (i.e., increased cortisol) in children, we examined the role of objective sleep duration on differentiating behavioral profiles in children with insomnia symptoms. Seven hundred children (ages 5-12, 47.8% male) from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a nine-hour polysomnography and parent completed Pediatric Behavior Scale. Insomnia symptoms were defined as parent report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep, sleep disordered breathing as an AHI of ≥1, and objective short sleep duration as a total sleep time insomnia symptoms demonstrated more overall behavioral problems than controls. Significant interactions between insomnia symptoms and objective sleep duration on scores of externalizing behaviors, mood variability and school problems were found. Profile analyses showed that children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration were associated with clinically elevated externalizing behaviors, inattention, mood variability, and school problems, while children with insomnia and short sleep duration were associated with an overall elevated profile in which internalizing behaviors were more prominent. Childhood insomnia symptoms are associated with a wide array of behavioral problems, for which objective sleep duration is useful in differentiating behavioral profiles. Children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration had a behavioral profile consistent with limit-setting and rule-breaking behaviors, while children with insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration had a behavioral profile more consistent with internalizing behaviors resembling that of psychophysiological disorders.

  18. Primary sleep enuresis in childhood: polysomnography evidences of sleep stage and time modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Reimäo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate enuretic events and its relations to sleep stages, sleep cycles and time durations in a selected group of children with primary essential sleep enuresis. We evaluated 18 patients with mean age of 8.2 years old (ranging from 5 to 12 years; 10 were males and 8 females (n.s.. They were referred to the Sleep Disorders Center with the specific complaint of enuresis since the first years of life (primary. Pediatric, urologic and neurologic workup did not show objective abnormalities (essential. The standard all-night polysomnography including an enuresis sensor attached to the shorts in the crotch area was performed. Only enuretic events nights were included. All were drug free patients for two weeks prior to polysomnography. In this report, only one polysomnography per patient was considered. The enuretic events were phase related, occurring predominantly in non-REM (NREM sleep (p<0.05. There was no predominance of enuretic events among the NREM stages (n.s.. A tendency of these events to occur in the first two sleep cycles was detected but may be due to the longer duration of these cycles. The events were time modulated, adjusted to a normal distribution with a mean of 213.4 min of recording time.

  19. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep).

  20. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Schizophrenia, Sleep and Acupuncture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction for professionals in Western medicine and for acupuncturists on the use of acupuncture in treatment of schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Acupuncture has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in mental health and sleep disorders. This book aims to build a

  2. Sleep regulation and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, E.J.W.; Cluydts, R.; Pfaff, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    For years, the subject of sleep failed to generate much interest from either the field of medicine or that of psychology - a curious fact, as a 60-year-old has spent some 20 years out of those 60 sleeping. In fact, up until the age of approximately three years, a child spends more time asleep than

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Download Download the ebook for further information Obstructive sleep ... high blood pressure, heart disease and decreased libido. In addition, OSA causes daytime ...

  4. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minutes beforehand. Keep consistent playtimes and mealtimes. Avoid stimulants, such as caffeine, near bedtime. Make the bedroom quiet, cozy, and perfect for sleeping. Use the bed only for sleeping — not for playing or watching TV. Limit food and drink before bedtime. Allow your child to ...

  5. Sleep and metabolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction leading to intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, has also become highly prevalent as a consequence of the epidemic of obesity and has been shown to contribute, in a vicious circle, to the metabolic disturbances observed in obese patients. In this article, we summarize the current data supporting the role of sleep in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the hormones involved in the regulation of appetite. We also review the results of the epidemiologic and laboratory studies that investigated the impact of sleep duration and quality on the risk of developing diabetes and obesity, as well as the mechanisms underlying this increased risk. Finally, we discuss how obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism and the beneficial impact of its treatment, the continuous positive airway pressure. In conclusion, the data available in the literature highlight the importance of getting enough good sleep for metabolic health.

  6. Sleep and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhao Ding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising global prevalence and incidence of obesity lead to increased cardiovascular-renal complications and cancers. Epidemiological studies reported a worldwide trend towards suboptimal sleep duration and poor sleep quality in parallel with this obesity epidemic. From rodents and human models, it is highly plausible that abnormalities in sleep, both quantity and quality, impact negatively on energy metabolism. While excess dietary intake and physical inactivity are the known drivers of the obesity epidemic, promotion of healthy sleep habits has emerged as a new target to combat obesity. In this light, present review focuses on the existing literature examining the relationship between sleep physiology and energy homeostasis. Notably, sleep dysregulation perturbs the metabolic milieu via alterations in hormones such as leptin and ghrelin, eating behavior, neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, shift work and trans-meridian air travel may exert a negative influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trigger circadian misalignment, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and increased fat accumulation. Amassing evidence has also suggested that uncoupling of the circadian clock can increase the risk of adverse metabolic health. Given the importance of sleep in maintaining energy homeostasis and that it is potentially modifiable, promoting good sleep hygiene may create new avenues for obesity prevention and treatment.

  7. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  8. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A.; Stegenga, B.; Wijkstra, P. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Meinesz, A. F.; de Bont, L. G. M.

    In clinical practice, oral appliances are used primarily for obstructive sleep apnea patients who do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We hypothesized that an oral appliance is not inferior to CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea effectively. We randomly assigned

  10. Stress, arousal, and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with

  11. Adenosine and sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A 1 receptors, 3 H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for 3 H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in 3 H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress

  12. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  13. Sleep deprivation and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had

  14. Study of Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems Among Medical Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Good quality sleep and adequate amount of sleep are important in order to have better cognitive performance and avoid health problems and psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates, interns and postgraduate students ...

  15. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Charles L; Samson, David R; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates. These changes likely reflect that our ancestors experienced fitness benefits from being active for a greater portion of the 24-h cycle than other primates, potentially related to advantages arising from learning, socializing and defending against predators and hostile conspecifics. Perspectives from evolutionary medicine have implications for understanding sleep disorders; we consider these perspectives in the context of insomnia, narcolepsy, seasonal affective disorder, circadian rhythm disorders and sleep apnea. We also identify how human sleep today differs from sleep through most of human evolution, and the implications of these changes for global health and health disparities. More generally, our review highlights the importance of phylogenetic comparisons in understanding human health, including well-known links between sleep, cognitive performance and health in humans. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  16. [The NHG guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-van Beek, Z.; Lucassen, P.L.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Smelt, A.F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Bouma, M.

