WorldWideScience

Sample records for normal random number

  1. Random Generators and Normal Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David H.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to the authors' previous chaotic-dynamical model for random digits of fundamental constants, we investigate a complementary, statistical picture in which pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) are central. Some rigorous results are achieved: We establish b-normality for constants of the form $\\sum_i 1/(b^{m_i} c^{n_i})$ for certain sequences $(m_i), (n_i)$ of integers. This work unifies and extends previously known classes of explicit normals. We prove that for coprime $b,c>1$ the...

  2. Random-Number Generator Validity in Simulation Studies: An Investigation of Normality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jung W.; Schumacker, Randall E.; Schlieve, Paul L.

    1998-01-01

    The normality of number distributions generated by various random-number generators were studied, focusing on when the random-number generator reached a normal distribution and at what sample size. Findings suggest the steps that should be followed when using a random-number generator in a Monte Carlo simulation. (SLD)

  3. Efficient implementation of Bailey and Borwein pseudo-random number generator based on normal numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliakov, G.; Creighton, D.; Johnstone, M.; Wilkin, T.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes an implementation of a Linear Congruential Generator (LCG) based on the binary representation of the normal number α, and of a combined generator based on that LCG. The base LCG with the modulus 333 provides a quality sequence with the period ≈3.7ṡ1015, which passes all but two statistical tests from BigCrush test suite. We improved on the original implementation by adapting Barrett's modular reduction method, which resulted in four-fold increase in efficiency. The combined generator has the period of ≈1023 and passes all tests from BigCrush suite.

  4. Generating log-normally distributed random numbers by using the Ziggurat algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty analyses are usually based on the Monte Carlo method. Using an efficient random number generator(RNG) is a key element in success of Monte Carlo simulations. Log-normal distributed variates are very typical in NPP PSAs. This paper proposes an approach to generate log normally distributed variates based on the Ziggurat algorithm and evaluates the efficiency of the proposed Ziggurat RNG. The proposed RNG can be helpful to improve the uncertainty analysis of NPP PSAs. This paper focuses on evaluating the efficiency of the Ziggurat algorithm from a NPP PSA point of view. From this study, we can draw the following conclusions. - The Ziggurat algorithm is one of perfect random number generators to product normal distributed variates. - The Ziggurat algorithm is computationally much faster than the most commonly used method, Marsaglia polar method

  5. An efficient algorithm for generating random number pairs drawn from a bivariate normal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for generating random number pairs from a bivariate normal distribution was developed. Any desired value of the two means, two standard deviations, and correlation coefficient can be selected. Theoretically the technique is exact and in practice its accuracy is limited only by the quality of the uniform distribution random number generator, inaccuracies in computer function evaluation, and arithmetic. A FORTRAN routine was written to check the algorithm and good accuracy was obtained. Some small errors in the correlation coefficient were observed to vary in a surprisingly regular manner. A simple model was developed which explained the qualities aspects of the errors.

  6. On a direct algorithm for the generation of log-normal pseudo-random numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Chamayou, J M F

    1976-01-01

    The random variable ( Pi /sub i=1//sup n/X/sub i//X/sub i+n/)/sup 1/ square root 2n/ is used to generate standard log normal variables Lambda (0, 1), where the X/sub i/ are independent uniform variables on (0, 1). (8 refs).

  7. Uniform random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  8. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  9. Random number generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coveyou, R.R.

    1974-01-01

    The subject of random number generation is currently controversial. Differing opinions on this subject seem to stem from implicit or explicit differences in philosophy; in particular, from differing ideas concerning the role of probability in the real world of physical processes, electronic computers, and Monte Carlo calculations. An attempt is made here to reconcile these views. The role of stochastic ideas in mathematical models is discussed. In illustration of these ideas, a mathematical model of the use of random number generators in Monte Carlo calculations is constructed. This model is used to set up criteria for the comparison and evaluation of random number generators. (U.S.)

  10. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubusta, Jan; Haderka, Ondrej; Hendrych, Martin

    2001-03-01

    Since reflection or transmission of a quantum particle on a beamsplitter is inherently random quantum process, a device built on this principle does not suffer from drawbacks of neither pseudo-random computer generators or classical noise sources. Nevertheless, a number of physical conditions necessary for high quality random numbers generation must be satisfied. Luckily, in quantum optics realization they can be well controlled. We present an easy random number generator based on the division of weak light pulses on a beamsplitter. The randomness of the generated bit stream is supported by passing the data through series of 15 statistical test. The device generates at a rate of 109.7 kbit/s.

  11. Drawing a random number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard; Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2006-01-01

    Random numbers are used for a great variety of applications in almost any field of computer and economic sciences today. Examples ranges from stock market forecasting in economics, through stochastic traffic modelling in operations research to photon and ray tracing in graphics. The construction...... distributions into others with most of the required characteristics. In essence, a uniform sequence which is transformed into a new sequence with the required distribution. The subject of this article is to consider the well known highly uniform Halton sequence and modifications to it. The intent is to generate...

  12. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  13. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  14. Investigating the Randomness of Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Kenn L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…

  15. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Chng, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  16. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian, E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chng, Brenda [Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2016-07-25

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  17. Random number generation and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, William

    2008-01-01

    A previous paper suggested that humans can generate genuinely random numbers. I tested this hypothesis by repeating the experiment with a larger number of highly numerate subjects, asking them to call out a sequence of digits selected from 0 through 9. The resulting sequences were substantially non-random, with an excess of sequential pairs of numbers and a deficit of repeats of the same number, in line with previous literature. However, the previous literature suggests that humans generate random numbers with substantial conscious effort, and distractions which reduce that effort reduce the randomness of the numbers. I reduced my subjects' concentration by asking them to call out in another language, and with alcohol - neither affected the randomness of their responses. This suggests that the ability to generate random numbers is a 'basic' function of the human mind, even if those numbers are not mathematically 'random'. I hypothesise that there is a 'creativity' mechanism, while not truly random, provides novelty as part of the mind's defence against closed programming loops, and that testing for the effects seen here in people more or less familiar with numbers or with spontaneous creativity could identify more features of this process. It is possible that training to perform better at simple random generation tasks could help to increase creativity, through training people to reduce the conscious mind's suppression of the 'spontaneous', creative response to new questions.

  18. How random are random numbers generated using photons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; Ramírez Alarcón, Roberto; Cruz Ramírez, Hector; U’Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    Randomness is fundamental in quantum theory, with many philosophical and practical implications. In this paper we discuss the concept of algorithmic randomness, which provides a quantitative method to assess the Borel normality of a given sequence of numbers, a necessary condition for it to be considered random. We use Borel normality as a tool to investigate the randomness of ten sequences of bits generated from the differences between detection times of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion. These sequences are shown to fulfil the randomness criteria without difficulties. As deviations from Borel normality for photon-generated random number sequences have been reported in previous work, a strategy to understand these diverging findings is outlined. (paper)

  19. Microcomputer Unit: Generating Random Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an activity, suitable for students in grades 6-12, on generating random numbers. Objectives, equipment needed, list of prerequisite experiences, instructional strategies, and ready-to-copy student worksheets are included. (JN)

  20. Digital random-number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocker, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    For binary digit array of N bits, use N noise sources to feed N nonlinear operators; each flip-flop in digit array is set by nonlinear operator to reflect whether amplitude of generator which feeds it is above or below mean value of generated noise. Fixed-point uniform distribution random number generation method can also be used to generate random numbers with other than uniform distribution.

  1. The MIXMAX random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidy, Konstantin G.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the randomness properties of unimodular matrix random number generators. Under well-known conditions, these discrete-time dynamical systems have the highly desirable K-mixing properties which guarantee high quality random numbers. It is found that some widely used random number generators have poor Kolmogorov entropy and consequently fail in empirical tests of randomness. These tests show that the lowest acceptable value of the Kolmogorov entropy is around 50. Next, we provide a solution to the problem of determining the maximal period of unimodular matrix generators of pseudo-random numbers. We formulate the necessary and sufficient condition to attain the maximum period and present a family of specific generators in the MIXMAX family with superior performance and excellent statistical properties. Finally, we construct three efficient algorithms for operations with the MIXMAX matrix which is a multi-dimensional generalization of the famous cat-map. First, allowing to compute the multiplication by the MIXMAX matrix with O(N) operations. Second, to recursively compute its characteristic polynomial with O(N2) operations, and third, to apply skips of large number of steps S to the sequence in O(N2 log(S)) operations.

  2. Pseudo-Random Number Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Package features comprehensive selection of probabilistic distributions. Monte Carlo simulations resorted to whenever systems studied not amenable to deterministic analyses or when direct experimentation not feasible. Random numbers having certain specified distribution characteristic integral part of simulations. Package consists of collector of "pseudorandom" number generators for use in Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. On Random Numbers and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Morechai

    2004-01-01

    The term "random" is frequently used in discussion of the theory of evolution, even though the mathematical concept of randomness is problematic and of little relevance in the theory. Therefore, since the core concept of the theory of evolution is the non-random process of natural selection, the term random should not be used in teaching the…

  4. Fast integration using quasi-random numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, J.; Feindt, M.; Kerzel, U.

    2006-01-01

    Quasi-random numbers are specially constructed series of numbers optimised to evenly sample a given s-dimensional volume. Using quasi-random numbers in numerical integration converges faster with a higher accuracy compared to the case of pseudo-random numbers. The basic properties of quasi-random numbers are introduced, various generators are discussed and the achieved gain is illustrated by examples

  5. Fast integration using quasi-random numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, J.; Feindt, M.; Kerzel, U.

    2006-04-01

    Quasi-random numbers are specially constructed series of numbers optimised to evenly sample a given s-dimensional volume. Using quasi-random numbers in numerical integration converges faster with a higher accuracy compared to the case of pseudo-random numbers. The basic properties of quasi-random numbers are introduced, various generators are discussed and the achieved gain is illustrated by examples.

  6. A random number generator for continuous random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, V. M.; Tapia, R. A.; Thompson, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 routine is given which may be used to generate random observations of a continuous real valued random variable. Normal distribution of F(x), X, E(akimas), and E(linear) is presented in tabular form.

  7. Self-correcting random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Travis S.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-09-06

    A system and method for generating random numbers. The system may include a random number generator (RNG), such as a quantum random number generator (QRNG) configured to self-correct or adapt in order to substantially achieve randomness from the output of the RNG. By adapting, the RNG may generate a random number that may be considered random regardless of whether the random number itself is tested as such. As an example, the RNG may include components to monitor one or more characteristics of the RNG during operation, and may use the monitored characteristics as a basis for adapting, or self-correcting, to provide a random number according to one or more performance criteria.

  8. Analysis of android random number generator

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıtaş, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Computer Engineering and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references leaves 61-65. Randomness is a crucial resource for cryptography, and random number generators are critical building blocks of almost all cryptographic systems. Therefore, random number generation is one of the key parts of secure communication. Random number generatio...

  9. Generation of pseudo-random numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    Practical methods for generating acceptable random numbers from a variety of probability distributions which are frequently encountered in engineering applications are described. The speed, accuracy, and guarantee of statistical randomness of the various methods are discussed.

  10. Microcomputer-Assisted Discoveries: Random Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberling, Clark

    1983-01-01

    A programing contest was designed to promote interest in mathematical randomness. Student-developed programs making clever uses of random numbers are presented. Modifications users might make are suggested. (MNS)

  11. Quality pseudo-random number generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasiuk, J.

    1996-01-01

    The pseudo-random number generator (RNG) was written to match needs of nuclear and high-energy physics computation which in some cases require very long and independent random number sequences. In this random number generator the repetition period is about 10 36 what should be sufficient for all computers in the world. In this article the test results of RNG correlation, speed and identity of computations for PC, Sun4 and VAX computer tests are presented

  12. The RANDOM computer program: A linear congruential random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The RANDOM Computer Program is a FORTRAN program for generating random number sequences and testing linear congruential random number generators (LCGs). The linear congruential form of random number generator is discussed, and the selection of parameters of an LCG for a microcomputer described. This document describes the following: (1) The RANDOM Computer Program; (2) RANDOM.MOD, the computer code needed to implement an LCG in a FORTRAN program; and (3) The RANCYCLE and the ARITH Computer Programs that provide computational assistance in the selection of parameters for an LCG. The RANDOM, RANCYCLE, and ARITH Computer Programs are written in Microsoft FORTRAN for the IBM PC microcomputer and its compatibles. With only minor modifications, the RANDOM Computer Program and its LCG can be run on most micromputers or mainframe computers.

  13. All-optical fast random number generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2010-09-13

    We propose a scheme of all-optical random number generator (RNG), which consists of an ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) chaotic laser, an all-optical sampler and an all-optical comparator. Free from the electric-device bandwidth, it can generate 10Gbit/s random numbers in our simulation. The high-speed bit sequences can pass standard statistical tests for randomness after all-optical exclusive-or (XOR) operation.

  14. Source-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhu; Zhou, Hongyi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts—a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over 5 ×103 bit /s .

  15. Source-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Cao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts—a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over 5×10^{3}  bit/s.

  16. True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, M; Curty, M; Steinlechner, F; Anzolin, G; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V

    2011-10-10

    Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up to 100 Gbps by taking advantage of high speed modulation sources and detectors for optical fiber telecommunication devices.

  17. Long period pseudo random number sequence generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Charles C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A circuit for generating a sequence of pseudo random numbers, (A sub K). There is an exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) for the normal basis representation of elements in a finite field GF(2 sup m) each represented by m binary digits and having two inputs and an output from which the sequence (A sub K). Of pseudo random numbers is taken. One of the two inputs is connected to receive the outputs (E sub K) of maximal length shift register of n stages. There is a switch having a pair of inputs and an output. The switch outputs is connected to the other of the two inputs of the exponentiator. One of the switch inputs is connected for initially receiving a primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m). Finally, there is a delay circuit having an input and an output. The delay circuit output is connected to the other of the switch inputs and the delay circuit input is connected to the output of the exponentiator. Whereby after the exponentiator initially receives the primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m) through the switch, the switch can be switched to cause the exponentiator to receive as its input a delayed output A(K-1) from the exponentiator thereby generating (A sub K) continuously at the output of the exponentiator. The exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) is novel and comprises a cyclic-shift circuit; a Massey-Omura multiplier; and, a control logic circuit all operably connected together to perform the function U(sub i) = 92(sup i) (for n(sub i) = 1 or 1 (for n(subi) = 0).

  18. Using Random Numbers in Science Research Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the importance of science process skills and describes ways to select sets of random numbers for selection of subjects for a research study in an unbiased manner. Presents an activity appropriate for grades 5-12. (JRH)

  19. Random numbers spring from alpha decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, N.A.; Sanathanan, L.P.; Morley, M.; Clark, N.A.; Tyler, S.A.

    1980-05-01

    Congruential random number generators, which are widely used in Monte Carlo simulations, are deficient in that the number they generate are concentrated in a relatively small number of hyperplanes. While this deficiency may not be a limitation in small Monte Carlo studies involving a few variables, it introduces a significant bias in large simulations requiring high resolution. This bias was recognized and assessed during preparations for an accident analysis study of nuclear power plants. This report describes a random number device based on the radioactive decay of alpha particles from a 235 U source in a high-resolution gas proportional counter. The signals were fed to a 4096-channel analyzer and for each channel the frequency of signals registered in a 20,000-microsecond interval was recorded. The parity bits of these frequency counts (0 for an even count and 1 for an odd count) were then assembled in sequence to form 31-bit binary random numbers and transcribed to a magnetic tape. This cycle was repeated as many times as were necessary to create 3 million random numbers. The frequency distribution of counts from the present device conforms to the Brockwell-Moyal distribution, which takes into account the dead time of the counter (both the dead time and decay constant of the underlying Poisson process were estimated). Analysis of the count data and tests of randomness on a sample set of the 31-bit binary numbers indicate that this random number device is a highly reliable source of truly random numbers. Its use is, therefore, recommended in Monte Carlo simulations for which the congruential pseudorandom number generators are found to be inadequate. 6 figures, 5 tables

  20. On contact numbers in random rod packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.; Luding, Stefan; Philipse, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Random packings of non-spherical granular particles are simulated by combining mechanical contraction and molecular dynamics, to determine contact numbers as a function of density. Particle shapes are varied from spheres to thin rods. The observed contact numbers (and packing densities) agree well

  1. Random walk of the baryon number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazaryan, A.M.; Khlebnikov, S.Y.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    A new approach is suggested for the anomalous nonconservation of baryon number in the electroweak theory at high temperatures. Arguments are presented in support of the idea that the baryon-number changing reactions may be viewed as random Markov processes. Making use of the general theory of Markov processes, the Fokker--Planck equation for the baryon-number distribution density is obtained and kinetic coefficients are calculated

  2. Random Number Generation for High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    number streams, a quality metric for the parallel random number streams. * * * * * Atty. Dkt . No.: 5660-14400 Customer No. 35690 Eric B. Meyertons...responsibility to ensure timely payment of maintenance fees when due. Pagel of3 PTOL-85 (Rev. 02/11) Atty. Dkt . No.: 5660-14400 Page 1 Meyertons...with each subtask executed by a separate thread or process (henceforth, process). Each process has Atty. Dkt . No.: 5660-14400 Page 2 Meyertons

  3. Learning Random Numbers: A Matlab Anomaly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Savický, Petr; Robnik-Šikonja, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2008), s. 254-265 ISSN 0883-9514 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : random number s * machine learning * classification * attribute evaluation * regression Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.795, year: 2008

  4. Standard random number generation for MBASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A machine-independent algorithm is presented and analyzed for generating pseudorandom numbers suitable for the standard MBASIC system. The algorithm used is the polynomial congruential or linear recurrence modulo 2 method. Numbers, formed as nonoverlapping adjacent 28-bit words taken from the bit stream produced by the formula a sub m + 532 = a sub m + 37 + a sub m (modulo 2), do not repeat within the projected age of the solar system, show no ensemble correlation, exhibit uniform distribution of adjacent numbers up to 19 dimensions, and do not deviate from random runs-up and runs-down behavior.

  5. Motzkin numbers out of Random Domino Automaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Białecki, Mariusz, E-mail: bialecki@igf.edu.pl [Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Ks. Janusza 64, 01-452 Warszawa (Poland)

    2012-10-01

    Motzkin numbers are derived from a special case of Random Domino Automaton – recently proposed a slowly driven system being a stochastic toy model of earthquakes. It is also a generalisation of 1D Drossel–Schwabl forest-fire model. A solution of the set of equations describing stationary state of Random Domino Automaton in inverse-power case is presented. A link with Motzkin numbers allows to present explicit form of asymptotic behaviour of the automaton. -- Highlights: ► Motzkin numbers are derived from stochastic cellular automaton with avalanches. ► Explicit solution of toy model of earthquakes is presented. ► Case with inverse-power distribution of avalanches is found.

  6. Quantifiers for randomness of chaotic pseudo-random number generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, L; Larrondo, H A; Plastino, A; Rosso, O A

    2009-08-28

    We deal with randomness quantifiers and concentrate on their ability to discern the hallmark of chaos in time series used in connection with pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs). Workers in the field are motivated to use chaotic maps for generating PRNGs because of the simplicity of their implementation. Although there exist very efficient general-purpose benchmarks for testing PRNGs, we feel that the analysis provided here sheds additional didactic light on the importance of the main statistical characteristics of a chaotic map, namely (i) its invariant measure and (ii) the mixing constant. This is of help in answering two questions that arise in applications: (i) which is the best PRNG among the available ones? and (ii) if a given PRNG turns out not to be good enough and a randomization procedure must still be applied to it, which is the best applicable randomization procedure? Our answer provides a comparative analysis of several quantifiers advanced in the extant literature.

  7. Normal solutions of the Boltzmann equation with small Knudsen number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, E.J.; Huang, Z.Q.

    1986-01-01

    A singular perturbation method is used to find the normal solutions of the Boltzmann equation with small Knudsen number. It is proved that the secular terms may be removed by improving the Hilbert expansion and the Enskog expansion

  8. Random Numbers and Monte Carlo Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Philipp O. J.

    Many-body problems often involve the calculation of integrals of very high dimension which cannot be treated by standard methods. For the calculation of thermodynamic averages Monte Carlo methods are very useful which sample the integration volume at randomly chosen points. After summarizing some basic statistics, we discuss algorithms for the generation of pseudo-random numbers with given probability distribution which are essential for all Monte Carlo methods. We show how the efficiency of Monte Carlo integration can be improved by sampling preferentially the important configurations. Finally the famous Metropolis algorithm is applied to classical many-particle systems. Computer experiments visualize the central limit theorem and apply the Metropolis method to the traveling salesman problem.

  9. Astronomical random numbers for quantum foundations experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Calvin; Brown, Amy; Nguyen, Hien; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kaiser, David I.; Gallicchio, Jason

    2018-04-01

    Photons from distant astronomical sources can be used as a classical source of randomness to improve fundamental tests of quantum nonlocality, wave-particle duality, and local realism through Bell's inequality and delayed-choice quantum eraser tests inspired by Wheeler's cosmic-scale Mach-Zehnder interferometer gedanken experiment. Such sources of random numbers may also be useful for information-theoretic applications such as key distribution for quantum cryptography. Building on the design of an astronomical random number generator developed for the recent cosmic Bell experiment [Handsteiner et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 060401 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.060401], in this paper we report on the design and characterization of a device that, with 20-nanosecond latency, outputs a bit based on whether the wavelength of an incoming photon is greater than or less than ≈700 nm. Using the one-meter telescope at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Observatory, we generated random bits from astronomical photons in both color channels from 50 stars of varying color and magnitude, and from 12 quasars with redshifts up to z =3.9 . With stars, we achieved bit rates of ˜1 ×106Hz/m 2 , limited by saturation of our single-photon detectors, and with quasars of magnitudes between 12.9 and 16, we achieved rates between ˜102 and 2 ×103Hz /m2 . For bright quasars, the resulting bitstreams exhibit sufficiently low amounts of statistical predictability as quantified by the mutual information. In addition, a sufficiently high fraction of bits generated are of true astronomical origin in order to address both the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes when used to set the measurement settings in a test of the Bell-CHSH inequality.

  10. CT numbers of liver and spleen in normal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Kim

    2002-01-01

    To determine the mean liver CT numbers, and differences between liver and spleen, and liver and back muscle CT numbers in normal children, and to correlate the findings with sex and age. One hundred and five normal children aged 2-14 years underwent pre-contrast CT scanning. Mean CT numbers of the liver, spleen, and back muscles were calculated, as well as the differences in CT numbers between the liver and spleen (liver-spleen CT numbers), and between the liver-back muscle CT numbers were 70.22±6.51 HU, 53.28±3.57 HU, 17.13±6.57 HU, and 11.88±5.94 HU, respectively. Mean liver CT numbers and the difference between liver and back muscle CT numbers were not different by age. By sex, all the CT numbers did not vary according to age. The sex of a subject did not affect the CT number. The children's mean liver CT number was 70.22±6.51 HU and the difference between liver and spleen CT numbers was 17.13±6.57 HU. Younger children had higher liver CT and liver-spleen CT numbers than older children. No CT numbers varied according to sex

  11. Generation of Random Numbers and Parallel Random Number Streams for Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Barash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods and libraries for high quality pseudorandom number generation and for generation of parallel random number streams for Monte Carlo simulations are considered. The probability equidistribution property and the parameters when the property holds at dimensions up to logarithm of mesh size are considered for Multiple Recursive Generators.

  12. Correlated random sampling for multivariate normal and log-normal distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žerovnik, Gašper; Trkov, Andrej; Kodeli, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for correlated random sampling is presented. Representative samples for multivariate normal or log-normal distribution can be produced. Furthermore, any combination of normally and log-normally distributed correlated variables may be sampled to any requested accuracy. Possible applications of the method include sampling of resonance parameters which are used for reactor calculations.

  13. Application of quasi-random numbers for simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazachenko, O.N.; Takhtamyshev, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    Application of the Monte-Carlo method for multidimensional integration is discussed. The main goal is to check the statement that the application of quasi-random numbers instead of regular pseudo-random numbers provides more rapid convergency. The Sobol, Richtmayer and Halton algorithms of quasi-random sequences are described. Over 50 tests to compare these quasi-random numbers as well as pseudo-random numbers were fulfilled. In all cases quasi-random numbers have clearly demonstrated a more rapid convergency as compared with pseudo-random ones. Positive test results on quasi-random trend in Monte-Carlo method seem very promising

  14. A Method of Erasing Data Using Random Number Generators

    OpenAIRE

    井上,正人

    2012-01-01

    Erasing data is an indispensable step for disposal of computers or external storage media. Except physical destruction, erasing data means writing random information on entire disk drives or media. We propose a method which erases data safely using random number generators. These random number generators create true random numbers based on quantum processes.

  15. Testing, Selection, and Implementation of Random Number Generators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Joseph C

    2008-01-01

    An exhaustive evaluation of state-of-the-art random number generators with several well-known suites of tests provides the basis for selection of suitable random number generators for use in stochastic simulations...

  16. Graphical analysis of some pseudo-random number generators

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Peter A. W.

    1986-01-01

    There exist today many 'good' pseudo-random number generators; the problem is to retrieve them. This document discusses three commonly used pseudo- random number generators, the first being RANDU, a notoriously bad generator, but one which is still occasionally used. The next is the widely used prime modulus, multiplicative congruential generator used in LL-RANDOMII, the Naval Postgraduate School random number package, and the last is the random number generator provided for microcomputers wi...

  17. Extracting random numbers from quantum tunnelling through a single diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Gavito, Ramón; Bagci, Ibrahim Ethem; Roberts, Jonathan; Sexton, James; Astbury, Benjamin; Shokeir, Hamzah; McGrath, Thomas; Noori, Yasir J; Woodhead, Christopher S; Missous, Mohamed; Roedig, Utz; Young, Robert J

    2017-12-19

    Random number generation is crucial in many aspects of everyday life, as online security and privacy depend ultimately on the quality of random numbers. Many current implementations are based on pseudo-random number generators, but information security requires true random numbers for sensitive applications like key generation in banking, defence or even social media. True random number generators are systems whose outputs cannot be determined, even if their internal structure and response history are known. Sources of quantum noise are thus ideal for this application due to their intrinsic uncertainty. In this work, we propose using resonant tunnelling diodes as practical true random number generators based on a quantum mechanical effect. The output of the proposed devices can be directly used as a random stream of bits or can be further distilled using randomness extraction algorithms, depending on the application.

  18. Pseudo-random number generator based on asymptotic deterministic randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Pei, Wenjiang; Xia, Haishan; Cheung, Yiu-ming

    2008-06-01

    A novel approach to generate the pseudorandom-bit sequence from the asymptotic deterministic randomness system is proposed in this Letter. We study the characteristic of multi-value correspondence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness constructed by the piecewise linear map and the noninvertible nonlinearity transform, and then give the discretized systems in the finite digitized state space. The statistic characteristics of the asymptotic deterministic randomness are investigated numerically, such as stationary probability density function and random-like behavior. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamics of the symbolic sequence. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the symbolic sequence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness possesses very good cryptographic properties, which improve the security of chaos based PRBGs and increase the resistance against entropy attacks and symbolic dynamics attacks.

  19. Pseudo-random number generator based on asymptotic deterministic randomness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Pei Wenjiang; Xia Haishan; Cheung Yiuming

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to generate the pseudorandom-bit sequence from the asymptotic deterministic randomness system is proposed in this Letter. We study the characteristic of multi-value correspondence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness constructed by the piecewise linear map and the noninvertible nonlinearity transform, and then give the discretized systems in the finite digitized state space. The statistic characteristics of the asymptotic deterministic randomness are investigated numerically, such as stationary probability density function and random-like behavior. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamics of the symbolic sequence. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the symbolic sequence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness possesses very good cryptographic properties, which improve the security of chaos based PRBGs and increase the resistance against entropy attacks and symbolic dynamics attacks

  20. Towards a high-speed quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Damien; Burri, Samuel; Charbon, Edoardo; Chunnilall, Christopher; Meneghetti, Alessio; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Randomness is of fundamental importance in various fields, such as cryptography, numerical simulations, or the gaming industry. Quantum physics, which is fundamentally probabilistic, is the best option for a physical random number generator. In this article, we will present the work carried out in various projects in the context of the development of a commercial and certified high speed random number generator.

  1. Evidence of significant bias in an elementary random number generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwaldt, H.; Brandl, V.

    1981-03-01

    An elementary pseudo random number generator for isotropically distributed unit vectors in 3-dimensional space has ben tested for bias. This generator uses the IBM-suplied routine RANDU and a transparent rejection technique. The tests show clearly that non-randomness in the pseudo random numbers generated by the primary IBM generator leads to bias in the order of 1 percent in estimates obtained from the secondary random number generator. FORTRAN listings of 4 variants of the random number generator called by a simple test programme and output listings are included for direct reference. (orig.) [de

  2. Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based on Coupled Map Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Huaping; Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    A one-way coupled chaotic map lattice is used for generating pseudo-random numbers. It is shown that with suitable cooperative applications of both chaotic and conventional approaches, the output of the spatiotemporally chaotic system can easily meet the practical requirements of random numbers, i.e., excellent random statistical properties, long periodicity of computer realizations, and fast speed of random number generations. This pseudo-random number generator system can be used as ideal synchronous and self-synchronizing stream cipher systems for secure communications.

  3. An integrable low-cost hardware random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Lim, Daihyun; Devadas, Srinivas; Jamali, Behnam; Zhu, Zheng; Cole, Peter H.

    2005-02-01

    A hardware random number generator is different from a pseudo-random number generator; a pseudo-random number generator approximates the assumed behavior of a real hardware random number generator. Simple pseudo random number generators suffices for most applications, however for demanding situations such as the generation of cryptographic keys, requires an efficient and a cost effective source of random numbers. Arbiter-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) proposed for physical authentication of ICs exploits statistical delay variation of wires and transistors across integrated circuits, as a result of process variations, to build a secret key unique to each IC. Experimental results and theoretical studies show that a sufficient amount of variation exits across IC"s. This variation enables each IC to be identified securely. It is possible to exploit the unreliability of these PUF responses to build a physical random number generator. There exists measurement noise, which comes from the instability of an arbiter when it is in a racing condition. There exist challenges whose responses are unpredictable. Without environmental variations, the responses of these challenges are random in repeated measurements. Compared to other physical random number generators, the PUF-based random number generators can be a compact and a low-power solution since the generator need only be turned on when required. A 64-stage PUF circuit costs less than 1000 gates and the circuit can be implemented using a standard IC manufacturing processes. In this paper we have presented a fast and an efficient random number generator, and analysed the quality of random numbers produced using an array of tests used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to evaluate the randomness of random number generators designed for cryptographic applications.

  4. MicroRNA Array Normalization: An Evaluation Using a Randomized Dataset as the Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li-Xuan; Zhou, Qin

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA arrays possess a number of unique data features that challenge the assumption key to many normalization methods. We assessed the performance of existing normalization methods using two microRNA array datasets derived from the same set of tumor samples: one dataset was generated using a blocked randomization design when assigning arrays to samples and hence was free of confounding array effects; the second dataset was generated without blocking or randomization and exhibited array effects. The randomized dataset was assessed for differential expression between two tumor groups and treated as the benchmark. The non-randomized dataset was assessed for differential expression after normalization and compared against the benchmark. Normalization improved the true positive rate significantly in the non-randomized data but still possessed a false discovery rate as high as 50%. Adding a batch adjustment step before normalization further reduced the number of false positive markers while maintaining a similar number of true positive markers, which resulted in a false discovery rate of 32% to 48%, depending on the specific normalization method. We concluded the paper with some insights on possible causes of false discoveries to shed light on how to improve normalization for microRNA arrays. PMID:24905456

  5. Very high performance pseudo-random number generation on DAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. A.; Reddaway, S. F.; Scott, D. M.

    1985-07-01

    Since the National DAP Service began at QMC in 1980, extensive use has been made of pseudo-random numbers in Monte Carlo simulation. Matrices of uniform numbers have been produced by various generators: (a) multiplicative ( x+ 1 = 13 13xn mod 2 59); (b) very long period shift register ( x4423 + x271 + 1); (c) multiple shorter period ( x127 + x7 + 1) shift registers generating several matrices per iteration. The above uniform generators can also feed a normal distribution generator that uses the Box-Muller transformation. This paper describes briefly the generators, their implementation and speed. Generator (b) has been greatly speeded-up by re-implementation, and now produces more than 100 × 10 6 high quality 16-bit numbers/s. Generator (c) is under development and will achieve even higher performance, mainly due to producing data in greater bulk. High quality numbers are expected, and performance will range from 400 to 800 × 10 6 numbers/s, depending on how the generator is used.

  6. Program pseudo-random number generator for microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ososkov, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Program pseudo-random number generators (PNG) intended for the test of control equipment and communication channels are considered. In the case of 8-bit microcomputers it is necessary to assign 4 words of storage to allocate one random number. The proposed economical algorithms of the random number generation are based on the idea of the ''mixing'' of such quarters of the preceeding random number to obtain the next one. Test results of the PNG are displayed for two such generators. A FORTRAN variant of the PNG is presented along with a program realizing the PNG made on the base of the INTEL-8080 autocode

  7. Quantum random-number generator based on a photon-number-resolving detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Min; Wu, E; Liang Yan; Jian Yi; Wu Guang; Zeng Heping

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated a high-efficiency quantum random number generator which takes inherent advantage of the photon number distribution randomness of a coherent light source. This scheme was realized by comparing the photon flux of consecutive pulses with a photon number resolving detector. The random bit generation rate could reach 2.4 MHz with a system clock of 6.0 MHz, corresponding to a random bit generation efficiency as high as 40%. The random number files passed all the stringent statistical tests.

  8. Pseudo-random number generator for the Sigma 5 computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is presented for developing a pseudo-random number generator based on the linear congruential form. The two numbers used for the generator are a prime number and a corresponding primitive root, where the prime is the largest prime number that can be accurately represented on a particular computer. The primitive root is selected by applying Marsaglia's lattice test. The technique presented was applied to write a random number program for the Sigma 5 computer. The new program, named S:RANDOM1, is judged to be superior to the older program named S:RANDOM. For applications requiring several independent random number generators, a table is included showing several acceptable primitive roots. The technique and programs described can be applied to any computer having word length different from that of the Sigma 5.

  9. Quantum random number generation for loophole-free Bell tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Morgan; Abellan, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar

    2015-05-01

    We describe the generation of quantum random numbers at multi-Gbps rates, combined with real-time randomness extraction, to give very high purity random numbers based on quantum events at most tens of ns in the past. The system satisfies the stringent requirements of quantum non-locality tests that aim to close the timing loophole. We describe the generation mechanism using spontaneous-emission-driven phase diffusion in a semiconductor laser, digitization, and extraction by parity calculation using multi-GHz logic chips. We pay special attention to experimental proof of the quality of the random numbers and analysis of the randomness extraction. In contrast to widely-used models of randomness generators in the computer science literature, we argue that randomness generation by spontaneous emission can be extracted from a single source.

  10. A Repetition Test for Pseudo-Random Number Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Manuel; Gonnet, Gaston H.; Petersen, Wesley P.

    2017-01-01

    A new statistical test for uniform pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) is presented. The idea is that a sequence of pseudo-random numbers should have numbers reappear with a certain probability. The expectation time that a repetition occurs provides the metric for the test. For linear congruential generators (LCGs) failure can be shown theoretically. Empirical test results for a number of commonly used PRNGs are reported, showing that some PRNGs considered to have good statistical propert...

  11. Novel pseudo-random number generator based on quantum random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhao, Qian-Qian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the potential application of quantum computation for constructing pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) and further construct a novel PRNG based on quantum random walks (QRWs), a famous quantum computation model. The PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the QRWs, and thus the generation algorithm is simple and the computation speed is fast. The proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests such as NIST and successfully passed the test. Compared with the representative PRNG based on quantum chaotic maps (QCM), the present QRWs-based PRNG has some advantages such as better statistical complexity and recurrence. For example, the normalized Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity of the QRWs-based PRNG are 0.999699456771172 and 1.799961178212329e-04 respectively given the number of 8 bits-words, say, 16Mbits. By contrast, the corresponding values of the QCM-based PRNG are 0.999448131481064 and 3.701210794388818e-04 respectively. Thus the statistical complexity and the normalized entropy of the QRWs-based PRNG are closer to 0 and 1 respectively than those of the QCM-based PRNG when the number of words of the analyzed sequence increases. It provides a new clue to construct PRNGs and also extends the applications of quantum computation.

  12. Novel pseudo-random number generator based on quantum random walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhao, Qian-Qian

    2016-02-04

    In this paper, we investigate the potential application of quantum computation for constructing pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) and further construct a novel PRNG based on quantum random walks (QRWs), a famous quantum computation model. The PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the QRWs, and thus the generation algorithm is simple and the computation speed is fast. The proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests such as NIST and successfully passed the test. Compared with the representative PRNG based on quantum chaotic maps (QCM), the present QRWs-based PRNG has some advantages such as better statistical complexity and recurrence. For example, the normalized Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity of the QRWs-based PRNG are 0.999699456771172 and 1.799961178212329e-04 respectively given the number of 8 bits-words, say, 16Mbits. By contrast, the corresponding values of the QCM-based PRNG are 0.999448131481064 and 3.701210794388818e-04 respectively. Thus the statistical complexity and the normalized entropy of the QRWs-based PRNG are closer to 0 and 1 respectively than those of the QCM-based PRNG when the number of words of the analyzed sequence increases. It provides a new clue to construct PRNGs and also extends the applications of quantum computation.

  13. A hybrid-type quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-Qiang, Ma; Wu, Zhu; Ke-Jin, Wei; Rui-Xue, Li; Hong-Wei, Liu

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a well-performing hybrid-type truly quantum random number generator based on the time interval between two independent single-photon detection signals, which is practical and intuitive, and generates the initial random number sources from a combination of multiple existing random number sources. A time-to-amplitude converter and multichannel analyzer are used for qualitative analysis to demonstrate that each and every step is random. Furthermore, a carefully designed data acquisition system is used to obtain a high-quality random sequence. Our scheme is simple and proves that the random number bit rate can be dramatically increased to satisfy practical requirements. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178010 and 11374042), the Fund of State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), China, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. bupt2014TS01).

  14. Semi-device-independent random-number expansion without entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongwei; Yin Zhenqiang; Wu Yuchun; Zou Xubo; Wang Shuang; Chen Wei; Guo Guangcan; Han Zhengfu

    2011-01-01

    By testing the classical correlation violation between two systems, true random numbers can be generated and certified without applying classical statistical method. In this work, we propose a true random-number expansion protocol without entanglement, where the randomness can be guaranteed only by the two-dimensional quantum witness violation. Furthermore, we only assume that the dimensionality of the system used in the protocol has a tight bound, and the whole protocol can be regarded as a semi-device-independent black-box scenario. Compared with the device-independent random-number expansion protocol based on entanglement, our protocol is much easier to implement and test.

  15. Microcomputer-Assisted Discoveries: Generate Your Own Random Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberling, Clark

    1984-01-01

    Having students try to generate their own random numbers can lead to much discovery learning as one tries to create 'patternlessness' from formulas. Developing an equidistribution test and runs test, plus other ideas for generating random numbers, is discussed, with computer programs given. (MNS)

  16. Generating random numbers by means of nonlinear dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jiaqi; Hu, Haojie; Zhong, Juhua; Luo, Duanbin; Fang, Yi

    2018-07-01

    To introduce the randomness of a physical process to students, a chaotic pendulum experiment was opened in East China University of Science and Technology (ECUST) on the undergraduate level in the physics department. It was shown chaotic motion could be initiated through adjusting the operation of a chaotic pendulum. By using the data of the angular displacements of chaotic motion, random binary numerical arrays can be generated. To check the randomness of generated numerical arrays, the NIST Special Publication 800-20 method was adopted. As a result, it was found that all the random arrays which were generated by the chaotic motion could pass the validity criteria and some of them were even better than the quality of pseudo-random numbers generated by a computer. Through the experiments, it is demonstrated that chaotic pendulum can be used as an efficient mechanical facility in generating random numbers, and can be applied in teaching random motion to the students.

  17. Analysis of random number generators in abnormal usage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soucarros, M.

    2012-01-01

    Random numbers have been used through the ages for games of chance, more recently for secret codes and today they are necessary to the execution of computer programs. Random number generators have now evolved from simple dices to electronic circuits and algorithms. Accordingly, the ability to distinguish between random and non-random numbers has become more difficult. Furthermore, whereas in the past dices were loaded in order to increase winning chances, it is now possible to influence the outcome of random number generators. In consequence, this subject is still very much an issue and has recently made the headlines. Indeed, there was talks about the PS3 game console which generates constant random numbers and redundant distribution of secret keys on the internet. This thesis presents a study of several generators as well as different means to perturb them. It shows the inherent defects of their conceptions and possible consequences of their failure when they are embedded inside security components. Moreover, this work highlights problems yet to be solved concerning the testing of random numbers and the post-processing eliminating bias in these numbers distribution. (author) [fr

  18. RANDOMNUMBERS, Random Number Sequence Generated from Gas Ionisation Chamber Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, N.A.; Sanathanan, L.P.; Morley, M.; Tyler, S.A.; Clark, N.A.; Wang, J.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: RANDOM NUMBERS is a data collection of almost 2.7 million 31-bit random numbers generated by using a high resolution gas ionization detector chamber in conjunction with a 4096-channel multichannel analyzer to record the radioactive decay of alpha particles from a U-235 source. The signals from the decaying alpha particles were fed to the 4096-channel analyzer, and for each channel the frequency of signals registered in a 20,000-microsecond interval was recorded. The parity bits of these frequency counts, 0 for an even count and 1 for and odd count, were then assembled in sequence to form 31-bit random numbers and transcribed onto magnetic tape. This cycle was repeated to obtain the random numbers. 2 - Method of solution: The frequency distribution of counts from the device conforms to the Brockwell-Moyal distribution which takes into account the dead time of the counter. The count data were analyzed and tests for randomness on a sample indicate that the device is a highly reliable source of truly random numbers. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The RANDOM NUMBERS tape contains 2,669,568 31-bit numbers

  19. Normalizations of High Taylor Reynolds Number Power Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Alejandro; Koster, Timothy; Larue, John C.

    2014-11-01

    The velocity power spectrum provides insight in how the turbulent kinetic energy is transferred from larger to smaller scales. Wind tunnel experiments are conducted where high intensity turbulence is generated by means of an active turbulence grid modeled after Makita's 1991 design (Makita, 1991) as implemented by Mydlarski and Warhaft (M&W, 1998). The goal of this study is to document the evolution of the scaling region and assess the relative collapse of several proposed normalizations over a range of Rλ from 185 to 997. As predicted by Kolmogorov (1963), an asymptotic approach of the slope (n) of the inertial subrange to - 5 / 3 with increasing Rλ is observed. There are three velocity power spectrum normalizations as presented by Kolmogorov (1963), Von Karman and Howarth (1938) and George (1992). Results show that the Von Karman and Howarth normalization does not collapse the velocity power spectrum as well as the Kolmogorov and George normalizations. The Kolmogorov normalization does a good job of collapsing the velocity power spectrum in the normalized high wavenumber range of 0 . 0002 University of California, Irvine Research Fund.

  20. Parallel random number generator for inexpensive configurable hardware cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, J.; Tangen, U.; Bödekker, B.; Breyer, J.; Stoll, E.; McCaskill, J. S.

    2001-11-01

    A new random number generator ( RNG) adapted to parallel processors has been created. This RNG can be implemented with inexpensive hardware cells. The correlation between neighboring cells is suppressed with smart connections. With such connection structures, sequences of pseudo-random numbers are produced. Numerical tests including a self-avoiding random walk test and the simulation of the order parameter and energy of the 2D Ising model give no evidence for correlation in the pseudo-random sequences. Because the new random number generator has suppressed the correlation between neighboring cells which is usually observed in cellular automaton implementations, it is applicable for extended time simulations. It gives an immense speed-up factor if implemented directly in configurable hardware, and has recently been used for long time simulations of spatially resolved molecular evolution.

  1. A pseudo-random number generator and its spectral test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lai

    1998-01-01

    The author introduces a pseudo-random number generator and describes its algorithm and C language implementation. The performance of the generator is tested and compared with some well known LCG generators

  2. Hardware implementation of a GFSR pseudo-random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, G. R.; Budinich, M.; Milotti, E.

    1989-12-01

    We describe the hardware implementation of a pseudo-random number generator of the "Generalized Feedback Shift Register" (GFSR) type. After brief theoretical considerations we describe two versions of the hardware, the tests done and the performances achieved.

  3. Random number generation based on digital differential chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully digital differential chaos based random number generator. The output of the digital circuit is proved to be chaotic by calculating the output time series maximum Lyapunov exponent. We introduce a new post processing

  4. Correlations of pseudo-random numbers of multiplicative sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukin, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    An algorithm is suggested for searching with a computer in unit n-dimensional cube the sets of planes where all the points fall whose coordinates are composed of n successive pseudo-random numbers of multiplicative sequence. This effect should be taken into account in Monte-Carlo calculations with definite constructive dimension. The parameters of these planes are obtained for three random number generators. 2 refs.; 2 tabs

  5. Recoverable Random Numbers in an Internet of Things Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeill Yoo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, several security issues with Linux Random Number Generator (LRNG on PCs and Androids have emerged. The main problem involves the process of entropy harvesting, particularly at boot time. An entropy source in the input pool of LRNG is not transferred into the non-blocking output pool if the entropy counter of the input pool is less than 192 bits out of 4098 bits. Because the entropy estimation of LRNG is highly conservative, the process may require more than one minute for starting the transfer. Furthermore, the design principle of the estimation algorithm is not only heuristic but also unclear. Recently, Google released an Internet of Things (IoT operating system called Brillo based on the Linux kernel. We analyze the behavior of the random number generator in Brillo, which inherits that of LRNG. In the results, we identify two features that enable recovery of random numbers. With these features, we demonstrate that random numbers of 700 bytes at boot time can be recovered with the success probability of 90% by using time complexity for 5.20 × 2 40 trials. Therefore, the entropy of random numbers of 700 bytes is merely about 43 bits. Since the initial random numbers are supposed to be used for sensitive security parameters, such as stack canary and key derivation, our observation can be applied to practical attacks against cryptosystem.

  6. Superparamagnetic perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions for true random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Bradley; Bapna, Mukund; Igbokwe, Julianne; Almasi, Hamid; Wang, Weigang; Majetich, Sara A.

