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Sample records for normal mild cognitive

  1. Which part of the Quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci) discriminates between normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment and dementia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2013-05-01

    the Qmci is a sensitive and specific test to differentiate between normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the subtests of the Qmci to determine which best discriminated NC, MCI and dementia.

  2. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  3. Prefrontal activation may predict working-memory training gain in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Heskamp, L.; Simons, E.M.F.; Dautzenberg, P.LJ.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to result in improved behavioral performance in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), yet little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive plasticity, or about individual differences in responsiveness to cognitive training. In this study, 21

  4. Behavioral symptoms in community-dwelling elderly Nigerians with dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and normal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyewu, Olusegun; Unverzagt, Fred W; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Smith-Gamble, Valerie; Gureje, Oye; Lane, Kathleen A; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have examined the neuropsychiatric status of patients with dementia and cognitive impairment in the developing world despite the fact that current demographic trends suggest an urgent need for such studies. To assess the level of neuropsychiatric symptoms in community-dwelling individuals with dementia, cognitive impairment no dementia and normal cognition. Subjects were from the Ibadan site of Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project with stable diagnoses of normal cognition, cognitive impairment, no dementia/mild cognitive impairment (CIND/MCI), and dementia. Informants of subjects made ratings on the neuropsychiatric inventory and blessed dementia scale; subjects were tested with the mini mental state examination. One hundred and eight subjects were included in the analytic sample, 21 were cognitively normal, 34 were demented, and 53 were CIND/MCI. The diagnostic groups did not differ in age, per cent female, or per cent with any formal education. The most frequent symptoms among subjects with CIND/MCI were depression (45.3%), apathy (37.7%), night time behavior (28.3%), appetite change (24.5%), irritability (22.6%), delusions (22.6%), anxiety (18.9%), and agitation (17.0%). Depression was significantly more frequent among the CIND/MCI and dementia (44.1%) groups compared with the normal cognition group (9.5%). Distress scores were highest for the dementia group, lowest for the normal cognition group, and intermediate for the CIND/MCI group. Significant neuropsychiatric symptomatology and distress are present among cognitively impaired persons in this community-based study of older adults in this sub-Saharan African country. Programs to assist family members of cognitively impaired and demented persons should be created or adapted for use in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Lower extremity function in normal cognitive aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, L.H.P.; Gavett, B.E.; Volkers, K.M.; Blankevoort, C.G.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Jefferson, A.L.; Steinberg, E.; Nair, A.; Green, R.C.; Stern, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Eggermont LH, Gavett BE, Volkers KM, Blankevoort CG, Scherder EJ, Jefferson AL, Steinberg E, Nair A, Green RC, Stern RA. Lower-extremity function in cognitively healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Objective: To examine differences in lower-extremity function in

  6. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  7. Quantifying cognition and behavior in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Diana L.; Sijbers, Jan; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is based on neuropsychological evaluation of the patient. Different cognitive and memory functions are assessed by a battery of tests that are composed of items devised to specifically evaluate such upper functions. This work aims to identify and quantify the factors that determine the performance in neuropsychological evaluation by conducting an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). For this purpose, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), EFA was applied to 67 item scores taken from the baseline neuropsychological battery of the three phases of ADNI study. The found factors are directly related to specific brain functions such as memory, behavior, orientation, or verbal fluency. The identification of factors is followed by the calculation of factor scores given by weighted linear combinations of the items scores.

  8. Three families with mild PMM2-CDG and normal cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vals, Mari-Anne; Morava, Eva; Teeäär, Kai; Zordania, Riina; Pajusalu, Sander; Lefeber, Dirk J; Õunap, Katrin

    2017-06-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are caused by defective glycosylation of proteins and lipids. PMM2-CDG is the most common subtype among the CDG. The severity of PMM2-CDG is variable. Patients often have a recognizable phenotype with neurological and multisystem symptoms that might cause early death. We report six patients from three families who are diagnosed with a clinically mild PMM2-CDG and have normal cognitive development. All these patients had delayed gross motor skills with mild-to-moderate neurological findings. Cerebellar hypoplasia was detected in all siblings for whom brain MRI was performed. In 5/6 children the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) showed normal cognitive development with full scale IQ scores ranging from borderline to average. Four patients were diagnosed with PMM2-CDG at the age of 8 years or later as their neurological symptoms were quite mild and they had been able to participate in regular school programs. We report patients with p.Val231Met/p.Arg239Trp and p.Ile120Thr/p.Gly228Cys genotypes which may cause milder variants of PMM2-CDG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Depressive Symptom Clusters and Neuropsychological Performance in Mild Alzheimer's and Cognitively Normal Elderly

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    James R. Hall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the relationship between depressive symptom clusters and neuropsychological test performance in an elderly cohort of cognitively normal controls and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. Design. Cross-sectional analysis. Setting. Four health science centers in Texas. Participants. 628 elderly individuals (272 diagnosed with mild AD and 356 controls from ongoing longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease. Measurements. Standard battery of neuropsychological tests and the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale with regressions model generated on GDS-30 subscale scores (dysphoria, apathy, meaninglessness and cognitive impairment as predictors and neuropsychological tests as outcome variables. Follow-up analyses by gender were conducted. Results. For AD, all symptom clusters were related to specific neurocognitive domains; among controls apathy and cognitive impairment were significantly related to neuropsychological functioning. The relationship between performance and symptom clusters was significantly different for males and females in each group. Conclusion. Findings suggest the need to examine disease status and gender when considering the impact of depressive symptoms on cognition.

  10. Prefrontal activation may predict working-memory training gain in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Anouk; Kessels, Roy P C; Heskamp, Linda; Simons, Esther M F; Dautzenberg, Paul L J; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to result in improved behavioral performance in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), yet little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive plasticity, or about individual differences in responsiveness to cognitive training. In this study, 21 healthy older adults and 14 patients with MCI received five weeks of adaptive computerized working-memory (WM) training. Before and after training, functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to assess the hemodynamic response in left and right prefrontal cortex during performance of a verbal n-back task with varying levels of WM load. After training, healthy older adults demonstrated decreased prefrontal activation at high WM load, which may indicate increased processing efficiency. Although MCI patients showed improved behavioral performance at low WM load after training, no evidence was found for training-related changes in prefrontal activation. Whole-group analyses showed that a relatively strong hemodynamic response at low WM load was related to worse behavioral performance, while a relatively strong hemodynamic response at high WM load was related to higher training gain. Therefore, a 'youth-like' prefrontal activation pattern at older age may be associated with better behavioral outcome and cognitive plasticity.

  11. The Impact of Memory Change on Daily Life in Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Preeyam K; Troyer, Angela K; Maione, Andrea M; Murphy, Kelly J

    2016-10-01

    Older adults with age-normal memory changes and those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) report mild memory difficulties with everyday problems such as learning new names or remembering past events. Although the type and extent of memory changes in these populations have been well documented, little is known about how memory changes impact their everyday lives. Using a qualitative research design, data were collected from three focus groups of older adults with normal memory changes (n = 23) and two focus groups of older adults with aMCI (n = 14). A thematic analysis using the constant comparative method was used to identify the impacts of memory change on key life domains. Four major themes emerged from the two groups, including changes in feelings and views of the self, changes in relationships and social interactions, changes in work and leisure activities, and deliberate increases in compensatory behaviors. Participants described both positive and negative consequences of memory change, and these were more substantial and generally more adverse for individuals with aMCI than for those with age-normal memory changes. There are similarities and important differences in the impact of mild memory change on the everyday lives of older adults with age-normal memory changes and those with aMCI. Findings underscore the need for clinical interventions that aim to minimize the emotional impact of memory changes and that increase leisure and social activity in individuals with aMCI. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Neural underpinnings of background acoustic noise in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.

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    Sinanaj, Indrit; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Herrmann, François; Santini, Francesco; Haller, Sven; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-12-03

    Previous contributions in younger cohorts have revealed that reallocation of cerebral resources, a crucial mechanism for working memory (WM), may be disrupted by parallel demands of background acoustic noise suppression. To date, no study has explored the impact of such disruption on brain activation in elderly individuals with or without subtle cognitive deficits. We performed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study in 23 cases (mean age=75.7 y.o., 16 men) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 16 elderly healthy controls (HC, mean age=70.1 y.o., three men) using a 2-back WM task, under two distinct MRI background acoustic noise conditions (louder vs. lower noise echo-planar imaging). General linear models were used to assess brain activation as a function of group and noise. In both groups, lower background noise is associated with increased activation of the working memory network (WMN). A decrease of the normally observed deactivation of the default mode network (DMN) is found under louder noise in both groups. Unlike HC, MCI cases also show decreased deactivation of the DMN under both louder and lower background noise. Under louder noise, this decrease is observed in anterior parts of the DMN in HC, and in the posterior cingulate cortex in MCI cases. Our results suggest that background acoustic noise has a differential impact on WMN activation in normal aging as a function of the cognitive status. Only louder noise has a disruptive effect on the usually observed DMN deactivation during WM task performance in HC. In contrast, MCI cases show altered DMN reactivity even in the presence of lower noise. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuroimaging Characteristics of Small-Vessel Disease in Older Adults with Normal Cognition, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer Disease

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    Alberto Mimenza-Alvarado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD represents the most frequent type of vascular brain lesions, often coexisting with Alzheimer disease (AD. By quantifying white matter hyperintensities (WMH and hippocampal and parietal atrophy, we aimed to describe the prevalence and severity of SVD among older adults with normal cognition (NC, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and probable AD and to describe associated risk factors. Methods: This study included 105 older adults evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging and clinical and neuropsychological tests. We used the Fazekas scale (FS for quantification of WMH, the Scheltens scale (SS for hippocampal atrophy, and the Koedam scale (KS for parietal atrophy. Logistic regression models were performed to determine the association between FS, SS, and KS scores and the presence of NC, MCI, or probable AD. Results: Compared to NC subjects, SVD was more prevalent in MCI and probable AD subjects. After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression showed a positive association between higher scores on the FS and probable AD (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 2.7–20, p < 0.001. With the use of the SS and KS (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 3.5–58, p = 0.003 and OR = 8.9, 95% CI 1–72, p = 0.04, respectively, the risk also remained significant for probable AD. Conclusions: These results suggest an association between severity of vascular brain lesions and neurodegeneration.

  14. Timed Up and Go test, atrophy of medial temporal areas and cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Yujiro; Ikenaga, Masahiro; Yamada, Yosuke; Morimura, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Noriko; Ouma, Shinji; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Yamada, Tatsuo; Kimura, Misaka; Kiyonaga, Akira; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to ascertain if performance on the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is associated with indicators of brain volume and cognitive functions among community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment. Participants were 80 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89years (44 men, 36 women), including 20 with mild cognitive impairment. Participants completed the TUG and a battery of cognitive assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Logical Memory I and II (LM-I, LM-II) subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised; and the Trail Making Test A and B (TMT-A, TMT-B). Bilateral, right- and left-side medial temporal area atrophy as well as whole gray and white matter indices were determined with the Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease. We divided participants into three groups based on TUG performance: "better" (≤6.9s); "normal" (7-10s); and "poor" (≥10.1s). Worse TMT-A and TMT-B performance showed significant independent associations with worse TUG performance (Pareas were significantly independently associated with worse TUG performance (Parea atrophy in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DTI studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition with evaluation of the intrinsic background gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahng, Geon-Ho; Xu, Songfan; Weiner, Micheal W.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Schuff, Norbert; Park, Seungjoon

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the impact of the background gradients on diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or cognitively normal (CN) aging. Two DT-MRI sets with positive and negative polarities of the diffusion-sensitizing gradients were obtained in 15 AD patients, 18 MCI patients, and 16 CN control subjects. The maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were computed separately for positive (p: pMD and pFA) and negative (n: nMD and nFA) polarities, and we computed the geometric mean (gm) of the DT-MRI to obtain the gmFA and gmMD with reducing the background gradient effects. Regional variations were assessed across the groups using one-way analysis of variance. Increased regional gmMD values in the AD subjects, as compared to the regional gmMD values in the MCI and CN subjects, were found primarily in the frontal, limbic, and temporal lobe regions. We also found increased nMD and pMD values in the AD subjects compared to those values in the MCI and CN subjects, including in the temporal lobe and the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus white matter. Results of comparisons among the three methods showed that the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus and right temporal gyrus were the increased MD in the AD patients for all three methods. Background gradients affect the DT-MRI measurements in AD patients. Geometric average diffusion measures can be useful to minimize the intrinsic local magnetic susceptibility variations in brain tissue. (orig.)

  16. Semantic error patterns on the Boston Naming Test in normal aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer's disease: is there semantic disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Marcio Luiz Figueredo; Cendes, Fernando; Damasceno, Benito Pereira

    2008-11-01

    Naming difficulty is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the nature of this problem is not well established. The authors investigated the presence of semantic breakdown and the pattern of general and semantic errors in patients with mild AD, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and normal controls by examining their spontaneous answers on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and verifying whether they needed or were benefited by semantic and phonemic cues. The errors in spontaneous answers were classified in four mutually exclusive categories (semantic errors, visual paragnosia, phonological errors, and omission errors), and the semantic errors were further subclassified as coordinate, superordinate, and circumlocutory. Patients with aMCI performed normally on the BNT and needed fewer semantic and phonemic cues than patients with mild AD. After semantic cues, subjects with aMCI and control subjects gave more correct answers than patients with mild AD, but after phonemic cues, there was no difference between the three groups, suggesting that the low performance of patients with AD cannot be completely explained by semantic breakdown. Patterns of spontaneous naming errors and subtypes of semantic errors were similar in the three groups, with decreasing error frequency from coordinate to superordinate to circumlocutory subtypes.

  17. Mild cognitive disorders are associated with different patterns of brain asymmetry than normal ageing: the PATH through life study

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    Nicolas Cherbuin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Defining how brain structures differ in pre-clinical dementia is important to better understand the pathological processes involved and to inform clinical practice. The aim of this study was to identify significant brain correlates (volume and asymmetry in volume of mild cognitive disorders when compared to normal controls in a large community-based sample of young-old individuals who were assessed for cognitive impairment. Methods: Cortical and sub-cortical volumes were measured using a semi-automated method in 398 participants aged 65-70 years who were selected from a larger randomly sampled cohort and who agreed to undergo an MRI scan. Diagnoses were reached based on established protocols for MCI and a more inclusive category of any Mild Cognitive Disorder (any-MCD: which includes AAMI, AACD, OCD, MNC, CDR, MCI. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between volume and asymmetry of theoretically relevant cerebral structures (predictors and MCI or any-MCD while controlling for age, sex, and intra-cranial volume. Results: The main correlates of cognitive impairment assessed in multivariate analyses were hippocampal asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.71-0.96, p = .013; MCD: OR 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.97, p = .011, lateral ventricle asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99, p = .009; MCD: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.92-0.98, p = .004, and cerebellar cortex asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.13-2.01, p = .005. Conclusions: In this population-based cohort stronger associations were found between asymmetry measures, rather than raw volumes in cerebral structures, and mild cognitive disorders.

  18. Self-rated driving habits among older adults with clinically-defined mild cognitive impairment, clinically-defined dementia, and normal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Melissa L; Edwards, Jerri D; Bannon, Yvonne

    2013-12-01

    Older adults with clinically-defined dementia may report reducing their driving more than cognitively normal controls. However, it is unclear how these groups compare to individuals with clinically-defined mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in terms of driving behaviors. The current study investigated self-reported driving habits among adults age 60 and older with clinical MCI (n=41), clinical mild dementia (n=40), and normal cognition (n=43). Participants reported their driving status, driving frequency (days per week), and how often they avoided accessing the community, making left turns, driving at night, driving in unfamiliar areas, driving on high-traffic roads, and driving in bad weather. After adjusting for education, a MANCOVA revealed that participants with MCI and dementia avoided unfamiliar areas and high-traffic roads significantly more than normal participants. Participants with dementia also avoided left turns and accessing the community more than those with normal cognition and MCI (pdriving variables did not significantly differ between groups. Thus, older adults with clinically-defined MCI, as well as those with dementia, avoided some complex driving situations more than cognitively intact adults. However, all diagnostic groups had similar rates of driving cessation and frequency. Future research should examine the safety implications of such findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impaired cognitive functions in mild traumatic brain injury patients with normal and pathologic magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurca, E.; Sivak, S.; Kucera, P.

    2006-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common neurological (neurotraumatological) diagnosis. As well as different subjective symptoms, many patients develop neuropsychological dysfunction with objective impairment of attention, memory and certain executive functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not routinely used in MTBI patients despite its proven greater sensitivity and specificity in comparison with computed tomography (CT). The patient group consisted of 30 persons with MTBI and the control group consisted of 30 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Both groups underwent neurological examination, neuropsychological testing (including the Postconcussion Symptoms Scale questionnaire, PCSS) and brain MRI (the patient group within 96 h after injury). The analyzed groups did not differ significantly in terms of sex, age, or level or duration of education. MRI pathological findings (traumatic and nonspecific) were present in nine patients. Traumatic lesions were found in seven patients. Nonspecific white matter lesions were found in five healthy controls. There were significant differences between MTBI patients and controls in terms of subjective symptoms (PCSS) and selected neuropsychological tests. Statistically significant neuropsychological differences were found between MTBI patients with true traumatic lesions and MTBI patients with nonspecific lesions. There is evidence that MTBI patients with true traumatic MRI lesions are neuropsychologically different from MTBI patients with nonspecific MRI lesions or normal brain MRI. These results support the hypothesis that some acute MTBI signs and symptoms have a real organic basis which can be detected by selected new MRI modalities. (orig.)

  20. Impaired cognitive functions in mild traumatic brain injury patients with normal and pathologic magnetic resonance imaging

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    Kurca, E.; Sivak, S. [Comenius University, Clinic of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Kucera, P. [Comenius University, 1st Clinic of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2006-09-15

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common neurological (neurotraumatological) diagnosis. As well as different subjective symptoms, many patients develop neuropsychological dysfunction with objective impairment of attention, memory and certain executive functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not routinely used in MTBI patients despite its proven greater sensitivity and specificity in comparison with computed tomography (CT). The patient group consisted of 30 persons with MTBI and the control group consisted of 30 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Both groups underwent neurological examination, neuropsychological testing (including the Postconcussion Symptoms Scale questionnaire, PCSS) and brain MRI (the patient group within 96 h after injury). The analyzed groups did not differ significantly in terms of sex, age, or level or duration of education. MRI pathological findings (traumatic and nonspecific) were present in nine patients. Traumatic lesions were found in seven patients. Nonspecific white matter lesions were found in five healthy controls. There were significant differences between MTBI patients and controls in terms of subjective symptoms (PCSS) and selected neuropsychological tests. Statistically significant neuropsychological differences were found between MTBI patients with true traumatic lesions and MTBI patients with nonspecific lesions. There is evidence that MTBI patients with true traumatic MRI lesions are neuropsychologically different from MTBI patients with nonspecific MRI lesions or normal brain MRI. These results support the hypothesis that some acute MTBI signs and symptoms have a real organic basis which can be detected by selected new MRI modalities. (orig.)

  1. Serial position effects in Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging: predictive value for conversion to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Catarina; Guerreiro, Manuela; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Oliveira, Paulo Eduardo; Santana, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Serial position effects in word list learning have been used to differentiate normal aging and dementia. Prominent recency and diminished primacy have consistently been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined serial position effects in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), in patients with AD, and in normal healthy controls. Additionally, we classified MCI patients into those who progressed to AD (MCI-p) and those who did not (MCI-np). We compared two serial position measures: regional and standard scores. Regional scores, mainly the primacy effect, improved discrimination between MCI and controls and between MCI-np and MCI-p, proving to be more sensitive and specific than the recency effect.

  2. Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2012-09-01

    differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) is difficult. The AB Cognitive Screen (ABCS) 135, sensitive in differentiating MCI from dementia, was modified to improve sensitivity and specificity, producing the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen.

  3. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more: Key Types of Dementia , What Is Alzheimer's? , Alzheimer's Risk Factors Symptoms back to top Experts classify Mild cognitive ... in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy 2014 Thor Stein Genetic Risk Factors Underlying Chronic Trauma and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology 2014 Kun Ping Lu Validation of ...

  4. Differences in knowledge of dementia among older adults with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia: A representative nationwide sample of Korean elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Soowon; Kim, Ki Woong; Kwon, Ji Eyon; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Moon Doo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Jeong Lan; Moon, Seok Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Yoon, Jong Chul; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Dong Young; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Seok Bum; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Chang-Uk; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Lack of knowledge about a disease could impede early diagnosis and may lead to delays in seeking appropriate medical care. The aim of this study was to explore knowledge of dementia (KOD) and to find the determinants of KOD among three groups: older adults with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. A representative nationwide sample of 6141 Korean elders aged 65 years or older participated in face-to-face interviews and answered 14 questions pertaining to general information, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of dementia. Stepwise multiple regressions and path analyses probed the relationships between various sociodemographic variables and KOD. The percentage of correct responses was only 62%. The item 'A person who remembers things that happened in the past does not have dementia' was answered correctly (false) by only 24.8-27% of the respondents in all groups. Older adults with normal cognition had higher KOD scores than those with MCI or dementia. In the normal-cognition group, KOD scores were higher among highly educated, younger, and literate women with no depression and a family history of dementia. In contrast with the determinants in the normal-cognition group, only the ability to read and write predicted KOD scores in the dementia group. Efforts to enhance KOD in elder adults are needed. Public education regarding the differences between dementia and healthy aging may increase KOD among normal elders and those with MCI. Among elders with dementia, educational materials that do not require literacy may be more helpful in increasing KOD with the aim of preventing treatment delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical relevance of specific cognitive complaints in determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a study of Healthy Elderly Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Avila Villanueva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective memory complaints in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ.Material and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI. The Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis and item response theory were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI.Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely forgetfulness of immediate information, executive functions and prospective memory proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10.Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints.

  6. MRI Volumetry of Hippocampus and Amygdala in Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suphaphong, S.; Tritanon, O.; Laothamatas, J.; Sungkarat, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can affect memory and daily living. Non- invasive diagnostic tools such as MRI can be useful to discriminate the patients from normal group.This study aims to compare the relative volumes of hippocampus and amygdala, to suggest the relative normal volumes, and to evaluate MRI automatic volumetry as a diagnostic tool. The MRI images of 130 subjects were retrospectively studied (Turbo field echo (TFE), acquired with a 3-Tesla Philips scanner). The image data were processed with Free Surfer (automatic segmentation and volumetry). The resultant volumes were corrected for brain size differences with intracranial volumes (ICV), and then analysed with SPSS (v. 17.0). There are differences of hippocampus and amygdala relative volumes between normal, MCI, and AD subjects at p < 0.001. The volume reductions of hippocampus in MCI and AD groups compared to normal group are about 8 % and 28 %, while those of amygdala are about 10 % and 34 %, respectively. The relative volumes of hippocampus (compared to ICV) in normal aging are 0.002617 ± 0.000278 (right) and 0.002553 ± 0.000257 (left), while those of amygdala are 0.001231 ± 0.000165 (right) and 0.001096 ± 0.000144 (left). There are no differences of relative volumes affected by gender in normal, MCI, and AD. There is a highly significant difference of relative volume affected by brain side in normal group (p < 0.001) but not in MCI (p = 0.119 and 0.077) and AD (p = 0.713 and 0.250), for hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. These results demonstrate that there are volume losses of hippocampus and amygdala in both diseases. Automatically measured hippocampus and amygdala volumes can be used as a measure indicating MCI and AD. The abnormal disturbance of volume affected by brain side may indicate the progression of both diseases. The hippocampus and amygdala volumes can be used as one of diagnostic tools to confirm the diagnosis of MCI or AD. The volume

  7. Volumetric correlates of memory and executive function in normal elderly, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Audrey; Hayasaka, Satoru; Du, Antao; Schuff, Norbert; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Kramer, Joel; Miller, Bruce; Weiner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), atrophy negatively impacts cognition while in healthy adults, inverse relationships between brain volume and cognition may occur. We investigated correlations between gray matter volume and cognition in elderly controls, AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with memory and executive deficits. AD demonstrated substantial loss in temporal, parietal and frontal regions while MCI exhibited moderate volume loss in temporal and frontal regions. In controls, memory and executive function were negatively correlated with frontal regions, while in AD, memory was positively correlated with temporal and frontal gyri, and executive function with frontal regions. The combination of the two patterns may explain the lack of correlations in MCI. Developmental versus pathological contributions to these relationships are discussed. PMID:16904823

  8. Interactions of the Salience Network and Its Subsystems with the Default-Mode and the Central-Executive Networks in Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Ganesh B; Wu, Junjie; Hajjar, Ihab; Qiu, Deqiang

    2017-09-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations suggest that the intrinsically organized large-scale networks and the interaction between them might be crucial for cognitive activities. A triple network model, which consists of the default-mode network, salience network, and central-executive network, has been recently used to understand the connectivity patterns of the cognitively normal brains versus the brains with disorders. This model suggests that the salience network dynamically controls the default-mode and central-executive networks in healthy young individuals. However, the patterns of interactions have remained largely unknown in healthy aging or those with cognitive decline. In this study, we assess the patterns of interactions between the three networks using dynamical causal modeling in resting state fMRI data and compare them between subjects with normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In healthy elderly subjects, our analysis showed that the salience network, especially its dorsal subnetwork, modulates the interaction between the default-mode network and the central-executive network (Mann-Whitney U test; p control correlated significantly with lower overall cognitive performance measured by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (r = 0.295; p control, especially the dorsal salience network, over other networks provides a neuronal basis for cognitive decline and may be a candidate neuroimaging biomarker of cognitive impairment.

  9. DTI studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition with evaluation of the intrinsic background gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahng, Geon-Ho [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital-Gangdong, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Xu, Songfan [Graduate School of Kyung Hee University, Department of Biomedical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Weiner, Micheal W.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Schuff, Norbert [University of California-San Francisco, Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, VA Medical Center and the Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Park, Seungjoon [Graduate School of Kyung Hee University, Department of Biomedical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyung Hee University, Department of Pharmacology and the Medical Research Center for Bioreaction to ROS and the Biomedical Science Institute, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The objective of the study was to explore the impact of the background gradients on diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or cognitively normal (CN) aging. Two DT-MRI sets with positive and negative polarities of the diffusion-sensitizing gradients were obtained in 15 AD patients, 18 MCI patients, and 16 CN control subjects. The maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were computed separately for positive (p: pMD and pFA) and negative (n: nMD and nFA) polarities, and we computed the geometric mean (gm) of the DT-MRI to obtain the gmFA and gmMD with reducing the background gradient effects. Regional variations were assessed across the groups using one-way analysis of variance. Increased regional gmMD values in the AD subjects, as compared to the regional gmMD values in the MCI and CN subjects, were found primarily in the frontal, limbic, and temporal lobe regions. We also found increased nMD and pMD values in the AD subjects compared to those values in the MCI and CN subjects, including in the temporal lobe and the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus white matter. Results of comparisons among the three methods showed that the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus and right temporal gyrus were the increased MD in the AD patients for all three methods. Background gradients affect the DT-MRI measurements in AD patients. Geometric average diffusion measures can be useful to minimize the intrinsic local magnetic susceptibility variations in brain tissue. (orig.)

  10. Effects of level of processing at encoding and types of retrieval task in mild cognitive impairment and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Charlotte; Taconnat, Laurence; Landré, Lionel; Beigneux, Katia; Isingrini, Michel

    2009-04-01

    A total of 16 young (M = 27.25 years), 13 healthy elderly (M = 75.38 years), and 10 older adults with probable mild cognitive impairment (MCI; M = 78.6 years) carried out a task under two different encoding conditions (shallow vs. semantic) and two retrieval conditions (free recall vs. recognition). For the shallow condition, participants had to decide whether the first or last letter of each word in a list was "E." For the semantic condition, they had to decide whether each word represented a concrete or abstract entity. The MCI group was only able to benefit from semantic encoding to the same extent as the healthy older adults in the recognition task, whereas the younger and healthy older adults benefited in both retrieval tasks. These results suggest that the MCI group required cognitive support at retrieval to make effective use of semantic processing carried out at encoding. In the discussion, we suggest that adults with MCI engage more in deep processing, using the semantic network, than hitherto thought.

  11. [The delayed word recall task using ADAS-Jcog word booklet effectively divides patients with mild cognitive impairment from normal elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Naoko; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Sayaka; Mogi, Nanaka; Iguchi, Akihisa

    2007-07-01

    A new screening test for detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with higher sensitivity that can easily be administered at the bedside is necessary. In this study, we proposed the delayed recall task using the word booklet of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive component-Japanese version (ADAS-Jcog) and compared the score of the task in patients with MCI with that of cognitive normal elderly (NE) and patients with AD. Thirty six patients with MCI, 13 very mild AD, 104 mild AD, 13 moderate AD, and age- and education-matched 19 NE, recruited from the memory clinic of Nagoya University Hospital, were evaluated by the ADAS-Jcog word recall task which consisted of immediate recall (IR), a classical method on ADAS-Jcog, and delayed recall (DR) that has been newly introduced. Compared with controls, patients with MCI were significantly impaired on both IR and DR. On the other hand, DR is more sensitive than IR for distinguishing MCI from NE. The highest sensitivity (94.4%) and specificity (68.4%) were achieved when the results of IR were combined with those of DR. The result suggests that the delayed word recall task using the word booklet of ADAS-Jcog may be a useful tool as a screening method for the detection of MCI.

  12. Recovery from Proactive Semantic Interference in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Normal Aging: Relationship to Atrophy in Brain Regions Vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, David A; Curiel, Rosie E; Wright, Clinton; Sun, Xiaoyan; Alperin, Noam; Crocco, Elzabeth; Czaja, Sara J; Raffo, Arlene; Penate, Ailyn; Melo, Jose; Capp, Kimberly; Gamez, Monica; Duara, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that proactive semantic interference (PSI) and failure to recover from PSI may represent early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the association between PSI, recovery from PSI, and reduced MRI volumes in AD signature regions among cognitively impaired and unimpaired older adults. Performance on the LASSI-L (a novel test of PSI and recovery from PSI) and regional brain volumetric measures were compared between 38 cognitively normal (CN) elders and 29 older participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The relationship between MRI measures and performance on the LASSI-L as well as traditional memory and non-memory cognitive measures was also evaluated in both diagnostic groups. Relative to traditional neuropsychological measures, MCI patients' failure to recover from PSI was associated with reduced volumes in the hippocampus (rs = 0.48), precuneus (rs = 0.50); rostral middle frontal lobules (rs = 0.54); inferior temporal lobules (rs = 0.49), superior parietal lobules (rs = 0.47), temporal pole (rs = 0.44), and increased dilatation of the inferior lateral ventricle (rs = -0.49). For CN elders, only increased inferior lateral ventricular size was associated with vulnerability to PSI (rs = -0.49), the failure to recover from PSI (rs = -0.57), and delayed recall on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (rs = -0.48). LASSI-L indices eliciting failure to recover from PSI were more highly associated with more MRI regional biomarkers of AD than other traditional cognitive measures. These results as well as recent amyloid imaging studies with otherwise cognitively normal subjects, suggest that recovery from PSI may be a sensitive marker of preclinical AD and deserves further investigation.

  13. Relevance of the serial position effect in the differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer-type dementia, and normal ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M E; Sasson, Y; Crivelli, L; Roldán Gerschovich, E; Campos, J A; Calcagno, M L; Leiguarda, R; Sabe, L; Allegri, R F

    2013-05-01

    Serial position effects are observed when a person memorises a series of words exceeding his or her attention span. Cognitively normal individuals recall words at the beginning and end of the list more frequently than those in the middle, which reflects the way that short- and long-term episodic memory works. To study the serial position effect in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to subjects with Alzheimer-type dementia (AD) or normal ageing (NA). 30 AD, 25 MCI and 20 NA subjects underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) was used to study primacy, middle, and recency effects and delayed recall for each group. The general memory pattern of MCI subjects was very similar to that of AD subjects, and was characterised by reduced learning capacity, rapid forgetfulness and clear recency effect in learning. With regard to delayed recall, however, there were differences in performance; MCI subjects' ability to recall words at the beginning and middle of the list was similar to that of normal subjects, while their memory of words at the end of the list was poor, as in AD subjects. RAVLT is a tool permitting us to distinguish between MCI and NA subjects. The recency index for the delayed recall task is a valid indicator for distinguishing between MCI patients and patients with normal ageing. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Using virtual reality to distinguish subjects with multiple- but not single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Kargar, Mahmoud; Hesami, Ehsan

    2018-03-01

    Spatial disorientation is a hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Our aim was to use virtual reality to determine the allocentric and egocentric memory deficits of subjects with single-domain aMCI (aMCIsd) and multiple-domain aMCI (aMCImd). For this purpose, we introduced an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) to distinguish these deficits in mild Alzheimer's disease (miAD), aMCIsd, and aMCImd. The VRNT performance of 110 subjects, including 20 with miAD, 30 with pure aMCIsd, 30 with pure aMCImd, and 30 cognitively normal controls was compared. Our newly developed VRNT consists of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and virtual maze (egocentric memory). Verbal and visuospatial memory impairments were also examined with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, respectively. We found that miAD and aMCImd subjects were impaired in both allocentric and egocentric memory, but aMCIsd subjects performed similarly to the normal controls on both tasks. The miAD, aMCImd, and aMCIsd subjects performed worse on finding the target or required more time in the virtual environment than the aMCImd, aMCIsd, and normal controls, respectively. Our findings indicated the aMCImd and miAD subjects, as well as the aMCIsd subjects, were more impaired in egocentric orientation than allocentric orientation. We concluded that VRNT can distinguish aMCImd subjects, but not aMCIsd subjects, from normal elderly subjects. The VRNT, along with the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, can be used as a valid diagnostic tool for properly distinguishing different forms of aMCI. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  15. Transfer and maintenance effects of online working-memory training in normal ageing and mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, A.; Claassen, J.A.; Dautzenberg, P.L.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is one of the cognitive functions that is susceptible to ageing-related decline. Interventions that are able to improve WM functioning at older age are thus highly relevant. In this pilot study, we explored the transfer effects of core WM training on the WM domain and other

  16. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  17. Regional analysis of FDG and PIB-PET images in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Qilu hospital Shandong University, Jinan (China); HN400 NYU School of Medicine, Center for Brain Health, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Rinne, Juha O.; Kemppainen, Nina; Naagren, Kjell [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Mosconi, Lisa; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Rusinek, Henry; DeSanti, Susan [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Kim, Byeong-Chae [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Neurology, Gwangju (Korea); Tsui, Wai [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY (United States); Leon, Mony J. de [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY (United States); HN400 NYU School of Medicine, Center for Brain Health, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic value of regional sampling of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose metabolism (MRglc) using [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) and amyloid-beta pathology using Pittsburgh Compound-B ([11C]PIB)-PET in the evaluation of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to normal elderly (NL). AD patients, 7NL, 13MCI, and 17, received clinical, neuropsychological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), FDG, and PIB-PET exams. Parametric images of PIB uptake and MRglc were sampled using automated regions-of-interest (ROI). AD showed global MRglc reductions, and MCI showed reduced hippocampus (HIP) and inferior parietal lobe (IP) MRglc compared to NL. On PIB, AD patients showed significantly increased uptake in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and IP (ps<0.05). PIB uptake in MCI subjects was either AD or NL-like. HIP MRglc and MFG PIB uptake were the best discriminators of NL from MCI and NL from AD. These two best measures showed high diagnostic agreement for AD (94%) and poor agreement for MCI (54%). For the NL vs. MCI discrimination, combining the two best measures increased the accuracy for PIB (75%) and for FDG (85%) to 90%. For AD, the pattern of regional involvement for FDG and PIB differ, but both techniques show high diagnostic accuracy and 94% case by case agreement. In the classification of NL and MCI, FDG is superior to PIB, but there is only 54% agreement at a case level. Combining the two modalities improves the diagnostic accuracy for MCI. (orig.)

  18. Molecular imaging of serotonin degeneration in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gwenn S; Barrett, Frederick S; Joo, Jin Hui; Nassery, Najlla; Savonenko, Alena; Sodums, Devin J; Marano, Christopher M; Munro, Cynthia A; Brandt, Jason; Kraut, Michael A; Zhou, Yun; Wong, Dean F; Workman, Clifford I

    2017-09-01

    Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions and is found in high concentrations in the serotonergic cell bodies of origin of these projections (raphe nuclei). Twenty-eight participants with mild cognitive impairment (age 66.6±6.9, 16 males) and 28 healthy, cognitively normal, demographically matched controls (age 66.2±7.1, 15 males) underwent magnetic resonance imaging for measurement of grey matter volumes and high-resolution positron emission tomography with well-established radiotracers for the serotonin transporter and regional cerebral blood flow. Beta-amyloid imaging was performed to evaluate, in combination with the neuropsychological testing, the likelihood of subsequent cognitive decline in the participants with mild cognitive impairment. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) the serotonin transporter would be lower in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic regions, 2) in mild cognitive impairment relative to controls, the serotonin transporter would be lower to a greater extent and observed in a more widespread pattern than lower grey matter volumes or lower regional cerebral blood flow and 3) lower cortical and limbic serotonin transporters would be correlated with greater deficits in auditory-verbal and visual-spatial memory in mild cognitive impairment, not in controls. Reduced serotonin transporter availability was observed in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic

  19. Cognitive functioning in mild hyperphenylalaninemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia de la Parra

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Children with mHPA achieved cognitive performance well within the average range and attained significantly higher scores than children with PKU. However, they appeared to have relative weaknesses in working memory and attention, similar to children with PKU.