    2015-01-01

    - The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent sleep problems and for the management of chronic users of sleeping pills.- The preferred approach for sleeplessness is not

  17. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Krystal, Andrew; Nunn, CL; Samson, DR; Krystal, AD

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalia

  18. Sleep architecture in school-aged children with primary snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin; Au, Chun-Ting; Lam, Hugh S; Chan, Ching-Ching K; Ho, Crover; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Li, Albert M

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to examine if sleep architecture was altered in school-aged children with primary snoring (PS). Children ages 6 to 13 years from 13 primary schools were randomly recruited. A validated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaire was completed by their parents. Children at high risk for OSA and a randomly chosen low-risk group were invited to undergo overnight polysomnography (PSG) and clinical examination. Participants were classified into healthy controls, PS, mild OSA, and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA) groups for comparison. A total of 619 participants underwent PSG (mean age, 10.0 ± 1.8 years; 396 (64.0%) boys; 524 (84.7%) prepubertal). For the cohort as a whole, there were no significant differences in measures of sleep architecture between PS and nonsnoring healthy controls. In the multiple regression model, percentage of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 (N1) sleep had a significantly positive association, whereas percentage of slow-wave sleep (SWS) had a significantly negative association with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity after controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) z score, and pubertal status. In prepubertal children with PS, no significant disruption of sleep architecture was found. However, pubertal adolescent PS participants had significantly higher adjusted percentage of N1 sleep and wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared to healthy controls. PS did not exert significant adverse influences on normal sleep architecture in prepubertal school-aged children. Nevertheless, pubertal adolescents with PS had increased N1 sleep and WASO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Distinct effects of IPSU and suvorexant on mouse sleep architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eHoyer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual orexin receptor (OXR antagonists (DORAs such as almorexant, SB-649868, suvorexant (MK-4305 and filorexant (MK-6096, have shown promise for the treatment of insomnias and sleep disorders. Whether antagonism of both OX1R and OX2R is necessary for sleep induction has been a matter of some debate. Experiments using knockout mice suggest that it may be sufficient to antagonize only OX2R. The recent identification of an orally bioavailable, brain penetrant OX2R preferring antagonist 2-((1H-Indol-3-ylmethyl-9-(4-methoxypyrimidin-2-yl-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecan-1-one (IPSU has allowed us to test whether selective antagonism of OX2R may also be a viable strategy for induction of sleep. We previously demonstrated that IPSU and suvorexant increase sleep when dosed during the mouse active phase (lights off; IPSU inducing sleep primarily by increasing NREM sleep, suvorexant primarily by increasing REM sleep. Here, our goal was to determine whether suvorexant and IPSU affect sleep architecture independently of overall sleep induction. We therefore tested suvorexant (25 mg/kg and IPSU (50 mg/kg in mice during the inactive phase (lights on when sleep is naturally more prevalent and when orexin levels are normally low. Whereas IPSU was devoid of effects on the time spent in NREM or REM, suvorexant substantially disturbed the sleep architecture by selectively increasing REM during the first 4 hours after dosing. At the doses tested, suvorexant significantly decreased wake only during the first hour and IPSU did not affect wake time. These data suggest that OX2R preferring antagonists may have a reduced tendency for perturbing NREM/REM architecture in comparison with DORAs. Whether this effect will prove to be a general feature of OX2R antagonists versus DORAs remains to be seen.

  20. Afternoon serum-melatonin in sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfberg, J; Micic, S; Strøm, J

    1998-08-01

    To study afternoon serum-melatonin values in patients with sleep disordered breathing. Melatonin has a strong circadian rhythm with high values during the night-time and low values in the afternoon. Sleep disordered breathing may change the circadian rhythm of melatonin which may have diagnostic implications. The Sleep Laboratory, The Department of Internal Medicine, Avesta Hospital, Sweden, and the Department of Anaesthesiology, Glostrup University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. We examined 60 consecutive patients admitted for sleep disordered breathing and 10 healthy non snoring controls. The patients underwent a sleep apnoea screening test having a specificity of 100% for the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) using a combination of static charge sensitive bed and oximetry. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome was found in 49 patients, eight patients had borderline sleep disordered breathing (BSDB) and three patients were excluded due to interfering disease. Patients and controls had an afternoon determination of serum-melatonin. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to score day-time sleepiness. In comparison with normal controls patients suffering from OSAS had significantly higher serum-melatonin levels in the afternoon. However, as a diagnostic test for OSAS in patients with sleep disordered breathing serum-melatonin showed a low sensitivity but a high specificity. The results indicate that breathing disorders during sleep in general affect pineal function. Sleep disordered breathing seems to disturb pineal function. Determination of afternoon serum-melatonin alone or together with a scoring of daytime sleepiness does not identify OSAS-patients in a heterogeneous population of patients complaining of heavy snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness.

  1. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts BDNF level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Maria; Unternaehrer, Eva; Brand, Serge; Calabrese, Pasquale; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Sleep plays a pivotal role in normal biological functions. Sleep loss results in higher stress vulnerability and is often found in mental disorders. There is evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could be a central player in this relationship. Recently, we could demonstrate that subjects suffering from current symptoms of insomnia exhibited significantly decreased serum BDNF levels compared with sleep-healthy controls. In accordance with the paradigm indicating a link between sleep and BDNF, we aimed to investigate if the stress system influences the association between sleep and BDNF. Participants with current symptoms of insomnia plus a former diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and/or Periodic Limb Movement (PLM) and sleep healthy controls were included in the study. They completed questionnaires on sleep (ISI, Insomnia Severity Index) and stress (PSS, Perceived Stress Scale) and provided a blood sample for determination of serum BDNF. We found a significant interaction between stress and insomnia with an impact on serum BDNF levels. Moreover, insomnia severity groups and score on the PSS each revealed a significant main effect on serum BDNF levels. Insomnia severity was associated with increased stress experience affecting serum BDNF levels. Of note, the association between stress and BDNF was only observed in subjects without insomnia. Using a mediation model, sleep was revealed as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels. This is the first study to show that the interplay between stress and sleep impacts BDNF levels, suggesting an important role of this relationship in the pathogenesis of stress-associated mental disorders. Hence, we suggest sleep as a key mediator at the connection between stress and BDNF. Whether sleep is maintained or disturbed might explain why some individuals are able to handle a certain stress load while others develop a mental disorder.

  2. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts BDNF level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep plays a pivotal role in normal biological functions. Sleep loss results in higher stress vulnerability and is often found in mental disorders. There is evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF could be a central player in this relationship. Recently, we could demonstrate that subjects suffering from current symptoms of insomnia exhibited significantly decreased serum BDNF levels compared with sleep-healthy controls. In accordance with the paradigm indicating a link between sleep and BDNF, we aimed to investigate if the stress system influences the association between sleep and BDNF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants with current symptoms of insomnia plus a former diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS and/or Periodic Limb Movement (PLM and sleep healthy controls were included in the study. They completed questionnaires on sleep (ISI, Insomnia Severity Index and stress (PSS, Perceived Stress Scale and provided a blood sample for determination of serum BDNF. We found a significant interaction between stress and insomnia with an impact on serum BDNF levels. Moreover, insomnia severity groups and score on the PSS each revealed a significant main effect on serum BDNF levels. Insomnia severity was associated with increased stress experience affecting serum BDNF levels. Of note, the association between stress and BDNF was only observed in subjects without insomnia. Using a mediation model, sleep was revealed as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that the interplay between stress and sleep impacts BDNF levels, suggesting an important role of this relationship in the pathogenesis of stress-associated mental disorders. Hence, we suggest sleep as a key mediator at the connection between stress and BDNF. Whether sleep is maintained or disturbed might explain why some individuals are able to handle a certain stress load while

  3. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Akinci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The circadian rhythm sleep disorders define the clinical conditions where sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted despite optimum environmental and social conditions. They occur as a result of the changes in endogenous circadian hours or non-compatibility of environmental factors or social life with endogenous circadian rhythm. The sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted continuously or in repeating phases depending on lack of balance between internal and external cycles. This condition leads to functional impairments which cause insomnia, excessive sleepiness or both in people. Application of detailed sleep anamnesis and sleep diary with actigraphy record, if possible, will be sufficient for diagnosis. The treatment aims to align endogenous circadian rhythm with environmental conditions. The purpose of this article is to review pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 178-189

  4. The Function of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Barone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of sleep can be ascertained by noting the effects of its loss, which tends to be chronic and partial, on cognition, mood, alertness, and overall health. Many theories have been put forth to explain the function of sleep in humans, including proposals based on energy conservation, ecological adaptations, neurocognitive function, neural plasticity, nervous system and physical health, and performance. Most account for only a portion of sleep behavior and few are based on strong experimental support. In this review, we present theories proposing why sleep is necessary and supporting data demonstrating the effects of inadequate sleep, with the intention of gleaning further information as to its necessity, which remains one of the most perplexing mysteries in biology.