    2018-05-01

    Superparamagnetic perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions are fabricated and analyzed for use in random number generators. Time-resolved resistance measurements are used as streams of bits in statistical tests for randomness. Voltage control of the thermal stability enables tuning the average speed of random bit generation up to 70 kHz in a 60 nm diameter device. In its most efficient operating mode, the device generates random bits at an energy cost of 600 fJ/bit. A narrow range of magnetic field tunes the probability of a given state from 0 to 1, offering a means of probabilistic computing.

  7. The intermittency of vector fields and random-number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A. O.; Sokoloff, D. D.; Tutubalin, V. N.

    2017-09-01

    We examine how well natural random-number generators can reproduce the intermittency phenomena that arise in the transfer of vector fields in random media. A generator based on the analysis of financial indices is suggested as the most promising random-number generator. Is it shown that even this generator, however, fails to reproduce the phenomenon long enough to confidently detect intermittency, while the C++ generator successfully solves this problem. We discuss the prospects of using shell models of turbulence as the desired generator.

  8. On the number of spanning trees in random regular graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenhill, Catherine; Kwan, Matthew; Wind, David Kofoed

    2014-01-01

    Let d >= 3 be a fixed integer. We give an asympotic formula for the expected number of spanning trees in a uniformly random d-regular graph with n vertices. (The asymptotics are as n -> infinity, restricted to even n if d is odd.) We also obtain the asymptotic distribution of the number of spanning...

  9. A fast random number generator for the Intel Paragon supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutbrod, F.

    1995-06-01

    A pseudo-random number generator is presented which makes optimal use of the architecture of the i860-microprocessor and which is expected to have a very long period. It is therefore a good candidate for use on the parallel supercomputer Paragon XP. In the assembler version, it needs 6.4 cycles for a real∗4 random number. There is a FORTRAN routine which yields identical numbers up to rare and minor rounding discrepancies, and it needs 28 cycles. The FORTRAN performance on other microprocessors is somewhat better. Arguments for the quality of the generator and some numerical tests are given.

  10. Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Tobias; Greiner, Johannes N.; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Giessen, Harald; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-10-01

    The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random-number generators. These often exhibit a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be postprocessed to "iron out" such spurious effects. Here, we present a purely optical randomness generator, based on the bistable output of an optical parametric oscillator. Detector noise plays no role and postprocessing is reduced to a minimum. Upon entering the bistable regime, initially the resulting output phase depends on vacuum fluctuations. Later, the phase is rigidly locked and can be well determined versus a pulse train, which is derived from the pump laser. This delivers an ambiguity-free output, which is reliably detected and associated with a binary outcome. The resulting random bit stream resembles a perfect coin toss and passes all relevant randomness measures. The random nature of the generated binary outcome is furthermore confirmed by an analysis of resulting conditional entropies.

  11. Search for a perfect generator of random numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyck, E.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical tests have been carried out by COVEYOU and MAC PHERSON to verify the applications of the LEHMER algorithm. In a similar way, a theoretical method is proposed to evaluate in a rigorous way the random character of numbers generated by a shift register. This theory introduces the concept of ''degree of randomness'' of the elements, taken in a definite order, of a shift register. It permits making the judicious choice of the elements of the shift register which will produce the bits of the random numbers. On the other hand, a calculation method is developed in order to verify the primitive character of any shift register of high complexity. A new test, called ''slice test'', of empirical and theoretical use is also described; it constitutes a significant contribution to the understanding of certain properties of pseudo-random sequences. As a practical example, a random number generator structure formed with 32 bits, built out of a shift register with 61 elements and 60 modulo-2 adder circuits was made. The author is convinced that this generator can be considered to be practically perfect for all empirical applications of random numbers, particularly for the solution of Monte-Carlo problems. (author)

  12. Brain potentials index executive functions during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Dengler, Reinhard; Johannes, Sönke; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2004-06-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax different executive functions. To explore the involvement of these functions further, brain potentials were recorded in 16 healthy young adults while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus to yield either fast (1 press/800 ms) or slow (1 press/1300 ms) sequences in separate runs. Attentional demands of random and ordered tasks were assessed by the introduction of a secondary task (key-press to a target tone). The P3 amplitude to the target tone of this secondary task was reduced during RNG, reflecting the greater consumption of attentional resources during RNG. Moreover, RNG led to a left frontal negativity peaking 140 ms after the onset of the pacing stimulus, whenever the subjects produced a true random response. This negativity could be attributed to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and was absent when numbers were repeated. This negativity was interpreted as an index for the inhibition of habitual responses. Finally, in response locked ERPs a negative component was apparent peaking about 50 ms after the key-press that was more prominent during RNG. Source localization suggested a medial frontal source. This effect was tentatively interpreted as a reflection of the greater monitoring demands during random sequence generation.

  13. An experimental investigation of the normality of irrational algebraic numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Johan Sejr Brinch; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2013-01-01

    blocks for each number to bases 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10, as well as the maximum relative frequency deviation from perfect equidistribution. We use the two statistics to perform tests at significance level α = 0.05, respectively, maximum deviation threshold α = 0.05. Our results suggest that if Borel...

  14. Testing random number generators for Monte Carlo applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Central to any system for modelling radiation transport phenomena using Monte Carlo techniques is the method by which pseudo random numbers are generated. This method is commonly referred to as the Random Number Generator (RNG). It is usually a computer implemented mathematical algorithm which produces a series of numbers uniformly distributed on the interval [0,1]. If this series satisfies certain statistical tests for randomness, then for practical purposes the pseudo random numbers in the series can be considered to be random. Tests of this nature are important not only for new RNGs but also to test the implementation of known RNG algorithms in different computer environments. Six RNGs have been tested using six statistical tests and one visual test. The statistical tests are the moments, frequency (digit and number), serial, gap, and poker tests. The visual test is a simple two dimensional ordered pair display. In addition the RNGs have been tested in a specific Monte Carlo application. This type of test is often overlooked, however it is important that in addition to satisfactory performance in statistical tests, the RNG be able to perform effectively in the applications of interest. The RNGs tested here are based on a variety of algorithms, including multiplicative and linear congruential, lagged Fibonacci, and combination arithmetic and lagged Fibonacci. The effect of the Bays-Durham shuffling algorithm on the output of a known bad RNG has also been investigated. 18 refs., 11 tabs., 4 figs. of

  15. GASPRNG: GPU accelerated scalable parallel random number generator library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Peterson, Gregory D.

    2013-04-01

    Graphics processors represent a promising technology for accelerating computational science applications. Many computational science applications require fast and scalable random number generation with good statistical properties, so they use the Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators library (SPRNG). We present the GPU Accelerated SPRNG library (GASPRNG) to accelerate SPRNG in GPU-based high performance computing systems. GASPRNG includes code for a host CPU and CUDA code for execution on NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs) along with a programming interface to support various usage models for pseudorandom numbers and computational science applications executing on the CPU, GPU, or both. This paper describes the implementation approach used to produce high performance and also describes how to use the programming interface. The programming interface allows a user to be able to use GASPRNG the same way as SPRNG on traditional serial or parallel computers as well as to develop tightly coupled programs executing primarily on the GPU. We also describe how to install GASPRNG and use it. To help illustrate linking with GASPRNG, various demonstration codes are included for the different usage models. GASPRNG on a single GPU shows up to 280x speedup over SPRNG on a single CPU core and is able to scale for larger systems in the same manner as SPRNG. Because GASPRNG generates identical streams of pseudorandom numbers as SPRNG, users can be confident about the quality of GASPRNG for scalable computational science applications. Catalogue identifier: AEOI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: UTK license. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 167900 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1422058 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C and CUDA. Computer: Any PC or

  16. Ultrafast quantum random number generation based on quantum phase fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Qi, Bing; Ma, Xiongfeng; Xu, He; Zheng, Haoxuan; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2012-05-21

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) can generate true randomness by exploiting the fundamental indeterminism of quantum mechanics. Most approaches to QRNG employ single-photon detection technologies and are limited in speed. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast QRNG at a rate over 6 Gbits/s based on the quantum phase fluctuations of a laser operating near threshold. Moreover, we consider a potential adversary who has partial knowledge on the raw data and discuss how one can rigorously remove such partial knowledge with postprocessing. We quantify the quantum randomness through min-entropy by modeling our system and employ two randomness extractors--Trevisan's extractor and Toeplitz-hashing--to distill the randomness, which is information-theoretically provable. The simplicity and high-speed of our experimental setup show the feasibility of a robust, low-cost, high-speed QRNG.

  17. On the Periods of the {ranshi} Random Number Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutbrod, F.

    The stochastic properties of the pseudo-random number generator {ranshi} are discussed, with emphasis on the average period. Within a factor 2 this turns out to be the root of the maximally possible period. The actual set of periods depends on minor details of the algorithm, and the system settles down in one of only a few different cycles. These features are in perfect agreement with absolute random motion in phase space, to the extent allowed by deterministic dynamics.

  18. Unidirectional interference in use of nondominant hand during concurrent Grooved Pegboard and random number generation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenge, Hans; Niederberger, Uwe

    2008-06-01

    The interference effect between Grooved Pegboard task with either hand and the executive task of cued verbal random number generation was investigated. 24 normal right-handed subjects performed each task under separate (single-task) and concurrent (dual-task) conditions. Articulatory suppression was required as an additional secondary task during pegboard performance. Analysis indicated an unambiguous distinction between the two hands. Comparisons of single-task and dual-task conditions showed an asymmetrical pattern of unidirectional interference with no practice effects during pegboard performance. Concurrent performance with nondominant hand but not the dominant hand of random number generation performance became continuously slower. There was no effect of divided attention on pegboard performance. Findings support the idea that the nondominant hand on the pegboard and random number tasks draw from the same processing resources but that for the executive aspect random number generation is more sensitive to changes in allocation of attentional resources.

  19. Simulation of a directed random-walk model: the effect of pseudo-random-number correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Shchur, L. N.; Heringa, J. R.; Blöte, H. W. J.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the mechanism that leads to systematic deviations in cluster Monte Carlo simulations when correlated pseudo-random numbers are used. We present a simple model, which enables an analysis of the effects due to correlations in several types of pseudo-random-number sequences. This model provides qualitative understanding of the bias mechanism in a class of cluster Monte Carlo algorithms.

  20. Study on random number generator in Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Kentaro; Kitada, Takanori; Tanaka, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    The Monte Carlo code uses a sequence of pseudo-random numbers with a random number generator (RNG) to simulate particle histories. A pseudo-random number has its own period depending on its generation method and the period is desired to be long enough not to exceed the period during one Monte Carlo calculation to ensure the correctness especially for a standard deviation of results. The linear congruential generator (LCG) is widely used as Monte Carlo RNG and the period of LCG is not so long by considering the increasing rate of simulation histories in a Monte Carlo calculation according to the remarkable enhancement of computer performance. Recently, many kinds of RNG have been developed and some of their features are better than those of LCG. In this study, we investigate the appropriate RNG in a Monte Carlo code as an alternative to LCG especially for the case of enormous histories. It is found that xorshift has desirable features compared with LCG, and xorshift has a larger period, a comparable speed to generate random numbers, a better randomness, and good applicability to parallel calculation. (author)

  1. Accelerating Pseudo-Random Number Generator for MCNP on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunye; Liu, Jie; Chi, Lihua; Hu, Qingfeng; Deng, Li; Gong, Zhenghu

    2010-09-01

    Pseudo-random number generators (PRNG) are intensively used in many stochastic algorithms in particle simulations, artificial neural networks and other scientific computation. The PRNG in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) requires long period, high quality, flexible jump and fast enough. In this paper, we implement such a PRNG for MCNP on NVIDIA's GTX200 Graphics Processor Units (GPU) using CUDA programming model. Results shows that 3.80 to 8.10 times speedup are achieved compared with 4 to 6 cores CPUs and more than 679.18 million double precision random numbers can be generated per second on GPU.

  2. New Trends in Pseudo-Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutbrod, F.

    Properties of pseudo-random number generators are reviewed. The emphasis is on correlations between successive random numbers and their suppression by improvement steps. The generators under discussion are the linear congruential generators, lagged Fibonacci generators with various operations, and the improvement techniques combination, shuffling and decimation. The properties of the RANSHI generator are reviewed somewhat more extensively. The transition to 64-bit technology is discussed in several cases. The generators are subject to several tests, which look both for short range and for long range correlations. Some performance figures are given for a Pentium Pro PC. Recommendations are presented in the final chapter.

  3. Security of Semi-Device-Independent Random Number Expansion Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan-Dan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Zhou, Yu-Qian; Gao, Fei

    2015-10-27

    Semi-device-independent random number expansion (SDI-RNE) protocols require some truly random numbers to generate fresh ones, with making no assumptions on the internal working of quantum devices except for the dimension of the Hilbert space. The generated randomness is certified by non-classical correlation in the prepare-and-measure test. Until now, the analytical relations between the amount of the generated randomness and the degree of non-classical correlation, which are crucial for evaluating the security of SDI-RNE protocols, are not clear under both the ideal condition and the practical one. In the paper, first, we give the analytical relation between the above two factors under the ideal condition. As well, we derive the analytical relation under the practical conditions, where devices' behavior is not independent and identical in each round and there exists deviation in estimating the non-classical behavior of devices. Furthermore, we choose a different randomness extractor (i.e., two-universal random function) and give the security proof.

  4. Analysis of entropy extraction efficiencies in random number generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-05-01

    Random numbers (RNs) have applications in many areas: lottery games, gambling, computer simulation, and, most importantly, cryptography [N. Gisin et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 (2002) 145]. In cryptography theory, the theoretical security of the system calls for high quality RNs. Therefore, developing methods for producing unpredictable RNs with adequate speed is an attractive topic. Early on, despite the lack of theoretical support, pseudo RNs generated by algorithmic methods performed well and satisfied reasonable statistical requirements. However, as implemented, those pseudorandom sequences were completely determined by mathematical formulas and initial seeds, which cannot introduce extra entropy or information. In these cases, “random” bits are generated that are not at all random. Physical random number generators (RNGs), which, in contrast to algorithmic methods, are based on unpredictable physical random phenomena, have attracted considerable research interest. However, the way that we extract random bits from those physical entropy sources has a large influence on the efficiency and performance of the system. In this manuscript, we will review and discuss several randomness extraction schemes that are based on radiation or photon arrival times. We analyze the robustness, post-processing requirements and, in particular, the extraction efficiency of those methods to aid in the construction of efficient, compact and robust physical RNG systems.

  5. DNA-based random number generation in security circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearheart, Christy M; Arazi, Benjamin; Rouchka, Eric C

    2010-06-01

    DNA-based circuit design is an area of research in which traditional silicon-based technologies are replaced by naturally occurring phenomena taken from biochemistry and molecular biology. This research focuses on further developing DNA-based methodologies to mimic digital data manipulation. While exhibiting fundamental principles, this work was done in conjunction with the vision that DNA-based circuitry, when the technology matures, will form the basis for a tamper-proof security module, revolutionizing the meaning and concept of tamper-proofing and possibly preventing it altogether based on accurate scientific observations. A paramount part of such a solution would be self-generation of random numbers. A novel prototype schema employs solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides for random construction of DNA sequences; temporary storage and retrieval is achieved through plasmid vectors. A discussion of how to evaluate sequence randomness is included, as well as how these techniques are applied to a simulation of the random number generation circuitry. Simulation results show generated sequences successfully pass three selected NIST random number generation tests specified for security applications.

  6. The average crossing number of equilateral random polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Y; Dobay, A; Kusner, R B; Millett, K; Stasiak, A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study the average crossing number of equilateral random walks and polygons. We show that the mean average crossing number ACN of all equilateral random walks of length n is of the form (3/16)n ln n + O(n). A similar result holds for equilateral random polygons. These results are confirmed by our numerical studies. Furthermore, our numerical studies indicate that when random polygons of length n are divided into individual knot types, the for each knot type K can be described by a function of the form = a(n-n 0 )ln(n-n 0 ) + b(n-n 0 ) + c where a, b and c are constants depending on K and n 0 is the minimal number of segments required to form K. The profiles diverge from each other, with more complex knots showing higher than less complex knots. Moreover, the profiles intersect with the profile of all closed walks. These points of intersection define the equilibrium length of K, i.e., the chain length n e (K) at which a statistical ensemble of configurations with given knot type K-upon cutting, equilibration and reclosure to a new knot type K'-does not show a tendency to increase or decrease . This concept of equilibrium length seems to be universal, and applies also to other length-dependent observables for random knots, such as the mean radius of gyration g >

  7. A random-matrix theory of the number sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, T; Nieder, A; Viswanathan, P; Dehaene, S

    2017-02-19

    Number sense, a spontaneous ability to process approximate numbers, has been documented in human adults, infants and newborns, and many other animals. Species as distant as monkeys and crows exhibit very similar neurons tuned to specific numerosities. How number sense can emerge in the absence of learning or fine tuning is currently unknown. We introduce a random-matrix theory of self-organized neural states where numbers are coded by vectors of activation across multiple units, and where the vector codes for successive integers are obtained through multiplication by a fixed but random matrix. This cortical implementation of the 'von Mises' algorithm explains many otherwise disconnected observations ranging from neural tuning curves in monkeys to looking times in neonates and cortical numerotopy in adults. The theory clarifies the origin of Weber-Fechner's Law and yields a novel and empirically validated prediction of multi-peak number neurons. Random matrices constitute a novel mechanism for the emergence of brain states coding for quantity.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The origins of numerical abilities'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Quantum random number generator based on quantum nature of vacuum fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A. E.; Chivilikhin, S. A.; Gleim, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Quantum random number generator (QRNG) allows obtaining true random bit sequences. In QRNG based on quantum nature of vacuum, optical beam splitter with two inputs and two outputs is normally used. We compare mathematical descriptions of spatial beam splitter and fiber Y-splitter in the quantum model for QRNG, based on homodyne detection. These descriptions were identical, that allows to use fiber Y-splitters in practical QRNG schemes, simplifying the setup. Also we receive relations between the input radiation and the resulting differential current in homodyne detector. We experimentally demonstrate possibility of true random bits generation by using QRNG based on homodyne detection with Y-splitter.

  9. Quantum random number generator based on quantum tunneling effect

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Haihan; Li, Junlin; Pan, Dong; Zhang, Weixing; Long, Guilu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed an experimental implementation of quantum random number generator(QRNG) with inherent randomness of quantum tunneling effect of electrons. We exploited InGaAs/InP diodes, whose valance band and conduction band shared a quasi-constant energy barrier. We applied a bias voltage on the InGaAs/InP avalanche diode, which made the diode works under Geiger mode, and triggered the tunneling events with a periodic pulse. Finally, after data collection and post-processing, our...

  10. Building Kindergartners' Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey

    2012-08-01

    Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups ( n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business as usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate post test, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held eight weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures.

  11. Building Kindergartners’ Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business as usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate post test, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held eight weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures. PMID:25866417

  12. Expected number of real roots for random linear combinations of orthogonal polynomials associated with radial weights

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, Turgay

    2017-01-01

    In this note, we obtain asymptotic expected number of real zeros for random polynomials of the form $$f_n(z)=\\sum_{j=0}^na^n_jc^n_jz^j$$ where $a^n_j$ are independent and identically distributed real random variables with bounded $(2+\\delta)$th absolute moment and the deterministic numbers $c^n_j$ are normalizing constants for the monomials $z^j$ within a weighted $L^2$-space induced by a radial weight function satisfying suitable smoothness and growth conditions.

  13. Employing online quantum random number generators for generating truly random quantum states in Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczak, Jarosław Adam

    2013-01-01

    The presented package for the Mathematica computing system allows the harnessing of quantum random number generators (QRNG) for investigating the statistical properties of quantum states. The described package implements a number of functions for generating random states. The new version of the package adds the ability to use the on-line quantum random number generator service and implements new functions for retrieving lists of random numbers. Thanks to the introduced improvements, the new version provides faster access to high-quality sources of random numbers and can be used in simulations requiring large amount of random data. New version program summaryProgram title: TRQS Catalogue identifier: AEKA_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKA_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 134 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 520 49 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, C. Computer: Any supporting Mathematica in version 7 or higher. Operating system: Any platform supporting Mathematica; tested with GNU/Linux (32 and 64 bit). RAM: Case-dependent Supplementary material: Fig. 1 mentioned below can be downloaded. Classification: 4.15. External routines: Quantis software library (http://www.idquantique.com/support/quantis-trng.html) Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183(2012)118 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Generation of random density matrices and utilization of high-quality random numbers for the purpose of computer simulation. Solution method: Use of a physical quantum random number generator and an on-line service providing access to the source of true random

  14. Solution-Processed Carbon Nanotube True Random Number Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria Rojas, William A; McMorrow, Julian J; Geier, Michael L; Tang, Qianying; Kim, Chris H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-08-09

    With the growing adoption of interconnected electronic devices in consumer and industrial applications, there is an increasing demand for robust security protocols when transmitting and receiving sensitive data. Toward this end, hardware true random number generators (TRNGs), commonly used to create encryption keys, offer significant advantages over software pseudorandom number generators. However, the vast network of devices and sensors envisioned for the "Internet of Things" will require small, low-cost, and mechanically flexible TRNGs with low computational complexity. These rigorous constraints position solution-processed semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as leading candidates for next-generation security devices. Here, we demonstrate the first TRNG using static random access memory (SRAM) cells based on solution-processed SWCNTs that digitize thermal noise to generate random bits. This bit generation strategy can be readily implemented in hardware with minimal transistor and computational overhead, resulting in an output stream that passes standardized statistical tests for randomness. By using solution-processed semiconducting SWCNTs in a low-power, complementary architecture to achieve TRNG, we demonstrate a promising approach for improving the security of printable and flexible electronics.

  15. A Comparison of Three Random Number Generators for Aircraft Dynamic Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Jared A.

    2017-01-01

    Three random number generators, which produce Gaussian white noise sequences, were compared to assess their suitability in aircraft dynamic modeling applications. The first generator considered was the MATLAB (registered) implementation of the Mersenne-Twister algorithm. The second generator was a website called Random.org, which processes atmospheric noise measured using radios to create the random numbers. The third generator was based on synthesis of the Fourier series, where the random number sequences are constructed from prescribed amplitude and phase spectra. A total of 200 sequences, each having 601 random numbers, for each generator were collected and analyzed in terms of the mean, variance, normality, autocorrelation, and power spectral density. These sequences were then applied to two problems in aircraft dynamic modeling, namely estimating stability and control derivatives from simulated onboard sensor data, and simulating flight in atmospheric turbulence. In general, each random number generator had good performance and is well-suited for aircraft dynamic modeling applications. Specific strengths and weaknesses of each generator are discussed. For Monte Carlo simulation, the Fourier synthesis method is recommended because it most accurately and consistently approximated Gaussian white noise and can be implemented with reasonable computational effort.

  16. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-04-10

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  17. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.; Mansingka, Abhinav S.; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa Ahmed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  18. Monte Carlo learning/biasing experiment with intelligent random numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo learning and biasing technique is described that does its learning and biasing in the random number space rather than the physical phase-space. The technique is probably applicable to all linear Monte Carlo problems, but no proof is provided here. Instead, the technique is illustrated with a simple Monte Carlo transport problem. Problems encountered, problems solved, and speculations about future progress are discussed. 12 refs

  19. Note on Marsaglia\\'s Xorshift Random Number Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Brent

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Marsaglia (2003 has described a class of Xorshift random number generators (RNGs with periods 2n - 1 for n = 32, 64, etc. We show that the sequences generated by these RNGs are identical to the sequences generated by certain linear feedback shift register (LFSR generators using "exclusive or" (xor operations on n-bit words, with a recurrence defined by a primitive polynomial of degree n.

  20. Cellular Automata-Based Parallel Random Number Generators Using FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. K. Hoe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular computing represents a new paradigm for implementing high-speed massively parallel machines. Cellular automata (CA, which consist of an array of locally connected processing elements, are a basic form of a cellular-based architecture. The use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs for implementing CA accelerators has shown promising results. This paper investigates the design of CA-based pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs using an FPGA platform. To improve the quality of the random numbers that are generated, the basic CA structure is enhanced in two ways. First, the addition of a superrule to each CA cell is considered. The resulting self-programmable CA (SPCA uses the superrule to determine when to make a dynamic rule change in each CA cell. The superrule takes its inputs from neighboring cells and can be considered itself a second CA working in parallel with the main CA. When implemented on an FPGA, the use of lookup tables in each logic cell removes any restrictions on how the super-rules should be defined. Second, a hybrid configuration is formed by combining a CA with a linear feedback shift register (LFSR. This is advantageous for FPGA designs due to the compactness of the LFSR implementations. A standard software package for statistically evaluating the quality of random number sequences known as Diehard is used to validate the results. Both the SPCA and the hybrid CA/LFSR were found to pass all the Diehard tests.

  1. An investigation of the uniform random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Most random number generators that are in use today are of the congruential form X(i+1) + AX(i) + C mod M where A, C, and M are nonnegative integers. If C=O, the generator is called the multiplicative type and those for which C/O are called mixed congruential generators. It is easy to see that congruential generators will repeat a sequence of numbers after a maximum of M values have been generated. The number of numbers that a procedure generates before restarting the sequence is called the length or the period of the generator. Generally, it is desirable to make the period as long as possible. A detailed discussion of congruential generators is given. Also, several promising procedures that differ from the multiplicative and mixed procedure are discussed.

  2. Quantum random flip-flop and its applications in random frequency synthesis and true random number generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipčević, Mario, E-mail: mario.stipcevic@irb.hr [Photonics and Quantum Optics Research Unit, Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, a new type of elementary logic circuit, named random flip-flop (RFF), is proposed, experimentally realized, and studied. Unlike conventional Boolean logic circuits whose action is deterministic and highly reproducible, the action of a RFF is intentionally made maximally unpredictable and, in the proposed realization, derived from a fundamentally random process of emission and detection of light quanta. We demonstrate novel applications of RFF in randomness preserving frequency division, random frequency synthesis, and random number generation. Possible usages of these applications in the information and communication technology, cryptographic hardware, and testing equipment are discussed.

  3. Low-wave-number statistics of randomly advected passive scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstein, A.R.; McMurtry, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    A heuristic analysis of the decay of a passive scalar field subject to statistically steady random advection, predicts two low-wave-number spectral scaling regimes analogous to the similarity states previously identified by Chasnov [Phys. Fluids 6, 1036 (1994)]. Consequences of their predicted coexistence in a single flow are examined. The analysis is limited to the idealized case of narrow band advection. To complement the analysis, and to extend the predictions to physically more realistic advection processes, advection diffusion is simulated using a one-dimensional stochastic model. An experimental test of the predictions is proposed

  4. Quantum Statistical Testing of a Quantum Random Number Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the opera- tion of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.

  5. Random number generation based on digital differential chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-29

    In this paper, we present a fully digital differential chaos based random number generator. The output of the digital circuit is proved to be chaotic by calculating the output time series maximum Lyapunov exponent. We introduce a new post processing technique to improve the distribution and statistical properties of the generated data. The post-processed output passes the NIST Sp. 800-22 statistical tests. The system is written in Verilog VHDL and realized on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA. The generator can fit into a very small area and have a maximum throughput of 2.1 Gb/s.

  6. Primitive polynomials selection method for pseudo-random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, I. V.; Alnajjar, Kh

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we suggested the method for primitive polynomials selection of special type. This kind of polynomials can be efficiently used as a characteristic polynomials for linear feedback shift registers in pseudo-random number generators. The proposed method consists of two basic steps: finding minimum-cost irreducible polynomials of the desired degree and applying primitivity tests to get the primitive ones. Finally two primitive polynomials, which was found by the proposed method, used in pseudorandom number generator based on fuzzy logic (FRNG) which had been suggested before by the authors. The sequences generated by new version of FRNG have low correlation magnitude, high linear complexity, less power consumption, is more balanced and have better statistical properties.

  7. A Review on asymptotic normality of sums of associated random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association between random variables is a generalization of independence of these random variables. This concept is more and more commonly used in current trends in any research elds in Statistics. In this paper, we proceed to a simple, clear and rigorous introduction to it. We will present the fundamental asymptotic ...

  8. Pseudo random number generator based on quantum chaotic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhshani, A.; Akhavan, A.; Mobaraki, A.; Lim, S.-C.; Hassan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    For many years dissipative quantum maps were widely used as informative models of quantum chaos. In this paper, a new scheme for generating good pseudo-random numbers (PRNG), based on quantum logistic map is proposed. Note that the PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the quantum chaotic map. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hardware and thus computation speed is fast. In order to face the challenge of using the proposed PRNG in quantum cryptography and other practical applications, the proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests using well-known test suites such as NIST, DIEHARD, ENT and TestU01. The results of the statistical tests were promising, as the proposed PRNG successfully passed all these tests. Moreover, the degree of non-periodicity of the chaotic sequences of the quantum map is investigated through the Scale index technique. The obtained result shows that, the sequence is more non-periodic. From these results it can be concluded that, the new scheme can generate a high percentage of usable pseudo-random numbers for simulation and other applications in scientific computing.

  9. Effects of changing the random number stride in Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a common practice in Monte Carlo radiation transport codes which is to start each random walk a specified number of steps up the random number sequence from the previous one. This is called the stride in the random number sequence between source particles. It is used for correlated sampling or to provide tree-structured random numbers. A new random number generator algorithm for the major Monte Carlo code MCNP has been written to allow adjustment of the random number stride. This random number generator is machine portable. The effects of varying the stride for several sample problems are examined

  10. Fully Digital Chaotic Oscillators Applied to Pseudo Random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-05-01

    adapted for pseudo random number generation by truncating statistically defective bits. Finally, a novel post-processing technique using the Fibonacci series is proposed and implemented with a non-autonomous driven hyperchaotic system to provide pseudo random number generators with high nonlinear complexity and controllable period length that enables full utilization of all branches of the chaotic output as statistically secure pseudo random output.

  11. A New Distribution-Random Limit Normal Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xiaolin; Yang, Shuzhen

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new distribution to improve tail risk modeling. Based on the classical normal distribution, we define a new distribution by a series of heat equations. Then, we use market data to verify our model.

  12. Random number generators tested on quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Kenta; Maezono, Ryo; Miura, Kenichi

    2010-08-01

    We have tested and compared several (pseudo) random number generators (RNGs) applied to a practical application, ground state energy calculations of molecules using variational and diffusion Monte Carlo metheds. A new multiple recursive generator with 8th-order recursion (MRG8) and the Mersenne twister generator (MT19937) are tested and compared with the RANLUX generator with five luxury levels (RANLUX-[0-4]). Both MRG8 and MT19937 are proven to give the same total energy as that evaluated with RANLUX-4 (highest luxury level) within the statistical error bars with less computational cost to generate the sequence. We also tested the notorious implementation of linear congruential generator (LCG), RANDU, for comparison. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Generative Learning Objects Instantiated with Random Numbers Based Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Bogdan Chirila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of interactive e-learning content requires special skills like programming techniques, web integration, graphic design etc. Generally, online educators do not possess such skills and their e-learning products tend to be static like presentation slides and textbooks. In this paper we propose a new interactive model of generative learning objects as a compromise betweenstatic, dull materials and dynamic, complex software e-learning materials developed by specialized teams. We find that random numbers based automatic initialization learning objects increases content diversity, interactivity thus enabling learners’ engagement. The resulted learning object model is at a limited level of complexity related to special e-learning software, intuitive and capable of increasing learners’ interactivity, engagement and motivation through dynamic content. The approach was applied successfully on several computer programing disciplines.

  14. Statistical evaluation of PACSTAT random number generation capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, G.F.; Toland, M.R.; Harty, H.; Budden, M.J.; Bartley, C.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in verifying the general purpose Monte Carlo driver-program PACSTAT. The main objective of the work was to verify the performance of PACSTAT's random number generation capabilities. Secondary objectives were to document (using controlled configuration management procedures) changes made in PACSTAT at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and to assure that PACSTAT input and output files satisfy quality assurance traceability constraints. Upon receipt of the PRIME version of the PACSTAT code from the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff converted the code to run on Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAXs. The modifications to PACSTAT were implemented using the WITNESS configuration management system, with the modifications themselves intended to make the code as portable as possible. Certain modifications were made to make the PACSTAT input and output files conform to quality assurance traceability constraints. 10 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Age-dependent difference in the computed tomography numbers of the normal parotid gland of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Lee, Eun Sook; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    1999-01-01

    To determine normal CT number range of parotid gland by analyzing the change by age increase and the difference among individuals and between both sexes in CT number of normal parotid gland. 134 subjects who took the CT scan between the period of Jan. 1996 and Dec. 1997 at Yonsei University, Dental Hospital were selected. Criteria for selection were that the patients must be within the normal range clinically and radiologically, and the entire parotid gland on the axial view must be shown. Among the axial views, the one showing the greatest parotid gland size was selected and its CT number was recorded. Also, CT numbers from both masseter muscle were recorded as its control. There was statistically significant correlation between CT number of right and left of parotid glands and masseter muscles. With the increase of age, there is a significant decrease in the CT number of parotid gland (p 0.05). As age increases, CT number of parotid gland has a tendency to decrease, and there is no significant difference in the CT numbers between left and right parotid gland. Therefore in the CT scan of patients suspected of having an salivary gland disease of the parotid gland, to consider normal range of the age-dependent CT numbers of parotid gland and compare the CT numbers of the right and left parotid gland might be useful in diagnosing the disease.

  16. Comparison of a quantum random number generator with pseudorandom number generators for their use in molecular Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, Dario; Parakh, Abhishek; Mezei, Mihaly

    2017-12-05

    Four pseudorandom number generators were compared with a physical, quantum-based random number generator using the NIST suite of statistical tests, which only the quantum-based random number generator could successfully pass. We then measured the effect of the five random number generators on various calculated properties in different Markov-chain Monte Carlo simulations. Two types of systems were tested: conformational sampling of a small molecule in aqueous solution and liquid methanol under constant temperature and pressure. The results show that poor quality pseudorandom number generators produce results that deviate significantly from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator, particularly in the case of the small molecule in aqueous solution setup. In contrast, the widely used Mersenne Twister pseudorandom generator and a 64-bit Linear Congruential Generator with a scrambler produce results that are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Random number generation as an index of controlled processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Marjan; Saleem, T; Ho, Aileen K; Dirnberger, Georg; Fuller, R

    2006-07-01

    Random number generation (RNG) is a functionally complex process that is highly controlled and therefore dependent on Baddeley's central executive. This study addresses this issue by investigating whether key predictions from this framework are compatible with empirical data. In Experiment 1, the effect of increasing task demands by increasing the rate of the paced generation was comprehensively examined. As expected, faster rates affected performance negatively because central resources were increasingly depleted. Next, the effects of participants' exposure were manipulated in Experiment 2 by providing increasing amounts of practice on the task. There was no improvement over 10 practice trials, suggesting that the high level of strategic control required by the task was constant and not amenable to any automatization gain with repeated exposure. Together, the results demonstrate that RNG performance is a highly controlled and demanding process sensitive to additional demands on central resources (Experiment 1) and is unaffected by repeated performance or practice (Experiment 2). These features render the easily administered RNG task an ideal and robust index of executive function that is highly suitable for repeated clinical use. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A method for generating skewed random numbers using two overlapping uniform distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, D.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this work was to implement and evaluate a method for generating skewed random numbers using a combination of uniform random numbers. The method provides a simple and accurate way of generating skewed random numbers from the specified first three moments without an a priori specification of the probability density function. We describe the procedure for generating skewed random numbers from unifon-n random numbers, and show that it accurately produces random numbers with the desired first three moments over a range of skewness values. We also show that in the limit of zero skewness, the distribution of random numbers is an accurate approximation to the Gaussian probability density function. Future work win use this method to provide skewed random numbers for a Langevin equation model for diffusion in skewed turbulence

  19. Comparison of effective atomic numbers of the cancerous and normal kidney tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    The effective atomic number (Z eff ) and electron density (N e ) of normal kidney and cancerous kidney have been computed for total and partial photon interactions by computing the molecular, atomic, and electronic cross section in the wide energy range of 1 keV-100 GeV using WinXCOM. The mean Z eff and N e of normal kidney and cancerous kidney in the various energy ranges and for total and partial photon interactions are tabulated. The variation of effective N e with energy is shown graphically for all photon interactions. In addition to this computer tomography (CT), numbers of normal kidney and cancerous kidney for photon interaction and energy absorption is also computed. The role of Z eff in the dual-energy dividing radiography is also discussed. The values of Z eff and N e for cancerous kidney are higher than normal kidney. This is due to the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni, and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As, and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. The soft tissue and cancerous tissue are very similar, but their atomic number differs. The cancerous tissue exhibits a higher Z eff than the normal tissue. This fact helps in the dual-energy dividing radiography which enables to improve the diagnosis of the kidney cancer. Hence, the computed values may be useful in the diagnosis of the kidney cancer. CT numbers for normal kidney are higher than cancerous kidney. (author)

  20. Generation of pseudo-random numbers with the use of inverse chaotic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawnik Marcin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In (Lawnik M., Generation of numbers with the distribution close to uniform with the use of chaotic maps, In: Obaidat M.S., Kacprzyk J., Ören T. (Ed., International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH (28-30 August 2014, Vienna, Austria, SCITEPRESS, 2014 Lawnik discussed a method of generating pseudo-random numbers from uniform distribution with the use of adequate chaotic transformation. The method enables the “flattening” of continuous distributions to uniform one. In this paper a inverse process to the above-mentioned method is presented, and, in consequence, a new manner of generating pseudo-random numbers from a given continuous distribution. The method utilizes the frequency of the occurrence of successive branches of chaotic transformation in the process of “flattening”. To generate the values from the given distribution one discrete and one continuous value of a random variable are required. The presented method does not directly involve the knowledge of the density function or the cumulative distribution function, which is, undoubtedly, a great advantage in comparison with other well-known methods. The described method was analysed on the example of the standard normal distribution.

  1. 25 CFR 547.14 - What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... random number generation? 547.14 Section 547.14 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... CLASS II GAMES § 547.14 What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation...) Unpredictability; and (3) Non-repeatability. (b) Statistical Randomness.(1) Numbers produced by an RNG shall be...

  2. Using Computer-Generated Random Numbers to Calculate the Lifetime of a Comet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, Iraj

    1991-01-01

    An educational technique to calculate the lifetime of a comet using software-generated random numbers is introduced to undergraduate physiques and astronomy students. Discussed are the generation and eligibility of the required random numbers, background literature related to the problem, and the solution to the problem using random numbers.…

  3. Controlling the number of graphene sheets exfoliated from graphite by designed normal loading and frictional motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungjun; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics to study the exfoliation of patterned nanometer-sized graphite under various normal loading conditions for friction-induced exfoliation. Using highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) as well as both amorphous and crystalline SiO 2 substrate as example systems, we show that the exfoliation process is attributed to the corrugation of the HOPG surface and the atomistic roughness of the substrate when they contact under normal loading. The critical normal strain, at which the exfoliation occurs, is higher on a crystalline substrate than on an amorphous substrate. This effect is related to the atomistic flatness and stiffness of the crystalline surface. We observe that an increase of the van der Waals interaction between the graphite and the substrate results in a decrease of the critical normal strain for exfoliation. We find that the magnitude of the normal strain can effectively control the number of exfoliated graphene layers. This mechanism suggests a promising approach of applying designed normal loading while sliding to pattern controlled number of graphene layers or other two-dimensional materials on a substrate surface.

  4. Cytokine Release and Focal Adhesion Proteins in Normal Thyroid Cells Cultured on the Random Positioning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Warnke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Spaceflight impacts on the function of the thyroid gland in vivo. In vitro normal and malignant thyrocytes assemble in part to multicellular spheroids (MCS after exposure to the random positioning machine (RPM, while a number of cells remain adherent (AD. We aim to elucidate possible differences between AD and MCS cells compared to 1g-controls of normal human thyroid cells. Methods: Cells of the human follicular epithelial thyroid cell line Nthy-ori 3-1 were incubated for up to 72 h on the RPM. Afterwards, they were investigated by phase-contrast microscopy, quantitative real-time PCR and by determination of cytokines released in their supernatants. Results: A significant up-regulation of IL6, IL8 and CCL2 gene expression was found after a 4h RPM-exposure, when the whole population was still growing adherently. MCS and AD cells were detected after 24 h on the RPM. At this time, a significantly reduced gene expression in MCS compared to 1g-controls was visible for IL6, IL8, FN1, ITGB1, LAMA1, CCL2, and TLN1. After a 72 h RPM-exposure, IL-6, IL-8, and TIMP-1 secretion rates were increased significantly. Conclusion: Normal thyrocytes form MCS within 24 h. Cytokines seem to be involved in the initiation of MCS formation via focal adhesion proteins.

  5. Contrasting the effects of duration and number of syllables on the perceptual normalization of lexical tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Valter; Francis, Alexander L.; Yau, Teresa S.-K.

    2004-05-01

    In tonal languages, syllabic fundamental frequency (F0) patterns (``lexical tones'') convey lexical meaning. Listeners need to relate such pitch patterns to the pitch range of a speaker (``tone normalization'') to accurately identify lexical tones. This study investigated the amount of tonal information required to perform tone normalization. A target CV syllable, perceived as either a high level, a low level, or a mid level Cantonese tone, was preceded by a four-syllable carrier sentence whose F0 was shifted (1 semitone), or not shifted. Four conditions were obtained by gating one, two, three, or four syllables from the onset of the target. Presentation rate (normal versus fast) was set such that the duration of the one, two, and three syllable conditions (normal carrier) was equal to that of the two, three, and four syllable conditions (fast carrier). Results suggest that tone normalization is largely accomplished within 250 ms or so prior to target onset, independent of the number of syllables; additional tonal information produces a relatively small increase in tone normalization. Implications for models of lexical tone normalization will be discussed. [Work supported by the RGC of the Hong Kong SAR, Project No. HKU 7193/00H.

  6. An empirical test of pseudo random number generators by means of an exponential decaying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel B, H.F.; Hernandez M, A.R.; Jimenez M, M.A.; Mora F, L.E.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical tests for pseudo random number generators based on the use of processes or physical models have been successfully used and are considered as complementary to theoretical tests of randomness. In this work a statistical methodology for evaluating the quality of pseudo random number generators is presented. The method is illustrated in the context of the so-called exponential decay process, using some pseudo random number generators commonly used in physics. (Author)

  7. Process convergence of self-normalized sums of i.i.d. random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of the asymptotics of the self-normalized sums are also interesting. Logan ... if the constituent random variables are from the domain of attraction of a normal dis- tribution ... index of stability α which equals 2 (for definition, see §2).

  8. Super fast physical-random number generation using laser diode frequency noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiki, Tetsuro; Doi, Kohei; Maehara, Shinya; Sato, Takashi; Ohkawa, Masashi; Ohdaira, Yasuo

    2011-02-01

    Random numbers can be classified as either pseudo- or physical-random in character. Pseudo-random numbers' periodicity renders them inappropriate for use in cryptographic applications, but naturally-generated physical-random numbers have no calculable periodicity, thereby making them ideally-suited to the task. The laser diode naturally produces a wideband "noise" signal that is believed to have tremendous capacity and great promise, for the rapid generation of physical-random numbers for use in cryptographic applications. We measured a laser diode's output, at a fast photo detector and generated physical-random numbers from frequency noises. We then identified and evaluated the binary-number-line's statistical properties. The result shows that physical-random number generation, at speeds as high as 40Gbps, is obtainable, using the laser diode's frequency noise characteristic.

  9. Normal zone detectors for a large number of inductively coupled coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    In order to protect a set of inductively coupled superconducting magnets, it is necessary to locate and measure normal zone voltages that are small compared with the mutual and self-induced voltages. The method described in this paper uses two sets of voltage measurements to locate and measure one or more normal zones in any number of coupled coils. One set of voltages is the outputs of bridges that balance out the self-induced voltages. The other set of voltages can be the voltages across the coils, although alternatives are possible. The two sets of equations form a single combined set of equations. Each normal zone location or combination of normal zones has a set of these combined equations associated with it. It is demonstrated that the normal zone can be located and the correct set chosen, allowing determination of the size of the normal zone. Only a few operations take place in a working detector: multiplication of a constant, addition, and simple decision-making. In many cases the detector for each coil, although weakly linked to the other detectors, can be considered to be independent

  10. Normal zone detectors for a large number of inductively coupled coils. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    In order to protect a set of inductively coupled superconducting magnets, it is necessary to locate and measure normal zone voltages that are small compared with the mutual and self-induced voltages. The method described in this paper uses two sets of voltage measurements to locate and measure one or more normal zones in any number of coupled coils. One set of voltages is the outputs of bridges that balance out the self-induced voltages. The other set of voltages can be the voltages across the coils, although alternatives are possible. The two sets of equations form a single combined set of equations. Each normal zone location or combination of normal zones has a set of these combined equations associated with it. It is demonstrated that the normal zone can be located and the correct set chosen, allowing determination of the size of the normal zone. Only a few operations take place in a working detector: multiplication of a constant, addition, and simple decision-making. In many cases the detector for each coil, although weakly linked to the other detectors, can be considered to be independent. The effect on accuracy of changes in the system parameters is discussed

  11. Normal zone detectors for a large number of inductively coupled coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    In order to protect a set of inductively coupled superconducting magnets, it is necessary to locate and measure normal zone voltages that are small compared with the mutual and self-induced voltages. The method described in this report uses two sets of voltage measurements to locate and measure one or more normal zones in any number of coupled coils. One set of voltages is the outputs of bridges that balance out the self-induced voltages The other set of voltages can be the voltages across the coils, although alternatives are possible. The two sets of equations form a single combined set of equations. Each normal zone location or combination of normal zones has a set of these combined equations associated with it. It is demonstrated that the normal zone can be located and the correct set chosen, allowing determination of the size of the normal zone. Only a few operations take plae in a working detector: multiplication of a constant, addition, and simple decision-making. In many cases the detector for each coil, although weakly linked to the other detectors, can be considered to be independent. An example of the detector design is given for four coils with realistic parameters. The effect on accuracy of changes in the system parameters is discussed

  12. Humans can consciously generate random number sequences: a possible test for artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Navindra

    2005-01-01

    Computer algorithms can only produce seemingly random or pseudorandom numbers whereas certain natural phenomena, such as the decay of radioactive particles, can be utilized to produce truly random numbers. In this study, the ability of humans to generate random numbers was tested in healthy adults. Subjects were simply asked to generate and dictate random numbers. Generated numbers were tested for uniformity, independence and information density. The results suggest that humans can generate random numbers that are uniformly distributed, independent of one another and unpredictable. If humans can generate sequences of random numbers then neural networks or forms of artificial intelligence, which are purported to function in ways essentially the same as the human brain, should also be able to generate sequences of random numbers. Elucidating the precise mechanism by which humans generate random number sequences and the underlying neural substrates may have implications in the cognitive science of decision-making. It is possible that humans use their random-generating neural machinery to make difficult decisions in which all expected outcomes are similar. It is also possible that certain people, perhaps those with neurological or psychiatric impairments, are less able or unable to generate random numbers. If the random-generating neural machinery is employed in decision making its impairment would have profound implications in matters of agency and free will.