  20. Attention and inhibition in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Zancada-Menéndez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment is understood as a cognitive deficit of insufficient severity to fulfil the criteria for Alzheimer’s disease. Many studies have attempted to identify which cognitive functions are most affected by this type of impairment and which is the most sensitive neuropsychological test for early detection. This study investigated sustained and selective attention, processing speed, and the inhibition process using a sample of people divided into three groups mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease and cognitively healthy controls selected and grouped based on their scores in the Mini Mental State Examination and Cambridge Cognitive Examination-revised. Three tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (Motor Screening Task, Stop Signal Task and Reaction time were used as well as the d2 attention test. The results show that that participants with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease showed lower levels of concentration compared with the cognitively healthy controls group in the d2 test and longer reaction times in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, although the differences were not marked in the latter test. The impairments in basic cognitive processes, such as reaction time and sustained attention, indicate the need to take these functions into account in the test protocols when discriminating between normal aging and early and preclinical dementia processes.

  1. Meta-Analysis of Social Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Yener, Görsev G

    2017-07-01

    Social cognitive abilities are impaired in Alzheimer disease and other dementias. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive abilities might be also impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in MCI. In this meta-analysis of 17 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 513 individuals with MCI and 693 healthy controls were compared. Mild cognitive impairment was associated with significant impairments falling in the medium effect sizes range in ToM ( d = 0.63) and facial emotion recognition ( d = 0.58). Among individual emotions, recognition of fear and sadness were particularly impaired. There were no significant between-group differences in recognition of disgust, happiness, and surprise. Social cognitive deficits were more severe in multidomain MCI. There is a need for longitudinal studies investigating the potential role of social cognitive impairment in predicting conversion to dementia.

  2. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progession to Dementia: New Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Mild cognitive impairment and progression to dementia New findings John C.S. ... exami- nations showed that 534 persons had mild cognitive impairment, or MCI (see About MCI, following sec- tion). ...

  3. Effect of physical activity on memory function in older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Takanori; Takechi, Hajime; Arai, Hidenori; Yamada, Minoru; Nishiguchi, Shu; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2014-10-01

    It is very important to maintain cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive disorder. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the amount of physical activity is associated with memory function in older adults with mild cognitive disorder. A total of 47 older adults with mild cognitive disorder were studied; 30 were diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease and 17 with mild cognitive impairment. The global cognitive function, memory function, physical performance and amount of physical activity were measured in these patients. We divided these patients according to their walking speed (1 m/s). A total of 26 elderly patients were classified as the slow walking group, whereas 21 were classified as the normal walking group. The normal walking group was younger and had significantly better scores than the slow walking group in physical performance. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the daily step counts were associated with the Scenery Picture Memory Test in patients of the slow walking group (β=0.471, P=0.031), but not other variables. No variable was significantly associated with the Scenery Picture Memory Test in the normal walking group. Memory function was strongly associated with the amount of physical activity in patients with mild cognitive disorder who showed slow walking speed. The results show that lower physical activities could be a risk factor for cognitive decline, and that cognitive function in the elderly whose motor function and cognitive function are declining can be improved by increasing the amount of physical activity. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex volumetric MRI measurements in discrimination between Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Elshafey

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Semi-automated MR volumetric measurements can be used to determine atrophy in hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex which aided in discrimination of healthy elderly control subjects from subjects with AD and MCI and predict clinical decline of MCI leading to increase the efficiency of clinical treatments, delay institutionalization and improve cognition and behavioral symptoms.

  5. Mild Cognitive Impairment: Diagnosis, Longitudinal Course, and Emerging Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Jennifer N.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is widely regarded as the intermediate stage of cognitive impairment between the changes seen in normal cognitive aging and those associated with dementia. Elderly patients with MCI constitute a high-risk population for developing dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although the core clinical criteria for MCI have remained largely unchanged, the operational definition of MCI has undergone several revisions over the course of the last decade and remains an evolving diagnosis. Prognostic implications of this diagnosis are becoming clearer with regard to the risk of progressive cognitive deterioration. Although patients with MCI may represent an optimal target population for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, results from clinical trials have been mixed and a definitive effective treatment remains elusive. This article provides a brief overview of the evolution of the concept of MCI and reviews current diagnostic criteria, the longitudinal course of the disorder, and current and emerging treatments for MCI. PMID:25160795

  6. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura

    2014-01-01

    : An analysis was conducted on baseline data from the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly study, a cohort study of 430 primary care patients aged 65 or older. Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains (a......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS...

  7. Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Adrián; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano; Del-Pozo, F.; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; Martínez, J. H.; Gil, Pablo; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Buldú, Javier M.

    We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.e. importance, of their nodes was quantified. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.

  8. The progress of functional neuroimaging in the study of mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zugui

    2006-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transitional state between healthy aging and very mild Alzheimer's disease. MCI patients have a substantially higher rate of progression to Alzheimer's disease compared with cognitively normal elderly people. Functional neutroimaging modalities, including PET, SPECT and functional MRI show that MCI patients have special abnormalities in brain metabolism and perfusion, so they can offer great value in the predicting cognitive decline and early diagnosis of dementia. (authors)

  9. Validation of the Dutch version of the quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci-D).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bunt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from dementia is important, as treatment options differ. There are few short (<5 min) but accurate screening tools that discriminate between MCI, normal cognition (NC) and dementia, in the Dutch language. The Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen is sensitive and specific in differentiating MCI from NC and mild dementia. Given this, we adapted the Qmci for use in Dutch-language countries and validated the Dutch version, the Qmci-D, against the Dutch translation of the Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE-D).

  10. Mild cognitive deficits in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Andela, Cornelie D; Biermasz, Nienke R; Romijn, Johannes A; Pereira, Alberto M

    2016-01-01

    The brain is a major target organ for cortisol considering its high density of glucocorticoid receptors. Several states of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal dysregulation point towards impairments in cognitive functioning. However, there is a very limited body of research on the effects of hypocortisolism on cognitive functioning. To evaluate cognitive functioning in patients with hypocortisolism (i.e., primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI)) and to examine the possible effect of postponing early-morning hydrocortisone intake on cognitive functioning. Thirty-one patients with PAI on regular morning hydrocortisone intake and 31 healthy matched controls underwent nine neuropsychological tests, evaluating memory and executive functioning. In addition, the effect of normal timing and postponement of morning hydrocortisone intake on neuropsychological tests were assessed in an additional 29 patients with PAI. Compared to controls, patients with PAI performed worse on auditory and visual memory tasks (all P ≤ 0.024) and executive functioning tasks (all P ≤ 0.012). In contrast, patients performed better on a concentration and an attention task (both Paffect the outcomes of neuropsychological tests. Patients on long-term hydrocortisone replacement for PAI show mild cognitive deficits compared to controls. There was no effect of postponement of regular hydrocortisone intake on cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gait, dual task and history of falls in elderly with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ansai, Juliana H.; Andrade, Larissa P.; Rossi, Paulo G.; Takahashi, Anielle C.M.; Vale, Francisco A.C.; Rebelatto, Jos? R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies with functional and applicable methods and new cognitive demands involving executive function are needed to improve screening, prevention and rehabilitation of cognitive impairment and falls. Objective to identify differences in gait, dual task performances, and history of falls between elderly people with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of 40 community-dwelling o...

  12. Subclinical naming errors in mild cognitive impairment: A semantic deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra F. Willers

    Full Text Available Abstract Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is the transitional stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Impairments in semantic memory have been demonstrated to be a critical factor in early AD. The Boston Naming Test (BNT is a straightforward method of examining semantic or visuo-perceptual processing and therefore represents a potential diagnostic tool. The objective of this study was to examine naming ability and identify error types in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods: Twenty aMCI patients, twenty AD patients and twenty-one normal controls, matched by age, sex and education level were evaluated. As part of a further neuropsychological evaluation, all subjects performed the BNT. A comprehensive classification of error types was devised in order to compare performance and ascertain semantic or perceptual origin of errors. Results: AD patients obtained significantly lower total scores on the BNT than aMCI patients and controls. aMCI patients did not obtain significant differences in total scores, but showed significantly higher semantic errors compared to controls. Conclusion: This study reveals that semantic processing is impaired during confrontation naming in aMCI.

  13. Neuropathology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Shigeo; Saito, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    Described are retrospective pathological studies on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of brain specimens in the brain bank of authors' institute and current clinical studies of outpatients for screening of MCI based on those pathological findings. The study projects, aided by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) from 2003 and from 2007, have aimed to develop the optimal way for prophylaxis of dementia. In the former autopsy, about 10% of the elderly dead registered in the institute are found to have pathological changes of the clinical dementia rating 0.5, in whom the early Alzheimer disease (AD), Lewy body dementia, argentaffin granular disease and neurofibrillary tangle dominant disease are involved in a similar ratio to each other. Clinically, new patients with memory complaint are first screened by neurological tests involving CT, and then those with suspicious dementia undergo the second screening (2-day hospitalization) involving MRI with VSRAD (Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for AD), ECD single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with eZis (easy Z-score imaging system), myocardial scintigraphy with homovanillic acid (HVA)/m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), and if necessary, PET with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), PIB (Pittsburgh Compound B, an amyloid prove) and/or 11 C-CFT and 11 C-raclopride. Further, new patients with suspicious Parkinson disease undergo the screening (3-day) of various tests involving MRI with voxel-based morphometry and VSRAD, cerebral blood flow ECD SPECT with eZis and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. It is concluded that AD is the most important subject in MCI and systemic diseases can also affect the cognitive ability as well. (R.T.)

  14. [Patterns of detection of mild cognitive impairment in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián Hernández, Ana J; Arranz Santamaría, Luís Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by an acquired cognitive loss that places individuals, mainly older adults, in an intermediate stage between normal cognitive functioning and dementia. This impairment has a high risk of progression to dementia and is suitable for screening, which allows more effective early intervention. Nursing professionals, especially community-based primary care nurses, play an important role in the detection and follow-up of MCI and in interventions for this condition. The first step should be to take a thorough history from both the patient and his or her carers, which should assess the changes occurring in the patient's daily, family and social life through functional patterns. In subsequent assessment of cognitive function, brief screening tests can be used such as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) or other similar tests. Special attention should be paid to the presence of affective or depressive symptoms, sensory deficits, polypharmacy, decompensated cardiovascular risk factors, and rapid functional deterioration, given their particular influence on MCI. Finally, various nurse-led, non-pharmacological interventions that are effective in MCI can be recommended, based on cardiovascular risk factor control, physical exercise, and cognitive and psychosocial interventions. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Memory complaints in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun

    2016-12-01

    Memory complaints are a frequent phenomenon in elderly individuals and can lead to opportunistic help-seeking behavior. The aim of this study was to compare different aspects of memory complaints (i.e., prospective versus retrospective complaints) in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study included a total of 115 participants (mean age: 68.82 ± 8.83 years) with SCI (n = 34), aMCI (n = 46), and mild AD (n = 35). Memory complaints were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which consists of 16 items that describe everyday memory failure of both prospective memory (PM) and retrospective memory (RM). For aMCI and AD subjects, informants also completed an informant-rating of the PRMQ. All participants completed detailed neuropsychological tests. Results show that PM complaints were equivalent among the three groups. However, RM complaints differed. Specifically, RM complaints in aMCI were higher than SCI, but similar to AD. Informant-reported memory complaints were higher for AD than aMCI. Our study suggests that RM complaints of memory complaints may be helpful in discriminating between SCI and aMCI, but both PM and RM complaints are of limited value in differentiating aMCI from AD.

  16. Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment: application and validation of the criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, Gert J.; Hoogland, Jeroen; Goldman, Jennifer G.; Schmand, Ben A.; Tröster, Alexander I.; Burn, David J.; Litvan, Irene; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Hurtig, Howard; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Adler, Charles H.; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Leverenz, Jim; Zabetian, Cyrus; Huang, Xuemei; Eslinger, Paul J.; Marras, Connie; Duff-Canning, Sarah; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.; Anderson, Tim J.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Lewis, Simon J. G.; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Yu, Rwei-Ling; Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B.; Williams-Gray, Caroline H.; Breen, David P.; Barker, Roger A.; Yarnall, Alison J.; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Koene, Ted; Klein, Martin; Trautmann, Ellen; Mollenhauer, Brit; Dodel, Richard; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Pagonabaragga, Javier; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C.; Gasca-Salas, Carmen; Junque, Carme; Segura, Barbara; Sportiello, Marco Timpano; Cammisuli, Davide M.; Barone, Paolo; Pedersen, Kenn Freddy; Alves, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a serious health issue and a major concern for many patients. In most cases mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a transitional stage between normal cognitive functioning and dementia which is of potential importance in the early identification of

  17. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease-What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Rimona S; Costantini, Alyssa A; Schrag, Anette E

    2018-03-10

    Mild cognitive impairment is a common feature of Parkinson's disease, even at the earliest disease stages, but there is variation in the nature and severity of cognitive involvement and in the risk of conversion to Parkinson's disease dementia. This review aims to summarise current understanding of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. We consider the presentation, rate of conversion to dementia, underlying pathophysiology and potential biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Finally, we discuss challenges and controversies of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Large-scale longitudinal studies have shown that cognitive involvement is important and common in Parkinson's disease and can present early in the disease course. Recent criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's provide the basis for further study of cognitive decline and for the progression of different cognitive phenotypes and risk of conversion to dementia. Improved understanding of the underlying pathology and progression of cognitive change are likely to lead to opportunities for early intervention for this important aspect of Parkinson's disease.

  19. Gait, dual task and history of falls in elderly with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Juliana H; Andrade, Larissa P; Rossi, Paulo G; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Vale, Francisco A C; Rebelatto, José R

    Studies with functional and applicable methods and new cognitive demands involving executive function are needed to improve screening, prevention and rehabilitation of cognitive impairment and falls. to identify differences in gait, dual task performances, and history of falls between elderly people with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of 40 community-dwelling older adults with preserved cognition, 40 older adults with mild cognitive impairment, and 38 older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease. The assessment consisted of anamneses, gait (measured by the 10-meter walk test), dual task (measured by the Timed Up and Go Test associated with the motor-cognitive task of calling a phone number), and history of falls in the past year. There were no differences among all groups for all variables. However, the Alzheimer's disease Group performed significantly worse in the dual task than the other groups. No item of dual task could distinguish people with preserved cognition from those with mild cognitive impairment. The groups with cognitive impairment included more fallers, and specific characteristics in history of falls between groups were identified. Dual task could distinguish Alzheimer's disease patients specifically from other cognitive profiles. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Caregivers in China: Knowledge of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Baozhen; Mao, Zongfu; Mei, John; Levkoff, Sue; Wang, Huali; Pacheco, Misty; Wu, Bei

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the experience and knowledge of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among Chinese family caregivers of individuals with MCI. The sample was recruited from memory clinics in Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan, China. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used. Thirteen family members of individuals diagnosed with MCI participated in the study. Data analysis revealed three themes: 1) initial recognition of cognitive decline; 2) experience of the diagnosis of MCI; 3) perception of cognitive decline as a normal part of aging. While family members recognized the serious consequences of memory loss (e.g. getting lost), they would typically not take their family members to see a doctor until something specific triggered their access to the medical care system. The Chinese traditional perception of dementia as part of normal aging may serve to lessen the stigma of individuals with MCI, while the term “laonian chidai” which literally translates to “stupid, demented elderly” may exacerbate the stigma associated with individuals with MCI. It is suggested that family members’ worries may be relieved by improving their access to accurate knowledge of the disease, community-based and institutional care services, and culturally appropriately words are needed for MCI. PMID:23326541

  1. Caregivers in China: knowledge of mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Dai

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the experience and knowledge of mild cognitive impairment (MCI among Chinese family caregivers of individuals with MCI. The sample was recruited from memory clinics in Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan, China. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used. Thirteen family members of individuals diagnosed with MCI participated in the study. Data analysis revealed three themes: 1 initial recognition of cognitive decline; 2 experience of the diagnosis of MCI; 3 perception of cognitive decline as a normal part of aging. While family members recognized the serious consequences of memory loss (e.g. getting lost, they would typically not take their family members to see a doctor until something specific triggered their access to the medical care system. The Chinese traditional perception of dementia as part of normal aging may serve to lessen the stigma of individuals with MCI, while the term "laonian chidai" which literally translates to "stupid, demented elderly" may exacerbate the stigma associated with individuals with MCI. It is suggested that family members' worries may be relieved by improving their access to accurate knowledge of the disease, community-based and institutional care services, and culturally appropriately words are needed for MCI.

  2. Exercise-related changes of networks in aging and mild cognitive impairment brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eHuang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging and mild cognitive impairment are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5-15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate. Small decreases in the conversion rate of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease might significantly reduce the prevalence of dementia. Thus, it is important to intervene at the preclinical stage. Since there are still no effective drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease, non-drug intervention is crucial for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in aging and mild cognitive impairment populations. Previous studies have found some cognitive brain networks disrupted in aging and mild cognitive impairment population, and physical exercise could effectively remediate the function of these brain networks. Understanding the exercise-related mechanisms is crucial to design efficient and effective physical exercise programs for treatment/intervention of cognitive decline. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuroimaging studies on physical training in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment to identify the potential mechanisms underlying current physical training procedures. Studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography on brain networks were all included. Based on our review, the default mode network, fronto-parietal network and fronto-executive network are probably the three most valuable targets for efficiency evaluation of interventions.

  3. Memory Binding Test Predicts Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrey, Wenzhu B; Lipton, Richard B; Katz, Mindy J; Ramratan, Wendy S; Loewenstein, David A; Zimmerman, Molly E; Buschke, Herman

    2016-07-14

    The Memory Binding Test (MBT), previously known as Memory Capacity Test, has demonstrated discriminative validity for distinguishing persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and dementia from cognitively normal elderly. We aimed to assess the predictive validity of the MBT for incident aMCI. In a longitudinal, community-based study of adults aged 70+, we administered the MBT to 246 cognitively normal elderly adults at baseline and followed them annually. Based on previous work, a subtle reduction in memory binding at baseline was defined by a Total Items in the Paired (TIP) condition score of ≤22 on the MBT. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the predictive validity of the MBT for incident aMCI accounting for the effects of covariates. The hazard ratio of incident aMCI was also assessed for different prediction time windows ranging from 4 to 7 years of follow-up, separately. Among 246 controls who were cognitively normal at baseline, 48 developed incident aMCI during follow-up. A baseline MBT reduction was associated with an increased risk for developing incident aMCI (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.30-4.56, p = 0.005). When varying the prediction window from 4-7 years, the MBT reduction remained significant for predicting incident aMCI (HR range: 2.33-3.12, p: 0.0007-0.04). Persons with poor performance on the MBT are at significantly greater risk for developing incident aMCI. High hazard ratios up to seven years of follow-up suggest that the MBT is sensitive to early disease.

  4. Estrogen and cognitive functioning in men with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Barbara B

    2002-01-01

    Although men do not experience an abrupt cessation of gonadal hormone production at midlife as do women, levels of testosterone (T) decrease gradually with aging. Because estradiol (E2) arises mainly from the conversion of T in men, the availability of E2 also decreases with increasing age. In randomized clinical trials, E2 replacement therapy has been shown to maintain aspects of cognition in postmenopausal women, specifically with regard to verbal memory. The present prospective, randomized, cross-over trial is being undertaken in order to determine whether E2 will enhance verbal memory in men with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Men with MCI will randomly receive E2 or placebo for the first 3 mo of treatment and will then be crossed-over to the other treatment for an additional 3 mo. A battery of neuropsychological tests will be administered at pretreatment and, again, following each 3-mo treatment phase. It is hypothesized that elderly men with MCI will perform better on tests of explicit memory when they are being treated with E2 compared to their performance under placebo conditions.

  5. Measurement of Functional Cognition and Complex Everyday Activities in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia: Validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Jacqueline; Clemson, Lindy; Crawford, John D; Kochan, Nicole A; Brodaty, Henry; Reppermund, Simone

    2017-05-01

    To explore the validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen-5 (LACLS-5) as a performance-based measure of functional cognition, representing an ability to perform complex everyday activities in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia living in the community. Using cross-sectional data from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, 160 community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition (CN; N = 87), MCI (N = 43), or dementia (N = 30) were studied. Functional cognition (LACLS-5), complex everyday activities (Disability Assessment for Dementia [DAD]), Assessment of Motor and Process Skills [AMPS]), and neuropsychological measures were used. Participants with dementia performed worse than CN on all clinical measures, and MCI participants were intermediate. Correlational analyses showed that LACLS-5 was most strongly related to AMPS Process scores, DAD instrumental activities of daily living subscale, Mini-Mental State Exam, Block Design, Logical Memory, and Trail Making Test B. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both cognitive (Block Design) and functional measures (AMPS Process score) and sex predicted LACLS-5 performance. Finally, LACLS-5 was able to adequately discriminate between CN and dementia and between MCI and dementia but was unable to reliably distinguish between CN and MCI. Construct validity, including convergent and discriminative validity, was supported. LACLS-5 is a valid performance-based measure for evaluating functional cognition. Discriminativevalidity is acceptable for identifying mild dementia but requires further refinement for detecting MCI. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive and functional neuroimaging correlate for anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Gade, Anders

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD).......To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD)....

  7. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Ryon; Baek, Min Jae; Kim, HyangHee

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1) between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal adults and (2) between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI) and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI) and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train) and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy). Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI. PMID:26347214

  8. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Ryon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1 between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and normal adults and (2 between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy. Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI.

  9. Improving Sensitivity to Detect Mild Cognitive Impairment: Cognitive Load Dual-Task Gait Speed Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAulay, Rebecca K; Wagner, Mark T; Szeles, Dana; Milano, Nicholas J

    2017-07-01

    Longitudinal research indicates that cognitive load dual-task gait assessment is predictive of cognitive decline and thus might provide a sensitive measure to screen for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, research among older adults being clinically evaluated for cognitive concerns, a defining feature of MCI, is lacking. The present study investigated the effect of performing a cognitive task on normal walking speed in patients presenting to a memory clinic with cognitive complaints. Sixty-one patients with a mean age of 68 years underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical interview, and gait speed (simple- and dual-task conditions) assessments. Thirty-four of the 61 patients met criteria for MCI. Repeated measure analyses of covariance revealed that greater age and MCI both significantly associated with slower gait speed, pscognitive dual task within a clinically representative population. Cognitive load dual-task gait assessment may provide a cost efficient and sensitive measure to detect older adults at high risk of a dementia disorder. (JINS, 2017, 23, 493-501).

  10. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...

  11. Mild cognitive impairment: coping with an uncertain label.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, E.W.A.; Vernooy-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recently introduced diagnostic label of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) identifies patients with a cognitive decline that is more pronounced than is usual for a person's age and educational level but does not notably interfere with activities of daily living (ADL). The natural course

  12. Brain functional connectivity and cognition in mild traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, K.L.; Zhang, Y.L.; Chen, H.; Zhang, J.N.; Zhang, Y.; Qiu, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze brain functional connectivity and its relationship to cognition in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Twenty-five patients with mTBI and 25 healthy control subjects were studied using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). Amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) and functional connectivity (FC) were calculated and correlated with cognition. Compared with the normal control group, the mTBI patients showed a significant decrease in working memory index (WMI) and processing speed index (PSI), as well as significantly decreased ALFFs in the cingulate gyrus, the middle frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus. In contrast, the mTBI patients' ALFFs in the left middle occipital gyrus, the left precuneus, and lingual gyrus increased. Additionally, FC significantly decreased in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, and right hippocampus in the mTBI patients. Statistical analysis further showed a significant positive correlation between the ALFF in the cingulate gyrus and the WMI (R 2 = 0.423, P < 0.05) and a significant positive correlation between the FC in the left thalamus and left middle frontal gyrus and the WMI (R 2 = 0.381, P < 0.05). rs-fMRI can reveal the functional state of the brain in patients with mTBI. This finding differed from observations of the normal control group and was significantly associated with clinical cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, rs-fMRI offers an objective imaging modality for treatment planning and prognosis assessment in patients with mTBI. (orig.)

  13. Limbic and Basal Ganglia Neuroanatomical Correlates of Gait and Executive Function: Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Intact Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ellen L; Kelly, Valerie E; Weaver, Kurt E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; McCurry, Susan M; Pike, Kenneth C; Grabowski, Thomas J; Teri, Linda

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal cognition and to examine limbic and basal ganglia neural correlates of gait and executive function in older adults without dementia. This was a cross-sectional study of 46 community-dwelling older adults, ages 70-95 yrs, with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 23) and normal cognition (n = 23). Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to attain volumetric measures of limbic and basal ganglia structures. Quantitative motion analysis was used to measure spatiotemporal parameters of gait. The Trail Making Test was used to assess executive function. During fast-paced walking, older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrated significantly slower gait speed and shorter stride length compared with older adults with normal cognition. Stride length was positively correlated with hippocampal, anterior cingulate, and nucleus accumbens volumes (P function was positively correlated with hippocampal, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate volumes (P older adults with normal cognition, those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrated slower gait speed and shorter stride length, during fast-paced walking, and lower executive function. Hippocampal and anterior cingulate volumes demonstrated moderate positive correlation with both gait and executive function, after adjusting for age. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) discuss gait performance and cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment versus normal cognition, (2) discuss neurocorrelates of gait and executive function in older adults without dementia, and (3) recognize the importance of assessing gait speed and cognitive function in the clinical management of older

  14. Naming of objects, faces and buildings in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Samrah; Arnold, Robert; Thompson, Sian A; Graham, Kim S; Hodges, John R

    2008-06-01

    Accruing evidence suggests that the cognitive deficits in very early Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are not confined to episodic memory, with a number of studies documenting semantic memory deficits, especially for knowledge of people. To investigate whether this difficulty in naming famous people extends to other proper names based information, three naming tasks - the Graded Naming Test (GNT), which uses objects and animals, the Graded Faces Test (GFT) and the newly designed Graded Buildings Test (GBT) - were administered to 69 participants (32 patients in the early prodromal stage of AD, so-called Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and 37 normal control participants). Patients were found to be impaired on all three tests compared to controls, although naming of objects was significantly better than naming of faces and buildings. Discriminant analysis successfully predicted group membership for 100% controls and 78.1% of patients. The results suggest that even in cases that do not yet fulfil criteria for AD naming of famous people and buildings is impaired, and that both these semantic domains show greater vulnerability than general semantic knowledge. A semantic deficit together with the hallmark episodic deficit may be common in MCI, and that the use of graded tasks tapping semantic memory may be useful for the early identification of patients with MCI.

  15. Positive Effects of Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C.; Chambon, C.; Michel, B. F.; Paban, V.; Alescio-Lautier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high risk for individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (A-MCI) to progress towards Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated the efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention, that is, cognitive training that could reduce cognitive difficulties and delay the cognitive decline. For this, we evaluated the efficacy of a…

  16. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  17. Propositional Density in Spoken and Written Language of Czech-Speaking Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolík, Filip; Stepankova, Hana; Vyhnálek, Martin; Nikolai, Tomáš; Horáková, Karolína; Matejka, Štepán

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Propositional density (PD) is a measure of content richness in language production that declines in normal aging and more profoundly in dementia. The present study aimed to develop a PD scoring system for Czech and use it to compare PD in language productions of older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and control…

  18. Informant-reported cognitive symptoms that predict amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek-Ahmadi Michael

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognition is difficult in clinical settings. Self-reported and informant-reported memory complaints occur often in both clinical groups, which then necessitates the use of a comprehensive neuropsychological examination to make a differential diagnosis. However, the ability to identify cognitive symptoms that are predictive of aMCI through informant-based information may provide some clinical utility in accurately identifying individuals who are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods The current study utilized a case-control design using data from an ongoing validation study of the Alzheimer's Questionnaire (AQ, an informant-based dementia assessment. Data from 51 cognitively normal (CN individuals participating in a brain donation program and 47 aMCI individuals seen in a neurology practice at the same institute were analyzed to determine which AQ items differentiated aMCI from CN individuals. Results Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis which controlled for age and education showed that 4 AQ items were strong indicators of aMCI which included: repetition of statements and/or questions [OR 13.20 (3.02, 57.66]; trouble knowing the day, date, month, year, and time [OR 17.97 (2.63, 122.77]; difficulty managing finances [OR 11.60 (2.10, 63.99]; and decreased sense of direction [OR 5.84 (1.09, 31.30]. Conclusions Overall, these data indicate that certain informant-reported cognitive symptoms may help clinicians differentiate individuals with aMCI from those with normal cognition. Items pertaining to repetition of statements, orientation, ability to manage finances, and visuospatial disorientation had high discriminatory power.

  19. Frontal lobe hypoperfusion in mild cognitive impairment patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, S.Q.; Chung, C.P.; Liao, Y.C.; Wang, P.N.; Lee, Y.C.; Liu, H.C.; Liu, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Mild cognitive impairement (MCI) refers to the clinical state of individuals who are memory impaired subjectively but are functioning well and do not meet the criteria of dementia. MCI subjects have a high risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is important to detect the earliest evidence of AD for clinicians to recognize the high risk subjects and to implicate the therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the early change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in MCI with high risk of AD by SPECT. Methods: Subjects complained of memory impairment with normal cognitive function and intact daily activities were enrolled. Each patient underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT at the time of initial evaluation. Patients were followed for one to five years. The diagnosis of AD was based on the criteria of the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. There were 8 patients (4 males, 4 females; age range, 64-80 yrs; mean, 73.5 yrs) progressing to AD within one year. Ten gender and age matched normal control subjects (NC) were also included. The SPECT images were analyzed by using SPM 99. The image data were transformed into a standard stereotactic space, using a 12-parameter linear and 2x2x2 nonlinear spatial normalization with the template image. Group comparisons of the SPECT images between the 8 rapid AD converters and 10 NCs were performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using t test. The t statistics was transformed to a normal statistic yielding a Z score for every voxel. Results: In 8 rapid AD converters, rCBF in the right medial frontal gyms (Brodmann area 10; BA 10), anterior cingulated gyms (BA 32) and middle frontal gyms (BA 46) was significantly lower than in NCs (p<0.001). The neuropsychological performances of these 8 cases revealed decrement in short-term memory, mental manipulation and list-generation frequency. Conclusions: rCBF is decreased in right medial frontal, anterior cingulated and middle frontal gyms in MCI patients who

  20. Clock drawing test in screening for Alzheimer's dementia and mild cognitive impairment in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnálek, Martin; Rubínová, Eva; Marková, Hana; Nikolai, Tomáš; Laczó, Jan; Andel, Ross; Hort, Jakub

    2017-09-01

    The clock drawing test (CDT) is a commonly used brief cognitive measure. We evaluated diagnostic accuracy of subjective ratings of CDT by physicians (with/without specialty in cognitive neurology) and neuropsychologists in discriminating amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and cognitively healthy older adults. We further compared the diagnostic accuracy of subjective categorical ratings with complex scoring of CDT. Three cognitive neurologists, three neuropsychologists and six neurology residents without experience in cognitive neurology blinded to the diagnosis rated 187 CDTs (50 mild AD, 49 aMCI and 88 cognitively healthy older adults) using a "yes" (abnormal) versus "suspected" versus "no" (normal) classification. The rating suspected was combined with yes or no to obtain two sets of sensitivity estimates. We also used a 17-point CDT rating system. When using the categorical rating, neuropsychologists had highest sensitivity (89%) in differentiating patients with mild AD (yes/suspected versus no), followed by neurologic residents (80%) and cognitive neurologists (79%). When differentiating patients with aMCI (yes/suspected versus no), the sensitivity was 84% for neuropsychologists, 64% for cognitive neurologists and 62% for residents. The sensitivity using the complex scoring system was 92% in patients with mild AD and 69% in patients with aMCI. A categorical rating of CDT shows high sensitivity for mild AD even in non-experienced raters. Neuropsychologists outperformed physicians in differentiating patients with aMCI from cognitively healthy older adults (specificity), which was counterbalanced by the lower specificity of their ratings. The diagnostic accuracy was not substantially improved by using complex scoring system. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Higher incidence of mild cognitive impairment in familial hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambón, D.; Quintana, M.; Mata, P.; Alonso, R.; Benavent, J.; Cruz-Sánchez, F.; Gich, J.; Pocoví, M.; Civeira, F.; Capurro, S.; Bachman, D.; Sambamurti, K.; Nicholas, J.; Pappolla, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Hypercholesterolemia is an early risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors may be involved in this disorder. Our objective was to determine the risk of mild cognitive impairment in a population of patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, a condition involving LDL receptors dysfunction and life long hypercholesterolemia. Methods Using a cohort study design, patients with (N=47) meeting inclusion criteria and comparison patients without familial hypercholesterolemia (N=70) were consecutively selected from academic specialty and primary care clinics respectively. All patients were older than 50 years. Those with disorders which could impact cognition, including history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks, were excluded from both groups. Thirteen standardized neuropsychological tests were performed in all subjects. Mutational analysis was performed in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and brain imaging was obtained in those with familial hypercholesterolemia and mild cognitive impairment. Results Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia showed a very high incidence of mild cognitive impairment compared to those without familial hypercholesterolemia (21.3% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.00). This diagnosis was unrelated to structural pathology or white matter disease. There were significant differences between the familial hypercholesterolemia and the no-familial hypercholesterolemia groups in several cognitive measures, all in the direction of worse performance for familial hypercholesterolemia patients, independent of apoE4 or apoE2 status. Conclusions Because prior studies have shown that older patients with sporadic hypercholesterolemia do not show higher incidence of mild cognitive impairment, the findings presented here suggest that early exposure to elevated cholesterol or LDL receptors dysfunction may be risk factors for mild cognitive impairment. PMID:20193836

  2. Estrogen replacement therapy, Alzheimer's disease, and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnard, Ruth A; Corrada, Marìa M; Kawas, Claudia H

    2004-09-01

    This article highlights the latest findings regarding estrogen replacement therapy in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment in women. Despite considerable evidence from observational studies, recent randomized clinical trials of conjugated equine estrogens, alone and in combination with progestin, have shown no benefit for either the treatment of established AD or for the short-term prevention of AD, mild cognitive impairment, or cognitive decline. Based on the evidence, there is no role at present for estrogen replacement therapy in the treatment or prevention of AD or cognitive decline, despite intriguing results from the laboratory and from observational studies. However, numerous questions remain about the biologic effects of estrogens on brain structure and function. Additional basic and clinical investigations are necessary to examine different forms and dosages of estrogens, other populations, and the relevance of timing and duration of exposure.

  3. Depressive symptoms predict slow cognitive decline in mild dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzing, J.G.E.; Naarding, P.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Depression may be a prognostic marker of subsequent cognitive decline in patients with dementia. Earlier investigations did not find support for this hypothesis, but these considered mainly syndromal depression. In this prospective study, 32 subjects with mild dementia were followed up for 12

  4. Late-Life Depression, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Reitz, Christiane; Honig, Lawrence H.; Schupf, Nicole; Tang, Ming X.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Mayeux, Richard; Devanand, Devangere; Luchsinger, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association of late-life depression with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in a multiethnic community cohort. Design and Setting: A cohort study was conducted in Northern Manhattan, New York, New York. Participants: A total of 2160 community-dwelling Medicare

  5. Care Partner Responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined characteristics, responses, and psychological well-being of care partners who support and assist older adults recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design and Methods: Based on a sample of 106 care partners of community residents diagnosed with MCI at memory clinics, we conducted face-to-face interviews…

  6. Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment with Mini Mental State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment is a recently described neuropsychiatric entity with the possibility of evolving into overt dementia. It has been found to respond to therapeutic intervention, thus halting or significantly retarding the progression to dementia. Resource.poor countries like Nigeria can hardly afford to ...

  7. Cognitive Profile of Elderly Patients with Mild Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Gramstad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pattern characterizing cognitive deficits in mild stroke could help in differential diagnosis and rehabilitation planning. Methods: Fifty patients with mild stroke (modified Rankin scale ≤2 at discharge aged >60 years were given the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R and the Stroop test. Results: On HVLT-R, significant impairments were found in learning and recall, but not in delayed recall. The Stroop test revealed significant impairments in reading speed, but not in color-word interference. Using the MMSE, significant deficits were only found in the youngest age group. Conclusion: Elderly patients with mild stroke show deficits in verbal learning/recall and in reading speed, but not in the MMSE, delayed recall or color-word interference. The deficits are consistent with a mild-to-moderate brain dysfunction, with relative sparing of medial brain structures.

  8. Early Detection of Cognitive-Linguistic Change Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Valarie B.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may present with subtle declines in linguistic ability that go undetected by tasks not challenging enough to tax a relatively intact cognitive-linguistic system. This study was designed to replicate and extend a previous study of cognitive-linguistic ability in MCI using a complex discourse…

  9. The effect of bilingualism on amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossher, Lynn; Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Murphy, Kelly J; Troyer, Angela K

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports have found that lifelong bilingualism is associated with a delay in the onset of dementia, including Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT). Because amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is often a transition stage between normal aging and DAT, our aim in this paper was to establish whether this delay in symptom onset for bilinguals would also be seen in the onset of symptoms of aMCI and whether this delay would be consistent in different subtypes of aMCI. We examined the effect of bilingualism on the age of diagnosis in individuals with single- or multiple-domain aMCI who were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires about their language and social background. Our results showed an interaction between aMCI type and language history. Only individuals diagnosed with single-domain aMCI demonstrated a later age of diagnosis for bilinguals (M = 79.4 years) than monolinguals (M = 74.9 years). This preliminary evidence suggests that the early protective advantage of bilingualism may be specific to single-domain aMCI, which is the type of aMCI most specifically associated with progression to DAT.