  5. Poor sleep quality affects spatial orientation in virtual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Valera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is well known to have a significant impact on learning and memory. Specifically, studies adopting an experimentally induced sleep loss protocol in healthy individuals have provided evidence that the consolidation of spatial memories, as acquired through navigating and orienteering in spatial surroundings, is negatively affected by total sleep loss. Here, we used both objective and subjective measures to characterize individuals' quality of sleep, and grouped participants into either a poor (insomnia-like or normal (control sleep quality group. We asked participants to solve a wayfinding task in a virtual environment, and scored their performance by measuring the time spent to reach a target location and the number of wayfinding errors made while navigating. We found that participants with poor sleep quality were slower and more error-prone than controls in solving the task. These findings provide novel evidence that pre-existing sleep deficiencies in otherwise healthy individuals affects negatively the ability to learn novel routes, and suggest that sleep quality should be accounted for among healthy individuals performing experimental spatial orientation tasks in virtual environments.

  6. Sleep, insomnia, and hypertension: current findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S Justin; Calhoun, David

    2017-02-01

    Blood pressure (BP) varies over 24 hours. During normal sleep, BP typically decreases by 10% or more. Research suggests that disordered sleep, particularly sleep deprivation and obstructive sleep apnea, is associated with increased BP and risk of hypertension. Less is known about the relationship between insomnia and hypertension. Population-based studies have reported an association between insomnia symptoms and both prevalent and incident hypertension, particularly in the context of short sleep duration. Furthermore, a number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the relationship between insomnia and hypertension. However, few studies have examined these proposed mechanisms, and even fewer clinical trials have been conducted to determine if improved sleep improves BP and/or reverses a nondipping BP pattern. Methodological concerns, particularly with respect to the diagnosis of insomnia, no doubt impact the strength of any observed association. Additionally, a large majority of studies have only examined the association between insomnia symptoms and clinic BP. Therefore, future research needs to focus on careful consideration of the diagnostic criteria for insomnia, as well as inclusion of either home BP or ambulatory BP monitoring. Finally, clinical trials aimed at improving the quality of sleep should be conducted to determine if improved sleep impacts 24-hour BP. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neighborhood Stress and Autonomic Nervous System Activity during Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Thomas Alan; Bell, Kimberly Ann; Abu-Bader, Soleman Hassan; Kobayashi, Ihori

    2018-04-04

    Stressful neighborhood environments are known to adversely impact health and contribute to health disparities but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Healthy sleep can provide a respite from sustained sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Our objective was to evaluate relationships between neighborhood stress and nocturnal and daytime SNS and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. Eighty five urban-residing African Americans (56.5% female; mean age of 23.0) participated. Evaluation included surveys of neighborhood stress and sleep-related vigilance; and continuous ECG and actigraphic recording in participants' homes from which heart rate variability (HRV) analysis for low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio and normalized high frequency (nHF), as indicators of SNS and PNS activity, respectively, and total sleep time (TST), and wake after sleep onset were derived. All significant relationships with HRV measures were from the sleep period. Neighborhood disorder correlated negatively with nHF (r = -.24, p = .035). There were also significant correlations of HRV indices with sleep duration and sleep fears. Among females, LF/HF correlated with exposure to violence, r = .39, p = .008 and nHF with census tract rates for violent crime (r = -.35, p = .035). In a stepwise regression, TST accounted for the variance contributed by violent crime to nHF in the female participants. Further investigation of relationships between neighborhood environments and SNS/PNS balance during sleep and their consequences, and strategies for mitigating such effects would have implications for health disparities.

  8. Diagnostic approaches to respiratory sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Riha, Renata L.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) comprises a number of breathing disturbances occurring during sleep including snoring, the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), central sleep apnoea (CSA) and hypoventilation syndromes. This review focuses on sleep disordered breathing and diagnostic approaches in adults, in particular clinical assessment and overnight assessment during sleep. Although diagnostic approaches to respiratory sleep disorders are reasonably straightforward, they do r...

  9. Sleep restriction alters plasma endocannabinoids concentrations before but not after exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Fanelli, Flaminia; Fazzini, Alessia; Pagotto, Uberto; Broman, Jan-Erik; Vogel, Heike; Dickson, Suzanne L; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Following binding to cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids regulate a variety of central nervous system processes including appetite and mood. Recent evidence suggests that the systemic release of these lipid metabolites can be altered by acute exercise and that their levels also vary across the 24-h sleep-wake cycle. The present study utilized a within-subject design (involving 16 normal-weight men) to determine whether daytime circulating endocannabinoid concentrations differ following three nights of partial sleep deprivation (4.25-h sleep opportunity, 2:45-7a.m. each night) vs. normal sleep (8.5-h sleep opportunity, 10:30p.m.-7a.m. each night), before and after an acute bout of ergometer cycling in the morning. In addition, subjective hunger and stress were measured. Pre-exercise plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) were 80% higher 1.5h after awakening (vs. normal sleep, pexercise (+44%, pexercise-induced rise. Finally, subjective stress was generally lower on the day after three nights of short sleep vs. normal sleep, especially after exercise (pexercise-induced elevations of endocannabinoids appear to be less affected by short sleep duration. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. All about Sleep (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day after sleeping for only 9 hours. Still, sleep is very important to kids' well-being. The link between a ... to kids not getting the sleep they need. Sleep-deprived kids can become hyper or ... still important to have a consistent bedtime, especially on school ...

  12. Are You Getting Enough Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, et al. Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: a joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. Sleep. 2015;38(6):843–844. Features Media ...

  13. The underlying interactome of childhood obesity: the potential role of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2012-02-01

    Fine-tuning and integration between social rhythms and biological rhythms should be a priority for all, especially for children. As such, the opportunity to sleep should fit the evolving needs for sleep in a child. Unfortunately, children today are highly unlikely to obtain sufficient sleep or live under stable and regular schedules. Poor or dysregulated sleep affects the regulation of homeostatic and hormonal systems underlying somatic and intellectual growth, maturation, and bioenergetics. Therefore, in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, assessments of the “obesogenic” lifestyle, such as dietary and physical activity patterns, need to be coupled with accurate evaluation of the quality and quantity of sleep and with the potential co-existence of sleep-disordered breathing or other sleep disorders. Incorporation of sleep as an integral component of many childhood research studies on obesity should be done a priori rather than as an afterthought. Although parents and health professionals have meticulously delineated,observed, and quantified normal patterns of activities such as eating or playing, the absence of reliable sleep health data in children is all the more puzzling considering that young children engage in sleeping activities more than in any other activity during the 24-hour cycle. Therefore, the most forgotten, overlooked, or even actively ignored behavior of this century is undoubtedly childhood sleep. Trends aiming to reduce sleep in children have emerged, and regrettably continue to gain momentum. In parallel with such undesirable consequences, leading to the blatant disregard of sleep as a vital function rather than a commodity, a reciprocal increase in obesity rates has emerged. The mechanistic links between sleep and metabolism are now emerging, and should prompt incorporation of measures aiming to align sleep with any other antiobesity campaign. To paraphrase a well-known dictum “Somni sano in corpore sano” (healthy sleep