  13. Pseudo-random number generation using a 3-state cellular automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Kamalika; Paul, Dipanjyoti; Das, Sukanta

    This paper investigates the potentiality of pseudo-random number generation of a 3-neighborhood 3-state cellular automaton (CA) under periodic boundary condition. Theoretical and empirical tests are performed on the numbers, generated by the CA, to observe the quality of it as pseudo-random number generator (PRNG). We analyze the strength and weakness of the proposed PRNG and conclude that the selected CA is a good random number generator.

  14. Fast random-number generation using a diode laser's frequency noise characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamori, Hiroki; Doi, Kohei; Maehara, Shinya; Kawakami, Kohei; Sato, Takashi; Ohkawa, Masashi; Ohdaira, Yasuo

    2012-02-01

    Random numbers can be classified as either pseudo- or physical-random, in character. Pseudo-random numbers are generated by definite periodicity, so, their usefulness in cryptographic applications is somewhat limited. On the other hand, naturally-generated physical-random numbers have no calculable periodicity, thereby making them ideal for the task. Diode lasers' considerable wideband noise gives them tremendous capacity for generating physical-random numbers, at a high rate of speed. We measured a diode laser's output with a fast photo detector, and evaluated the binary-numbers from the diode laser's frequency noise characteristics. We then identified and evaluated the binary-number-line's statistical properties. We also investigate the possibility that much faster physical-random number parallel-generation is possible, using separate outputs of different optical-path length and character, which we refer to as "coherence collapse".

  15. Simulation and study of small numbers of random events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    Random events were simulated by computer and subjected to various statistical methods to extract important parameters. Various forms of curve fitting were explored, such as least squares, least distance from a line, maximum likelihood. Problems considered were dead time, exponential decay, and spectrum extraction from cosmic ray data using binned data and data from individual events. Computer programs, mostly of an iterative nature, were developed to do these simulations and extractions and are partially listed as appendices. The mathematical basis for the compuer programs is given.

  16. Sunspot number recalibration: The ~1840–1920 anomaly in the observer normalization factors of the group sunspot number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliver Edward W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the normalization factors (k′-factors used to scale secondary observers to the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO reference series of the Hoyt & Schatten (1998a, 1998b group sunspot number (GSN. A time series of these k′-factors exhibits an anomaly from 1841 to 1920, viz., the average k′-factor for all observers who began reporting groups from 1841 to 1883 is 1.075 vs. 1.431 for those who began from 1884 to 1920, with a progressive rise, on average, during the latter period. The 1883–1884 break between the two subintervals occurs precisely at the point where Hoyt and Schatten began to use a complex daisy-chaining method to scale observers to RGO. The 1841–1920 anomaly implies, implausibly, that the average sunspot observer who began from 1841 to 1883 was nearly as proficient at counting groups as mid-20th century RGO (for which k′ = 1.0 by definition while observers beginning during the 1884–1920 period regressed in group counting capability relative to those from the earlier interval. Instead, as shown elsewhere and substantiated here, RGO group counts increased relative to those of other long-term observers from 1874 to ~1915. This apparent inhomogeneity in the RGO group count series is primarily responsible for the increase in k′-factors from 1884 to 1920 and the suppression, by 44% on average, of the Hoyt and Schatten GSN relative to the original Wolf sunspot number (WSN before ~1885. Correcting for the early “learning curve” in the RGO reference series and minimizing the use of daisy-chaining rectifies the anomalous behavior of the k′-factor series. The resultant GSN time series (designated GSN* is in reasonable agreement with the revised WSN (SN*; Clette & Lefèvre 2016 and the backbone-based group sunspot number (RGS; Svalgaard & Schatten 2016 but significantly higher than other recent reconstructions (Friedli, personal communication, 2016; Lockwood et al. 2014a, 2014b; Usoskin et al. 2016a. This result

  17. Properties making a chaotic system a good Pseudo Random Number Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Falcioni, Massimo; Palatella, Luigi; Pigolotti, Simone; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    We discuss two properties making a deterministic algorithm suitable to generate a pseudo random sequence of numbers: high value of Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and high-dimensionality. We propose the multi dimensional Anosov symplectic (cat) map as a Pseudo Random Number Generator. We show what chaotic features of this map are useful for generating Pseudo Random Numbers and investigate numerically which of them survive in the discrete version of the map. Testing and comparisons with other generat...

  18. A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, C.; Wittmann, C.; Sych, D.

    2010-01-01

    the purity of a continuous-variable quantum vacuum state to generate unique random numbers. We use the intrinsic randomness in measuring the quadratures of a mode in the lowest energy vacuum state, which cannot be correlated to any other state. The simplicity of our source, combined with its verifiably......Random numbers are a valuable component in diverse applications that range from simulations(1) over gambling to cryptography(2,3). The quest for true randomness in these applications has engendered a large variety of different proposals for producing random numbers based on the foundational...... unpredictability of quantum mechanics(4-11). However, most approaches do not consider that a potential adversary could have knowledge about the generated numbers, so the numbers are not verifiably random and unique(12-15). Here we present a simple experimental setup based on homodyne measurements that uses...

  19. Anosov C-systems and random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidy, G. K.

    2016-08-01

    We further develop our previous proposal to use hyperbolic Anosov C-systems to generate pseudorandom numbers and to use them for efficient Monte Carlo calculations in high energy particle physics. All trajectories of hyperbolic dynamical systems are exponentially unstable, and C-systems therefore have mixing of all orders, a countable Lebesgue spectrum, and a positive Kolmogorov entropy. These exceptional ergodic properties follow from the C-condition introduced by Anosov. This condition defines a rich class of dynamical systems forming an open set in the space of all dynamical systems. An important property of C-systems is that they have a countable set of everywhere dense periodic trajectories and their density increases exponentially with entropy. Of special interest are the C-systems defined on higher-dimensional tori. Such C-systems are excellent candidates for generating pseudorandom numbers that can be used in Monte Carlo calculations. An efficient algorithm was recently constructed that allows generating long C-system trajectories very rapidly. These trajectories have good statistical properties and can be used for calculations in quantum chromodynamics and in high energy particle physics.

  20. Mathematical conversations multicolor problems, problems in the theory of numbers, and random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Dynkin, E B

    2006-01-01

    Comprises Multicolor Problems, dealing with map-coloring problems; Problems in the Theory of Numbers, an elementary introduction to algebraic number theory; Random Walks, addressing basic problems in probability theory. 1963 edition.

  1. Number-conserving random phase approximation with analytically integrated matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotoku, M.; Schmid, K.W.; Gruemmer, F.; Faessler, A.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper a number conserving random phase approximation is derived as a special case of the recently developed random phase approximation in general symmetry projected quasiparticle mean fields. All the occurring integrals induced by the number projection are performed analytically after writing the various overlap and energy matrices in the random phase approximation equation as polynomials in the gauge angle. In the limit of a large number of particles the well-known pairing vibration matrix elements are recovered. We also present a new analytically number projected variational equation for the number conserving pairing problem

  2. High-speed true random number generation based on paired memristors for security electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Yin, Minghui; Xu, Changmin; Lu, Xiayan; Sun, Xinhao; Yang, Yuchao; Huang, Ru

    2017-11-01

    True random number generator (TRNG) is a critical component in hardware security that is increasingly important in the era of mobile computing and internet of things. Here we demonstrate a TRNG using intrinsic variation of memristors as a natural source of entropy that is otherwise undesirable in most applications. The random bits were produced by cyclically switching a pair of tantalum oxide based memristors and comparing their resistance values in the off state, taking advantage of the more pronounced resistance variation compared with that in the on state. Using an alternating read scheme in the designed TRNG circuit, the unbiasedness of the random numbers was significantly improved, and the bitstream passed standard randomness tests. The Pt/TaO x /Ta memristors fabricated in this work have fast programming/erasing speeds of ˜30 ns, suggesting a high random number throughput. The approach proposed here thus holds great promise for physically-implemented random number generation.

  3. a Pseudo-Random Number Generator Employing Multiple RÉNYI Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Oi-Yan; Yuen, Ching-Hung; Wong, Kwok-Wo

    2013-11-01

    The increasing risk along with the drastic development of multimedia data transmission has raised a big concern on data security. A good pseudo-random number generator is an essential tool in cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel pseudo-random number generator based on the controlled combination of the outputs of several digitized chaotic Rényi maps. The generated pseudo-random sequences have passed both the NIST 800-22 Revision 1a and the DIEHARD tests. Moreover, simulation results show that the proposed pseudo-random number generator requires less operation time than existing generators and is highly sensitive to the seed.

  4. Problems with the random number generator RANF implemented on the CDC cyber 205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Claus; Wansleben, Stephan

    1984-10-01

    We show that using RANF may lead to wrong results when lattice models are simulated by Monte Carlo methods. We present a shift-register sequence random number generator which generates two random numbers per cycle on a two pipe CDC Cyber 205.

  5. On the limiting characteristics of quantum random number generators at various clusterings of photocounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2017-03-01

    Various methods for the clustering of photocounts constituting a sequence of random numbers are considered. It is shown that the clustering of photocounts resulting in the Fermi-Dirac distribution makes it possible to achieve the theoretical limit of the random number generation rate.

  6. The effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on suppression of habitual counting during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M; Profice, P; Brown, R G; Ridding, M C; Dirnberger, G; Rothwell, J C

    1998-08-01

    Random number generation is an attention-demanding task that engages working memory and executive processes. Random number generation requires holding information 'on line', suppression of habitual counting, internally driven response generation and monitoring of responses. Evidence from PET studies suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in the generation of random responses. We examined the effects of short trains of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left or right DLPFC or medial frontal cortex on random number generation in healthy normal participants. As in previous evidence, in control trials without stimulation participants performed poorly on the random number generation task, showing repetition avoidance and a tendency to count. Brief disruption of processing with TMS over the left DLPFC changed the balance of the individuals' counting bias, increasing the most habitual counting in ones and reducing the lower probability response of counting in twos. This differential effect of TMS over the left DLPFC on the balance of the subject's counting bias was not obtained with TMS over the right DLPFC or the medial frontal cortex. The results suggest that, with disruption of the left DLPFC with TMS, habitual counting in ones that has previously been suppressed is released from inhibition. From these findings a network modulation model of random number generation is proposed, whereby suppression of habitual responses is achieved through the modulatory influence of the left DLPFC over a number-associative network in the superior temporal cortex. To allow emergence of appropriate random responses, the left DLPFC inhibits the superior temporal cortex to prevent spreading activation and habitual counting in ones.

  7. Tolerance limits and tolerance intervals for ratios of normal random variables using a bootstrap calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Marilena; Zhai, Shuyan; Mathew, Thomas; Bebu, Ionut

    2017-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of deriving one-sided tolerance limits and two-sided tolerance intervals for a ratio of two random variables that follow a bivariate normal distribution, or a lognormal/normal distribution. The methodology that is developed uses nonparametric tolerance limits based on a parametric bootstrap sample, coupled with a bootstrap calibration in order to improve accuracy. The methodology is also adopted for computing confidence limits for the median of the ratio random variable. Numerical results are reported to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed approach. The methodology is illustrated using examples where ratio random variables are of interest: an example on the radioactivity count in reverse transcriptase assays and an example from the area of cost-effectiveness analysis in health economics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Development and testing of high performance pseudo random number generator for Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda

    2009-01-01

    Random number plays an important role in any Monte Carlo simulation. The accuracy of the results depends on the quality of the sequence of random numbers employed in the simulation. These include randomness of the random numbers, uniformity of their distribution, absence of correlation and long period. In a typical Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport in a nuclear reactor core, the history of a particle from its birth in a fission event until its death by an absorption or leakage event is tracked. The geometry of the core and the surrounding materials are exactly modeled in the simulation. To track a neutron history one needs random numbers for determining inter collision distance, nature of the collision, the direction of the scattered neutron etc. Neutrons are tracked in batches. In one batch approximately 2000-5000 neutrons are tracked. The statistical accuracy of the results of the simulation depends on the total number of particles (number of particles in one batch multiplied by the number of batches) tracked. The number of histories to be generated is usually large for a typical radiation transport problem. To track a very large number of histories one needs to generate a long sequence of independent random numbers. In other words the cycle length of the random number generator (RNG) should be more than the total number of random numbers required for simulating the given transport problem. The number of bits of the machine generally limits the cycle length. For a binary machine of p bits the maximum cycle length is 2 p . To achieve higher cycle length in the same machine one has to use either register arithmetic or bit manipulation technique

  9. Nonpoint source solute transport normal to aquifer bedding in heterogeneous, Markov chain random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Harter, Thomas; Sivakumar, Bellie

    2006-06-01

    Facies-based geostatistical models have become important tools for analyzing flow and mass transport processes in heterogeneous aquifers. Yet little is known about the relationship between these latter processes and the parameters of facies-based geostatistical models. In this study, we examine the transport of a nonpoint source solute normal (perpendicular) to the major bedding plane of an alluvial aquifer medium that contains multiple geologic facies, including interconnected, high-conductivity (coarse textured) facies. We also evaluate the dependence of the transport behavior on the parameters of the constitutive facies model. A facies-based Markov chain geostatistical model is used to quantify the spatial variability of the aquifer system's hydrostratigraphy. It is integrated with a groundwater flow model and a random walk particle transport model to estimate the solute traveltime probability density function (pdf) for solute flux from the water table to the bottom boundary (the production horizon) of the aquifer. The cases examined include two-, three-, and four-facies models, with mean length anisotropy ratios for horizontal to vertical facies, ek, from 25:1 to 300:1 and with a wide range of facies volume proportions (e.g., from 5 to 95% coarse-textured facies). Predictions of traveltime pdfs are found to be significantly affected by the number of hydrostratigraphic facies identified in the aquifer. Those predictions of traveltime pdfs also are affected by the proportions of coarse-textured sediments, the mean length of the facies (particularly the ratio of length to thickness of coarse materials), and, to a lesser degree, the juxtapositional preference among the hydrostratigraphic facies. In transport normal to the sedimentary bedding plane, traveltime is not lognormally distributed as is often assumed. Also, macrodispersive behavior (variance of the traveltime) is found not to be a unique function of the conductivity variance. For the parameter range

  10. Non-periodic pseudo-random numbers used in Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Gaston E.

    2007-09-01

    The generation of pseudo-random numbers is one of the interesting problems in Monte Carlo simulations, mostly because the common computer generators produce periodic numbers. We used simple pseudo-random numbers generated with the simplest chaotic system, the logistic map, with excellent results. The numbers generated in this way are non-periodic, which we demonstrated for 1013 numbers, and they are obtained in a deterministic way, which allows to repeat systematically any calculation. The Monte Carlo calculations are the ideal field to apply these numbers, and we did it for simple and more elaborated cases. Chemistry and Information Technology use this kind of simulations, and the application of this numbers to quantum Monte Carlo and cryptography is immediate. I present here the techniques to calculate, analyze and use these pseudo-random numbers, show that they lack periodicity up to 1013 numbers and that they are not correlated.

  11. Non-periodic pseudo-random numbers used in Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberis, Gaston E.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of pseudo-random numbers is one of the interesting problems in Monte Carlo simulations, mostly because the common computer generators produce periodic numbers. We used simple pseudo-random numbers generated with the simplest chaotic system, the logistic map, with excellent results. The numbers generated in this way are non-periodic, which we demonstrated for 10 13 numbers, and they are obtained in a deterministic way, which allows to repeat systematically any calculation. The Monte Carlo calculations are the ideal field to apply these numbers, and we did it for simple and more elaborated cases. Chemistry and Information Technology use this kind of simulations, and the application of this numbers to quantum Monte Carlo and cryptography is immediate. I present here the techniques to calculate, analyze and use these pseudo-random numbers, show that they lack periodicity up to 10 13 numbers and that they are not correlated

  12. Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology.

  13. The linking number and the writhe of uniform random walks and polygons in confined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotou, E; Lambropoulou, S; Millett, K C

    2010-01-01

    Random walks and polygons are used to model polymers. In this paper we consider the extension of the writhe, self-linking number and linking number to open chains. We then study the average writhe, self-linking and linking number of random walks and polygons over the space of configurations as a function of their length. We show that the mean squared linking number, the mean squared writhe and the mean squared self-linking number of oriented uniform random walks or polygons of length n, in a convex confined space, are of the form O(n 2 ). Moreover, for a fixed simple closed curve in a convex confined space, we prove that the mean absolute value of the linking number between this curve and a uniform random walk or polygon of n edges is of the form O(√n). Our numerical studies confirm those results. They also indicate that the mean absolute linking number between any two oriented uniform random walks or polygons, of n edges each, is of the form O(n). Equilateral random walks and polygons are used to model polymers in θ-conditions. We use numerical simulations to investigate how the self-linking and linking number of equilateral random walks scale with their length.

  14. An individual urinary proteome analysis in normal human beings to define the minimal sample number to represent the normal urinary proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xuejiao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The urinary proteome has been widely used for biomarker discovery. A urinary proteome database from normal humans can provide a background for discovery proteomics and candidate proteins/peptides for targeted proteomics. Therefore, it is necessary to define the minimum number of individuals required for sampling to represent the normal urinary proteome. Methods In this study, inter-individual and inter-gender variations of urinary proteome were taken into consideration to achieve a representative database. An individual analysis was performed on overnight urine samples from 20 normal volunteers (10 males and 10 females by 1DLC/MS/MS. To obtain a representative result of each sample, a replicate 1DLCMS/MS analysis was performed. The minimal sample number was estimated by statistical analysis. Results For qualitative analysis, less than 5% of new proteins/peptides were identified in a male/female normal group by adding a new sample when the sample number exceeded nine. In addition, in a normal group, the percentage of newly identified proteins/peptides was less than 5% upon adding a new sample when the sample number reached 10. Furthermore, a statistical analysis indicated that urinary proteomes from normal males and females showed different patterns. For quantitative analysis, the variation of protein abundance was defined by spectrum count and western blotting methods. And then the minimal sample number for quantitative proteomic analysis was identified. Conclusions For qualitative analysis, when considering the inter-individual and inter-gender variations, the minimum sample number is 10 and requires a balanced number of males and females in order to obtain a representative normal human urinary proteome. For quantitative analysis, the minimal sample number is much greater than that for qualitative analysis and depends on the experimental methods used for quantification.

  15. A true random number generator based on mouse movement and chaotic cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yue; Liao Xiaofeng; Wong, Kwok-wo; Zhou Qing

    2009-01-01

    True random number generators are in general more secure than pseudo random number generators. In this paper, we propose a novel true random number generator which generates a 256-bit random number by computer mouse movement. It is cheap, convenient and universal for personal computers. To eliminate the effect of similar movement patterns generated by the same user, three chaos-based approaches, namely, discretized 2D chaotic map permutation, spatiotemporal chaos and 'MASK' algorithm, are adopted to post-process the captured mouse movements. Random bits generated by three users are tested using NIST statistical tests. Both the spatiotemporal chaos approach and the 'MASK' algorithm pass the tests successfully. However, the latter has a better performance in terms of efficiency and effectiveness and so is more practical for common personal computer applications.

  16. TOTAL NUMBER, DISTRIBUTION, AND PHENOTYPE OF CELLS EXPRESSING CHONDROITIN SULPHATE PROTEOGLYCANS IN THE NORMAL HUMAN AMYGDALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulos, Harry; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Berretta, Sabina

    2009-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a key structural component of the brain extracellular matrix. They are involved in critical neurodevelopmental functions and are one of the main components of pericellular aggregates known as perineuronal nets. As a step toward investigating their functional and pathophysiological roles in the human amygdala, we assessed the pattern of CSPG expression in the normal human amygdala using wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) lectin-histochemistry. Total numbers of WFA-labeled elements were measured in the lateral (LN), basal (BN), accessory basal (ABN) and cortical (CO) nuclei of the amygdala from 15 normal adult human subjects. For interspecies qualitative comparison, we also investigated the pattern of WFA labeling in the amygdala of naïve rats (n=32) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n=6). In human amygdala, WFA lectin-histochemistry resulted in labeling of perineuronal nets and cells with clear glial morphology, while neurons did not show WFA-labeling. Total numbers of WFA-labeled glial cells showed high interindividual variability. These cells aggregated in clusters with a consistent between-subjects spatial distribution. In a subset of human subjects (n=5), dual color fluorescence using an antibody raised against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and WFA showed that the majority (93.7%) of WFA-labeled glial cells correspond to astrocytes. In rat and monkey amygdala, WFA histochemistry labeled perineuronal nets, but not glial cells. These results suggest that astrocytes are the main cell type expressing CSPGs in the adult human amygdala. Their highly segregated distribution pattern suggests that these cells serve specialized functions within human amygdalar nuclei. PMID:18374308

  17. Efficient Raman generation in a waveguide: A route to ultrafast quantum random number generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, D. G.; Bustard, P. J.; Moffatt, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Lausten, R.; Sussman, B. J., E-mail: ben.sussman@nrc.ca [National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2014-02-03

    The inherent uncertainty in quantum mechanics offers a source of true randomness which can be used to produce unbreakable cryptographic keys. We discuss the development of a high-speed random number generator based on the quantum phase fluctuations in spontaneously initiated stimulated Raman scattering (SISRS). We utilize the tight confinement and long interaction length available in a Potassium Titanyl Phosphate waveguide to generate highly efficient SISRS using nanojoule pulse energies, reducing the high pump power requirements of the previous approaches. We measure the random phase of the Stokes output using a simple interferometric setup to yield quantum random numbers at 145 Mbps.

  18. The generation of 68 Gbps quantum random number by measuring laser phase fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, You-Qi; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei; Huang, Leilei; Payne, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The speed of a quantum random number generator is essential for practical applications, such as high-speed quantum key distribution systems. Here, we push the speed of a quantum random number generator to 68 Gbps by operating a laser around its threshold level. To achieve the rate, not only high-speed photodetector and high sampling rate are needed but also a very stable interferometer is required. A practical interferometer with active feedback instead of common temperature control is developed to meet the requirement of stability. Phase fluctuations of the laser are measured by the interferometer with a photodetector and then digitalized to raw random numbers with a rate of 80 Gbps. The min-entropy of the raw data is evaluated by modeling the system and is used to quantify the quantum randomness of the raw data. The bias of the raw data caused by other signals, such as classical and detection noises, can be removed by Toeplitz-matrix hashing randomness extraction. The final random numbers can pass through the standard randomness tests. Our demonstration shows that high-speed quantum random number generators are ready for practical usage

  19. The distribution of the number of node neighbors in random hypergraphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Hypergraphs, the generalization of graphs in which edges become conglomerates of r nodes called hyperedges of rank r ⩾ 2, are excellent models to study systems with interactions that are beyond the pairwise level. For hypergraphs, the node degree ℓ (number of hyperedges connected to a node) and the number of neighbors k of a node differ from each other in contrast to the case of graphs, where counting the number of edges is equivalent to counting the number of neighbors. In this paper, I calculate the distribution of the number of node neighbors in random hypergraphs in which hyperedges of uniform rank r have a homogeneous (equal for all hyperedges) probability p to appear. This distribution is equivalent to the degree distribution of ensembles of graphs created as projections of hypergraph or bipartite network ensembles, where the projection connects any two nodes in the projected graph when they are also connected in the hypergraph or bipartite network. The calculation is non-trivial due to the possibility that neighbor nodes belong simultaneously to multiple hyperedges (node overlaps). From the exact results, the traditional asymptotic approximation to the distribution in the sparse regime (small p) where overlaps are ignored is rederived and improved; the approximation exhibits Poisson-like behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations modulated by power-law decays in the system size N with decay exponents equal to the minimum number of overlapping nodes possible for a given number of neighbors. It is shown that the dense limit cannot be explained if overlaps are ignored, and the correct asymptotic distribution is provided. The neighbor distribution requires the calculation of a new combinatorial coefficient Q r−1 (k, ℓ), which counts the number of distinct labeled hypergraphs of k nodes, ℓ hyperedges of rank r − 1, and where every node is connected to at least one hyperedge. Some identities of Q r−1 (k, ℓ) are derived and applied to the

  20. Direct generation of all-optical random numbers from optical pulse amplitude chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Wang, An-Bang; Yang, Ling-Zhen; Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2012-02-13

    We propose and theoretically demonstrate an all-optical method for directly generating all-optical random numbers from pulse amplitude chaos produced by a mode-locked fiber ring laser. Under an appropriate pump intensity, the mode-locked laser can experience a quasi-periodic route to chaos. Such a chaos consists of a stream of pulses with a fixed repetition frequency but random intensities. In this method, we do not require sampling procedure and external triggered clocks but directly quantize the chaotic pulses stream into random number sequence via an all-optical flip-flop. Moreover, our simulation results show that the pulse amplitude chaos has no periodicity and possesses a highly symmetric distribution of amplitude. Thus, in theory, the obtained random number sequence without post-processing has a high-quality randomness verified by industry-standard statistical tests.

  1. Post-processing Free Quantum Random Number Generator Based on Avalanche Photodiode Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yang; Liao Sheng-Kai; Liang Fu-Tian; Shen Qi; Liang Hao; Peng Cheng-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Quantum random number generators adopting single photon detection have been restricted due to the non-negligible dead time of avalanche photodiodes (APDs). We propose a new approach based on an APD array to improve the generation rate of random numbers significantly. This method compares the detectors' responses to consecutive optical pulses and generates the random sequence. We implement a demonstration experiment to show its simplicity, compactness and scalability. The generated numbers are proved to be unbiased, post-processing free, ready to use, and their randomness is verified by using the national institute of standard technology statistical test suite. The random bit generation efficiency is as high as 32.8% and the potential generation rate adopting the 32 × 32 APD array is up to tens of Gbits/s. (paper)

  2. On the number of subgraphs of the Barabasi-Albert random graph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabchenko, Aleksandr A; Samosvat, Egor A [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region, Russian Frderation (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-30

    We study a model of a random graph of the type of the Barabasi-Albert preferential attachment model. We develop a technique that makes it possible to estimate the mathematical expectation for a fairly wide class of random variables in the model under consideration. We use this technique to prove a theorem on the asymptotics of the mathematical expectation of the number of subgraphs isomorphic to a certain fixed graph in the random graphs of this model.

  3. On the number of subgraphs of the Barabási-Albert random graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, Aleksandr A; Samosvat, Egor A

    2012-01-01

    We study a model of a random graph of the type of the Barabási-Albert preferential attachment model. We develop a technique that makes it possible to estimate the mathematical expectation for a fairly wide class of random variables in the model under consideration. We use this technique to prove a theorem on the asymptotics of the mathematical expectation of the number of subgraphs isomorphic to a certain fixed graph in the random graphs of this model.

  4. Strong Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Rowwise NA and LNQD Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some strong laws of large numbers and strong convergence properties for arrays of rowwise negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables are obtained. The results obtained not only generalize the result of Hu and Taylor to negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables, but also improve it.

  5. Pseudo-random-number generators and the square site percolation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    Selected pseudo-random-number generators are applied to a Monte Carlo study of the two-dimensional square-lattice site percolation model. A generator suitable for high precision calculations is identified from an application specific test of randomness. After extended computation and analysis, an ostensibly reliable value of p_{c}=0.59274598(4) is obtained for the percolation threshold.

  6. Raw and Central Moments of Binomial Random Variables via Stirling Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We consider here the problem of calculating the moments of binomial random variables. It is shown how formulae for both the raw and the central moments of such random variables may be obtained in a recursive manner utilizing Stirling numbers of the first kind. Suggestions are also provided as to how students might be encouraged to explore this…

  7. Three-dimensional pseudo-random number generator for implementing in hybrid computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Vasil'ev, N.P.; Voronin, A.V.; Kravtsov, M.Yu.; Maksutov, A.A.; Spiridonov, A.A.; Khudyakova, V.I.; Chugunkov, I.V.

    2012-01-01

    The algorithm for generating pseudo-random numbers oriented to implementation by using hybrid computer systems is considered. The proposed solution is characterized by a high degree of parallel computing [ru

  8. Private random numbers produced by entangled ions and certified by Bell's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Matsukevich, Dzmitry; Maunz, Peter; Monroe, Chris; Olmschenk, Steven

    2010-03-01

    It has been shown that entangled particles can be used to generate numbers whose privacy and randomness are guaranteed by the violation of a Bell inequality [1,2]. The authenticity of the bit stream produced is guaranteed when the system used can close the detection loophole and when the entangled particles are non-interacting. We report the use of remotely located trapped ions with near perfect state detection efficiency as a private random number generator. By entangling the ions through photon interference and choosing the measurement settings using a pseudo-random number generator, we measure a CHSH correlation function that is more than seven standard deviations above the classical limit. With a total of 3016 events, we are able to certify the generation of 42 new random numbers with 99% confidence. [1] S. Pironio et al.(submitted to Nature, arXiv:0911.3427) [2] Colbeck, R. PhD Dissertation (2007)

  9. Recommendations and illustrations for the evaluation of photonic random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph D.; Terashima, Yuta; Uchida, Atsushi; Baumgartner, Gerald B.; Murphy, Thomas E.; Roy, Rajarshi

    2017-09-01

    The never-ending quest to improve the security of digital information combined with recent improvements in hardware technology has caused the field of random number generation to undergo a fundamental shift from relying solely on pseudo-random algorithms to employing optical entropy sources. Despite these significant advances on the hardware side, commonly used statistical measures and evaluation practices remain ill-suited to understand or quantify the optical entropy that underlies physical random number generation. We review the state of the art in the evaluation of optical random number generation and recommend a new paradigm: quantifying entropy generation and understanding the physical limits of the optical sources of randomness. In order to do this, we advocate for the separation of the physical entropy source from deterministic post-processing in the evaluation of random number generators and for the explicit consideration of the impact of the measurement and digitization process on the rate of entropy production. We present the Cohen-Procaccia estimate of the entropy rate h (𝜖 ,τ ) as one way to do this. In order to provide an illustration of our recommendations, we apply the Cohen-Procaccia estimate as well as the entropy estimates from the new NIST draft standards for physical random number generators to evaluate and compare three common optical entropy sources: single photon time-of-arrival detection, chaotic lasers, and amplified spontaneous emission.

  10. Recommendations and illustrations for the evaluation of photonic random number generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D. Hart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The never-ending quest to improve the security of digital information combined with recent improvements in hardware technology has caused the field of random number generation to undergo a fundamental shift from relying solely on pseudo-random algorithms to employing optical entropy sources. Despite these significant advances on the hardware side, commonly used statistical measures and evaluation practices remain ill-suited to understand or quantify the optical entropy that underlies physical random number generation. We review the state of the art in the evaluation of optical random number generation and recommend a new paradigm: quantifying entropy generation and understanding the physical limits of the optical sources of randomness. In order to do this, we advocate for the separation of the physical entropy source from deterministic post-processing in the evaluation of random number generators and for the explicit consideration of the impact of the measurement and digitization process on the rate of entropy production. We present the Cohen-Procaccia estimate of the entropy rate h(,τ as one way to do this. In order to provide an illustration of our recommendations, we apply the Cohen-Procaccia estimate as well as the entropy estimates from the new NIST draft standards for physical random number generators to evaluate and compare three common optical entropy sources: single photon time-of-arrival detection, chaotic lasers, and amplified spontaneous emission.

  11. Using pseudo-random number generator for making iterative algorithms of hashing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Vasil'ev, N.P.; Kozyrskij, B.L.

    2014-01-01

    The method of stochastic data transformation made for usage in cryptographic methods of information protection has been analyzed. The authors prove the usage of cryptographically strong pseudo-random number generators as a basis for Sponge construction. This means that the analysis of the quality of the known methods and tools for assessing the statistical security of pseudo-random number generators can be used effectively [ru

  12. High-Performance Pseudo-Random Number Generation on Graphics Processing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Nandapalan, Nimalan; Brent, Richard P.; Murray, Lawrence M.; Rendell, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    This work considers the deployment of pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) on graphics processing units (GPUs), developing an approach based on the xorgens generator to rapidly produce pseudo-random numbers of high statistical quality. The chosen algorithm has configurable state size and period, making it ideal for tuning to the GPU architecture. We present a comparison of both speed and statistical quality with other common parallel, GPU-based PRNGs, demonstrating favourable performance o...

  13. Spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory technologies for normally off computing (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.; Yuasa, S.; Fujita, S.; Ito, J.; Yoda, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakatani, Y.; Miyazaki, T.

    2014-01-01

    Most parts of present computer systems are made of volatile devices, and the power to supply them to avoid information loss causes huge energy losses. We can eliminate this meaningless energy loss by utilizing the non-volatile function of advanced spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) technology and create a new type of computer, i.e., normally off computers. Critical tasks to achieve normally off computers are implementations of STT-MRAM technologies in the main memory and low-level cache memories. STT-MRAM technology for applications to the main memory has been successfully developed by using perpendicular STT-MRAMs, and faster STT-MRAM technologies for applications to the cache memory are now being developed. The present status of STT-MRAMs and challenges that remain for normally off computers are discussed

  14. The average inter-crossing number of equilateral random walks and polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Y; Dobay, A; Stasiak, A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study the average inter-crossing number between two random walks and two random polygons in the three-dimensional space. The random walks and polygons in this paper are the so-called equilateral random walks and polygons in which each segment of the walk or polygon is of unit length. We show that the mean average inter-crossing number ICN between two equilateral random walks of the same length n is approximately linear in terms of n and we were able to determine the prefactor of the linear term, which is a = 3ln2/8 ∼ 0.2599. In the case of two random polygons of length n, the mean average inter-crossing number ICN is also linear, but the prefactor of the linear term is different from that of the random walks. These approximations apply when the starting points of the random walks and polygons are of a distance ρ apart and ρ is small compared to n. We propose a fitting model that would capture the theoretical asymptotic behaviour of the mean average ICN for large values of ρ. Our simulation result shows that the model in fact works very well for the entire range of ρ. We also study the mean ICN between two equilateral random walks and polygons of different lengths. An interesting result is that even if one random walk (polygon) has a fixed length, the mean average ICN between the two random walks (polygons) would still approach infinity if the length of the other random walk (polygon) approached infinity. The data provided by our simulations match our theoretical predictions very well

  15. [A psychosocial view of a number of Jewish mourning rituals during normal and pathological grief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Benyamin; Lauden, Ari; Ben-Zion, Itzhak

    2004-04-01

    This article describes the three stages of normal and pathological mourning, emphasizing the constellation embodied in Judaism for this process. These stages are: shock, acute mourning, working through and reconciliation. We present the important question: "How to define pathological mourning?" It is certainly not only a matter of extending beyond the accepted time limits of the mourning process, but also a question of the intensity of mourning in ones daily life, the degree of being preoccupied with it, and the degree of priority that this mourning process has in an individual's life. A number of forms of pathological mourning, during the three mentioned stages, are described, with special attention to Jewish mourning rituals, especially: The "rending of the garments" (Kriyah), the Kaddish, the Shiva, and the termination of mourning after a fixed period of time. One of the possible interpretations of these rituals is that they prevent and neutralize manifestations of aggression and violence. This is an analogue to the function of biological (genetic) rituals which according to the theory of Konrad Lorenz, also minimize the dangerous aggression between the species in nature. The religious ritual converts an aggressive behavior to a minimal and symbolic action, often re-directed, so that an originally dangerous behavior becomes a ritual with an important communicative function.

  16. Experimentally Generated Random Numbers Certified by the Impossibility of Superluminal Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhorst, Peter; Shalm, Lynden K.; Mink, Alan; Jordan, Stephen; Liu, Yi-Kai; Rommal, Andrea; Glancy, Scott; Christensen, Bradley; Nam, Sae Woo; Knill, Emanuel

    Random numbers are an important resource for applications such as numerical simulation and secure communication. However, it is difficult to certify whether a physical random number generator is truly unpredictable. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality in a loophole-free photonic Bell test experiment to obtain data containing randomness that cannot be predicted by any theory that does not also allow the sending of signals faster than the speed of light. To certify and quantify the randomness, we develop a new protocol that performs well in an experimental regime characterized by low violation of Bell inequalities. Applying an extractor function to our data, we obtain 256 new random bits, uniform to within 10- 3 .

  17. Compact Quantum Random Number Generator with Silicon Nanocrystals Light Emitting Device Coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisadi, Zahra; Acerbi, Fabio; Fontana, Giorgio; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    A small-sized photonic quantum random number generator, easy to be implemented in small electronic devices for secure data encryption and other applications, is highly demanding nowadays. Here, we propose a compact configuration with Silicon nanocrystals large area light emitting device (LED) coupled to a Silicon photomultiplier to generate random numbers. The random number generation methodology is based on the photon arrival time and is robust against the non-idealities of the detector and the source of quantum entropy. The raw data show high quality of randomness and pass all the statistical tests in national institute of standards and technology tests (NIST) suite without a post-processing algorithm. The highest bit rate is 0.5 Mbps with the efficiency of 4 bits per detected photon.

  18. Compact Quantum Random Number Generator with Silicon Nanocrystals Light Emitting Device Coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bisadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A small-sized photonic quantum random number generator, easy to be implemented in small electronic devices for secure data encryption and other applications, is highly demanding nowadays. Here, we propose a compact configuration with Silicon nanocrystals large area light emitting device (LED coupled to a Silicon photomultiplier to generate random numbers. The random number generation methodology is based on the photon arrival time and is robust against the non-idealities of the detector and the source of quantum entropy. The raw data show high quality of randomness and pass all the statistical tests in national institute of standards and technology tests (NIST suite without a post-processing algorithm. The highest bit rate is 0.5 Mbps with the efficiency of 4 bits per detected photon.

  19. Modular Transformations, Order-Chaos Transitions and Pseudo-Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Antonio; Ruffo, Stefano

    Successive pairs of pseudo-random numbers generated by standard linear congruential transformations display ordered patterns of parallel lines. We study the "ordered" and "chaotic" distribution of such pairs by solving the eigenvalue problem for two-dimensional modular transformations over integers. We conjecture that the optimal uniformity for pair distribution is obtained when the slope of linear modular eigenspaces takes the value n opt =maxint (p/√ {p-1}), where p is a prime number. We then propose a new generator of pairs of independent pseudo-random numbers, which realizes an optimal uniform distribution (in the "statistical" sense) of points on the unit square (0, 1] × (0, 1]. The method can be easily generalized to the generation of k-tuples of random numbers (with k>2).

  20. True random number generation from mobile telephone photo based on chaotic cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Liang; Liao Xiaofeng; Xiao Di; Xiang Tao; Zhou Qing; Duan Shukai

    2009-01-01

    A cheap, convenient and universal TRNG based on mobile telephone photo for producing random bit sequence is proposed. To settle the problem of sequential pixels and comparability, three chaos-based approaches are applied to post-process the generated binary image. The random numbers produced by three users are tested using US NIST RNG statistical test software. The experimental results indicate that the Arnold cat map is the fastest way to generate a random bit sequence and can be accepted on general PC. The 'MASK' algorithm also performs well. Finally, comparing with the TRNG of Hu et al. [Hu Y, Liao X, Wong KW, Zhou Q. A true random number generator based on mouse movement and chaotic cryptography. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007. doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2007.10.022] which is presented by Hu et al., many merits of the proposed TRNG in this paper has been found.

  1. Note: Fully integrated 3.2 Gbps quantum random number generator with real-time extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Nie, You-Qi; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei; Zhou, Hongyi; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-01-01

    We present a real-time and fully integrated quantum random number generator (QRNG) by measuring laser phase fluctuations. The QRNG scheme based on laser phase fluctuations is featured for its capability of generating ultra-high-speed random numbers. However, the speed bottleneck of a practical QRNG lies on the limited speed of randomness extraction. To close the gap between the fast randomness generation and the slow post-processing, we propose a pipeline extraction algorithm based on Toeplitz matrix hashing and implement it in a high-speed field-programmable gate array. Further, all the QRNG components are integrated into a module, including a compact and actively stabilized interferometer, high-speed data acquisition, and real-time data post-processing and transmission. The final generation rate of the QRNG module with real-time extraction can reach 3.2 Gbps.

  2. Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Z. L.; Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20 Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5 GHz, respectively, with a ±20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80 Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5 GHz.

  3. Note: Fully integrated 3.2 Gbps quantum random number generator with real-time extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Nie, You-Qi; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@ustc.edu.cn; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhou, Hongyi; Ma, Xiongfeng [Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-07-15

    We present a real-time and fully integrated quantum random number generator (QRNG) by measuring laser phase fluctuations. The QRNG scheme based on laser phase fluctuations is featured for its capability of generating ultra-high-speed random numbers. However, the speed bottleneck of a practical QRNG lies on the limited speed of randomness extraction. To close the gap between the fast randomness generation and the slow post-processing, we propose a pipeline extraction algorithm based on Toeplitz matrix hashing and implement it in a high-speed field-programmable gate array. Further, all the QRNG components are integrated into a module, including a compact and actively stabilized interferometer, high-speed data acquisition, and real-time data post-processing and transmission. The final generation rate of the QRNG module with real-time extraction can reach 3.2 Gbps.

  4. TumorBoost: Normalization of allele-specific tumor copy numbers from a single pair of tumor-normal genotyping microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuvial Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput genotyping microarrays assess both total DNA copy number and allelic composition, which makes them a tool of choice for copy number studies in cancer, including total copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH analyses. Even after state of the art preprocessing methods, allelic signal estimates from genotyping arrays still suffer from systematic effects that make them difficult to use effectively for such downstream analyses. Results We propose a method, TumorBoost, for normalizing allelic estimates of one tumor sample based on estimates from a single matched normal. The method applies to any paired tumor-normal estimates from any microarray-based technology, combined with any preprocessing method. We demonstrate that it increases the signal-to-noise ratio of allelic signals, making it significantly easier to detect allelic imbalances. Conclusions TumorBoost increases the power to detect somatic copy-number events (including copy-neutral LOH in the tumor from allelic signals of Affymetrix or Illumina origin. We also conclude that high-precision allelic estimates can be obtained from a single pair of tumor-normal hybridizations, if TumorBoost is combined with single-array preprocessing methods such as (allele-specific CRMA v2 for Affymetrix or BeadStudio's (proprietary XY-normalization method for Illumina. A bounded-memory implementation is available in the open-source and cross-platform R package aroma.cn, which is part of the Aroma Project (http://www.aroma-project.org/.

  5. High-Speed Device-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation without a Detection Loophole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yuan, Xiao; Li, Ming-Han; Zhang, Weijun; Zhao, Qi; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Cao, Yuan; Li, Yu-Huai; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Hao; Peng, Tianyi; Chen, Yu-Ao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Wang, Zhen; You, Lixing; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum mechanics provides the means of generating genuine randomness that is impossible with deterministic classical processes. Remarkably, the unpredictability of randomness can be certified in a manner that is independent of implementation devices. Here, we present an experimental study of device-independent quantum random number generation based on a detection-loophole-free Bell test with entangled photons. In the randomness analysis, without the independent identical distribution assumption, we consider the worst case scenario that the adversary launches the most powerful attacks against the quantum adversary. After considering statistical fluctuations and applying an 80 Gb ×45.6 Mb Toeplitz matrix hashing, we achieve a final random bit rate of 114 bits /s , with a failure probability less than 10-5. This marks a critical step towards realistic applications in cryptography and fundamental physics tests.

  6. A data based random number generator for a multivariate distribution (using stochastic interpolation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. R.; Taylor, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Let X be a K-dimensional random variable serving as input for a system with output Y (not necessarily of dimension k). given X, an outcome Y or a distribution of outcomes G(Y/X) may be obtained either explicitly or implicity. The situation is considered in which there is a real world data set X sub j sub = 1 (n) and a means of simulating an outcome Y. A method for empirical random number generation based on the sample of observations of the random variable X without estimating the underlying density is discussed.

  7. A universal algorithm to generate pseudo-random numbers based on uniform mapping as homeomorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu-Lai, Wang

    2010-01-01

    A specific uniform map is constructed as a homeomorphism mapping chaotic time series into [0,1] to obtain sequences of standard uniform distribution. With the uniform map, a chaotic orbit and a sequence orbit obtained are topologically equivalent to each other so the map can preserve the most dynamic properties of chaotic systems such as permutation entropy. Based on the uniform map, a universal algorithm to generate pseudo random numbers is proposed and the pseudo random series is tested to follow the standard 0–1 random distribution both theoretically and experimentally. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hard ware and thus computation speed is fast. The method not only extends the parameter spaces but also avoids the drawback of small function space caused by constraints on chaotic maps used to generate pseudo random numbers. The algorithm can be applied to any chaotic system and can produce pseudo random sequence of high quality, thus can be a good universal pseudo random number generator. (general)

  8. A universal algorithm to generate pseudo-random numbers based on uniform mapping as homeomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Lai

    2010-09-01

    A specific uniform map is constructed as a homeomorphism mapping chaotic time series into [0,1] to obtain sequences of standard uniform distribution. With the uniform map, a chaotic orbit and a sequence orbit obtained are topologically equivalent to each other so the map can preserve the most dynamic properties of chaotic systems such as permutation entropy. Based on the uniform map, a universal algorithm to generate pseudo random numbers is proposed and the pseudo random series is tested to follow the standard 0-1 random distribution both theoretically and experimentally. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hard ware and thus computation speed is fast. The method not only extends the parameter spaces but also avoids the drawback of small function space caused by constraints on chaotic maps used to generate pseudo random numbers. The algorithm can be applied to any chaotic system and can produce pseudo random sequence of high quality, thus can be a good universal pseudo random number generator.

  9. Pólya number and first return of bursty random walk: Rigorous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J.; Xu, X. P.

    2012-03-01

    The recurrence properties of random walks can be characterized by Pólya number, i.e., the probability that the walker has returned to the origin at least once. In this paper, we investigate Pólya number and first return for bursty random walk on a line, in which the walk has different step size and moving probabilities. Using the concept of the Catalan number, we obtain exact results for first return probability, the average first return time and Pólya number for the first time. We show that Pólya number displays two different functional behavior when the walk deviates from the recurrent point. By utilizing the Lagrange inversion formula, we interpret our findings by transferring Pólya number to the closed-form solutions of an inverse function. We also calculate Pólya number using another approach, which corroborates our results and conclusions. Finally, we consider the recurrence properties and Pólya number of two variations of the bursty random walk model.