  10. Electroacupuncture for older adults with mild cognitive impairment: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Albert Wing Nang; Lam, Linda Chiu Wa; Kwan, Andrew Ka Lun; Tsang, Celia Lai Lin; Zhang, Hong Wei; Guo, Yuan Qi; Xu, Chuan Shan

    2015-05-27

    Mild cognitive impairment is an intermediary state between normal aging and clinical Alzheimer's disease. Early intervention of mild cognitive impairment may be an important strategy in the management of Alzheimer's disease. The proposal aims to evaluate if electroacupuncture would optimize cognitive function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and understand the role of electroacupuncture in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. A randomised patient- and assessor-blind sham-controlled trial is designed to assess whether electroacupuncture intervention decreases the rate of cognitive decline amongst older adults with mild cognitive impairment. One hundred and fifty subjects aged 65 years of age or over with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment are recruited from the community and elderly centre in Hong Kong. All subjects are randomly allocated into two groups (75 subjects each group): the electroacupuncture group and sham control. Participants in the electroacupuncture group receive electroacupuncture stimulation by sterile, disposable acupuncture needles inserted to the acupoints with a depth of 1 to 3 cm. The acupuncture needles are subjected to 2 Hz electroacupuncture with an intensity of 5 to 10 mA. Each participant receives electroacupuncture for 8 weeks (once a day, 3 days a week) and the treatment lasts for 30 minutes each time. For sham electroacupuncture, needles are inserted to a depth of 1 to 2 mm, and connected to the electroacupuncture device without any current passing through. Outcome measures (including primary and secondary outcome measures) are collected at baseline, at the end day of intervention, and months 4 and 6 after intervention. The primary outcome is measured by the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale. Secondary outcomes are measured by the mini-mental state examination, category fluency text and the Short Form 12. The study will provide evidence for evaluating and understanding the role of electroacupuncture

  11. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Hayashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. Methods: A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. Results: For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. Conclusions: The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

  12. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Atsuko; Nomura, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Ruriko; Ohnuma, Ayumu; Kimpara, Teiko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Mori, Etsuro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

  13. Callosal degeneration topographically correlated with cognitive function in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Ning; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chang, Ni-Jung; Lin, Ker-Neng; Chen, Wei-Ta; Lan, Gong-Yau; Lin, Ching-Po; Lirng, Jiing-Feng

    2014-04-01

    Degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) is evident in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the correlation of microstructural damage in the CC on the cognitive performance of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD dementia is undetermined. We enrolled 26 normal controls, 24 patients with AD dementia, and 40 single-domain aMCI patients with at least grade 1 hippocampal atrophy and isolated memory impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (DA), and radial diffusivity (DR) were measured. The entire CC was parcellated based on fiber trajectories to specific cortical Brodmann areas using a probabilistic tractography method. The relationship between the DTI measures in the subregions of the CC and cognitive performance was examined. Although the callosal degeneration in the patients with aMCI was less extended than in the patients with AD dementia, degeneration was already exhibited in several subregions of the CC at the aMCI stage. Scores of various neuropsychological tests were correlated to the severity of microstructural changes in the subregional CC connecting to functionally corresponding cortical regions. Our results confirm that CC degeneration is noticeable as early as the aMCI stage of AD and the disconnection of the CC subregional fibers to the corresponding Brodmann areas has an apparent impact on the related cognitive performance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Working memory span in mild cognitive impairment. Influence of processing speed and cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facal, David; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Pereiro, Arturo X; Lojo-Seoane, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) often includes episodic memory impairment, but can also involve other types of cognitive decline. Although previous studies have shown poorer performance of MCI patients in working memory (WM) span tasks, different MCI subgroups were not studied. In the present exploratory study, 145 participants underwent extensive cognitive evaluation, which included three different WM span tasks, and were classified into the following groups: multiple-domain amnestic MCI (mda-MCI), single-domain amnestic MCI (sda-MCI), and controls. General linear model was conducted by considering the WM span tasks as the within-subject factor; the group (mda-MCI, sda-MCI, and controls) as the inter-subject factor; and processing speed, vocabulary and age as covariates. Multiple linear regression models were also used to test the influence of processing speed, vocabulary, and other cognitive reserve (CR) proxies. Results indicate different levels of impairment of WM, with more severe impairment in mda-MCI patients. The differences were still present when processing resources and CR were controlled. Between-group differences can be understood as a manifestation of the greater severity and widespread memory impairment in mda-MCI patients and may contribute to a better understanding of continuum from normal controls to mda-MCI patients. Processing speed and CR have a limited influence on WM scores, reducing but not removing differences between groups.

  15. Prognostic value of posteromedial cortex deactivation in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Petrella

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal subjects deactivate specific brain regions, notably the posteromedial cortex (PMC, during many tasks. Recent cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data suggests that deactivation during memory tasks is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD. The goal of this study was to prospectively determine the prognostic significance of PMC deactivation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI.75 subjects (34 MCI, 13 AD subjects and 28 controls underwent baseline fMRI scanning during encoding of novel and familiar face-name pairs. MCI subjects were followed longitudinally to determine conversion to AD. Regression and analysis of covariance models were used to assess the effect of PMC activation/deactivation on conversion to dementia as well as in the longitudinal change in dementia measures. At longitudinal follow up of up to 3.5 years (mean 2.5+/-0.79 years, 11 MCI subjects converted to AD. The proportion of deactivators was significantly different across all groups: controls (79%, MCI-Nonconverters (73%, MCI-converters (45%, and AD (23% (p<0.05. Mean PMC activation magnitude parameter estimates, at baseline, were negative in the control (-0.57+/-0.12 and MCI-Nonconverter (-0.33+/-0.14 groups, and positive in the MCI-Converter (0.37+/-0.40 and AD (0.92+/-0.30 groups. The effect of diagnosis on PMC deactivation remained significant after adjusting for age, education and baseline Mini-Mental State Exam (p<0.05. Baseline PMC activation magnitude was correlated with change in dementia ratings from baseline.Loss of physiological functional deactivation in the PMC may have prognostic value in preclinical AD, and could aid in profiling subgroups of MCI subjects at greatest risk for progressive cognitive decline.

  16. Prevalence and associated behavioral symptoms of depression in mild cognitive impairment and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Bekelaar, Kim; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Vermeiren, Yannick; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Marien, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical concept that categorizes subjects who are in an intermediate cognitive state between normal aging and dementia. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of significant depressive symptoms in MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD)

  17. Effect of Pain and Mild Cognitive Impairment on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepker, Caroline A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Pedersen, Mette Merete

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-together and separately-on performance-based and self-reported mobility outcomes in older adults in primary care with mild to moderate self-reported mobility limitations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING...... Inventory (BPI) were defined as having pain. MCI was defined using age-adjusted scores on a neuropsychological battery. Multivariable linear regression models assessed associations between pain and MCI, together and separately, and mobility performance (habitual gait speed, Short Physical Performance...

  18. Visuomotor adaptability in older adults with mild cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffert, Jeffrey; Lee, Chi-Mei; Neill, Rebecca; Bo, Jin

    2017-02-01

    The current study examined the augmentation of error feedback on visuomotor adaptability in older adults with varying degrees of cognitive decline (assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; MoCA). Twenty-three participants performed a center-out computerized visuomotor adaptation task when the visual feedback of their hand movement error was presented in a regular (ratio=1:1) or enhanced (ratio=1:2) error feedback schedule. Results showed that older adults with lower scores on the MoCA had less adaptability than those with higher MoCA scores during the regular feedback schedule. However, participants demonstrated similar adaptability during the enhanced feedback schedule, regardless of their cognitive ability. Furthermore, individuals with lower MoCA scores showed larger after-effects in spatial control during the enhanced schedule compared to the regular schedule, whereas individuals with higher MoCA scores displayed the opposite pattern. Additional neuro-cognitive assessments revealed that spatial working memory and processing speed were positively related to motor adaptability during the regular scheduled but negatively related to adaptability during the enhanced schedule. We argue that individuals with mild cognitive decline employed different adaptation strategies when encountering enhanced visual feedback, suggesting older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may benefit from enhanced visual error feedback during sensorimotor adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, K. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This

  20. Vitamin B12 supplementation and cognitive scores in geriatric patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Chauhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Neurodegenerative diseases are increasingly affecting the elderly with a severe impact on their brain health. There is a wide gap in supplementation based studies for increasing the cognition levels of the geriatric population, especially in developing countries like India which are at extreme risk of developing neurological disorders. And recently Vitamin B12 has drawn considerable attention due to its ability to improve the cognitive status. Current literature has linked the possibility of alleviating neurological disorders in the elderly with effective vitamin B12 management. Abundant animal and human models have proved that supplementation of vitamin B12 is beneficial for the restoration of cognitive functions. Objective: To supplement vitamin B12 deficient mild cognitively impaired geriatric patients with injectable doses of vitamin B12 followed by impact evaluation. Methods: Screening of the mild cognitively impaired patients was carried out using the Mini- Mental State Examination and Yamaguchi Fox Pigeon Imitation test. Baseline information was elicited from the patients residing in urban Vadodara (a district in the state of Gujarat, India. This included socio-demographic, medical and drug history, anthropometric and physical activity pattern, in addition to biochemical parameters comprising of serum vitamin B12 and glycated haemoglobin profile. A sub-sample of 60 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI demonstrating severe vitamin B12 deficiency were conveniently enrolled for injectable doses of Vitamin B 12 in the dosage of 1,000 µg every day for one week, followed by 1,000 µg every week for 4 weeks & finishing with 1,000 µg for the remaining 4 months. An intervention six- month after the experiment with all the parameters were elicited. Results: Vitamin B12 supplementation resulted in a significant (p<0.001 improvement in the MMSE scores of the patients with a rise of 9.63% in the total patients. Gender

  1. The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) in patients with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavioglu, H; Gedizlioglu, M; Akyel, S; Aslaner, T; Eser, E

    2006-03-01

    The cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assesment Scale (ADAS-Cog) is the most widely used test in clinical trials dealing with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of ADAS-Cog. Twenty-nine patients with AD, fulfilling NINCDS-ADRDA criteria of probable AD, who were in stage 3-5 according to the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), and 27 non-demented control subjects with similar age, gender and educational status were recruited for the study. The Turkish version of ADAS-Cog, Standardized Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Short Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (SOMCT) were applied to both of the groups. Inter-rater reliability, internal consistency, test-retest reliability; face validity, differential validity and convergent validity were statistically analyzed. Both MMSE and ADAS-Cog have significantly differentiated patients with AD and control subjects (p ADAS-Cog scores in AD group (r: -0.739). ADAS-Cog was also highly significantly correlated with GDS (r: 0.720) and SOMCT (r: 0.738). For the group with AD, control and whole cohort coefficients of internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha: 0.800, 0.515, 0.873 were found respectively. Inter-rater reliability for total ADAS-Cog score was found as ICC: 0.99 and 0.98 and test-retest reliability was found as ICC: 0.91 and 0.95 for demented and nondemented subjects, respectively. The Turkish version of ADAS-Cog has been found to be highly reliable and valid in differentiating patients with mild and moderate AD from nondemented subjects.

  2. Mild cognitive impairment: applicability of research criteria in a memory clinic and characterization of cognitive profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladi, Suvarna; Arnold, Robert; Mitchell, Joanna; Nestor, Peter J; Hodges, John R

    2006-04-01

    We explored the applicability of recently proposed research criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a memory clinic and changes in case definition related to which memory tests are used and the status of general cognitive function in MCI. A total of 166 consecutive GP referrals to the Cambridge Memory Clinic underwent comprehensive neuropsychological and psychiatric evaluation. Of 166 cases, 42 were excluded (significant depression 8, established dementia 29 and other disorders 5). Of 124 non-demented, non-depressed patients, 72 fulfilled Petersen's criteria for amnestic MCI based upon verbal memory performance [the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)] and 90 met criteria if performance on verbal and/or non-verbal memory tests [the Rey figure recall or the Paired Associates Learning test (PAL)] was considered. Of the 90 broadly defined MCI cases, only 25 had pure amnesia: other subtle semantic and/or attention deficits were typically present. A further 12 were classed as non-amnestic MCI and 22 as 'worried well'. Definition of MCI varies considerably dependent upon the tests used for case definition. The majority have other cognitive deficits despite normal performance on the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and intact activities of daily living (ADL) and fit within multi-domain MCI. Pure amnesic MCI is rare.

  3. Daily stressors and emotional reactivity in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and cognitively healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Condeelis, Kristen L; Haley, William E

    2015-06-01

    Daily experiences of stress are common and have been associated with worse affect among older adults. People with mild cognitive impairment (PWMCI) have measurable memory deficits in between normal cognition and dementia and have been identified as having greater psychological distress than cognitively healthy older adults (CHOAs). Little is known about whether daily stressors contribute to distress among PWMCI. We hypothesized that compared with CHOAs, PWMCI would have higher daily negative affect and lower daily positive affect, report greater numbers and severity of daily stressors, and experience greater emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Fifteen clinically diagnosed PWMCI and 25 CHOAs completed daily reports of stressors, stressor severity, and positive and negative affect over an 8-day period. PWMCI reported higher daily negative affect, lower daily positive affect, and higher numbers and greater severity of memory stressors but did not differ from CHOAs in numbers or severity of general stressors. Cognitive status was a moderator of the daily stress-affect relationship. Days with greater numbers and severity of general daily stressors were associated with higher negative affect only for PWMCI. The numbers and severity of memory stressors were not associated with negative affect. In addition, more severe general daily stressors and memory stressors were associated with lower positive affect for all participants. Results suggest that PWMCI are less resilient in the face of daily stress than are CHOAs in terms of negative affect, perhaps because of declines in reserve capacity. The study presents a promising approach to understanding stress and coping in predementia states of cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Spatial navigation deficit in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hort, J.; Laczó, J.; Vyhnálek, M.; Bojar, M.; Bureš, Jan; Vlček, Kamil

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 10 (2007), s. 4042-4047 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1231; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/0693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * Alzheimer’s Disease Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 9.598, year: 2007

  5. Spatial Navigation and APOE in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laczó, J.; Andel, R.; Vlček, Kamil; Maťoška, V.; Vyhnálek, M.; Tolar, M.; Bojar, M.; Hort, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2011), s. 169-177 ISSN 1660-2854 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/1053; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * Alzheimer's disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.056, year: 2011

  6. The Gesture Imitation in Alzheimer's Disease Dementia and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xudong; Jia, Shuhong; Zhou, Zhi; Hou, Chunlei; Zheng, Wenjing; Rong, Pei; Jiao, Jinsong

    2016-07-14

    Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) has become an important health problem in the world. Visuospatial deficits are considered to be an early symptom besides memory disorder. The gesture imitation test was devised to detect ADD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A total of 117 patients with ADD, 118 with aMCI, and 95 normal controls were included in this study. All participants were administered our gesture imitation test, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Patients with ADD performed worse than normal controls on global scores and had a lower success rate on every item (p imitation test scores were positively correlated with the MMSE (r = 0.637, p imitation test is an easy, rapid tool for detecting ADD, and is suitable for the patients suspected of mild ADD and aMCI in outpatient clinics.

  7. Aberrant Intrinsic Activity and Connectivity in Cognitively Normal Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Deborah L; Shen, Qian; Castillo, Gabriel N; Filoteo, J Vincent; Litvan, Irene; Takahashi, Colleen; French, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Disturbances in intrinsic activity during resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but have largely been studied in a priori defined subnetworks. The cognitive significance of abnormal intrinsic activity is also poorly understood, as are abnormalities that precede the onset of mild cognitive impairment. To address these limitations, we leveraged three different analytic approaches to identify disturbances in rsfMRI metrics in 31 cognitively normal PD patients (PD-CN) and 30 healthy adults. Subjects were screened for mild cognitive impairment using the Movement Disorders Society Task Force Level II criteria. Whole-brain data-driven analytic approaches first analyzed the amplitude of low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measure of local connectivity amongst functionally similar regions. We then examined if regional disturbances in these metrics altered functional connectivity with other brain regions. We also investigated if abnormal rsfMRI metrics in PD-CN were related to brain atrophy and executive, visual organization, and episodic memory functioning. The results revealed abnormally increased and decreased ALFF and ReHo in PD-CN patients within the default mode network (posterior cingulate, inferior parietal cortex, parahippocampus, entorhinal cortex), sensorimotor cortex (primary motor, pre/post-central gyrus), basal ganglia (putamen, caudate), and posterior cerebellar lobule VII, which mediates cognition. For default mode network regions, we also observed a compound profile of altered ALFF and ReHo. Most regional disturbances in ALFF and ReHo were associated with strengthened long-range interactions in PD-CN, notably with regions in different networks. Stronger long-range functional connectivity in PD-CN was also partly expanded to connections that were outside the networks of the control group. Abnormally increased activity and functional connectivity appeared to have a pathological

  8. Lower-Extremity Function in Cognitively Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, Laura H.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Volkers, Karin M.; Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; Scherder, Erik J.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Steinberg, Eric; Nair, Anil; Green, Robert C.; Stern, Robert A.

    Eggermont LH, Gavett BE, Volkers KM, Blankevoort CG, Scherder EJ, Jefferson AL, Steinberg E, Nair A, Green RC, Stern RA. Lower-extremity function in cognitively healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:584-8. Objective: To examine differences

  9. The use of the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-M) in the detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah E; Marsiske, Michael; McCoy, Karin J M

    2009-06-01

    Many screening tools for detecting cognitive decline require in-person assessment, which is often not cost-effective or feasible for those with physical limitations. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status has been used for screening dementia, but little is known about its usefulness in detecting amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Community-dwelling participants (mean age=74.9, mean education = 16.1 years) were administered the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status during initial screening and subsequently given a multidomain neuropsychological battery. Participants were classified by consensus panel as cognitively normal older adult (noMCI, N=54) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (N=17) based on neuropsychological performance and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale interview, but independent of Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score. There was a significant difference between groups in Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score (t=8.04, PTICS-M alone correctly classified 85.9% of participants into their respective diagnostic classification (sensitivity=82.4%, specificity=87.0%). Receiver operating characteristics analysis resulted in cutoff score of 34 that optimized sensitivity and specificity of amnestic mild cognitive impairment classification. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is a brief, cost-effective screening measure for identifying those with and without amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

  10. Comparing Cognitive Profiles of Licensed Drivers with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Yamin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Alzheimer’s disease (AD and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB constitute two of the most common forms of dementia in North America. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. Method. Licensed drivers with mild AD, mild DLB, and healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests measuring general cognition, attention, visuospatial/perception, language, and cognitive fluctuations. Results. The results showed differences between healthy controls and demented participants on almost all neuropsychological measures. Participants with early DLB were found to perform significantly worse on some measures of attention and visuospatial functioning in comparison with early AD. Discussion. Future research should examine the relationship between neuropsychological measures and driving outcomes among individuals with mild AD and mild DLB.

  11. Neuroanatomic changes and their association with cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Kleiman, Alexandra; Schulz, Jörg B.; Schneider, Frank; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Reetz, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an acquired syndrome characterised by cognitive decline not affecting activities of daily living. Using a quantitative meta-analytic approach, we aimed to identify consistent neuroanatomic correlates of MCI and how they are related to cognitive dysfunction. The meta-analysis enrols 22 studies, involving 917 MCI (848 amnestic MCI) patients and 809 healthy controls. Only studies investigating local changes in grey matter and reporting whole-brain results in st...

  12. Category verbal fluency performance may be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar

    Full Text Available Abstract To study category verbal fluency (VF for animals in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, mild Alzheimer disease (AD and normal controls. Method: Fifteen mild AD, 15 aMCI, and 15 normal control subjects were included. Diagnosis of AD was based on DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, while aMCI was based on the criteria of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment, using CDR 0.5 for aMCI and CDR 1 for mild AD. All subjects underwent testing of category VF for animals, lexical semantic function (Boston Naming-BNT, CAMCOG Similarities item, WAIS-R forward and backward digit span, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (RAVLT, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE, and other task relevant functions such as visual perception, attention, and mood state (with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Data analysis used ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey test for intergroup comparisons, and Pearson's coefficient for correlations of memory and FV tests with other task relevant functions (statistical significance level was p<0.05. Results: aMCI patients had lower performance than controls on category VF for animals and on the backward digit span subtest of WAIS-R but higher scores compared with mild AD patients. Mild AD patients scored significantly worse than aMCI and controls across all tests. Conclusion: aMCI patients may have poor performance in some non-memory tests, specifically category VF for animals in our study, where this could be attributable to the influence of working memory.

  13. Anosognosia and Anosodiaphoria in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lindau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the occurrence of anosognosia (lack of awareness and anosodiaphoria (insouciance in mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD and to evaluate the influence of a worsening of dementia on these phenomena. Methods: A self-evaluation scale was used assessing degrees of anosognosia and anosodiaphoria; furthermore, a neuropsychological assessment and statistical analyses with nonparametric tests which could cope with data on an ordinal scale level and small samples were employed. Results: Cognitive ability was lower in AD (n = 9 than in MCI patients (n = 12, but AD patients self-rated lower cognitive disabilities, which is interpreted as one relative sign of anosognosia in AD. Awareness of the reasons for cognitive problems was also lower in AD, which is considered as another sign of anosognosia. The main pattern in MCI found that the higher the awareness, the lower the cognitive ability. In AD low awareness paralleled low cognitive functioning. Anosodiaphoria was present in AD but not in MCI. Conclusion: According to the literature anosognosia and anosodiaphoria seem to increase with progression of dementia from MCI as a result of right hemispheric alterations.

  14. Cognitive Activities and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Doi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years. The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results: We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p Conclusions: Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required.

  15. Validation of the Chinese version of Addenbrooke's cognitive examination-revised for screening mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rong; Wang, Gang; Huang, Yue; Zhuang, Jun-Peng; Tang, Hui-Dong; Wang, Ying; Deng, Yu-Lei; Xu, Wei; Chen, Sheng-Di; Ren, Ru-Jing

    2014-01-01

    As a suitable test to screen for Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), studies to validate the Chinese version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) are rare. A total of 151 subjects were recruited and the neuropsychological assessments were employed. One-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni correction were used to compare scores of different psychometric scales. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's coefficient α were used to evaluate the reliability of psychometric scales. The validity of ACE-R to screen for mild AD and amnestic subtype of MCI (a-MCI) was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The Chinese ACE-R had good reliability (inter-rater ICC = 0.994; test-retest ICC = 0.967) as well as reliable internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = 0.859). With its cutoff of 67/68, the sensitivity (0.920) and specificity (0.857) were lower than for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) cutoff (sensitivity 1.000 and specificity 0.937) to screen for mild AD. However, the sensitivity of ACE-R to screen for a-MCI was superior to the MMSE with a cutoff of 85/86. The specificity of ACE-R was lower than that of the MMSE to screen for a-MCI. The area under the ROC curve of ACE-R was much larger than that of the MMSE (0.836 and 0.751) for detecting a-MCI rather than mild AD. The Chinese ACE-R is a reliable assessment tool for cognitive impairment. It is more sensitive and accurate in screening for a-MCI rather than for AD compared to the MMSE.

  16. Cognitive Blackouts in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Adler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive blackouts, e.g. moments of amnesia, disorientation, or perplexity may be an early sign of incipient Alzheimer’s dementia (AD. A short questionnaire, the checklist for cognitive blackouts (CCB, was evaluated cross-sectionally in users of a memory clinic. Methods: The CCB was performed in 130 subjects, who further underwent a neuropsychological and clinical examination. Subjective memory impairment and depressive symptoms were assessed. Differences in the CCB score between diagnostic groups and relationships with cognitive performance, depression, and subjective memory impairment were analyzed. Results: The CCB score was increased in mild cognitive impairment of the amnestic type or mild AD and correctly predicted 69.2% of the respective subjects. It was negatively correlated with cognitive performance, positively correlated with depressive symptoms, and substantially increased in subjects who estimated their memory poorer than that of other persons of their age. Discussion: The CCB may be a helpful screening tool for the early recognition of AD.

  17. Comparison of a Mirror Neuron System among Elders with Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer's Disease, and No Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattanachayoto, P.; Tritanon, O.; Laothamatas, J.; Sungkarat, W.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. There are lots of old people suffering from the disease. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal aging and dementia. An individual with MCI has an increased risk of developing AD. The mirror neuron system (MNS), activated during the observation and execution of actions, has been linked with cognitive processes.The objective of this study is to examine the MNS abnormalities in elders with MCI and AD. Ninety-two subjects (5 MCI,7 mild AD, and 80 cognitively normal) were studied by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the fMRI experiment, subjects were asked to observe a video showing hand movement (tearing a piece of paper) and a control condition (observing a fixation point).The image data were analyzed using SPM2 (Statistical Parametric Mapping).There were significant activations of bilateral inferior frontal lobule and inferior parietal lobule due to the observation of hand movement.The brain activations of the normal group were statistical significant greater than those in the MCI and mild AD groups.There was no significant difference between the MCI and mild AD groups. Elders with MCI and mild AD had fewer MNS activations than the normal controls, suggesting that the dysfunction of MNS may underlie cognitive impairments in MCI and AD patients.These findings imply that fMRI is sufficiently sensitive to detect MNS changes occurring in MCI and AD.

  18. Mild cognitive decline: Concept, types, presentation, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka A Subramanyam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As advancements are being made in the medical field, the average life span is increasing and more complaints related to the elderly are coming into notice. Of these, mild cognitive decline (MCD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI is recently becoming an increasingly recognized entity that is often considered a precursor of dementia but is found to have other outcomes as well. It also has variations in presentations; it does not present only as memory complaint but also in the form of other cognitive or behavioral manifestations and has always been a point of controversy regarding the objectivity of the diagnosis. It is considered as the appropriate stage for intervention to prevent its progression to dementia and therefore, requires early identification for which various diagnostic modalities such as neuroimaging, neuropsychological tests, and biological markers are considered. Currently, there are no specific treatment guidelines for MCD. Drugs used in Alzheimer′s disease (AD, lifestyle modifications, and other nonpharmacological approaches have shown some benefit in MCI but the results are variable; hence, the need for further research is warranted for effective preventive therapy. In this article, we will be discussing MCD as a clinical construct, evaluation of a person suspected of having MCD, and management of the same.

  19. Stability of cognitive performance in children with mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Oskar G; Fintelmann, Sylvia; Caflisch, Jon; Latal, Beatrice; Rousson, Valentin; Chaouch, Aziz

    2015-05-01

    Longitudinal studies that have examined cognitive performance in children with intellectual disability more than twice over the course of their development are scarce. We assessed population and individual stability of cognitive performance in a clinical sample of children with borderline to mild non-syndromic intellectual disability. Thirty-six children (28 males, eight females; age range 3-19y) with borderline to mild intellectual disability (Full-scale IQ [FSIQ] 50-85) of unknown origin were examined in a retrospective clinical case series using linear mixed models including at least three assessments with standardized intelligence tests. Average cognitive performance remained remarkably stable over time (high population stability, drop of only 0.38 IQ points per year, standard error=0.39, p=0.325) whereas individual stability was at best moderate (intraclass correlation of 0.58), indicating that about 60% of the residual variation in FSIQ scores can be attributed to between-child variability. Neither sex nor socio-economic status had a statistically significant impact on FSIQ. Although intellectual disability during childhood is a relatively stable phenomenon, individual stability of IQ is only moderate, likely to be caused by test-to-test reliability (e.g. level of child's cooperation, motivation, and attention). Therefore, clinical decisions and predictions should not rely on single IQ assessments, but should also consider adaptive functioning and previous developmental history. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammisuli, D M; Innocenti, A; Franzoni, F; Pruneti, C

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have shown that physical activity has positive effects on cognition in healthy older adults without cognitive complains but lesser is known about the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The aim of the present study was to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effects of aerobic exercise upon cognition in MCI patients. To this end, PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were analytically searched for RCTs including aerobic exercise interventions for MCI patients. There is evidence that aerobic exercise improves cognition in MCI patients. Overall research reported moderate effects for global cognition, logical memory, inhibitory control and divided attention. Due to methodological limitations of the investigated studies, findings should be interpreted with caution. Standardized training protocols, larger scale interventions and follow-ups may also provide better insight into the preventive effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deterioration in MCI and its conversion into dementia.

  1. Self-administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE): a brief cognitive assessment Instrument for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharre, Douglas W; Chang, Shu-Ing; Murden, Robert A; Lamb, James; Beversdorf, David Q; Kataki, Maria; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Bornstein, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    To develop a self-administered cognitive assessment instrument to facilitate the screening of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia and determine its association with gold standard clinical assessments including neuropsychologic evaluation. Adults aged above 59 years with sufficient vision and English literacy were recruited from geriatric and memory disorder clinics, educational talks, independent living facilities, senior centers, and memory screens. After Self-administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE) screening, subjects were randomly selected to complete a clinical evaluation, neurologic examination, neuropsychologic battery, functional assessment, and mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Subjects were identified as dementia, MCI, or normal based on standard clinical criteria and neuropsychologic testing. Two hundred fifty-four participants took the SAGE screen and 63 subjects completed the extensive evaluation (21 normal, 21 MCI, and 21 dementia subjects). Spearman rank correlation between SAGE and neuropsychologic battery was 0.84 (0.76 for MMSE). SAGE receiver operating characteristics on the basis of clinical diagnosis showed 95% specificity (90% for MMSE) and 79% sensitivity (71% for MMSE) in detecting those with cognitive impairment from normal subjects. This study suggests that SAGE is a reliable instrument for detecting cognitive impairment and compares favorably with the MMSE. The self-administered feature may promote cognitive testing by busy clinicians prompting earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Computer-Based Cognitive Training for Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results from a Pilot Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Deborah E.; Yaffe, Kristine; Belfor, Nataliya; Jagust, William J.; DeCarli, Charles; Reed, Bruce R.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2009-01-01

    We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial of intensive, computer-based cognitive training in 47 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The intervention group performed exercises specifically designed to improve auditory processing speed and accuracy for 100 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks; the control group performed more passive computer activities (reading, listening, visuospatial game) for similar amounts of time. Subjects had a mean age of 74 years and 60% were men; 7...

  3. Parkinson's disease-cognitive rating scale: psychometrics for mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Ramón; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Martínez-Horta, Saül; Pascual-Sedano, Berta; Campolongo, Antonia; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    Lack of validated data on cutoff scores for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sensitivity to change in predementia stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) limit the utility of instruments measuring global cognition as screening and outcome measures in therapeutic trials. Investigators who were blinded to PD-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) scores classified a cohort of prospectively recruited, nondemented patients into a PD with normal cognition (PD-NC) group and a PD with MCI (PD-MCI) group using Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (MDRS-2). The discriminative power of the PD-CRS for PD-MCI was examined in a representative sample of 234 patients (145 in the PD-NC group; 89 in the PD-MCI group) and in a control group of 98 healthy individuals. Sensitivity to change in the PD-CRS score (the minimal clinically important difference was examined with the Clinical Global Impression of Change scale and was calculated with a combination of distribution-based and anchor-based approaches) was explored in a 6-month observational multicenter trial involving a subset of 120 patients (PD-NC, 63; PD-MCI, 57). Regression analysis demonstrated that PD-CRS total scores (P < 0.001) and age (P = 0.01) independently differentiated PD-NC from PD-MCI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis (AUC, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.90) indicated that a score ≤ 81 of 134 was the optimal cutoff point on the total score for the PD-CRS (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 80%; positive predictive value, 59%; negative predictive value, 91%). A range of change from 10 to 13 points on the PD-CRS total score was indicative of clinically significant change. These findings suggest that the PD-CRS is a useful tool to identify PD-MCI and to track cognitive changes in nondemented patients with PD. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Association of body mass index with amnestic and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment risk in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhao, Minghui; Han, Zhaoli; Li, Dai; Zhang, Shishuang; Zhang, Yongqiang; Kong, Xiaodong; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Qiang; Lei, Ping

    2017-09-15

    Previous studies focused on the relationship between body mass index and cognitive disorder and obtained many conflicting results. This study explored the potential effects of body mass index on the risk of mild cognitive impairment (amnestic and non-amnestic) in the elderly. The study enrolled 240 amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients, 240 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and 480 normal cognitive function controls. Data on admission and retrospective data at baseline (6 years ago) were collected from their medical records. Cognitive function was evaluated using Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Being underweight, overweight or obese at baseline was associated with an increased risk of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (OR: 2.30, 95%CI: 1.50 ~ 3.52; OR: 1.74, 95%CI: 1.36 ~ 2.20; OR: 1.71, 95%CI: 1.32 ~ 2.22, respectively). Being overweight or obese at baseline was also associated with an increased risk of non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (OR: 1.51, 95%CI: 1.20 ~ 1.92; OR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.21 ~ 1.97, respectively). In subjects with normal weights at baseline, an increased or decreased body mass index at follow-up was associated with an elevated risk of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (OR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.10 ~ 3.05; OR: 3.96, 95%CI: 2.88 ~ 5.49, respectively), but only an increased body mass index was associated with an elevated risk of non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (OR: 1.71, 95%CI: 1.16 ~ 2.59). Unhealthy body mass index levels at baseline and follow-up might impact the risk of both types of mild cognitive impairment (amnestic and non-amnestic).

  5. Awareness of memory failures and motivation for cognitive training in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheid, Katja; Ziegler, Matthias; Klapper, Annina; Kühl, Klaus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Awareness of cognitive deficits is considered to be decisive for the effectiveness of cognitive training in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is unclear in what way awareness influences motivation to participate in cognitive training. Thirty-two elderly adults with MCI and 72 controls completed the 5-scale Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ) and a motivation questionnaire. The predictive value of the MFQ scales on motivation was analyzed using regression analysis. In the MCI group, but not in controls, higher perceived frequency of memory failures was associated with a lower motivation score. Our findings indicate that, in MCI, greater awareness of cognitive deficits does not necessarily increase motivation to participate in cognitive trainings, and suggest that success expectancy may be a moderating factor. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Awareness of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer's Disease Dementia Diagnoses Associated With Lower Self-Ratings of Quality of Life in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Shana D; Karlawish, Jason; Harkins, Kristin; Rubright, Jonathan D; Wolk, David

    2017-10-01

    This study examined how awareness of diagnostic label impacted self-reported quality of life (QOL) in persons with varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Older adults (n = 259) with normal cognition, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), or mild Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) completed tests of cognition and self-report questionnaires that assessed diagnosis awareness and multiple domains of QOL: cognitive problems, activities of daily living, physical functioning, mental wellbeing, and perceptions of one's daily life. We compared measures of QOL by cognitive performance, diagnosis awareness, and diagnostic group. Persons with MCI or AD who were aware of their diagnosis reported lower average satisfaction with daily life (QOL-AD), basic functioning (BADL Scale), and physical wellbeing (SF-12 PCS), and more difficulties in daily life (DEM-QOL) than those who were unaware (all p ≤ .007). Controlling for gender, those expecting their condition to worsen over time reported greater depression (GDS), higher stress (PSS), lower quality of daily life (QOL-AD, DEM-QOL), and more cognitive difficulties (CDS) compared to others (all p cognitive impairment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Evolution of diagnostic criteria and assessments for Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Holden, Samantha K; Litvan, Irene; McKeith, Ian; Stebbins, Glenn T; Taylor, John-Paul

    2018-04-01

    Mild cognitive impairment has gained recognition as a construct and a potential prodromal stage to dementia in both Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). Although mild cognitive impairment has been recognized in the Alzheimer's disease field, it is a relatively more recent topic of interest in PD. Recent advances include the development of diagnostic criteria for PD mild cognitive impairment to provide more uniform definitions for clinical and research use. Studies reveal that mild cognitive impairment in PD is frequent, but also heterogeneous, with variable clinical presentations, differences in its progression to dementia, and likely differences in underlying pathophysiology. Application of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PD Mild Cognitive Impairment Task Force diagnostic criteria has provided insights regarding cognitive measures, functional assessments, and other key topics that may require additional refinement. Furthermore, it is important to consider definitions of PD mild cognitive impairment in the landscape of other related Lewy body disorders, such as dementia with Lewy bodies, and in the context of prodromal and early-stage PD. This article examines the evolution of mild cognitive impairment in concept and definition, particularly in PD, but also in related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies; the development and application of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PD Mild Cognitive Impairment diagnostic criteria; and insights and future directions for the field of PD mild cognitive impairment. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Working Memory Capacity and Its Relation to Stroop Interference and Facilitation Effects in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jee Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kang, Heejin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the study were to investigate (a) the task-specific differences in short-term memory (STM) and working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly adults (NEAs), (b) the Stroop interference and facilitation effects, and (c) the relationship of STM and WMC to the Stroop…

  9. [Screening methods for mild cognitive impairment in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Pérez, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is always clinical and screening methods only indicate that the patient has a higher risk of this condition. In MCI, there is a slight decline in some cognitive abilities that does not affect activities of daily living and therefore does not produce social or occupational disability. The definitive diagnosis of MCI requires a considerable time investment that is very rarely possible to provide in primary care (PC) consultations. Hence the need for PC physicians to employ rapid and simple screening methods (brief cognitive assessment -BCA-) that allow objective identification of patients likely to have MCI in a few minutes. This article reviews the BCA tools that can truly be applied in less than 10 minutes. The phototest is a brief screening tool that is easy to use and interpret by physicians and is well accepted by patients. Consequently, it is one of the most useful tests in PC for screening of both MCI and dementia. In addition to BCA, instrumental activities of daily living scales should also be applied to differentiate MCI from dementia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Designing for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A Design Anthropological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Guy; Kayes, Nicola; Reay, Stephen; Bill, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    This paper will present a design anthropological perspective on an ongoing project called 'Living Well with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)'. The project explores how people with MCI (and their families) manage and respond to changes in their memory and thinking. One of the primary aims of this project is to design an online resource that will support people to 'Live Well' within the context of possible cognitive decline. The resource was originally proposed to function as a kind of online community, where users could both share and learn about home-grown strategies for managing the cognitive changes associated with MCI in everyday life. Much of this project has been guided by the methodological approach of design anthropology, which encourages project researchers and stakeholders to critically examine underlying assumptions and conceptual frameworks, which in this case revolve around the disputed MCI category. In this paper we will provide some background to the Living Well project before highlighting a number of key insights attained from design anthropology.