  14. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  15. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  16. Declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation in children with sleep disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter eCsabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy sleep is essential in children’s cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development. However, remarkably little is known about the influence of sleep disorders on different memory processes in childhood. Such data could give us a deeper insight into the effect of sleep on the developing brain and memory functions and how the relationship between sleep and memory changes from childhood to adulthood. In the present study we examined the effect of sleep disorder on declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation by testing children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB which is characterized by disrupted sleep structure. We used a story recall task to measure declarative memory and Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT task to assess non-declarative memory. This task enables us to measure two aspects of non-declarative memory, namely general motor skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 12-hour offline period with sleep. Our data showed that children with SDB exhibited a generally lower declarative memory performance both in the learning and testing phase; however, both the SDB and control groups exhibited retention of the previously recalled items after the offline period. Here we showed intact non-declarative consolidation in SDB group in both sequence-specific and general motor skill. These findings suggest that sleep disorders in childhood have a differential effect on different memory processes (online vs. offline and give us insight into how sleep disturbances affects developing brain.

  17. Declarative and Non-declarative Memory Consolidation in Children with Sleep Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csábi, Eszter; Benedek, Pálma; Janacsek, Karolina; Zavecz, Zsófia; Katona, Gábor; Nemeth, Dezso

    2015-01-01

    Healthy sleep is essential in children's cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development. However, remarkably little is known about the influence of sleep disorders on different memory processes in childhood. Such data could give us a deeper insight into the effect of sleep on the developing brain and memory functions and how the relationship between sleep and memory changes from childhood to adulthood. In the present study we examined the effect of sleep disorder on declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation by testing children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) which is characterized by disrupted sleep structure. We used a story recall task to measure declarative memory and Alternating Serial Reaction time (ASRT) task to assess non-declarative memory. This task enables us to measure two aspects of non-declarative memory, namely general motor skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 12 h offline period with sleep. Our data showed that children with SDB exhibited a generally lower declarative memory performance both in the learning and testing phase; however, both the SDB and control groups exhibited retention of the previously recalled items after the offline period. Here we showed intact non-declarative consolidation in SDB group in both sequence-specific and general motor skill. These findings suggest that sleep disorders in childhood have a differential effect on different memory processes (online vs. offline) and give us insight into how sleep disturbances affects developing brain.

  18. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  20. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Haitham S.; Fahmy, Heba M.; Radwan, Nasr M.; Elsayed, Anwar A.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested. PMID:25685416

  1. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham S. Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day. EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.

  2. Insomnia and sleep misperception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, C H; Ceklic, T; St-Hilaire, P; Desmarais, F; Pérusse, A D; Lefrançois, J; Pedneault-Drolet, M

    2014-10-01

    Sleep misperception is often observed in insomnia individuals (INS). The extent of misperception varies between different types of INS. The following paper comprised sections which will be aimed at studying the sleep EEG and compares it to subjective reports of sleep in individuals suffering from either psychophysiological insomnia or paradoxical insomnia and good sleeper controls. The EEG can be studied without any intervention (thus using the raw data) via either PSG or fine quantitative EEG analyses (power spectral analysis [PSA]), identifying EEG patterns as in the case of cyclic alternating patterns (CAPs) or by decorticating the EEG while scoring the different transient or phasic events (K-Complexes or sleep spindles). One can also act on the on-going EEG by delivering stimuli so to study their impact on cortical measures as in the case of event-related potential studies (ERPs). From the paucity of studies available using these different techniques, a general conclusion can be reached: sleep misperception is not an easy phenomenon to quantify and its clinical value is not well recognized. Still, while none of the techniques or EEG measures defined in the paper is available and/or recommended to diagnose insomnia, ERPs might be the most indicated technique to study hyperarousal and sleep quality in different types of INS. More research shall also be dedicated to EEG patterns and transient phasic events as these EEG scoring techniques can offer a unique insight of sleep misperception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep Loss in Resident Physicians: The Cause of Medical Errors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton eKramer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This review begins with the history of the events starting with the death of Libby Zion that lead to the Bell Commission, that the studied her death and made recommendations for improvement that were codified into law in New York state as the 405 law that the ACGME essentially adopted in putting a cap on work hours and establishing the level of staff supervision that must be available to residents in clinical situations particularly the emergency room and acute care units. A summary is then provided of the findings of the laboratory effects of total sleep deprivation including acute total sleep loss and the consequent widespread physiologic alterations, and of the effects of selective and chronic sleep loss. Generally the sequence of responses to increasing sleep loss goes from mood changes to cognitive effects to performance deficits. In the laboratory situation, deficits resulting from sleep deprivation are clearly and definitively demonstrable. Sleep loss in the clinical situation is usually sleep deprivation superimposed on chronic sleep loss. An examination of questionnaire studies, the literature on reports of sleep loss, studies of the reduction of work hours on performance as well as observational and a few interventional studies have yielded contradictory and often equivocal results. The residents generally find they feel better working fewer hours but improvements in patient care are often not reported or do not occur. A change in the attitude of the resident toward his role and his patient has not been salutary. Decreasing sleep loss should have had a positive effect on patient care in reducing medical error, but this remains to be unequivocally demonstrated.

  4. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss. PMID:25372728

  5. Sleep and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Bopparaju

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep apnea is clinically recognized as a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by recurrent apnea and/or hypopnea. Its prevalence ranges from 4% to 24%. It has been implicated as an independent risk factor for several conditions such as hypertension, stroke, arrhythmia, and myocardial infarction. Recently data has been emerging which suggests an independent association of obstructive sleep apnea with several components of the metabolic syndrome, particularly insulin resistance and abnormalities in lipid metabolism. We hereby review the salient features of the association between sleep and diabetes.

  6. Sleep-inducing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Fabio; Acosta-Peña, Eva; Venebra-Muñoz, Arturo; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric

    2009-08-01

    Kuniomi Ishimori and Henri Piéron were the first researchers to introduce the concept and experimental evidence for a chemical factor that would presumably accumulate in the brain during waking and eventually induce sleep. This substance was named hypnotoxin. Currently, the variety of substances which have been shown to alter sleep includes peptides, cytokines, neurotransmitters and some substances of lipidic nature, many of which are well known for their involvement in other biological activities. In this chapter, we describe the sleep-inducing properties of the vasoactive intestinal peptide, prolactin, adenosine and anandamide.