  10. Effective Normalization for Copy Number Variation Detection from Whole Genome Sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janevski, A.; Varadan, V.; Kamalakaran, S.; Banerjee, N.; Dimitrova, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Whole genome sequencing enables a high resolution view ofthe human genome and provides unique insights into genome structureat an unprecedented scale. There have been a number of tools to infer copy number variation in the genome. These tools while validatedalso include a number of

  11. 40 CFR 761.308 - Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample selection by random number... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.308 Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square... area created in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, select two random numbers: one each for...

  12. Pseudo-random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations on ATI Graphics Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchik, Vadim

    2011-03-01

    Basic uniform pseudo-random number generators are implemented on ATI Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The performance results of the realized generators (multiplicative linear congruential (GGL), XOR-shift (XOR128), RANECU, RANMAR, RANLUX and Mersenne Twister (MT19937)) on CPU and GPU are discussed. The obtained speed up factor is hundreds of times in comparison with CPU. RANLUX generator is found to be the most appropriate for using on GPU in Monte Carlo simulations. The brief review of the pseudo-random number generators used in modern software packages for Monte Carlo simulations in high-energy physics is presented.

  13. Excitable dynamics in high-Lewis number premixed gas combustion at normal and microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Howard

    1995-01-01

    Freely-propagating, premixed gas flames in high-Lewis (Le) number, quiescent mixtures are studied experimentally in tubes of various diameter at normal (lg) and microgravity (mu g). A premixture of lean butane and oxygen diluted with helium, argon, neon, nitrogen or a mixture of multiple diluents is examined such that the thermal diffusivity of the mixture (and to a lesser extent, the mass diffusivity of the rate-limiting component) is systematically varied. In effect, different diluents allow variation of the Le without changing the chemistry. The flames are recorded with high speed cinematography and their stability is visually assessed. Different modes of propagation were observed depending on the diameter of the tubes (different conductive heat loss), the composition of the mixture and the g-level. At 1g, four modes of propagation were observed in small and intermediate diameter tubes (large conductive heat loss): (1) steadily propagating flames, (2) radial and longitudinal pulsating flames, (3) 'wavering' flames, and (4) rotating spiral flames. As the diameter of the tube increases, the radial modes become more pronounced while the longitudinal modes systematically disappear. Also, multiple, simultaneous, spatially-separated 'pacemaker' sites are observed in intermediate and large diameter tubes. Each site starts as a small region of high luminosity and develops into a flamelet which assumes the form of one of the fore mentioned modes. These flamelets eventually interact, annihilate each other in their regions of intersection and merge at their newly created free-ends. For very large tubes, radially-propagating wave-trains (believed to be 'trigger waves') are observed. These are analogous to the radial pulsations observed in the smaller diameter tubes. At mu g, three modes of propagation have been observed: (1) steadily propagating flames, (2) radial and longitudinal pulsating flames, and (3) multi-armed, rotating flames. Since the pulsating mode exists at mu

  14. Random Number Simulations Reveal How Random Noise Affects the Measurements and Graphical Portrayals of Self-Assessed Competency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Nuhfer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-assessment measures of competency are blends of an authentic self-assessment signal that researchers seek to measure and random disorder or "noise" that accompanies that signal. In this study, we use random number simulations to explore how random noise affects critical aspects of self-assessment investigations: reliability, correlation, critical sample size, and the graphical representations of self-assessment data. We show that graphical conventions common in the self-assessment literature introduce artifacts that invite misinterpretation. Troublesome conventions include: (y minus x vs. (x scatterplots; (y minus x vs. (x column graphs aggregated as quantiles; line charts that display data aggregated as quantiles; and some histograms. Graphical conventions that generate minimal artifacts include scatterplots with a best-fit line that depict (y vs. (x measures (self-assessed competence vs. measured competence plotted by individual participant scores, and (y vs. (x scatterplots of collective average measures of all participants plotted item-by-item. This last graphic convention attenuates noise and improves the definition of the signal. To provide relevant comparisons across varied graphical conventions, we use a single dataset derived from paired measures of 1154 participants' self-assessed competence and demonstrated competence in science literacy. Our results show that different numerical approaches employed in investigating and describing self-assessment accuracy are not equally valid. By modeling this dataset with random numbers, we show how recognizing the varied expressions of randomness in self-assessment data can improve the validity of numeracy-based descriptions of self-assessment.

  15. On the design of henon and logistic map-based random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magfirawaty; Suryadi, M. T.; Ramli, Kalamullah

    2017-10-01

    The key sequence is one of the main elements in the cryptosystem. True Random Number Generators (TRNG) method is one of the approaches to generating the key sequence. The randomness source of the TRNG divided into three main groups, i.e. electrical noise based, jitter based and chaos based. The chaos based utilizes a non-linear dynamic system (continuous time or discrete time) as an entropy source. In this study, a new design of TRNG based on discrete time chaotic system is proposed, which is then simulated in LabVIEW. The principle of the design consists of combining 2D and 1D chaotic systems. A mathematical model is implemented for numerical simulations. We used comparator process as a harvester method to obtain the series of random bits. Without any post processing, the proposed design generated random bit sequence with high entropy value and passed all NIST 800.22 statistical tests.

  16. A Bidirectional Generalized Synchronization Theorem-Based Chaotic Pseudo-random Number Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Shuangshuang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a bidirectional generalized synchronization theorem for discrete chaos system, this paper introduces a new 5-dimensional bidirectional generalized chaos synchronization system (BGCSDS, whose prototype is a novel chaotic system introduced in [12]. Numerical simulation showed that two pair variables of the BGCSDS achieve generalized chaos synchronization via a transform H.A chaos-based pseudo-random number generator (CPNG was designed by the new BGCSDS. Using the FIPS-140-2 tests issued by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST verified the randomness of the 1000 binary number sequences generated via the CPNG and the RC4 algorithm respectively. The results showed that all the tested sequences passed the FIPS-140-2 tests. The confidence interval analysis showed the statistical properties of the randomness of the sequences generated via the CPNG and the RC4 algorithm do not have significant differences.

  17. A robust random number generator based on differential comparison of chaotic laser signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Liu, Ming; Xue, Lugang; Li, Pu; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-03-26

    We experimentally realize a robust real-time random number generator by differentially comparing the signal from a chaotic semiconductor laser and its delayed signal through a 1-bit analog-to-digital converter. The probability density distribution of the output chaotic signal based on the differential comparison method possesses an extremely small coefficient of Pearson's median skewness (1.5 × 10⁻⁶), which can yield a balanced random sequence much easily than the previously reported method that compares the signal from the chaotic laser with a certain threshold value. Moveover, we experimently demonstrate that our method can stably generate good random numbers at rates of 1.44 Gbit/s with excellent immunity from external perturbations while the previously reported method fails.

  18. Experimental study of a quantum random-number generator based on two independent lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu

    2017-12-01

    A quantum random-number generator (QRNG) can produce true randomness by utilizing the inherent probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics. Recently, the spontaneous-emission quantum phase noise of the laser has been widely deployed for quantum random-number generation, due to its high rate, its low cost, and the feasibility of chip-scale integration. Here, we perform a comprehensive experimental study of a phase-noise-based QRNG with two independent lasers, each of which operates in either continuous-wave (CW) or pulsed mode. We implement the QRNG by operating the two lasers in three configurations, namely, CW + CW, CW + pulsed, and pulsed + pulsed, and demonstrate their trade-offs, strengths, and weaknesses.

  19. A portable high-quality random number generator for lattice field theory simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, M.

    1993-09-01

    The theory underlying a proposed random number generator for numerical simulations in elementary particle physics and statistical mechanics is discussed. The generator is based on an algorithm introduced by Marsaglia and Zaman, with an important added feature leading to demonstrably good statistical properties. It can be implemented exactly on any computer complying with the IEEE-754 standard for single precision floating point arithmetic. (orig.)

  20. Similarity and number of alternatives in the random-dot motion paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, L.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.; Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Brown, S.D.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2012-01-01

    The popular random-dot motion (RDM) task has recently been applied to multiple-choice perceptual decisionmaking. However, changes in the number of alternatives on an RDM display lead to changes in the similarity between the alternatives, complicating the study of multiple-choice effects. To

  1. Pseudo-Random Number Generators for Vector Processors and Multicore Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    2015-01-01

    Large scale Monte Carlo applications need a good pseudo-random number generator capable of utilizing both the vector processing capabilities and multiprocessing capabilities of modern computers in order to get the maximum performance. The requirements for such a generator are discussed. New ways...

  2. Learning Binomial Probability Concepts with Simulation, Random Numbers and a Spreadsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochowicz, John A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the reader to the concepts of binomial probability and simulation. A spreadsheet is used to illustrate these concepts. Random number generators are great technological tools for demonstrating the concepts of probability. Ideas of approximation, estimation, and mathematical usefulness provide numerous ways of learning…

  3. Random Numbers Demonstrate the Frequency of Type I Errors: Three Spreadsheets for Class Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Sean

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes three spreadsheet exercises demonstrating the nature and frequency of type I errors using random number generation. The exercises are designed specifically to address issues related to testing multiple relations using correlation (Demonstration I), t tests varying in sample size (Demonstration II) and multiple comparisons…

  4. Examining Psychokinesis: The Interaction of Human Intention with Random Number Generators--A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Holger; Steinkamp, Fiona; Boller, Emil

    2006-01-01

    Seance-room and other large-scale psychokinetic phenomena have fascinated humankind for decades. Experimental research has reduced these phenomena to attempts to influence (a) the fall of dice and, later, (b) the output of random number generators (RNGs). The meta-analysis combined 380 studies that assessed whether RNG output correlated with human…

  5. Generating Random Samples of a Given Size Using Social Security Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard C.; Brauchle, Paul E.

    1984-01-01

    The purposes of this article are (1) to present a method by which social security numbers may be used to draw cluster samples of a predetermined size and (2) to describe procedures used to validate this method of drawing random samples. (JOW)

  6. Reduction of the number of parameters needed for a polynomial random regression test-day model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, M.H.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    2000-01-01

    Legendre polynomials were used to describe the (co)variance matrix within a random regression test day model. The goodness of fit depended on the polynomial order of fit, i.e., number of parameters to be estimated per animal but is limited by computing capacity. Two aspects: incomplete lactation

  7. Normalization sum rule and spontaneous breaking of U(N) invariance in random matrix ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canali, C.M.; Kravtsov, V.E.

    1995-03-01

    It is shown that the two-level correlation function R(s,s') in the invariant random matrix ensembles (RME) with soft confinement exhibits a ''ghost peak'' at s approx. -s'. This lifts the sum rule prohibition for the level number variance to have a Poisson-like term var(n) = ηn that is typical of RME with broken U(N) symmetry. Thus we conclude that the U(N) invariance is broken spontaneously in the RME with soft confinement, η playing the role of an order-parameter. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig

  8. Analysis of random point images with the use of symbolic computation codes and generalized Catalan numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, A. L.; Tuzikov, A. V.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Torgov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Original codes and combinatorial-geometrical computational schemes are presented, which are developed and applied for finding exact analytical formulas that describe the probability of errorless readout of random point images recorded by a scanning aperture with a limited number of threshold levels. Combinatorial problems encountered in the course of the study and associated with the new generalization of Catalan numbers are formulated and solved. An attempt is made to find the explicit analytical form of these numbers, which is, on the one hand, a necessary stage of solving the basic research problem and, on the other hand, an independent self-consistent problem.

  9. ACORN—A new method for generating sequences of uniformly distributed Pseudo-random Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramaratna, R. S.

    1989-07-01

    A new family of pseudo-random number generators, the ACORN ( additive congruential random number) generators, is proposed. The resulting numbers are distributed uniformly in the interval [0, 1). The ACORN generators are defined recursively, and the ( k + 1)th order generator is easily derived from the kth order generator. Some theorems concerning the period length are presented and compared with existing results for linear congruential generators. A range of statistical tests are applied to the ACORN generators, and their performance is compared with that of the linear congruential generators and the Chebyshev generators. The tests show the ACORN generators to be statistically superior to the Chebyshev generators, while being statistically similar to the linear congruential generators. However, the ACORN generators execute faster than linear congruential generators for the same statistical faithfulness. The main advantages of the ACORN generator are speed of execution, long period length, and simplicity of coding.

  10. Speech recognition in normal hearing and sensorineural hearing loss as a function of the number of spectral channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskent, Deniz

    Speech recognition by normal-hearing listeners improves as a function of the number of spectral channels when tested with a noiseband vocoder simulating cochlear implant signal processing. Speech recognition by the best cochlear implant users, however, saturates around eight channels and does not

  11. Digital-Analog Hybrid Scheme and Its Application to Chaotic Random Number Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zeshi; Li, Hongtao; Miao, Yunchi; Hu, Wen; Zhu, Xiaohua

    2017-12-01

    Practical random number generation (RNG) circuits are typically achieved with analog devices or digital approaches. Digital-based techniques, which use field programmable gate array (FPGA) and graphics processing units (GPU) etc. usually have better performances than analog methods as they are programmable, efficient and robust. However, digital realizations suffer from the effect of finite precision. Accordingly, the generated random numbers (RNs) are actually periodic instead of being real random. To tackle this limitation, in this paper we propose a novel digital-analog hybrid scheme that employs the digital unit as the main body, and minimum analog devices to generate physical RNs. Moreover, the possibility of realizing the proposed scheme with only one memory element is discussed. Without loss of generality, we use the capacitor and the memristor along with FPGA to construct the proposed hybrid system, and a chaotic true random number generator (TRNG) circuit is realized, producing physical RNs at a throughput of Gbit/s scale. These RNs successfully pass all the tests in the NIST SP800-22 package, confirming the significance of the scheme in practical applications. In addition, the use of this new scheme is not restricted to RNGs, and it also provides a strategy to solve the effect of finite precision in other digital systems.

  12. Efficient pseudo-random number generation for monte-carlo simulations using graphic processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Siddhant; Mohanty, A. K.; Carminati, F.

    2012-06-01

    A hybrid approach based on the combination of three Tausworthe generators and one linear congruential generator for pseudo random number generation for GPU programing as suggested in NVIDIA-CUDA library has been used for MONTE-CARLO sampling. On each GPU thread, a random seed is generated on fly in a simple way using the quick and dirty algorithm where mod operation is not performed explicitly due to unsigned integer overflow. Using this hybrid generator, multivariate correlated sampling based on alias technique has been carried out using both CUDA and OpenCL languages.

  13. Efficient pseudo-random number generation for Monte-Carlo simulations using graphic processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Siddhant; Mohanty, A K; Carminati, F

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid approach based on the combination of three Tausworthe generators and one linear congruential generator for pseudo random number generation for GPU programing as suggested in NVIDIA-CUDA library has been used for MONTE-CARLO sampling. On each GPU thread, a random seed is generated on fly in a simple way using the quick and dirty algorithm where mod operation is not performed explicitly due to unsigned integer overflow. Using this hybrid generator, multivariate correlated sampling based on alias technique has been carried out using both CUDA and OpenCL languages.

  14. The quotient of normal random variables and application to asset price fat tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caginalp, Carey; Caginalp, Gunduz

    2018-06-01

    The quotient of random variables with normal distributions is examined and proven to have power law decay, with density f(x) ≃f0x-2, with the coefficient depending on the means and variances of the numerator and denominator and their correlation. We also obtain the conditional probability densities for each of the four quadrants given by the signs of the numerator and denominator for arbitrary correlation ρ ∈ [ - 1 , 1) . For ρ = - 1 we obtain a particularly simple closed form solution for all x ∈ R. The results are applied to a basic issue in economics and finance, namely the density of relative price changes. Classical finance stipulates a normal distribution of relative price changes, though empirical studies suggest a power law at the tail end. By considering the supply and demand in a basic price change model, we prove that the relative price change has density that decays with an x-2 power law. Various parameter limits are established.

  15. Self-Powered Random Number Generator Based on Coupled Triboelectric and Electrostatic Induction Effects at the Liquid-Dielectric Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aifang; Chen, Xiangyu; Cui, Haotian; Chen, Libo; Luo, Jianjun; Tang, Wei; Peng, Mingzeng; Zhang, Yang; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-12-27

    Modern cryptography increasingly employs random numbers generated from physical sources in lieu of conventional software-based pseudorandom numbers, primarily owing to the great demand of unpredictable, indecipherable cryptographic keys from true random numbers for information security. Thus, far, the sole demonstration of true random numbers has been generated through thermal noise and/or quantum effects, which suffers from expensive and complex equipment. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for self-powered creation of true random numbers by using triboelectric technology to collect random signals from nature. This random number generator based on coupled triboelectric and electrostatic induction effects at the liquid-dielectric interface includes an elaborately designed triboelectric generator (TENG) with an irregular grating structure, an electronic-optical device, and an optical-electronic device. The random characteristics of raindrops are harvested through TENG and consequently transformed and converted by electronic-optical device and an optical-electronic device with a nonlinear characteristic. The cooperation of the mechanical, electrical, and optical signals ensures that the generator possesses complex nonlinear input-output behavior and contributes to increased randomness. The random number sequences are deduced from final electrical signals received by an optical-electronic device using a familiar algorithm. These obtained random number sequences exhibit good statistical characteristics, unpredictability, and unrepeatability. Our study supplies a simple, practical, and effective method to generate true random numbers, which can be widely used in cryptographic protocols, digital signatures, authentication, identification, and other information security fields.

  16. Covariance of the number of real zeros of a random trigonometric polynomial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Farahmand

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For random coefficients aj and bj we consider a random trigonometric polynomial defined as Tn(θ=∑j=0n{ajcos⁡jθ+bjsin⁡jθ}. The expected number of real zeros of Tn(θ in the interval (0,2π can be easily obtained. In this note we show that this number is in fact n/3. However the variance of the above number is not known. This note presents a method which leads to the asymptotic value for the covariance of the number of real zeros of the above polynomial in intervals (0,π and (π,2π. It can be seen that our method in fact remains valid to obtain the result for any two disjoint intervals. The applicability of our method to the classical random trigonometric polynomial, defined as Pn(θ=∑j=0naj(ωcos⁡jθ, is also discussed. Tn(θ has the advantage on Pn(θ of being stationary, with respect to θ, for which, therefore, a more advanced method developed could be used to yield the results.

  17. An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert

    2015-06-09

    Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology.

  18. Effect of colorectal cancer on the number of normal stem cells circulating in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlicz, Wojciech; Sielatycka, Katarzyna; Serwin, Karol; Kubis, Ewa; Tkacz, Marta; Głuszko, Rafał; Białek, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2016-12-01

    Bone marrow (BM) residing stem cells are mobilized from their BM niches into peripheral blood (PB) in several pathological situations including tissue organ injury and systemic inflammation. We recently reported that the number of BM-derived stem cells (SCs) increases in patients with pancreatic and stomach cancer. Accordingly, we observed higher numbers of circulating very small embryonic/epiblast‑like stem cells (VSELs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that were associated with the activation of pro-mobilizing complement cascade and an elevated level of sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) in PB plasma. We wondered if a similar correlation occurs in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 46 patients were enrolled in this study: 17 with CRC, 18 with benign colonic adenomas (BCA) and 11 healthy individuals. By employing fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) we evaluated the number of BM-derived SCs circulating in PB: i) CD34+/Lin-/CD45- and CD133-/Lin-/CD45- VSELs; ii) CD45-/CD105+/CD90+/CD29+ MSCs; iii) CD45-/CD34+/CD133+/KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs); and iv) CD133+/Lin-/CD45+ or CD34+/Lin-/CD45+ cells enriched for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). In parallel, we measured in the PB parameters regulating the egress of SCs from BM into PB. In contrast to pancreatic and gastric cancer patients, CRC subjects presented neither an increase in the number of circulating SCs nor the activation of pro-mobilizing factors such as complement, coagulation and fibrinolytic cascade, circulating stromal derived factor 1 (SDF‑1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intestinal permeability marker (zonulin). In conclusion, mobilization of SCs in cancer patients depends on the type of malignancy and its ability to activate pro-mobilization cascades.

  19. A revision of the subtract-with-borrow random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibidanov, Alexei

    2017-12-01

    The most popular and widely used subtract-with-borrow generator, also known as RANLUX, is reimplemented as a linear congruential generator using large integer arithmetic with the modulus size of 576 bits. Modern computers, as well as the specific structure of the modulus inferred from RANLUX, allow for the development of a fast modular multiplication - the core of the procedure. This was previously believed to be slow and have too high cost in terms of computing resources. Our tests show a significant gain in generation speed which is comparable with other fast, high quality random number generators. An additional feature is the fast skipping of generator states leading to a seeding scheme which guarantees the uniqueness of random number sequences. Licensing provisions: GPLv3 Programming language: C++, C, Assembler

  20. Random number generators in support of Monte Carlo problems in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyadkin, I.G.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to support a modern users' expectations of random number generators to solve problems in physics is analyzed. The capabilities of the newest concepts and the old pseudo-random algorithms are compared. The author is in favor of multiplicative generators. Due to the 64-bit arithmetic of a modern PC, multiplicative generators have a sufficient number of periods (up to 2 62 ) and are quicker to generate and to govern independent sequences for parallel processing. In addition they are able to replicate sub-sequences (without storing their seeds) for each standard trial in any code and to simulate spatial and planar directions and EXP(-x) distributions often needed as ''bricks'' for simulating events in physics. Hundreds of multipliers for multiplicative generators have been tabulated and tested, and the required speeds have been obtained. (author)

  1. Security Flaws in an Efficient Pseudo-Random Number Generator for Low-Power Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Hernandez-Castro, Julio C.; Tapiador, Juan M. E.; Millán, Enrique San; van der Lubbe, Jan C. A.

    In 2004, Settharam and Rhee tackled the design of a lightweight Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) suitable for low-power environments (e.g. sensor networks, low-cost RFID tags). First, they explicitly fixed a set of requirements for this primitive. Then, they proposed a PRNG conforming to these requirements and using a free-running timer [9]. We analyze this primitive discovering important security faults. The proposed algorithm fails to pass even relatively non-stringent batteries of randomness such as ENT (i.e. a pseudorandom number sequence test program). We prove that their recommended PRNG has a very short period due to the flawed design of its core. The internal state can be easily revealed, compromising its backward and forward security. Additionally, the rekeying algorithm is defectively designed mainly related to the unpractical value proposed for this purpose.

  2. A homodyne detector integrated onto a photonic chip for measuring quantum states and generating random numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, Francesco; Ferranti, Giacomo; Mahler, Dylan H.; Sibson, Philip; Kennard, Jake E.; Santamato, Alberto; Sinclair, Gary; Bonneau, Damien; Thompson, Mark G.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.

    2018-04-01

    Optical homodyne detection has found use as a characterisation tool in a range of quantum technologies. So far implementations have been limited to bulk optics. Here we present the optical integration of a homodyne detector onto a silicon photonics chip. The resulting device operates at high speed, up 150 MHz, it is compact and it operates with low noise, quantified with 11 dB clearance between shot noise and electronic noise. We perform on-chip quantum tomography of coherent states with the detector and show that it meets the requirements for characterising more general quantum states of light. We also show that the detector is able to produce quantum random numbers at a rate of 1.2 Gbps, by measuring the vacuum state of the electromagnetic field and applying off-line post processing. The produced random numbers pass all the statistical tests provided by the NIST test suite.

  3. Recurrence and Polya Number of General One-Dimensional Random Walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaokun; Wan Jing; Lu Jingju; Xu Xinping

    2011-01-01

    The recurrence properties of random walks can be characterized by Polya number, i.e., the probability that the walker has returned to the origin at least once. In this paper, we consider recurrence properties for a general 1D random walk on a line, in which at each time step the walker can move to the left or right with probabilities l and r, or remain at the same position with probability o (l + r + o = 1). We calculate Polya number P of this model and find a simple expression for P as, P = 1 - Δ, where Δ is the absolute difference of l and r (Δ = |l - r|). We prove this rigorous expression by the method of creative telescoping, and our result suggests that the walk is recurrent if and only if the left-moving probability l equals to the right-moving probability r. (general)

  4. Pseudo-random number generation for Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations on GPU devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Molecular Dynamics codes implemented on GPUs have achieved two-order of magnitude computational accelerations. → Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations require a large number of random numbers per time step. → We introduce a method for generating small batches of pseudorandom numbers distributed over many threads of calculations. → With this method, Dissipative Particle Dynamics is implemented on a GPU device without requiring thread-to-thread communication. - Abstract: Brownian Dynamics (BD), also known as Langevin Dynamics, and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) are implicit solvent methods commonly used in models of soft matter and biomolecular systems. The interaction of the numerous solvent particles with larger particles is coarse-grained as a Langevin thermostat is applied to individual particles or to particle pairs. The Langevin thermostat requires a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate the stochastic force applied to each particle or pair of neighboring particles during each time step in the integration of Newton's equations of motion. In a Single-Instruction-Multiple-Thread (SIMT) GPU parallel computing environment, small batches of random numbers must be generated over thousands of threads and millions of kernel calls. In this communication we introduce a one-PRNG-per-kernel-call-per-thread scheme, in which a micro-stream of pseudorandom numbers is generated in each thread and kernel call. These high quality, statistically robust micro-streams require no global memory for state storage, are more computationally efficient than other PRNG schemes in memory-bound kernels, and uniquely enable the DPD simulation method without requiring communication between threads.

  5. Distributed Pseudo-Random Number Generation and Its Application to Cloud Database

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiageng; Miyaji, Atsuko; Su, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Cloud database is now a rapidly growing trend in cloud computing market recently. It enables the clients run their computation on out-sourcing databases or access to some distributed database service on the cloud. At the same time, the security and privacy concerns is major challenge for cloud database to continue growing. To enhance the security and privacy of the cloud database technology, the pseudo-random number generation (PRNG) plays an important roles in data encryptions and privacy-pr...

  6. Pseudo-random number generator based on mixing of three chaotic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, M.; Grosges, T.; Barchiesi, D.; Erra, R.

    2014-04-01

    A secure pseudo-random number generator three-mixer is proposed. The principle of the method consists in mixing three chaotic maps produced from an input initial vector. The algorithm uses permutations whose positions are computed and indexed by a standard chaotic function and a linear congruence. The performance of that scheme is evaluated through statistical analysis. Such a cryptosystem lets appear significant cryptographic qualities for a high security level.

  7. Leveraging Random Number Generation for Mastery of Learning in Teaching Quantitative Research Courses via an E-Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsathorn, Wasita; Charoen, Danuvasin; Dryver, Arthur L.

    2014-01-01

    E-Learning brings access to a powerful but often overlooked teaching tool: random number generation. Using random number generation, a practically infinite number of quantitative problem-solution sets can be created. In addition, within the e-learning context, in the spirit of the mastery of learning, it is possible to assign online quantitative…

  8. Generation of pseudo-random numbers from given probabilistic distribution with the use of chaotic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawnik, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    The scope of the paper is the presentation of a new method of generating numbers from a given distribution. The method uses the inverse cumulative distribution function and a method of flattening of probabilistic distributions. On the grounds of these methods, a new construction of chaotic maps was derived, which generates values from a given distribution. The analysis of the new method was conducted on the example of a newly constructed chaotic recurrences, based on the Box-Muller transformation and the quantile function of the exponential distribution. The obtained results certify that the proposed method may be successively applicable for the construction of generators of pseudo-random numbers.

  9. Reconstruction of photon number conditioned states using phase randomized homodyne measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, H M; Assad, S M; Bernu, J; Hage, B; Lam, P K; Symul, T; Lund, A P; Ralph, T C

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the reconstruction of a photon number conditioned state without using a photon number discriminating detector. By using only phase randomized homodyne measurements, we reconstruct up to the three photon subtracted squeezed vacuum state. The reconstructed Wigner functions of these states show regions of pronounced negativity, signifying the non-classical nature of the reconstructed states. The techniques presented allow for complete characterization of the role of a conditional measurement on an ensemble of states, and might prove useful in systems where photon counting still proves technically challenging. (paper)

  10. The additive congruential random number generator--A special case of a multiple recursive generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramaratna, Roy S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper considers an approach to generating uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers which works well in serial applications but which also appears particularly well-suited for application on parallel processing systems. Additive Congruential Random Number (ACORN) generators are straightforward to implement for arbitrarily large order and modulus; if implemented using integer arithmetic, it becomes possible to generate identical sequences on any machine. Previously published theoretical analysis has demonstrated that a kth order ACORN sequence approximates to being uniformly distributed in up to k dimensions, for any given k. ACORN generators can be constructed to give period lengths exceeding any given number (for example, with period length in excess of 230p, for any given p). Results of empirical tests have demonstrated that, if p is greater than or equal to 2, then the ACORN generator can be used successfully for generating double precision uniform random variates. This paper demonstrates that an ACORN generator is a particular case of a multiple recursive generator (and, therefore, also a special case of a matrix generator). Both these latter approaches have been widely studied, and it is to be hoped that the results given in the present paper will lead to greater confidence in using the ACORN generators.

  11. Conjectures on the normal covering number of finite symmetric and alternating groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bubboloni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Let gamma(Sn be the minimum number of proper subgroups Hi, i = 1,...,ell, of the symmetric group Sn such that each element in Sn lies in some conjugate of one of the Hi. In this paper we conjecture that gamma(Sn =(n/2(1-1/p_1 (1-1/p_2 + 2, where p1, p2 are the two smallest primes in the factorization of n and n is neither a prime power nor a product of two primes. Support for the conjecture is given by a previous result for the case where n has at most two distinct prime divisors. We give further evidence by confirming the conjecture for certain integers of the form n = 15q, for an infinite set of primes q, and by reporting on a Magma computation. We make a similar conjecture for gamma(An, when n is even, and provide a similar amount of evidence.

  12. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks. Guna (personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered "The ′Gita" Inventory of Personality" (GIN to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas . Self esteem in terms of competency (COM, global self esteem (GSE, moral and self esteem (MSE, social esteem (SET, family self esteem (FSE, body and physical appearance (BPA, and the lie scale (LIS were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ. Results: The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05 independent samples t-test. There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups ( P < 0.001 paired t-test. The number of persons who showed improvement in Sattva and decrease in Tamas was significant in the Y but not in the PE group (McNemar test. The effect size for self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains. Conclusions: This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise.

  13. Do bacterial cell numbers follow a theoretical Poisson distribution? Comparison of experimentally obtained numbers of single cells with random number generation via computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu

    2016-12-01

    We investigated a bacterial sample preparation procedure for single-cell studies. In the present study, we examined whether single bacterial cells obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a theoretical Poisson distribution. Four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were used as sample bacteria. An inoculum of each serotype was prepared via a 10-fold dilution series to obtain bacterial cell counts with mean values of one or two. To determine whether the experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts follow a theoretical Poisson distribution, a likelihood ratio test between the experimentally obtained cell counts and Poisson distribution which parameter estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was conducted. The bacterial cell counts of each serotype sufficiently followed a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the parameters of Poisson distribution from experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts, we compared these with the parameters of a Poisson distribution that were estimated using random number generation via computer simulation. The Poisson distribution parameters experimentally obtained from bacterial cell counts were within the range of the parameters estimated using a computer simulation. These results demonstrate that the bacterial cell counts of each serotype obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a Poisson distribution. The fact that the frequency of bacterial cell counts follows a Poisson distribution at low number would be applied to some single-cell studies with a few bacterial cells. In particular, the procedure presented in this study enables us to develop an inactivation model at the single-cell level that can estimate the variability of survival bacterial numbers during the bacterial death process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of random number generators in genetic algorithms to improve rainfall-runoff modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlumecký, Martin; Buchtele, Josef; Richta, Karel

    2017-10-01

    The efficient calibration of rainfall-runoff models is a difficult issue, even for experienced hydrologists. Therefore, fast and high-quality model calibration is a valuable improvement. This paper describes a novel methodology and software for the optimisation of a rainfall-runoff modelling using a genetic algorithm (GA) with a newly prepared concept of a random number generator (HRNG), which is the core of the optimisation. The GA estimates model parameters using evolutionary principles, which requires a quality number generator. The new HRNG generates random numbers based on hydrological information and it provides better numbers compared to pure software generators. The GA enhances the model calibration very well and the goal is to optimise the calibration of the model with a minimum of user interaction. This article focuses on improving the internal structure of the GA, which is shielded from the user. The results that we obtained indicate that the HRNG provides a stable trend in the output quality of the model, despite various configurations of the GA. In contrast to previous research, the HRNG speeds up the calibration of the model and offers an improvement of rainfall-runoff modelling.

  15. An experimental randomized study of six different ventilatory modes in a piglet model with normal lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Sjöstrand, U H; Henneberg, S W

    1991-01-01

    A randomized study of 6 ventilatory modes was made in 7 piglets with normal lungs. Using a Servo HFV 970 (prototype system) and a Servo ventilator 900 C the ventilatory modes examined were as follows: SV-20V, i.e. volume-controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV); SV-20VIosc, i...... ventilatory modes. Also the mean airway pressures were lower with the HFV modes 8-9 cm H2O compared to 11-14 cm H2O for the other modes. The gas distribution was evaluated by N2 wash-out and a modified lung clearance index. All modes showed N2 wash-out according to a two-compartment model. The SV-20P mode had.......e. volume-controlled ventilation (IPPV) with superimposed inspiratory oscillations; and SV-20VEf, i.e. volume-controlled ventilation (IPPV) with expiratory flush of fresh gas; HFV-60 denotes low-compressive high-frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV) and HVF-20 denotes low-compressive volume...

  16. Random Number Generation in HIV Disease: Associations with Neuropsychological Functions and Activities of Daily Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, David P; Woods, Steven Paul; Doyle, Katie L; Verduzco, Marizela

    2017-02-01

    HIV is associated with frontostriatal dysregulation and executive dysfunction. This study evaluated whether HIV-infected individuals evidence deficits in random number generation (RNG), which is a strategic task requiring paced, rule-guided production of digits. In total, 74 HIV+ adults and 54 seronegative comparison participants completed a comprehensive research neuropsychological battery. Participants produced a random digit sequence by avoiding any order and using numbers 1 through 10 for 100 s at a pace of 1 digit/s. Outcomes included intrusions, repetitions, seriation (1-2-3-4), and cycling (median length of gaps between repeating digits). HIV disease was associated with higher levels of seriation and cycling (ps  .10). Among HIV+ individuals, higher seriation was associated with neuropsychological performance including poorer auditory attention, verbal learning, and delayed memory, whereas higher cycling scores were associated with poorer delayed memory and verbal fluency (ps random sequences, which showed medium associations with higher order verbal abilities and may contribute to greater declines in everyday functioning outcomes. Future studies might examine RNG's role in health behaviors such as medical decision-making or medication adherence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Chaotic oscillation and random-number generation based on nanoscale optical-energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2014-08-12

    By using nanoscale energy-transfer dynamics and density matrix formalism, we demonstrate theoretically and numerically that chaotic oscillation and random-number generation occur in a nanoscale system. The physical system consists of a pair of quantum dots (QDs), with one QD smaller than the other, between which energy transfers via optical near-field interactions. When the system is pumped by continuous-wave radiation and incorporates a timing delay between two energy transfers within the system, it emits optical pulses. We refer to such QD pairs as nano-optical pulsers (NOPs). Irradiating an NOP with external periodic optical pulses causes the oscillating frequency of the NOP to synchronize with the external stimulus. We find that chaotic oscillation occurs in the NOP population when they are connected by an external time delay. Moreover, by evaluating the time-domain signals by statistical-test suites, we confirm that the signals are sufficiently random to qualify the system as a random-number generator (RNG). This study reveals that even relatively simple nanodevices that interact locally with each other through optical energy transfer at scales far below the wavelength of irradiating light can exhibit complex oscillatory dynamics. These findings are significant for applications such as ultrasmall RNGs.

  18. Theoretical and empirical convergence results for additive congruential random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramaratna, Roy S.

    2010-03-01

    Additive Congruential Random Number (ACORN) generators represent an approach to generating uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers that is straightforward to implement efficiently for arbitrarily large order and modulus; if it is implemented using integer arithmetic, it becomes possible to generate identical sequences on any machine. This paper briefly reviews existing results concerning ACORN generators and relevant theory concerning sequences that are well distributed mod 1 in k dimensions. It then demonstrates some new theoretical results for ACORN generators implemented in integer arithmetic with modulus M=2[mu] showing that they are a family of generators that converge (in a sense that is defined in the paper) to being well distributed mod 1 in k dimensions, as [mu]=log2M tends to infinity. By increasing k, it is possible to increase without limit the number of dimensions in which the resulting sequences approximate to well distributed. The paper concludes by applying the standard TestU01 test suite to ACORN generators for selected values of the modulus (between 260 and 2150), the order (between 4 and 30) and various odd seed values. On the basis of these and earlier results, it is recommended that an order of at least 9 be used together with an odd seed and modulus equal to 230p, for a small integer value of p. While a choice of p=2 should be adequate for most typical applications, increasing p to 3 or 4 gives a sequence that will consistently pass all the tests in the TestU01 test suite, giving additional confidence in more demanding applications. The results demonstrate that the ACORN generators are a reliable source of uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers, and that in practice (as suggested by the theoretical convergence results) the quality of the ACORN sequences increases with increasing modulus and order.

  19. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, Raghuram

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality) and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18–71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, me...

  20. Calculation of large Reynolds number two-dimensional flow using discrete vortices with random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinazzo, F.; Saffman, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    The numerical calculation of two-dimensional rotational flow at large Reynolds number is considered. The method of replacing a continuous distribution of vorticity by a finite number, N, of discrete vortices is examined, where the vortices move under their mutually induced velocities plus a random component to simulate effects of viscosity. The accuracy of the method is studied by comparison with the exact solution for the decay of a circular vortex. It is found, and analytical arguments are produced in support, that the quantitative error is significant unless N is large compared with a characteristic Reynolds number. The mutually induced velocities are calculated by both direct summation and by the ''cloud in cell'' technique. The latter method is found to produce comparable error and to be much faster

  1. Pseudo-random number generation for Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations on GPU devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2011-08-01

    Brownian Dynamics (BD), also known as Langevin Dynamics, and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) are implicit solvent methods commonly used in models of soft matter and biomolecular systems. The interaction of the numerous solvent particles with larger particles is coarse-grained as a Langevin thermostat is applied to individual particles or to particle pairs. The Langevin thermostat requires a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate the stochastic force applied to each particle or pair of neighboring particles during each time step in the integration of Newton's equations of motion. In a Single-Instruction-Multiple-Thread (SIMT) GPU parallel computing environment, small batches of random numbers must be generated over thousands of threads and millions of kernel calls. In this communication we introduce a one-PRNG-per-kernel-call-per-thread scheme, in which a micro-stream of pseudorandom numbers is generated in each thread and kernel call. These high quality, statistically robust micro-streams require no global memory for state storage, are more computationally efficient than other PRNG schemes in memory-bound kernels, and uniquely enable the DPD simulation method without requiring communication between threads.

  2. Using random matrix theory to determine the number of endmembers in a hyperspectral image

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cawse, K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available apply our method to synthetic images, including a standard test image developed by Chein-I Chang, with good results for Gaussian independent noise. Index Terms— Hyperspectral Unmixing, Random Ma- trix Theory, Linear Mixture Model, Virtual Dimension... function, and K is the number of endmembers. We assume Gaussian noise following the methods of [1] [5]. The first step in unmixing the image is to determine how many endmembers or constituents are contained in the scene. This is known as the Virtual...

  3. Scope of Various Random Number Generators in ant System Approach for TSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S. K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    Experimented on heuristic, based on an ant system approach for traveling salesman problem, are several quasi- and pseudo-random number generators. This experiment is to explore if any particular generator is most desirable. Such an experiment on large samples has the potential to rank the performance of the generators for the foregoing heuristic. This is mainly to seek an answer to the controversial issue "which generator is the best in terms of quality of the result (accuracy) as well as cost of producing the result (time/computational complexity) in a probabilistic/statistical sense."

  4. Law of large numbers and central limit theorem for randomly forced PDE's

    CERN Document Server

    Shirikyan, A

    2004-01-01

    We consider a class of dissipative PDE's perturbed by an external random force. Under the condition that the distribution of perturbation is sufficiently non-degenerate, a strong law of large numbers (SLLN) and a central limit theorem (CLT) for solutions are established and the corresponding rates of convergence are estimated. It is also shown that the estimates obtained are close to being optimal. The proofs are based on the property of exponential mixing for the problem in question and some abstract SLLN and CLT for mixing-type Markov processes.

  5. CNV-RF Is a Random Forest-Based Copy Number Variation Detection Method Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsongo, Getiria; Baughn, Linda B; Bower, Matthew; Henzler, Christine; Schomaker, Matthew; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Thyagarajan, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous detection of small copy number variations (CNVs) (<0.5 kb) and single-nucleotide variants in clinically significant genes is of great interest for clinical laboratories. The analytical variability in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and artifacts in coverage data because of issues with mappability along with lack of robust bioinformatics tools for CNV detection have limited the utility of targeted NGS data to identify CNVs. We describe the development and implementation of a bioinformatics algorithm, copy number variation-random forest (CNV-RF), that incorporates a machine learning component to identify CNVs from targeted NGS data. Using CNV-RF, we identified 12 of 13 deletions in samples with known CNVs, two cases with duplications, and identified novel deletions in 22 additional cases. Furthermore, no CNVs were identified among 60 genes in 14 cases with normal copy number and no CNVs were identified in another 104 patients with clinical suspicion of CNVs. All positive deletions and duplications were confirmed using a quantitative PCR method. CNV-RF also detected heterozygous deletions and duplications with a specificity of 50% across 4813 genes. The ability of CNV-RF to detect clinically relevant CNVs with a high degree of sensitivity along with confirmation using a low-cost quantitative PCR method provides a framework for providing comprehensive NGS-based CNV/single-nucleotide variant detection in a clinical molecular diagnostics laboratory. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PUFKEY: a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator for sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongfang; Lu, Zhaojun; Zou, Xuecheng; Liu, Zhenglin

    2015-10-16

    Random number generators (RNG) play an important role in many sensor network systems and applications, such as those requiring secure and robust communications. In this paper, we develop a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator, called PUFKEY, which consists of two kinds of physical unclonable function (PUF) elements. Combined with a conditioning algorithm, true random seeds are extracted from the noise on the start-up pattern of SRAM memories. These true random seeds contain full entropy. Then, the true random seeds are used as the input for a non-deterministic hardware RNG to generate a stream of true random bits with a throughput as high as 803 Mbps. The experimental results show that the bitstream generated by the proposed PUFKEY can pass all standard national institute of standards and technology (NIST) randomness tests and is resilient to a wide range of security attacks.

  7. PUFKEY: A High-Security and High-Throughput Hardware True Random Number Generator for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfang Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Random number generators (RNG play an important role in many sensor network systems and applications, such as those requiring secure and robust communications. In this paper, we develop a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator, called PUFKEY, which consists of two kinds of physical unclonable function (PUF elements. Combined with a conditioning algorithm, true random seeds are extracted from the noise on the start-up pattern of SRAM memories. These true random seeds contain full entropy. Then, the true random seeds are used as the input for a non-deterministic hardware RNG to generate a stream of true random bits with a throughput as high as 803 Mbps. The experimental results show that the bitstream generated by the proposed PUFKEY can pass all standard national institute of standards and technology (NIST randomness tests and is resilient to a wide range of security attacks.

  8. [Statistical (Poisson) motor unit number estimation. Methodological aspects and normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle of healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga Oporto, L; Menéndez-de León, C; Bauzano Poley, E; Núñez-Castaín, M J

    Among the differents techniques for motor unit number estimation (MUNE) there is the statistical one (Poisson), in which the activation of motor units is carried out by electrical stimulation and the estimation performed by means of a statistical analysis based on the Poisson s distribution. The study was undertaken in order to realize an approximation to the MUNE Poisson technique showing a coprehensible view of its methodology and also to obtain normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) from a healthy population. One hundred fourteen normal volunteers with age ranging from 10 to 88 years were studied using the MUNE software contained in a Viking IV system. The normal subjects were divided into two age groups (10 59 and 60 88 years). The EDB MUNE from all them was 184 49. Both, the MUNE and the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) were significantly lower in the older age group (page than CMAP amplitude ( 0.5002 and 0.4142, respectively pphisiology of the motor unit. The value of MUNE correlates better with the neuromuscular aging process than CMAP amplitude does.

  9. The estimation of the number of underground coal miners and normalization collective dose at present in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fu-dong; Chen, Lu; Pan, Zi-qiang; Liu, Sen-lin; Chen, Ling; Wang, Chun-hong

    2017-01-01

    Due to the improvement of production technology and the adjustment of energy structure, as well as the town-ownership and private-ownership coal mines (TPCM) were closed or merged by national policy, the number of underground miner has changed comparing with 2004 in China, so collective dose and normalization collective dose in different type of coal mine should be changed at the same time. In this paper, according to radiation exposure by different ventilation condition and the annual output, the coal mines in China are divided into three types, which are named as national key coal mines (NKCM), station-owned local coal mines (SLCM) and TPCM. The number of underground coal miner, collective dose and normalization collective dose are estimated at present base on surveying annual output and production efficiency of raw coal in 2005-2014. The typical total value of the underground coal miners recommended in China is 5.1 million in 2005-2009, and in which there are respectively included 1 million, 0.9 million and 3.2 million for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM. There are total of 4.7 million underground coal miner in 2010-2014, and the respectively number for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM are 1.4 million, 1.2 million and 2.1 million. The collective dose in 2005-2009 is 11 335 man.Sv.y"-"1, and in which there are respectively included 280, 495 and 10 560 man.Sv.y"-"1 for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM. As far as 2010-2014, there are total of 7982 man.Sv.y"-"1, and 392, 660 and 6930 man.Sv.y"-"1 for each type of coal mines. Therefore, the main contributor of collective dose is from TPCM. The normalization collective dose in 2005-2009 is 0.0025, 0.015 and 0.117 man.Sv per 10 kt for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM, respectively. As far as 2010-2014, there are 0.0018, 0.010 and 0.107 man.Sv per 10 kt for each type of coal mines. The trend of normalization collective dose is decreased year by year. (authors)

  10. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen at 1.25 atmospheres absolute with normal air on macrophage number and infiltration during rat skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Fujita

    Full Text Available Use of mild hyperbaric oxygen less than 2 atmospheres absolute (2026.54 hPa with normal air is emerging as a common complementary treatment for severe muscle injury. Although hyperbaric oxygen at over 2 atmospheres absolute with 100% O2 promotes healing of skeletal muscle injury, it is not clear whether mild hyperbaric oxygen is equally effective. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of hyperbaric oxygen at 1.25 atmospheres absolute (1266.59 hPa with normal air on muscle regeneration. The tibialis anterior muscle of male Wistar rats was injured by injection of bupivacaine hydrochloride, and rats were randomly assigned to a hyperbaric oxygen experimental group or to a non-hyperbaric oxygen control group. Immediately after the injection, rats were exposed to hyperbaric oxygen, and the treatment was continued for 28 days. The cross-sectional area of centrally nucleated muscle fibers was significantly larger in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 5 and 7 days after injury. The number of CD68- or CD68- and CD206-positive cells was significantly higher in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 24 h after injury. Additionally, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 24 h after injury. The number of Pax7- and MyoD- or MyoD- and myogenin-positive nuclei per mm2 and the expression levels of these proteins were significantly higher in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 5 days after injury. These results suggest that mild hyperbaric oxygen promotes skeletal muscle regeneration in the early phase after injury, possibly due to reduced hypoxic conditions leading to accelerated macrophage infiltration and phenotype transition. In conclusion, mild hyperbaric oxygen less than 2 atmospheres absolute with normal air is an appropriate support therapy for severe muscle injuries.