  11. Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on cognition of elderly women with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Yumi Tizon Kasai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the effects of Tai Chi Chuan practice on the cognition of elderly subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment. Methods: This is a pilot study with 26 elderly patients (mean age of 74 years with Mild Cognitive Impairment. The evaluation instruments were Subjective Memory Complaint Scale (SMC, Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT and Digit Span Forward and Backward (DSF and DSB from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS. One group of 13 patients received two weekly 60-minute classes of Tai Chi Chuan (Yang style for 6 consecutive months, and the rest formed the Control Group. The Tai Chi Chuan Group was also evaluated as to learning of the Tai Chi Chuan practical exercises by means of a Specific Learning Test applied after three months of intervention. Results: After six months of intervention, the TCC Group showed significant improvement on the RBMT and the SMC (p = 0.007 and p = 0.023, respectively. The Control Group showed no significant differences in the cognitive tests during the study. There was a significant correlation between the Tai Chi Chuan Learning Test and RBMT (p = 0.008, showing that patients with a better performance in exercising TCC also showed a better performance in memory. Conclusions: In this study, a six-month program of Tai Chi Chuan afforded a significant improvement of the performance of memory complaints in the elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment. Additional randomized studies with larger samples and more prolonged follow-up are needed to confirm these benefits.

  12. Mild cognitive impairment. Diagnostic value of different MR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, T.; Stieltjes, B.; Essig, M.; Thomann, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    In view of an increasingly aging population the prevalence of dementia is also expected to increase rapidly. As well as clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia which is important in the precursor stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). On the one hand this stage is associated with an increased risk of dementia and on the other hand an early treatment in this stage could attenuate development of the disease. In addition to morphological changes different functional MRI techniques can help in the early diagnosis of dementia and the precursor stages. Moreover, it is important to detect those MCI patients who are at particularly risk for developing dementia. In the differentiation of converters to non-converters initial studies suggest that particularly voxel-based morphometry, MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging can provide important additional information. (orig.) [de

  13. Rivastigmine for refractory REM behavior disorder in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Valerio; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Lapenta, Leonardo; Mariotti, Paolo; Marra, Camillo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-03-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) are both associated with a degeneration of ponto-medullary cholinergic pathways. We conducted a placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot trial of Rivastigmine (RVT) in 25 consecutive patients with MCI, who presented RBD refractory to conventional first-line treatments (melatonin up to 5 mg/day and clonazepam up to 2 mg/day). RVT treatment was followed by a significant reduction of RBD episodes when compared with placebo. Our data suggest that, in MCI patients with RBD resistant to conventional therapies (muscle relaxants benzodiazepines or melatonin,) treatment with RVT may induce a reduction in the frequency of RBD episodes compared to placebo.

  14. A behavioral rehabilitation intervention for amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Melanie C.; Hanna, Sherrie M.; Lepore, Susan W.; Smith, Glenn E.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) currently have few treatment options for combating their memory loss. The Memory Support System (MSS) is a calendar and organization system with accompanying 6-week curriculum designed for individuals with progressive memory impairment. Ability to learn the MSS and its utility were assessed in 20 participants. Participants were significantly more likely to successfully use the calendar system after training. Ninety-five percent were compliant with the MSS at training completion, and 89% continued to be compliant at follow-up. Outcome measures revealed a medium effect size for improvement in functional ability. Subjects further reported improved independence, self-confidence, and mood. This initial examination of the MSS suggests that with appropriate training, individuals with amnestic MCI can and will use a memory notebook system to help compensate for memory loss. These results are encouraging that the MSS may help with the symptoms of memory decline in MCI. PMID:18955724

  15. Patterns of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Joubert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the semantic memory impairment has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease, little is known about semantic memory in the preclinical phase of the disease (Mild Cognitive Impairment. The purpose of this study was to document the nature of semantic breakdown using a battery of tests assessing different aspects of conceptual knowledge: knowledge about common objects, famous people and famous public events. Results indicate that all domains of semantic memory were impaired in MCI individuals but knowledge about famous people and famous events was affected to a greater extent than knowledge about objects. This pattern of results suggests that conceptual entities with distinctive and unique properties may be more prone to semantic breakdown in MCI. In summary, results of this study support the view that genuine semantic deficits are present in MCI. It could be useful to investigate the etiological outcome of patients failing or succeeding at such tests.

  16. The neuroimaging approach to the assessment of mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucignani, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Imaging techniques, including emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are progressively being exploited for the classification and prognostic evaluation (indispensable for possible treatments) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The main traits of MCI and unsolved issues in its assessment are discussed in two review articles by Feldman and Jacova from the Division of Neurology, Dept. of Medicine, Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders, University of British Columbia, in Vancouver, Canada [1] and Chong and Sahadevan from the Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore [2]. Because MCI has different presentations in terms of the type and degree of cognitive deficits observed, several clinical subtypes of MCI besides the amnestic form have now been recognised and characterised on the basis of deficits in different cognitive domains, either in isolation or in combination with amnesia. The different subtypes of MCI suggest that MCI has a heterogeneous nature, with several possible causes that lead to the same symptoms. This is a field in evolution, and a uniform diagnostic classification of MCI has not yet been accomplished. Lopez et al. from the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA [3] point out that the classification of MCI subtypes is useful to improve prediction of the subsequent risk of dementia and the type of dementia, and that the manner in which MCI subjects are classified into subgroups has implications for the cognitive profile of the group and thus for our inferences about the aetiology and possible clinical course of the disorder

  17. The neuroimaging approach to the assessment of mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucignani, Giovanni [University of Milan and Unit of Molecular Imaging, Division of Radiation Therapy, European Institute of Oncology, Institute of Radiological Sciences, Milan (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    Imaging techniques, including emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are progressively being exploited for the classification and prognostic evaluation (indispensable for possible treatments) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The main traits of MCI and unsolved issues in its assessment are discussed in two review articles by Feldman and Jacova from the Division of Neurology, Dept. of Medicine, Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders, University of British Columbia, in Vancouver, Canada [1] and Chong and Sahadevan from the Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore [2]. Because MCI has different presentations in terms of the type and degree of cognitive deficits observed, several clinical subtypes of MCI besides the amnestic form have now been recognised and characterised on the basis of deficits in different cognitive domains, either in isolation or in combination with amnesia. The different subtypes of MCI suggest that MCI has a heterogeneous nature, with several possible causes that lead to the same symptoms. This is a field in evolution, and a uniform diagnostic classification of MCI has not yet been accomplished. Lopez et al. from the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA [3] point out that the classification of MCI subtypes is useful to improve prediction of the subsequent risk of dementia and the type of dementia, and that the manner in which MCI subjects are classified into subgroups has implications for the cognitive profile of the group and thus for our inferences about the aetiology and possible clinical course of the disorder.

  18. Acetylcholine esterase activity in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herholz, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Impairment of cholinergic neurotransmission is a well-established fact in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is controversy about its relevance at the early stages of the disease and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In vivo positron emission tomography imaging of cortical acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity as a marker of cholinergic innervation that is expressed by cholinergic axons and cholinoceptive neurons has demonstrated a reduction of this enzyme activity in manifest AD. The technique is also useful to measure the inhibition of cerebral AChE induced by cholinesterase inhibitors for treatment of dementia symptoms. A reduction of cortical AchE activity was found consistently in all studies of AD and in few cases of MCI who later concerted to AD. The in vivo findings in MCI and very mild AD are still preliminary, and studies seem to suggest that cholinergic innervation and AChE as the main degrading enzyme are both reduced, which might result in partial compensation of their effect. (orig.)

  19. Effect of Pain and Mild Cognitive Impairment on Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepker, Caroline A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Pedersen, Mette M; Ward, Rachel E; Kurlinski, Laura A; Grande, Laura; Kiely, Dan K; Bean, Jonathan F

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-together and separately-on performance-based and self-reported mobility outcomes in older adults in primary care with mild to moderate self-reported mobility limitations. Cross-sectional analysis. Academic community outpatient clinic. Individuals aged 65 and older in primary care enrolled in the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly who were at risk of mobility decline (N=430). Participants with an average score greater than three on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) were defined as having pain. MCI was defined using age-adjusted scores on a neuropsychological battery. Multivariable linear regression models assessed associations between pain and MCI, together and separately, and mobility performance (habitual gait speed, Short Physical Performance Battery), and self-reports of function and disability in various day-to-day activities (Late Life Function and Disability Instrument). The prevalence of pain was 34% and of MCI was 42%; 17% had pain only, 25% had MCI only, 17% had pain and MCI, and 41% had neither. Participants with pain and MCI performed significantly worse than all others on all mobility outcomes (Pmobility outcomes than those with neither (Pmobility, and the presence of both comorbidities was associated with the poorest status. Primary care practitioners who encounter older adults in need of mobility rehabilitation should consider screening them for pain and MCI to better inform subsequent therapeutic interventions. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Biochemical Markers of Physical Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or mild cognitive impairment have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review...

  1. Cognitive Reserve in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Importance of Occupational Complexity as a Buffer of Declining Cognition in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldberg Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve is the ability to optimize performance through differential recruitment of brain networks, which may reflect the use of alternative cognitive strategies. Work is one of the most important sources of cognitive stimulation during adulthood. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI represents an intermediate status between normal aging and dementia. As a consequence, this is considered a risk group regarding cognition. In order to study the probable association between occupational complexity and cognitive performance in a group of patients with MCI, a non-probabilistic intentional sample was dispensed on a group of 80 patients. Occupational complexity was explored by the Questionnaire on Agency of Labor Activity (CAAL, according to its acronym in Spanish and a set of neuropsychological tests, which assessed cognitive performance in different areas: memory, attention, language and executive function, were administered. Results reveal that occupational complexity is associated to cognitive performance of elderly adults with MCI. With respect to working with Data, an increase in neuropsychological tests that demand high levels of attention and imply processing speed and working memory can be noted. Regarding the complexity of working with People, an association between the level of occupational complexity and an increase in verbal abilities and verbal reasoning can be seen. On the other hand, working with Things could be associated with better performance in specific areas of cognition such as visuospatial abilities. These results add up as empirical evidence to the fields of cognitive neurology and gerontology and to the cognitive reserve hypothesis, showing how complex environments can enhance cognition in old age. It adds evidence that help to understand which psychological, social and labor factors intervene in the cognitive reserve of an elder adult in cognitive risk.

  2. Psychological well-being in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gates N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance

  3. Functional abilities in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Catherine L; Strauss, Esther; Bunce, David; Hunter, Michael A; Hultsch, David F

    2009-01-01

    A classification scheme and general set of criteria for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were recently proposed by a multidisciplinary group of experts who met at an international symposium on MCI. One of the proposed criteria included preserved basic activities of daily living and minimal impairment in complex instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). To investigate whether older adults with MCI classified according to the subtypes identified by the Working Group (i.e. amnestic, single non-memory domain, and multiple domain with or without a memory component) differed from cognitively intact older adults on a variety of measures indexing IADLs and to examine how well measures of IADL predict concurrent MCI status. Two hundred and fifty community-dwelling older adults, ranging in age from 66 to 92, completed self-report measures of IADLs (Lawton and Brody IADL Scale, Scales of Independent Behaviour-Revised--SIB-R) and a measure of everyday problem solving indexing IADLs (Everyday Problems Test--EPT). Ratings of participants' IADL functioning were also obtained from informants (e.g. spouse, adult child and friend). Older adults with multiple-domain MCI demonstrated poorer IADL functioning than older adults with no cognitive impairment on the EPT and the SIB-R (both self- and informant-report versions). The multiple-domain MCI participants also demonstrated poorer IADLs than MCI participants with impairments in a single cognitive domain on the self-reported SIB-R and EPT. The single-domain MCI groups demonstrated poorer IADLs than older adults without cognitive impairment on the informant-reported SIB-R and EPT. No significant group differences were found on the Lawton and Brody IADL Scale. Using the EPT and SIB-R as predictors in a multinomial regression analysis, MCI group status was reliably predicted, but the classification rate was poor. Individuals with MCI demonstrated poorer IADL functioning compared to cognitively intact older adults

  4. A depressive endophenotype of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A Johnson

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating public health problem that affects over 5.4 million Americans. Depression increases the risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and AD. By understanding the influence of depression on cognition, the potential exists to identify subgroups of depressed elders at greater risk for cognitive decline and AD. The current study sought to: 1 clinically identify a sub group of geriatric patients who suffer from depression related cognitive impairment; 2 cross validate this depressive endophenotype of MCI/AD in an independent cohort.Data was analyzed from 519 participants of Project FRONTIER. Depression was assessed with the GDS30 and cognition was assessed using the EXIT 25 and RBANS. Five GDS items were used to create the Depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD (DepE. DepE was significantly negatively related to RBANS index scores of Immediate Memory (B=-2.22, SE=.37, p<0.001, visuospatial skills (B=-1.11, SE=0.26, p<0.001, Language (B=-1.03, SE=0.21, p<0.001, Attention (B=-2.56, SE=0.49, p<0.001, and Delayed Memory (B=-1.54, SE = 037, p<0.001, and higher DepE scores were related to poorer executive functioning (EXIT25; B=0.65, SE=0.19, p=0.001. DepE scores significantly increased risk for MCI diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04; 95% CI=1.54-2.69. Data from 235 participants in the TARCC (Texas Alzheimer's Research & Care Consortium were analyzed for cross-validation of findings in an independent cohort. The DepE was significantly related to poorer scores on all measures, and a significantly predicted of cognitive change over 12- and 24-months.The current findings suggest that a depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD exists and can be clinically identified using the GDS-30. Higher scores increased risk for MCI and was cross-validated by predicting AD in the TARCC. A key purpose for the search for distinct subgroups of individuals at risk for AD and MCI is to identify novel treatment and preventative opportunities.

  5. Autonomous unobtrusive detection of mild cognitive impairment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Ahmad; Taati, Babak; Mihailidis, Alex

    2015-05-01

    The current diagnosis process of dementia is resulting in a high percentage of cases with delayed detection. To address this problem, in this paper, we explore the feasibility of autonomously detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the older adult population. We implement a signal processing approach equipped with a machine learning paradigm to process and analyze real-world data acquired using home-based unobtrusive sensing technologies. Using the sensor and clinical data pertaining to 97 subjects, acquired over an average period of three years, a number of measures associated with the subjects' walking speed and general activity in the home were calculated. Different time spans of these measures were used to generate feature vectors to train and test two machine learning algorithms namely support vector machines and random forests. We were able to autonomously detect MCI in older adults with an area under the ROC curve of 0.97 and an area under the precision-recall curve of 0.93 using a time window of 24 weeks. This study is of great significance since it can potentially assist in the early detection of cognitive impairment in older adults.

  6. Interference impacts working memory in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aurtenetxe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is considered a transitional stage between healthy aging and dementia, specifically Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The most common cognitive impairment of MCI includes episodic memory loss and difficulties in working memory (WM. Interference can deplete WM, and an optimal WM performance requires an effective control of attentional resources between the memoranda and the incoming stimuli. Difficulties in handling interference lead to forgetting. However, the interplay between interference and WM in MCI is not well understood and needs further investigation. The current study investigated the effect of interference during a WM task in 20 MCIs and 20 healthy elder volunteers. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample paradigm which consisted in two interference conditions, distraction and interruption, and one control condition without any interference. Results evidenced a disproportionate impact of interference on the WM performance of MCIs, mainly in the presence of interruption. These findings demonstrate that interference, and more precisely interruption, is an important proxy for memory-related deficits in MCI. Thus the current findings reveal novel evidence regarding the causes of WM forgetting in MCI patients, associated with difficulties in the mechanisms of attentional control.

  7. Do subjective memory complaints herald the onset of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Roberto; Santangelo, Gabriella; Barone, Paolo; Picillo, Marina; Amboni, Marianna; Longo, Katia; Giordano, Flavio; Moccia, Marcello; Allocca, Roberto; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Vitale, Carmine

    2014-12-01

    Longitudinal studies on healthy participants have shown that subjective memory impairment (defined as subjective cognitive complaints with normal cognitive objective performance) might be a strong predictor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Parkinson disease (PD) also manifests cognitive disturbances, but whether subjective memory complaints may predict the development of MCI in PD has not yet been explored. We prospectively screened newly diagnosed, untreated patients with PD in order to evaluate whether subjective memory complaints may predict development of MCI over a 2-year follow-up evaluation. We enrolled 76 de novo untreated patients with PD. Of the 76 patients, 23 (30.3%) complained memory issues. Among the patients cognitively unimpaired at baseline, those with subjective complaints were more likely to develop MCI at follow-up. The regression model confirmed that presence of subjective memory complaints at baseline was an independent predictor of development of MCI at follow-up. This is the first prospective study to explore the relationship between subjective and objective cognitive deficits in newly diagnosed, untreated patients. Our results provide preliminary evidence that subjective memory complaints might predict future development of MCI. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Regional analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio of the brain in mild Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalchi, M; Ginestroni, A; Bessi, V; Toschi, N; Padiglioni, S; Ciulli, S; Tessa, C; Giannelli, M; Bracco, L; Diciotti, S

    2013-01-01

    Manually drawn VOI-based analysis shows a decrease in magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer disease. We investigated with whole-brain voxelwise analysis the regional changes of the magnetization transfer ratio in patients with mild Alzheimer disease and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Twenty patients with mild Alzheimer disease, 27 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 30 healthy elderly control subjects were examined with high-resolution T1WI and 3-mm-thick magnetization transfer images. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis of magnetization transfer ratio maps was performed by use of Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software and was supplemented by the analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio in FreeSurfer parcellation-derived VOIs. Voxelwise analysis showed 2 clusters of significantly decreased magnetization transfer ratio in the left hippocampus and amygdala and in the left posterior mesial temporal cortex (fusiform gyrus) of patients with Alzheimer disease as compared with control subjects but no difference between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and either patients with Alzheimer disease or control subjects. VOI analysis showed that the magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus and amygdala was significantly lower (bilaterally) in patients with Alzheimer disease when compared with control subjects (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, at P ratio values in the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were between those of healthy control subjects and those of patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Support vector machine-based classification demonstrated improved classification performance after inclusion of magnetization transfer ratio-related features, especially between patients with Alzheimer disease versus healthy subjects. Bilateral but asymmetric decrease of magnetization transfer ratio reflecting microstructural changes of the

  9. Global efficiency of structural networks mediates cognitive control in Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Rok Berlot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive control has been linked to both the microstructure of individual tracts and the structure of whole-brain networks, but their relative contributions in health and disease remain unclear. Objective: To determine the contribution of both localised white matter tract damage and disruption of global network architecture to cognitive control, in older age and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI.Methods: 25 patients with MCI and 20 age, sex and intelligence-matched healthy volunteers were investigated with 3 Tesla structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Cognitive control and episodic memory were evaluated with established tests. Structural network graphs were constructed from diffusion MRI-based whole-brain tractography. Their global measures were calculated using graph theory. Regression models utilized both global network metrics and microstructure of specific connections, known to be critical for each domain, to predict cognitive scores. Results: Global efficiency and the mean clustering coefficient of networks were reduced in MCI. Cognitive control was associated with global network topology. Episodic memory, in contrast, correlated with individual temporal tracts only. Relationships between cognitive control and network topology were attenuated by addition of single tract measures to regression models, consistent with a partial mediation effect. The mediation effect was stronger in MCI than healthy volunteers, explaining 23-36% of the effect of cingulum microstructure on cognitive control performance. Network clustering was a significant mediator in the relationship between tract microstructure and cognitive control in both groups. Conclusions: The status of critical connections and large-scale network topology are both important for maintenance of cognitive control in MCI. Mediation via large-scale networks is more important in patients with MCI than healthy volunteers. This effect is domain-specific, and true for cognitive

  10. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, Peter; Evans, Jonathan R; Breen, David P; Mason, Sarah L; Barker, Roger A; Williams-Gray, Caroline H

    2012-08-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), even in the early stages, and appropriate screening tools are needed. We investigated the utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised for detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in PD in an incident population-representative cohort (n = 132) and investigated the relationship between performance on this instrument and behavior and quality of life (n = 219). Twenty-two percent met criteria for MCI. Receiver operating curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.81. A cutoff Cognitive Rating Scale, and there were significant correlations with the Cambridge Behavioral Inventory-Revised and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39. This instrument is a useful screening tool for PD-MCI, and poor performance is significantly related to impaired behavior and quality of life. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Cognitive Load in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pupillometric Assessment of Multiple Attentional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Hershaw Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Medical Psychology Graduate Program Uniformed Services University of the Health ...system while completing a task. The amount of mental effort and cognitive resources required to complete a task depends on cognitive load. Thus, the...load and require greater mental effort for people with mild TBI. PUPILLOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE LOAD Differences in cognitive load in

  12. Cognitive rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits and mild cognitive impairment: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Correa Miotto

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuropsychological rehabilitation is related to the treatment or optimization of disabilities, handicaps and cognitive deficiencies including emotional, behavioral and personality alterations, aiming at the best cognitive, neurobiological and social re-adaptation. Objective: The main aim of this paper is to review scientific studies published over the last five years on cognitive training with rehabilitation, focusing on elderly subjects with cognitive complaints and patients diagnosed with MCI. Methods: Data were generated from Medline, PsychoInfo and EMBASE including publications from 2002 to 2007 using the search terms "Mild Cognitive Impairment", "Cognitive Complaints", "Rehabilitation" and "Intervention Studies". Data collection criteria were restricted to the quality of evidence Class I. Results: Eight articles out of sixty eight previously selected were chosen because of their randomized studies, including techniques of cognitive rehabilitation in patients with cognitive complaints, MCI and neuropsychological training. Conclusions: The studies showing generalization of rehabilitation techniques to practical real life situations and use of an errorless learning approach were considered more effective in terms of maintaining treatment follow up, although further studies are recommended.

  13. Mild cognitive impairment: a concept and diagnostic entity in need of input from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Mark W; Smith, Glenn E

    2014-02-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individuals with subtle cognitive declines or mis-diagnose MCI in those who are otherwise cognitively normal on a broader neuropsychological battery of tests. The assembled articles highlight the perils of relying on these conventional criteria for MCI diagnosis and reveal how the reliability of diagnosis is improved when sound neuropsychological approaches are adopted. When these requirements are met, we illustrate with a second series of articles that neuropsychological measures associate strongly with biomarkers and often reflect pathology beyond or instead of typical AD distributions. The final set of articles reveal that people with MCI demonstrate mild but identifiable functional difficulties, and a challenge for neuropsychology is how to incorporate this information to better define MCI and distinguish it from early dementia. Neuropsychology is uniquely positioned to improve upon the state of the science in MCI research and practice by providing critically important empirical information on the specific cognitive domains affected by the predominant neurodegenerative disorders of late life as well as on the diagnostic decision-making strategies used in studies. When such efforts to more comprehensively assess neuropsychological functions are undertaken, better characterizations of spared and impaired cognitive and functional abilities result and lead to more convincing associations with other biomarkers as well as to prediction of clinical outcomes.

  14. Łagodne zaburzenia poznawcze – aktualny problem geriatryczny = Mild cognitive impairment – current geriatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliwia Beck

    2016-04-01

      Streszczenie Artykuł przedstawia aktualny stan wiedzy dotyczący łagodnych zaburzeń poznawczych (Mild Cognitive Impairment, MCI. Termin ten, początkowo uważany za stan przejściowy pomiędzy prawidłowym funkcjonowaniem poznawczym a objawami choroby Alzheimera (Alzheimer’s disease, AD, obecnie oznacza heterogenną grupę widocznych i obiektywnych deficytów kognitywnych u pacjentów bez rozpoznanego otępienia. Deficyty te, choć zauważalne zarówno dla osób nimi dotkniętych, jak i ich otoczenia, są na tyle nieznaczne, że nie wpływają na podstawowe czynności życia codziennego i zdolność do samodzielnej egzystencji. Rozpowszechnienie MCI szacuje się na 15 – 30% wśród osób powyżej 60 roku życia; rośnie ono wraz z wiekiem. Łagodnym zaburzeniom poznawczym – zwłaszcza ich postaci amnestycznej - przypisuje się podwyższone ryzyko rozwinięcia się otępienia, wynoszące 10 – 15% rocznie (przy 1 – 2% dla populacji ogólnej. Z tego powodu identyfikacja osób z MCI jest obecnie najważniejszą strategią opóźniania postępu otępień i zapobiegania im.   Słowa kluczowe: łagodne zaburzenia poznawcze, funkcjonowanie poznawcze, wiek podeszły, otępienie       Summary The article describes current state of knowledge on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. The term, initially considered a transitional state between normal cognitive aging and mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, currently covers heterogenous group of noticeable and objective cognitive deficits in patients without the diagnosis of dementia. These deficits, although apparent for both afflicted persons and their environment, do not interfere substantially with basic activities of daily living nor result in inability to live independently. The prevalence of MCI is estimated between 15 and 30% in individuals over 60 years old. Subjects with MCI constitute a high risk group because they develop dementia at a rate of 10% to 15% per year compared with 1% to 2% per year in the general

  15. Reduced mismatch negativity in mild cognitive impairment: associations with neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowszowski, Loren; Hermens, Daniel F; Diamond, Keri; Norrie, Louisa; Hickie, Ian B; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to a transitory state between healthy aging and dementia. Biomarkers are needed to facilitate early identification of MCI and predict progression to dementia. One potential neurophysiological biomarker, mismatch negativity (MMN), is an event-related potential reflecting fundamental, pre-attentive cognitive processes. MMN is reduced in normal aging and dementia and in neuropsychiatric samples and is associated with verbal memory deficits and poor executive functioning. This study aimed to investigate auditory MMN and its relationship to neuropsychological performance in MCI. Twenty-eight MCI participants and fourteen controls, aged ≥50 years, underwent neurophysiological and neuropsychological assessment, and completed questionnaires pertaining to disability. Relative to controls, the MCI group demonstrated reduced temporal MMN amplitude (p patients with MCI exhibit altered pre-attentive information processing, which in turn is associated with memory and psychosocial deficits. These findings overall suggest that MMN may be a viable neurophysiological biomarker of underlying disease in this 'at risk' group.

  16. Dysfunctional whole brain networks in mild cognitive impairment patients: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Zhong, Chongguang; Xue, Ting; You, Youbo; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was recognized as the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent researches have shown that cognitive and memory decline in AD patients is coupled with losses of small-world attributes. However, few studies pay attention to the characteristics of the whole brain networks in MCI patients. In the present study, we investigated the topological properties of the whole brain networks utilizing graph theoretical approaches in 16 MCI patients, compared with 18 age-matched healthy subjects as a control. Both MCI patients and normal controls showed small-world architectures, with large clustering coefficients and short characteristic path lengths. We detected significantly longer characteristic path length in MCI patients compared with normal controls at the low sparsity. The longer characteristic path lengths in MCI indicated disrupted information processing among distant brain regions. Compared with normal controls, MCI patients showed decreased nodal centrality in the brain areas of the angular gyrus, heschl gyrus, hippocampus and superior parietal gyrus, while increased nodal centrality in the calcarine, inferior occipital gyrus and superior frontal gyrus. These changes in nodal centrality suggested a widespread rewiring in MCI patients, which may be an integrated reflection of reorganization of the brain networks accompanied with the cognitive decline. Our findings may be helpful for further understanding the pathological mechanisms of MCI.

  17. Acetylcholine receptors in dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, Osama; Kendziorra, Kai [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Wolf, Henrike; Gertz, Hermann-Josef [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); Brust, Peter [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    To clarify whether changes in the cholinergic transmission occur early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligand 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A-85380, which is supposed to be specific for {alpha}4{beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We included patients with moderate to severe AD and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), presumed to present preclinical AD. Both patients with AD and MCI showed significant reductions in {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChRs in brain regions typically affected by AD pathology. These findings indicate that a reduction in {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChRs occurs during early symptomatic stages of AD. The {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR availability in these regions correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment, indicating a stage sensitivity of the {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR status. Together, our results provide evidence for the potential of 2-[{sup 18}]F-A-85380 nAChR PET in the diagnosis of patients at risk for AD. Because of the extraordinary long acquisition time with 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A-85380, we developed the new {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR-specific radioligands (+)- and (-)-[{sup 18}F]norchloro-fluoro-homoepibatidine (NCFHEB) and evaluated them preclinically. (-)-[{sup 18}F]NCFHEB shows twofold higher brain uptake and significantly shorter acquisition times. Therefore, (-)-[{sup 18}F]NCFHEB should be a suitable radioligand for larger clinical investigations. (orig.)

  18. Cognitive Profiles of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Hildebrandt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD are associated with severe cognitive decline, but it is still unclear to what extent they become functionally more similar over time. Methods: We compared amnestic mild cognitively impaired (aMCI; n = 29 patients to mild cognitively impaired (MCI PD patients (n = 25, and patients with AD (n = 34 to patients with PD dementia (PDD; n = 15 with respect to cognitive functioning and mood. Results: aMCI patients were impaired in episodic memory, while MCI PD patients showed deficits in visuoconstruction and attention. AD and PDD patients showed comparable deficits on tests for language, attention and visuoconstruction. However, unlike PDD patients but similar to aMCI patients, AD patients showed a characteristic memory impairment, especially commission errors on recognition tasks, whereas PDD patients scored higher on the depressive mood questionnaire. Conclusions: In advanced stages of both diseases, the pattern of functional deficits associated with parietal and temporal lobe functions (attention, visuoconstruction and language is similar. However, specific differences, already present in the early stage (recognition errors in AD, associated with mediobasal temporal lobe functioning, and depressed mood in PDD, associated with non-motor basal ganglia loops, are also observed in the late stage.

  19. Effects of mild cognitive impairment on emotional scene memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, J D; Dimsdale-Zucker, H R; Flannery, S; Budson, A E; Kensinger, E A

    2017-02-01

    Young and older adults experience benefits in attention and memory for emotional compared to neutral information, but this memory benefit is greatly diminished in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Little is known about whether this impairment arises early or late in the time course between healthy aging and AD. This study compared memory for positive, negative, and neutral items with neutral backgrounds between patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy older adults. We also used a divided attention condition in older adults as a possible model for the deficits observed in MCI patients. Results showed a similar pattern of selective memory for emotional items while forgetting their backgrounds in older adults and MCI patients, but MCI patients had poorer memory overall. Dividing attention during encoding disproportionately reduced memory for backgrounds (versus items) relative to a full attention condition. Participants performing in the lower half on the divided attention task qualitatively and quantitatively mirrored the results in MCI patients. Exploratory analyses comparing lower- and higher-performing MCI patients showed that only higher-performing MCI patients had the characteristic scene memory pattern observed in healthy older adults. Together, these results suggest that the effects of emotion on memory are relatively well preserved for patients with MCI, although emotional memory patterns may start to be altered once memory deficits become more pronounced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Visual selective attention in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Paula M; Anderson, Nicole D; Rich, Jill B; Chertkow, Howard; Murtha, Susan J E

    2014-11-01

    Subtle deficits in visual selective attention have been found in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, few studies have explored performance on visual search paradigms or the Simon task, which are known to be sensitive to disease severity in Alzheimer's patients. Furthermore, there is limited research investigating how deficiencies can be ameliorated with exogenous support (auditory cues). Sixteen individuals with aMCI and 14 control participants completed 3 experimental tasks that varied in demand and cue availability: visual search-alerting, visual search-orienting, and Simon task. Visual selective attention was influenced by aMCI, auditory cues, and task characteristics. Visual search abilities were relatively consistent across groups. The aMCI participants were impaired on the Simon task when working memory was required, but conflict resolution was similar to controls. Spatially informative orienting cues improved response times, whereas spatially neutral alerting cues did not influence performance. Finally, spatially informative auditory cues benefited the aMCI group more than controls in the visual search task, specifically at the largest array size where orienting demands were greatest. These findings suggest that individuals with aMCI have working memory deficits and subtle deficiencies in orienting attention and rely on exogenous information to guide attention. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Clinical and biological predictors of Alzheimer's disease in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Forlenza,Orestes V.; Diniz,Breno S.; Talib,Leda L.; Radanovic,Marcia; Yassuda,Monica S.; Ojopi,Elida B.; Gattaz,Wagner F.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of the progression from pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease is relevant to clinical management and to substantiate the decision of prescribing antidementia drugs. METHOD: Longitudinal study of a cohort of elderly adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls, carried out to estimate the risk and characterize predictors of the progression to Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive...

  2. Cognitive decline and amyloid accumulation in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivunen, Jaana; Karrasch, Mira; Scheinin, Noora M

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: The relationship between baseline (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PIB) uptake and cognitive decline during a 2-year follow-up was studied in 9 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 7 who remained with MCI. Methods: (11)C......: At baseline, there were statistically significant differences in (11)C-PIB uptake, but not in cognitive test performances between the converters and nonconverters. Memory and executive function declined only in the converters during follow-up. In the converters, lower baseline frontal (11)C-PIB uptake...... was associated with faster decline in verbal learning. Higher baseline uptake in the caudate nucleus was related to faster decline in memory consolidation, and higher temporal uptake was associated with decline in executive function. Conclusion: Higher (11)C-PIB uptake in the caudate nucleus and temporal lobe...

  3. Self-Esteem of Gifted, Normal, and Mild Mentally Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    1990-01-01

    Administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) Form B to elementary school students (N=450) identified as gifted, normal, and mild mentally handicapped (MiMH). Results indicated that both the gifted and normal children had significantly higher self-esteem than did the MiMH children, but there were no differences between gifted and normal…

  4. Cognitive profiling of Parkinson disease patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biundo, Roberta; Weis, Luca; Facchini, Silvia; Formento-Dojot, Patrizia; Vallelunga, Annamaria; Pilleri, Manuela; Antonini, Angelo

    2014-04-01

    Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in Parkinson disease (PD) is variable because different classification criteria are applied and there is lack of consensus about neuropsychological tests and cut-off used for cognitive profiling. Given the important therapeutic consequences for patient management, we aimed at identifying suitable diagnostic cognitive tests and respective screening cut-off values for MCI and dementia in PD (PDD). We evaluated 105 PD patients using an extensive neuropsychological battery categorized as PD without cognitive impairment (PD-CNT) (35%), PD-MCI (47%) and PDD (18%) based on established criteria and calculated Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. We found different sensitivity and specificity among neuropsychological tests in detecting PD-MCI and PDD. In particular performance in attention/set shifting, verbal memory and language abilities, discriminated both PD-MCI and PDD from PD-CNT. Abilities involved mainly in semantic retrieval mechanisms discriminated PD-CNT from PD-MCI but also PD-MCI from PDD. Finally deficits in executive and visual-spatial abilities were only affected in PDD. Our data point to an independent and different load of each test in defining different PD cognitive statuses. These findings can help selection of appropriate cognitive batteries in longitudinal studies and definition of stage-specific therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Different perception of cognitive impairment, behavioral disturbances, and functional disabilities between persons with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onor, M L; Trevisiol, M; Negro, C; Aguglia, E

    2006-01-01

    Insight in dementia is a multifaceted concept and ability, which includes the persons' perception of their behavioral and cognitive symptoms and functional disability. This ability seems to deteriorate as dementia progresses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of insight in the cognitive, behavioral, and functional disorders in a group of persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild AD (Alzheimer's disease) and to compare their perception of their illness with that of their caregivers. The study involved a group of 121 persons with MCI and mild AD and their caregivers. The persons with MCI and mild AD were administered the tests Mini-Mental State Examination, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Activities of Daily Living, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Schedule for the Assessment of Insight, Clinical Insight Rating Scale, and a short interview. Major differences were identified between how the persons with MCI or mild AD and their caregivers perceived the persons' cognitive and behavioral disorders. The group with MCI or mild AD underestimated their deficits, which were considered serious and disabling by their caregivers.

  6. The Effect of Psychological Distress and Personality Traits on Cognitive Performances and the Risk of Dementia in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Honings, S.T.H.; Ponds, R.W.; Aalten, P.; Kohler, S.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relation between psychological distress, personality traits, and cognitive decline in cognitively impaired patients remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the effect of psychological distress and personality traits on cognitive functioning in subjects with mild cognitive

  7. Cortical Thinning in Network-Associated Regions in Cognitively Normal and Below-Normal Range Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Walter Heinrichs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether cortical thickness across the brain and regionally in terms of the default mode, salience, and central executive networks differentiates schizophrenia patients and healthy controls with normal range or below-normal range cognitive performance. Cognitive normality was defined using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB composite score (T=50 ± 10 and structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to generate cortical thickness data. Whole brain analysis revealed that cognitively normal range controls (n=39 had greater cortical thickness than both cognitively normal (n=17 and below-normal range (n=49 patients. Cognitively normal controls also demonstrated greater thickness than patients in regions associated with the default mode and salience, but not central executive networks. No differences on any thickness measure were found between cognitively normal range and below-normal range controls (n=24 or between cognitively normal and below-normal range patients. In addition, structural covariance between network regions was high and similar across subgroups. Positive and negative symptom severity did not correlate with thickness values. Cortical thinning across the brain and regionally in relation to the default and salience networks may index shared aspects of the psychotic psychopathology that defines schizophrenia with no relation to cognitive impairment.

  8. Clinical and Cognitive Phenotype of Mild Cognitive Impairment Evolving to Dementia with Lewy Bodies

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    Annachiara Cagnin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine which characteristics could better distinguish dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI stage, with particular emphasis on visual space and object perception abilities. Methods: Fifty-three patients with mild cognitive deficits that were eventually diagnosed with probable DLB (MCI-DLB: n = 25 and AD (MCI-AD: n = 28 at a 3-year follow-up were retrospectively studied. At the first visit, the patients underwent cognitive assessment including the Qualitative Scoring Mini Mental State Examination Pentagon Test and the Visual Object and Space Perception Battery. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS and questionnaires for cognitive fluctuations and sleep disorders were also administered. Results: The best clinical predictor of DLB was the presence of soft extrapyramidal signs (mean UPDRS score: 4.04 ± 5.9 detected in 72% of patients, followed by REM sleep behavior disorder (60% and fluctuations (60%. Wrong performances in the pentagon's number of angles were obtained in 44% of DLB and 3.7% of AD patients and correlated with speed of visual attention. Executive functions, visual attention and visuospatial abilities were worse in DLB, while verbal episodic memory impairment was greater in AD. Deficits in the visual-perceptual domain were present in both MCI-DLB and AD. Conclusions: Poor performance in the pentagon's number of angles is specific of DLB and correlates with speed of visual attention. The dorsal visual stream seems specifically more impaired in MCI-DLB with respect to the ventral visual stream, the latter being involved in both DLB and AD. These cognitive features, associated with subtle extrapyramidal signs, should alert clinicians to a diagnostic hypothesis of DLB.