  7. Unraveling the Neurobiology of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Using Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, L; Moscato, E H; Kayser, M S

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders in humans are increasingly appreciated to be not only widespread but also detrimental to multiple facets of physical and mental health. Recent work has begun to shed light on the mechanistic basis of sleep disorders like insomnia, restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy, and a host of others, but a more detailed genetic and molecular understanding of how sleep goes awry is lacking. Over the past 15 years, studies in Drosophila have yielded new insights into basic questions regarding sleep function and regulation. More recently, powerful genetic approaches in the fly have been applied toward studying primary human sleep disorders and other disease states associated with dysregulated sleep. In this review, we discuss the contribution of Drosophila to the landscape of sleep biology, examining not only fundamental advances in sleep neurobiology but also how flies have begun to inform pathological sleep states in humans. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep restriction and serving accuracy in performance tennis players, and effects of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyner, L A; Horne, J A

    2013-08-15

    Athletes often lose sleep on the night before a competition. Whilst it is unlikely that sleep loss will impair sports mostly relying on strength and endurance, little is known about potential effects on sports involving psychomotor performance necessitating judgement and accuracy, rather than speed, as in tennis for example, and where caffeine is 'permitted'. Two studies were undertaken, on 5h sleep (33%) restriction versus normal sleep, on serving accuracy in semi-professional tennis players. Testing (14:00 h-16:00 h) comprised 40 serves into a (1.8 m×1.1 m) 'service box' diagonally, over the net. Study 1 (8 m; 8 f) was within-Ss, counterbalanced (normal versus sleep restriction). Study 2 (6m;6f -different Ss) comprised three conditions (Latin square), identical to Study 1, except for an extra sleep restriction condition with 80 mg caffeine vs placebo in a sugar-free drink, given (double blind), 30 min before testing. Both studies showed significant impairments to serving accuracy after sleep restriction. Caffeine at this dose had no beneficial effect. Study 1 also assessed gender differences, with women significantly poorer under all conditions, and non-significant indications that women were more impaired by sleep restriction (also seen in Study 2). We conclude that adequate sleep is essential for best performance of this type of skill in tennis players and that caffeine is no substitute for 'lost sleep'. 210. © 2013.

  9. Association between maternal symptoms of sleep disordered breathing and fetal telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M; King, Lindsey; Patel, Priyanshi; Paothong, Arnut; Pradhan, Anupam; Louis, Judette; Naik, Eknath; Marty, Phillip J; Whiteman, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Our investigation aims to assess the impact of symptoms of maternal sleep-disordered breathing, specifically sleep apnea risk and daytime sleepiness, on fetal leukocyte telomere length. Pregnant women were recruited upon hospital delivery admission. Sleep exposure outcomes were measured using the Berlin Questionnaire to quantify sleep apnea and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to measure daytime sleepiness. Participants were classified as "High Risk" or "Low Risk" for sleep apnea based on responses to the Berlin, while "Normal" or "Abnormal" daytime sleepiness was determined based on responses to the Epworth. Neonatal umbilical cord blood samples (N = 67) were collected and genomic DNA was isolated from cord blood leukocytes using Quantitative PCR. A ratio of relative telomere length was derived by telomere repeat copy number and single copy gene copy number (T/S ratio) and used to compare telomere lengths. Bootstrap and ANOVA statistical procedures were employed. On the Berlin, 68.7% of participants were classified as Low Risk while 31.3% were classified as High Risk for sleep apnea. According to the Epworth scale, 80.6% were determined to have Normal daytime sleepiness, and 19.4% were found to have Abnormal daytime sleepiness. The T/S ratio among pregnant women at High Risk for sleep apnea was significantly shorter than for those at Low Risk (P value sleep disordered breathing during pregnancy, and suggest sleep disordered breathing as a possible mechanism of accelerated chromosomal aging. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Insomnia with short sleep duration and mortality: the Penn State cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Liao, Duanping; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Calhoun, Susan; Karataraki, Maria; Basta, Maria; Fernández-Mendoza, Julio; Bixler, Edward O

    2010-09-01

    Because insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with increased morbidity, we examined the effects of this insomnia subtype on all-cause mortality. Longitudinal. Sleep laboratory. 1,741 men and women randomly selected from Central Pennsylvania. Participants were studied in the sleep laboratory and were followed-up for 14 years (men) and 10 years (women). "Insomnia" was defined by a complaint of insomnia with duration > or = 1 year. "Normal sleeping" was defined as absence of insomnia. Polysomnographic sleep duration was classified into two categories: the "normal sleep duration group" subjects who slept > or = 6 h and the "short sleep duration group" subjects who slept insomnia" group, (OR = 4.00, CI 1.14-13.99) after adjusting for diabetes, hypertension, and other confounders. Furthermore, there was a marginally significant trend (P = 0.15) towards higher mortality risk from insomnia and short sleep in patients with diabetes or hypertension (OR = 7.17, 95% CI 1.41-36.62) than in those without these comorbid conditions (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 0.13-16.14). In women, mortality was not associated with insomnia and short sleep duration. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration in men is associated with increased mortality, a risk that has been underestimated.

  11. Persistent insomnia: the role of objective short sleep duration and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Bixler, Edward O; Singareddy, Ravi; Shaffer, Michele L; Calhoun, Susan L; Liao, Duanping; Basta, Maria; Chrousos, George P

    2012-01-01

    Few population-based, longitudinal studies have examined risk factors for persistent insomnia, and the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, none of these studies have examined the role of polysomnographic (PSG) variables such as sleep duration or sleep apnea on the persistence of insomnia. Representative longitudinal study. Sleep laboratory. From a random, general population sample of 1741 individuals of the adult Penn State Cohort, 1395 were followed-up after 7.5 years. Individuals underwent one-night PSG and full medical evaluation at baseline and a telephone interview at follow-up. PSG sleep duration was analyzed as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable: insomnia persistence, partial remission, and full remission were 44.0%, 30.0%, and 26.0%, respectively. Objective short sleep duration significantly increased the odds of persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 3.19) and to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 4.92). Mental health problems at baseline were strongly associated with persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 9.67) and to a lesser degree compared to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 3.68). Smoking, caffeine, and alcohol consumption and sleep apnea did not predict persistent insomnia. Objective short sleep duration and mental health problems are the strongest predictors of persistent insomnia. These data further support the validity and clinical utility of objective short sleep duration as a novel marker of the biological severity of insomnia.

  12. Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems in Healthy Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, C L Srinivasa; Bharti, Bhavneet; Malhi, Prahbhjot; Khadwal, Alka

    2015-07-01

    To describe the sleep patterns and problems in children aged between 12 and 36 mo of age. This cross sectional survey was collected over a span of 1 y in Advanced Pediatric Centre, PGIMER, Chandigarh and crèches of Chandigarh. Children in the age group of 12 to 36 mo were included in study. Children with chronic illness, developmental delay, seizure disorder and lack of consent were excluded. A total of 368 children were enrolled. Main outcome measures were sleep duration over 1 to 3 y of life; sleep behavior at onset, during and waking of sleep and parent reported sleep problems and their predictors. The average duration of sleep was 12.5 h (S.D = 1.9). The mean total sleep duration and mean day time sleep duration decreased, while mean night time sleep increased as the age advanced from 12 to 36 mo. Following were the frequency of sleep habits seen in the index study; bed time routine was seen only in 68(18.5 %), a regular bed time ritual was seen in 281(76.4 %), 329(89.4 %) children frequently required 0-20 min time to fall asleep, 11(3 %) parents used sleep inducing drugs. Night waking (1 to 3 times a night) was seen in 297(80.7 %) and its frequency declined with age. Parent reported sleep problems were seen in 12.8 % (47/368). Lack of co-sleeping and night waking were considered as strongest predictors of parent reported sleep problems. Toddlers' sleep duration, night waking behavior, and day time naps decrease as the age progress while night time sleep duration increases with age. Lack of co-sleeping and night waking are considered as strongest predictors of parent reported sleep problems.