  11. Effect of Volume of Fluid Resuscitation on Metabolic Normalization in Children Presenting in Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakes, Katherine; Haukoos, Jason S; Deakyne, Sara J; Hopkins, Emily; Easter, Josh; McFann, Kim; Brent, Alison; Rewers, Arleta

    2016-04-01

    The optimal rate of fluid administration in pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is unknown. Our aim was to determine whether the volume of fluid administration in children with DKA influences the rate of metabolic normalization. We performed a randomized controlled trial conducted in a tertiary pediatric emergency department from December 2007 until June 2010. The primary outcome was time to metabolic normalization; secondary outcomes were time to bicarbonate normalization, pH normalization, overall length of hospital treatment, and adverse outcomes. Children between 0 and 18 years of age were eligible if they had type 1 diabetes mellitus and DKA. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous (IV) fluid at low volume (10 mL/kg bolus + 1.25 × maintenance rate) or high volume (20 mL/kg bolus + 1.5 × maintenance rate) (n = 25 in each). After adjusting for initial differences in bicarbonate levels, time to metabolic normalization was significantly faster in the higher-volume infusion group compared to the low-volume infusion group (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.9; p = 0.04). Higher-volume IV fluid infusion appeared to hasten, to a greater extent, normalization of pH (HR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.2-5.0; p = 0.01) than normalization of serum bicarbonate (HR = 1.2; 95% CI 0.6-2.3; p = 0.6). The length of hospital treatment HR (0.8; 95% CI 0.4-1.5; p = 0.5) and time to discharge HR (0.8; 95% CI 0.4-1.5; p = 0.5) did not differ between treatment groups. Higher-volume fluid infusion in the treatment of pediatric DKA patients significantly shortened metabolic normalization time, but did not change overall length of hospital treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01701557. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hardware random number generator base on monostable multivibrators dedicated for distributed measurement and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernik, Pawel

    2013-10-01

    The hardware random number generator based on the 74121 monostable multivibrators for applications in cryptographically secure distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources was presented. This device was implemented on the basis of the physical electronic vibration generator in which the circuit is composed of two "loop" 74121 monostable multivibrators, D flip-flop and external clock signal source. The clock signal, witch control D flip-flop was generated by a computer on one of the parallel port pins. There was presented programmed the author's acquisition process of random data from the measuring system to a computer. The presented system was designed, builded and thoroughly tested in the term of cryptographic security in our laboratory, what there is the most important part of this publication. Real cryptographic security was tested based on the author's software and the software environment called RDieHarder. The obtained results was here presented and analyzed in detail with particular reference to the specificity of distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources.

  13. Random number generators for large-scale parallel Monte Carlo simulations on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, F.; Liu, B.

    2018-05-01

    Through parallelization, field programmable gate array (FPGA) can achieve unprecedented speeds in large-scale parallel Monte Carlo (LPMC) simulations. FPGA presents both new constraints and new opportunities for the implementations of random number generators (RNGs), which are key elements of any Monte Carlo (MC) simulation system. Using empirical and application based tests, this study evaluates all of the four RNGs used in previous FPGA based MC studies and newly proposed FPGA implementations for two well-known high-quality RNGs that are suitable for LPMC studies on FPGA. One of the newly proposed FPGA implementations: a parallel version of additive lagged Fibonacci generator (Parallel ALFG) is found to be the best among the evaluated RNGs in fulfilling the needs of LPMC simulations on FPGA.

  14. On the strong law of large numbers for $\\varphi$-subgaussian random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Zajkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    For $p\\ge 1$ let $\\varphi_p(x)=x^2/2$ if $|x|\\le 1$ and $\\varphi_p(x)=1/p|x|^p-1/p+1/2$ if $|x|>1$. For a random variable $\\xi$ let $\\tau_{\\varphi_p}(\\xi)$ denote $\\inf\\{a\\ge 0:\\;\\forall_{\\lambda\\in\\mathbb{R}}\\; \\ln\\mathbb{E}\\exp(\\lambda\\xi)\\le\\varphi_p(a\\lambda)\\}$; $\\tau_{\\varphi_p}$ is a norm in a space $Sub_{\\varphi_p}=\\{\\xi:\\;\\tau_{\\varphi_p}(\\xi)1$) there exist positive constants $c$ and $\\alpha$ such that for every natural number $n$ the following inequality $\\tau_{\\varphi_p}(\\sum_{i=1...

  15. Engineering applications of fpgas chaotic systems, artificial neural networks, random number generators, and secure communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tlelo-Cuautle, Esteban; de la Fraga, Luis Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    This book offers readers a clear guide to implementing engineering applications with FPGAs, from the mathematical description to the hardware synthesis, including discussion of VHDL programming and co-simulation issues. Coverage includes FPGA realizations such as: chaos generators that are described from their mathematical models; artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict chaotic time series, for which a discussion of different ANN topologies is included, with different learning techniques and activation functions; random number generators (RNGs) that are realized using different chaos generators, and discussions of their maximum Lyapunov exponent values and entropies. Finally, optimized chaotic oscillators are synchronized and realized to implement a secure communication system that processes black and white and grey-scale images. In each application, readers will find VHDL programming guidelines and computer arithmetic issues, along with co-simulation examples with Active-HDL and Simulink. Readers will b...

  16. Synthesis of Polystyrene-Based Random Copolymers with Balanced Number of Basic or Acidic Functional Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2010-01-01

    for the functionalization were applied. The first one involved direct functionalization of the template backbone through alkylation of the phenolic groups with suitable reagents. The second modification approach was based on "click" chemistry, where the introduction of alkyne groups onto the template backbone was followed......Pairs of polystyrene-based random copolymers with balanced number of pendant basic or acidic groups were synthesized utilizing the template strategy. The same poly[(4-hydroxystyrene)-ran-styrene] was used as a template backbone for modification. Two different synthetic approaches...... by copper-catalyzed 1,3 cycloaddition of aliphatic sulfonate- or amine-contaning azides. Both synthetic approaches proved to be highly efficient as evidenced by H-1-NMR analyses. The thermal properties were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analyses and were influenced...

  17. A particle-number conserving microscopic approach to octupole deformation of normal deformed and superdeformed states in 194Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhan Hao, T.V.; Phu Dat, D.H.; Hoang Tung, N.; Tran, H.N.

    2015-01-01

    The left–right asymmetric deformation of normal deformed (ND) and superdeformed (SD) states of 194 Pb has been investigated in the framework of the parity-symmetry projection of the highly truncated diagonalization approach (HTDA), which is suited to treat the correlations in an explicitly particle-number conserving microscopic approach. A Skyrme energy density functional using the SIII and SkM* interactions has been considered to treat the particle–hole channel, whereas a density-independent δ force has been adopted for the residual interaction. The obtained results are compared with previous approaches. The calculated octupole phonon excitation energy is found to be in good qualitative agreement with available data in the ND state. (author)

  18. Stimulus number, duration and intensity encoding in randomly connected attractor networks with synaptic depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMiller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Randomly connected recurrent networks of excitatory groups of neurons can possess a multitude of attractor states. When the internal excitatory synapses of these networks are depressing, the attractor states can be destabilized with increasing input. This leads to an itinerancy, where with either repeated transient stimuli, or increasing duration of a single stimulus, the network activity advances through sequences of attractor states. We find that the resulting network state, which persists beyond stimulus offset, can encode the number of stimuli presented via a distributed representation of neural activity with non-monotonic tuning curves for most neurons. Increased duration of a single stimulus is encoded via different distributed representations, so unlike an integrator, the network distinguishes separate successive presentations of a short stimulus from a single presentation of a longer stimulus with equal total duration. Moreover, different amplitudes of stimulus cause new, distinct activity patterns, such that changes in stimulus number, duration and amplitude can be distinguished from each other. These properties of the network depend on dynamic depressing synapses, as they disappear if synapses are static. Thus short-term synaptic depression allows a network to store separately the different dynamic properties of a spatially constant stimulus.

  19. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure) and general health in normal adults. Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18–71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction and devotional ...

  20. On the extreme value statistics of normal random matrices and 2D Coulomb gases: Universality and finite N corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, R.; Zohren, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we extend the orthogonal polynomials approach for extreme value calculations of Hermitian random matrices, developed by Nadal and Majumdar (J. Stat. Mech. P04001 arXiv:1102.0738), to normal random matrices and 2D Coulomb gases in general. Firstly, we show that this approach provides an alternative derivation of results in the literature. More precisely, we show convergence of the rescaled eigenvalue with largest modulus of a normal Gaussian ensemble to a Gumbel distribution, as well as universality for an arbitrary radially symmetric potential. Secondly, it is shown that this approach can be generalised to obtain convergence of the eigenvalue with smallest modulus and its universality for ring distributions. Most interestingly, the here presented techniques are used to compute all slowly varying finite N correction of the above distributions, which is important for practical applications, given the slow convergence. Another interesting aspect of this work is the fact that we can use standard techniques from Hermitian random matrices to obtain the extreme value statistics of non-Hermitian random matrices resembling the large N expansion used in context of the double scaling limit of Hermitian matrix models in string theory.

  1. Embedded Platform for Automatic Testing and Optimizing of FPGA Based Cryptographic True Random Number Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varchola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an evaluation platform for cryptographic True Random Number Generators (TRNGs based on the hardware implementation of statistical tests for FPGAs. It was developed in order to provide an automatic tool that helps to speed up the TRNG design process and can provide new insights on the TRNG behavior as it will be shown on a particular example in the paper. It enables to test sufficient statistical properties of various TRNG designs under various working conditions on the fly. Moreover, the tests are suitable to be embedded into cryptographic hardware products in order to recognize TRNG output of weak quality and thus increase its robustness and reliability. Tests are fully compatible with the FIPS 140 standard and are implemented by the VHDL language as an IP-Core for vendor independent FPGAs. A recent Flash based Actel Fusion FPGA was chosen for preliminary experiments. The Actel version of the tests possesses an interface to the Actel’s CoreMP7 softcore processor that is fully compatible with the industry standard ARM7TDMI. Moreover, identical tests suite was implemented to the Xilinx Virtex 2 and 5 in order to compare the performance of the proposed solution with the performance of already published one based on the same FPGAs. It was achieved 25% and 65% greater clock frequency respectively while consuming almost equal resources of the Xilinx FPGAs. On the top of it, the proposed FIPS 140 architecture is capable of processing one random bit per one clock cycle which results in 311.5 Mbps throughput for Virtex 5 FPGA.

  2. Systematic errors due to linear congruential random-number generators with the Swendsen-Wang algorithm: a warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Giovanni; Sokal, Alan D

    2004-08-01

    We show that linear congruential pseudo-random-number generators can cause systematic errors in Monte Carlo simulations using the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, if the lattice size is a multiple of a very large power of 2 and one random number is used per bond. These systematic errors arise from correlations within a single bond-update half-sweep. The errors can be eliminated (or at least radically reduced) by updating the bonds in a random order or in an aperiodic manner. It also helps to use a generator of large modulus (e.g., 60 or more bits).

  3. Harvesting Entropy for Random Number Generation for Internet of Things Constrained Devices Using On-Board Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piotr Pawlowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things.

  4. Harvesting Entropy for Random Number Generation for Internet of Things Constrained Devices Using On-Board Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things. PMID:26506357

  5. Harvesting entropy for random number generation for internet of things constrained devices using on-board sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej

    2015-10-22

    Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things.

  6. CD8 apoptosis may be a predictor of T cell number normalization after immune reconstitution in HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Maria L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of the Houston Vanguard study, a subset of 10 patients randomized to receive IL-2 therapy were compared to 4 patients randomized to not receive IL-2, for markers of T cell activation and death during the first three cycles of IL-2. All patients were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (ART and were virally suppressed. The purpose of the study was to examine the role of CD8+ T cell death in responses to ART and IL-2 therapy. Methods Lymphocytes were examined at Day 0, 5 and 30 days during three cycles of IL-2 therapy. CD25, CD38, HLA-DR expression and annexin (cell death were examined on CD4 and CD8 subpopulations. Follow up studies examined CD4 levels and CD4:CD8 reconstitution after 6 years using both univariant and multivariate analyses. Results Human lymphocytes responded to IL-2 therapy by upregulation of CD25 on CD4+ T cells, leading to an increase in CD4 cell counts. CD8+ T cells did not increase CD25 expression, but upregulated activation antigens (CD38 and DR and had increased death. At baseline, 7 of the 14 patients had high CD8+ T cell apoptosis (mean 17.0% ± 6.0. We did an exploratory analysis of immune status after six years, and found that baseline CD8+ T cell apoptosis was correlated with CD4 cell count gain beginning two years post enrollment. Patients with low levels of CD8+ T cell apoptosis at baseline (mean 2.2% ± 2.1 had significantly higher CD4 cell counts and more normalized CD4:CD8 ratios than patients with high CD8+ T cell apoptosis (mean CD4 cell counts 1,209 ± 164 vs 754 ± 320 cells/mm3; CD4:CD8 ratios 1.55 vs. 0.70, respectively. Conclusion We postulate that CD8+ T cell apoptosis may reflect inherent activation status, which continues in some patients even though viral replication is suppressed which influences the ability of CD4+ T cells to rebound. Levels of CD8+ T cell apoptosis may therefore be an independent predictor of immune status, which should be shown in a

  7. CD8 apoptosis may be a predictor of T cell number normalization after immune reconstitution in HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dorothy E; Gross, Kimber L; Diez, Martine M; Martinez, Maria L; Lukefahr, Helen N; Kozinetz, Claudia A; Arduino, Roberto C

    2007-01-01

    Background As part of the Houston Vanguard study, a subset of 10 patients randomized to receive IL-2 therapy were compared to 4 patients randomized to not receive IL-2, for markers of T cell activation and death during the first three cycles of IL-2. All patients were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and were virally suppressed. The purpose of the study was to examine the role of CD8+ T cell death in responses to ART and IL-2 therapy. Methods Lymphocytes were examined at Day 0, 5 and 30 days during three cycles of IL-2 therapy. CD25, CD38, HLA-DR expression and annexin (cell death) were examined on CD4 and CD8 subpopulations. Follow up studies examined CD4 levels and CD4:CD8 reconstitution after 6 years using both univariant and multivariate analyses. Results Human lymphocytes responded to IL-2 therapy by upregulation of CD25 on CD4+ T cells, leading to an increase in CD4 cell counts. CD8+ T cells did not increase CD25 expression, but upregulated activation antigens (CD38 and DR) and had increased death. At baseline, 7 of the 14 patients had high CD8+ T cell apoptosis (mean 17.0% ± 6.0). We did an exploratory analysis of immune status after six years, and found that baseline CD8+ T cell apoptosis was correlated with CD4 cell count gain beginning two years post enrollment. Patients with low levels of CD8+ T cell apoptosis at baseline (mean 2.2% ± 2.1) had significantly higher CD4 cell counts and more normalized CD4:CD8 ratios than patients with high CD8+ T cell apoptosis (mean CD4 cell counts 1,209 ± 164 vs 754 ± 320 cells/mm3; CD4:CD8 ratios 1.55 vs. 0.70, respectively). Conclusion We postulate that CD8+ T cell apoptosis may reflect inherent activation status, which continues in some patients even though viral replication is suppressed which influences the ability of CD4+ T cells to rebound. Levels of CD8+ T cell apoptosis may therefore be an independent predictor of immune status, which should be shown in a prospective study. PMID:17263884

  8. Topological relics of symmetry breaking: winding numbers and scaling tilts from random vortex–antivortex pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W H

    2013-01-01

    I show that random distributions of vortex–antivortex pairs (rather than of individual vortices) lead to scaling of typical winding numbers W trapped inside a loop of circumference C with the square root of that circumference, W∼√C, when the expected winding numbers are large, |W| ≫ 1. Such scaling is consistent with the Kibble–Zurek mechanism (KZM), with 〈W 2 〉 inversely proportional to ξ-hat , the typical size of the domain that can break symmetry in unison. (The dependence of ξ-hat on quench rate is predicted by KZM from critical exponents of the phase transition.) Thus, according to KZM, the dispersion √ 2 > scales as √(C/ ξ-hat ) for large W. By contrast, a distribution of individual vortices with randomly assigned topological charges would result in the dispersion scaling with the square root of the area inside C (i.e., √ 2 > ∼ C). Scaling of the dispersion of W as well as of the probability of detection of non-zero W with C and ξ-hat can be also studied for loops so small that non-zero windings are rare. In this case I show that dispersion varies not as 1/√( ξ-hat ), but as 1/ ξ-hat , which results in a doubling of the scaling of dispersion with the quench rate when compared to the large |W| regime. Moreover, the probability of trapping of non-zero W becomes approximately equal to 〈W 2 〉, and scales as 1/ ξ-hat 2 . This quadruples—as compared with √ 2 > ≃ √C/ξ-circumflex valid for large W—the exponent in the power law dependence of the frequency of trapping of |W| = 1 on ξ-hat when the probability of |W| > 1 is negligible. This change of the power law exponent by a factor of four—from 1/√( ξ-hat ) for the dispersion of large W to 1/ ξ-hat 2 for the frequency of non-zero W when |W| > 1 is negligibly rare—is of paramount importance for experimental tests of KZM. (paper)

  9. The Stochastic Galerkin Method for Darcy Flow Problem with Log-Normal Random

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beres, Michal; Domesová, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2017), s. 267-279 ISSN 1336-1376 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Darcy flow * Gaussian random field * Karhunen-Loeve decomposition * polynomial chaos * Stochastic Galerkin method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics http://advances.utc.sk/index.php/AEEE/article/view/2280

  10. Increased certification of semi-device independent random numbers using many inputs and more post-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironowicz, Piotr; Tavakoli, Armin; Hameedi, Alley; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Quantum communication with systems of dimension larger than two provides advantages in information processing tasks. Examples include higher rates of key distribution and random number generation. The main disadvantage of using such multi-dimensional quantum systems is the increased complexity of the experimental setup. Here, we analyze a not-so-obvious problem: the relation between randomness certification and computational requirements of the post-processing of experimental data. In particular, we consider semi-device independent randomness certification from an experiment using a four dimensional quantum system to violate the classical bound of a random access code. Using state-of-the-art techniques, a smaller quantum violation requires more computational power to demonstrate randomness, which at some point becomes impossible with today’s computers although the randomness is (probably) still there. We show that by dedicating more input settings of the experiment to randomness certification, then by more computational postprocessing of the experimental data which corresponds to a quantum violation, one may increase the amount of certified randomness. Furthermore, we introduce a method that significantly lowers the computational complexity of randomness certification. Our results show how more randomness can be generated without altering the hardware and indicate a path for future semi-device independent protocols to follow. (paper)

  11. Vicious random walkers in the limit of a large number of walkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The vicious random walker problem on a line is studied in the limit of a large number of walkers. The multidimensional integral representing the probability that the p walkers will survive a time t (denoted P t (p) ) is shown to be analogous to the partition function of a particular one-component Coulomb gas. By assuming the existence of the thermodynamic limit for the Coulomb gas, one can deduce asymptotic formulas for P t (p) in the large-p, large-t limit. A straightforward analysis gives rigorous asymptotic formulas for the probability that after a time t the walkers are in their initial configuration (this event is termed a reunion). Consequently, asymptotic formulas for the conditional probability of a reunion, given that all walkers survive, are derived. Also, an asymptotic formula for the conditional probability density that any walker will arrive at a particular point in time t, given that all p walkers survive, is calculated in the limit t >> p

  12. Multivariate normal maximum likelihood with both ordinal and continuous variables, and data missing at random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritikin, Joshua N; Brick, Timothy R; Neale, Michael C

    2018-04-01

    A novel method for the maximum likelihood estimation of structural equation models (SEM) with both ordinal and continuous indicators is introduced using a flexible multivariate probit model for the ordinal indicators. A full information approach ensures unbiased estimates for data missing at random. Exceeding the capability of prior methods, up to 13 ordinal variables can be included before integration time increases beyond 1 s per row. The method relies on the axiom of conditional probability to split apart the distribution of continuous and ordinal variables. Due to the symmetry of the axiom, two similar methods are available. A simulation study provides evidence that the two similar approaches offer equal accuracy. A further simulation is used to develop a heuristic to automatically select the most computationally efficient approach. Joint ordinal continuous SEM is implemented in OpenMx, free and open-source software.

  13. An experimental randomized study of six different ventilatory modes in a piglet model with normal lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Sjöstrand, U H; Henneberg, S W

    1991-01-01

    -controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation; and SV-20P denotes pressure-controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. With all modes of ventilation a PEEP of 7.5 cm H2O was used. In the abbreviations used, the number denotes the ventilatory frequency in breaths per minute (bpm). HFV indicates that all...

  14. Parallel Monte Carlo Particle Transport and the Quality of Random Number Generators: How Good is Good Enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procassini, R J; Beck, B R

    2004-01-01

    It might be assumed that use of a ''high-quality'' random number generator (RNG), producing a sequence of ''pseudo random'' numbers with a ''long'' repetition period, is crucial for producing unbiased results in Monte Carlo particle transport simulations. While several theoretical and empirical tests have been devised to check the quality (randomness and period) of an RNG, for many applications it is not clear what level of RNG quality is required to produce unbiased results. This paper explores the issue of RNG quality in the context of parallel, Monte Carlo transport simulations in order to determine how ''good'' is ''good enough''. This study employs the MERCURY Monte Carlo code, which incorporates the CNPRNG library for the generation of pseudo-random numbers via linear congruential generator (LCG) algorithms. The paper outlines the usage of random numbers during parallel MERCURY simulations, and then describes the source and criticality transport simulations which comprise the empirical basis of this study. A series of calculations for each test problem in which the quality of the RNG (period of the LCG) is varied provides the empirical basis for determining the minimum repetition period which may be employed without producing a bias in the mean integrated results

  15. The number of antral follicles in normal women with proven fertility is the best reflection of reproductive age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, G.J.; Broekmans, F.J.; Looman, C.W.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Jong, F.H. de; Velde, E.R. te

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive capacity of several markers of reproductive age in normal women. METHODS: Healthy female volunteers (n = 162) aged 25-46 years with proven, normal fertility and regular menstrual cycles were recruited. In this selected group,

  16. Heartbeats Do Not Make Good Pseudo-Random Number Generators: An Analysis of the Randomness of Inter-Pulse Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ortiz-Martin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of wearable and implantable medical devices has given rise to an interest in developing security schemes suitable for these systems and the environment in which they operate. One area that has received much attention lately is the use of (human biological signals as the basis for biometric authentication, identification and the generation of cryptographic keys. The heart signal (e.g., as recorded in an electrocardiogram has been used by several researchers in the last few years. Specifically, the so-called Inter-Pulse Intervals (IPIs, which is the time between two consecutive heartbeats, have been repeatedly pointed out as a potentially good source of entropy and are at the core of various recent authentication protocols. In this work, we report the results of a large-scale statistical study to determine whether such an assumption is (or not upheld. For this, we have analyzed 19 public datasets of heart signals from the Physionet repository, spanning electrocardiograms from 1353 subjects sampled at different frequencies and with lengths that vary between a few minutes and several hours. We believe this is the largest dataset on this topic analyzed in the literature. We have then applied a standard battery of randomness tests to the extracted IPIs. Under the algorithms described in this paper and after analyzing these 19 public ECG datasets, our results raise doubts about the use of IPI values as a good source of randomness for cryptographic purposes. This has repercussions both in the security of some of the protocols proposed up to now and also in the design of future IPI-based schemes.

  17. Exact simulation of Brown-Resnick random fields at a finite number of locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieker, Ton; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2015-01-01

    We propose an exact simulation method for Brown-Resnick random fields, building on new representations for these stationary max-stable fields. The main idea is to apply suitable changes of measure.......We propose an exact simulation method for Brown-Resnick random fields, building on new representations for these stationary max-stable fields. The main idea is to apply suitable changes of measure....

  18. Dextrose saline compared with normal saline rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Norazilah, Mat Jin; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2013-02-01

    To compare 5% dextrose-0.9% saline against 0.9% saline solution in the intravenous rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum. Women at their first hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum were enrolled on admission to the ward and randomly assigned to receive either 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline by intravenous infusion at a rate 125 mL/h over 24 hours in a double-blind trial. All participants also received thiamine and an antiemetic intravenously. Oral intake was allowed as tolerated. Primary outcomes were resolution of ketonuria and well-being (by 10-point visual numerical rating scale) at 24 hours. Nausea visual numerical rating scale scores were obtained every 8 hours for 24 hours. Persistent ketonuria rates after the 24-hour study period were 10 of 101 (9.9%) compared with 11 of 101 (10.9%) (P>.99; relative risk 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.4-2.2) and median (interquartile range) well-being scores at 24 hours were 9 (8-10) compared with 9 (8-9.5) (P=.73) in the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline and 0.9% saline arms, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance of the nausea visual numerical rating scale score as assessed every 8 hours during the 24-hour study period showed a significant difference in favor of the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline arm (P=.046) with the superiority apparent at 8 and 16 hours, but the advantage had dissipated by 24 hours. Secondary outcomes of vomiting, resolution of hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hypokalemia, length of hospitalization, duration of intravenous antiemetic, and rehydration were not different. Intravenous rehydration with 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline solution in women hospitalized for hyperemesis gravidarum produced similar outcomes. ISRCTN Register, www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn, ISRCTN65014409. I.

  19. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, Raghuram

    2009-01-01

    To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality) and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks. Guna (personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered "The 'Gita" Inventory of Personality" (GIN) to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Self esteem in terms of competency (COM), global self esteem (GSE), moral and self esteem (MSE), social esteem (SET), family self esteem (FSE), body and physical appearance (BPA), and the lie scale (LIS) were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ). The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05 independent samples t-test). There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups (P self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains. This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise.

  20. Predicting the required number of training samples. [for remotely sensed image data based on covariance matrix estimate quality criterion of normal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayeh, H. M.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    A criterion which measures the quality of the estimate of the covariance matrix of a multivariate normal distribution is developed. Based on this criterion, the necessary number of training samples is predicted. Experimental results which are used as a guide for determining the number of training samples are included. Previously announced in STAR as N82-28109

  1. One Model Fits All: Explaining Many Aspects of Number Comparison within a Single Coherent Model-A Random Walk Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reike, Dennis; Schwarz, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    The time required to determine the larger of 2 digits decreases with their numerical distance, and, for a given distance, increases with their magnitude (Moyer & Landauer, 1967). One detailed quantitative framework to account for these effects is provided by random walk models. These chronometric models describe how number-related noisy…

  2. Effects of Number of Repetitions and Number of Hours of Shaping Practice during Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auwal Abdullahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT is effective in improving motor outcomes after stroke. However, its existing protocols are resource-intensive and difficult to implement. The aim of this study is to design an easier CIMT protocol using number of repetitions of shaping practice. Method. The study design was randomized controlled trial. Participants within 4 weeks after stroke were recruited at Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital. They were randomly assigned to groups A, B, C, and D. Group A received 3 hours of traditional therapy. Groups B, C, and D received modified CIMT consisting of 3 hours of shaping practice per session, 300 repetitions of shaping practice in 3 sessions, and 600 repetitions of shaping practice in 3 sessions per day, respectively, and constraint for 90% of the waking hours. All treatment protocols were administered 5 times per week for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was measured using upper limb Fugl-Meyer assessment, while the secondary outcome was measured using motor activity log, Wolf Motor Function Test, and upper limb self-efficacy test at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after intervention. Result. There were 48 participants 4 weeks after intervention. The result showed that there was no significant difference between groups at baseline (p>0.05. Within-group improvements attained minimal clinically important difference (MCID in modified CIMT and 300 repetitions and 600 repetitions groups. Conclusion. Number of repetitions of shaping practice significantly improved motor function, real-world arm use, and upper limb self-efficacy after stroke. Therefore, it seems to be a simple alternative for the use of number of hours. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: PACTR201610001828172 (date of registration: 21/10/2016.

  3. Research of the method of pseudo-random number generation based on asynchronous cellular automata with several active cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilan Stepan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are many tasks that are aimed at studying the dynamic changes in physical processes. These tasks do not give advance known result. The solution of such problems is based on the construction of a dynamic model of the object. Successful structural and functional implementation of the object model can give a positive result in time. This approach uses the task of constructing artificial biological objects. To solve such problems, pseudo-random number generators are used, which also find wide application for information protection tasks. Such generators should have good statistical properties and give a long repetition period of the generated pseudo-random bit sequence. This work is aimed at improving these characteristics. The paper considers the method of forming pseudo-random sequences of numbers on the basis of aperiodic cellular automata with two active cells. A pseudo-random number generator is proposed that generates three bit sequences. The first two bit sequences are formed by the corresponding two active cells in the cellular automaton. The third bit sequence is the result of executing the XOR function over the bits of the first two sequences and it has better characteristics compared to them. The use of cellular automata with two active cells allowed to improve the statistical properties of the formed bit sequence, as well as its repetition period. This is proved by using graphical tests for generators built based on cellular automata using the neighborhoods of von Neumann and Moore. The tests showed high efficiency of the generator based on an asynchronous cellular automaton with the neighborhood of Moore. The proposed pseudo-random number generators have good statistical properties, which makes it possible to use them in information security systems, as well as for simulation tasks of various dynamic processes.

  4. Effect of irradiation, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (VP-16) on number of peripheral blood and peritoneal leukocytes in mice under normal conditions and during acute inflammatory reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van't Wout, J.W.; Linde, I.; Leijh, P.C.; van Furth, R.

    1989-01-01

    In order to develop a suitable model for studying the role of granulocytes and monocytes in resistance against pathogenic microorganisms, we investigated the effect of irradiation and cytostatic treatment (cyclophosphamide and VP-16) on the number of both peripheral blood and peritoneal leukocytes in male Swiss mice. Irradiation and cyclophosphamide treatment severely decreased the number of both granulocytes and monocytes in peripheral blood, whereas VP-16 only lowered the number of blood monocytes to a significant degree and had little effect on the number of blood granulocytes or lymphocytes. When normal mice were injected intraperitoneally with newborn calf serum (NBCS) the number of peritoneal granulocytes rose about 100-fold within 6 h. In irradiated and cyclophosphamide-treated mice, this influx of granulocytes into the peritoneal cavity was virtually eliminated, as was the concomitant increase in the number of blood granulocytes; in VP-16-treated mice, on the other hand, the number of peripheral blood and peritoneal granulocytes increased to the same degree as in normal mice. An increase in the number of peripheral blood monocytes and peritoneal macrophages occurred 24-48 h after injection of NBCS in normal mice. This increase was significantly impaired by irradiation as well as by treatment with cyclophosphamide or VP-16

  5. On random number generators providing convergence more rapid than 1/√N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    To realize the simulation of processes in High Energy Physics a practical test of the efficiency in applying quasirandom numbers to check multiple integration with Monte-Karlo method is presented together with the comparison of the wellknown generators of quasirandom and pseudorandom numbers [ru

  6. Application of random numbers at computerized simulation of proton magnetic resonance signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Populyakh, S.N.; Sapiga, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    One calculated numerically spectra of proton magnetic resonance of water molecules diffusing along the regular positions in a natrolite. One reached adequate conformity of the experimental and the calculated spectra within wide temperature range including a transition region. To ensure calculations one used generators of the pseudorandom Markov sequences. The numerical analysis, in particular, has shown that at the binary Markov process the time period when physical value remains unchanged is described by the random value with exponential distribution [ru

  7. Using the Optical Fractionator to Estimate Total Cell Numbers in the Normal and Abnormal Developing Human Forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen B

    2017-01-01

    abnormal development. Furthermore, many studies of brain cell numbers have employed biased counting methods, whereas innovations in stereology during the past 20-30 years enable reliable and efficient estimates of cell numbers. However, estimates of cell volumes and densities in fetal brain samples...

  8. Application of random number generators in genetic algorithms to improve rainfall-runoff modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlumecký, M.; Buchtele, Josef; Richta, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 553, October (2017), s. 350-355 ISSN 0022-1694 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : genetic algorithm * optimisation * rainfall-runoff modeling * random generator Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Hydrology Impact factor: 3.483, year: 2016 https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0022169417305516/1-s2.0-S0022169417305516-main.pdf?_tid=fa1bad8a-bd6a-11e7-8567-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1509365462_a1335d3d997e9eab19e23b1eee977705

  9. Non-Stoichiometric SixN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor for Compact Random Number Generator with 0.3 Mbit/s Generation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mari; Ohba, Ryuji; Yasuda, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Ken; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Fujita, Shinobu

    2008-08-01

    The demand for random numbers for security applications is increasing. A conventional random number generator using thermal noise can generate unpredictable high-quality random numbers, but the circuit is extremely large because of large amplifier circuit for a small thermal signal. On the other hand, a pseudo-random number generator is small but the quality of randomness is bad. For a small circuit and a high quality of randomness, we purpose a non-stoichiometric SixN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) noise source device. This device generates a very large noise signal without an amplifier circuit. As a result, it is shown that, utilizing a SiN MOSFET, we can attain a compact random number generator with a high generation rate near 1 Mbit/s, which is suitable for almost all security applications.

  10. Random number generation in bilingual Balinese and German students: preliminary findings from an exploratory cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenge, Hans; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Suryani, Luh Ketut

    2009-08-01

    Verbal random number generation is a procedurally simple task to assess executive function and appears ideally suited for the use under diverse settings in cross-cultural research. The objective of this study was to examine ethnic group differences between young adults in Bali (Indonesia) and Kiel (Germany): 50 bilingual healthy students, 30 Balinese and 20 Germans, attempted to generate a random sequence of the digits 1 to 9. In Balinese participants, randomization was done in Balinese (native language L1) and Indonesian (first foreign language L2), in German subjects in the German (L1) and English (L2) languages. 10 of 30 Balinese (33%), but no Germans, were unable to inhibit habitual counting in more than half of the responses. The Balinese produced significantly more nonrandom responses than the Germans with higher rates of counting and significantly less occurrence of the digits 2 and 3 in L1 compared with L2. Repetition and cycling behavior did not differ between the four languages. The findings highlight the importance of taking into account culture-bound psychosocial factors for Balinese individuals when administering and interpreting a random number generation test.

  11. Implementation of a RANLUX Based Pseudo-Random Number Generator in FPGA Using VHDL and Impulse C

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Dąbrowska-Boruch; Grzegorz Gancarczyk; Kazimierz Wiatr

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are widely used e.g. in the field of physics and molecular modelling. The main role played in these is by the high performance random number generators, such as RANLUX or MERSSENE TWISTER. In this paper the authors introduce the world's first implementation of the RANLUX algorithm on an FPGA platform for high performance computing purposes. A significant speed-up of one generator instance over 60 times, compared with a graphic card based solution, can be noticed. Compa...

  12. Multi-objective random search algorithm for simultaneously optimizing wind farm layout and number of turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong; Xu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    A new algorithm for multi-objective wind farm layout optimization is presented. It formulates the wind turbine locations as continuous variables and is capable of optimizing the number of turbines and their locations in the wind farm simultaneously. Two objectives are considered. One is to maximi...

  13. SU-E-T-568: Improving Normal Brain Sparing with Increasing Number of Arc Beams for Volume Modulated Arc Beam Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, S; Hildebrand, K; Ahmad, S; Larson, D; Ma, L; Sahgal, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc beams have been newly reported for treating multiple brain metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine the variations in the normal brain doses with increasing number of arc beams for multiple brain metastases treatments via the TrueBeam Rapidarc system (Varian Oncology, Palo Alto, CA). Methods: A patient case with 12 metastatic brain lesions previously treated on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (GK) was used for the study. All lesions and organs at risk were contoured by a senior radiation oncologist and treatment plans for a subset of 3, 6, 9 and all 12 targets were developed for the TrueBeam Rapidarc system via 3 to 7 intensity modulated arc-beams with each target covered by at least 99% of the prescribed dose of 20 Gy. The peripheral normal brain isodose volumes as well as the total beam-on time were analyzed with increasing number of arc beams for these targets. Results: All intensisty modulated arc-beam plans produced efficient treatment delivery with the beam-on time averaging 0.6–1.5 min per lesion at an output of 1200 MU/min. With increasing number of arc beams, the peripheral normal brain isodose volumes such as the 12-Gy isodose line enclosed normal brain tissue volumes were on average decreased by 6%, 11%, 18%, and 28% for the 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-target treatment plans respectively. The lowest normal brain isodose volumes were consistently found for the 7-arc treatment plans for all the cases. Conclusion: With nearly identical beam-on times, the peripheral normal brain dose was notably decreased when the total number of intensity modulated arc beams was increased when treating multiple brain metastases. Dr Sahgal and Dr Ma are currently serving on the board of international society of stereotactic radiosurgery

  14. Ringers lactate vs Normal saline for children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration- a double blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vidushi; Sajan, Shiv Saini; Sharma, Amit; Kaur, Jasbinder

    2012-12-01

    WHO recommends Ringers lactate (RL) and Normal Saline (NS) for rapid intravenous rehydration in childhood diarrhea and severe dehydration. We compared these two fluids for improvement in pH over baseline during rapid intravenous rehydration in children with acute diarrhea. Double-blind randomized controlled trial Pediatric emergency facilities at a tertiary-care referral hospital. Children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration received either RL (RL-group) or NS (NS-group), 100 mL/kg over three or six hours. Children were reassessed after three or six hours. Rapid rehydration was repeated if severe dehydration persisted. Blood gas was done at baseline and repeated after signs of severe dehydration disappeared. Primary outcome was change in pH from baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes in serum electrolytes, bicarbonate levels, and base-deficit from baseline; mortality, duration of hospital stay, and fluids requirement. Twenty two children, 11 each were randomized to the two study groups. At primary end point (disappearance of signs of severe dehydration), the improvement in pH from baseline was not significant in RL-group [from 7.17 (0.11) to 7.28 (0.09)] as compared to NS-group [7.09 (0.11) to 7.21 (0.09)], P=0.17 (after adjusting for baseline serum Na/ Cl). Among this limited sample size, children in RL group required less fluids [median 310 vs 530 mL/kg, P=0.01] and had shorter median hospital stay [38 vs 51 hours, P=0.03]. There was no difference in improvement in pH over baseline between RL and NS among children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration.

  15. Effects of thermal and particle-number fluctuations on the giant isovector dipole modes for the 58Ni nucleus in the finite-temperature random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Dinhdang; Nguyen Zuythang

    1988-01-01

    Using the realistic single-particle energy spectrum obtained in the Woods-Saxon nucleon mean-field potential, we calculate the BCS pairing gap for 58 Ni as a function of temperature taking into account the thermal and particle-number fluctuations. The strength distributions of the electric dipole transitions and the centroids of the isovector giant dipole resonance (IV-GDR) are computed in the framework of the finite-temperature random-phase approximation (RPA) based on the Hamiltonian of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model with separate dipole forces. It is shown that the change of the pairing gap at finite temperature can noticeably influence the IV-GDR localisation in realistic nuclei. By taking both thermal and quasiparticle fluctuations in the pairing gap into account the effect of the phase transition from superfluid to normal in the temperature dependence of the IV-GDR centroid is completely smeared out. (author)

  16. Assessment of the suitability of different random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations in gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo Diaz, N.; Vergara Gil, A.; Jurado Vargas, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method has become a valuable numerical laboratory framework in which to simulate complex physical systems. It is based on the generation of pseudo-random number sequences by numerical algorithms called random generators. In this work we assessed the suitability of different well-known random number generators for the simulation of gamma-ray spectrometry systems during efficiency calibrations. The assessment was carried out in two stages. The generators considered (Delphi's linear congruential, mersenne twister, XorShift, multiplier with carry, universal virtual array, and non-periodic logistic map based generator) were first evaluated with different statistical empirical tests, including moments, correlations, uniformity, independence of terms and the DIEHARD battery of tests. In a second step, an application-specific test was conducted by implementing the generators in our Monte Carlo program DETEFF and comparing the results obtained with them. The calculations were performed with two different CPUs, for a typical HpGe detector and a water sample in Marinelli geometry, with gamma-rays between 59 and 1800 keV. For the Non-periodic Logistic Map based generator, dependence of the most significant bits was evident. This explains the bias, in excess of 5%, of the efficiency values obtained with this generator. The results of the application-specific assessment and the statistical performance of the other algorithms studied indicate their suitability for the Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray spectrometry systems for efficiency calculations.

  17. Assessment of the suitability of different random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations in gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, N Cornejo; Gil, A Vergara; Vargas, M Jurado

    2010-03-01

    The Monte Carlo method has become a valuable numerical laboratory framework in which to simulate complex physical systems. It is based on the generation of pseudo-random number sequences by numerical algorithms called random generators. In this work we assessed the suitability of different well-known random number generators for the simulation of gamma-ray spectrometry systems during efficiency calibrations. The assessment was carried out in two stages. The generators considered (Delphi's linear congruential, mersenne twister, XorShift, multiplier with carry, universal virtual array, and non-periodic logistic map based generator) were first evaluated with different statistical empirical tests, including moments, correlations, uniformity, independence of terms and the DIEHARD battery of tests. In a second step, an application-specific test was conducted by implementing the generators in our Monte Carlo program DETEFF and comparing the results obtained with them. The calculations were performed with two different CPUs, for a typical HpGe detector and a water sample in Marinelli geometry, with gamma-rays between 59 and 1800 keV. For the Non-periodic Logistic Map based generator, dependence of the most significant bits was evident. This explains the bias, in excess of 5%, of the efficiency values obtained with this generator. The results of the application-specific assessment and the statistical performance of the other algorithms studied indicate their suitability for the Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray spectrometry systems for efficiency calculations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interleukin-6 Regulates Adult Neural Stem Cell Numbers during Normal and Abnormal Post-natal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekayla A. Storer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Circulating systemic factors can regulate adult neural stem cell (NSC biology, but the identity of these circulating cues is still being defined. Here, we have focused on the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6, since increased circulating levels of IL-6 are associated with neural pathologies such as autism and bipolar disorder. We show that IL-6 promotes proliferation of post-natal murine forebrain NSCs and that, when the IL-6 receptor is inducibly knocked out in post-natal or adult neural precursors, this causes a long-term decrease in forebrain NSCs. Moreover, a transient circulating surge of IL-6 in perinatal or adult mice causes an acute increase in neural precursor proliferation followed by long-term depletion of adult NSC pools. Thus, IL-6 signaling is both necessary and sufficient for adult NSC self-renewal, and acute perturbations in circulating IL-6, as observed in many pathological situations, have long-lasting effects on the size of adult NSC pools. : In this report, Storer and colleagues demonstrate that the circulating cytokine IL-6, which is elevated in humans in different pathological situations, can perturb neural stem cell biology after birth. They show that IL-6 signaling is essential for self-renewal and maintenance of post-natal and adult NSCs in the murine forebrain under normal homeostatic conditions. Keywords: interleukin-6, neural stem cell, adult neurogenesis, CNS cytokines, postnatal brain development, stem cell depletion, neural stem cell niche, circulating stem cell factors, olfactory bulb

  19. A randomized controlled trial comparing parenteral normal saline with and without 5% dextrose on the course of labor in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chanderdeep; Kalra, Jasvinder; Bagga, Rashmi; Kumar, Praveen

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare intravenous normal saline with and without 5% dextrose on the course of labor in nulliparous women in active phase of spontaneous labor. In a randomized controlled trial, term, nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy in active labor were randomized into one of two groups receiving either normal saline or normal saline alternating with 5% dextrose at rate of 175 ml/h. The primary outcome was total length of labor from onset of study fluid in vaginally delivered women. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were also analyzed. Of 250 women enrolled, in vaginally delivered subjects, there was significant difference in the duration of labor (p=0.0) and prolonged labor (p=0.01), with favorable results for women in 5% dextrose alternating with normal saline. No statistically significant differences were observed in the cesarean section rates between the groups. The cord pH was significantly higher in neonates born to women in 5% dextrose alternating with normal saline infusion as compared to normal saline alone (p=0.01), however, no neonate in the study had acidemia. Administration of a 5% dextrose solution alternating with normal saline is a better parenteral fluid for significantly decreasing duration of labor in term vaginally delivered nulliparous women in spontaneous active labor as compared to normal saline alone.

  20. PERL-2 and LAVR-2 programs for Monte Carlo calculation of reactivity disturbances with trajectory correlation using random numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaeva, O.B.; Polevoj, V.B.