  9. Validation of the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination for detecting early Alzheimer's disease and mild vascular dementia in a German population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, P; Greim, B; Nadler, K; Martens, U; Krecklow, B; Domes, G; Herpertz, S; Kurz, A

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the German version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) in identifying early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild vascular dementia (VaD) in comparison with the conventional Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The study refers to 50 patients with mild dementia of AD, 26 patients with mild dementia of vascular etiology and to 54 cognitively normal subjects. The ACE and MMSE were validated against an expert diagnosis based on a comprehensive diagnostic workup. Statistical analysis was performed using the receiver operator characteristics method. The optimal cut-off score for the ACE for detecting dementia in patients with early AD was 85/86, which had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 86%. The optimal cut-off for the ACE for the identification of dementia in patients with mild VaD was also 85/86 and it had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 100%. The kappa values imply a substantial agreement between the diagnoses made by the ACE and the MMSE. The German version of the ACE is a short and practical but accurate test battery for the identification of AD and VaD, assessing a broad range of cognitive functions and providing a wide profile of cognitive functions/dysfunctions.

  10. Are NSAIDs useful to treat Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P Imbimbo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies suggest that long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may protect subjects carrying one or more ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 against the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The biological mechanism of this protection is not completely understood and may involve the anti-inflammatory properties of NSAIDs or their ability of interfering with the β-amyloid (Aβ cascade. Unfortunately, long-term, placebo-controlled clinical trials with both non-selective and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 selective inhibitors in mild-to-moderate AD patients produced negative results. A secondary prevention study with rofecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, in patients with mild cognitive impairment was also negative. A primary prevention study (ADAPT trial of naproxen (a non-selective COX inhibitor and celecoxib (a COX-2 selective inhibitor in cognitively normal elderly subjects with a family history of AD was prematurely interrupted for safety reasons after a median period of treatment of 2 years. Although both drugs did not reduce the incidence of dementia after two years of treatment, a 4-year follow up assessment surprisingly revealed that subjects previously exposed to naproxen were protected from the onset of AD by 67% compared to placebo. Thus, it could be hypothesized that the chronic use of NSAIDs may be beneficial only in the very early stages of the AD process in coincidence of initial Aβ deposition, microglia activation and consequent release of pro-inflammatory mediators. When the Aβ deposition process is already started, NSAIDs are no longer effective and may even be detrimental because of their inhibitory activity on chronically activated microglia that on long-term may mediate Aβ clearance. The research community should conduct long-term trials with NSAIDs in cognitively normal APOE ε4 carriers.

  11. Role of cognitive reserve in progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia

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    Ricardo F. Allegri

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive reserve is the ability to optimize performance through differential recruitment of brain networks, which may reflect the use of alternative cognitive strategies. Objectives: To identify factors related to cognitive reserve associated with progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI to degenerative dementia. Methods: A cohort of 239 subjects with MCI (age: 72.2±8.1 years, 58% women, education: 12 years was assessed and followed for five years (2001 to 2006. Results: In the first year, 13.7% of MCI converted to dementia and 34.7% converted within three years (78.3% converted to Alzheimer's dementia. Risk factors for those who converted were education less than 12 years, MMSE score less than 27, Boston naming test score less than 51, IQ (Intelligence Quotient less than 111, age over 75 years, lack of occupation at retirement, and presence of intrusions in memory recall (all account for 56% of the variability of conversion. Conclusions: MCI patients are a population at high risk for dementia. The study of risk factors (e.g. IQ, education and occupation, particularly those related to cognitive reserve, can contribute important evidence to guide the decision-making process in routine clinical activity and public health policy.

  12. Comparative Effects of Education and Bilingualism on the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Subasree; Mekala, Shailaja; Mamidipudi, Annapurna; Yareeda, Sireesha; Mridula, Rukmini; Bak, Thomas H; Alladi, Suvarna; Kaul, Subhash

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that life course factors such as education and bilingualism may have a protective role against dementia due to Alzheimer disease. This study aimed to compare the effects of education and bilingualism on the onset of cognitive decline at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A total of 115 patients with MCI evaluated in a specialty memory clinic in Hyderabad, India, formed the cohort. MCI was diagnosed according to Petersen's criteria following clinical evaluation and brain imaging. Age at onset of MCI was compared between bilinguals and monolinguals, and across subjects with high and low levels of education, adjusting for possible confounding variables. The bilingual MCI patients were found to have a clinical onset of cognitive complaints 7.4 years later than monolinguals (65.2 vs. 58.1 years; p = 0.004), while years of education was not associated with delayed onset (1-10 years of education, 59.1 years; 11-15 years of education, 62.6 years; >15 years of education, 62.2 years; p = 0.426). The effect of bilingualism is protective against cognitive decline, and lies along a continuum from normal to pathological states. In comparison, the role of years of education is less robust. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Social Markers of Mild Cognitive Impairment: Proportion of Word Counts in Free Conversational Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Hiroko H; Mattek, Nora; Gregor, Mattie; Bowman, Molly; Seelye, Adriana; Ybarra, Oscar; Asgari, Meysam; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Detecting early signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) during the pre-symptomatic phase is becoming increasingly important for costeffective clinical trials and also for deriving maximum benefit from currently available treatment strategies. However, distinguishing early signs of MCI from normal cognitive aging is difficult. Biomarkers have been extensively examined as early indicators of the pathological process for AD, but assessing these biomarkers is expensive and challenging to apply widely among pre-symptomatic community dwelling older adults. Here we propose assessment of social markers, which could provide an alternative or complementary and ecologically valid strategy for identifying the pre-symptomatic phase leading to MCI and AD. The data came from a larger randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), where we examined whether daily conversational interactions using remote video telecommunications software could improve cognitive functions of older adult participants. We assessed the proportion of words generated by participants out of total words produced by both participants and staff interviewers using transcribed conversations during the intervention trial as an indicator of how two people (participants and interviewers) interact with each other in one-on-one conversations. We examined whether the proportion differed between those with intact cognition and MCI, using first, generalized estimating equations with the proportion as outcome, and second, logistic regression models with cognitive status as outcome in order to estimate the area under ROC curve (ROC AUC). Compared to those with normal cognitive function, MCI participants generated a greater proportion of words out of the total number of words during the timed conversation sessions (p=0.01). This difference remained after controlling for participant age, gender, interviewer and time of assessment (p=0.03). The logistic regression models showed the ROC AUC of

  14. Relative power and coherence of EEG series are related to amnestic mild cognitive impairment in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie eBian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes is a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether some features of resting-state EEG (rsEEG could be applied as a biomarker to distinguish the subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 28 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls were investigated. Recording of the rsEEG series and neuropsychological assessments were performed. The rsEEG signal was first decomposed into delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma frequency bands. The relative power of each given band/sum of power and the coherence of waves from different brain areas were calculated. The extracted features from rsEEG and neuropsychological assessments were analyzed as well. Results: The main findings of this study were that: 1 compared with the control group, the ratios of power in theta band (P(theta versus power in alpha band (P(alpha (P(theta/P(alpha in the frontal region and left temporal region were significantly higher for aMCI, and 2 for aMCI, the alpha coherences in posterior, fronto-right temporal, fronto-posterior, right temporo-posterior were decreased; the theta coherences in left central-right central (LC-RC and left posterior-right posterior (LP-RP regions were also decreased; but the delta coherences in left temporal-right temporal (LT-RT region were increased. Conclusion: The proposed indexes from rsEEG recordings could be employed to track cognitive function of diabetic patients and also to help in the diagnosis of those who develop aMCI.

  15. Unravelling the influence of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on cognitive-linguistic processing: a comparative group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Caroline H S; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive-linguistic deficits often accompany traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can negatively impact communicative competency. The linguistic sequelae underpinning mild TBI (MTBI) remain largely unexplored in contemporary literature. The present research methods aim to provide group evidence pertaining to the influence of MTBI on linguistic and higher-level language processing. Extrapolating on the findings of recent case reports, it is hypothesized that performance of the MTBI patients will be significantly reduced compared to normal controls performance on the employed high-level linguistic tasks. Sixteen patients with MTBI and 16 age- and education-matched normal control participants were assessed using a comprehensive battery of cognitive-linguistic assessments. The results demonstrated statistically significant differences between MTBI and normal control group performance across a number of higher-level linguistic, general cognitive and general language tasks. MTBI group performance was significantly lower than the normal control group on tasks requiring complex lexical semantic operations and memory demands, including: Recall, organization, making inferences, naming and perception/discrimination. These outcomes confer that post-MTBI, cognitive, high-level language and isolated general language performance (e.g. naming) is significantly reduced in MTBI patients, compared to normal controls. Furthermore, the detailed cognitive-linguistic profile offered provides a necessary direction for the identification of areas of linguistic decline in MTBI and targets for therapeutic intervention of impaired cognitive-linguistic processes to ultimately improve communicative outcomes in MTBI.

  16. Different Functional and Microstructural Changes Depending on Duration of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, N-Y; Shin, Y S; Lee, P H; Yoon, U; Han, S; Kim, D J; Lee, S-K

    2016-05-01

    The higher cortical burden of Lewy body and Alzheimer disease-type pathology has been reported to be associated with a faster onset of cognitive impairment of Parkinson disease. So far, there has been a few studies only about the changes of gray matter volume depending on duration of cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the different patterns of structural and functional changes in Parkinson disease with mild cognitive impairment according to the duration of parkinsonism before mild cognitive impairment. Fifty-nine patients with Parkinson disease with mild cognitive impairment were classified into 2 groups on the basis of shorter (parkinsonism before mild cognitive impairment. Fifteen drug-naïve patients with de novo Parkinson disease with intact cognition were included for comparison. Cortical thickness, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analyses were performed. Age, sex, years of education, age at onset of parkinsonism, and levodopa-equivalent dose were included as covariates. The group with shorter duration of parkinsonism before mild cognitive impairment showed decreased fractional anisotropy and increased mean and radial diffusivity values in the frontal areas compared with the group with longer duration of parkinsonism before mild cognitive impairment (corrected P parkinsonism before mild cognitive impairment showed decreased resting-state functional connectivity in the default mode network area when the left or right posterior cingulate was used as a seed, and in the dorsolateral prefrontal areas when the left or right caudate was used as a seed (corrected P parkinsonism before mild cognitive impairment showed decreased resting-state functional connectivity mainly in the medial prefrontal cortex when the left or right posterior cingulate was used as a seed, and in the parieto-occipital areas when the left or right caudate was used as a seed (corrected P Parkinson

  17. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognitive Function are Positively Related Among Participants with Mild and Subjective Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckenschneider, Tim; Askew, Christopher David; Rüdiger, Stefanie; Cristina Polidori, Maria; Abeln, Vera; Vogt, Tobias; Krome, Andreas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Lawlor, Brian; Schneider, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    By 2030, about 74 million people will be diagnosed with dementia, and many more will experience subjective (SCI) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As physical inactivity has been identified to be a strong modifiable risk factor for dementia, exercise and physical activity (PA) may be important parameters to predict the progression from MCI to dementia, but might also represent disease trajectory modifying strategies for SCI and MCI. A better understanding of the relationship between activity, fitness, and cognitive function across the spectrum of MCI and SCI would provide an insight into the potential utility of PA and fitness as early markers, and treatment targets to prevent cognitive decline. 121 participants were stratified into three groups, late MCI (LMCI), early MCI (EMCI), and SCI based on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Cognitive function assessments also included the Trail Making Test A+B, and a verbal fluency test. PA levels were evaluated with an interviewer-administered questionnaire (LAPAQ) and an activity monitor. An incremental exercise test was performed to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness and to determine exercise capacity relative to population normative data. ANCOVA revealed that LMCI subjects had the lowest PA levels (LAPAQ, p = 0.018; activity monitor, p = 0.041), and the lowest exercise capacity in relation to normative values (p = 0.041). Moreover, a modest correlation between MoCA and cardiorespiratory fitness (r = 0.25; p cognitive impairment PA and exercise capacity might present a marker for the risk of further cognitive decline. This finding warrants further investigation using longitudinal cohort studies.

  18. Classifying cognitive profiles using machine learning with privileged information in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanin Hamdan Alahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalised Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a ``Learning with privileged information'' approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task. The resulting classifier operates solely on the cognitive data while it incorporates the fMRI data as privileged information (PI during training. This novel classifier is of practical use as the collection of brain imaging data is not always possible with patients and older participants.MCI patients and healthy age-matched controls were trained to extract structure from temporal sequences. We ask whether machine learning classifiers can be used to discriminate patients from controls based on the learning performance and whether differences between these groups relate to individual cognitive profiles. To this end, we tested participants in four cognitive tasks: working memory, cognitive inhibition, divided attention, and selective attention. We also collected fMRI data before and after training on the learning task and extracted fMRI responses and connectivity as features for machine learning classifiers. Our results show that the PI guided GMLVQ classifiers outperform the baseline classifier that only used the cognitive data. In addition, we found that for the baseline classifier, divided attention is the only relevant cognitive feature. When PI was incorporated, divided attention remained the most relevant feature while cognitive inhibition became also relevant for the task. Interestingly, this analysis for the fMRI GMLVQ classifier suggests that (1 when overall fMRI signal for structured stimuli is

  19. Positive effects of combined cognitive and physical exercise training on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssemeijer, Esther G. A.; Aaronson, Justine A.; Bossers, Willem J.; Smits, Tara; Rikkert, Marcel G. M. Olde; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2017-01-01

    Combined cognitive and physical exercise interventions have potential to elicit cognitive benefits in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. This meta-analysis aims to quantify the overall effect of these interventions on global cognitive functioning in older adults with MCI

  20. Positive effects of combined cognitive and physical exercise training on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssemeijer, Esther G. A.; Aaronson, Justine A.; Bossers, Willem J.; Smits, Tara; Rikkert, Marcel G. M. Olde; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    Combined cognitive and physical exercise interventions have potential to elicit cognitive benefits in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. This meta-analysis aims to quantify the overall effect of these interventions on global cognitive functioning in older adults with MCI

  1. Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment cut-off score to clarify improvement of mild cognitive impairment after exercise training in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Marina; Sugie, Masamitsu; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Koyama, Teruyuki; Sengoku, Renpei; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Obuchi, Shuichi; Harada, Kazumasa; Kyo, Shunei; Ito, Hideki

    2018-02-02

    Physical exercise improves cognitive function in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, information about whether the degree of MCI before exercise training affects improvement in cognitive function is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the cut-off value in a MCI screening tool that predicts reversal to normal cognitive function after exercise training in older adults with MCI. Participants included 112 Japanese community-dwelling older adult outpatients (37 men, 75 women; mean age 76.3 years). We administered the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) before and after exercise training. MCI was defined as a MoCA-J score cognitive function. The MoCA-J cut-off score to predict cognitive function potentially reversible to normal was 23, with receiver operating characteristic analysis showing an area under the curve of 0.80, sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 69.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis to predict non-MCI after exercise training showed that MoCA-J score ≥23 (OR 6.9, P cognitive function that is potentially reversible to normal among community-dwelling Japanese older adults with MCI. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 The Authors Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Subjective memory complaints, depressive symptoms and instrumental activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun

    2016-03-01

    The diagnostic relevance of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains to be unresolved. The aim of this study is to determine clinical correlates of SMCs in MCI. Furthermore, we examined whether there are the differences due to different aspects of complaints (i.e. prospective memory (PM) versus retrospective memory (RM) complaints). We examined the cross-sectional associations between SMCs and depressive symptoms, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and cognitive measures in sixty-six individuals with MCI (mean age: 65.7 ± 8.01 years). The criteria for MCI included SMCs, objective cognitive impairment, normal general cognitive function, largely intact functional activities, and absence of dementia. SMCs were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which contains 16 items describing everyday memory failure of both PM and RM. SMC severity (i.e. PRMQ total score) was associated with stronger depressive symptoms and worse IADL performance. SMCs were not related to cognitive measures. For PM and RM subscores, both depressive symptoms and IADL were related to the PRMQ-PM and -RM scores. The main contributors to these PM and RM scores were depressive symptoms and IADL impairment, respectively. This study suggests that SMCs are more associated with depressive symptoms and IADL problems than with cognitive performance in individuals with MCI. Furthermore, while PM and RM complaints are related to both depressive symptoms and IADL, the differences between these main contributors suggest that RM complaints based on IADL could be more associated with the organically driven pathological features of MCI.

  3. Predicting Stability of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): Findings of a Community Based Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellendt, S.; Vobeta, B.; Kohn, N.; Wagels, L.; Goerlich, K.S.; Drexler, E.; Schneider, F.; Habel, U.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of dementia. However, much heterogeneity concerning neuropsychological measures, prevalence and progression rates impedes distinct diagnosis and treatment implications. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the

  4. The process of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Svensson, Birthe Hjorth; Rohr, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    aspects of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Method A total of 54 specialist physicians in Danish dementia diagnostic departments completed an online survey on their practices regarding diagnostic disclosure of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The influence...... of respondent characteristics was assessed, and differences on key aspects of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment were analyzed. Results The results suggest that among Danish specialist physicians, there is a general consensus regarding the organization of diagnostic disclosure...... meetings. However, differences in employed terminology and information provided when disclosing a dementia diagnosis were evident. Significant differences were present on key aspects of the diagnostic disclosure of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. For instance, 91% would use the term dementia during...