  13. Cued Memory Reactivation During SWS Abolishes the Beneficial Effect of Sleep on Abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennies, Nora; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Durrant, Simon J; Cousins, James N; Lewis, Penelope A

    2017-08-01

    Extracting regularities from stimuli in our environment and generalizing these to new situations are fundamental processes in human cognition. Sleep has been shown to enhance these processes, possibly by facilitating reactivation-triggered memory reorganization. Here, we assessed whether cued reactivation during slow wave sleep (SWS) promotes the beneficial effect of sleep on abstraction of statistical regularities. We used an auditory statistical learning task, in which the benefit of sleep has been firmly established. Participants were exposed to a probabilistically determined sequence of tones and subsequently tested for recognition of novel short sequences adhering to this same statistical pattern in both immediate and delayed recall sessions. In different groups, the exposure stream was replayed during SWS in the night between the recall sessions (SWS-replay group), in wake just before sleep (presleep replay group), or not at all (control group). Surprisingly, participants who received replay in sleep performed worse in the delayed recall session than the control and the presleep replay group. They also failed to show the association between SWS and task performance that has been observed in previous studies and was present in the controls. Importantly, sleep structure and sleep quality did not differ between groups, suggesting that replay during SWS did not impair sleep but rather disrupted or interfered with sleep-dependent mechanisms that underlie the extraction of the statistical pattern. These findings raise important questions about the scope of cued memory reactivation and the mechanisms that underlie sleep-related generalization. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. I sleep, because we sleep: a synthesis on the role of culture in sleep behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Iwelunmor, J I; Ezepue, C J; Williams, N J; Jean-Louis, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the literature on the cultural aspects of sleep and their relevance to behavioral sleep research. A narrative synthesis of the existing literature on sleep was conducted with a focus on its biological, sociological, political, and anthropological aspects. This synthesis was guided by the PEN-3 cultural model, developed by the primary author. The findings highlight the cross-cultural contexts within which people sleep and the role of varied sleeping arrangements in influencing sleep behavior and perspectives. Furthermore, the contexts in which sleep occurs, coupled with the influence of the family, and the positive aspects of sleep helped illustrate why cultural aspects of sleep are vital for a broader understanding of sleep. The authors conclude by highlighting the need to integrate studies on the biological, sociological, and political aspects of sleep. Our examination of the literature strongly suggests that careful assessment of epidemiological and clinical sleep data should consider the cultural aspects of sleep as well as the context in which sleep occurs, the role of the family, and positive aspects of sleep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep habits in middle-aged, non-hospitalized men and women with schizophrenia: a comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Julie; Chouinard, Sylvie; Pampoulova, Tania; Lecomte, Yves; Stip, Emmanuel; Godbout, Roger

    2010-10-30

    Patients with schizophrenia may have sleep disorders even when clinically stable under antipsychotic treatments. To better understand this issue, we measured sleep characteristics between 1999 and 2003 in 150 outpatients diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 80 healthy controls using a sleep habits questionnaire. Comparisons between both groups were performed and multiple comparisons were Bonferroni corrected. Compared to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia reported significantly increased sleep latency, time in bed, total sleep time and frequency of naps during weekdays and weekends along with normal sleep efficiency, sleep satisfaction, and feeling of restfulness in the morning. In conclusion, sleep-onset insomnia is a major, enduring disorder in middle-aged, non-hospitalized patients with schizophrenia that are otherwise clinically stable under antipsychotic and adjuvant medications. Noteworthy, these patients do not complain of sleep-maintenance insomnia but report increased sleep propensity and normal sleep satisfaction. These results may reflect circadian disturbances in schizophrenia, but objective laboratory investigations are needed to confirm subjective sleep reports. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. National Sleep Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Macedonian Malay Maltese Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swahili Swedish Thai Turkish ... Relieve Ear Pressure While Traveling for Better Sleep Learn how to keep your ears happy so you ...

  17. What Is Sleep Apnea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cognitive and behavioral disorders. Explore this Health Topic to learn more about sleep apnea, our role in research ... apnea can be caused by a person’s physical structure or medical conditions. These include obesity, large ...

  18. Sleep Terrors (Night Terrors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... terrors or other family members Lead to safety concerns or injury Result in daytime symptoms of excessive sleepiness or problems functioning Continue beyond the teen years or start in adulthood Causes Sleep terrors ...

  19. Getting Enough Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are getting enough sleep: Do you have trouble getting up in the morning? Do you have trouble focusing? Do you sometimes fall asleep during class? If you answered yes to these questions, try using the tips above ...

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  1. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regulates appetite and the expenditure of energy. 3 Depression The relationship between sleep and depression is complex. ... Promotion , Division of Population Health Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Obstructive Sleep ...

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These disruptions impair your ability to reach the desired deep, restful phases of sleep, and you'll ... of memory problems, morning headaches, mood swings or feelings of depression, and a need to urinate frequently ...

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also affects 2% to 3% of children. Yet, people who have OSA may not be aware they ... initiates impulses from the brain to wake the person just enough to restart the breathing process. Sleep ...

  5. Sleep Issues and Sundowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include heart attack, stroke, irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, heart disease and decreased libido. In addition, OSA causes daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep Foundation ...

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about by these factors initiates impulses from the brain to wake the person just enough to restart the breathing process. Sleep apnea is generally defined as the presence of ...

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Apnea (OSA) Download Download the ebook for further information Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and ... that can create the necessary air passageway. The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  9. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... performance and makes him or her a hazardous driver or equipment operator. Untreated obstructive sleep apnea increases ... self-help remedies: • Adopt a healthy and athletic lifestyle to develop good muscle tone and lose weight. • ...

  10. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep Foundation estimates that 18 ... at several points and check for any abnormal flow of air from the nose to lungs. An ...

  11. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Obstructive Sleep ...

  12. Employees with Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome was often 10-15 minutes late for work every day due to amount and quality of sleep. The employer provided this employee with a half an hour flexible start time. Depending on when the employee arrived, ...

  13. [Sleep and sleep disorders in the elderly. Part 2: therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlitzer, J; Heubaum, S; Frohnhofen, H

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders need to be treated if they affect the quality of life, lead to functional problems in daily life or unfavorably affect self-sufficiency. The large number of sleep disorders is reflected in the number of different and varied available therapeutic procedures. The basic therapeutic procedure for any sleep disorder is the use of sleep hygiene. Sleeplessness (insomnia) is most effectively treated through behavioral therapy, with stimulus control and sleep restriction as the most effective measures, whereas pharmacotherapy is considerably less effective and has side effects. Sleep-disordered breathing is also the most common cause of hypersomnia in the elderly and is most effectively treated by nocturnal positive pressure breathing.

  14. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  15. Functions and Mechanisms of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Zielinski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a complex physiological process that is regulated globally, regionally, and locally by both cellular and molecular mechanisms. It occurs to some extent in all animals, although sleep expression in lower animals may be co-extensive with rest. Sleep regulation plays an intrinsic part in many behavioral and physiological functions. Currently, all researchers agree there is no single physiological role sleep serves. Nevertheless, it is quite evident that sleep is essential for many vital functions including development, energy conservation, brain waste clearance, modulation of immune responses, cognition, performance, vigilance, disease, and psychological state. This review details the physiological processes involved in sleep regulation and the possible functions that sleep may serve. This description of the brain circuitry, cell types, and molecules involved in sleep regulation is intended to further the reader’s understanding of the functions of sleep.