    1983-01-01

    Realization of BESM-6 computer of a technique is described for calculating a wide class of reactivity disturbances by plotting trajectories in undisturbed and disturbed systems using one sequence of random numbers. The technique was realized on the base of earlier created programs of calculation of widespreed (PERL) and local (LAVR) reactivity disturbances. The efficiency of the technique and programs is demonstrated by calculation of change of effective neutron-multiplication factor when absorber is substituted for fuel element in a BFS-40 critical assembly and by calculation of control drum characteristics

  1. Effectiveness of zinc supplementation to full term normal infants: a community based double blind, randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Radhakrishna

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to test whether zinc supplementation, if initiated early, can prevent stunting and promote optimum body composition in full term infants. For this, full term pregnant women from low income urban community were enrolled and were followed-up for 24 months postpartum. Body mass index (BMI was calculated from maternal weight and height that were collected one month after delivery. Infants' weight, and length, head, chest and mid upper arm circumferences and skin fold thicknesses at triceps, biceps and subscapular area were collected at baseline (before randomization and once in three months up till 24 months. Three hundred and twenty four infants were randomized and allocated to zinc (163 or placebo (161 groups respectively. Supplementation of zinc was initiated from 4 months of age and continued till children attained 18 months. The control (placebo group of children received riboflavin 0.5 mg/day, whereas the intervention (zinc group received 5 mg zinc plus riboflavin 0.5 mg/day. When infants were 18 months old, dietary intakes (in 78 children were calculated by 24 hour diet recall method and hemoglobin, zinc, copper and vitamin A were quantified in blood samples collected from 70 children. The results showed prevalence of undernutrition (body mass index <18.5 in 37% of the mothers. Mean±SD calorie consumption and zinc intakes from diets in infants were 590±282.8 Kcal/day and 0.97±0.608 mg/day respectively. Multiple linear regression models demonstrated maternal weight as a strong predictor of infants' weight and length at 18 months of age. As expected, diarrhea duration impacted infants' linear growth and weight gain adversely. Zinc supplementation for a mean period of 190 days, starting from 4 months up to 18 months of age, in full term normal infants, consuming an average energy of 590 Kcal/day, had significant effect on the skin fold thicknesses, but not on their linear growth.Clinical Trail Registration India (CTRI CTRI

  2. Accelerating Convergence in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Solutes in Lipid Membranes by Conducting a Random Walk along the Bilayer Normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Chris; Madill, Chris; Rauscher, Sarah; Pomès, Régis

    2013-08-13

    All molecular dynamics simulations are susceptible to sampling errors, which degrade the accuracy and precision of observed values. The statistical convergence of simulations containing atomistic lipid bilayers is limited by the slow relaxation of the lipid phase, which can exceed hundreds of nanoseconds. These long conformational autocorrelation times are exacerbated in the presence of charged solutes, which can induce significant distortions of the bilayer structure. Such long relaxation times represent hidden barriers that induce systematic sampling errors in simulations of solute insertion. To identify optimal methods for enhancing sampling efficiency, we quantitatively evaluate convergence rates using generalized ensemble sampling algorithms in calculations of the potential of mean force for the insertion of the ionic side chain analog of arginine in a lipid bilayer. Umbrella sampling (US) is used to restrain solute insertion depth along the bilayer normal, the order parameter commonly used in simulations of molecular solutes in lipid bilayers. When US simulations are modified to conduct random walks along the bilayer normal using a Hamiltonian exchange algorithm, systematic sampling errors are eliminated more rapidly and the rate of statistical convergence of the standard free energy of binding of the solute to the lipid bilayer is increased 3-fold. We compute the ratio of the replica flux transmitted across a defined region of the order parameter to the replica flux that entered that region in Hamiltonian exchange simulations. We show that this quantity, the transmission factor, identifies sampling barriers in degrees of freedom orthogonal to the order parameter. The transmission factor is used to estimate the depth-dependent conformational autocorrelation times of the simulation system, some of which exceed the simulation time, and thereby identify solute insertion depths that are prone to systematic sampling errors and estimate the lower bound of the

  3. Theory and implementation of a very high throughput true random number generator in field programmable gate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yonggang, E-mail: wangyg@ustc.edu.cn; Hui, Cong; Liu, Chong; Xu, Chao [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-04-15

    The contribution of this paper is proposing a new entropy extraction mechanism based on sampling phase jitter in ring oscillators to make a high throughput true random number generator in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) practical. Starting from experimental observation and analysis of the entropy source in FPGA, a multi-phase sampling method is exploited to harvest the clock jitter with a maximum entropy and fast sampling speed. This parametrized design is implemented in a Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, where the carry chains in the FPGA are explored to realize the precise phase shifting. The generator circuit is simple and resource-saving, so that multiple generation channels can run in parallel to scale the output throughput for specific applications. The prototype integrates 64 circuit units in the FPGA to provide a total output throughput of 7.68 Gbps, which meets the requirement of current high-speed quantum key distribution systems. The randomness evaluation, as well as its robustness to ambient temperature, confirms that the new method in a purely digital fashion can provide high-speed high-quality random bit sequences for a variety of embedded applications.

  4. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure) and general health in normal adults. Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts) for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI) which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled), Rajas (violent and uncontrolled) and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled). The general health status (total health), which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS), anxiety and insomnia (AI), social dysfunction (SF) and severe depression (SP), was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05, independent samples t test). Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test). SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test). There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in Yoga and Tamas reduced in PE. The general health

  5. Stable and efficient retrospective 4D-MRI using non-uniformly distributed quasi-random numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Kathrin; Meyer, Cord B.; Breuer, Felix A.; Richter, Anne; Exner, Florian; Weng, Andreas M.; Ströhle, Serge; Polat, Bülent; Jakob, Peter M.; Sauer, Otto A.; Flentje, Michael; Weick, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this work is the development of a robust and reliable three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian imaging technique for fast and flexible retrospective 4D abdominal MRI during free breathing. To this end, a non-uniform quasi random (NU-QR) reordering of the phase encoding (k y –k z ) lines was incorporated into 3D Cartesian acquisition. The proposed sampling scheme allocates more phase encoding points near the k-space origin while reducing the sampling density in the outer part of the k-space. Respiratory self-gating in combination with SPIRiT-reconstruction is used for the reconstruction of abdominal data sets in different respiratory phases (4D-MRI). Six volunteers and three patients were examined at 1.5 T during free breathing. Additionally, data sets with conventional two-dimensional (2D) linear and 2D quasi random phase encoding order were acquired for the volunteers for comparison. A quantitative evaluation of image quality versus scan times (from 70 s to 626 s) for the given sampling schemes was obtained by calculating the normalized mutual information (NMI) for all volunteers. Motion estimation was accomplished by calculating the maximum derivative of a signal intensity profile of a transition (e.g. tumor or diaphragm). The 2D non-uniform quasi-random distribution of phase encoding lines in Cartesian 3D MRI yields more efficient undersampling patterns for parallel imaging compared to conventional uniform quasi-random and linear sampling. Median NMI values of NU-QR sampling are the highest for all scan times. Therefore, within the same scan time 4D imaging could be performed with improved image quality. The proposed method allows for the reconstruction of motion artifact reduced 4D data sets with isotropic spatial resolution of 2.1  ×  2.1  ×  2.1 mm3 in a short scan time, e.g. 10 respiratory phases in only 3 min. Cranio-caudal tumor displacements between 23 and 46 mm could be observed. NU-QR sampling enables for stable 4D

  6. Comparison of Sleep Latency and Number of SOREMPs in the Home and Hospital With a Modified Multiple Sleep Latency Test: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiske, Kornelia K; Sand, Trond; Rugland, Eyvind; Stavem, Knut

    2017-05-01

    Comparison of mean sleep latencies and number of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods (SOREMPs) between modified multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) performed in the unattended home and in-hospital laboratory setting. A randomized crossover single-blinded design. Thirty-four subjects referred to MSLT for suspected hypersomnia or narcolepsy were included. Participants were randomized to perform modified MSLT in the unattended home or in the hospital first. Scores in the two settings were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test or exact McNemar test. Agreement between home and hospital categorized mean sleep latency and number of SOREMPs was assessed using simple kappa (κ) and proportion agreement. Agreement between home and hospital mean sleep latency was assessed using a Bland-Altman plot and an intraclass correlation coefficient. There was no difference between home and hospital assessment of mean sleep latency (P = 0.86). Two or more SOREMPs were found more frequently on modified MSLTs performed at home compared with those at the hospital (7 and 2, respectively; P = 0.025). Agreement was moderate for categorized sleep latency (κ = 0.53) and fair for categorized SOREMPs (κ = 0.39) in the 2 settings. Analysis of mean sleep latency using intraclass correlation coefficient showed a very good agreement between the two settings. Group mean sleep latency for home modified MSLTs seems to be reliable compared with that for the attended sleep-laboratory setting. Higher rate of SOREMP in the unattended home suggests that napping in a familiar environment facilitates the transition into REM sleep. Further studies are needed to assess the normal limit, sensitivity, and specificity for SOREMP at home before the clinical utility of home-based napping can be determined.

  7. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Health in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure and general health in normal adults. Methods : Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas , pranayama , meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled, Rajas (violent and uncontrolled and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled. The general health status (total health, which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS, anxiety and insomnia (AI, social dysfunction (SF and severe depression (SP, was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Results : Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05, independent samples t test. Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test. SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test. Conclusions : There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than

  8. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Health in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure and general health in normal adults. Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas , pranayama , meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled, Rajas (violent and uncontrolled and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled. The general health status (total health, which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS, anxiety and insomnia (AI, social dysfunction (SF and severe depression (SP, was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Results: Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05, independent samples t test. Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test. SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test. Conclusions: There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in

  9. Randomized Double-blind Trial of Ringer Lactate Versus Normal Saline in Pediatric Acute Severe Diarrheal Dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartha, Gayathri Bhuvaneswaran; Rameshkumar, Ramachandran; Mahadevan, Subramanian

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Ringer lactate (RL) versus normal saline (NS) in the correction of pediatric acute severe diarrheal dehydration, as measured by improvement in clinical status and pH (≥7.35). A total of 68 children ages 1 month to 12 years with acute severe diarrheal dehydration (World Health Organization [WHO] classification) were randomized into RL (n = 34) and NS groups (n = 34) and received 100 mL/kg of the assigned intravenous fluid according to WHO PLAN-C for the management of diarrheal dehydration. The primary outcome was an improvement in clinical status and pH (≥7.35) at the end of 6 hours. Secondary outcomes were changes in serum electrolytes, renal and blood gas parameters, the volume of fluid required for dehydration correction excluding the first cycle, time to start oral feeding, hospital stay, and cost-effectiveness analysis. Primary outcome was achieved in 38% versus 23% (relative risk = 1.63, 95% confidence interval 0.80-3.40) in RL and NS groups, respectively. No significant differences were observed in secondary outcomes in electrolytes, renal, and blood gas parameters. None required second cycle of dehydration correction. Median (interquartile range) time to start oral feeding (1.0 [0.19-2.0] vs 1.5 [0.5-2.0] hours) and hospital stay (2.0 [1.0-2.0] vs 2.0 [2.0-2.0] days) was similar. The median total cost was higher in RL than NS group ((Equation is included in full-text article.)120 [(Equation is included in full-text article.)120-(Equation is included in full-text article.)180] vs (Equation is included in full-text article.)55 [(Equation is included in full-text article.)55-(Equation is included in full-text article.)82], P ≤ 0.001). In pediatric acute severe diarrheal dehydration, resuscitation with RL and NS was associated with similar clinical improvement and biochemical resolution. Hence, NS is to be considered as the fluid of choice because of the clinical improvement, cost

  10. An Architecturally Constrained Model of Random Number Generation and its Application to Modelling the Effect of Generation Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Sexton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Random number generation (RNG is a complex cognitive task for human subjects, requiring deliberative control to avoid production of habitual, stereotyped sequences. Under various manipulations (e.g., speeded responding, transcranial magnetic stimulation, or neurological damage the performance of human subjects deteriorates, as reflected in a number of qualitatively distinct, dissociable biases. For example, the intrusion of stereotyped behaviour (e.g., counting increases at faster rates of generation. Theoretical accounts of the task postulate that it requires the integrated operation of multiple, computationally heterogeneous cognitive control ('executive' processes. We present a computational model of RNG, within the framework of a novel, neuropsychologically-inspired cognitive architecture, ESPro. Manipulating the rate of sequence generation in the model reproduced a number of key effects observed in empirical studies, including increasing sequence stereotypy at faster rates. Within the model, this was due to time limitations on the interaction of supervisory control processes, namely, task setting, proposal of responses, monitoring, and response inhibition. The model thus supports the fractionation of executive function into multiple, computationally heterogeneous processes.

  11. Short periods of high temperature during meiosis prevent normal meiotic progression and reduce grain number in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, Tracie; Moore, Graham

    2017-09-01

    Exposure of wheat to high temperatures during male meiosis prevents normal meiotic progression and reduces grain number. We define a temperature-sensitive period and link heat tolerance to chromosome 5D. This study assesses the effects of heat on meiotic progression and grain number in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Chinese Spring), defines a heat-sensitive stage and evaluates the role of chromosome 5D in heat tolerance. Plants were exposed to high temperatures (30 or 35 °C) in a controlled environment room for 20-h periods during meiosis and the premeiotic interphase just prior to meiosis. Examination of pollen mother cells (PMCs) from immature anthers immediately before and after heat treatment enabled precise identification of the developmental phases being exposed to heat. A temperature-sensitive period was defined, lasting from premeiotic interphase to late leptotene, during which heat can prevent PMCs from progressing through meiosis. PMCs exposed to 35 °C were less likely to progress than those exposed to 30 °C. Grain number per spike was reduced at 30 °C, and reduced even further at 35 °C. Chinese Spring nullisomic 5D-tetrasomic 5B (N5DT5B) plants, which lack chromosome 5D, were more susceptible to heat during premeiosis-leptotene than Chinese Spring plants with the normal (euploid) chromosome complement. The proportion of plants with PMCs progressing through meiosis after heat treatment was lower for N5DT5B plants than for euploids, but the difference was not significant. However, following exposure to 30 °C, in euploid plants grain number was reduced (though not significantly), whereas in N5DT5B plants the reduction was highly significant. After exposure to 35 °C, the reduction in grain number was highly significant for both genotypes. Implications of these findings for the breeding of thermotolerant wheat are discussed.

  12. A time-series approach to random number generation: Using recurrence quantification analysis to capture executive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter eOomens

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of executive functions plays a prominent role in contemporary experimental and clinical studies on cognition. One paradigm used in this framework is the random number generation (RNG task, the execution of which demands aspects of executive functioning, specifically inhibition and working memory. Data from the RNG task are best seen as a series of successive events. However, traditional RNG measures that are used to quantify executive functioning are mostly summary statistics referring to deviations from mathematical randomness. In the current study, we explore the utility of recurrence quantification analysis (RQA, a nonlinear method that keeps the entire sequence intact, as a better way to describe executive functioning compared to traditional measures. To this aim, 242 first- and second-year students completed a non-paced RNG task. Principal component analysis of their data showed that traditional and RQA measures convey more or less the same information. However, RQA measures do so more parsimoniously and have a better interpretation.

  13. Comparison of the Number of Peripheral Blood CD4+CD25+ T Cells in Unexplained Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion Patients with Normal Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eslami

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Undoubtedly, reproduction is a necessity for survival and successful pregnancy is an immunological paradox. In the present study, we investigated the proportional changes of CD4+CD25bright T cells, CD4+CD25dim T cells in peripheral blood in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions (URSA and compared it with normal pregnant women by antibody monoclonal method. Methods: The study group comprised of women with miscarriages of unexplained etiology who had normal karyotypes, anticardiolipin antibodies, prolactin levels and normal spousal spermograms. They did not have polycystic ovaries and also did not receive any drugs at the time of the study. PBLs lymphocytes were isolated, then FITC-conjugated and anti-CD4 and PE-conjugated anti-CD25 antibody levels were measured. Then results of the study and control group were analyzed and compared. Results: The absolute number of CD25 bright cells in the CD4‏+T cells in peripheral blood was statistically significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group(P=0.000. The absolute number of CD4+CD25dimT cells in peripheral blood was statistically significantly higher in the study group as compared to the control group (P=0.000. Conclusion: As decrease in the number of CD4+CD25+Tcells or their functional deficiency may be linked with miscarriage, CD4+CD25+‏ Tells could serve as a novel biomarker for monitoring in URSA patients, but more studies are needed in this field.

  14. Benefits of Reiki therapy for a severely neutropenic patient with associated influences on a true random number generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Melvin L; Beem, Lance W

    2011-12-01

    Reiki therapy is documented for relief of pain and stress. Energetic healing has been documented to alter biologic markers of illness such as hematocrit. True random number generators are reported to be affected by energy healers and spiritually oriented conscious awareness. The patient was a then 54-year-old severely ill man who had hepatitis C types 1 and 2 and who did not improve with conventional therapy. He also suffered from obesity, the metabolic syndrome, asthma, and hypertension. He was treated with experimental high-dose interferon/riboviron therapy with resultant profound anemia and neutropenia. Energetic healing and Reiki therapy was administered initially to enhance the patient's sense of well-being and to relieve anxiety. Possible effects on the patient's absolute neutrophil count and hematocrit were incidentally noted. Reiki therapy was then initiated at times of profound neutropenia to assess its possible effect on the patient's absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Reiki and other energetic healing sessions were monitored with a true random number generator (RNG). Statistically significant relationships were documented between Reiki therapy, a quieting of the electronically created white noise of the RNG during healing sessions, and improvement in the patient's ANC. The immediate clinical result was that the patient could tolerate the high-dose interferon regimen without missing doses because of absolute neutropenia. The patient was initially a late responder to interferon and had been given a 5% chance of clearing the virus. He remains clear of the virus 1 year after treatment. The association between changes in the RNG, Reiki therapy, and a patient's ANC is the first to the authors' knowledge in the medical literature. Future studies assessing the effects of energetic healing on specific biologic markers of disease are anticipated. Concurrent use of a true RNG may prove to correlate with the effectiveness of energetic therapy.

  15. Law of large numbers for the SIR model with random vertex weights on Erdős-Rényi graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the SIR model with random vertex weights on Erdős-Rényi graph G(n , p) . The Erdős-Rényi graph G(n , p) is generated from the complete graph Cn with n vertices through independently deleting each edge with probability (1 - p) . We assign i. i. d. copies of a positive r. v. ρ on each vertex as the vertex weights. For the SIR model, each vertex is in one of the three states 'susceptible', 'infective' and 'removed'. An infective vertex infects a given susceptible neighbor at rate proportional to the production of the weights of these two vertices. An infective vertex becomes removed at a constant rate. A removed vertex will never be infected again. We assume that at t = 0 there is no removed vertex and the number of infective vertices follows a Bernoulli distribution B(n , θ) . Our main result is a law of large numbers of the model. We give two deterministic functions HS(ψt) ,HV(ψt) for t ≥ 0 and show that for any t ≥ 0, HS(ψt) is the limit proportion of susceptible vertices and HV(ψt) is the limit of the mean capability of an infective vertex to infect a given susceptible neighbor at moment t as n grows to infinity.

  16. The effect of offering different numbers of colorectal cancer screening test options in a decision aid: a pilot randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Alison RT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision aids can improve decision making processes, but the amount and type of information that they should attempt to communicate is controversial. We sought to compare, in a pilot randomized trial, two colorectal cancer (CRC screening decision aids that differed in the number of screening options presented. Methods Adults ages 48–75 not currently up to date with screening were recruited from the community and randomized to view one of two versions of our previously tested CRC screening decision aid. The first version included five screening options: fecal occult blood test (FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, a combination of FOBT and sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and barium enema. The second discussed only the two most frequently selected screening options, FOBT and colonoscopy. Main outcomes were differences in screening interest and test preferences between groups after decision aid viewing. Patient test preference was elicited first without any associated out-of-pocket costs (OPC, and then with the following costs: FOBT-$10, sigmoidoscopy-$50, barium enema-$50, and colonoscopy-$200. Results 62 adults participated: 25 viewed the 5-option decision aid, and 37 viewed the 2-option version. Mean age was 54 (range 48–72, 58% were women, 71% were White, 24% African-American; 58% had completed at least a 4-year college degree. Comparing participants that viewed the 5-option version with participants who viewed the 2-option version, there were no differences in screening interest after viewing (1.8 vs. 1.9, t-test p = 0.76. Those viewing the 2-option version were somewhat more likely to choose colonoscopy than those viewing the 5-option version when no out of pocket costs were assumed (68% vs. 46%, p = 0.11, but not when such costs were imposed (41% vs. 42%, p = 1.00. Conclusion The number of screening options available does not appear to have a large effect on interest in colorectal cancer screening. The effect of offering differing

  17. Influence of Time-Series Normalization, Number of Nodes, Connectivity and Graph Measure Selection on Seizure-Onset Zone Localization from Intracranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Pieter; Lie, Octavian; Staljanssens, Willeke; Coito, Ana; Vulliémoz, Serge

    2018-04-26

    We investigated the influence of processing steps in the estimation of multivariate directed functional connectivity during seizures recorded with intracranial EEG (iEEG) on seizure-onset zone (SOZ) localization. We studied the effect of (i) the number of nodes, (ii) time-series normalization, (iii) the choice of multivariate time-varying connectivity measure: Adaptive Directed Transfer Function (ADTF) or Adaptive Partial Directed Coherence (APDC) and (iv) graph theory measure: outdegree or shortest path length. First, simulations were performed to quantify the influence of the various processing steps on the accuracy to localize the SOZ. Afterwards, the SOZ was estimated from a 113-electrodes iEEG seizure recording and compared with the resection that rendered the patient seizure-free. The simulations revealed that ADTF is preferred over APDC to localize the SOZ from ictal iEEG recordings. Normalizing the time series before analysis resulted in an increase of 25-35% of correctly localized SOZ, while adding more nodes to the connectivity analysis led to a moderate decrease of 10%, when comparing 128 with 32 input nodes. The real-seizure connectivity estimates localized the SOZ inside the resection area using the ADTF coupled to outdegree or shortest path length. Our study showed that normalizing the time-series is an important pre-processing step, while adding nodes to the analysis did only marginally affect the SOZ localization. The study shows that directed multivariate Granger-based connectivity analysis is feasible with many input nodes (> 100) and that normalization of the time-series before connectivity analysis is preferred.

  18. The approximate number system and domain-general abilities as predictors of math ability in children with normal hearing and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rebecca; Marschark, Marc; Nordmann, Emily; Sapere, Patricia; Skene, Wendy A

    2018-06-01

    Many children with hearing loss (CHL) show a delay in mathematical achievement compared to children with normal hearing (CNH). This study examined whether there are differences in acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) between CHL and CNH, and whether ANS acuity is related to math achievement. Working memory (WM), short-term memory (STM), and inhibition were considered as mediators of any relationship between ANS acuity and math achievement. Seventy-five CHL were compared with 75 age- and gender-matched CNH. ANS acuity, mathematical reasoning, WM, and STM of CHL were significantly poorer compared to CNH. Group differences in math ability were no longer significant when ANS acuity, WM, or STM was controlled. For CNH, WM and STM fully mediated the relationship of ANS acuity to math ability; for CHL, WM and STM only partially mediated this relationship. ANS acuity, WM, and STM are significant contributors to hearing status differences in math achievement, and to individual differences within the group of CHL. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children with hearing loss often perform poorly on measures of math achievement, although there have been few studies focusing on basic numerical cognition in these children. In typically developing children, the approximate number system predicts math skills concurrently and longitudinally, although there have been some contradictory findings. Recent studies suggest that domain-general skills, such as inhibition, may account for the relationship found between the approximate number system and math achievement. What does this study adds? This is the first robust examination of the approximate number system in children with hearing loss, and the findings suggest poorer acuity of the approximate number system in these children compared to hearing children. The study addresses recent issues regarding the contradictory findings of the relationship of the approximate number system to math ability

  19. A randomized comparison of patients' understanding of number needed to treat and other common risk reduction formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Stacey L; Pignone, Michael P; Lewis, Carmen L

    2003-11-01

    Commentators have suggested that patients may understand quantitative information about treatment benefits better when they are presented as numbers needed to treat (NNT) rather than as absolute or relative risk reductions. To determine whether NNT helps patients interpret treatment benefits better than absolute risk reduction (ARR), relative risk reduction (RRR), or a combination of all three of these risk reduction presentations (COMBO). Randomized cross-sectional survey. University internal medicine clinic. Three hundred fifty-seven men and women, ages 50 to 80, who presented for health care. Subjects were given written information about the baseline risk of a hypothetical "disease Y" and were asked (1) to compare the benefits of two drug treatments for disease Y, stating which provided more benefit; and (2) to calculate the effect of one of those drug treatments on a given baseline risk of disease. Risk information was presented to each subject in one of four randomly allocated risk formats: NNT, ARR, RRR, or COMBO. When asked to state which of two treatments provided more benefit, subjects who received the RRR format responded correctly most often (60% correct vs 43% for COMBO, 42% for ARR, and 30% for NNT, P =.001). Most subjects were unable to calculate the effect of drug treatment on the given baseline risk of disease, although subjects receiving the RRR and ARR formats responded correctly more often (21% and 17% compared to 7% for COMBO and 6% for NNT, P =.004). Patients are best able to interpret the benefits of treatment when they are presented in an RRR format with a given baseline risk of disease. ARR also is easily interpreted. NNT is often misinterpreted by patients and should not be used alone to communicate risk to patients.

  20. Irregular meal pattern-effects on energy expenditure, metabolism and appetite regulation: a randomized controlled trial in healthy normal-weight women

    OpenAIRE

    Alhussain, Maha H; Macdonald, Ian A.; Taylor, Moira A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is increasing in parallel with greater all-day food availability. The latter may promote meal irregularity, dysregulation of the energy balance, and poor metabolic health.\\ud Objective: We investigated the effect of meal irregularity on the thermic effect of food (TEF), lipid concentrations, carbohydrate metabolism, subjective appetite, and gut hormones in healthy women.\\ud Design: Eleven normal-weight women (18–40 y of age) were recruited in a randomized crossover trial w...

  1. Improvement of the Gravitational Search Algorithm by means of Low-Discrepancy Sobol Quasi Random-Number Sequence Based Initialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALTINOZ, O. T.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nature-inspired optimization algorithms can obtain the optima by updating the position of each member in the population. At the beginning of the algorithm, the particles of the population are spread into the search space. The initial distribution of particles corresponds to the beginning points of the search process. Hence, the aim is to alter the position for each particle beginning with this initial position until the optimum solution will be found with respect to the pre-determined conditions like maximum iteration, and specific error value for the fitness function. Therefore, initial positions of the population have a direct effect on both accuracy of the optima and the computational cost. If any member in the population is close enough to the optima, this eases the achievement of the exact solution. On the contrary, individuals grouped far away from the optima might yield pointless efforts. In this study, low-discrepancy quasi-random number sequence is preferred for the localization of the population at the initialization phase. By this way, the population is distributed into the search space in a more uniform manner at the initialization phase. The technique is applied to the Gravitational Search Algorithm and compared via the performance on benchmark function solutions.

  2. High speed true random number generator with a new structure of coarse-tuning PDL in FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongzhen; Wang, Pengjun; Cheng, Xu; Zhou, Keji

    2018-03-01

    A metastability-based TRNG (true random number generator) is presented in this paper, and implemented in FPGA. The metastable state of a D flip-flop is tunable through a two-stage PDL (programmable delay line). With the proposed coarse-tuning PDL structure, the TRNG core does not require extra placement and routing to ensure its entropy. Furthermore, the core needs fewer stages of coarse-tuning PDL at higher operating frequency, and thus saves more resources in FPGA. The designed TRNG achieves 25 Mbps @ 100 MHz throughput after proper post-processing, which is several times higher than other previous TRNGs based on FPGA. Moreover, the robustness of the system is enhanced with the adoption of a feedback system. The quality of the designed TRNG is verified by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) and also accepted by class P1 of the AIS-20/31 test suite. Project supported by the S&T Plan of Zhejiang Provincial Science and Technology Department (No. 2016C31078), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61574041, 61474068, 61234002), and the K.C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  3. Random forest predictive modeling of mineral prospectivity with small number of prospects and data with missing values in Abra (Philippines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Laborte, Alice G.

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning methods that have been used in data-driven predictive modeling of mineral prospectivity (e.g., artificial neural networks) invariably require large number of training prospect/locations and are unable to handle missing values in certain evidential data. The Random Forests (RF) algorithm, which is a machine learning method, has recently been applied to data-driven predictive mapping of mineral prospectivity, and so it is instructive to further study its efficacy in this particular field. This case study, carried out using data from Abra (Philippines), examines (a) if RF modeling can be used for data-driven modeling of mineral prospectivity in areas with a few (i.e., individual layers of evidential data. Furthermore, RF modeling can handle missing values in evidential data through an RF-based imputation technique whereas in WofE modeling values are simply represented by zero weights. Therefore, the RF algorithm is potentially more useful than existing methods that are currently used for data-driven predictive mapping of mineral prospectivity. In particular, it is not a purely black-box method like artificial neural networks in the context of data-driven predictive modeling of mineral prospectivity. However, further testing of the method in other areas with a few mineral occurrences is needed to fully investigate its usefulness in data-driven predictive modeling of mineral prospectivity.

  4. Analysis and comparison of immune reactivity in guinea-pigs immunized with equivalent numbers of normal or radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.V.; McLaren, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Guinea-pigs immunized with equivalent numbers of normal or radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni develop close to complete resistance to reinfection at weeks 12 and 4.5 respectively. We here analyse and compare the immune responses induced by the two populations of cercariae. Both radiation-attenuated and normal parasites of S. mansoni elicited an extensive germinal centre response in guinea-pigs by week 4.5 post-immunization. The anti-parasite antibody titre and cytotoxic activity of serum from 4.5-week-vaccinated, or 4.5-week-infected guinea-pigs were approximately equal, but sera from 12-week-infected individuals had high titres of anti-parasite antibody, which promoted significant larvicidal activity in vitro. In all cases, larvicidal activity was mediated by the IgG 2 fraction of the immune serum. Lymphocyte transformation tests conducted on splenic lymphocytes from 4.5-week vaccinated guinea-pigs revealed maximal stimulation against cercarial, 2-week and 3-week worm antigens, whereas spleen cells from 4.5-week-infected guinea-pigs were maximally stimulated by cercarial and 6-week worm antigens. The splenic lymphocyte responses of 12-week infected animals were dramatic against antigens prepared from all life-stages of the parasite. (author)

  5. N-Acetylcysteine Normalizes Glutamate Levels in Cocaine-Dependent Patients: A Randomized Crossover Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, Lianne; Veltman, Dick J.; Nederveen, Aart; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) normalizes glutamate (Glu) homeostasis and prevents relapse in drug-dependent animals. However, the effect of NAC on brain Glu levels in substance-dependent humans has not yet been investigated. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1 MRS) was used to

  6. N-Acetylcysteine Normalizes Glutamate Levels in Cocaine-Dependent Patients: A Randomized Crossover Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Veltman, D.J.; Nederveen, A.; van den Brink, W.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) normalizes glutamate (Glu) homeostasis and prevents relapse in drug-dependent animals. However, the effect of NAC on brain Glu levels in substance-dependent humans has not yet been investigated. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) was used to

  7. Epidemiology of RBC Transfusions in Patients With Severe Acute Kidney Injury: Analysis From the Randomized Evaluation of Normal Versus Augmented Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Mårtensson, Johan; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Lo, Serigne; Gallagher, Martin; Cass, Alan; Myburgh, John; Finfer, Simon

    2016-05-01

    To assess the epidemiology and outcomes associated with RBC transfusion in patients with severe acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Post hoc analysis of data from a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty-five ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Cohort of 1,465 patients enrolled in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level replacement therapy study. Daily information on morning hemoglobin level and amount of RBC transfused were prospectively collected in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level study. We analyzed the epidemiology of such transfusions and their association with clinical outcomes. Overall, 977 patients(66.7%) received a total of 1,192 RBC units. By day 5, 785 of 977 transfused patients (80.4%) had received at least one RBC transfusion. Hemoglobin at randomization was lower in transfused than in nontransfused patients (94 vs 111 g/L; p regression analysis, RBC transfusion was independently associated with lower 90-day mortality (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38-0.79). However, we found no independent association between RBC transfusions and mortality when the analyses were restricted to patients surviving at least 5 days (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.85). We found no independent association between RBC transfusion and renal replacement therapy-free days, mechanical ventilator-free days, or length of stay in ICU or hospital. In patients with severe acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy, we found no association of RBC transfusion with 90-day mortality or other patient-centered outcomes. The optimal hemoglobin threshold for RBC transfusion in such patients needs to be determined in future randomized controlled trials.

  8. Circadian rhythms in the incidence of apoptotic cells and number of clonogenic cells in intestinal crypts after radiation using normal and reversed light conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, K.; Potten, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Variations in the number of radiation-induced morphologically dead or dying cells (apoptotic cells) in the crypts in the small intestine of the mouse have been studied throughout a 24-h period under a normal light regimen. A clear circadian rhythm was displayed in the apoptotic incidence 3 or 6 h after irradiation for each gamma-ray dose studied (range 0.14-9.0 Gy). The most prominent circadian rhythm was obtained after 0.5 Gy. Peak time of day for inducing apoptosis was 06.00-09.00 h, and the trough occurred at 18.00-21.00 h. Some mice were also transferred to a reversed light cycle, and irradiated on different days after transfer. Apoptosis induced by 0.5 Gy or 9.0 Gy, or number of surviving crypts (microcolonies) after 11.0 Gy or 13.0 Gy was examined. The transition point for reversal of circadian rhythm in apoptosis (after 0.5 Gy) occurred 7 days after transfer and the rhythm was reversed by 14 days. The rhythm for crypt survival (i.e. for clonogenic cell radiosensitivity) was disturbed on 1 day and transition point for reversal occurred 3 days after transfer. The rhythm became reversed by 7 days. (author)

  9. Priming psychic and conjuring abilities of a magic demonstration influences event interpretation and random number generation biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christine; Koutrakis, Nikolaos; Kuhn, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Magical ideation and belief in the paranormal is considered to represent a trait-like character; people either believe in it or not. Yet, anecdotes indicate that exposure to an anomalous event can turn skeptics into believers. This transformation is likely to be accompanied by altered cognitive functioning such as impaired judgments of event likelihood. Here, we investigated whether the exposure to an anomalous event changes individuals’ explicit traditional (religious) and non-traditional (e.g., paranormal) beliefs as well as cognitive biases that have previously been associated with non-traditional beliefs, e.g., repetition avoidance when producing random numbers in a mental dice task. In a classroom, 91 students saw a magic demonstration after their psychology lecture. Before the demonstration, half of the students were told that the performance was done respectively by a conjuror (magician group) or a psychic (psychic group). The instruction influenced participants’ explanations of the anomalous event. Participants in the magician, as compared to the psychic group, were more likely to explain the event through conjuring abilities while the reverse was true for psychic abilities. Moreover, these explanations correlated positively with their prior traditional and non-traditional beliefs. Finally, we observed that the psychic group showed more repetition avoidance than the magician group, and this effect remained the same regardless of whether assessed before or after the magic demonstration. We conclude that pre-existing beliefs and contextual suggestions both influence people’s interpretations of anomalous events and associated cognitive biases. Beliefs and associated cognitive biases are likely flexible well into adulthood and change with actual life events. PMID:25653626

  10. Priming psychic and conjuring abilities of a magic demonstration influences event interpretation and random number generation biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eMohr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magical ideation and belief in the paranormal is considered to represent a trait-like character; people either believe in it or not. Yet, anecdotes indicate that exposure to an anomalous event can turn sceptics into believers. This transformation is likely to be accompanied by altered cognitive functioning such as impaired judgements of event likelihood. Here, we investigated whether the exposure to an anomalous event changes individuals’ explicit traditional (religious and non-traditional (e.g. paranormal beliefs as well as cognitive biases that have previously been associated with non-traditional beliefs, e.g. repetition avoidance when producing random numbers in a mental dice task. In a classroom, 91 students saw a magic demonstration after their psychology lecture. Before the demonstration, half of the students were told that the performance was done respectively by a conjuror (magician group or a psychic (psychic group. The instruction influenced participants’ explanations of the anomalous event. Participants in the magician, as compared to the psychic group, were more likely to explain the event through conjuring abilities while the reverse was true for psychic abilities. Moreover, these explanations correlated positively with their prior traditional and non-traditional beliefs. Finally, we observed that the psychic group showed more repetition avoidance than the magician group, and this effect remained the same regardless of whether assessed before or after the magic demonstration. We conclude that pre-existing beliefs and contextual suggestions both influence people’s interpretations of anomalous events and associated cognitive biases. Beliefs and associated cognitive biases are likely flexible well into adulthood and change with actual life events.

  11. Sampling from the normal and exponential distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, K.R.; Wills, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for generating random numbers from the normal and exponential distributions are described. These involve dividing each function into subregions, and for each of these developing a method of sampling usually based on an acceptance rejection technique. When sampling from the normal or exponential distribution, each subregion provides the required random value with probability equal to the ratio of its area to the total area. Procedures written in FORTRAN for the CYBER 175/CDC 6600 system are provided to implement the two algorithms

  12. Random number generators and the Metropolis algorithm: application to various problems in physics and mechanics as an introduction to computational physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvayrac, Florent

    2005-01-01

    We present known and new applications of pseudo random numbers and of the Metropolis algorithm to phenomena of physical and mechanical interest, such as the search of simple clusters isomers with interactive visualization, or vehicle motion planning. The progression towards complicated problems was used with first-year graduate students who wrote most of the programs presented here. We argue that the use of pseudo random numbers in simulation and extrema research programs in teaching numerical methods in physics allows one to get quick programs and physically meaningful and demonstrative results without recurring to the advanced numerical analysis methods

  13. Effect of meal composition on postprandial lipid concentrations and lipoprotein particle numbers: A randomized cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Shah

    Full Text Available It is unclear how high-protein (HP and high-monounsaturated fat (HMF meals affect postprandial blood lipids and lipoprotein particle numbers (LPN.To compare a HP versus a HMF meal on postprandial lipid and LPN responses.Twenty-four participants (age: 36.3±15.0 years; body mass index: 23.6±2.0 kg/m2; 45.8% female were fed a HP (31.9% energy from protein and a HMF (35.2% fat and 20.7% monounsaturated fat meal in a randomized cross-over trial design. Energy and carbohydrate content were the same across meals. Blood samples were drawn in the fasting state and 3 hour postprandial state, and assessed for lipids and LPN.Repeated measures analysis showed a significant (p<0.05 treatment by time interaction effect for triglycerides (TG, the primary variable, total high-density lipoprotein particles (T-HDLP and T-HDLP minus large-buoyant high-density lipoprotein 2b (T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b. HP versus HMF condition led to significantly lower TG at 120 (geometric mean: 90.1 (95% confidence interval (CI: 76.4-106.3 vs. 146.5 (124.2-172.9 mg/dL and 180 (101.4 (83.1-123.8 vs. 148.7 (121.9-181.4 mg/dL min and higher T-HDLP at 120 (mean difference: 297.3 (95% CI: 48.6-545.9 nmol/L and 180 (291.6 (15.8-567.5 nmol/L min. The difference in T-HDLP by condition was due to the significantly higher small-dense HDLP (T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b during HP versus HMF condition at 120 (mean difference: 452.6 (95% CI: 177.4-727.9 nmol/L and 180 (496.8 (263.1-730.6 nmol/L min. Area under the curve analysis showed that HP versus HMF condition led to significantly lower TG, non-HDLP, and very-low-density lipoprotein particles (VLDLP responses but significantly less favorable responses in LB-HDL2b particles, T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b, and LB-HDL2b/T-HDLP ratio.The HP meal led to lower TG, non-HDLP, and VLDLP but less favorable LB-HDL2b, small-dense HDLP, and LB-HDL2b/T-HDLP ratio responses versus a HMF meal. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings over multiple meals.

  14. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett F.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Start study was conducted during 2009–2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. Subjects: From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre......Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Design: Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children......-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (schooling), 285 children completed the intervention and had complete information on dietary intake. Results: Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P...

  15. CFD Analysis of Random Turbulent Flow Load in Steam Generator of APR1400 Under Normal Operation Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Gyu; You, Sung Chang; Kim, Han Gon

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory guide 1.20 revision 3 of the Nuclear Regulatory Committee (NRC) modifies guidance for vibration assessments of reactor internals and steam generator internals. The new guidance requires applicants to provide a preliminary analysis and evaluation of the design and performance of a facility, including the safety margins of during normal operation and transient conditions anticipated during the life of the facility. Especially, revision 3 require rigorous assessments of adverse flow effects in the steam dryer cased by flow-excited acoustic and structural resonances such as the abnormality from power-uprated BWR cases. For two nearly identical nuclear power plants, the steam system of one BWR plant experienced failure of steam dryers and the main steam system components when steam flow was increased by 16 percent for extended power uprate (EPU). The mechanisms of those failures have revealed that a small adverse flow changing from the prototype condition induced severe flow-excited acoustic and structural resonances, leading to structural failures. In accordance with the historical background, therefore, potential adverse flow effects should be evaluated rigorously for steam generator internals in both BWR and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400), an evolutionary light water reactor, increased the power by 7.7 percent from the design of the 'Valid Prototype', System80+. Thus, reliable evaluations of potential adverse flow effects on the steam generator of APR1400 are necessary according to the regulatory guide. This paper is part of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis results for evaluation of the adverse flow effect for the steam generator internals of APR1400, including a series of sensitivity analyses to enhance the reliability of CFD analysis and an estimation the effect of flow loads on the internals of the steam generator under normal operation conditions

  16. NIMROD: a program for inference via a normal approximation of the posterior in models with random effects based on ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prague, Mélanie; Commenges, Daniel; Guedj, Jérémie; Drylewicz, Julia; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2013-08-01

    Models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) are widespread tools for describing dynamical systems. In biomedical sciences, data from each subject can be sparse making difficult to precisely estimate individual parameters by standard non-linear regression but information can often be gained from between-subjects variability. This makes natural the use of mixed-effects models to estimate population parameters. Although the maximum likelihood approach is a valuable option, identifiability issues favour Bayesian approaches which can incorporate prior knowledge in a flexible way. However, the combination of difficulties coming from the ODE system and from the presence of random effects raises a major numerical challenge. Computations can be simplified by making a normal approximation of the posterior to find the maximum of the posterior distribution (MAP). Here we present the NIMROD program (normal approximation inference in models with random effects based on ordinary differential equations) devoted to the MAP estimation in ODE models. We describe the specific implemented features such as convergence criteria and an approximation of the leave-one-out cross-validation to assess the model quality of fit. In pharmacokinetics models, first, we evaluate the properties of this algorithm and compare it with FOCE and MCMC algorithms in simulations. Then, we illustrate NIMROD use on Amprenavir pharmacokinetics data from the PUZZLE clinical trial in HIV infected patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of baking process on postprandial metabolic consequences: randomized trials in normal and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, S W; Laromiguiere, M; Champ, M; Bruzzo, F; Boillot, J; Slama, G

    2007-02-01

    To determine the impact of the form, fibre content, baking and processing on the glycaemic, insulinaemic and lipidaemic responses of different French breads. First study: Nine healthy subjects were randomized to consume in a crossover design one of six kinds of French bread (each containing 50 g available carbohydrate): classic baguette, traditional baguette, loaf of wholemeal bread (WM-B), loaf of bread fermented with yeast or with leaven, a sandwich and a glucose challenge as reference. The glycaemic index (GI) values ranged from 57+/-9% (mean+/-s.e.m.), for the traditional baguette, to 85+/-27% for the WM-B. No significant difference was found among the different tested bread. The insulinaemic index (II), however, of the traditional baguette and of the bread fermented with leaven were lower than the other breads (analysis of variance: Pvarieties of French bread (the TB) have lower II, in healthy subjects, and lower GI, in type 2 diabetic subjects, than that of the other varieties. These results might be due to bread processing difference rather than fibre content. Supported by grants from the National French Milling Association.

  18. Quantum Hash function and its application to privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information.

  19. Quantum Hash function and its application to privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information. PMID:26823196

  20. Pseudo-Random Number Generation in Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder: Further Evidence for a Dissociation in Executive Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Nicole J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Moss, Simon A.; Brereton, Avril V.; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2006-01-01

    The repetitive, stereotyped and obsessive behaviours, which are core diagnostic features of autism, are thought to be underpinned by executive dysfunction. This study examined executive impairment in individuals with autism and Asperger's disorder using a verbal equivalent of an established pseudo-random number generating task. Different patterns…

  1. An empirical test of pseudo random number generators by means of an exponential decaying process; Una prueba empirica de generadores de numeros pseudoaleatorios mediante un proceso de decaimiento exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronel B, H.F.; Hernandez M, A.R.; Jimenez M, M.A. [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, A.P. 475, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Mora F, L.E. [CIMAT, A.P. 402, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico)]. e-mail: hcoronel@uv.mx

    2007-07-01

    Empirical tests for pseudo random number generators based on the use of processes or physical models have been successfully used and are considered as complementary to theoretical tests of randomness. In this work a statistical methodology for evaluating the quality of pseudo random number generators is presented. The method is illustrated in the context of the so-called exponential decay process, using some pseudo random number generators commonly used in physics. (Author)

  2. The limit of small Rossby numbers for randomly forced quasi-geostrophic equation on $\\beta$-plane

    OpenAIRE

    Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We consider the 2d quasigeostrophic equation on the $\\beta$-plane for the stream function $\\psi$, with dissipation and a random force: $$ (*)\\qquad (-\\Delta +K)\\psi_t - \\rho J(\\psi, \\Delta\\psi) -\\beta\\psi_x= \\langle \\text{random force}\\rangle -\\kappa\\Delta^2\\psi +\\Delta\\psi, $$ where $\\psi=\\psi(t,x,y), \\ x\\in\\mathbb{R}/2\\pi L\\mathbb{Z}, \\ y\\in \\mathbb{R}/2\\pi \\mathbb{Z}$. For typical values of the horizontal period $L$ we prove that the law of the action-vector of a solution for $(*)$ (formed...

  3. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jeanett F; Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Olsen, Nanna J; Stougaard, Maria; Mortensen, Erik L; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children's diet complied with the Danish national guidelines. Linear regression per protocol and intention-to-treat analyses of differences in intakes of energy, macronutrients, fruit, vegetables, fish, sugar-sweetened beverages and diet quality index between the two groups were conducted. The Healthy Start study was conducted during 2009-2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (dietary intake. Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P=0·02) compared with the control group. We observed lower intakes of carbohydrates and added sugar in the intervention group compared with the control group after the intervention (P=0·002, P=0·01). The intervention resulted in a lower energy intake, particularly from carbohydrates and added sugar after 15 months of intervention, suggesting that dietary intake can be changed in a healthier direction in children predisposed to obesity.