  5. Conversion Discriminative Analysis on Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Multiple Cortical Features from MR Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Shengwen; Lai, Chunren; Wu, Congling; Cen, Guiyin; Hariharan, A.; Vijayakumari, Anupa A.; Aarabi, Mohammad Hadi; Aballi, John; Nour, Abd Elazeim Abd Alla Mohamed; Abdelaziz, Mohammed; Abdolalizadeh, AmirHussein; Abdollahi, Mahsa; Abdul Aziz, Siti Aishah; Salam, Amritha Abdul; Abdulaziz, Nidhal; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Abdullah, Sachal; Abdullah, Osama; Abrigo, Jill; Adachi, Noriaki; Adamson, Christopher; Adduru, Viraj; Adel, Tameem; Aderghal, Karim; Ades-Aron, Benjamin; Adeyosoye, Michael; Adlard, Paul; Srinivasa, Ag; Aganj, Iman; Agarwal, Ayush; Agarwal, Anupam; Agarwal, Anchit; Aguero, Cinthya; Aguiar, Pablo; Ahdidan, Jamila; Ahmad, Fayyaz; Ahmad, Rziwan; Ahmadi, Hessam; Ahmed, Nisar; Sid, Farid Ahmed; Ai, Edward; Ai, Qing; Aicha, Benyahia; Aitharaju, Sai; Aiyer, Aditya; Akkus, Zeynettin; Akodad, Sanae; Akramifard, Hamid; Aksman, Leon; Aktas, Said; Al-Janabi, Omar; Al-Nuaimi, Ali; AlAila, BahaaEddin; Alakwaa, Fadhl; Alam, Saruar; Alam, Fakhre; Alam Zaidi, Syed Farhan; Alan, Wiener; Alansari, Mukhtar; Alareqi, Ebrahim; Alberdi, Ane; Albsoul, Mohammad; Alderson, Thomas; Aleem, Hassan; Alex, Aishwarya; Alexander, Jacob; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Alfoldi, Jessica; Ali, Ayesha; Ali, Imdad; Alimoradian, Shirin; Aljabar, Paul; Aljabbouli, Hasan; Aljovic, Almir; Allen, Genevera; Alliende, Luz Maria; Almaguel, Frankis; Almgren, Hannes; Montes, Carmen Alonso; Alowaisheq, Tasneem; Alryalat, Saif Aldeen; Alsado, Majd; Alsaedi, Abdalrahman; Alshehri, Haifa; Altaf, Tooba; Altendahl, Marie; Altmann, Andre; Alvand, Ashkan; Filho, Manoel Alves; Alzubi, Raid; Amaral, Robert; Ambatipudi, Mythri; Amernath, Remya; Amlien, Inge; Amoroso, Nicola; Amri, Hakima; Anastasiou, Athanasios; Anbarasi, Jani; Anbarjafari, Gholamreza; Anderson, Wes; Anderson, Jeff; Anderson, Valerie; Anderson, Loretta; Andonov, Jovan; Andova, Vesna; Andreopoulou, Irene; Andrews, K. Abigail; Andrews, Cameron; Angeles, Michel; Anne-Laure, Aziz; Ansari, Ghulam Jillani; Ansari, Sharaf; Anstey, Kaarin; Antunes, Augusto; Aoshuang, Zhang; Aouf, Mazin; Aow Yong, Li Yew; Aporntewan, Chatchawit; Apostolova, Liana; Appiah, Frank; Apsvalka, Dace; Arab, Abazar; Araque Caballero, Miguel Ángel; Arbabyazd, Mohammad; Arbelaez, Pablo; Archer, Kellie; Ardekani, Babak; Aretouli, Eleni; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arisi, Ivan; Armentrout, Steven; Arnold, Matthias; Arnold, Steven; Arslan, Salim; Artacho-Perula, Emilio; Arthofer, Christoph; Aruchamy, Srinivasan; Arya, Zobair; Pizarro, Carlos Asensio; Ashford, Wes; Ashraf, Azhaar; Askland, Kathleen; Aslaksen, Per; Aslakson, Eric; Aso, Toshihiko; Astphan, Michele; Ataloglou, Dimitrios; Atay, Meltem; Athanas, Argus; Atri, Roozbeh; Au, April; Aurich, Maike; Avants, Brian; Awasthi, Niharika; Awate, Suyash; Ayaz, Aymen; Son, Yesim Aydin; Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Ayhan, Murat; Ayton, Scott; Aziz, Adel; Azmi, Mohd Hafrizal; Ba, Maowen; Bach, Kevin; Badea, Alexandra; Bag, Asim; Bagewadi, Shweta; Bai, Xiangqi; Bai, Zilong; Bai, Haoli; Baird, Geoffrey; Baiwen, Zhang; Baker, Elizabeth; Baker, John; Bakker, Arnold; Ball, Erika; Ballén Galindo, Miguel Ángel; Banaei, Amin; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Bang, Ki Hun; Bangen, Katherine; Banks, Sarah; Banning, Leonie; Bao, Wan Yun; Barakat, Rita; Barbará, Eduardo; Barber, Philip; Barber, Robert; de Araujo, Flavia Roberta Barbosa; Barnes, Josephine; Barredo, Jennifer; Barret, Olivier; Barrett, Matthew; Barsamian, Barsam; Barsky, Andrey; Bartel, Fabian; Bartoszewicz, Jakub; Bartram-Shaw, David; Barwood, Caroline; Basavaraj, Suryakanth; Basavaraj, Arshitha; Basiouny, Ahmed; Baskaran, Bhuvaneshwari; Basu, Arindam; Baths, Veeky; Bathula, Deepti; Batmanghelich, Nematollah Kayhan; Bauer, Roman; Bauer, Corinna; Bawa, Vanshika; Bayley, Peter; Bayram, Ali; Bazi, Yakoub; Beach, Thomas; Beaudoin, Kristin; Beaulieu, Christian; Becker, Cassiano; Beckett, Laurel; Bedding, Alun; Beer, Simone; Beer, Joanne; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Behfar, Qumars; Behjat, Hamed; Behjat, Hamid; Behseta, Sam; Bekris, Lynn; Suresh, Mahanand Belathur; Belichenko, Nadia; Bellio, Maura; Belyaev, Mikhail; Bemiller, Shane; Ahmed, Olfa Ben; Ben Bouallègue, Fayçal; Benedikt, Michael; Benge, Jared; Benitez, Andreana; Benlloch, Jose María; Benn, Marianne; Benyoussef, El Mehdi; Bergeron, David; Bermudez, Elaine; Bessadok, Alaa; Betzel, Richard; Bezuidenhoudt, Mauritz; Bhagwat, Nikhil; Bhalerao, Shailesh; Bhandari, Anindya; Bhasin, Harsh; Bhati, Radhika; Bhatkoti, Pushkar; Bhatt, Priya; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Bi, Rui; Bi, Jinbo; Bi, Harvy; Biancardi, Alberto; Bidart, Rene; Bilgel, Murat; Billiet, Thibo; Binczyk, Franciszek; Bingsheng, Huang; Bird, Christopher; Bischof, Gérard; Bishnoi, Ram; Biswas, Shameek; Bjelke, David; Black, Sandra; Blackwood, Jennifer; Blaese, Elise; Blair, James; Blanchard, Gilles; Bloom, Toby; Blujus, Jenna; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Bo, Wu; Bo, Jun; Boda, Ravi; Boellaard, Ronald; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Bokde, Arun; Bolhasani, Ehsan; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Bonazzoli, Matthew; Bône, Alexandre; Borkowsky, Jennifer; Borrajo, Danielle; Bos, Isabelle; Bosco, Paolo; Bott, Nicholas; Rodrigues, Renato Botter Maio Lopes; Boughanmi, Amani; Bougias, Haralabos; Boulier, Thomas; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Bouyagoub, Samira; Bowes, Mike; Boyes, Richard; Bozoki, Andrea; Bradshaw, Tyler; Pereira, Joana Braga; Brahami, Yoann; Brambati, Simona Maria; Bras, Jose; Braskie, Meredith; Brecheisen, Ralph; Bregman, Noa; Brewer, James; Briassouli, Alexia; Brickman, Adam; Bridges, Robert; Brihmat, Nabila; Brinkmann, Benjamin; Britschgi, Markus; Broers, Thomas; Bron, Esther; Brown, Jesse; Brown, Matthew; Brown, Abel; Brown, Maria; Brunberg, James; Bu, Tao; Bubbico, Giovanna; Bubenik, Peter; Bubu, Omonigho; Buchanan, Daniel; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Buchsbaum, Bradley; Buck, Katharina; Buckley, Rachel; Budgeon, Charley; Buhl, Derek; Sánchez, Manuel Buitrago; Bundela, Saurabh; Burciu, Irina; Burgos, Ninon; Burke, Shanna; Burn, Katherine; Burns, Jeffrey; Burns, Gully; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Bush, Sammie; Buss, Stephanie; Butcher, Bradley; Butt, Victoria; Buxbaum, Joseph; Sandeep, C. S.; Cabrera, Cristóbal; Cahyaningrum, Winda; Cai, Zhen-Nao; Cai, Siqi; Cai, Erik; Cajka, Tomas; Calamia, Matthew; Caligiuri, Maria Eugenia; Calixte, Christopher; Calon, Frederic; Cameron, Briana; Campbell, Roy; Lopez, Jose Antonio Campos; Cao, Hongliu; Cao, Jiguo; Cao, Guanqun; Cao, Bo; Capizzano, Aristides; Capon, Daniel; Carmasin, Jeremy; Carmichael, Owen; Carr, Sarah; Carrier, Jason; Carter, Greg; Carvalho, Luis; Carvalho, Janessa; Carvalho, Carolina; Casamitjana, Adrià; Casanova, Ramon; Casas, Josep R.; Cash, David; Castelluccio, Pete; Castiglioni, Isabella; Caswell, Carrie; Cattell, Liam; Cauda, Franco; Cepeda, Ileana; Çevik, Alper; Cha, Jungho; Chakrabarti, Shreya; Chakraborty, Shouvik; Chammam, Takwa; Chan, Christina; Chand, Ganesh; Chang, Catie; Chang, Yu-Ming; Chang, Rui; Chang, Hyunggi; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Ki Jung; Chang, Che-Wei; Chantrel, Steeve; Chao, Justin; Chao, Linda; Chapleau, Marianne; Charil, Arnaud; Chatterjee, Pratishtha; Chatterjee, Sambit; Chaudhry, Zainab; Chauhan, Harmanpreet; Chehade, Abdallah; Chekuri, Omkar; Cheloshkina, Kseniia; Chen, Jianhong; Chen, Gang; Chen, Geng; Chen, Ting-Huei; Chen, Yin Jie; Chen, Xi; Chen, Tzu-Chieh; Chen, Guojun; Chen, Shuzhong; Chen, Jerome; Chen, Fang; Chen, Kaifeng; Chen, Gennan; Chen, Jason; Chen, Guanhua; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Chen, Ming-Hui; Chen, Chenbingyao; Chen, S. Y.; Chen, Hsu-Hsin; Chen, Xing; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Yuhan; Chen, Hugo; Chen, Rong; Chen, Ing-jou; Chen, Jun; Chen, Jean; Chen, Bo; Cheng, Danni; Cheng, Hewei; Cheng, Yong; Cheng, Yang; Cheng, Zhang; Cheng, Wai Ho; Chenhall, Tanya; Chepkoech, Joy-Loi; Cherukuri, Venkateswararao; Chhibber, Aparna; Chi, Haoyuan; Chi, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Gloria; Chiesa, Patrizia; Childress, Daniel Micah; Chilukuri, Yogitha; Fatt, Cherise Chin; Chincarini, Andrea; Ching, Christopher; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Cho, Soo Hyun; Cho, Yongrae; Cho, Sooyun; Choi, Jun-Sik; Choi, Hongyoon; Choi, Yeoreum; Choi, Sophia; Choi, Jaesik; Choi, Euna; Choo, I. L. Han; Chopra, Vishal; Chougrad, Hiba; Chouraki, Vincent; Christini, Amanda; Chu, Yufang; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Chuanji, Luo; Chuanjian, Yu; Chun, Marvin; Chun, Sung; Chung, Ai; Chung, Yu-Min; Chung, Jung-Che; Chung, Ai Wern; Chung, Jaeeun; Chyzhyk, Darya; Ciarleglio, Adam; Cioli, Claudia; Cittanti, Corrado; Cives, Ana; Clark, Marissa; Clayton, David; Clement, Mark; Clifft, Daniel; Climer, Sharlee; Clouston, Sean; Clunie, David; Cohen, Phoebe; Cohen, Taco; Cole, Michael; Cole, James; Colletti, Patrick; Collingwood, Joanna; Comley, Robert; Conklin, Bryan; Conner, Lindsay; Conover, Joanne; Contardo-Berning, Ivona; Conway, Ronan; Copani, Agata; Coppola, Giovanni; Corbett, Syl; Corlier, Fabian; Correia, Rui; Cosman, Joshua; Costantino, Sebastian; Coubard, Olivier; Coulson, Elizabeth; Couser, Elizabeth; Cox, Kris; Coyle, Patrick; Cozzi, Brian; Craddock, Cameron; Crawford, Karen; Creese, Byron; Cribben, Ivor; Crisostomo-Wynne, Theodore; Crossley, Nicolas; Croteau, Etienne; Cruchaga, Carlos; Cuajungco, Math; Cui, Jing; Cui, Sue; Cullen, Nicholas; Cuneo, Daniel; Cutanda, Vicente; Cynader, Max; Binu, D.; D'Avossa, Giovanni; Dai, Tian; Dai, Peng; Dai, Hui; Davied Hong, Daivied Hong; Dakovic, Marko; Dalca, Adrian; Damiani, Stefano; Dammak, Mouna; Damoiseaux, Jessica; Dan, Zou; Dang, Xuan Hong; Dang, Shilpa; Daniel, Zinkert; Danjou, Fabrice; Darby, Eveleen; Darby, Ryan; Dardzinska, Agnieszka; Darst, Burcu; Darvesh, Sultan; Das, Kalyan; Das, Devsmita; Das, Sandhitsu; Das, Dulumani; Datta, Shounak; Dauvillier, Jérôme; Davatzikos, Christos; Davidson, Ian; de Boer, Renske; de Bruijne, Marleen; de Buhan, Maya; de Jager, Philip; de La Concha Vega, Nuño; de Lange, Siemon; de Luis Garcia, Rodrigo; de Marco, Matteo; de Sitter, Alexandra; Dean, Scott; Decarli, Charles; Decker, Summer; del Gaizo, John; Demir, Zeynep; Denby, Charles; Deng, Yanjia; Deng, Wanyu; Denisova, Kristina; Denney, William; Depue, Brendan; DeRamus, Thomas; Desikan, Rahul; Desplats, Paula; Desrosiers, Christian; Devadas, Vivek; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Devarajan, Sridharan; Devenyi, Gabriel; Dezhina, Zalina; Dhami, Devendra; Dharsee, Moyez; Dhillon, Permesh; Di, Xin; Di Mauro, Nicola; Diah, Kimberly; Diamond, Sara; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Diciotti, Stefano; Dickerson, Bradford; Dickie, David Alexander; Dickinson, Philip; Dicks, Ellen; Diedrich, Karl; Dieumegarde, Louis; Dill, Vanderson; Dilliott, Allison; Ding, Zhaohua; Ding, Shanshan; Ding, Yanhui; Ding, Xiuhua; Ding, Xuemei; Dinov, Ivo; Dinu, Valentin; Diouf, Ibrahima; Dmitriev, Phillip; Dobromyslin, Vitaly; Dodge, Hiroko; Dolui, Sudipto; Dona, Olga; Dondelinger, Frank; Dong, Wen; Dong, Hao-Ming; Kehoe, Patricio Donnelly; Donohue, Michael; Dore, Vincent; Dougherty, Chase; Doughty, Mitchell; Dowling, N. Maritza; Doyle, Senan; Doyle, Andrew; Dragan, Matthew; Draganski, Bogdan; Draghici, Sorin; Dragomir, Andrei; Drake, Derek; Drake, Erin; Drd, Shilpa; Dronkers, Nina; Drozdowski, Madelyn; Du, Changde; Du, Yuhui; Du, Lei; Du, Guangwei; Du, Xingqi; Duan, Fang; Duan, Yuzhuo; Duan, Kuaikuai; Duchesne, Simon; Duggento, Andrea; Dukart, Juergen; Dumont, Matthieu; Dunn, Ruth; Duong, Vu; Duraisamy, Baskar; Duran, Tugce; Durrleman, Stanley; Dutta, Joyita; Dyrba, Martin; Dyvorne, Hadrien; R, Amulya E.; Eads, Jennifer; Eastman, Jennifer; Eaton, Susan; Edlund, Christopher; Edmonds, Emily; Edmondson, Mackenzie; Ehsan, Fatima; El-Gabalawy, Fady; Elander, Annie; Elango, Vidhya E.; Eldeeb, Ghaidaa; Elgamal, Fatmaelzahraa; Rodrigues, Yuri Elias; Elman, Jeremy; Elrakaiby, Nada; Emahazion, Tesfai; Emami, Behnaz; Embrechts, Jurriën; Emran Khan Emon, Mohammad Asif; Emrani, Saba; Emrani, Asieh; Emri, Miklós; Engelhardt, Barbara; Engle, Bob; Epstein, Noam; Er, Fusun; Erhardt, Erik; Eriksson, Oscar; Omay, Zeynep Erson; Escudero, Javier; Eshleman, Jason; Eskildsen, Simon; Espinosa, Luis; Essex, Ryan; Esteban, Oscar; Estrada, Karol; Ethell, Douglas; Ethridge, Kimberly; Ettehadi, Seyedrohollah; Eva, Bouguen; Evenden, Dave; Evtikheeve, Rina; Ewert, Siobhan; Fague, Scot; Fahmi, Rachid; Faizal, Sherin; Falahati, Farshad; Fan, Li; Fan, Zhen; Fan, Yong; Fan, Maohua; Fan, Yonghui; Fan, Sili; Fan, Ruzong; Fang, Chen; Fang, Xiaoling; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Fanti, Alessandro; Far, Bab; Farah, Martha; Farahani, Naemeh; Farahibozorg, Seyedehrezvan; Farahnak, Farhood; Farajpour, Maryam; Fardo, David; Farkhani, Sadaf; Farnsworth, Bryn; Farooq, Hamza; Farooq, Ammarah; Farouk, Yasmeen; Farrar, Danielle; Farrer, Lindsay; Fatemehh, Fatemeh; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Fatfat, Kim; Fatima, Shizza; Faux, Noel; Favan-Niven, Anne; Favary, Clélia; Fazlollahi, Amir; Fei, Gao; Feingold, Franklin; Feizi, Soheil; Félix, Eloy; Femminella, Grazia Daniela; Feng, Zijun; Feng, Ao; Feng, Brad; Feng, Xinyang; Feragen, Aasa; Fereidouni, Marzieh; Fernandes, Miguel; Fernández, Víctor; Ferrari, Ricardo; Ferraris, Sebastiano; Ferreira, Francisco; Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; Ferreira, Hugo; Fiecas, Mark; Fieremans, Els; Fiford, Cassidy; Figurski, Michal; Filippi, Massimo; Filshtein, Teresa; Findley, Caleigh; Finger, Elizabeth; Firth, Nicholas; Fischer, Christopher; Fischer, Florian; Fitall, Simon; Fleet, Blair; Fleishman, Greg; Flokas, Lambros; Flores, Alberto; Focke, Niels; Fok, Wai Yan; Foldi, Nancy; Fôlego, Guilherme; Forero, Aura; Fornage, Myriam; Fos Guarinos, Belén; Founshtein, Gregory; Franc, Benjamin; Francois, Clement; Franke, Katja; Fraser, Mark; Frasier, Mark; Frederick, Blaise; Freitas, Fernandho; Escalin, Frency Jj; Freudenberg-Hua, Yun; Friedman, Brad; Friedmann, Theodore; Friedrich, Christoph M.; Frings, Lars; Frisoni, Giovanni; Fritzsche, Klaus; Frolov, Alexander; Frost, Robert; Fu, Ling; Fu, Zening; Fudao, Ke; Fuentes, Emmanuel; Fujishima, Motonobu; Fujiwara, Ken; Fukami, Tadanori; Funk, Cory; Furcila, Diana; Fuselier, Jessica; Nagarjuna Reddy, G.; Gaasterland, Terry; Gabelle, Audrey; Gahm, Jin; Gaiteri, Chris; Gajawelli, Niharika; Galantino, Alexis; Galarza Hernández, Javier; Galasko, Douglas; Galea, Liisa; Galisot, Gaetan; Sánchez, Antonio Javier Gallego; Gallins, Paul; Gamberger, Dragan; Gan, Hong Seng; Gan, Gavin; Ganapathi, Subha; Gancayco, Christina; Gangishetti, Umesh; Ganzetti, Marco; Gao, Fei; Gao, Jingjing; Gao, Linlin; Gao, Tianxiang; Gao, Yuanyuan; Gao, Xiaohong; Garani, Ranjini; Garbarino, Sara; Garcia, Ivan; Garcia, Xiadnai; Garcia, Jorge; Garcia, Tanya; Garcia Arias, Hernan Felipe; de La Garza, Angel Garcia; Gaig, Mireia Garcia; Novoa, Jorge Garcia; Valero, Mar Garcia; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jord; García-Polo, Pablo; Garg, Rahul; Garg, Gaurav; Garg, Divya; Garibotto, Valentina; Garvey, Matthew; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo; Gaubert, Malo; Gauthier, Serge; Gavett, Brandon; Gavidia, Giovana; Gavtash, Barzin; Gawryluk, Jodie; Gbah, Messon; Ge, Tian; Geerts, Hugo; Geisser, Niklaus; Geng, Junxian; Gentili, Claudio; Gess, Felix; Ghaderi, Halleh; Ghahari, Shabnam; Ghanbari, Yaghoob; Ghazi-Saidi, Ladan; Ghodrati, Mojgan; Ghorbani, Behnaz; Ghoreishiamiri, Reyhaneh; Ghosal, Sayan; Ghosh, Sukanta; Ghosh, Saheb; Ghosh, Sreya; Ghoshal, Ankur; Giannicola, Galetta; Gibert, Karina; Gibson, Gary; Gieschke, Ronald; Gil Valencia, Jorge Mario; Gillen, Daniel; Giordani, Alessandro; Giraldo, Diana; Gispert, Juan D.; Gitelman, Darren; Giuffrida, Mario Valerio; Madhu, G. K.; Glass, Jesse; Glazier, Brad; Gleason, Carey; Glerean, Enrico; Glozman, Tanya; Godbey, Michael; Goettlich, Martin; Gogoi, Minakshi; Gola, Kelly; Golbabaei, Soroosh; Golden, Daniel; Goldstein, Felicia; Gomes, Carlos; de Olivera, Ramon Gomes Durães; Gomez, Isabel; Gomez Gonzalez, Juan Pablo; Gomez-Verdejo, Vanessa; Gong, Weikang; Gong, Enhao; Gong, Kuang; Gonneaud, Julie; Gonzalez, Clio; Gonzalez, Evelio; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Moreira, Eduardo Gonzalez; Goodman, James; Gopinath, Srinath; Gopu, Anusharani; Gordon, Brian; Gordon, David; Gordon, Mark; Gorriz, Juan Manuel; Gors, Dorothy; Göttler, Jens; Gounari, Xanthippi; Goyal, Devendra; Graf, John; Graff, Ariel; Graham, Leah; Graham, Jinko; Grajski, Kamil; Grami, Maziyar; Grand'Maison, Marilyn; Grant, Kiran; Grassi, Elena; Gray, Katherine; Grecchi, Elisabetta; Green, Robert; Green, Elaine; Greenberg, Jonathan; Greening, Steven; Greenwood, Bryson; Gregori, Johannes; Gregory, Michael; Greicius, Michael; Greve, Douglas; Griffin, Jason; Grill, Joshua; Grodner, Kelsey; Grolmusz, Vince; Groot, Perry; Groothuis, Irme; Gross, Alden; Grundstad, Arne; Grundy, Edward; Grzegorczyk, Tomasz; Nandith, G. S.; Gu, David; Gu, Jiena; Gu, Yun; Gu, Ginam; Guan, Sheng; Guan, Yuanfang; Guennel, Tobias; Guerin, Laurent; Guerrero, Ricardo; Guerrier, Laura; Guevara, Pamela; Guggari, Shankru; Roy, Abhijit Guha; Guidotti, Roberto; Guillon, Jérémy; Gulcher, Jeff; Gulia, Sarita; Gumedze, Freedom; Gunawardena, Nishan; Gunn, Roger; Guo, Michael; Guo, Xiao; Guo, Xingzhi; Guo, Yi; Kai, Zhang Guo; Zhao, Ma Guo; Gupta, Navin; Gupta, Anubha; Gupta, Ishaan; Guren, Onan; Gurnani, Ashita; Gurol, Mahmut Edip; Guzman, Gloria; Gyy, Gyy; Rajanna, Vanamala H.; Ha, Seongwook; Haacke, Ewart; Haaksma, Miriam; Habadi, Maryam; Habeck, Christian; Habes, Mohamad; Hackspiel Zarate, Maria Mercedes; Hadimani, Ravi; Hahn, William; Hahn, Tim; Haight, Thaddeus; Hair, Nicole; Haixing, Wang; Hajarolasvadi, Noushin; Hajjar, Ihab; Hajjo, Rima; Halchenko, Yaroslav; Hall, Anette; Hallock, Kevin; Hamdi, Shah Muhammad; Hameed, Farhan; Hamidian, Hajar; Han, Dong; Han, Yang; Han, Hio-Been; Han, Qingchang; Han, Beomsoo; Han, Duke; Han, Shizhong; Han, Xiaoxia; Han, Peipei; Han, Joo Yoon; Han, Dong-Sig; Handsaker, Robert; Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Hansson, Björn; Hao, Yang; Hao, Jhon; Happ, Clara; Harischandra, Dilshan; Haritaoglu, Esin; Harris, Richard; Harris, Breanna; Hart, Brian; Hartzell, James; Harvey, Danielle; Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi; Hasooni, Hossein; Hassan, Moaied; Hassan, Mehdi; Hassanzadeh, Hamid Reza; Hassanzadeh, Oktie; Hatton, Sean; Hawchar, Jinan; Hayashi, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Norio; Hayes, Jasmeet; Hayete, Boris; Haynor, David; He, Linchen; He, Yan; He, Yao; He, Huiguang; Heegaard, Niels; Hefny, Mohamed; Heil, Julius; Heindel, William; Henderson, Samuel; Henf, Judith; Henriquez, Claudio; Herholz, Karl; Hermessi, Haithem; Hernandez, Monica; Herrera, Luis; Hibar, Derrek; Hidane, Moncef; Higuchi, Satomi; Hind, Jade; Hives, Florent; Hoang, Mimi; Hobel, Zachary; Hoffman, John; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Hohman, Timothy; Holder, Daniel; Holguin, Jess; Holmes, Robin; Hong, John; Hongliang, Zou; Hongyu, Guo; Hopkins, Paul; Hor, Soheil; Hornbeck, Russ; Horng, Andy; Horton, Wesley; Hosny, Khalid; Hosseini, Eghbal; Hosseini, Hadi; Hosseini, Zahra; Asl, Ehsan Hosseini; Hou, Beibei; Houghton, Richard; Houghton, Katherine; Householder, Erin; Howlett, James; Hsiao, John; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Hu, Xixi; Hu, Lingjing; Hu, Nan; Hu, Kun; Hu, Tao; Hu, Li; Hu, Xiaolan; Hua, Fei; Huang, Marissa; Huang, Qi; Huang, Michelle; Huang, Chao; Huang, JunMing; Huang, Xingyuan; Huang, Yuhan; Huang, Sing-Hang; Huang, Shuai; Huang, Peiyu; Huang, Chun-Chao; Huang, Zhiyue; Huang, Meiyan; Huang, Zhiwen; Hubrich, Markus; Huestis, Michael; Huey, Edward; Hufton, Andrew; Huijbers, Willem; Huisman, Sjoerd; Hung, Joe; Hunsaker, Naomi; Hunt, Fostor; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Huser, Vojtech; Hussain, Lal; Hutchison, R. Matthew; Hutton, Alexandre; Huyck, Els; Hwang, Jihye; Hyun, JungMoon; Iakovakis, Dimitris; Ibañez, Victoria; Ide, Kayoko; Igarashi, Takuma; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Muñoz, Laura Igual; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Ikhena, John; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Im, Hyung-Jun; Insausti, Ana; Insel, Philip; Invernizzi, Azzurra; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Ip, Nancy; Irizarry, Sierra; Irmak, Emrah; Irwin, David; Isaza, Mariano; Ishii, Makoto; Ishii, Kenji; Islam, Jyoti; Israel, Ariel; Isufi, Elvin; Ito, Kaori; Ito, Masato; Izquierdo, Walter; Alphin, J.; Akhila, J. A.; Jaberzadeh, Amir; Jackowiak, Edward; Jackson, Eric; Jackson, Chris; Jackson, Jonathan; Jacob, Samson; Jacobsen, Nina; Jacobsen, Jörn; Jacquemont, Thomas; Jacques, Nerline; Jaeger, Ralf; Jafari, Tahere; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Jagadish, Akshay Kumar; Jagtap, Priti; Jagust, William; Jahr, Joseph; Jain, Shubhankar; Jain, Shubham; Jaiswal, Ayush; Jaiswal, Akshay; Jait, Amine; Jakkoju, Chetan; Jakobsson, Andreas; James, Olga; James, Oliver; Jamlai, Maedeh; Jammeh, Emmanuel; Janardhana, Lajavanthi; Jang, Jinseong; Jang, Jae-Won; Jang, Jinhee; Jang, Hyesue; Janghel, Rekh Ram; Jawahar, Shasvat; Jean, Kharne; Jean-Baptiste, Schiratti; Jedynak, Bruno; Jefferson, Angela; Jennings, Danna; Jennings, Dominique; Jeon, Seun; Jeong, Yong; Jester, Charles; Jethwa, Ketan; Jha, Debesh; Ji, Gong-Jun; Ji, Chong; Ji, Jin; Jia, Bowen; Jiacheng, Lee; Jiajia, Guo; Jian, Weijian; Jiang, Shan; Jiang, Chunxiang; Jianhua, Gao; Jiao, Zhuqing; Jiao, Zeyu; Jiao, Du; Jimenez Alaniz, Juan Ramon; Gomez, Carolina Jimenez; Jiménez-Huete, Adolfo; Jimura, Koji; Jin, Yan; Jin, Zhu; Jogia, Jigar; Johansson, Per; John, Kimberley; Johnsen, Stian; Johnson, Leonard; Johnson, Sterling; Johnson, Kent; Johnston, Jane; Johnston, Stephen; Jomeiri, Alireza; Jonas, Katherine; Jones, Richard; Jones-Davis, Dorothy; Jönsson, Linus; Joseph, Jane; Joshi, Himanshu; Joshi, Shantanu; Joshi, Abhinay; Joyce, Katherine; Juengling, Freimut; Jung, Youngjin; Junker, Viv; Junwei, Ding; Jyothi, Singaraju; Jyotiyana, Monika; Sarthaj, K.; Kachouane, Mouloud; Kadian, Amit; Kaewaramsri, Yothin; Kaicheng, Li; Kaiser, Marcus; Kakinami, Lisa; Kalra, Sanjay; Kam, Hye Jin; Kamarudin, Nur Shazwani; Kaminker, Josh; Kandel, Benjamin; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Kaneko, Tomoki; Kang, Yun Seok; Kang, Ju Hee; Kang, Hakmook; Kang, Jian; Kansal, Anuraag; Kaouache, Mohammed; Kaplan, Adam; Kottaram, Akhil Karazhma; Karim, Faizan; Karimi-Mostowfi, Nicki; Karjoo, Mahboobe; Karlin, Daniel; Karp, Juliana; Karray, Chiheb; Kartsonis, Nick; Karu, Naama; Kasa, Jaya; Kasiri, Keyvan; Katako, Audrey; Kato, Ryo; Katsonis, Panagiotis; Katti, Hkkatti; Kaur, Prabhjot; Kauwe, John; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Kazemi, Samaneh; Kazemi, Yosra; Rijan, K. C.; Kechin, Andrey; Kelkhoff, Douglas; Kelleher, Thomas; Kellner-Weldon, Frauke; Kennion, Oliver; Kerr, Daniel; Kesler, Shelli; Kesselman, Carl; Kessler, Daniel; Keuken, Max; Keyvanfard, Farzaneh; Khademi, April; Khajehnejad, Moein; Khan, Wasim; Khan, Tabrej; Khan, Hikmat; Khan, Anzalee; Khan, Samreen; Khanmohammadi, Sina; Khasanova, Tatiana; Khazaee, Ali; Khazan, Lenny; Kherif, Ferath; Khl, Aym; KHlif, Mohamed Salah; Khondoker, Mizanur; Khoo, Sok Kean; Khosrowabadi, Reza; Khurshid, Kiran; Kianfard, Reihaneh; Kida, Satoshi; Kiddle, Steven; Kikuchi, Masashi; Killiany, Ron; Kim, Jeongchul; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Jongin; Kim, Yeo Jin; Kim, Jung-Jae; Kim, Hang-Rai; Kim, Jaeyeol; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Joseph; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Mijung; Kim, Jeongsik; Kim, Bohyun; Kim, Taehyun; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Seonjik; Kim, Nakyoung; Kim, Byeongnam; Kim, ChanMi; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Seong Yoon; Kim, Sunhee; Kingery, Lisle; Kinnunen, Kirsi; Kinomes, Marie; Kirchner, Jan Hendrik; Caldwell, Jessica Kirkland; Kirwan, Brock; Kitamura, Chiemi; Kitty, Kitty; Kiviat, David; Kiyasova, Vera; Klein, Richard; Klein, Alison; Klein, Gregory; Klein, Jan; Kleinman, Aaron; Kling, Mitchel; Klinger, Joern; Klinger, Rebecca; Klink, Katharina; Kocaturk, Mustafa; Koch, Philipp Johannes; Kochova, Elena; Koenig, Loren; Koh, Natalie; Köhler, Jens Erik; Koikkalainen, Juha; Koini, Marisa; Kolachalama, Vijaya; Koncz, Rebecca; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Kong, Vincent; Kong, Xiangzhen; Kong, Dehan; Kong, Linglong; Konukoglu, Ender; Kopeinigg, Daniel; Kopera, Krzysztof; Koppers, Simon; Korb, Matheus; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Korolev, Igor; Korolev, Sergey; Korostyshevskiy, Valeriy; Koshiya, Heena; Kost, James; Kotari, Vikas; Koutra, Danai; Koychev, Ivan; Kruthika, K. R.; Krahnke, Tillmann; Krause, Matthew; Kraybill, Matt; Kriebel, Martin; Hari Krishna, M.; Krohn, Stephan; Kruggel, Frithjof; Kuceyeski, Amy; Kuhl, Donald; Kulshreshtha, Devang; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Sambath; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, A.; Kumar, Saurabh; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Ambar; Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Rishab; Kumarasinghe, Janaka; Kundu, Suprateek; Kung, Te-Han; Kuo, Li-Wei; Kuo, Phillip; Channappa, Usha Kuppe; Kuriakose, Elmy; Kurian, P.; Kwan, Kenneth; Kwasigroch, Arkadiusz; Kwon, Young Hye; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Fleur, Claire La; Wungo, Supriyadi La; Labbe, Tomas; Lacombe, Daniel; Lad, Meher; Lahoti, Geet; Lai, Ying Liang; Lai, Catherine; Lai, Dongbing; Laird, Dillon; Lakatos, Anita; Lam, Alice; Lama, Ramesh; Lambert, Christian; Landau, Susan; Landman, Bennett; Landre, Victor; Lane, Elizabeth; Lange, Catharina; Langenieux, Alexandre; Lareau, Caleb; Larson, Katelyn; Latif, Ghazanfar; Lauber, Ross; Lawliet, Z. H.; Lawrence, Emma; Lazar, Anca; Le, Ngan; Le, Thi Khuyen; Le, Matthieu; Guen, Yann Le; Scouiller, Stephanie Le; Leandrou, Stephanos; Leatherday, Christopher; Leavitt, Mackenzie; Ledbetter, Christina; Lee, Hyekyoung; Lee, Wook; Lee, Annie; Lee, Jaehong; Lee, Dongyoung; Lee, Joel; Lee, Song-Ting; Lee, Kuo-Jung; Lee, Subin; Lee, Jaeho; Lee, Catherine; Lee, Gyungtae; Lee, Suzee; Lee, Erik; Lee, Yunseong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Lee, Seonjoo; Lee, Peng Jung; Lee, Hyunna; Lee, Cheng-Hsien; Lee, Hengtong; Lee, Mi Ri; Lee, Ilgu; Lee, Qixiang; Lefterov, Iliya; Leger, Charlie; Lehallier, Benoit; Lei, B.; Lei, Shi; Lei, Hongxing; Lei, Haoyun; Leong, Tze Yun; Leong, Sharlene; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Lepore, Natasha; Lerch, Ondrej; Leung, Yip Sang; Leung, Yuk Yee; Leung, Shuyu; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Leung, Ming-Ying; Levakov, Gidon; Levine, Abraham; Li, Chawn; Li, Miranda; Li, Huijie; Li, Junning; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Yi; Li, Jinchao; Li, Tianhong; Li, Yongming; Li, Xiangrui; Li, Tieqiang; Li, Yan; Li, Fuhai; Li, Feijiang; Li, Shuyang; Li, Zhi; Li, Xing; Li, Rongjian; Li, Rui; Li, Y. U.; Li, Kang; Li, Zhenzhen; Li, Qingqin; Li, Wenjun; Li, Yang; Li, Jialu; Li, Guangyu; Li, Michelle; Li, Yibai; Li, Yupeng; Li, Tao; Li, Zhujun; Li, Yafen; Li, Muwei; Li, Xuan; Li, Yi-Ju; Li, Cen Sing; Li, X. W.; Li, Yingjie; Li, Lin; Li, Yihan Jessie; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiantao; Li, Xingfeng; Li, Chenxi; Li, Chao; Li, Jicong; Li, Jiewei; Li, Tengfei; Li, Wei; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Nannan; Li, Chunfei; Li, Yeshu; Liang, Chen; Liang, Nanying; Liang, Jingjing; Liang, Shengxiang; Liang, Xiaoyun; Liang, Xia; Liang, Ying; Liberman, Sofia; Libon, David; Liébana, Sergio; Liedes, Hilkka; Lim, Wee Keong; Lim, Yen Ying; Lin, Yenching; Lin, Katherine; Lin, Ming; Lin, Ai-Ling; Lin, Ching-Heng; Lin, Bing; Lin, Lin; Lin, Jyh-Miin; Lin, W. M.; Lin, Chien-Tong; Lin, Liyan; Lin, Jing; Lindberg, Olof; Linesch, Paul; Linn, Kristin; Lippert, Christoph; Litovka, Nikita; Little, Graham; Liu, Man-Yun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Chin-Fu; Liu, Zhaowen; Liu, Eulanca; Liu, Weixiang; Liu, K. E.; Liu, Hao Chen; Liu, Jia; Liu, Richann; Liu, Dongbo; Liu, Victor; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Tao; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Yong; Liu, Lin; Liu, Dan; Liu, Xiuwen; Liu, Mengmeng; Liu, Chia-Shang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yan; Liu, Xueqing; Liu, Han; Liu, Chien-Liang; Liu, Sidong; Liu, Jundong; Liu, Yang; Liu, Tianming; Liu, Tingshan; Liu, Ning; Liu, Lan; Liuyu, Liuyu; Lizarraga, Gabriel; Llido, Jerome; Lobach, Iryna; Lockhart, Samuel; Loft, Henrik; Lohr, Kelly; Lon, Hoi Kei; Lone, Kashif Javed; Long, Ziyi; Long, Xiaojing; Longo, Frank; Alves, Isadora Lopes; Lopez, Guadalupe; Lorenzi, Marco; Lotan, Eyal; Louie, Gregory; Louis, Maxime; Loukas, Andreas; Love, Seth; Lowe, Deborah; Lu, Bin; Lu, Chia-Feng; Lu, Zixiang; Lu, Lijun; Lu, Pascal; Lu, Shen; Lu, Qing; Lu, Zheshen; Lu, Chuan; Lu, Patty; Lu, Hangquan; Lu, Bo; Luktuke, Yadnyesh; Luo, Wei; Luo, Suhuai; Luo, Sheng; Luo, Shaojun; Luo, Peggy; Luo, Shan; Luo, Weidong; Luo, Liao; Luo, Xiao; Lupton, Michelle; Lutz, Michael; Lv, Eric; Lyu, Juan; Angshul, M.; Radha, M. R.; Dinesh, M. S.; Ma, Xiangyu; Ma, Chao; Ma, Li; Ma, Yu; Ma, Qianli; MacArthur, Daniel; Macey, Paul; Mach, Eric; MacPhee, Imola; Madadi, Mahboubeh; Madan, Christopher; Madan, Bharat; Madero, Giovanny; Madhavan, Radhika; Madhyastha, Tara; Maeno, Nobuhisa; Magsood, Hamzah; Mah, Linda; Mahdavi, Shirin; Mahdavi, Asef; Mahmoud, Abeer; Mahmoud, Hentati; Mahmoud, Kariman; Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Dehkordi, Siamak Mahmoudian; Mahor, Monika; Mahseredjian, Taleen; Mai, Cha; Maia, Rui; Maiti, Taps; Maj, Carlo; Maji, Pradipta; Majidpour, Jafar; Makhlouf, Laouchedi; Makino, Satoshi; Makrievski, Stefan; Makse, Hernan; Malagi, Archana; Malakhova, Katerina; Malamon, John; Malashenkova, Irina; Malchano, Zach; Maleki-Balajoo, Somayeh; Malik, Sadia; Malik, Tamoor; Mallik, Abhirup; Malm, Tarja; Malpas, Charles; Malpica, Norberto; Malviya, Meenakshi; Mamandi, A.; Manandhar, Abinash; Mandal, Pravat; Mandali, Alekhya; Mane, Prajakta; Manning, Emily; Manoufali, Mohamed; Manser, Paul; Mantini, Dante; Mantri, Ninad; Manyakov, Nikolay; Manzak, Dİlek; Mao, Shuai; Maoyu, Tian; Maple Grødem, Jodi; Maravilla, Kenneth; Marco, Simonetti; Marcus, Daniel; Margetis, John; Margolin, Richard; Mariano, Laura; Marinescu, Razvan Valentin; Markett, Sebastian; Markiewicz, Pawel; Marnane, Michael; Maroof, Asif; Marple, Laura; Marques, Cristiane; Marrakchi, Linda; Marshall, Gad; Märtens, Kaspar; Mårtensson, Gustav; Marti, Cristian; Martin, Harold; Martinaud, Olivier; Martinez, Victor; Martinez, Oliver; Martinez, Jesus; Martinez, Carlos; Abadías, Neus Martinez; Torteya, Antonio Martinez; Martini, Jean-Baptiste; Martins, Samuel; Masciotra, Viviane; Masmoudi, Ahmed; Masny, Aliaksandr; Shah, Pir Masoom; Massaro, Tyler; Masumoto, Jun; Matan, Cristy; Mate, Karen; Mateus, Pedro; Mather, Mara; Mather, Karen; Mathew, Jesia; Mathias, Samuel; Mathiyalagan, Tamilalaghan; Matloff, Will; Matsubara, Keisuke; Matsubara, Takashi; Matsuda, Yukihisa; Matthews, Dawn; Mattis, Paul; May, Patrick; Mayburd, Anatoly; Mayo, Chantel; Mayordomo, Elvira; Mbuyi, Gaylord; McCallum, Colleen; McCann, Bryony; McCollough, Todd; McCormick, Shannon; McCurdy, Sean; McDonald, Carrie; McEligot, Archana; McEvoy, Linda; McGeown, William; McGinnis, Scott; McHugh, Thomas; McIntosh, Elissa; McIntosh, Randy; McKenzie, Andrew; McLaren, Donald; McMillan, Corey; McMillan, Alan; McPherson, Brent; McRae-McKee, Kevin; Zaini, Muhammad Hafiz Md; Meadowcroft, Mark; Mecca, Adam; Meda, Shashwath; Medikonda, Venkata Srinu; Meeker, Karin; Megherbi, Thinhinane; Mehmood, Anum; Mehrtash, Alireza; Meiberth, Dix; Meier, Dominik; Meijerman, Antoine; Mejia, Jose; Mekkayil, Lasitha; Meles, Sanne; Melie-Garcia, Lester; Melo, Hans; Melrose, Rebecca; Melzer, Corina; Mendes, Aline; Leon, Ricardo Antonio Mendoza; Gonzalez, Manuel Menendez; Meng, Dewen; Meng, Xianglai; Meng, Guilin; Mengel, David; Menon, Ramesh; Menon, Ravi; Mercado, Flavio; Messick, Viviana; Meyer, Pierre-Francois; Meyer, Carsten; Mezher, Adam; Mi, Liang; Miao, Hongyu; Michailovich, Oleg; Michels, Lars; Mickael, Guedj; Mikhail, Mark; Mikhno, Arthur; Milana, Diletta; Miller, Rachel; Miller, Brendan; Millikin, Colleen; Min, Byung Wook; Minadakis, George; Minghui, Hu; Chinh, Truong Minh; Minkova, Lora; Miranda, Michelle; Misevic, Dusan; Mishra, Amit; Mishra, Chetan; Mishra, Shiwangi; Mishra, Ashutosh; Mishra, Krishna; Misquitta, Karen; Mitchell, Brian; Mithawala, Keyur; Mitnitski, Arnold; Mitra, Sinjini; Mittal, Gaurav; Mittner, Matthias; Miyapuram, Krishna Prasad; Mlalazi, Rebaone; Mo, Daojun; Moghekar, Abhay; Moguilner, Sebastian; Moh, Heba; Mohabir, Mark; Mohajer, Bahram; Mohamed, Moataz; Mohammadi, Sadeq; Mohammadi-Nejad, Ali-Reza; Mohammady, Saed; Taqi, Arwa Mohammed; Mohan, Kishore Kumar; Mohy-Ud-Din, Hassan; Moitra, Dipanjan; Mojaradi, Mehdi; Mojtabavi, Alireza; Molina, Helena; Mollon, Jennifer; Molteni, Erika; Montajabi, Mohaddeseh; Montal, Victor; Montazami, Aram; Monté-Rubio, Gemma; Montembeault, Maxime; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Montillo, Albert; Moon, Byung-Seung; Moon, Chan; Moon, Chooza; Moore, Archer; Morabito, Francesco C.; Moradi, Masoud; Moraes, Renato; Ballesteros, Orlando Morales; Morales-Henriquez, Daniela; Moratal, David; Moreno, Herman; Morihara, Ryuta; Mormino, Elizabeth; Morris, Jeffrey; Mortamet, Bénédicte; Morton, John; Moscato, Pablo; Rial, Alexis Moscoso; Mossa, Abdela Ahmed; Mottaghi, Setare; Mouelhi, Aymen; Moussavi, Arezou; Moustafa, Ahmed; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Mtetwa, Lungile; Muehlboeck, Sebastian; Mueller, Susanne; Mueller-Sarnowski, Felix; Mufidah, Ratna; Mukherjee, Rik; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Müller, Christian; Müller, Hans-Peter; Mullins, Paul; Mullins, Roger; Muncy, Nathan; Munir, Akhtar; Munirathinam, Ramesh; Munoz, David; Munro, Catherine; Muranevici, Gabriela; Rendon, Santiago Murillo; Murilo, Robson; Murphy, Sonya; Muscio, Cristina; Musso, Gabriel; Mustafa, Yasser; Myall, Daniel; Gayathri, N.; Nabavi, Shahab; Nabeel, Eman; Nagele, Robert; Naghshbandi, Hane; Naik, Shruti; Najmitabrizi, Neda; Nakawah, Mohammad Obadah; Nalls, Mike; Namboori, Krishnan; Nancy, Annie; Napolitano, Giulio; Narayan, Manjari; Narkhede, Atul; Naseri, Mahsa; Nasrallah, Ilya; Nasrallah, Fatima; Nassif, Rana; Nath, Sruthi R.; Nathoo, Farouk; Nation, Daniel; Naughton, Brian; Nault, Larry; Nautiyal, Deeksha; Nayak, Deepak Ranjan; Naz, Mufassra; Nazemian, Shayan; Nazeri, Arash; Neckoska, Emilija; Neelamegam, Malinee; Nehary, Ebrahim; Nelson, Peter; Nelson, Linda; Nematzadeh, Hosein; Nerur, Shubha; Nesteruk, Thomas; Neu, Scott; Ng, Yen-Bee; Nguyen, Tin; Nguyen, Thanh; Nguyen, Harrison; Nguyen, Nghi; Trung, Hieu Nguyen; Ni, Lucy; Nian, Yongjian; Nichols, Thomas; Nicodemus, Kristin; Nie, Yunlong; Nielsen, Casper; Nikolov, Robert; Nila, Jessica; Nishioka, Christopher; Njeh, Ines; Njie, Emalick; Nobakht, Samaneh; Noble, Andrew; Noda, Art; Noroozi, Ali; Norton, Derek; Nosarti, Chiara; Nosheny, Rachel; Notsu, Akifumi; Novak, Gerald; Nozadi, Seyed Hossein; Nu, Fen; Nudelman, Kelly; Nunes, Adonay; Nunes, Ana; Núñez, Christian; Nuno, Michelle; Nuriel, Tal; Nygaard, Haakon; Nyquist, Paul; O'Bott, Jacob; O'Charoen, Sirimon; O'Neill, William; O'Rawe, Jonathan; Obrzut, Grzegorz; Och, Ganzorig; Odaibo, David; Odry, Benjamin; Oehmichen, Axel; Ofori, Edward; Ogunsanmi, Abdulfatai; Oguz, Kaya; Oh, Jungsu; Oh, Minyoung; Oh, Hwamee; Ohigashi, Hironori; Oishi, Kenichi; Oishi, Naoya; Okhravi, Hamid; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Okyay, Savaş; Oliveira, Cyrill; Oliveira, João; Oliveira, Francisco; Oliver, Ruth; Olmos, Salvador; Olszowy, Wiktor; Oltra-Cucarella, Javier; Önen, Zehra; Ong, Rowena; Onoda, Keiichi; Onyike, Chiadi; Operto, Grégory; Oppedal, Ketil; Orejuela, Juan; Orhon, Atila; Orozco, Max; Ortuño, Juan; Osadebey, Michael; Osborn, Joseph; Osoba, Osonde; Ostadrahimi, Hamid; Ostovari, Parisa; Otis, Sarah; Overgaard, Shauna; Owen, Catrin Elin; Oxtoby, Neil; Öziç, Muhammet Üsame; Ozkaya, Gorkem; Okur, Ozlem Ozmen; Ozsolak, Fatih; Ozyildirim, Melis; Pa, Judy; Pacheco, Joe; Pack, Gary; Padilla, Daniel; Cerezo, Berizohar Padilla; Padovese, Bruno; Pae, Chongwon; Pagano, Gennaro; Pahuja, Gunjan; Pai, Shraddha; Pajavand, Shahryar; Pajula, Juha; Pak, Kyoungjune; Pakzad, Ashkan; Palaniappan, Mathiyalagan; Palanisamy, Sindhu; Palmqvist, Sebastian; Palsson, Frosti; Pan, Dan; Pan, Tiffany; Pan, Yuqing; Pan, Wei; Pan, Sun; Pan, Hongliang; Pan, Xiaoxi; Pandey, Lokesh; Pang, Qiaoyu; Pangilinan, Erin; Pannetier, Nicolas; Panpan, Xu; Panyavaraporn, Jantana; Pardini, Matteo; Paredes, José; Parikh, Jignesh; Park, Seongbeom; Park, Young Ho; Park, Min Tae; Park, Hyunjin; Park, Sejin; Park, JongSeong; Park, DooHyun; Park, Ji Eun; Park, Yuhyun; Park, Jiyong; Parker, Jason; Parker, Richard; Parodi, Alice; Bautista, Yohn Jairo Parra; Parrish, Marcus; Parthiban, Preethy; Pascariello, Guido; Pascual, Belen; Paskov, Hristo; Pasquini, Lorenzo; Tantaleán, Julio Sergio Eduardo Pastor; Pastur, Lucas; Patel, Raihaan; Patel, Sejal; Paterson, Ross; Paton, Bryan; Patriarche, Julia; Patriat, Rémi; Pattichis, Constantinos; Paul, Debashis; Pawar, Kuldeep; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Paz, Rotem; Pedroto, Maria; Pelekanos, Matthew; Péléraux, Annick; Peng, Dan; Peng, Jing; Pengfei, Tian; Perani, Daniela; Peraza, Luis; Pereira, Fabricio; Pereira, Francisco; Perkins, Diana; Perneczky, Robert; Persad, Umesh; Peter, Jessica; Peters, Mette; Peters, Ruth; Pether, Mark; Petrella, Jeffrey; Petrenko, Roman; Petrone, Paula; Petrov, Dmitry; Pezzatini, Daniele; Pfenning, Andreas; Pham, Chi-Tuan; Philipson, Pete; Phillips, Jeffrey; Phillips, Nicole; Phophalia, Ashish; Phuah, Chia-Ling; Pichai, Shanthi; Pichardo, Cesar; Binette, Alexa Pichet; Pietras, Olga; Pietrzyk, Mariusz; Pike, Kerryn; Pillai, Jagan; Piludu, Francesca; Pineda, Joanna; Ping, He; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Pither, Richard; Piyush, Ranjan; Pizzi, Nick; Gonzalez, Luis Fernando Planella; Plassard, Andrew; Platero, Carlos; Plocharski, Maciej; Podhorski, Adam; Poggiali, Davide; Poghosyan, Mher; Pohl, Kilian; Poirier, Judes; Polakow, Jean Jacques; Politis, Marios; Poljak, Anne; Poloni, Katia Maria; Poole, Victoria; Poppenk, Jordan; Porsteinsson, Anton; Portelius, Erik; Posta, Filippo; Posthuma, Danielle; Potashman, Michele; Poulin, Stephane; Pourmennati, Bahar; Prahlad, Tejas; Pranav, Lee; Prasanth, Isaac; Prashar, Ajay; Prescott, Jeff; Prevedello, Luciano; Previtali, Fabio; Pricer, James; Prichard, James; Prince, Jerry; Prins, Samantha; Pritchard, Christopher; Priya, Priya; Priya, Anandh; Priyanka, Ahana; Properzi, Michael; Prosser, Angus; Proust-Lima, Cécile; Pruessner, Jens; Pu, Jian; Punjabi, Arjun; Punugu, Venkatapavani Pallavi; Puri, Dilip; Renjini, Anurenjan Purushothaman; Pyeon, DoYeong; Qader, Abu; Qi, Zeyao; Qi, Baihong; Qian, Xiaoning; Qian, Long; Qiao, Ju; Qiao, Jocelin; Qiaoli, Zhang; Qin, Hongsen; Qin, Wang; Qin, Tian; Qin, Yuanyuan; Qin, Qinxiaotie; Qin, Qiao; Qing, Zhao; Qiongling, Li; Qiu, Yu; Qiu, Wendy; Qiu, Deqiang; Qiu, Yingwei; Quadrelli, Scott; Qualls, Jake; Quan, Li; Quarg, Peter; Qureshi, Adnan; Anand, R.; Chitra, R.; Balaji, R.; Madhusudhan, R. N.; Raamana, Pradeep Reddy; Rabbia, Michael; Rabin, Laura; Radke, David; Pc, Muhammed Raees; Rafeiean, Mahsa; Raha, Oindrila; Rahimi, Amir; Arashloo, Shervin Rahimzadeh; Rai, Vipin; Rajamanickam, Karunanithi; Rajan, Surya; Rajapakse, Jagath; Rajaram, Sampath; Rajendran, Rajeswari; Rakovski, Cyril; Ramalhosa, Ivo; Raman, Fabio; Ramasamy, Ellankavi; Ramasangu, Hariharan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Ramos Pérez, Ana Victoria; Rana, Rahul; Rane, Swati; Rao, Anil; Rao, Vikram; Rashidi, Arash; Rasoanaivo, Oly; Rassem, Taha; Rastgoo, Hossein; Rath, Daniel; Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Ravikirthi, Prabhasa; Ravipati, Kaushik; RaviPrakash, Harish; Rawdha, Bousseta; Ray, Meredith; Ray, Debashree; Ray, Nilanjan; Ray, Dipankar; Ray, Soumi; Rebbah, Sana; Redding, Morgan; Regnerus, Bouke; Rehn, Patrick; Rehouma, Rokaya; Reid, Robert; Reimer, Alyssa; Reiss, Philip; Reitz, Christiane; Rekabi, Maryam; Rekik, Islem; Ren, Xuhua; Ren, Fujia; Ren, Xiaowei; Ren, Weijie; Renehan, William; Rennert, Lior; Rey, Samuel; Reyes, Pablo; Reza, Rifat; Rezaee, Khosro; Rhinn, Herve; Lorenzo, Pablo Ribalta; Ribeiro, Adèle Helena; Richards, John; Richards, Burt; Richards, Todd; Richardson, Hamish; Richiardi, Jonas; Richter, Nils; Ridge, Perry; Ridgway, Gerard; Ridha, Basil; Ried, Janina; Riedel, Brandalyn; Riphagen, Joost; Ritter, Kerstin; Rivaz, Hassan; Rivers-Auty, Jack; Allah, Mina Rizk; Rizzi, Massimo; Roalf, David; Robb, Catherine; Roberson, Erik; Robieson, Weining; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Rodrigues, Marcos Antonio; Rodriguez, Alain; Aguiar, Güise Lorenzo Rodríguez; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Antonio; Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Roes, Meighen; Rogalski, Emily; Rogers, James; Rogers, Baxter; Rohani, Hosna; Rollins, Carin; Rollo, Jenny; Romanillos, Adrian; Romero, Marcelo; Romero, Klaus; Rominger, Axel; Rondina, Jane; Ronquillo, Jeremiah; Roohparvar, Sanaz; Rosand, Jonathan; Rose, Gregory; Roshchupkin, Gennady; Rosoce, Jeremy; Ross, David; Ross, Joel; Ross, Owen; Rossi, Stephanie; Roussarie, Jean-Pierre; Roy, Arkaprava; Roy, Snehashis; Ruble, Cara; Rubright, Jonathan; Rudovic, Ognjen; Ruggiero, Denise; Rui, Qiao; Ruiz, Pablo; Rullmann, Michael; Rusmevichientong, Pimbucha; Russell, Rolf; Rutten, Julie; Saadatmand-Tarzjan, Mahdi; Saba, Valiallah; Sabuncu, Mert; Sacuiu, Simona; Sampathkumar, Srihari Sadhu; Sadikhov, Shamil; Saeedi, Sarah; Saf, Naz; Safapur, Alireza; Safi, Asad; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Saito, Noboru; Saito, Naomi; Sakata, Muneyuki; Frigerio, Carlo Sala; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Salah, Zainab; Salamanca, Luis; Salat, David; Salehzade, Mahdi; Salter, Hugh; Samatova, Nagiza; Sampat, Mehul; Gonzalez, Jorge Samper; Samtani, Mahesh; Samuel, Pearl; Bohorquez, Sandra Sanabria; Sanbao, Cheng; Sanchez, Iñigo; Sánchez, Irina; Sandella, Nick; Sanderlin, Ashley Hannah; Sanders, Elizabeth; Sankar, Tejas; Sanroma, Gerard; Sanson, Horacio; Santamaria, Mar; de Lourdes, Daniella; de Andrade, Luna Santana; Santhanam, Prasanna; Ribeiro, Andre Santos; Sardi, Pablo; Sardina, Davide; Saremi, Arvin; Sarica, Alessia; Sarnowski, Chloé; Sarraf, Saman; Saslow, Adam; Sato, Takayuki; Sato, Joao; Sattler, Sophia; Savic, Milos; Saxon, Jillian; Saya, Boson; Saykin, Andrew; Sbeiti, Elia; Scarapicchia, Vanessa; Scelsi, Marzia Antonella; Schaerer, Joel; Scharre, Douglas; Scherr, Martin; Schevenels, Klara; Schibler, Tony; Schiller, Florian; Schirmer, Markus; Schmansky, Nick; Schmidt, Marco; Schmidt, Paul; Schmitz, Taylor; Schmuker, Michael; Schneider, Anja; Schneider, Reinhard; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Schöll, Michael; Schouten, Tijn; Schramm, Hauke; Schreiber, Frank; Schultz, Timothy; Schultz, Aaron; Schürmann, Heike; Schwab, Patrick; Schwartz, Pamela; Schwarz, Adam; Schwarz, Christopher; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Scott, Julia; Scott, F. Jeffrey; Scott, David; Scussel, Artur; Seale, William; Seamons, John; Seemiller, Joseph; Sekine, Tetsuro; Selnes, Per; Sembritzki, Klaus; Senanayake, Vijitha; Seneca, Nicholas; Senjem, Matthew; Filho, Antonio Carlos Senra; Sensi, Stefano; Seo, Eun Hyun; Seo, Kangwon; Seong, Sibaek; Sepeta, Leigh; Seraji-Bozorgzad, Navid; Serra-Cayuela, Arnau; Seshadri, Sudha; Sgouros, Nicholas; Sha, Miao; Shackman, Alexander; Shafee, Rebecca; Shah, Rupali; Shah, Hitul; Shahid, Mohammad; Shahparian, Nastaran; Shakeri, Mahsa; Shams, Sara; Shams, Ali; Baboli, Aref Shams; Shamul, Naomi; Shan, Guogen; Shang, Yuan; Shao, Rui; Shao, Hanyu; Shao, Xiaozhe; Shaoxun, Yuan; Noghabi, Hossein Sharifi; Sharlene, Newman; Sharma, Avinash; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Aman; Shaw, Leslie; Shaw, Saurabh; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Sheline, Yvette; Shen, Li; Shen, Yanhe; Shen, Qian; Sherriff, Ian; Shi, Xin; Shi, Lei; Shi, Yonggang; Shi, Yue; Shi, Yupan; Shi, Jie; Shi, Feng; Shiban, Nisreen; Shields, Trevor; Shiiba, Takuro; Shiino, Akihiko; 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Taswell, Koby; Taswell, Carl; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Taylan, Pakize; Taylor, Jonathan; Taylor, Brad; Tayubi, Iftikhar; Tchistiakova, Ekaterina; tee, Yee Kai; Teipel, Stefan; Temizer, Leyla; Kate, Mara Ten; Tenbergen, Carlijn; Tenenbaum, Jessica; Teng, Zi; Teng, Yuan-Ching; Teng, Edmond; Termenon, Maite; Terry, Eloise; Thaker, Ashesh; Theobald, Chuck; Thiel, Taylor; Thiele, Ines; Thiele, Frank; Thierry, Jean Pierre; Thirunavu, Vineeth; Thomas, Chris; Thomas, Kelsey; Thomas, Anoop Jacob; Thomas, Benjamin; Thomas, Ronald; Thomas, Adam; Thomopoulos, Sophia; Thompson, Gerard; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Will; Thompson, Paul; Thung, Kimhan; Tian, Sijia; Tierney, Mary; Tilquin, Florian; Tingay, Karen; Tirrell, Lee; Tirumalai, Sindhuja; Tobis, Jonathan; Todkari, Suhasini; Tohka, Jussi; Tokuda, Takahiko; Toledo, Juan B.; Toledo, Jon; Tolonen, Antti; Tombari, Federico; Tomiyama, Tetsuro; Tomola, Lauren; Tong, Yunjie; Tong, Liz; Tong, Li; Tong, Xiaoran; Torgerson, Carinna; Toro, Roberto; Torok, Levente; Toschi, Nicola; Tosto, Giuseppe; Tosun, Duygu; Tourandaz, Morteza; Toussaint, Paule; Towhidi, Sasan Maximilian; Towler, Stephen; Toyama, Teruhide; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Tran, Thao; Tran, Daniel; Trapani, Benjamin; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Tripathi, Shashi; Trittschuh, Emily; Trivedi, Ashish; Trojacanec, Katarina; Truong, Dennis; Tsanas, Athanasios; Tse, Kai-Hei; Tsoy, Elena; Tu, Yanshuai; Tubeleviciute-Aydin, Agne; Tubi, Meral; Tucholka, Alan; Tufail, Ahsan; Tumati, Shankar; Tuo, Shouheng; Tuovinen, Timo; Tustison, Nicholas; Tutunji, Rayyan; Tward, Daniel; Tyagi, Gaurav; Tzioras, Nikolaos; Raghavendra, U.; Uberti, Daniela; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Ueki, Masao; Ulug, Aziz; Umek, Robert; University, Northwestern; de Almeida, Sofia Urioste Y. Nunes; Urrutia, Leandro; Usama, Ahmed; Ustun, Ali Alp; Uus, Alena; Uyar, Muharrem Umit; Visalatchi, V.; Rajinikanth, V.; Vafaei, Amin; Vairre, Darlene; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev; Vaithinathan, Krishnakumar; Vakorin, Vasily; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van Bokhoven, Pieter; Deerlin, Vivianna Van; van der Brug, Marcel; Dijk, Koene Van; van Duijn, Cornelia; van Erp, Theo; van Hooren, Roy; Leemput, Koen Van; van Loenhoud, Anita; Schependom, Jeroen Van; van Velden, Floris; van Westen, Danielle; Vandekar, Simon; Vandijck, Manu; Vanhoutte, Matthieu; Vannini, Patrizia; Vansteenkiste, Elias; Varatharajah, Yogatheesan; Vardarajan, Badri; Varey, Stephen; Vargas, Hernan; Varkey, Julia; Varma, Susheel; Varma, Vijay; Varma, Sudhr; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Vashi, Tejal; Vasilchuk, Kseniia; Vassileva, Albena; Vatsalan, Dinusha; Vb, Nastaran; Veeramacheneni, Teja; Veeranah, Darvesh; Vejdani, Kaveh; Veldsman, Michele; Velgos, Stefanie; Veloso, Adriano; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Venero, Cesar; Venkataraman, Ashwin; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai; Venkatraghavan, Vikram; Venugopal, Vinisha; Venugopalan, Janani; Verbeeck, Rudi; Verbel, David; Verbist, Bie; Verdoliva, Luisa; Verma, Ajay Kumar; Verma, Tarun; Verma, Ishan; Veronese, Mattia; Grabovetsky, Alejandro Vicente; Victor, Jonathan; Vieira, Domingos; Vijayaraj, Vinesh Raja; Vikas, Vinutha; Vilaplana, Veronica; Vilaplana, Eduard; Villar, José Ramón; Vincent, Fabrice; Vinkler, Mojmir; Viswanath, Satish; Viswanathan, Srikrishnan; Vitek, Michael; Viti, Mario; Vladutu, Liviu; Vlock, Daniel; Voineskos, Aristotle; Vora, Anvi; Vos, Stephanie; Voyle, Nicola; Vrenken, Hugo; Vu, Tien Duong; Vucetic, Zivjena; Vuksanovic, Vesna; Wachinger, Christian; Wada, Masataka; Wade, Sara; Wagstyl, Konrad; Wahba, Grace; Waldorf, Johannes; Walker, Douglas; Moore, Kim Poki Walker; Walsh, Dominic; Wan, Lin; Wang, Di; Wang, Jane-Ling; Wang, Yongmao; Wang, Huaming; Wang, Miao; Wang, Zi-Rui; Wang, Zheyu; Wang, Z. E.; Wang, Lucy; Wang, Bin; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jason; Wang, Cathy; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiuyuan; Wang, Dai; Wang, Lingyu; Wang, Jianjia; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yujiang; Wang, Ming-Liang; Wang, De; Wang, Ling; Wang, Liangliang; Wang, Jianxin; Wang, Zhanyu; Wang, William Shi-Yuan; Wang, HuiFu; Wang, Weixin; Wang, Zhenxun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junwen; Wang, Yipei; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yinying; Wang, Chengjia; Wang, Yuanjia; Wang, Kerry; Wang, Li-San; Wang, Kangcheng; Wang, Rui; Wang, Kai; Wang, Qian; Wang, Xinying; Wang, Xinglong; Wang, Jeff; Wang, Tianyi; Wang, Honglang; Wang, Xuekuan; Wang, Yongxiang; Wang, Hong; Wang, Silun; Waring, Stephen; Warren, David; Wasule, Vijay; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Wearn, Alfie; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Wegmayr, Viktor; Wehenkel, Marie; Wei, Rizhen; Wei, Zheng; Wei, Penghu; Wei, Yongbin; Wei, Guohui; Wei, Changshuai; Weichart, Emily; Weiler, Marina; Weise, Christopher; Weisong, Zhong; Weisshuhn, Philip; Weizheng, Yan; Wen, Canhong; Wen, Junhao; Wen, Wei; Wen, Zhenfu; Wen, Hao; Wenzel, Fabian; Werhane, Madeleine; Westaway, Shawn; Westlye, Lars T.; Westman, Eric; Whardana, Adithya; Whitcher, Brandon; Whittington, Alexander; Wicks, Stephen; Wiens, Jenna; Wildsmith, Kristin; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Wilkinson, Andrea; Willette, Auriel; Williams, Kristin; Williams, Robert; Williams, Rebecca; Wilman, Alan; Wilmot, Beth; Wilson, Lorraine; Win, Juliet; Windpass, F. C.; Wink, Alle Meije; Winter, Nils; Winzeck, Stefan; Wirth, Miranka; Wishart, Heather; Wisniewski, Gary; Wiste, Heather; Wolpe, Noham; Wolz, Robin; Wong, Stephen; Wong, Swee Seong; Wong, Tak-Lam; Woo, Jongwook; Woo, Taekang; Woo, Young; Wood, Levi; Worth, Andrew; Wrenn, Jesse; Wright, Paul; Wu, Guorong; Wu, Lynn; Wu, Shawn; Wu, Menglin; Wu, Ruige; Wu, Shaoju; Wu, Chong; Wu, Juhao; Wu, Liyun; Wu, Yu-Te; Wu, Yuankai; Wu, Helen; Xia, Weiming; Xiang, Xu; Xiangmao, Kong; Xiao, Yiming; Xiao, Jie; Xiao, Y. U.; Xiaoxi, Ji; Xiaoya, Zhu; Xiaoying, Qi; Xie, Yuchen; Xie, Zhiyong; Xie, Lei; Xie, Xiancheng; Xin, Huang; Xingyi, Huang; Xiong, Yuanpeng; Xiong, Momiao; Xu, Yongchao; Xu, XiaoYing; Xu, Qiqi; Xu, Lijun; Xu, Hewen; Xu, Yunlong; Xu, Zhilei; Xu, Ziliang; Xu, Jiayuan; Xu, Yadong; Xu, Lu; Xu, Shuoyu; Xue, Fei; Xuesong, Yang; Xz, Zarric; Yadav, Rishi; Yaish, Aviv; Yakushev, Igor; Yamada, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Utako; Yamashita, Alexandre; Yamashita, Fumio; Yan, Li; Yan, Yu; Yan, Jianhua; Yan, Shiju; Yan, Chao-Gan; Yan, Qingyu; Yan, Jingwen; Yan, Chen; Yan, Meng; Yang, Meng; Yang, Bin; Yang, Jiarui; Yang, Zhi; Yang, Xianfeng; Yang, Sli; Yang, Liang; Yang, Robert; Yang, Aleex; Yang, Hyungjeong; Yang, ChengHao; Yang, Haiwei; Yang, Jhih-Ying; Yang, Xu; Yangyang, Xia; Yao, Xufeng; Yaping, Wang; Yaqiong, Bi; Yared, Surafael; Yashin, Anatoliy; Yassine, Hussein; Yau, Tat; Yavorsky, Christian; Ye, Chang; Ye, Byoung Seok; Ye, Joy; Ye, Yongkai; Ye, Yuting; Ye, Wu; Yelampalli, Praveen Kumar Reddy; Thomas Yeo, B. T.; Yi, Zhao; Yi, Wang; Yi, Yuan; Yijing, Ruan; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Yin, Baocai; Yin, Tang-Kai; Ying, Li; Yingjiang, Wu; Yiyun, Yu; Yoichiro, Sato; Yokoyama, Jennifer; Yong, Zhang; Yonghong, Shi; Yonghu, Guo; Yongqi, Huang; Yoo, Inwan; Yoon, So Hoon; Yoon, Jee Seok; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Yoshida, Hisako; Yoshio, Kiyofumi; You, Jia; You, You; You, Xiaozhen; Young, Alexandra; Yu, Peng; Yu, Jaemin; Yu, Lin; Yu, Sui; Yu, Philip S.; Yu, Guan; Yu, Fengli; Yu, Jiaxin; Yu, Shaode; Yu, Suizhi; Yu, Donghyeon; Yuan, Yue; Yuan, Shaofeng; Yuan, Shuai; Yuanyuan, Chen; Yue, Ye; Yue, Cynthia; Yunaiyama, Daisuke; YushaoChen, YushaoChen; Yushkevich, Paul; Yx, W.; Zafeiris, Dimitrios; Zagorchev, Lyubomir; Zalocusky, Kelly; Zamorano, Francisco; Zandifar, Azar; Zanella, Laura; Zang, Yufeng; Zanke, Brent; Zaranek, Alexander Wait; Zawaideh, Mazen; Zawawi, Nour; Zee, Jarcy; Zeighami, Yashar; Zeitzer, Jamie; Zemla, Jeffrey; Zeng, Qi; Zeng, Fan; Zeng, Donglin; Zeng, Wei; Zeng, Yingying; Ženko, Bernard; Zereshki, Ehsan; Zeskind, Benjamin; Zhan, Justin; Zhang, Chenghui; Zhang, Yixuan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Jianlun; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yufei; Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Changle; Zhang, Qingtian; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiangliang; Zhang, Linda; Zhang, Yingteng; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Ziwei; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Zhan; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, ChengZhi; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Guishan; Zhang, Xixue; Zhang, Tianhao; Zhangyi, Zhangyi; Zhao, Wenting; Zhao, Xuewu; Zhao, Peng; Zhao, Yifei; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Zhao, Di; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Lu; Zheng, Lijuan; Zheng, Kaiping; Zheng, Weihao; Zheng, Du; Zheng, Muhua; Zheng, Qiang; Zheng, Bichen; Zheng, Lihong; Zhong, Wenxuan; Zhong, Yujia; Zhou, Tian; Zhou, Jiayin; Zhou, Zhen; Zhou, Yongxia; Zhou, Lixin; Zhou, Bowei; Zhou, Juan; Zhou, Qixin; Zhou, Levi; Zhou, Fengfeng; Zhou, Jiayu; Zhou, Luping; Zhou, Yun; Zhou, Yingjie; Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Frankie; Zhu, Zonghai; Zhu, Xiaoya; Zhu, Xiaolu; Zhu, Shanfeng; Zhu, David; Zhu, Hongxiao; Zhu, Lida; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zhuxin, Jin; Zigon, Robert; Zille, Pascal; Zimmer, Eduardo; Zimmer, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Earl; Zimmerman, Karl; Zimmermann, Joelle; Zipperer, Erin; Zito, Giancarlo; Zou, Yang; Zuo, Maria; Zywiec, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging measurements derived from magnetic resonance imaging provide important information required for detecting changes related to the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cortical features and changes play a crucial role in revealing unique anatomical patterns of brain regions,