  16. Sleep in trigeminal autonomic cephalagias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barløse, Mads; Lund, Nunu; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2014-01-01

    and eventually to more effective therapeutic regimens. This review aims to evaluate the existing literature on the subject of TACs and sleep. An association between episodic CH and distinct macrostructural sleep phases, especially the relation to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, has been described in some older...... studies but could not be confirmed in other, more recent studies. Investigations into the microstructure of sleep in these patients are lacking. Only a few case reports exist on the relation between sleep and other TACs. SUMMARY: Recent studies do not find an association between CH and REM sleep. One...... older study suggests chronic paroxysmal hemicranias may be locked to REM sleep but otherwise the relation is unknown. Reports indicate that CH and obstructive sleep apnoea are associated in some individuals but results are diverging. Single cases show improvement of CH upon treatment of sleep apnoea...

  17. Sleep as an Occupational Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Nicole J; Foss, Joanne Jackson

    In the same way the human body requires food, hydration, and oxygen, it also requires sleep. Even among healthy people, the amount and quality of sleep substantially influence health and quality of life because sleep helps regulate physiological functioning. Given the impact of sleep on participation, the American Occupational Therapy Association reclassified sleep from an activity of daily living to an occupational domain. Poor sleep is a frequent medical complaint, especially among populations with neurological impairment. Occupational therapy practitioners should consider routinely screening for factors affecting their clients' sleep. By addressing such factors, as well as related routines and habits, practitioners can enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation, promote health and well-being, and increase engagement and life quality. Practitioners should acknowledge the importance of sleep in practice, and the study of sleep should be prioritized by researchers in the field to meet client needs and establish evidence for interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  18. SLEEP APNOEA!!! : SNORING & BEYOND

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SLEEP APNOEA!!! : SNORING & BEYOND · Slide 2 · Snoring · Introduction · Identifiable causes of hypertension · Crucial areas for Snoring & Obstructive Sleep Apnea · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Epidemiology (contd.) Slide 18 · Am I at risk??? Slide 20.

  19. Sleep and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Staner, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...

  20. Genotyping Sleep Disorders Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kripke, Daniel F.; Shadan, Farhad F.; Dawson, Arthur; Cronin, John W.; Jamil, Shazia M.; Grizas, Alexandra P.; Koziol, James A.; Kline, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The genetic susceptibility factors underlying sleep disorders might help us predict prognoses and responses to treatment. Several candidate polymorphisms for sleep disorders have been proposed, but there has as yet inadequate replication or validation that the candidates may be useful in the clinical setting. Methods To assess the validity of several candidate associations, we obtained saliva deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples and clinical information from 360 consenting research p...

  1. Autism and sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Devnani, Preeti A.; Hegde, Anaita U.

    2015-01-01

    “Autism Spectrum Disorders” (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) slee...

  2. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  3. Sleep Disturbance During Smoking Cessation: Withdrawal or Side Effect of Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    The nicotine-metabolite ratio (NMR) predicts treatment response and is related to treatment side effect severity. Sleep disturbance may be one important side effect, but understanding sleep disturbance effects on smoking cessation is complicated by the fact that nicotine withdrawal also produces sleep disturbance. To evaluate the effects of withdrawal and treatment side effects on sleep disturbance. This is a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial (Lerman et al., 2015) of 1,136 smokers randomised to placebo ( n = 363), transdermal nicotine (TN; n = 381), or varenicline ( n = 392) and stratified based on NMR (559 slow metabolisers; 577 normal metabolisers). Sleep disturbance was assessed at baseline and at 1-week following the target quit date (TQD). We also examined whether sleep disturbance predicted 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at end-of-treatment (EOT). The varenicline and TN groups exhibited greater increases in sleep disturbance (vs. placebo; treatment × time interaction; p = 0.005), particularly among those who quit smoking at 1-week post-TQD. There was a main effect of NMR ( p = 0.04), but no interactions with treatment. TN and varenicline attenuated withdrawal symptoms unrelated to sleep (vs. placebo). Greater baseline sleep disturbance predicted relapse at EOT ( p = 0.004). Existing treatments may not mitigate withdrawal-related sleep disturbance and adjunctive treatments that target sleep disturbance may improve abstinence rates.

  4. Sleep education in pediatric residency programs: a cross-cultural look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Bartle, Alex; Ahn, Youngmin; Ramamurthy, Mahesh Babu; Huong, Huynh Thi Duy; Kohyama, Jun; Li, Albert M; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Sekartini, Rini; Teng, Arthur; Goh, Daniel Y T

    2013-04-03

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of education about sleep and sleep disorders in pediatric residency programs and to identify barriers to providing such education. Surveys were completed by directors of 152 pediatric residency programs across 10 countries (Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, United States-Canada, and Vietnam). Overall, the average amount of time spent on sleep education is 4.4 hours (median = 2.0 hours), with 23% responding that their pediatric residency program provides no sleep education. Almost all programs (94.8%) offer less than 10 hours of instruction. The predominant topics covered include sleep-related development, as well as normal sleep, sleep-related breathing disorders, parasomnias, and behavioral insomnia of childhood. These results indicate that there is still a need for more efforts to include sleep-related education in all pediatric residency programs, as well as coverage of the breadth of sleep-related topics. Such education would be consistent with the increased recognition of the importance of sleep and under-diagnosis of sleep disorders in children and adolescents.

  5. The role of emotional eating and stress in the influence of short sleep on food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweck, Julia S; Jenkins, Steve M; Nolan, Laurence J

    2014-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and increased energy consumption. The present studies were conducted to determine what role emotional eating and stress might play in these relationships. The first was an exploratory questionnaire study in which sleep quality and duration were measured in conjunction with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 184 women. Emotional and external eating scores were significantly higher in those who reported poor sleep quality (but were not related to sleep duration). In a second study of 64 women who were provided with snacks in the laboratory under stressed and control conditions, elevated food consumption was observed in those who scored high on emotional eating and who reported short sleep (a significant stress × emotional eating × sleep duration interaction) but not in those who reported poor sleep quality. No effects were found in liking or wanting of food and few effects were found on appetite. BMI was not related to sleep duration or sleep quality in either study. The results suggest that the relationship between short sleep and elevated food consumption exists in those who are prone to emotional eating. An external stressor elevated consumption in normal sleepers to the level observed in short sleepers, however, it did not significantly elevate consumption in short sleepers. Future examinations of the effects of sleep duration and quality on food consumption should examine emotional eating status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurons Containing Orexin or Melanin Concentrating Hormone Reciprocally Regulate Wake and Sleep

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    Roda Rani eKonadhode

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable amount of data on arousal neurons whereas there is a paucity of knowledge regarding neurons that make us fall asleep. Indeed, current network models of sleep-wake regulation list many arousal neuronal populations compared to only one sleep group located in the preoptic area. There are neurons outside the preoptic area that are active during sleep, but they have never been selectively manipulated. Indeed, none of the sleep-active neurons have been selectively stimulated. To close this knowledge gap we used optogenetics to selectively manipulate neurons containing melanin concentrating hormone (MCH. The MCH neurons are located in the posterior hypothalamus intermingled with the orexin arousal neurons. Our data indicated that optogenetic stimulation of MCH neurons in wildtype mice (J Neuroscience, 2013 robustly increased both non-REM and REM sleep. MCH neuron stimulation increased sleep during the animal’s normal active period, which is compelling evidence that stimulation of MCH neurons has a powerful effect in counteracting the strong arousal signal from all of the arousal neurons. The MCH neurons represent the only group of sleep-active neurons that when selectively stimulated induce sleep. From a translational perspective this is potentially useful in sleep disorders, such as insomnia, where sleep needs to be triggered against a strong arousal drive. Our studies indicate that the MCH neurons belong within an overall model of sleep-wake regulation.