  4. Colloids exposed to random potential energy landscapes: From particle number density to particle-potential and particle-particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewerunge, Jörg; Capellmann, Ronja F.; Platten, Florian; Egelhaaf, Stefan U.; Sengupta, Ankush; Sengupta, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal particles were exposed to a random potential energy landscape that has been created optically via a speckle pattern. The mean particle density as well as the potential roughness, i.e., the disorder strength, were varied. The local probability density of the particles as well as its main characteristics were determined. For the first time, the disorder-averaged pair density correlation function g (1) (r) and an analogue of the Edwards-Anderson order parameter g (2) (r), which quantifies the correlation of the mean local density among disorder realisations, were measured experimentally and shown to be consistent with replica liquid state theory results.

  5. CAN'T MISS--conquer any number task by making important statistics simple. Part 2. Probability, populations, samples, and normal distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John P

    2003-01-01

    Healthcare quality improvement professionals need to understand and use inferential statistics to interpret sample data from their organizations. In quality improvement and healthcare research studies all the data from a population often are not available, so investigators take samples and make inferences about the population by using inferential statistics. This three-part series will give readers an understanding of the concepts of inferential statistics as well as the specific tools for calculating confidence intervals for samples of data. This article, Part 2, describes probability, populations, and samples. The uses of descriptive and inferential statistics are outlined. The article also discusses the properties and probability of normal distributions, including the standard normal distribution.

  6. RANDOMNESS of Numbers DEFINITION(QUERY:WHAT? V HOW?) ONLY Via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-Statistics(MBCS) Hot-Plasma VS. Digits-Clumping Log-Law NON-Randomness Inversion ONLY BOSE-EINSTEIN QUANTUM-Statistics(BEQS) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Z.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    RANDOMNESS of Numbers cognitive-semantics DEFINITION VIA Cognition QUERY: WHAT???, NOT HOW?) VS. computer-``science" mindLESS number-crunching (Harrel-Sipser-...) algorithmics Goldreich "PSEUDO-randomness"[Not.AMS(02)] mea-culpa is ONLY via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-STATISTICS(NOT FDQS!!!) "hot-plasma" REPULSION VERSUS Newcomb(1881)-Weyl(1914;1916)-Benford(1938) "NeWBe" logarithmic-law digit-CLUMPING/ CLUSTERING NON-Randomness simple Siegel[AMS Joint.Mtg.(02)-Abs. # 973-60-124] algebraic-inversion to THE QUANTUM and ONLY BEQS preferentially SEQUENTIALLY lower-DIGITS CLUMPING/CLUSTERING with d = 0 BEC, is ONLY VIA Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (SON OF TRIZ)/"Category-Semantics"(C-S), latter intersection/union of Lawvere(1964)-Siegel(1964)] category-theory (matrix: MORPHISMS V FUNCTORS) "+" cognitive-semantics'' (matrix: ANTONYMS V SYNONYMS) yields Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/C-S tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics: MBCS RANDOMNESS TRUTH/EMET!!!

  7. On the short-term predictability of fully digital chaotic oscillators for pseudo-random number generation

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2014-06-18

    This paper presents a digital implementation of a 3rd order chaotic system using the Euler approximation. Short-term predictability is studied in relation to system precision, Euler step size and attractor size and optimal parameters for maximum performance are derived. Defective bits from the native chaotic output are neglected and the remaining pass the NIST SP. 800-22 tests without post-processing. The resulting optimized pseudorandom number generator has throughput up to 17.60 Gbits/s for a 64-bit design experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with logic utilization less than 1.85%.

  8. On the short-term predictability of fully digital chaotic oscillators for pseudo-random number generation

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa; Mansingka, Abhinav S.; Salama, Khaled N.; Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a digital implementation of a 3rd order chaotic system using the Euler approximation. Short-term predictability is studied in relation to system precision, Euler step size and attractor size and optimal parameters for maximum performance are derived. Defective bits from the native chaotic output are neglected and the remaining pass the NIST SP. 800-22 tests without post-processing. The resulting optimized pseudorandom number generator has throughput up to 17.60 Gbits/s for a 64-bit design experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with logic utilization less than 1.85%.

  9. Fully digital 1-D, 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos as hardware pseudo random number generators

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-10-07

    This paper introduces the first fully digital implementation of 1-D, 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos using the sawtooth nonlinearity in a 3rd order ODE with the Euler approximation. Systems indicate chaotic behaviour through phase space boundedness and positive Lyapunov exponent. Low-significance bits form a PRNG and pass all tests in the NIST SP. 800-22 suite without post-processing. Real-time control of the number of scrolls allows distinct output streams with 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos enabling greater controllability. The proposed PRNGs are experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with logic utilization less than 1.25%, throughput up to 5.25 Gbits/s and up to 512 distinct output streams with low cross-correlation.

  10. Number of blastocysts biopsied as a predictive indicator to obtain at least one normal/balanced embryo following preimplantation genetic diagnosis with single nucleotide polymorphism microarray in translocation cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Zi; Ding, Chen-Hui; Wang, Jing; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Zhou, Wen; Li, Rong; Zhou, Can-Quan; Deng, Ming-Fen; Xu, Yan-Wen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the minimum number of blastocysts for biopsy to increase the likelihood of obtaining at least one normal/balanced embryo in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for translocation carriers. This blinded retrospective study included 55 PGD cycles for Robertsonian translocation (RT) and 181 cycles for reciprocal translocation (rcp) to indicate when only one of the couples carried a translocation. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray after trophectoderm biopsy was performed. Reliable results were obtained for 355/379 (93.7 %) biopsied blastocysts in RT group and 986/1053 (93.6 %) in rcp group. Mean numbers of biopsied embryos per patient, normal/balanced embryos per patient, and mean normal/balanced embryo rate per patient were 7.4, 3.1, and 40.7 % in RT group and 8.0, 2.1, and 27.3 %, respectively, in rcp group. In a regression model, three factors significantly affected the number of genetically transferrable embryos: number of biopsied embryos (P = 0.001), basal FSH level (P = 0.040), and maternal age (P = 0.027). ROC analysis with a cutoff of 1.5 was calculated for the number of biopsied embryos required to obtain at least one normal/balanced embryo for RT carriers. For rcp carriers, the cutoff was 3.5. The clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 44.2 and 42.6 % in RT and rcp groups (P = 0.836). The minimum numbers of blastocysts to obtain at least one normal/balanced embryo for RT and rcp were 2 and 4 under the conditions of female age < 37 years with a basal FSH level < 11.4 IU/L.

  11. Analyzing indirect effects in cluster randomized trials. The effect of estimation method, number of groups and group sizes on accuracy and power.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop eHox

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cluster randomized trials assess the effect of an intervention that is carried out at the group or cluster level. Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour is often used to model the effect of the intervention as an indirect effect mediated in turn by attitude, norms and behavioural intention. Structural equation modelling (SEM is the technique of choice to estimate indirect effects and their significance. However, this is a large sample technique, and its application in a cluster randomized trial assumes a relatively large number of clusters. In practice, the number of clusters in these studies tends to be relatively small, e.g. much less than fifty. This study uses simulation methods to find the lowest number of clusters needed when multilevel SEM is used to estimate the indirect effect. Maximum likelihood estimation is compared to Bayesian analysis, with the central quality criteria being accuracy of the point estimate and the confidence interval. We also investigate the power of the test for the indirect effect. We conclude that Bayes estimation works well with much smaller cluster level sample sizes such as 20 cases than maximum likelihood estimation; although the bias is larger the coverage is much better. When only 5 to 10 clusters are available per treatment condition even with Bayesian estimation problems occur.

  12. Acute effects of violent video-game playing on blood pressure and appetite perception in normal-weight young men: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Sabatini, S; Fewtrell, M S; Wells, J C K

    2013-12-01

    Watching television and playing video game being seated represent sedentary behaviours and increase the risk of weight gain and hypertension. We investigated the acute effects of violent and non-violent video-game playing on blood pressure (BP), appetite perception and food preferences. Forty-eight young, normal-weight men (age: 23.1±1.9 years; body mass index: 22.5±1.9 kg/m(2)) participated in a three-arm, randomized trial. Subjects played a violent video game, a competitive, non-violent video game or watched TV for 1 h. Measurements of BP, stress and appetite perception were recorded before a standardized meal (∼300 kcal) and then repeated every 15 min throughout the intervention. Violent video-game playing was associated with a significant increase in diastolic BP (Δ±s.d.=+7.5±5.8 mm Hg; P=0.04) compared with the other two groups. Subjects playing violent video games felt less full (P=0.02) and reported a tendency towards sweet food consumption. Video games involving violence appear to be associated with significant effects on BP and appetite perceptions compared with non-violent gaming or watching TV.

  13. Exact solution to the problem of nonlinear pulse propagation through random layered media and its connection with number triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolow, Adam; Sen, Surajit

    2007-01-01

    An energy pulse refers to a spatially compact energy bundle. In nonlinear pulse propagation, the nonlinearity of the relevant dynamical equations could lead to pulse propagation that is nondispersive or weakly dispersive in space and time. Nonlinear pulse propagation through layered media with widely varying pulse transmission properties is not wave-like and a problem of broad interest in many areas such as optics, geophysics, atmospheric physics and ocean sciences. We study nonlinear pulse propagation through a semi-infinite sequence of layers where the layers can have arbitrary energy transmission properties. By assuming that the layers are rigid, we are able to develop exact expressions for the backscattered energy received at the surface layer. The present study is likely to be relevant in the context of energy transport through soil and similar complex media. Our study reveals a surprising connection between the problem of pulse propagation and the number patterns in the well known Pascal's and Catalan's triangles and hence provides an analytic benchmark in a challenging problem of broad interest. We close with comments on the relationship between this study and the vast body of literature on the problem of wave localization in disordered systems

  14. Exercise during pregnancy in normal-weight women and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mascio, Daniele; Magro-Malosso, Elena Rita; Saccone, Gabriele; Marhefka, Gregary D; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Preterm birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality in the United States. In the past, pregnant women have been recommended to not exercise because of presumed risks of preterm birth. Physical activity has been theoretically related to preterm birth because it increases the release of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine, which might stimulate myometrial activity. Conversely, exercise may reduce the risk of preterm birth by other mechanisms such as decreased oxidative stress or improved placenta vascularization. Therefore, the safety of exercise regarding preterm birth and its effects on gestational age at delivery remain controversial. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of exercise during pregnancy on the risk of preterm birth. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Sciences, Scopus, ClinicalTrial.gov, OVID, and Cochrane Library were searched from the inception of each database to April 2016. Selection criteria included only randomized clinical trials of pregnant women randomized before 23 weeks to an aerobic exercise regimen or not. Types of participants included women of normal weight with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies without any obstetric contraindication to physical activity. The summary measures were reported as relative risk or as mean difference with 95% confidence intervals. The primary outcome was the incidence of preterm birth exercise group and 1037 (50.4%) to the control group. Aerobic exercise lasted about 35-90 minutes 3-4 times per week. Women who were randomized to aerobic exercise had a similar incidence of preterm birth of exercise group had a significantly higher incidence of vaginal delivery (73.6% vs 67.5%; relative risk, 1.09, 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.15) and a significantly lower incidence of cesarean delivery (17.9% vs 22%; relative risk, 0.82, 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.97) compared with controls. The incidence of operative vaginal delivery (12.9% vs 16.5%; relative risk, 0.78, 95% confidence interval, 0

  15. Fully digital jerk-based chaotic oscillators for high throughput pseudo-random number generators up to 8.77Gbits/s

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2014-06-18

    This paper introduces fully digital implementations of four di erent systems in the 3rd order jerk-equation based chaotic family using the Euler approximation. The digitization approach enables controllable chaotic systems that reliably provide sinusoidal or chaotic output based on a selection input. New systems are introduced, derived using logical and arithmetic operations between two system implementations of different bus widths, with up to 100x higher maximum Lyapunov exponent than the original jerkequation based chaotic systems. The resulting chaotic output is shown to pass the NIST sp. 800-22 statistical test suite for pseudorandom number generators without post-processing by only eliminating the statistically defective bits. The systems are designed in Verilog HDL and experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA for a maximum throughput of 15.59 Gbits/s for the native chaotic output and 8.77 Gbits/s for the resulting pseudo-random number generators.

  16. Relationship between accuracy and number of samples on statistical quantity and contour map of environmental gamma-ray dose rate. Example of random sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu; Minato, Susumu

    2002-01-01

    The accuracy of statistical quantity like the mean value and contour map obtained by measurement of the environmental gamma-ray dose rate was evaluated by random sampling of 5 different model distribution maps made by the mean slope, -1.3, of power spectra calculated from the actually measured values. The values were derived from 58 natural gamma dose rate data reported worldwide ranging in the means of 10-100 Gy/h rates and 10 -3 -10 7 km 2 areas. The accuracy of the mean value was found around ±7% even for 60 or 80 samplings (the most frequent number) and the standard deviation had the accuracy less than 1/4-1/3 of the means. The correlation coefficient of the frequency distribution was found 0.860 or more for 200-400 samplings (the most frequent number) but of the contour map, 0.502-0.770. (K.H.)

  17. The Effect of a Physical Activity Program on the Total Number of Primary Care Visits in Inactive Patients: A 15-Month Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giné-Garriga

    Full Text Available Effective promotion of exercise could result in substantial savings in healthcare cost expenses in terms of direct medical costs, such as the number of medical appointments. However, this is hampered by our limited knowledge of how to achieve sustained increases in physical activity.To assess the effectiveness of a Primary Health Care (PHC based physical activity program in reducing the total number of visits to the healthcare center among inactive patients, over a 15-month period.Randomized controlled trial.Three hundred and sixty-two (n = 362 inactive patients suffering from at least one chronic condition were included. One hundred and eighty-three patients (n = 183; mean (SD; 68.3 (8.8 years; 118 women were randomly allocated to the physical activity program (IG. One hundred and seventy-nine patients (n = 179; 67.2 (9.1 years; 106 women were allocated to the control group (CG. The IG went through a three-month standardized physical activity program led by physical activity specialists and linked to community resources.The total number of medical appointments to the PHC, during twelve months before and after the program, was registered. Self-reported health status (SF-12 version 2 was assessed at baseline (month 0, at the end of the intervention (month 3, and at 12 months follow-up after the end of the intervention (month 15.The IG had a significantly reduced number of visits during the 12 months after the intervention: 14.8 (8.5. The CG remained about the same: 18.2 (11.1 (P = .002.Our findings indicate that a 3-month physical activity program linked to community resources is a short-duration, effective and sustainable intervention in inactive patients to decrease rates of PHC visits.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00714831.

  18. Heuristic Relative Entropy Principles with Complex Measures: Large-Degree Asymptotics of a Family of Multi-variate Normal Random Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Michael Karl-Heinz

    2017-10-01

    Let z\\in C, let σ ^2>0 be a variance, and for N\\in N define the integrals E_N^{}(z;σ ) := {1/σ } \\int _R\\ (x^2+z^2) e^{-{1/2σ^2 x^2}}{√{2π }}/dx \\quad if N=1, {1/σ } \\int _{R^N} \\prod \\prod \\limits _{1≤ k1. These are expected values of the polynomials P_N^{}(z)=\\prod _{1≤ n≤ N}(X_n^2+z^2) whose 2 N zeros ± i X_k^{}_{k=1,\\ldots ,N} are generated by N identically distributed multi-variate mean-zero normal random variables {X_k}N_{k=1} with co-variance {Cov}_N^{}(X_k,X_l)=(1+σ ^2-1/N)δ _{k,l}+σ ^2-1/N(1-δ _{k,l}). The E_N^{}(z;σ ) are polynomials in z^2, explicitly computable for arbitrary N, yet a list of the first three E_N^{}(z;σ ) shows that the expressions become unwieldy already for moderate N—unless σ = 1, in which case E_N^{}(z;1) = (1+z^2)^N for all z\\in C and N\\in N. (Incidentally, commonly available computer algebra evaluates the integrals E_N^{}(z;σ ) only for N up to a dozen, due to memory constraints). Asymptotic evaluations are needed for the large- N regime. For general complex z these have traditionally been limited to analytic expansion techniques; several rigorous results are proved for complex z near 0. Yet if z\\in R one can also compute this "infinite-degree" limit with the help of the familiar relative entropy principle for probability measures; a rigorous proof of this fact is supplied. Computer algebra-generated evidence is presented in support of a conjecture that a generalization of the relative entropy principle to signed or complex measures governs the N→ ∞ asymptotics of the regime iz\\in R. Potential generalizations, in particular to point vortex ensembles and the prescribed Gauss curvature problem, and to random matrix ensembles, are emphasized.

  19. The effect of normalizing the sagittal cervical configuration on dizziness, neck pain, and cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility: a 1-year randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ibrahim M; Diab, Aliaa A; Harrison, Deed E

    2017-02-01

    Cervicogenic dizziness is a disabling condition commonly associated with cervical dysfunction. Although the growing interest with the importance of normal sagittal configuration of cervical spine, the missing component in the management of cervicogenic dizziness might be altered structural alignment of the cervical spinal region itself. To investigate the immediate and long-term effects of a 1-year multimodal program, with the addition of cervical lordosis restoration and anterior head translation (AHT) correction, on the severity of dizziness, disability, cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility, and cervical pain in patients with cervicogenic dizziness. A randomized controlled study with a 1 year and 10 weeks' follow-up. University research laboratory. Seventy-two patients (25 female) between 40 and 55 years with cervicogenic dizziness, a definite hypolordotic cervical spine and AHT posture were randomly assigned to the control or an experimental group. Both groups received the multimodal program; additionally, the experimental group received the Denneroll™ cervical traction. Outcome measures included AHT distance, cervical lordosis, dizziness handicap inventory (DHI), severity of dizziness, dizziness frequency, head repositioning accuracy (HRA) and cervical pain. Measures were assessed at three time intervals: baseline, 10 weeks, and follow-up at 1 year and 10 weeks. Significant group × time effects at both the 10 week post treatment and the 1-year follow-up were identified favoring the experimental group for measures of cervical lordosis (Ppain intensity, and HRA; DHI scale (P=0.5), severity of dizziness (P=0.2), dizziness frequency (P=0.09), HRA (P=0.1) and neck pain (P=0.3). At 1-year follow-up, the between-group analysis identified statistically significant differences for all of the measured variables including anterior head translation (2.4 cm [-2.3;-1.8], Pcervical lordosis (-14.4° [-11.6;-8.3], Ppain (4.97 [-5.3;-4.3], Pcervical extension traction to

  20. Random Number Generation in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark A.; Moss, Simon A.; Bradshaw, John L.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the ability of 14 individuals with autism to generate a unique series of digits. Individuals with autism were more likely to repeat previous digits than comparison individuals, suggesting they may exhibit a shortfall in response inhibition. Results support the executive dysfunction theory of autism. (Contains references.)…

  1. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Irregular meal-pattern effects on energy expenditure, metabolism, and appetite regulation: a randomized controlled trial in healthy normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhussain, Maha H; Macdonald, Ian A; Taylor, Moira A

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is increasing in parallel with greater all-day food availability. The latter may promote meal irregularity, dysregulation of the energy balance, and poor metabolic health. We investigated the effect of meal irregularity on the thermic effect of food (TEF), lipid concentrations, carbohydrate metabolism, subjective appetite, and gut hormones in healthy women. Eleven normal-weight women (18-40 y of age) were recruited in a randomized crossover trial with two 14-d isoenergetic diet periods (identical foods provided and free living) that were separated by a 14-d habitual diet washout period. In period 1, participants followed a regular meal pattern (6 meals/d) or an irregular meal pattern (3-9 meals/d), and in period 2, the alternative meal pattern was followed. Before and after each period, when participants were fasting and for 3 h after intake of a test drink, measurements were taken of energy expenditure, circulating glucose, lipids (fasting only), insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin. An ad libitum test meal was offered. Subjective appetite ratings were assessed while fasting, after the test drink, after the ad libitum meal, and during the intervention. Continuous interstitial glucose monitoring was undertaken for 3 consecutive days during each intervention, and the ambulatory activity pattern was recorded (ambulatory energy expenditure estimation). Regularity was associated with a greater TEF (P breakfast; day 9: after lunch and dinner). There was no difference between treatments for the test-drink gut hormone response. A time effect was noted for fasting GLP-1, fasting PYY, PYY responses, and hunger-rating responses to the test drink (P < 0.05). Lower hunger and higher fullness ratings were seen premeal and postmeal during the regular period while subjects were free living. Meal regularity appears to be associated with greater TEF and lower glucose responses, which may favor weight management and metabolic health. This

  3. Vildagliptin, but not glibenclamide, increases circulating endothelial progenitor cell number: a 12-month randomized controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei Cas, Alessandra; Spigoni, Valentina; Cito, Monia; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Ridolfi, Valentina; Marchesi, Elisabetta; Marina, Michela; Derlindati, Eleonora; Aloe, Rosalia; Bonadonna, Riccardo C; Zavaroni, Ivana

    2017-02-23

    Fewer circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and increased plasma (C-term) stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α), a substrate of DPP-4, are biomarkers, and perhaps mediators, of cardiovascular risk and mortality. Short-term/acute treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors improve EPC bioavailability; however, long-term effects of DPP-4i on EPCs bioavailability/plasma (C-term) SDF-1α are unknown. Randomized (2:1) open-label trial to compare the effects of vildagliptin (V) (100 mg/day) vs glibenclamide (G) (2.5 mg bid to a maximal dose of 5 mg bid) on circulating EPC levels at 4 and 12 months of treatment in 64 patients with type 2 diabetes in metformin failure. At baseline, and after 4 and 12 months, main clinical/biohumoral parameters, inflammatory biomarkers, concomitant therapies, EPC number (CD34 + /CD133 + /KDR + /10 6 cytometric events) and plasma (C-term) SDF-1α (R&D system) were assessed. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the two groups. V and G similarly and significantly (p < 0.0001) improved glucose control. At 12 months, V significantly increased EPC number (p < 0.05) and significantly reduced (C-term) SDF-1α plasma levels (p < 0.01) compared to G, with no differences in inflammatory biomarkers. V exerts a long-term favorable effect on EPC and (C-term) SDF-1α levels at glucose equipoise, thereby implying a putative beneficial effect on vascular integrity. Trial registration Clinical Trials number: NCT01822548; name: Effect of Vildagliptin vs. Glibenclamide on Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell Number Type 2 Diabetes. Registered 28 March, 2013.

  4. Load-Dependent Interference of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus with Switching from Automatic to Controlled Processing During Random Number Generation in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Isobel Anne; Wilkinson, Leonora; Limousin, Patricia; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) ameliorates the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, some aspects of executive control are impaired with STN DBS. We tested the prediction that (i) STN DBS interferes with switching from automatic to controlled processing during fast-paced random number generation (RNG) (ii) STN DBS-induced cognitive control changes are load-dependent. Fifteen PD patients with bilateral STN DBS performed paced-RNG, under three levels of cognitive load synchronised with a pacing stimulus presented at 1, 0.5 and 0.33 Hz (faster rates require greater cognitive control), with DBS on or off. Measures of output randomness were calculated. Countscore 1 (CS1) indicates habitual counting in steps of one (CS1). Countscore 2 (CS2) indicates a more controlled strategy of counting in twos. The fastest rate was associated with an increased CS1 score with STN DBS on compared to off. At the slowest rate, patients had higher CS2 scores with DBS off than on, such that the differences between CS1 and CS2 scores disappeared. We provide evidence for a load-dependent effect of STN DBS on paced RNG in PD. Patients could switch to more controlled RNG strategies during conditions of low cognitive load at slower rates only when the STN stimulators were off, but when STN stimulation was on, they engaged in more automatic habitual counting under increased cognitive load. These findings are consistent with the proposal that the STN implements a switch signal from the medial frontal cortex which enables a shift from automatic to controlled processing.

  5. Frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets (B-lines) using a regionally based lung ultrasound examination named vet BLUE (veterinary bedside lung ultrasound exam) in dogs with radiographically normal lung findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisciandro, Gregory R; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Fulton, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Lung ultrasound is superior to lung auscultation and supine chest radiography for many respiratory conditions in human patients. Ultrasound diagnoses are based on easily learned patterns of sonographic findings and artifacts in standardized images. By applying the wet lung (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines, representing interstitial edema) versus dry lung (A-lines with a glide sign) concept many respiratory conditions can be diagnosed or excluded. The ultrasound probe can be used as a visual stethoscope for the evaluation of human lungs because dry artifacts (A-lines with a glide sign) predominate over wet artifacts (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines). However, the frequency and number of wet lung ultrasound artifacts in dogs with radiographically normal lungs is unknown. Thus, the primary objective was to determine the baseline frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets in dogs without clinical signs of respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lung findings using an 8-view novel regionally based lung ultrasound examination called Vet BLUE. Frequency of ultrasound lung rockets were statistically compared based on signalment, body condition score, investigator, and reasons for radiography. Ten left-sided heart failure dogs were similarly enrolled. Overall frequency of ultrasound lung rockets was 11% (95% confidence interval, 6-19%) in dogs without respiratory disease versus 100% (95% confidence interval, 74-100%) in those with left-sided heart failure. The low frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets observed in dogs without respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lungs suggests that Vet BLUE will be clinically useful for the identification of canine respiratory conditions. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  6. Hair removal in hirsute women with normal testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trial of long-pulsed diode laser vs. intense pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Jensen, Pernille Nymann; Pedersen, A T

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, and androgen disturbances may aggravate the condition. Limited evidence exists regarding efficacy of hair removal in this specific population and no data are available for patients with verified normal testosterone levels.......Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, and androgen disturbances may aggravate the condition. Limited evidence exists regarding efficacy of hair removal in this specific population and no data are available for patients with verified normal testosterone levels....

  7. A retrospective analysis of RET translocation, gene copy number gain and expression in NSCLC patients treated with vandetanib in four randomized Phase III studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Adam; Morten, John; Ji, Qunsheng; Elvin, Paul; Womack, Chris; Su, Xinying; Donald, Emma; Gray, Neil; Read, Jessica; Bigley, Graham; Blockley, Laura; Cresswell, Carl; Dale, Angela; Davies, Amanda; Zhang, Tianwei; Fan, Shuqiong; Fu, Haihua; Gladwin, Amanda; Harrod, Grace; Stevens, James; Williams, Victoria; Ye, Qingqing; Zheng, Li; de Boer, Richard; Herbst, Roy S; Lee, Jin-Soo; Vasselli, James

    2015-03-23

    To determine the prevalence of RET rearrangement genes, RET copy number gains and expression in tumor samples from four Phase III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) trials of vandetanib, a selective inhibitor of VEGFR, RET and EGFR signaling, and to determine any association with outcome to vandetanib treatment. Archival tumor samples from the ZODIAC ( NCT00312377 , vandetanib ± docetaxel), ZEAL ( NCT00418886 , vandetanib ± pemetrexed), ZEPHYR ( NCT00404924 , vandetanib vs placebo) and ZEST ( NCT00364351 , vandetanib vs erlotinib) studies were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 944 and 1102 patients. The prevalence of RET rearrangements by FISH was 0.7% (95% CI 0.3-1.5%) among patients with a known result. Seven tumor samples were positive for RET rearrangements (vandetanib, n = 3; comparator, n = 4). 2.8% (n = 26) of samples had RET amplification (innumerable RET clusters, or ≥7 copies in > 10% of tumor cells), 8.1% (n = 76) had low RET gene copy number gain (4-6 copies in ≥40% of tumor cells) and 8.3% (n = 92) were RET expression positive (signal intensity ++ or +++ in >10% of tumor cells). Of RET-rearrangement-positive patients, none had an objective response in the vandetanib arm and one patient responded in the comparator arm. Radiologic evidence of tumor shrinkage was observed in two patients treated with vandetanib and one treated with comparator drug. The objective response rate was similar in the vandetanib and comparator arms for patients positive for RET copy number gains or RET protein expression. We have identified prevalence for three RET biomarkers in a population predominated by non-Asians and smokers. RET rearrangement prevalence was lower than previously reported. We found no evidence of a differential benefit for efficacy by IHC and RET gene copy number gains. The low prevalence of RET rearrangements (0.7%) prevents firm conclusions regarding association of vandetanib treatment with

  8. Random pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya'nan; Jin Dapeng; Zhao Dixin; Liu Zhen'an; Qiao Qiao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2007-01-01

    Due to the randomness of radioactive decay and nuclear reaction, the signals from detectors are random in time. But normal pulse generator generates periodical pulses. To measure the performances of nuclear electronic devices under random inputs, a random generator is necessary. Types of random pulse generator are reviewed, 2 digital random pulse generators are introduced. (authors)

  9. A Valid Matérn Class of Cross-Covariance Functions for Multivariate Random Fields With Any Number of Components

    KAUST Repository

    Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.

    2012-03-01

    We introduce a valid parametric family of cross-covariance functions for multivariate spatial random fields where each component has a covariance function from a well-celebrated Matérn class. Unlike previous attempts, our model indeed allows for various smoothnesses and rates of correlation decay for any number of vector components.We present the conditions on the parameter space that result in valid models with varying degrees of complexity. We discuss practical implementations, including reparameterizations to reflect the conditions on the parameter space and an iterative algorithm to increase the computational efficiency. We perform various Monte Carlo simulation experiments to explore the performances of our approach in terms of estimation and cokriging. The application of the proposed multivariate Matérnmodel is illustrated on two meteorological datasets: temperature/pressure over the Pacific Northwest (bivariate) and wind/temperature/pressure in Oklahoma (trivariate). In the latter case, our flexible trivariate Matérn model is valid and yields better predictive scores compared with a parsimonious model with common scale parameters. © 2012 American Statistical Association.

  10. Two different doses of supplemental vitamin A did not affect mortality of normal-birth-weight neonates in Guinea-Bissau in a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte R; Balde, Ibraima

    2014-01-01

    Whether neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) should be policy in areas with vitamin A deficiency is debated. We observed that a smaller dose of vitamin A may decrease mortality more than a larger dose and conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau with th...

  11. Normalization of height in girls with Turner syndrome after long-term growth hormone treatment : Results of a randomized dose-response trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, TCJ; Keizer-Schrama, SMPFD; Stijnen, T; Jansen, M; Otten, BJ; Hoorweg-Nijman, JJG; Vulsma, T; Massa, GG; Rouwe, CW; Reeser, HM; Gerver, WJ; Gosen, JJ; Rongen-Westerlaken, C; Drop, SLS

    1999-01-01

    Short stature and ovarian failure are the main features in Turner syndrome (TS). To optimize GH and estrogen treatment, we studied 68 previously untreated girls with TS, age 2-11 yr, who were randomly assigned to one of three GH dosage groups: group A, 4 IU/m(2).day (approximate to 0.045 mg/kg.day);

  12. Hair removal in hirsute women with normal testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trial of long-pulsed diode laser vs. intense pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Jensen, Pernille Nymann; Pedersen, A T

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, and androgen disturbances may aggravate the condition. Limited evidence exists regarding efficacy of hair removal in this specific population and no data are available for patients with verified normal testosterone levels....

  13. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  14. Changes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in response to dietary salt intake in normal and hypertensive pregnancy. A randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lise Hald; Ovesen, Per; Hansen, Mie R

    2016-01-01

    It was hypothesized that primary renal sodium retention blunted the reactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to changes in salt intake in preeclampsia (PE). A randomized, cross-over, double-blinded, dietary intervention design was used to measure the effects of salt tablets or place...... of plasma renin and angiotensin II in response to changes in dietary salt intake compatible with a primary increase in renal sodium reabsorption in hypertensive pregnancies.......It was hypothesized that primary renal sodium retention blunted the reactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to changes in salt intake in preeclampsia (PE). A randomized, cross-over, double-blinded, dietary intervention design was used to measure the effects of salt tablets or placebo...

  15. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  16. A Valid Matérn Class of Cross-Covariance Functions for Multivariate Random Fields With Any Number of Components

    KAUST Repository

    Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a valid parametric family of cross-covariance functions for multivariate spatial random fields where each component has a covariance function from a well-celebrated Matérn class. Unlike previous attempts, our model indeed allows

  17. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Nicole Händel

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of primary interventions aiming to prevent excess weight gain among young children. Evaluating behavioral changes, such as physical activity (PA, may add to future development of efficient interventions. The objective was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of > 28 kg/m2, or mothers with ≤ 10 years of schooling.From a baseline study population of 635 normal weight 2-6 year old preschool children from the greater Copenhagen area, parents of 307 children had given information on PA at both the baseline and follow-up examinations. PA was obtained from a 7 days recording in the Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. Time used for sport activities were combined with outdoor playing time to achieve a proxy of total PA level of moderate to vigorous intensity.Linear regression analyses revealed that at follow-up the intervention group spent more time on sports and outdoor activities combined per week than the control group (ITT analyses: intervention: 400 min/week; 95% confidence interval (CI: 341, 459 versus control: 321 min/week; 95% CI: 277, 366; p = 0.02, although no significant intervention effects were seen for each of the subcategories, e.g. sports participation, outdoor activities, screen time, or commuting frequency.Our results suggest that the overall time spent on sports and outdoor activities combined was increased at follow-up among normal weight obesity-prone children, as a result of the Healthy Start intervention.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01583335.

  18. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Mina Nicole; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Stougaard, Maria; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of primary interventions aiming to prevent excess weight gain among young children. Evaluating behavioral changes, such as physical activity (PA), may add to future development of efficient interventions. The objective was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of > 28 kg/m2, or mothers with ≤ 10 years of schooling. From a baseline study population of 635 normal weight 2-6 year old preschool children from the greater Copenhagen area, parents of 307 children had given information on PA at both the baseline and follow-up examinations. PA was obtained from a 7 days recording in the Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. Time used for sport activities were combined with outdoor playing time to achieve a proxy of total PA level of moderate to vigorous intensity. Linear regression analyses revealed that at follow-up the intervention group spent more time on sports and outdoor activities combined per week than the control group (ITT analyses: intervention: 400 min/week; 95% confidence interval (CI): 341, 459 versus control: 321 min/week; 95% CI: 277, 366; p = 0.02), although no significant intervention effects were seen for each of the subcategories, e.g. sports participation, outdoor activities, screen time, or commuting frequency. Our results suggest that the overall time spent on sports and outdoor activities combined was increased at follow-up among normal weight obesity-prone children, as a result of the Healthy Start intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01583335.

  19. ESTUDIO ESTADÍSTICO DEL NÚMERO DE REGLAS RESULTANTES AL TRANSFORMAR UNA GRAMÁTICA LIBRE DE CONTEXTO A LA FORMA NORMAL DE CHOMSKY STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE NUMBER OF RESULTING RULES WHEN TRANSFORMING A CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR TO CHOMSKY NORMAL FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Ángel Miguel Amaya Robayo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Es un hecho conocido que toda gramática libre de contexto puede ser transformada a la forma normal de Chomsky de tal forma que los lenguajes generados por las dos gramáticas son equivalentes. Una gramática en forma normal de Chomsky (FNC, tiene algunas ventajas, por ejemplo sus árboles de derivación son binarios, la forma de sus reglas más simples etc. Por eso es siempre deseable poder trabajar con una gramática en FNC en las aplicaciones que lo requieran. Existe un algoritmo que permite transformar una gramática libre de contexto a una en FNC, sin embargo la cantidad de reglas generadas al hacer la transformación depende del número de reglas en la gramática inicial así como de otras características. En este trabajo se analiza desde el punto de vista experimental y estadístico, la relación existente entre el número de reglas iniciales y el número de reglas que resultan luego de transformar una Gramática Libre de Contexto a la FNC. Esto permite planificar la cantidad de recursos computacionales necesarios en caso de tratar con gramáticas de alguna complejidad.It is well known that any context-free grammar can be transformed to the Chomsky normal form so that the languages generated by each one are equivalent. A grammar in Chomsky Normal Form (CNF, has some advantages: their derivation trees are binary, simplest rules and so on. So it is always desirable to work with a grammar in CNF in applications that require them. There is an algorithm that can transform a context-free grammar to one CNF grammar, however the number of rules generated after the transformation depends on the initial grammar and other circumstances. In this work we analyze from the experimental and statistical point of view the relationship between the number of initial rules and the number of resulting rules after transforming. This allows you to plan the amount of computational resources needed in case of dealing with grammars of some complexity.

  20. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  1. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina Nicole; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Rohde, Jeanett Friis

    2017-01-01

    was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre...... was obtained from a 7 days recording in the Children’s Physical Activity Questionnaire. Time used for sport activities were combined with outdoor playing time to achieve a proxy of total PA level of moderate to vigorous intensity. Results: Linear regression analyses revealed that at follow-up the intervention...... group spent more time on sports and outdoor activities combined per week than the control group (ITT analyses: intervention: 400 min/week; 95% confidence interval (CI): 341, 459 versus control: 321 min/week; 95% CI: 277, 366; p = 0.02), although no significant intervention effects were seen for each...

  2. Can psychobiotics intake modulate psychological profile and body composition of women affected by normal weight obese syndrome and obesity? A double blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Costacurta, Micaela; Merra, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Paola; Cioccoloni, Giorgia; Marchetti, Massimiliano; Varvaras, Dimitrios; Docimo, Raffaella; Di Renzo, Laura

    2017-06-10

    Evidence of probiotics effects on gut function, brain activity and emotional behaviour were provided. Probiotics can have dramatic effects on behaviour through the microbiome-gut-brain axis, through vagus nerve. We investigated whether chronic probiotic intake could modulate psychological state, eating behaviour and body composition of normal weight obese (NWO) and preobese-obese (PreOB/OB) compared to normal weight lean women (NWL). 60 women were enrolled. At baseline and after a 3-week probiotic oral suspension (POS) intake, all subjects underwent evaluation of body composition by anthropometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry, and psychological profile assessment by self-report questionnaires (i.e. EDI-2, SCL90R and BUT). Statistical analysis was carried out using paired t test or a non-parametric Wilcoxon test to evaluate differences between baseline and after POS intake, one-way ANOVA to compare all three groups and, where applicable, Chi square or t test were used to assess symptoms. Of the 48 women that concluded the study, 24% were NWO, 26% were NWL and 50% were PreOB/OB. Significant differences in body composition were highlighted among groups both at baseline and after a POS (p women. At baseline and after POS intake, all subjects tested were negative to SCL90R_GSI scale, but after treatment subjects positive to BUT_GSI scale were significantly reduced (8.33%) (p women. Further research is needed on a larger population and for a longer period of treatment before definitive conclusions can be made. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Id: NCT01890070.

  3. Rationale, Design, and Baseline Characteristics of Beijing Prediabetes Reversion Program: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Lifestyle Intervention and/or Pioglitazone in Reversion to Normal Glucose Tolerance in Prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingying; Paul, Sanjoy K; Zhou, Xianghai; Chang, Cuiqing; Chen, Wei; Guo, Xiaohui; Yang, Jinkui; Ji, Linong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2017-01-01

    Background . Patients with prediabetes are at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). No study has explored whether intervention could revert prediabetes to normal glycemic status as the primary outcome. Beijing Prediabetes Reversion Program (BPRP) would evaluate whether intensive lifestyle modification and/or pioglitazone could revert prediabetic state to normoglycemia and improve the risk factors of CVD as well. Methods . BPRP is a randomized, multicenter, 2 × 2 factorial design study. Participants diagnosed as prediabetes were randomized into four groups (conventional/intensive lifestyle intervention and 30 mg pioglitazone/placebo) with a three-year follow-up. The primary endpoint was conversion into normal glucose tolerance. The trial would recruit 2000 participants (500 in each arm). Results . Between March 2007 and March 2011, 1945 participants were randomized. At baseline, the individuals were 53 ± 10 years old, with median BMI 26.0 (23.9, 28.2) kg/m 2 and HbA1c 5.8 (5.6, 6.1)%. 85% of the participants had IGT and 15% had IFG. Parameters relevant to glucose, lipids, blood pressure, lifestyle, and other metabolic markers were similar between conventional and intensive lifestyle intervention group at baseline. Conclusion . BPRP was the first study to determine if lifestyle modification and/or pioglitazone could revert prediabetic state to normoglycemia in Chinese population. Major baseline parameters were balanced between two lifestyle intervention groups. This trial is registered with www.chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR-PRC-06000005.

  4. Impact of physical activity on energy balance, food intake and choice in normal weight and obese children in the setting of acute social stress: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Antje; Wobmann, Marion; Kriemler, Susi; Munsch, Simone; Borloz, Sylvie; Balz, Alexandra; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Borghini, Ayala; Puder, Jardena J

    2015-02-19

    Psychological stress negatively influences food intake and food choices, thereby contributing to the development of childhood obesity. Physical activity can also moderate eating behavior and influence calorie intake. However, it is unknown if acute physical activity influences food intake and overall energy balance after acute stress exposure in children. We therefore investigated the impact of acute physical activity on overall energy balance (food intake minus energy expenditure), food intake, and choice in the setting of acute social stress in normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) children as well as the impact of psychological risk factors. After receiving written consent from their parents, 26 NW (BMI foods (6 sweet/6 salty; each of low/high caloric density). Energy balance, food intake/choice and obesity-related psychological risk factors were assessed. Lower overall energy balance (p = 0.019) and a decreased choice of low density salty foods (p foods (104 kcal (34 to 173), p = 0.004) following stress. They scored higher on impulsive behavior (p = 0.005), restrained eating (p stress-induced food intake/choice. Positive parenting tended to be related to lower intake of sweet high density food (-132 kcal, -277 to 2, p = 0.054). In the setting of stress, acute moderate physical activity can address energy balance in children, a benefit which is especially pronounced in the OW/OB. Positive parenting may act as a protective factor preventing stress-induced eating of comfort food. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01693926 The study was a pilot study of a project funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (CRSII3_147673).

  5. Signal intensity of normal breast tissue at MR mammography on midfield: Applying a random coefficient model evaluating the effect of doubling the contrast dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Mette [Parker Institute: Imaging Unit, Frederiksberg Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: mm@frh.regionh.dk; Christensen, Robin [Parker Institute: Musculoskeletal Statistics Unit, Frederiksberg Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: robin.christensen@frh.regionh.dk; Torp-Pedersen, Soren [Parker Institute: Imaging Unit, Frederiksberg Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: stp@frh.regionh.dk; Thomsen, Carsten [Department of Radiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: carsten.thomsen@rh.regionh.dk; Nolsoe, Christian P. [Department of Radiology, Koge Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: cnolsoe@dadlnet.dk

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the effect on signal intensity (SI) of healthy breast parenchyma on magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) when doubling the contrast dose from 0.1 to 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight. Materials and methods: Informed consent and institutional review board approval were obtained. Twenty-five healthy female volunteers (median age: 24 years (range: 21-37 years) and median bodyweight: 65 kg (51-80 kg)) completed two dynamic MRM examinations on a 0.6 T open scanner. The inter-examination time was 24 h (23.5-25 h). The following sequences were applied: axial T2W TSE and an axial dynamic T1W FFED, with a total of seven frames. At day 1, an i.v. gadolinium (Gd) bolus injection of 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight (Omniscan) (low) was administered. On day 2, the contrast dose was increased to 0.2 mmol/kg (high). Injection rate was 2 mL/s (day 1) and 4 mL/s (day 2). Any use of estrogen containing oral contraceptives (ECOC) was recorded. Post-processing with automated subtraction, manually traced ROI (region of interest) and recording of the SI was performed. A random coefficient model was applied. Results: We found an SI increase of 24.2% and 40% following the low and high dose, respectively (P < 0.0001); corresponding to a 65% (95% CI: 37-99%) SI increase, indicating a moderate saturation. Although not statistically significant (P = 0.06), the results indicated a tendency, towards lower maximal SI in the breast parenchyma of ECOC users compared to non-ECOC users. Conclusion: We conclude that the contrast dose can be increased from 0.1 to 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight, if a better contrast/noise relation is desired but increasing the contrast dose above 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight is not likely to improve the enhancement substantially due to the moderate saturation observed. Further research is needed to determine the impact of ECOC on the relative enhancement ratio, and further studies are needed to determine if a possible use of ECOC should be considered a compromising

  6. Signal intensity of normal breast tissue at MR mammography on midfield: Applying a random coefficient model evaluating the effect of doubling the contrast dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, Mette; Christensen, Robin; Torp-Pedersen, Soren; Thomsen, Carsten; Nolsoe, Christian P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the effect on signal intensity (SI) of healthy breast parenchyma on magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) when doubling the contrast dose from 0.1 to 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight. Materials and methods: Informed consent and institutional review board approval were obtained. Twenty-five healthy female volunteers (median age: 24 years (range: 21-37 years) and median bodyweight: 65 kg (51-80 kg)) completed two dynamic MRM examinations on a 0.6 T open scanner. The inter-examination time was 24 h (23.5-25 h). The following sequences were applied: axial T2W TSE and an axial dynamic T1W FFED, with a total of seven frames. At day 1, an i.v. gadolinium (Gd) bolus injection of 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight (Omniscan) (low) was administered. On day 2, the contrast dose was increased to 0.2 mmol/kg (high). Injection rate was 2 mL/s (day 1) and 4 mL/s (day 2). Any use of estrogen containing oral contraceptives (ECOC) was recorded. Post-processing with automated subtraction, manually traced ROI (region of interest) and recording of the SI was performed. A random coefficient model was applied. Results: We found an SI increase of 24.2% and 40% following the low and high dose, respectively (P < 0.0001); corresponding to a 65% (95% CI: 37-99%) SI increase, indicating a moderate saturation. Although not statistically significant (P = 0.06), the results indicated a tendency, towards lower maximal SI in the breast parenchyma of ECOC users compared to non-ECOC users. Conclusion: We conclude that the contrast dose can be increased from 0.1 to 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight, if a better contrast/noise relation is desired but increasing the contrast dose above 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight is not likely to improve the enhancement substantially due to the moderate saturation observed. Further research is needed to determine the impact of ECOC on the relative enhancement ratio, and further studies are needed to determine if a possible use of ECOC should be considered a compromising

  7. Regular activity breaks combined with physical activity improve postprandial plasma triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, and insulin responses in healthy, normal weight adults: A randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Ashleigh R; Fenemor, Stephen P; Perry, Tracy L; Rehrer, Nancy J; Cameron, Claire M; Skeaff, C Murray; Peddie, Meredith C

    Compared with prolonged sitting, regular activity breaks immediately lower postprandial glucose and insulin, but not triglyceride responses. Postprandial triglycerides can be lowered by physical activity but the effect is often delayed by ∼12 to 24 hours. The objective of the study was to determine whether regular activity breaks affect postprandial triglyceride response in a delayed manner similar to physical activity. In a randomized crossover trial, 36 adults (body mass index 23.9 kg/m 2 [standard deviation 3.9]) completed four 2-day interventions: (1) prolonged sitting (SIT); (2) prolonged sitting with 30 minutes of continuous walking (60% VO 2max ), at the end of Day 1 (SIT + PA D1 ); (3) Sitting with 2 minutes of walking (60% VO 2max ) every 30 minutes (RAB); (4) A combination of the continuous walking and regular activity breaks in 2 and 3 above (RAB + PA D1 ). Postprandial plasma triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin responses were measured in venous blood over 5 hours on Day 2. Compared with SIT, both RAB (difference: -43.61 mg/dL·5 hours; 95% confidence interval [CI] -83.66 to -2.67; P = .035) and RAB + PA D1 (-65.86 mg/dL·5 hours; 95% CI -112.14 to -19.58; P = .005) attenuated triglyceride total area under the curve (tAUC). RAB + PA D1 produced the greatest reductions in insulin tAUC (-23%; 95% CI -12% to -31%; P glucose tAUC (P = .290). Postprandial triglyceride response is attenuated by regular activity breaks, when measured ∼24 hours after breaks begin. Combining regular activity breaks with 30 minutes of continuous walking further improves insulinemic and lipidemic responses. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tensor GSVD of Patient- and Platform-Matched Tumor and Normal DNA Copy-Number Profiles Uncovers Chromosome Arm-Wide Patterns of Tumor-Exclusive Platform-Consistent Alterations Encoding for Cell Transformation and Predicting Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E.; Aiello, Katherine A.; Alter, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient’s prognosis, is independent of the tumor’s stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell’s immortality, and a patient’s shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq

  9. Tensor GSVD of patient- and platform-matched tumor and normal DNA copy-number profiles uncovers chromosome arm-wide patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent alterations encoding for cell transformation and predicting ovarian cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Sankaranarayanan

    Full Text Available The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD, which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs. We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient's prognosis, is independent of the tumor's stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell's immortality, and a patient's shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival

  10. Successful Completion of the Pilot Phase of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy to No Further Axillary Staging in Patients with Clinical T1-T2 N0 Breast Cancer and Normal Axillary Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Amy E; Tucker, Natalia; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Margenthaler, Julie A; Aft, Rebecca L; Eberlein, Timothy J; Appleton, Catherine M; Zoberi, Imran; Thomas, Maria A; Gao, Feng; Gillanders, William E

    2016-08-01

    Axillary surgery is not considered therapeutic in patients with clinical T1-T2 N0 breast cancer. The importance of axillary staging is eroding in an era in which tumor biology, as defined by biomarker and gene expression profile, is increasingly important in medical decision making. We hypothesized that axillary ultrasound (AUS) is a noninvasive alternative to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), and AUS could replace SLNB without compromising patient care. Patients with clinical T1-T2 N0 breast cancer and normal AUS were eligible for enrollment. Subjects were randomized to no further axillary staging (arm 1) vs SLNB (arm 2). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the results of the pilot phase of the randomized controlled trial. Sixty-eight subjects were enrolled in the pilot phase of the trial (34 subjects in arm 1, no further staging; 32 subjects in arm 2, SLNB; and 2 subjects voluntarily withdrew from the trial). The median age was 61 years (range 40 to 80 years) in arm 1 and 59 years (range 31 to 81 years) in arm 2, and there were no significant clinical or pathologic differences between the arms. Median follow-up was 17 months (range 1 to 32 months). The negative predictive value (NPV) of AUS for identification of clinically significant axillary disease (>2.0 mm) was 96.9%. No axillary recurrences have been observed in either arm. Successful completion of the pilot phase of the randomized controlled trial confirms the feasibility of the study design, and provides prospective evidence supporting the ability of AUS to exclude clinically significant disease in the axilla. The results provide strong support for a phase 2 randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The number needed to treat for adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab based on ACR50 response in three randomized controlled trials on established rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L E; Christensen, R; Bliddal, H

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) taking concomitant methotrexate (MTX) by calculating the number needed to treat (NNT) using three different methods.......To compare the efficacy of adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) taking concomitant methotrexate (MTX) by calculating the number needed to treat (NNT) using three different methods....