  6. Validation of the Cuban Version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised for Screening Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broche-Pérez, Yunier; López-Pujol, Héctor Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of the Cuban version of the revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) in identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in comparison with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was assessed. The Cuban ACE-R was administered to a group of 129 elderly subjects (92 cognitively healthy and 37 subjects with MCI). The t tests for independent samples were used to compare scores of different psychometric scales between groups, and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated. Cronbach's coefficient α was used to evaluate the reliability of psychometric scales. The validity of ACE-R to screen for MCI was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The Cuban ACE-R had reliable internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = 0. 879). The optimal cut-off score for ACE-R for detecting MCI was 84/85. The sensitivity and specificity of ACE-R to screen for MCI was superior to those of MMSE. The area under the ROC curve of the Cuban ACE-R was much larger than that of MMSE (0.93 and 0.63) for detecting MCI. The Cuban ACE-R is a valid screening tool for detecting cognitive impairment. It is more sensitive and accurate in screening for MCI than MMSE. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Transitions to mild cognitive impairments, dementia, and death: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, Suzanne L; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Riley, Kathryn P; Mendiondo, Marta S; Kryscio, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    The potential of early interventions for dementia has increased interest in cognitive impairments less severe than dementia. However, predictors of the trajectory from intact cognition to dementia have not yet been clearly identified. The purpose of this study was to determine whether known risk factors for dementia increased the risk of mild cognitive impairments or progression from mild cognitive impairments to dementia. A polytomous logistic regression model was used, with parameters governing transitions within transient states (intact cognition, mild cognitive impairments, global impairment) estimated separately from parameters governing the transition from transient to absorbing state (dementia or death). Analyses were based on seven annual examinations (1991-2002) of 470 Nun Study participants aged > or = 75 years at baseline and living in the United States. Odds of developing dementia increased with age primarily for those with low educational levels. In these women, presence of an apolipoprotein E gene *E4 allele increased the odds more than fourfold by age 95 years. Age, education, and the apolipoprotein E gene were all significantly associated with mild cognitive impairments. Only age, however, was associated with progression to dementia. Thus, risk factors for dementia may operate primarily by predisposing individuals to develop mild cognitive impairments; subsequent progression to dementia then depends on only time and competing mortality.

  8. Biological Factors Contributing to the Response to Cognitive Training in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jessica; Schumacher, Lena V; Landerer, Verena; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Kaller, Christoph P; Lahr, Jacob; Klöppel, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), small benefits from cognitive training were observed for memory functions but there appears to be great variability in the response to treatment. Our study aimed to improve the characterization and selection of those participants who will benefit from cognitive intervention. We evaluated the predictive value of disease-specific biological factors for the outcome after cognitive training in MCI (n = 25) and also considered motivation of the participants. We compared the results of the cognitive intervention group with two independent control groups of MCI patients (local memory clinic, n = 20; ADNI cohort, n = 302). The primary outcome measure was episodic memory as measured by verbal delayed recall of a 10-word list. Episodic memory remained stable after treatment and slightly increased 6 months after the intervention. In contrast, in MCI patients who did not receive an intervention, episodic memory significantly decreased during the same time interval. A larger left entorhinal cortex predicted more improvement in episodic memory after treatment and so did higher levels of motivation. Adding disease-specific biological factors significantly improved the prediction of training-related change compared to a model based simply on age and baseline performance. Bootstrapping with resampling (n = 1000) verified the stability of our finding. Cognitive training might be particularly helpful in individuals with a bigger left entorhinal cortex as individuals who did not benefit from intervention showed 17% less volume in this area. When extended to alternative treatment options, stratification based on disease-specific biological factors is a useful step towards individualized medicine.

  9. Wechsler Memory Scale-III Faces test performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelye, Adriana M; Howieson, Diane B; Wild, Katherine V; Moore, Mindy Milar; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the sensitivity of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III) Faces subtest to memory impairment associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, Faces performance was examined in 24 MCI patients, 46 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and 98 elderly controls. We hypothesized that participants with diagnoses of MCI or AD would be impaired relative to controls on Faces. Analyses showed that AD participants performed significantly worse than MCI and intact participants, although there were no significant differences between MCI and intact participants. Data suggest that brain areas specialized for face recognition memory may be less affected by MCI and mild AD than regions specialized for verbal memory.

  10. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Rognstad Mellingsæter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods: Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°. Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV, and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results: At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions: The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD.

  11. Exploring the Factor Structure of Financial Capacity in Cognitively Normal and Impaired Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Triebel, Kristen; Eakin, Amanda; Martin, Roy; Marson, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the factor structure of financial capacity using a direct-performance measure of financial skills (The Financial Capacity Instrument [FCI]) as a proxy for the financial capacity construct. The study sample was composed of 440 older adults who represented the cognitive spectrum from normal cognitive aging to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to mild dementia: 179 healthy older adults, 149 participants with MCI, and 112 participants with mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Both Velicer's Minimum Average Partial test and Horn's parallel analysis supported a four-factor solution which accounted for 46% of variance. The four extracted factors were interpreted as: (1) Basic Monetary Knowledge and Calculation Skills, (2) Financial Judgment, (3) Financial Conceptual Knowledge, and (4) Financial Procedural Knowledge. The study findings represent an important first step in empirically articulating the financial capacity construct in aging. The four identified factors can guide both clinical practice and future instrument utilization and development. Cognitively impaired older adults with MCI and mild AD dementia are likely to show financial changes in one or more of the four identified financial factors. Clinicians working with older adults should routinely examine for potential changes in these four areas of financial function.

  12. Mild desalination demo pilot: New normalization approach to effectively evaluate electrodialysis reversal technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel Bisselink

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Key performance indicators for characterization of nanofiltration performance are well developed, similar key performance indicators for electrodialysis reversal are however underdeveloped. Under the E4Water project Dow Benelux BV and Evides Industriewater BV operate a pilot facility to compare both technologies for their application to mildly desalinate a variety of brackish water streams. Normalized pressure drop, normalized current efficiency and normalized membrane resistance proved to be a useful tool to interpret process performance and to initiate a cleaning procedure if required. The availability of these normalized key performance indicators enables optimization and process monitoring and control of electrodialysis reversal independent of the continuously changing conditions of the feed water.

  13. Association Between Olfactory Dysfunction and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rosebud O; Christianson, Teresa J H; Kremers, Walter K; Mielke, Michelle M; Machulda, Mary M; Vassilaki, Maria; Alhurani, Rabe E; Geda, Yonas E; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C

    2016-01-01

    To increase the opportunity to delay or prevent mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia, markers of early detection are essential. Olfactory impairment may be an important clinical marker and predictor of these conditions and may help identify persons at increased risk. To examine associations of impaired olfaction with incident MCI subtypes and progression from MCI subtypes to AD dementia. Participants enrolled in the population-based, prospective Mayo Clinic Study of Aging between 2004 and 2010 were clinically evaluated at baseline and every 15 months through 2014. Participants (N = 1630) were classified as having normal cognition, MCI (amnestic MCI [aMCI] and nonamnestic MCI [naMCI]), and dementia. We administered the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) to assess olfactory function. Mild cognitive impairment, AD dementia, and longitudinal change in cognitive performance measures. Of the 1630 participants who were cognitively normal at the time of the smell test, 33 died before follow-up and 167 were lost to follow-up. Among the 1430 cognitively normal participants included, the mean (SD) age was 79.5 (5.3) years, 49.4% were men, the mean duration of education was 14.3 years, and 25.4% were APOE ε4 carriers. Over a mean 3.5 years of follow-up, there were 250 incident cases of MCI among 1430 cognitively normal participants. We observed an association between decreasing olfactory identification, as measured by a decrease in the number of correct responses in B-SIT score, and an increased risk of aMCI. Compared with the upper B-SIT quartile (quartile [Q] 4, best scores), hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) were 1.12 (0.65-1.92) for Q3 (P = .68); 1.95 (1.25-3.03) for Q2 (P = .003); and 2.18 (1.36-3.51) for Q1 (P = .001) (worst scores; P for trend dementia cases among 221 prevalent MCI cases. The B-SIT score also predicted progression from aMCI to AD dementia, with a significant dose-response with worsening B-SIT quartiles

  14. Walking or vitamin B for cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment? A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of aerobic exercise or vitamin B supplementation on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design: Randomised placebo-controlled trial. Setting: General community. Participants: Community-dwelling adults aged 70-80 with MCI.

  15. Walking or vitamin B for cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment? A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uffelen, J.G.Z.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of aerobic exercise or vitamin B supplementation on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design: Randomised placebo-controlled trial. Setting: General community. Participants: Community-dwelling adults aged 70-80 with MCI.

  16. Relative Intake of Macronutrients Impacts Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment or dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rosebud O.; Roberts, Lewis A.; Geda, Yonas E.; Cha, Ruth H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; O’Connor, Helen M.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    High caloric intake has been associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Total caloric intake is determined by the calories derived from macronutrients. The objective of the study was to investigate the association between percent of daily energy (calories) from macronutrients and incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. Participants were a population-based prospective cohort of elderly persons who were followed over a median 3.7 years (interquartile range, 2.5–3.9) of follow-up. At baseline and every 15 months, participants (median age, 79.5 years) were evaluated using the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, a neurological evaluation, and neuropsychological testing for a diagnosis of MCI, normal cognition, or dementia. Participants also completed a 128-item food-frequency questionnaire at baseline; total daily caloric and macronutrient intakes were calculated using an established database. The percent of total daily energy from protein (% protein), carbohydrate (% carbohydrate), and total fat (% fat) was computed. Among 937 subjects who were cognitively normal at baseline, 200 developed incident MCI or dementia. The risk of MCI or dementia (hazard ratio [HR], [95% confidence interval]) was elevated in subjects with high % carbohydrate (upper quartile: 1.89 [1.17–3.06]; P for trend=0.004), but was reduced in subjects with high % fat (upper quartile: 0.56 [0.34–0.91]; P for trend=0.03), and high % protein (upper quartile 0.79 [0.52 – 1.20]; P for trend=0.03) in the fully adjusted models. A dietary pattern with relatively high caloric intake from carbohydrates and low caloric intake from fat and proteins may increase the risk of MCI or dementia in elderly persons. PMID:22810099

  17. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  18. Accelerated Age-Dependent Hippocampal Volume Loss in Parkinson Disease With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christine B; Donix, Markus; Linse, Katharina; Werner, Annett; Fauser, Mareike; Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Löhle, Matthias; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Reichmann, Heinz; Storch, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease are at high risk of developing dementia. During the course of the disease, a substantial number of patients will experience a cognitive decline, indicating the dynamics of the underlying neuropathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly useful for identifying structural characteristics in radiological brain anatomy existing prior to clinical symptoms. Whether these changes reflect pathology, whether they are aging related, or both often remains unclear. We hypothesized that aging-associated brain structural changes would be more pronounced in the hippocampal region among patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive deficits relative to cognitively unimpaired patients. Using MRI, we investigated 30 cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease and 33 patients with nondemented Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment. All participants underwent structural MRI scanning and extensive clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Irrespective of the study participants' cognitive status, older age was associated with reduced cortical thickness in various neocortical regions. Having mild cognitive impairment was not associated with an increased rate of cortical thinning or volume loss in these regions, except in the hippocampus bilaterally. Patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment show an accelerated age-dependent hippocampal volume loss when compared with cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease. This may indicate pathological processes in a key region for memory functioning in patients with Parkinson disease at risk of developing dementia. Structural MRI of the hippocampal region could potentially contribute to identifying patients who should receive early treatment aimed at delaying the clinical onset of dementia.

  19. A brain stress test: Cerebral perfusion during memory encoding in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Long; Dolui, Sudipto; Das, Sandhitsu R; Stockbower, Grace E; Daffner, Molly; Rao, Hengyi; Yushkevich, Paul A; Detre, John A; Wolk, David A

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (ASL MRI) provides non-invasive quantification of cerebral blood flow, which can be used as a biomarker of brain function due to the tight coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain metabolism. A growing body of literature suggests that regional CBF is altered in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we examined ASL MRI CBF in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 65) and cognitively normal healthy controls (n = 62), both at rest and during performance of a memory-encoding task. As compared to rest, task-enhanced ASL MRI improved group discrimination, which supports the notion that physiologic measures during a cognitive challenge, or "stress test", may increase the ability to detect subtle functional changes in early disease stages. Further, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that ASL MRI and concomitantly acquired structural MRI provide complementary information of disease status. The current findings support the potential utility of task-enhanced ASL MRI as a biomarker in early Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Changes in Parahippocampal White Matter Integrity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

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    E. J. Rogalski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, changes in the parahippocampal white matter (PWM, in the region that includes the perforant path, were investigated, in vivo, in 14 individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI compared to 14 elderly controls with no cognitive impairment (NCI. For this purpose, (1 volumetry; (2 diffusion tensor imaging (DTI derived measures of mean diffusivity (MD and fractional anisotropy (FA; and (3 tractography were used. In addition, regression models were utilized to examine the association of PWM measurements with memory decline. The results from this study confirm previous findings in our laboratory and others, showing that compared to controls, individuals with aMCI have PWM volume loss. In addition to volume reduction, participants with aMCI demonstrated a significant increase in MD, but no difference in FA, both in the PWM region and in fibers modeled to pass through the PWM region. Further, the DTI metric of MD was associated with declarative memory performance, suggesting it may be a sensitive marker for memory dysfunction. These results indicate that there is general tissue loss and degradation (decreased volume; increased MD in individuals with aMCI compared to older people with normal cognitive function. However, the microstructural organization of remaining fibers, as determined by measures of anisotropic diffusion, is not significantly different from that of controls.

  1. Social relationships and risk of incident mild cognitive impairment in U.S. Alzheimer's disease centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenowitz, Willa D; Kukull, Walter A; Beresford, Shirley A A; Monsell, Sarah E; Williams, Emily C

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships are hypothesized to prevent or slow cognitive decline. We sought to evaluate associations between social relationships and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database who were cognitively normal, aged 55 and older at baseline, and had at least 2 in-person visits (n=5335) were included. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models evaluated the association between 4 social relationships at baseline (marital status, living situation, having children, and having siblings) and risk of developing MCI (on the basis of clinician diagnosis following established criteria). Primary models were adjusted for baseline demographics. Participants were followed, on average, for 3.2 years; 15.2% were diagnosed with MCI. Compared with married participants, risk of MCI was significantly lower for widowed participants (hazard ratio: 0.87; 95% confidence interval: 0.76, 0.99) but not for divorced/separated or never-married participants. Compared with living with a spouse/partner, risk of MCI was significantly higher for living with others (hazard ratio: 1.35; 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.77) but not for living alone. Risk of MCI was not associated with having children or having siblings. These results did not consistently identify social relationships as a strong risk factor for, or independent clinical predictor of, MCI.

  2. Recognition Memory in Amnestic-Mild Cognitive Impairment: Insights from Event-Related Potentials

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    David A Wolk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory loss is the hallmark cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (a-MCI frequently represents a transitional stage between normal aging and early AD. A better understanding of the qualitative features of memory loss in a-MCI may have important implications for predicting those most likely to harbor AD-related pathology and for disease monitoring. Dual process models of memory argue that recognition memory is subserved by the dissociable processes of recollection and familiarity. Work studying recognition memory in a-MCI from this perspective has been controversial, particularly with regard to the integrity of familiarity. Event-related potentials (ERPs offer an alternative means for assessing these functions without the associated assumptions of behavioral estimation methods. ERPs were recorded while a-MCI patients and cognitively normal (CN age-matched adults performed a recognition memory task. When retrieval success was measured (hits versus correct rejections in which performance was matched by group, a-MCI patients displayed similar neural correlates to that of the CN group, including modulation of the FN400 and the late parietal complex (LPC which are thought to index familiarity and recollection, respectively. Alternatively, when the integrity of these components were measured based on retrieval attempts (studied versus unstudied items, a-MCI patients displayed a reduced FN400 and LPC. Furthermore, modulation of the FN400 correlated with a behavioral estimate of familiarity and the LPC with a behavioral estimates of recollection obtained in a separate experiment in the same individuals, consistent with the proposed mappings of these indices. These results support a global decline of recognition memory in a-MCI, which suggests that the memory loss of prodromal AD may be qualitatively distinct from normal aging.

  3. Low uric acid is a risk factor in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, LingLing; Liu, YongBing; Xue, HuiPing; Xue, Jin; Sun, KaiXuan; Wu, LinFeng; Hou, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. Uric acid is a water-soluble antioxidant found in the body. Many recent studies have found that uric acid plays an important role in cognitive impairment, although the effects of uric acid on MCI are not clear. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between uric acid and MCI. Using a random sampling method, this study investigated 58 patients with MCI and 57 healthy elderly from January 2016 to November 2016. Demographic information was collected, the subjects were evaluated using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and uric acid was measured in fasting venous blood. A total of 57 (49.6%) participants are healthy and 58 (50.4%) participants had MCI. The uric acid level was significantly lower in the patients with MCI (292.28±63.71 μmol/L) than in the normal controls (322.49±78.70 μmol/L; P uric acid level (all P uric acid was a protective factor for MCI (odds ratio =0.999, 95% CI =0.987-0.999). A low uric acid level is a risk factor for MCI, and an appropriate increase in uric acid can be used to slow down the occurrence and development of MCI.

  4. Face-Name Associative Recognition Deficits in Subjective Cognitive Decline and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Polcher, Alexandra; Frommann, Ingo; Koppara, Alexander; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Jessen, Frank; Wagner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for more sensitive neuropsychological tests to detect subtle cognitive deficits emerging in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associative memory is a cognitive function supported by the hippocampus and affected early in the process of AD. We developed a short computerized face-name associative recognition test (FNART) and tested whether it would detect memory impairment in memory clinic patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD). We recruited 61 elderly patients with either SCD (n = 32) or MCI (n = 29) and 28 healthy controls (HC) and compared performance on FNART, self-reported cognitive deterioration in different domains (ECog-39), and, in a reduced sample (n = 46), performance on the visual Paired Associates Learning of the CANTAB battery. A significant effect of group on FNART test performance in the total sample was found (p < 0.001). Planned contrasts indicated a significantly lower associative memory performance in the SCD (p = 0.001, d = 0.82) and MCI group (p < 0.001, d = 1.54), as compared to HCs, respectively. The CANTAB-PAL discriminated only between HC and MCI, possibly because of reduced statistical power. Adjusted for depression, performance on FNART was significantly related to ECog-39 Memory in SCD patients (p = 0.024) but not in MCI patients. Associative memory is substantially impaired in memory clinic patients with SCD and correlates specifically with memory complaints at this putative preclinical stage of AD. Further studies will need to examine the predictive validity of the FNART in SCD patients with regard to longitudinal (i.e., conversion to MCI/AD) and biomarker outcomes.

  5. MRI markers for mild cognitive impairment: comparisons between white matter integrity and gray matter volume measurements.

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    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of assessing white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for classification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and prediction of cognitive impairments in comparison to brain atrophy measurements using structural MRI. Fifty-one patients with MCI and 66 cognitive normal controls (CN underwent DTI and T1-weighted structural MRI. DTI measures included fractional anisotropy (FA and radial diffusivity (DR from 20 predetermined regions-of-interest (ROIs in the commissural, limbic and association tracts, which are thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease; measures of regional gray matter (GM volume included 21 ROIs in medial temporal lobe, parietal cortex, and subcortical regions. Significant group differences between MCI and CN were detected by each MRI modality: In particular, reduced FA was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and fornix; increased DR was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and bilateral uncinate fasciculi; reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, left entorhinal cortex, right amygdala and bilateral thalamus; and thinner cortex was found in the left entorhinal cortex. Group classifications based on FA or DR was significant and better than classifications based on GM volume. Using either DR or FA together with GM volume improved classification accuracy. Furthermore, all three measures, FA, DR and GM volume were similarly accurate in predicting cognitive performance in MCI patients. Taken together, the results imply that DTI measures are as accurate as measures of GM volume in detecting brain alterations that are associated with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, a combination of DTI and structural MRI measurements improves classification accuracy.