  7. Proton Pump Inhibition Increases Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in the Rat

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    Munazah Fazal Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased bodily CO2 concentration alters cellular pH as well as sleep. The proton pump, which plays an important role in the homeostatic regulation of cellular pH, therefore, may modulate sleep. We investigated the effects of the proton pump inhibitor “lansoprazole” on sleep-wakefulness. Male Wistar rats were surgically prepared for chronic polysomnographic recordings. Two different doses of lansoprazole (low: 1 mg/kg; high: 10 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally in the same animal (n=7 and sleep-wakefulness was recorded for 6 hrs. The changes in sleep-wakefulness were compared statistically. Percent REM sleep amount in the vehicle and lansoprazole low dose groups was 9.26±1.03 and 9.09±0.54, respectively, which increased significantly in the lansoprazole high dose group by 31.75% (from vehicle and 34.21% (from low dose. Also, REM sleep episode numbers significantly increased in lansoprazole high dose group. Further, the sodium-hydrogen exchanger blocker “amiloride” (10 mg/kg; i.p. (n=5 did not alter sleep-wake architecture. Our results suggest that the proton pump plays an important role in REM sleep modulation and supports our view that REM sleep might act as a sentinel to help maintain normal CO2 level for unperturbed sleep.

  8. The Circadian System Contributes to Apnea Lengthening across the Night in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

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    Butler, Matthew P; Smales, Carolina; Wu, Huijuan; Hussain, Mohammad V; Mohamed, Yusef A; Morimoto, Miki; Shea, Steven A

    2015-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that respiratory event duration exhibits an endogenous circadian rhythm. Within-subject and between-subjects. Inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit at the Brigham and Women's Hospital. Seven subjects with moderate/severe sleep apnea and four controls, age 48 (SD = 12) years, 7 males. Subjects completed a 5-day inpatient protocol in dim light. Polysomnography was recorded during an initial control 8-h night scheduled at the usual sleep time, then through 10 recurrent cycles of 2 h 40 min sleep and 2 h 40 min wake evenly distributed across all circadian phases, and finally during another 8-h control sleep period. Event durations, desaturations, and apnea-hypopnea index for each sleep opportunity were assessed according to circadian phase (derived from salivary melatonin), time into sleep, and sleep stage. Average respiratory event durations in NREM sleep significantly lengthened across both control nights (21.9 to 28.2 sec and 23.7 to 30.2 sec, respectively). During the circadian protocol, event duration in NREM increased across the circadian phases that corresponded to the usual sleep period, accounting for > 50% of the increase across normal 8-h control nights. AHI and desaturations were also rhythmic: AHI was highest in the biological day while desaturations were greatest in the biological night. The endogenous circadian system plays an important role in the prolongation of respiratory events across the night, and might provide a novel therapeutic target for modulating sleep apnea. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Serum nutritional biomarkers and their associations with sleep among US adults in recent national surveys.

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    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available The associations between nutritional biomarkers and measures of sleep quantity and quality remain unclear.Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2005-2006 were used. We selected 2,459 adults aged 20-85, with complete data on key variables. Five sleep measures were constructed as primary outcomes: (A Sleep duration; (B Sleep disorder; (C Three factors obtained from factor analysis of 15 items and labeled as "Poor sleep-related daytime dysfunction" (Factor 1, "Sleepiness" (Factor 2 and "Sleep disturbance" (Factor 3. Main exposures were serum concentrations of key nutrients, namely retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene, folate, vitamin B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy, vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and vitamin E. Main analyses consisted of multiple linear, logistic and multinomial logit models.Among key findings, independent inverse associations were found between serum vitamin B-12 and sleep duration, 25(OHD and sleepiness (as well as insomnia, and between folate and sleep disturbance. Serum total carotenoids concentration was linked to higher odds of short sleep duration (i.e. 5-6 h per night compared to normal sleep duration (7-8 h per night.A few of the selected serum nutritional biomarkers were associated with sleep quantity and quality. Longitudinal studies are needed to ascertain temporality and assess putative causal relationships.

  10. Grooming analysis algorithm: use in the relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety-like behavior.

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    Pires, Gabriel N; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2013-03-05

    Increased anxiety is a classic effect of sleep deprivation. However, results regarding sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior are contradictory in rodent models. The grooming analysis algorithm is a method developed to examine anxiety-like behavior and stress in rodents, based on grooming characteristics and microstructure. This study evaluated the applicability of the grooming analysis algorithm to distinguish sleep-deprived and control rats in comparison to traditional grooming analysis. Forty-six animals were distributed into three groups: control (n=22), paradoxical sleep-deprived (96 h, n=10) and total sleep deprived (6 h, n=14). Immediately after the sleep deprivation protocol, grooming was evaluated using both the grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures (grooming latency, frequency and duration). Results showed that both paradoxical sleep-deprived and total sleep-deprived groups displayed grooming in a fragmented framework when compared to control animals. Variables from the grooming analysis algorithm were successful in distinguishing sleep-deprived and normal sleep animals regarding anxiety-like behavior. The grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures were strongly correlated. In conclusion, the grooming analysis algorithm is a reliable method to assess the relationship between anxiety-like behavior and sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The biologic effects of grounding the human body during sleep as measured by cortisol levels and subjective reporting of sleep, pain, and stress.

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    Ghaly, Maurice; Teplitz, Dale

    2004-10-01

    Diurnal cortisol secretion levels were measured and circadian cortisol profiles were evaluated in a pilot study conducted to test the hypothesis that grounding the human body to earth during sleep will result in quantifiable changes in cortisol. It was also hypothesized that grounding the human body would result in changes in sleep, pain, and stress (anxiety, depression, irritability), as measured by subjective reporting. Twelve (12) subjects with complaints of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were grounded to earth during sleep for 8 weeks in their own beds using a conductive mattress pad. Saliva tests were administered to establish pregrounding baseline cortisol levels. Levels were obtained at 4-hour intervals for a 24-hour period to determine the circadian cortisol profile. Cortisol testing was repeated at week 6. Subjective symptoms of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were reported daily throughout the 8-week test period. Measurable improvements in diurnal cortisol profiles were observed, with cortisol levels significantly reduced during night-time sleep. Subjects' 24-hour circadian cortisol profiles showed a trend toward normalization. Subjectively reported symptoms, including sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress, were reduced or eliminated in nearly all subjects. Results indicate that grounding the human body to earth ("earthing") during sleep reduces night-time levels of cortisol and resynchronizes cortisol hormone secretion more in alignment with the natural 24-hour circadian rhythm profile. Changes were most apparent in females. Furthermore, subjective reporting indicates that grounding the human body to earth during sleep improves sleep and reduces pain and stress.

  12. Sleep for Kids: Games and Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and puzzles can help you learn more about sleep! Learn about sleep with this fun crossword puzzle! Test your memory and learn how to get better sleep! Find the hidden sleep words! Avoid things that ...

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Brass

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often