  12. The number needed to treat for adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab based on ACR50 response in three randomized controlled trials on established rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L E; Christensen, R; Bliddal, H

    2007-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) taking concomitant methotrexate (MTX) by calculating the number needed to treat (NNT) using three different methods.......To compare the efficacy of adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) taking concomitant methotrexate (MTX) by calculating the number needed to treat (NNT) using three different methods....

  13. Efficacy of a family practice-based lifestyle intervention program to increase physical activity and reduce clinical and physiological markers of vascular health in patients with high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose (SNAC: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overend Tom

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous interventions to increase physical activity and reduce cardiovascular risk factors have been targeted at individuals with established disease; less attention has been given to intervention among individuals with high risk for disease nor has there been determination of the influence of setting in which the intervention is provided. In particular, family practice represents an ideal setting for the provision and long-term maintenance of lifestyle interventions for patients at risk (ie high-normal blood pressure or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods/design The Staged Nutrition and Activity Counseling (SNAC study is a randomized clustered design clinical trial that will investigate the effectiveness and efficacy of a multi-component lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors and vascular function in patients at risk in primary care. Patients will be randomized by practice to either a standard of care lifestyle intervention or a behaviourally-based, matched prescriptive physical activity and diet change program. The primary goal is to increase physical activity and improve dietary intake according to Canada's Guides to Physical Activity Healthy Eating over 24 months. The primary intention to treat analysis will compare behavioral, physiological and metabolic outcomes at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomization including estimation of incident hypertension and/or diabetes. Discussion The design features of our trial, and the practical problems (and solutions associated with implementing these design features, particularly those that result in potential delay between recruitment, baseline data collection, randomization, intervention, and assessment will be discussed. Results of the SNAC trial will provide scientific rationale for the implementation of this lifestyle intervention in primary care. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN:42921300

  14. Quantumness, Randomness and Computability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, Aldo; Hirsch, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    Randomness plays a central role in the quantum mechanical description of our interactions. We review the relationship between the violation of Bell inequalities, non signaling and randomness. We discuss the challenge in defining a random string, and show that algorithmic information theory provides a necessary condition for randomness using Borel normality. We close with a view on incomputablity and its implications in physics. (paper)

  15. Improvement of Secret Image Invisibility in Circulation Image with Dyadic Wavelet Based Data Hiding with Run-Length Coded Secret Images of Which Location of Codes are Determined with Random Number

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Yuji Yamada

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made for improvement of secret image invisibility in circulation images with dyadic wavelet based data hiding with run-length coded secret images of which location of codes are determined by random number. Through experiments, it is confirmed that secret images are almost invisible in circulation images. Also robustness of the proposed data hiding method against data compression of circulation images is discussed. Data hiding performance in terms of invisibility of secret images...

  16. Number of Published Randomized Controlled Multi Center Trials Testing Pharmacological Interventions or Devices Is Increasing in Both Medical and Surgical Specialties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Okholm, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    : The object of this study was to investigate the development in the organization of multicenter studies, the distribution of studies within different clinical specialties, across continents, and investigate the differences related to testing various interventions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A literature search...... was done in MEDLINE for multicenter studies published in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010, respectively. Data extraction identified data related to clinical specialties, interventions, participating patients, departments, countries, and continents. RESULTS: The number of multicenter studies increased from 112...... as the number of participating departments increased during the time span, though the increase in studies was most evident in Europe and North America compared with the rest of the world....

  17. Effect of high-protein or normal-protein diet on weight loss, body composition, hormone, and metabolic profile in southern Brazilian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscani, Mariana K; Mario, Fernanda M; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Wiltgen, Denusa; Matos, Maria Cristina; Spritzer, Poli Maria

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a high protein (HP) and a normal protein (NP) diet on patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and body mass index-matched controls in a sample of southern Brazilian women. This 8-week randomized trial was carried out at a university gynecological endocrinology clinic and included 18 patients with PCOS and 22 controls. Changes in weight, body composition, hormone, and metabolic profile were analyzed in women randomized to receive HP (30% protein, 40% carbohydrate, and 30% lipid) or NP (15% protein, 55% carbohydrate, and 30% lipid). The energy content was estimated for each participant at 20-25 kcal/kg current weight/day. Physical activity, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, and fasting and 2-h glucose and insulin remained stable during the intervention in PCOS and controls, even in the presence of weight loss. There were no changes in lipid profile in either group. In contrast, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percent of body fat, and sum of trunk skinfolds decreased significantly after both diets in both groups. Total testosterone also decreased in PCOS and controls regardless of diet. In conclusion, calorie reduction, rather than protein content, seemed to affect body composition and hormonal profile in this short-term study. These findings emphasize the role of non-pharmacological interventions to reduce weight and ameliorate the anthropometric and clinical phenotype in PCOS.

  18. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  19. Log-normal distribution from a process that is not multiplicative but is additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Hideaki

    2013-10-01

    The central limit theorem ensures that a sum of random variables tends to a Gaussian distribution as their total number tends to infinity. However, for a class of positive random variables, we find that the sum tends faster to a log-normal distribution. Although the sum tends eventually to a Gaussian distribution, the distribution of the sum is always close to a log-normal distribution rather than to any Gaussian distribution if the summands are numerous enough. This is in contrast to the current consensus that any log-normal distribution is due to a product of random variables, i.e., a multiplicative process, or equivalently to nonlinearity of the system. In fact, the log-normal distribution is also observable for a sum, i.e., an additive process that is typical of linear systems. We show conditions for such a sum, an analytical example, and an application to random scalar fields such as those of turbulence.

  20. Algebraic polynomials with random coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Farahmand

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an asymptotic value for the mathematical expected number of points of inflections of a random polynomial of the form a0(ω+a1(ω(n11/2x+a2(ω(n21/2x2+…an(ω(nn1/2xn when n is large. The coefficients {aj(w}j=0n, w∈Ω are assumed to be a sequence of independent normally distributed random variables with means zero and variance one, each defined on a fixed probability space (A,Ω,Pr. A special case of dependent coefficients is also studied.

  1. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  2. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  3. Comparison the Effects of Shallow and Deep Endotracheal Tube Suctioning on Respiratory Rate, Arterial Blood Oxygen Saturation and Number of Suctioning in Patients Hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasinia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate (RR, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA, chi-square and independent t-tests. Results: RR was significantly increased and SpO2 was significantly decreased after each suctioning in the both groups. However, these changes were not significant between the two groups. The numbers of suctioning was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Conclusion: Shallow and deep suctioning had a similar effect on RR and SpO2. However, shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient’s trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, it seems that deep endotracheal tube suctioning method can be used to clean the airway with lesser manipulation of the trachea.

  4. Comparison the effects of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning on respiratory rate, arterial blood oxygen saturation and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasinia, Mohammad; Irajpour, Alireza; Babaii, Atye; Shamali, Mehdi; Vahdatnezhad, Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate (RR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA), chi-square and independent t-tests. RR was significantly increased and SpO2 was significantly decreased after each suctioning in the both groups. However, these changes were not significant between the two groups. The numbers of suctioning was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Conclusion : Shallow and deep suctioning had a similar effect on RR and SpO2. However, shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient's trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, it seems that deep endotracheal tube suctioning method can be used to clean the airway with lesser manipulation of the trachea.

  5. Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Orfanakos, Nickolaos; Farajian, Paul; Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Makariti, Ifigenia P; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos; Ha, Marie-Ann; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2017-10-01

    The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response. Ten healthy, normal-weight volunteers participated in GI investigation. Then, 50 healthy, normal-weight individuals consumed, crossover, in random order, the preloads as snack, with 1-wk washout period. Ad libitum meal (lunch and dessert) was offered. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected at baseline, 2 h after breakfast, just before preload consumption, 2 h after preload, 3 h after preload, just before meal (lunch and dessert), 1 h after meal, and 2 h after meal consumption. The carob snack was a low GI food, whereas the chocolate cookie was a high GI food (40 versus 78, respectively, on glucose scale). Consumption of the carob preload decreased the glycemic response to a following meal and to the individual's feelings of hunger, desire to eat, preoccupation with food, and thirst between snack and meal, as assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Subsequently, participants consumed less amounts of food (g) and had lower total energy intake at mealtimes. The carob snack led to increased satiety, lower energy intake at meal, and decreased postmeal glycemic response possibly due to its low GI value. Identifying foods that promote satiety and decrease glycemic response without increasing the overall energy intake may offer advantages to body weight and glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of polydextrose with breakfast or with a midmorning preload on food intake and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females: An acute, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Alvin; Olli, Kaisa; Pasman, Wilrike; Hendriks, Henk; Alhoniemi, Esa; Raza, Ghulam Shere; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2017-03-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) reduces subsequent energy intake (EI) when administered at midmorning in single-blind trials of primarily normal-weight men. However, it is unclear if this effect also occurs when PDX is given at breakfast time. Furthermore, for ecological validity, it is desirable to study a female population, including those at risk for obesity. We studied the effects of PDX, served as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females. Per earlier studies, the primary outcome was defined as the difference in subsequent EI when PDX was consumed at midmorning versus placebo. Thirty-two volunteers were enrolled in this acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, and crossover trial to examine the effects of 12.5 g of PDX, administered as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI, subjective feelings of appetite, well-being, and mood. Gastric emptying rates and the blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine were measured in the group that received PDX as part of their breakfast. There were no differences in EI between volunteers who were fed PDX and placebo. PDX intake with breakfast tended to elevate blood glucose (P = 0.06) during the postabsorptive phase, significantly lowered insulin by 15.7% (P = 0.04), and increased GLP-1 by 39.9% (P = 0.02); no other effects on blood parameters or gastric emptying rates were observed. PDX intake at midmorning reduced hunger by 31.4% during the satiation period (P = 0.02); all other subjective feelings of appetite were unaffected. Volunteers had a uniform mood profile during the study. PDX was well tolerated, causing one mild adverse event throughout the trial. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Ginger Supplementation on Cell Cycle Biomarkers in the Normal-Appearing Colonic Mucosa of Patients at Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Results from a Pilot, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citronberg, Jessica; Bostick, Roberd; Ahearn, Thomas; Turgeon, D. Kim; Ruffin, Mack T.; Djuric, Zora; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E.; Zick, Suzanna M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the effects of ginger on apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation in the normal-appearing colonic mucosa, we randomized 20 people at increased risk for colorectal cancer to 2.0 g of ginger or placebo daily for 28 days in a pilot trial. Overall expression and distributions of Bax, Bcl-2, p21, hTERT and MIB-1 (Ki-67) in colorectal crypts in rectal mucosa biopsies were measured using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Relative to placebo, Bax expression in the ginger group decreased 15.6% (p = 0.78) in the whole crypts, 6.6% (p = 0.95) in the upper 40% (differentiation zone) of crypts, and 21.7% (p = 0.67) in the lower 60% (proliferative zone) of crypts; however, there was a 19% increase (p = 0.14) in Bax expression in the upper 40% relative to the whole crypt. While p21 and Bcl-2 expression remained relatively unchanged, hTERT expression in the whole crypts decreased by 41.2% (p = 0.05); the estimated treatment effect on hTERT expression was larger in the upper 40% of crypts (−47.9%; p = 0.04). In the ginger group, MIB-1 expression decreased in the whole crypts, upper 40% of crypts, and lower 60% of crypts by 16.9% (p = 0.39), 46.8% (p = 0.39), and 15.3% (p = 0.41), respectively. These pilot study results suggest that ginger may reduce proliferation in the normal-appearing colorectal epithelium and increase apoptosis and differentiation relative to proliferation—especially in the differentiation zone of the crypts, and support a larger study to further investigate these results. PMID:23303903

  8. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  9. Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmarcke, Erik

    1983-03-01

    Random variation over space and time is one of the few attributes that might safely be predicted as characterizing almost any given complex system. Random fields or "distributed disorder systems" confront astronomers, physicists, geologists, meteorologists, biologists, and other natural scientists. They appear in the artifacts developed by electrical, mechanical, civil, and other engineers. They even underlie the processes of social and economic change. The purpose of this book is to bring together existing and new methodologies of random field theory and indicate how they can be applied to these diverse areas where a "deterministic treatment is inefficient and conventional statistics insufficient." Many new results and methods are included. After outlining the extent and characteristics of the random field approach, the book reviews the classical theory of multidimensional random processes and introduces basic probability concepts and methods in the random field context. It next gives a concise amount of the second-order analysis of homogeneous random fields, in both the space-time domain and the wave number-frequency domain. This is followed by a chapter on spectral moments and related measures of disorder and on level excursions and extremes of Gaussian and related random fields. After developing a new framework of analysis based on local averages of one-, two-, and n-dimensional processes, the book concludes with a chapter discussing ramifications in the important areas of estimation, prediction, and control. The mathematical prerequisite has been held to basic college-level calculus.

  10. Interpreting parameters in the logistic regression model with random effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2000-01-01

    interpretation, interval odds ratio, logistic regression, median odds ratio, normally distributed random effects......interpretation, interval odds ratio, logistic regression, median odds ratio, normally distributed random effects...

  11. No differential effect of beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, or glucose on systemic or adipose tissue inflammation in normal-weight to obese adults: a randomized controlled trial1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Gail; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Weigle, David S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low-grade chronic inflammation are both independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Fructose, a major component of SSBs, may acutely trigger inflammation, which may be one link between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic disease. Objective: We sought to determine whether beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and glucose differentially influence systemic inflammation [fasting plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as primary endpoints] acutely and before major changes in body weight. Secondary endpoints included adipose tissue inflammation, intestinal permeability, and plasma fetuin-A as potential mechanistic links between fructose intake and low-grade inflammation. Design: We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover design dietary intervention (the Diet and Systemic Inflammation Study) in 24 normal-weight to obese adults without fructose malabsorption. Participants drank 4 servings/d of fructose-, glucose-, or HFCS-sweetened beverages accounting for 25% of estimated calorie requirements while consuming a standardized diet ad libitum for three 8-d periods. Results: Subjects consumed 116% of their estimated calorie requirement while drinking the beverages with no difference in total energy intake or body weight between groups as reported previously. Fasting plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and IL-6 did not differ significantly at the end of the 3 diet periods. We did not detect a consistent differential effect of the diets on measures of adipose tissue inflammation except for adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue (P = 0.005), which was lowest after the glucose phase. We also did not detect consistent evidence of a differential impact of these sugars on measures of intestinal permeability (lactulose:mannitol test, plasma zonulin, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein). Conclusion: Excessive

  12. No differential effect of beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, or glucose on systemic or adipose tissue inflammation in normal-weight to obese adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low-grade chronic inflammation are both independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Fructose, a major component of SSBs, may acutely trigger inflammation, which may be one link between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic disease. We sought to determine whether beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and glucose differentially influence systemic inflammation [fasting plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as primary endpoints] acutely and before major changes in body weight. Secondary endpoints included adipose tissue inflammation, intestinal permeability, and plasma fetuin-A as potential mechanistic links between fructose intake and low-grade inflammation. We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover design dietary intervention (the Diet and Systemic Inflammation Study) in 24 normal-weight to obese adults without fructose malabsorption. Participants drank 4 servings/d of fructose-, glucose-, or HFCS-sweetened beverages accounting for 25% of estimated calorie requirements while consuming a standardized diet ad libitum for three 8-d periods. Subjects consumed 116% of their estimated calorie requirement while drinking the beverages with no difference in total energy intake or body weight between groups as reported previously. Fasting plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and IL-6 did not differ significantly at the end of the 3 diet periods. We did not detect a consistent differential effect of the diets on measures of adipose tissue inflammation except for adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue (P = 0.005), which was lowest after the glucose phase. We also did not detect consistent evidence of a differential impact of these sugars on measures of intestinal permeability (lactulose:mannitol test, plasma zonulin, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein). Excessive amounts of fructose, HFCS, and glucose from SSBs

  13. Random Number Generation: A Practitioner's Overview

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    About the speaker Dr. Mascagni is full professor at Florida State University, where he runs a research group consisting of post-doctoral associates, graduate students, and undergraduate workers. The areas they work on are p...

  14. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  15. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  16. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  17. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  18. The non-alcoholic fraction of beer increases stromal cell derived factor 1 and the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in high cardiovascular risk subjects: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Condines, Ximena; Magraner, Emma; Roth, Irene; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Arranz, Sara; Casas, Rosa; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Quifer-Rada, Paola; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-04-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular risk, but fermented beverages seem to confer greater cardiovascular protection due to their polyphenolic content. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are bone-marrow-derived stem cells with the ability to repair and maintain endothelial integrity and function and are considered as a surrogate marker of vascular function and cumulative cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, no study has been carried out on the effects of moderate beer consumption on the number of circulating EPC in high cardiovascular risk patients. To compare the effects of moderate consumption of beer, non-alcoholic beer and gin on the number of circulating EPC and EPC-mobilizing factors. In this crossover trial, 33 men at high cardiovascular risk were randomized to receive beer (30 g alcohol/d), the equivalent amount of polyphenols in the form of non-alcoholic beer, or gin (30 g alcohol/d) for 4 weeks. Diet and physical exercise were carefully monitored. The number of circulating EPC and EPC-mobilizing factors were determined at baseline and after each intervention. After the beer and non-alcoholic beer interventions, the number of circulating EPC significantly increased by 8 and 5 units, respectively, while no significant differences were observed after the gin period. In correlation, stromal cell derived factor 1 increased significantly after the non-alcoholic and the beer interventions. The non-alcoholic fraction of beer increases the number of circulating EPC in peripheral blood from high cardiovascular risk subjects. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN95345245 ISRCTN95345245. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  20. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  1. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  2. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  3. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  4. A Comparison of the Number of Men Who Have Sex with Men among Rural-To-Urban Migrants with Non-Migrant Rural and Urban Residents in Wuhan, China: A GIS/GPS-Assisted Random Sample Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Zhou, Dunjin; Zhou, Wang; Gong, Jie; Li, Shiyue; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile populations and men who have sex with men (MSM) play an increasing role in the current HIV epidemic in China and across the globe. While considerable research has addressed both of these at-risk populations, more effective HIV control requires accurate data on the number of MSM at the population level, particularly MSM among migrant populations. Methods Survey data from a random sample of male rural-to-urban migrants (aged 18-45, n=572) in Wuhan, China were analyzed and compared with those of randomly selected non-migrant urban (n=566) and rural counterparts (580). The GIS/GPS technologies were used for sampling and the survey estimation method was used for data analysis. Results HIV-related risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants were similar to those among the two comparison groups. The estimated proportion of MSM among migrants [95% CI] was 5.8% [4.7, 6.8], higher than 2.8% [1.2, 4.5] for rural residents and 1.0% [0.0, 2.4] for urban residents, respectively. Among these migrants, the MSM were more likely than non-MSM to be older in age, married, and migrated to more cities. They were also more likely to co-habit with others in rental properties located in new town and neighborhoods with fewer old acquaintances and more entertainment establishments. In addition, they were more likely to engage in commercial sex and less likely to consistently use condoms. Conclusion Findings of this study indicate that compared to rural and urban populations, the migrant population in Wuhan consists of a higher proportion of MSM who also exhibit higher levels of HIV-related risk behaviors. More effective interventions should target this population with a focus on neighborhood factors, social capital and collective efficacy for risk reduction. PMID:26241900

  5. ANALYSIS OF FUZZY QUEUES: PARAMETRIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH BASED ON RANDOMNESS - FUZZINESS CONSISTENCY PRINCIPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Dhruba Das; Hemanta K. Baruah

    2015-01-01

    In this article, based on Zadeh’s extension principle we have apply the parametric programming approach to construct the membership functions of the performance measures when the interarrival time and the service time are fuzzy numbers based on the Baruah’s Randomness- Fuzziness Consistency Principle. The Randomness-Fuzziness Consistency Principle leads to defining a normal law of fuzziness using two different laws of randomness. In this article, two fuzzy queues FM...

  6. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  7. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  8. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  9. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  10. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...

  11. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree

  12. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  13. ComOn Coaching: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of a varied number of coaching sessions on transfer into clinical practice following communication skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niglio de Figueiredo, Marcelo; Rudolph, Bärbel; Rodolph, Bärbel; Bylund, Carma L; Goelz, Tanja; Heußner, Pia; Sattel, Heribert; Fritzsche, Kurt; Wuensch, Alexander

    2015-07-07

    Communication skills training has proven to be an effective means to enhance communication of health care professionals in oncology. These effects are well studied in standardized settings. The question of transferring these skills into clinical consultations remains open. We build up on a previous developed training concept consisting of a workshop and coaching. This training achieved a medium effect size in two studies with standardized patients. In the current study, we expanded and manualized the coaching concept, and we will evaluate effects of a varied number of coaching sessions on real clinical consultations. Our aim is to determine how much coaching oncologists need to transfer communication skills into clinical practice. Physicians of two German medical centers will participate in a workshop for communication skills and will be randomized to either a group with one coaching session or a group with four coaching sessions following the workshop. The participation is voluntary and the physicians will receive medical education points. Consultations held by the participating physicians with actual patients who gave their informed consent will be filmed at three time points. These consultations will be evaluated by blinded raters using a checklist based on the training content (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes will be the self-evaluated communication competence by physicians and an evaluation of the consultations by both physicians and patients. We will evaluate our communication training concept on three levels - rater, physician and patient - and concentrate on the transfer of communication skills into real life situations. As we emphasize the external validity in this study design, limitations will be expected due to heterogeneity of data. With this study we aim to gain data on how to improve communication skills training that will result in better patient outcomes. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004385 .

  14. BWIP-RANDOM-SAMPLING, Random Sample Generation for Nuclear Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Random samples for different distribution types are generated. Distribution types as required for performance assessment modeling of geologic nuclear waste disposal are provided. These are: - Uniform, - Log-uniform (base 10 or natural), - Normal, - Lognormal (base 10 or natural), - Exponential, - Bernoulli, - User defined continuous distribution. 2 - Method of solution: A linear congruential generator is used for uniform random numbers. A set of functions is used to transform the uniform distribution to the other distributions. Stratified, rather than random, sampling can be chosen. Truncated limits can be specified on many distributions, whose usual definition has an infinite support. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Generation of correlated random variables is not included

  15. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  16. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  17. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  19. The effect of moderate sedation on exocrine pancreas function in normal healthy subjects: a prospective, randomized, cross-over trial using the synthetic porcine secretin stimulated Endoscopic Pancreatic Function Test (ePFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Darwin L; Zuccaro, Gregory; Purich, Edward; Fein, Seymor; Vanlente, Frederick; Vargo, John; Dumot, John; O'laughlin, Cathy; Trolli, Patricia

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a purely endoscopic collection method for the assessment of pancreatic secretory function (ePFT). The pancreatic secretory effects of sedation medications utilized during endoscopic procedures are not completely known. To study the effect of moderate sedation on the exocrine pancreas gland in a prospective, randomized trial. Healthy volunteers were randomized by computers to one of two treatments (A-no sedation, B-sedation) in period 1 and crossed-over to the other treatment in period 2 with a minimal washout interval of 7 days. Sedation dosage was standardized for each patient based on age, gender and weight from a previously published dosing nomogram. Synthetic porcine secretin (ChiRhoClin, Inc., Burtonsville, Maryland) was used as the pancreatic stimulant. Duodenal fluid samples were aspirated via the endoscope every 5 min for 1 h and sent on ice to our hospital laboratory for the measurement of pancreatic secretory electrolyte concentrations by autoanalyzer. A total of 17 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Sixteen subjects (8 males and 8 females) completed the randomized prospective trial. Median intravenous meperidine and midazolam sedation dose was 62.5 mg and 2.5 mg, respectively. Maximum pancreatic juice flow occurred during the early phase of secretion and maximum bicarbonate concentration occurred during the late phase of secretion. Analysis of the electrolyte composition of the endoscopically collected duodenal drainage fluid revealed a constant cation concentration for both sodium and potassium over the 1 h collection period. The anions, chloride and bicarbonate, exhibited a reciprocal relationship identical to that seen in traditional gastroduodenal tube collection studies. There was no statistical difference observed between the sedation and no sedation groups. The estimated total bicarbonate output (area under curve, AUC) for the sedated and non-sedated groups were 5,017 meq + 724 (range 3,663-6,173) and 5,364 meq +/- 583 (range 4

  20. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  1. Normal distal pulmonary vein anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that the pulmonary veins (PVs, especially their myocardial sleeves play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Understanding the PV anatomy is crucial for the safety and efficacy of all procedures performed on PVs. The aim of this study was to present normal distal PV anatomy and to create a juxtaposition of all PV ostium variants.Methods. A total of 130 randomly selected autopsied adult human hearts (Caucasian were examined. The number of PVs ostia was evaluated and their diameter was measured. The ostium-to-last-tributary distance and macroscopic presence of myocardial sleeves were also evaluated.Results. Five hundred forty-one PV ostia were identified. Four classical PV ostia patterns (two left and two right PVs were observed in 70.8% of all cases. The most common variant was the classical pattern with additional middle right PV (19.2%, followed by the common ostium for the left superior and the inferior PVs (4.44%. Mean diameters of PV ostia (for the classical pattern were: left superior = 13.8 ± 2.9 mm; left inferior = 13.3 ± 3.4 mm; right superior = 14.3 ± 2.9 mm; right inferior = 13.7 ± 3.3 mm. When present, the additional middle right PV ostium had the smallest PV ostium diameter in the heart (8.2 ± 4.1 mm. The mean ostium-to-last-tributary (closest to the atrium distances were: left superior = 15.1 ± 4.6 mm; left inferior = 13.5 ± 4.0 mm; right superior = 11.8 ± 4.0 mm; right inferior = 11.0 ± 3.7 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes in ostia diameters and ostium-to-last-tributary distances.Conclusion. Only 71% of the cases have four standard pulmonary veins. The middle right pulmonary vein is present in almost 20% of patients. Presented data can provide useful information for the clinicians during interventional procedures or radiologic examinations of PVs.

  2. Direct numerical simulation of moderate-Reynolds-number flow past arrays of rotating spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2015-07-01

    Direct numerical simulations with an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method are used to investigate the effects of particle rotation on flows past random arrays of mono-disperse spheres at moderate particle Reynolds numbers. This study is an extension of a previous study of the authors [Q. Zhou and L.-S. Fan, "Direct numerical simulation of low-Reynolds-number flow past arrays of rotating spheres," J. Fluid Mech. 765, 396-423 (2015)] that explored the effects of particle rotation at low particle Reynolds numbers. The results of this study indicate that as the particle Reynolds number increases, the normalized Magnus lift force decreases rapidly when the particle Reynolds number is in the range lower than 50. For the particle Reynolds number greater than 50, the normalized Magnus lift force approaches a constant value that is invariant with solid volume fractions. The proportional dependence of the Magnus lift force on the rotational Reynolds number (based on the angular velocity and the diameter of the spheres) observed at low particle Reynolds numbers does not change in the present study, making the Magnus lift force another possible factor that can significantly affect the overall dynamics of fluid-particle flows other than the drag force. Moreover, it is found that both the normalized drag force and the normalized torque increase with the increase of the particle Reynolds number and the solid volume fraction. Finally, correlations for the drag force, the Magnus lift force, and the torque in random arrays of rotating spheres at arbitrary solids volume fractions, rotational Reynolds numbers, and particle Reynolds numbers are formulated.

  3. Normal Growth of Healthy Infants Born from HIV+ Mothers Fed a Reduced Protein Infant Formula Containing the Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Fructo-Oligosaccharides: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Da Costa Ribeiro Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of a new reduced protein (2.1 g/100 kcal infant formula containing 4 g/L of 90% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS and 10% fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS. Methods Healthy term infants from Brazil were enrolled. Those born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive mothers were randomized to a test ( n = 65 or control ( n = 63 formula group. Infants born to HIV-negative mothers were either exclusively breast-fed ( n = 79 or received a mixed diet (breast milk and test formula, n = 65. Between 2 weeks and 4 months of age, infants were exclusively fed according to their assigned group. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months. Digestive tolerance was evaluated during the first 4 months. The primary outcome was mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups. Results Data from all infants ( N = 272 were used in the intention-to-treat (ITT analysis and data from 230 infants were used in the per-protocol (PP analysis. The difference in mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups was 1.257 g/day (onesided 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.705 to inf, P < 0.001 in the PP analysis, showing that the lower bound of the 95% CI was above the -3.0 g/day non-inferiority margin. Results were similar in the ITT analysis. Symptoms of digestive tolerance and frequency of adverse events were similar in the two groups. Conclusions The formula containing 2.1 g/100 kcal protein and GOS and FOS was safe and tolerated well.

  4. Emergence of Multiscaling in a Random-Force Stirred Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor; Donzis, Diego

    2017-07-01

    We consider the transition to strong turbulence in an infinite fluid stirred by a Gaussian random force. The transition is defined as a first appearance of anomalous scaling of normalized moments of velocity derivatives (dissipation rates) emerging from the low-Reynolds-number Gaussian background. It is shown that, due to multiscaling, strongly intermittent rare events can be quantitatively described in terms of an infinite number of different "Reynolds numbers" reflecting a multitude of anomalous scaling exponents. The theoretically predicted transition disappears at Rλ≤3 . The developed theory is in quantitative agreement with the outcome of large-scale numerical simulations.

  5. Random walk on random walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilário, M.; Hollander, den W.Th.F.; Sidoravicius, V.; Soares dos Santos, R.; Teixeira, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study a random walk in a one-dimensional dynamic random environment consisting of a collection of independent particles performing simple symmetric random walks in a Poisson equilibrium with density ¿¿(0,8). At each step the random walk performs a nearest-neighbour jump, moving to

  6. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  7. Computerized three-dimensional normal atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Isamu; Suto, Yasuzo; Suzuki, Masataka; Iio, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents our ongoing project in which normal human anatomy and its quantitative data are systematically arranged in a computer. The final product, the Computerized Three-Dimensional Normal Atlas, will be able to supply tomographic images in any direction, 3-D images, and coded information on organs, e.g., anatomical names, CT numbers, and T 1 and T 2 values. (author)

  8. Non-compact random generalized games and random quasi-variational inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Xian-Zhi

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, existence theorems of random maximal elements, random equilibria for the random one-person game and random generalized game with a countable number of players are given as applications of random fixed point theorems. By employing existence theorems of random generalized games, we deduce the existence of solutions for non-compact random quasi-variational inequalities. These in turn are used to establish several existence theorems of noncompact generalized random ...

  9. Anomalous Anticipatory Responses in Networked Random Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Roger D.; Bancel, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    We examine an 8-year archive of synchronized, parallel time series of random data from a world spanning network of physical random event generators (REGs). The archive is a publicly accessible matrix of normally distributed 200-bit sums recorded at 1 Hz which extends from August 1998 to the present. The primary question is whether these data show non-random structure associated with major events such as natural or man-made disasters, terrible accidents, or grand celebrations. Secondarily, we examine the time course of apparently correlated responses. Statistical analyses of the data reveal consistent evidence that events which strongly affect people engender small but significant effects. These include suggestions of anticipatory responses in some cases, leading to a series of specialized analyses to assess possible non-random structure preceding precisely timed events. A focused examination of data collected around the time of earthquakes with Richter magnitude 6 and greater reveals non-random structure with a number of intriguing, potentially important features. Anomalous effects in the REG data are seen only when the corresponding earthquakes occur in populated areas. No structure is found if they occur in the oceans. We infer that an important contributor to the effect is the relevance of the earthquake to humans. Epoch averaging reveals evidence for changes in the data some hours prior to the main temblor, suggestive of reverse causation

  10. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  11. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  12. Tunable random packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumay, G; Vandewalle, N

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental protocol that allows one to tune the packing fraction η of a random pile of ferromagnetic spheres from a value close to the lower limit of random loose packing η RLP ≅0.56 to the upper limit of random close packing η RCP ≅0.64. This broad range of packing fraction values is obtained under normal gravity in air, by adjusting a magnetic cohesion between the grains during the formation of the pile. Attractive and repulsive magnetic interactions are found to affect stongly the internal structure and the stability of sphere packing. After the formation of the pile, the induced cohesion is decreased continuously along a linear decreasing ramp. The controlled collapse of the pile is found to generate various and reproducible values of the random packing fraction η

  13. Random magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir-Kheli, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A few simple problems relating to random magnetic systems are presented. Translational symmetry, only on the macroscopic scale, is assumed for these systems. A random set of parameters, on the microscopic scale, for the various regions of these systems is also assumed. A probability distribution for randomness is obeyed. Knowledge of the form of these probability distributions, is assumed in all cases [pt

  14. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  15. An email-based intervention to improve the number and timeliness of letters sent from the hospital outpatient clinic to the general practitioner : A pair-randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medlock, Stephanie; Parlevliet, Juliette L.; Sent, Danielle; Eslami, Saeid; Askari, Marjan; Arts, Derk L.; Hoekstra, Joost B.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Letters from the hospital to the general practitioner are important for maintaining continuity of care. Although doctors feel letters are important, they are often not written on time. To improve the number and timeliness of letters sent from the hospital outpatient department to the

  16. An email-based intervention to improve the number and timeliness of letters sent from the hospital outpatient clinic to the general practitioner: A pair-randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medlock, Stephanie; Parlevliet, Juliette L.; Sent, Danielle; Eslami, Saeid; Askari, Marjan; Arts, Derk L.; Hoekstra, Joost B.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2017-01-01

    Letters from the hospital to the general practitioner are important for maintaining continuity of care. Although doctors feel letters are important, they are often not written on time. To improve the number and timeliness of letters sent from the hospital outpatient department to the general

  17. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  18. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  19. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  20. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  1. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  2. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  3. Influences of Normalization Method on Biomarker Discovery in Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Untargeted Metabolomics: What Should Be Considered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaqing; Zhang, Pei; Lv, Mengying; Guo, Huimin; Huang, Yin; Zhang, Zunjian; Xu, Fengguo

    2017-05-16

    Data reduction techniques in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics has made the following workflow of data analysis more lucid. However, the normalization process still perplexes researchers, and its effects are always ignored. In order to reveal the influences of normalization method, five representative normalization methods (mass spectrometry total useful signal, median, probabilistic quotient normalization, remove unwanted variation-random, and systematic ratio normalization) were compared in three real data sets with different types. First, data reduction techniques were used to refine the original data. Then, quality control samples and relative log abundance plots were utilized to evaluate the unwanted variations and the efficiencies of normalization process. Furthermore, the potential biomarkers which were screened out by the Mann-Whitney U test, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, random forest, and feature selection algorithm Boruta in different normalized data sets were compared. The results indicated the determination of the normalization method was difficult because the commonly accepted rules were easy to fulfill but different normalization methods had unforeseen influences on both the kind and number of potential biomarkers. Lastly, an integrated strategy for normalization method selection was recommended.

  4. Randomized random walk on a random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.A.

    1983-06-01

    This paper discusses generalizations of the model introduced by Kehr and Kunter of the random walk of a particle on a one-dimensional chain which in turn has been constructed by a random walk procedure. The superimposed random walk is randomised in time according to the occurrences of a stochastic point process. The probability of finding the particle in a particular position at a certain instant is obtained explicitly in the transform domain. It is found that the asymptotic behaviour for large time of the mean-square displacement of the particle depends critically on the assumed structure of the basic random walk, giving a diffusion-like term for an asymmetric walk or a square root law if the walk is symmetric. Many results are obtained in closed form for the Poisson process case, and these agree with those given previously by Kehr and Kunter. (author)

  5. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  6. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  7. Randomization of inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    As the numbers and complexity of nuclear facilities increase, limitations on resources for international safeguards may restrict attainment of safeguards goals. One option for improving the efficiency of limited resources is to expand the current inspection regime to include random allocation of the amount and frequency of inspection effort to material strata or to facilities. This paper identifies the changes in safeguards policy, administrative procedures, and operational procedures that would be necessary to accommodate randomized inspections and identifies those situations where randomization can improve inspection efficiency and those situations where the current nonrandom inspections should be maintained. 9 refs., 1 tab

  8. Number Sense on the Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dawn Marie; Ketterlin Geller, Leanne; Basaraba, Deni

    2018-01-01

    A strong foundation in early number concepts is critical for students' future success in mathematics. Research suggests that visual representations, like a number line, support students' development of number sense by helping them create a mental representation of the order and magnitude of numbers. In addition, explicitly sequencing instruction…

  9. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  10. Multidimensional Normalization to Minimize Plate Effects of Suspension Bead Array Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mun-Gwan; Lee, Woojoo; Nilsson, Peter; Pawitan, Yudi; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2016-10-07

    Enhanced by the growing number of biobanks, biomarker studies can now be performed with reasonable statistical power by using large sets of samples. Antibody-based proteomics by means of suspension bead arrays offers one attractive approach to analyze serum, plasma, or CSF samples for such studies in microtiter plates. To expand measurements beyond single batches, with either 96 or 384 samples per plate, suitable normalization methods are required to minimize the variation between plates. Here we propose two normalization approaches utilizing MA coordinates. The multidimensional MA (multi-MA) and MA-loess both consider all samples of a microtiter plate per suspension bead array assay and thus do not require any external reference samples. We demonstrate the performance of the two MA normalization methods with data obtained from the analysis of 384 samples including both serum and plasma. Samples were randomized across 96-well sample plates, processed, and analyzed in assay plates, respectively. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we could show that plate-wise clusters found in the first two components were eliminated by multi-MA normalization as compared with other normalization methods. Furthermore, we studied the correlation profiles between random pairs of antibodies and found that both MA normalization methods substantially reduced the inflated correlation introduced by plate effects. Normalization approaches using multi-MA and MA-loess minimized batch effects arising from the analysis of several assay plates with antibody suspension bead arrays. In a simulated biomarker study, multi-MA restored associations lost due to plate effects. Our normalization approaches, which are available as R package MDimNormn, could also be useful in studies using other types of high-throughput assay data.

  11. Performance Evaluation of NIPT in Detection of Chromosomal Copy Number Variants Using Low-Coverage Whole-Genome Sequencing of Plasma DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongtai; Gao, Ya; Hu, Zhiyang

    2016-01-01

    , including 33 CNVs samples and 886 normal samples from September 1, 2011 to May 31, 2013, were enrolled in this study. The samples were randomly rearranged and blindly sequenced by low-coverage (about 7M reads) whole-genome sequencing of plasma DNA. Fetal CNVs were detected by Fetal Copy-number Analysis...

  12. Compressed normalized block difference for object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Zhang, Dengzhuo; Cai, Donglan; Zhou, Hao; Lan, Ge

    2018-04-01

    Feature extraction is very important for robust and real-time tracking. Compressive sensing provided a technical support for real-time feature extraction. However, all existing compressive tracking were based on compressed Haar-like feature, and how to compress many more excellent high-dimensional features is worth researching. In this paper, a novel compressed normalized block difference feature (CNBD) was proposed. For resisting noise effectively in a highdimensional normalized pixel difference feature (NPD), a normalized block difference feature extends two pixels in the original formula of NPD to two blocks. A CNBD feature can be obtained by compressing a normalized block difference feature based on compressive sensing theory, with the sparse random Gaussian matrix as the measurement matrix. The comparative experiments of 7 trackers on 20 challenging sequences showed that the tracker based on CNBD feature can perform better than other trackers, especially than FCT tracker based on compressed Haar-like feature, in terms of AUC, SR and Precision.

  13. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  14. Randomized trial of the ForeseeHome monitoring device for early detection of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The HOme Monitoring of the Eye (HOME) study design - HOME Study report number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Emily Y; Clemons, Traci E; Bressler, Susan B; Elman, Michael J; Danis, Ronald P; Domalpally, Amitha; Heier, Jeffrey S; Kim, Judy E; Garfinkel, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of a home-monitoring device with tele-monitoring compared with standard care in detection of progression to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the US. Participants, aged 55 to 90 years, at high risk of developing CNV associated with AMD were recruited to the HOme Monitoring of Eye (HOME) Study, an unmasked, multi-center, randomized trial of the ForeseeHome (FH) device plus standard care vs. standard care alone. The FH device utilizes preferential hyperacuity perimetry and tele-monitoring to detect changes in vision function associated with development of CNV, potentially prior to symptom and visual acuity loss. After establishing baseline measurements, subsequent changes on follow-up are detected by the device, causing the monitoring center to alert the clinical center to recall participants for an exam. Standard care consists of instructions for self-monitoring visual changes with subsequent self-report to the clinical center. The primary objective of this study is to determine whether home monitoring plus standard care in comparison with standard care alone, results in earlier detection of incident CNV with better present visual acuity. The primary outcome is the decline in visual acuity at CNV diagnosis from baseline. Detection of CNV prior to substantial vision loss is critical as vision outcome following anti-angiogenic therapy is dependent on the visual acuity at initiation of treatment. HOME Study is the first large scale study to test the use of home tele-monitoring system in the management of AMD patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  16. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  17. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  18. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  19. Laplacian Estrada and normalized Laplacian Estrada indices of evolving graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilun Shang

    Full Text Available Large-scale time-evolving networks have been generated by many natural and technological applications, posing challenges for computation and modeling. Thus, it is of theoretical and practical significance to probe mathematical tools tailored for evolving networks. In this paper, on top of the dynamic Estrada index, we study the dynamic Laplacian Estrada index and the dynamic normalized Laplacian Estrada index of evolving graphs. Using linear algebra techniques, we established general upper and lower bounds for these graph-spectrum-based invariants through a couple of intuitive graph-theoretic measures, including the number of vertices or edges. Synthetic random evolving small-world networks are employed to show the relevance of the proposed dynamic Estrada indices. It is found that neither the static snapshot graphs nor the aggregated graph can approximate the evolving graph itself, indicating the fundamental difference between the static and dynamic Estrada indices.

  20. Laplacian Estrada and normalized Laplacian Estrada indices of evolving graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yilun

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale time-evolving networks have been generated by many natural and technological applications, posing challenges for computation and modeling. Thus, it is of theoretical and practical significance to probe mathematical tools tailored for evolving networks. In this paper, on top of the dynamic Estrada index, we study the dynamic Laplacian Estrada index and the dynamic normalized Laplacian Estrada index of evolving graphs. Using linear algebra techniques, we established general upper and lower bounds for these graph-spectrum-based invariants through a couple of intuitive graph-theoretic measures, including the number of vertices or edges. Synthetic random evolving small-world networks are employed to show the relevance of the proposed dynamic Estrada indices. It is found that neither the static snapshot graphs nor the aggregated graph can approximate the evolving graph itself, indicating the fundamental difference between the static and dynamic Estrada indices.