  6. Theta and Alpha Alterations in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment in Semantic Go/NoGo Tasks

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    Lydia T. Nguyen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that cognitive control processes are impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; however the nature of these alterations needs further examination. The current study examined differences in electroencephalographic theta and alpha power related to cognitive control processes involving response execution and response inhibition in 22 individuals with aMCI and 22 age-, sex-, and education-matched cognitively normal controls. Two Go/NoGo tasks involving semantic categorization were used. In the basic categorization task, Go/NoGo responses were made based on exemplars of a single car (Go and a single dog (NoGo. In the superordinate categorization task, responses were made based on multiple exemplars of objects (Go and animals (NoGo. Behavioral data showed that the aMCI group had more false alarms during the NoGo trials compared to controls. The EEG data revealed between group differences related to response type in theta (4–7 Hz and low-frequency alpha (8–10 Hz power. In particular, the aMCI group differed from controls in theta power during the NoGo trials at frontal and parietal electrodes, and in low-frequency alpha power during Go trials at parietal electrodes. These results suggest that alterations in theta power converge with behavioral deterioration in response inhibition, whereas alterations in low-frequency alpha power appear to precede behavioral changes in response execution. Both behavioral and electrophysiological correlates combined provide a more comprehensive characterization of cognitive control deficits in aMCI.

  7. Effects of age and mild cognitive impairment on the pain response system.

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    Kunz, Miriam; Mylius, Veit; Schepelmann, Karsten; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Both age and dementia have been shown to have an effect on nociception and pain processing. The question arises whether mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is thought to be a transitional stage between normal ageing and dementia, is also associated with alterations in pain processing. The aim of the present study was to answer this question by investigating the impact of age and MCI on the pain response system. Forty young subjects, 45 cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects and 42 subjects with MCI were investigated by use of an experimental multi-method approach. The subjects were tested for their subjective (pain ratings), motor (RIII reflex), facial (Facial Action Coding System) and their autonomic (sympathetic skin response and evoked heart rate response) responses to noxious electrical stimulation of the nervus suralis. We found significant group differences in the autonomic responses to noxious stimulation. The sympathetic skin response amplitude was significantly reduced in the cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects compared to younger subjects and to an even greater degree in subjects with MCI. The evoked heart rate response was reduced to a similar degree in both groups of aged subjects. Regression analyses within the two groups of the elderly subjects revealed that age and, in the MCI group, cognitive status were significant predictors of the decrease in autonomic responsiveness to noxious stimulation. Except for the autonomic parameters, no other pain parameter differed between the three groups. The pain response system appeared to be quite unaltered in MCI patients compared to cognitively unimpaired individuals of the same age. Only the sympathetic responsiveness qualified as an indicator of early aging effects as well as of pathophysiology associated with MCI, which both seemed to affect the pain system independently from each other.

  8. Longitudinal brain metabolic changes from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Marine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; Duchesnay, Edouard; Mézenge, Florence; De La Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Baron, Jean-Claude; Eustache, Francis; Chételat, Gaël

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive marker for monitoring progression of early Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) would help to develop and test new therapeutic strategies. The present study aimed at investigating brain metabolism changes over time, as potential monitoring marker, in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), according to their clinical outcome (converters or non-converters), and in relation to their cognitive decline. Seventeen aMCI patients underwent MRI and 18FDG-PET scans both at inclusion and 18 months later. Baseline and follow-up PET data were corrected for partial volume effects and spatially normalized using MRI data, scaled to the vermis and compared using SPM2. ‘PET-PAC’ maps reflecting metabolic percent annual changes were created for correlation analyses with cognitive decline. In the whole sample, the greatest metabolic decrease concerned the posterior cingulate-precuneus area. Converters had significantly greater metabolic decrease than nonconverters in two ventro-medial prefrontal areas, the subgenual (BA25) and anterior cingulate (BA24/32). PET-PAC in BA25 and BA24/32 combined allowed complete between-group discrimination. BA25 PET-PAC significantly correlated with both cognitive decline and PET-PAC in the hippocampal region and temporal pole, while BA24/32 PET-PAC correlated with posterior cingulate PET-PAC. Finally, the metabolic change in BA8/9/10 was inversely related to that in BA25 and showed relative increase with cognitive decline, suggesting that compensatory processes may occur in this dorso-medial prefrontal region. The observed ventro-medial prefrontal disruption is likely to reflect disconnection from the hippocampus, both indirectly through the cingulum bundle and posterior cingulate cortex for BA24/32, and directly through the uncinate fasciculus for BA25. Altogether, our findings emphasize the potential of 18FDG-PET for monitoring early AD progression. PMID:19477964

  9. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

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    Uemura, Kazuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years) consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability. In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027) and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034). A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (β = -0.322, P = 0.026) and MMSE score (β = -0.295, P = 0.041), controlling for age and gender. General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to examine the effects of exercise programs designed to address cognitive obstacles in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

  10. Vitamin B-12 concentration, memory performance, and hippocampal structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

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    Köbe, Theresa; Witte, A Veronica; Schnelle, Ariane; Grittner, Ulrike; Tesky, Valentina A; Pantel, Johannes; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Bohlken, Jens; Rujescu, Dan; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Low-normal concentrations of vitamin B-12 (VitB12) may be associated with worse cognition. However, previous evidence has been mixed, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We determined whether serum VitB12 concentrations within the normal range were linked to memory functions and related neuronal structures in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a cross-sectional design, we assessed 100 amnestic MCI patients (52 women; age range: 50-80 y) with low- and high-normal VitB12 concentration (median split: 304 pmol/L) for memory functions with the use of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test. MRI was performed at 3 tesla (n= 86) for the estimation of the volume and microstructure of the hippocampus and its subfields as indicated by the mean diffusivity on diffusion-weighted images. With the use of a mediation analysis, we examined whether the relation between VitB12 and memory performance was partially explained by volume or microstructure. MCI patients with low-normal VitB12 showed a significantly poorer learning ability (P= 0.014) and recognition performance (P= 0.008) than did patients with high-normal VitB12. Also, the microstructure integrity of the hippocampus was lower in patients with low-normal VitB12, mainly in the cornu ammonis 4 and dentate gyrus region (P= 0.029), which partially mediated the effect of VitB12 on memory performance (32-48%). Adjustments for age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E e4 status, and total homocysteine, folate, and creatinine did not attenuate the effects. Low VitB12 concentrations within the normal range are associated with poorer memory performance, which is an effect that is partially mediated by the reduced microstructural integrity of the hippocampus. Future interventional trials are needed to assess whether supplementation of VitB12 may improve cognition in MCI patients even in the absence of clinically manifested VitB12 deficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01219244. © 2016

  11. MR diffusion tensor imaging voxel-based analysis of whole brain white matter in patients with amnestic-type mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yadi; Feng Xiaoyuan; He Huijin; Ding Ding; Tang Weijun; Zhao Qianhua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) using voxel-based analysis (VBA), and investigate the relationship between WM abnormalities and gray matter (GM) atrophy. Methods: Thirty-three cases with aMCI, 32 cases with mild AD and 31 normal aging volunteers as control subjects were scanned on a 3.0 T MR system using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled (3DSPGR) sequences. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and morphological images were preprocessed by SPM5 and voxel-based comparisons between the 2 patient groups and the control group were performed by t test. Results: Relative to the control group, patients with aMCI showed significantly reduced FA value in bilateral frontal, temporal and left occipital WM, left anterior part of cingulum, left inferior parietal lobule, and the WM adjacent to the triangular part of the right lateral ventricle (k ≥ 20 voxels). In mild AD, significantly reduced FA value was found in bilateral hippocampal, inferior parietal lobular, frontal, temporal, and occipital WM, bilateral corpus callosum, anterior part of cingulums, the WM adjacent to the triangular part of the bilateral lateral ventricles, left temporal stem, left thalamus, right precuneus (k ≥ 20 voxels). Significantly reduced GM volume was found in left hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, lingual gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, bilateral insulae and middle temporal gyri in aMCI group when compared with control group (k ≥ 50 voxels). In mild AD, significantly reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, parahippocampal gyri, amygdalae, thalami, temporal, parietal, frontal, occipital cortex (k ≥ 50 voxels). The pattern of areas with reduced FA differs from that of the GM volumetric reduction. No areas with significantly reduced FA was detected in aMCI compared with mild AD. There was no significant

  12. Dimensions of Ambiguous Loss in Couples Coping with Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.; Wilcox, Karen L.; Barham, Elizabeth J.; Winston, Brianne L.

    2007-01-01

    We applied the theory of ambiguous loss to couples with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an age-related decline in memory and other cognitive processes assumed not to interfere with daily activities or the maintenance of personal relationships. Face-to-face interviews with 67 older married couples revealed that lack of understanding about the…

  13. Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment

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    K. M. Volkers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years. Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482.

  14. Anosognosia for cognitive and behavioral symptoms in Parkinson's disease with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment: Frequency and neuropsychological/neuropsychiatric correlates.

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    Orfei, Maria Donata; Assogna, Francesca; Pellicano, Clelia; Pontieri, Francesco Ernesto; Caltagirone, Carlo; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Stefani, Alessandro; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2018-04-17

    Anosognosia is a multidimensional phenomenon with detrimental effects on patients' illness course, therapy compliance and quality of life. We aimed at investigating anosognosia for cognitive and behavioral symptoms in Parkinson's Disease (PD) with dementia (PDD) and, for the first time, in PD with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI-PD). Community dwelling subjects (47 mild PDD, 136 multidomain MCI-PD (mdMCI-PD), 5 single domain MCI-PD (sdMCI-PD), and 197 PD without cognitive impairment (noCI-PD) were enrolled in a cross-sectional design study. All the subjects were administered the Anosognosia Questionnaire for Dementia, the Mental Deterioration Battery and a number of neuropsychiatric inventories. A diagnosis of anosognosia was made in 36% of patients with mild PDD and 16% with mdMCI-PD, whether it was negligible in sdMCI-PD and noCI-PD. Higher severity of anosognosia for cognitive impairment was also found in PDD and in mdMCI-PD. SdMCI-PD had the lower severity of anosognosia for cognitive impairment. Higher anosognosia for cognitive impairment was associated to lower depression in noCI-PD (r = -0.227, p = 0.0013) and mdMCI-PD (r = -0.266, p = 0.0016), and to reduced hedonic tone in noCI-PD (r = -0.191, p = 0.0071). Greater anosognosia was associated to lower executive performances in PDD (r = 0.424, p = 0.0074). Anosognosia for non-motor symptoms is frequent in PD patients with mild dementia or mdMCI. Results confirm the role of neuropsychiatric characteristics in anosognosia also in PD, the high prevalence of anosognosia in neurodegenerative illnesses and suggest a common pathogenic path for anosognosia in different neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Memory deficits for facial identity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

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    Savaskan, Egemen; Summermatter, Daniel; Schroeder, Clemens; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2018-01-01

    Faces are among the most relevant social stimuli revealing an encounter's identity and actual emotional state. Deficits in facial recognition may be an early sign of cognitive decline leading to social deficits. The main objective of the present study is to investigate if individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment show recognition deficits in facial identity. Thirty-seven individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, multiple-domain (15 female; age: 75±8 yrs.) and forty-one healthy volunteers (24 female; age 71±6 yrs.) participated. All participants completed a human portrait memory test presenting unfamiliar faces with happy and angry emotional expressions. Five and thirty minutes later, old and new neutral faces were presented, and discrimination sensitivity (d') and response bias (C) were assessed as signal detection parameters of cued facial identity recognition. Memory performance was lower in amnestic mild cognitive impairment as compared to control subjects, mainly because of an altered response bias towards an increased false alarm rate (favoring false OLD ascription of NEW items). In both groups, memory performance declined between the early and later testing session, and was always better for acquired happy than angry faces. Facial identity memory is impaired in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Liberalization of the response bias may reflect a socially motivated compensatory mechanism maintaining an almost identical recognition hit rate of OLD faces in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

  16. Identifying Dietary Patterns Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults Using Reduced Rank Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayeon Shin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a crucial role in cognitive function. Few studies have examined the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive functions of older adults in the Korean population. This study aimed to identify the effect of dietary patterns on the risk of mild cognitive impairment. A total of 239 participants, including 88 men and 151 women, aged 65 years and older were selected from health centers in the district of Seoul, Gyeonggi province, and Incheon, in Korea. Dietary patterns were determined using Reduced Rank Regression (RRR methods with responses regarding vitamin B6, vitamin C, and iron intakes, based on both a one-day 24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between dietary pattern score and the risk of mild cognitive impairment. A total of 20 (8% out of the 239 participants had mild cognitive impairment. Three dietary patterns were identified: seafood and vegetables, high meat, and bread, ham, and alcohol. Among the three dietary patterns, the older adult population who adhered to the seafood and vegetables pattern, characterized by high intake of seafood, vegetables, fruits, bread, snacks, soy products, beans, chicken, pork, ham, egg, and milk had a decreased risk of mild cognitive impairment compared to those who did not (adjusted odds ratios 0.06, 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.72 after controlling for gender, supplementation, education, history of dementia, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, and duration of sleep. The other two dietary patterns were not significantly associated with the risk of mild cognitive impairment. In conclusion, high consumption of fruits, vegetables, seafood, and protein foods was significantly associated with reduced mild cognitive impairment in older Korean adults. These results can contribute to the establishment of

  17. Slowing down after a mild traumatic brain injury: a strategy to improve cognitive task performance?

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    Ozen, Lana J; Fernandes, Myra A

    2012-01-01

    Long-term persistent attention and memory difficulties following a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) often go undetected on standard neuropsychological tests, despite complaints by mild TBI individuals. We conducted a visual Repetition Detection working memory task to digits, in which we manipulated task difficulty by increasing cognitive load, to identify subtle deficits long after a mild TBI. Twenty-six undergraduate students with a self-report of one mild TBI, which occurred at least 6 months prior, and 31 non-head-injured controls took part in the study. Participants were not informed until study completion that the study's purpose was to examine cognitive changes following a mild TBI, to reduce the influence of "diagnosis threat" on performance. Neuropsychological tasks did not differentiate the groups, though mild TBI participants reported higher state anxiety levels. On our working memory task, the mild TBI group took significantly longer to accurately detect repeated targets on our task, suggesting that slowed information processing is a long-term consequence of mild TBI. Accuracy was comparable in the low-load condition and, unexpectedly, mild TBI performance surpassed that of controls in the high-load condition. Temporal analysis of target identification suggested a strategy difference between groups: mild TBI participants made a significantly greater number of accurate responses following the target's offset, and significantly fewer erroneous distracter responses prior to target onset, compared with controls. Results suggest that long after a mild TBI, high-functioning young adults invoke a strategy of delaying their identification of targets in order to maintain, and facilitate, accuracy on cognitively demanding tasks. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. Dual-task as a predictor of falls in older people with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease: a prospective cohort study.

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    Gonçalves, Jessica; Ansai, Juliana Hotta; Masse, Fernando Arturo Arriagada; Vale, Francisco Assis Carvalho; Takahashi, Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros; Andrade, Larissa Pires de

    2018-04-04

    A dual-task tool with a challenging and daily secondary task, which involves executive functions, could facilitate the screening for risk of falls in older people with mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease. To verify if a motor-cognitive dual-task test could predict falls in older people with mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease, and to establish cutoff scores for the tool for both groups. A prospective study was conducted with community-dwelling older adults, including 40 with mild cognitive impairment and 38 with mild Alzheimer's disease. The dual-task test consisted of the Timed up and Go Test associated with a motor-cognitive task using a phone to call. Falls were recorded during six months by calendar and monthly telephone calls and the participants were categorized as fallers or non-fallers. In the Mild cognitive impairment Group, fallers presented higher values in time (35.2s), number of steps (33.7 steps) and motor task cost (116%) on dual-task compared to non-fallers. Time, number of steps and motor task cost were significantly associated with falls in people with mild cognitive impairment. Multivariate analysis identified higher number of steps spent on the test to be independently associated with falls. A time greater than 23.88s (sensitivity=80%; specificity=61%) and a number of steps over 29.50 (sensitivity=65%; specificity=83%) indicated prediction of risk of falls in the Mild cognitive impairment Group. Among people with Alzheimer's disease, no differences in dual-task between fallers and non-fallers were found and no variable of the tool was able to predict falls. The dual-task predicts falls only in older people with mild cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Aerobic Training on Cognition and Brain Glucose Metabolism in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Fábio Henrique de Gobbi; Coutinho, Artur Martins Novaes; Pinto, Ana Lucia de Sá; Gualano, Bruno; Duran, Fabio Luís de Souza; Prando, Silvana; Ono, Carla Rachel; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; do Vale, Patrícia Helena Figuerêdo; Nitrini, Ricardo; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic training (AT) is a promising intervention for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). To evaluate the effects of AT on cognition and regional brain glucose metabolism (rBGM) in MCI patients. Subjects performed a twice-a-week, moderate intensity, AT program for 24 weeks. Assessment with ADAS-cog, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and evaluation of rBGM with positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG-PET) were performed before and after the intervention. Aerobic capacity was compared using the maximal oxygen consumption VO2max (mL/Kg/min). [18F]FDG-PET data were analyzed on a voxel-by-voxel basis with SPM8 software. Forty subjects were included, with a mean (M) age of 70.3 (5.4) years and an initial Mini-Mental State Exam score of 27.4 (1.7). Comparisons using paired t-tests revealed improvements in the ADAS-cog (M difference: -2.7 (3.7), p <  0.001) and VO2max scores (M difference: 1.8 (2.0) mL/kg/min, p <  0.001). Brain metabolic analysis revealed a bilateral decrease in the rBGM of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, pFWE = 0.04. This rBGM decrease was negatively correlated with improvement in a visuospatial function/attentional test (rho =-0.31, p = 0.04). Several other brain areas also showed increases or decreases in rBGM. Of note, there was an increase in the retrosplenial cortex, an important node of the default mode network, that was negatively correlated with the metabolic decrease in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (r =-0.51, p = 0.001). AT improved cognition and changed rBGM in areas related to cognition in subjects with MCI.

  20. Mild cognitive impairment in symptomatic and asymptomatic cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Irena Martinić; Serić, Vesna; Demarin, Vida

    2007-06-15

    We tried to evaluate and to compare usefulness of two brief cognitive tests in early detection of cognitive decline in subjects with increased cerebrovascular (CV) risk. As CV risk factors are recognised as important in etiology of dementia, we also aimed to determine the possible associations of specific CV risk factors and cognitive results. Patients (PGs) with first-ever stroke or TIA (N=110) and CV symptoms-free controls (CGs) with CV risk factors present (N=45) matched for age, gender and education level were tested using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) on admission, at three- and six-month points. In all subjects, detailed CV risk factors profile was assessed. We observed the decrement in cognitive performance during the six-month study period in both groups, more evident if MoCA (pdecrement and multiple CV risk factors (>2) were found (p=0.034 for MMSE; p=0.002 for MoCA). In CGs, positive associations were found for cognitive decrement and arterial hypertension with increased IMT values (pmultiple CV risk factors and arterial hypertension (p=0.003 for MoCA). The use of MoCA could aid to early recognition of cognitive deficits in persons with increased CV risk. Individuals with multiple CV risk factors seem to have increased risk of cognitive decline.

  1. Decline in Weight and Incident Mild Cognitive Impairment: Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhurani, Rabe E.; Vassilaki, Maria; Aakre, Jeremiah; Mielke, Michelle M.; Kremers, Walter K.; Machulda, Mary M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Knopman, David S.; Peterson, Ronald C.; Roberts, Rosebud O.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Unintentional weight loss has been associated with risk of dementia. Since mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prodromal stage for dementia, we sought to evaluate whether changes in weight and body mass index (BMI) may predict incident MCI. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of change in weight and BMI with risk of MCI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A population-based, prospective study of participants aged 70 years and older from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Maximum weight and height in midlife (aged 40 to 65 years old) were retrospectively ascertained from the medical records of participants using a medical records linkage system. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES Participants were evaluated for cognitive outcomes of normal cognition, MCI, or dementia at baseline and prospectively assessed for incident events at each 15-month evaluation. The association of rate of change in weight and body mass index with risk of MCI was investigated using proportional hazards models. RESULTS Over a mean follow-up of 4.4 years, 524 of 1895 cognitively normal participants developed incident MCI. The mean (standard deviation) rate of weight change per decade from midlife to study entry was greater for individuals who developed incident MCI vs. those who remained cognitively normal (−2.0 (5.1) vs. −1.2 (4.9) kg; p = 0.006). A greater decline in weight per decade was associated with an increased risk of incident MCI (hazard ratio [HR] 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 [1.02, 1.06], p weight loss of 5 kg/decade corresponds to a 24% increase in risk of MCI (HR=1.24). Higher decline in BMI per decade was also associated with incident MCI (HR, 1.08, 95% CI = [1.03, 1.13], p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest that declining weight from midlife to late-life is a marker for MCI and may help identify persons at increased risk for MCI. PMID:26831542

  2. Prediction of progression in patients with mild cognitive impairment using IMP-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Shinkawa, Mitsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Toshifumi; Nakajo, Kazushi; Maruyama, Masahiro; Hu, Xia Sheng; Sasaki, Hidetada

    2000-01-01

    To examine the difference in functional brain imaging between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal aging, we measured rCBF on functional brain imaging using 123 I-IMP single photon emission computed tomography (IMP-SPECT) in 19 MCI patients who progressed to develop AD on follow-up and 23 probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as well as 15 age-matched normal subjects. Baseline MMSE score was 25.3 (SD 1.2) in the MCI group and 17.5 (SD 3.3) in the AD group. The regions of interest (ROI) in the posterior cingulate gyrus, frontal, temporal and parietal cortices were drawn on the image of IMP-SPECT with reference to an individual MRI image. The rCBF ratio was calculated using ROI value in the cerebellum as a reference. Voxel-based analysis was also preformed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The rCBF ratio in the posterior cingulate gyrus was significantly reduced in the MCI group (mean 0.956, SD 0.080) and the AD group (mean 0.833, SD 0.118) compared to that in the normal group (mean 1.083, SD 0.084). In the frontal, temporal and parietal cortices, the rCBF ratio was significantly reduced only in the AD group compared to the normal group. At a fixed specificity of 80%, the diagnostic sensitivity in the discrimination between MCI patients and normal subjects was 80.5% when using rCBF ratio in posterior cingulate gyrus. In the SPM analysis, significant reduction of the rCBF in MCI group was observed only in the posterior cingulate gyrus, compared with normal subject group. Our results suggest that MCI patients presenting with a posterior cingulate hypoperfusion are at higher risk for transition from MCI to clinically recognizable AD. (author)

  3. Functional Disorganization of Small-World Brain Networks in mild Alzheimer’s Disease and amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: An EEG Study using Relative Wavelet Entropy (RWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Frantzidis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroscientific findings have linked Alzheimer’s disease (AD with less efficient information processing and brain network disorganization. However, pathological alterations of the brain networks during the preclinical phase of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI remain largely unknown. The present study aimed at comparing patterns of the detection of functional disorganization in MCI relative to Mild Dementia (MD. Participants consisted of 23 cognitively healthy adults, 17 aMCI and 24 mild AD patients who underwent electroencephalographic (EEG data acquisition during a resting-state condition. Synchronization analysis through the Orthogonal Discrete Wavelet Transform (ODWT, and directional brain network analysis were applied on the EEG data. This computational model was performed for networks that have the same number of edges (N=500, 600, 700, 800 edges across all participants and groups (fixed density values. All groups exhibited a small-world (SW brain architecture. However, we found a significant reduction in the SW brain architecture in both aMCI and MD patients relative to the group of Healthy controls. This functional disorganization was also correlated with the participant’s generic cognitive status. The deterioration of the network’s organization was caused mainly by deficient local information processing as quantified by the mean cluster coefficient value. Functional hubs were identified through the normalized betweenness centrality metric. Analysis of the local characteristics showed relative hub preservation even with statistically significant reduced strength. Compensatory phenomena were also evident through the formation of additional hubs on left frontal and parietal regions. Our results indicate a declined functional network organization even during the prodromal phase. Degeneration is evident even in the preclinical phase and coexists with transient network reorganization due to compensation.

  4. Distributive justice and cognitive enhancement in lower, normal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mikael; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    There exists a significant disparity within society between individuals in terms of intelligence. While intelligence varies naturally throughout society, the extent to which this impacts on the life opportunities it affords to each individual is greatly undervalued. Intelligence appears to have a prominent effect over a broad range of social and economic life outcomes. Many key determinants of well-being correlate highly with the results of IQ tests, and other measures of intelligence, and an IQ of 75 is generally accepted as the most important threshold in modern life. The ability to enhance our cognitive capacities offers an exciting opportunity to correct disabling natural variation and inequality in intelligence. Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, such as modafinil and methylphenidate, have been shown to have the capacity to enhance cognition in normal, healthy individuals. Perhaps of most relevance is the presence of an 'inverted U effect' for most pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, whereby the degree of enhancement increases as intelligence levels deviate further below the mean. Although enhancement, including cognitive enhancement, has been much debated recently, we argue that there are egalitarian reasons to enhance individuals with low but normal intelligence. Under egalitarianism, cognitive enhancement has the potential to reduce opportunity inequality and contribute to relative income and welfare equality in the lower, normal intelligence subgroup. Cognitive enhancement use is justifiable under prioritarianism through various means of distribution; selective access to the lower, normal intelligence subgroup, universal access, or paradoxically through access primarily to the average and above average intelligence subgroups. Similarly, an aggregate increase in social well-being is achieved through similar means of distribution under utilitarianism. In addition, the use of cognitive enhancement within the lower, normal intelligence subgroup negates, or at

  5. Frequent mild cognitive deficits in several functional domains in elderly patients with heart failure without known cognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Arto; Berggren, Jens; Holmström, Alexandra; Fu, Michael; Wallin, Anders

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether mild cognitive deficits are present in patients with heart failure (HF) despite absence of any known cognitive disorder. A well defined group of patients (n = 40) with heart failure completed a cognitive screening check list, a depression screening questionnaire, and a battery consisting of neuropsychological tests assessing 5 different cognitive domains: speed/attention, episodic memory, visuospatial functions, language, and executive functions. The neuropsychological results were compared with those from a group of healthy control subjects (n = 41). The patients with HF displayed cognitive impairment compared with the control group within the domains speed and attention, episodic memory, visuospatial functions, and language. Among them, 34 HF patients (85%) could be classified with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the majority as nonamnestic MCI, ie, with no memory impairment. Considering the high occurrence of mild cognitive deficits among HF patients without known cognitive disorders, closer attention should be paid to their self-care and compliance. Inadequate self-care and compliance could lead to more frequent hospitalizations. Furthermore, the HF patients may be at increased risk of dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of cognitive and physical fatigue in post-acute mild-moderate traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiehser, Dawn M; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Jak, Amy J; Hanson, Karen L; Sorg, Scott F; Orff, Henry; Clark, Alexandra L

    2017-10-01

    Post-traumatic fatigue (PTF) is a common, disabling, and often chronic symptom following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Yet, the impact of chronic cognitive and physical fatigue and their associations with psychiatric, sleep, cognitive, and psychosocial sequelae in mild-moderate TBI remain poorly understood. Sixty Veterans with a history of mild-moderate TBI and 40 Veteran controls (VC) were administered the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, a validated measure of TBI-related cognitive and physical fatigue as well as measures of neuropsychiatric, psychosocial, sleep, and objective cognitive functioning. Compared to VC, TBI Veterans endorsed significantly greater levels of cognitive and physical fatigue. In TBI, psychiatric symptoms, sleep disturbance, and post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) were associated with both cognitive and physical fatigue, while loss of consciousness (LOC) and poor attention/processing speed were related to elevations in cognitive fatigue only. In regression analyses, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and LOC significantly predicted cognitive fatigue, while only post-traumatic stress symptoms and PTA contributed to physical fatigue. Cognitive and physical fatigue are problematic symptoms following mild-moderate TBI that are differentially associated with specific injury and psychiatric sequelae. Findings provide potential symptom targets for interventions aimed at ameliorating fatigue, and further underscore the importance of assessing and treating fatigue as a multi-dimensional symptom following TBI.

  7. Multimodal MRI for early diabetic mild cognitive impairment: study protocol of a prospective diagnostic trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ying; Sun, Qian; Yan, Lin-Feng; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Nan, Hai-Yan; Yang, Yang; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediary state between normal cognition and dementia, often occurs during the prodromal diabetic stage, making early diagnosis and intervention of MCI very important. Latest neuroimaging techniques revealed some underlying microstructure alterations for diabetic MCI, from certain aspects. But there still lacks an integrated multimodal MRI system to detect early neuroimaging changes in diabetic MCI patients. Thus, we intended to conduct a diagnostic trial using multimodal MRI techniques to detect early diabetic MCI that is determined by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). In this study, healthy controls, prodromal diabetes and diabetes subjects (53 subjects/group) aged 40-60 years will be recruited from the physical examination center of Tangdu Hospital. The neuroimaging and psychometric measurements will be repeated at a 0.5 year-interval for 2.5 years’ follow-up. The primary outcome measures are 1) Microstructural and functional alterations revealed with multimodal MRI scans including structure magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), and three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (3D-pCASL); 2) Cognition evaluation with MoCA. The second outcome measures are obesity, metabolic characteristics, lifestyle and quality of life. The study will provide evidence for the potential use of multimodal MRI techniques with psychometric evaluation in diagnosing MCI at prodromal diabetic stage so as to help decision making in early intervention and improve the prognosis of T2DM. This study has been registered to ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02420470) on April 2, 2015 and published on July 29, 2015

  8. Cholinergic Enhancement of Brain Activation in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI during Episodic Memory Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Risacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the physiological impact of treatment with donepezil (Aricept on neural circuitry supporting episodic memory encoding in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI using functional MRI (fMRI. Methods: 18 patients with MCI and 20 age-matched healthy controls (HC were scanned twice while performing an event-related verbal episodic encoding task. MCI participants were scanned before treatment and after approximately 3 months on donepezil; HC were untreated but rescanned at the same interval. Voxel-level analyses assessed treatment effects in activation profile relative to retest changes in non-treated HC. Changes in task-related connectivity in medial temporal circuitry were also evaluated, as were associations between brain activation pattern, task-related functional connectivity, task performance, and clinical measures of cognition.Results: At baseline, the MCI group showed reduced activation during encoding relative to HC in the right medial temporal lobe (MTL; hippocampal/parahippocampal and additional regions, as well as attenuated task-related deactivation, relative to rest, in a medial parietal lobe cluster. After treatment, the MCI group showed normalized MTL activation and improved parietal deactivation. These changes were associated with cognitive performance. After treatment, the MCI group also demonstrated increased task-related functional connectivity from the right MTL cluster seed region to a network of other sites including the basal nucleus/caudate and bilateral frontal lobes. Increased functional connectivity was associated with improved task performance.Conclusions: Pharmacologic enhancement of cholinergic function in amnestic MCI is associated with changes in brain activation pattern and functional connectivity during episodic memory processing which are in turn related to increased cognitive performance. fMRI is a promising biomarker for assessing treatment related changes in brain function.

  9. Mild cognitive impairment: loss of linguistic task-induced changes in motor cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, L; Giovannelli, F; Bessi, V; Borgheresi, A; Di Tullio, A; Sorbi, S; Zaccara, G; Cincotta, M

    2009-03-10

    In amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), functional neuronal connectivity may be altered, as suggested by quantitative EEG and neuroimaging data. In young healthy humans, the execution of linguistic tasks modifies the excitability of the hand area of the dominant primary motor cortex (M1(hand)), as tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We used TMS to investigate functional connectivity between language-related cortical areas and M1(hand) in aMCI. Ten elderly women with aMCI and 10 age-matched women were recruited. All participants were right handed and underwent a neuropsychological evaluation. In the first TMS experiment, participants performed three different tasks: reading aloud, viewing of non-letter strings (baseline), and nonverbal oral movements. The second experiment included the baseline condition and three visual searching/matching tasks using letters, geometric shapes, or digits as target stimuli. In controls, motor evoked potentials (MEP) elicited by suprathreshold TMS of the left M1(hand) were significantly larger during reading aloud (170% baseline) than during nonverbal oral movements, whereas no difference was seen for right M1(hand) stimulation. Similarly, MEP elicited by left M1(hand) stimulation during letter and shape searching/matching tasks were significantly larger compared to digit task. In contrast, linguistic task performance did not produce any significant MEP modulation in patients with aMCI, although neuropsychological evaluation showed normal language abilities. Findings suggest that functional connectivity between the language-related brain regions and the dominant M1(hand) may be altered in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Follow-up studies will reveal whether transcranial magnetic stimulation application during linguistic tasks may contribute to characterize the risk of conversion to Alzheimer disease.

  10. Volume changes in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: cognitive associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Matthew C.; Barnes, Josephine; Nielsen, Casper; Clegg, Shona L.; Blair, Melanie; Douiri, Abdel; Boyes, Richard G.; Fox, Nick C.; Kim, Lois G.; Leung, Kelvin K.; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    To assess the relationship between MRI-derived changes in whole-brain and ventricular volume with change in cognitive scores in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and control subjects. In total 131 control, 231 MCI and 99 AD subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort with T1-weighted volumetric MRIs from baseline and 12-month follow-up were used to derive volume changes. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale (ADAS)-cog and trails test changes were calculated over the same period. Brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between subject groups (p < 0.0005) and in MCI and AD were associated with MMSE changes. Both measures were additionally associated with ADAS-cog and trails-B in MCI patients, and ventricular expansion was associated with ADAS-cog in AD patients. Brain atrophy (p < 0.0005) and ventricular expansion rates (p = 0.001) were higher in MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months of follow-up compared with MCI subjects who remained stable. MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months had similar atrophy rates to AD subjects. Whole-brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between patient groups and healthy controls, and tracked disease progression and psychological decline, demonstrating their relevance as biomarkers. (orig.)

  11. The effect of mild motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsangas, Panagiotis; McCauley, Michael E; Becker, William

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of mild motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance. Despite knowledge on general motion sickness, little is known about the effect of motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance. Specifically, there is a gap in existing knowledge in the gray area of mild motion sickness. Fifty-one healthy individuals performed a multitasking battery. Three independent groups of participants were exposed to two experimental sessions. Two groups received motion only in the first or the second session, whereas the control group did not receive motion. Measurements of motion sickness, sopite syndrome, alertness, and performance were collected during the experiment Only during the second session, motion sickness and sopite syndrome had a significant negative association with cognitive performance. Significant performance differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic participants in the second session were identified in composite (9.43%), memory (31.7%), and arithmetic (14.7%) task scores. The results suggest that performance retention between sessions was not affected by mild motion sickness. Multitasking cognitive performance declined even when motion sickness and soporific symptoms were mild. The results also show an order effect. We postulate that the differential effect of session on the association between symptomatology and multitasking performance may be related to the attentional resources allocated to performing the multiple tasks. Results suggest an inverse relationship between motion sickness effects on performance and the cognitive effort focused on performing a task. Even mild motion sickness has potential implications for multitasking operational performance.

  12. Is emotional memory enhancement preserved in amnestic mild cognitive impairment? Evidence from separating recollection and familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyun; Li, Juan; Li, Huijie; Li, Bing; Jiang, Yang; Bao, Feng; Zhang, Shouzi

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated whether the observed absence of emotional memory enhancement in recognition tasks in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) could be related to their greater proportion of familiarity-based responses for all stimuli, and whether recognition tests with emotional items had better discriminative power for aMCI patients than those with neutral items. In total, 31 aMCI patients and 30 healthy older adults participated in a recognition test followed by remember/know judgments. Positive, neutral, and negative faces were used as stimuli. For overall recognition performance, emotional memory enhancement was found only in healthy controls; they remembered more negative and positive stimuli than neutral ones. For "remember" responses, we found equivalent emotional memory enhancement in both groups, though a greater proportion of "remember" responses was observed in normal controls. For "know" responses, aMCI patients presented a larger proportion than normal controls did, and their "know" responses were not affected by emotion. A negative correlation was found between emotional enhancement effect and the memory performance related to "know" responses. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed higher diagnostic accuracy for recognition test with emotional stimuli than with neutral stimuli. The present results implied that the absence of the emotional memory enhancement effect in aMCI patients might be related to their tendency to rely more on familiarity-based "know" responses for all stimuli. Furthermore, recognition memory tests using emotional stimuli may be better able than neutral stimuli to differentiate people with aMCI from cognitively normal older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Neural correlates of true and false memory in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Riddell, Patricia M; Ellis, Judi A; Freeman, Jayne E; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer's disease, which has been described as a 'disconnection syndrome'.

  14. Neural Correlates of True and False Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M.; Riddell, Patricia M.; Ellis, Judi A.; Freeman, Jayne E.; Nasuto, Slawomir J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer’s disease, which has been described as a ‘disconnection syndrome’. PMID:23118992

  15. Neurological soft signs in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and the relationships to neuropsychological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hui-jie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances. Methods Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants. Results People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI.

  16. Late-onset Alzheimer's risk variants in memory decline, incident mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Crook, Julia E; Pedraza, Otto; Thomas, Colleen S; Pankratz, V Shane; Allen, Mariet; Nguyen, Thuy; Malphrus, Kimberly G; Ma, Li; Bisceglio, Gina D; Roberts, Rosebud O; Lucas, John A; Smith, Glenn E; Ivnik, Robert J; Machulda, Mary M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C; Younkin, Steven G; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    We tested association of nine late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with memory and progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or LOAD (MCI/LOAD) in older Caucasians, cognitively normal at baseline and longitudinally evaluated at Mayo Clinic Rochester and Jacksonville (n>2000). Each variant was tested both individually and collectively using a weighted risk score. APOE-e4 associated with worse baseline memory and increased decline with highly significant overall effect on memory. CLU-rs11136000-G associated with worse baseline memory and incident MCI/LOAD. MS4A6A-rs610932-C associated with increased incident MCI/LOAD and suggestively with lower baseline memory. ABCA7-rs3764650-C and EPHA1-rs11767557-A associated with increased rates of memory decline in subjects with a final diagnosis of MCI/LOAD. PICALM-rs3851179-G had an unexpected protective effect on incident MCI/LOAD. Only APOE-inclusive risk scores associated with worse memory and incident MCI/LOAD. The collective influence of the nine top LOAD GWAS variants on memory decline and progression to MCI/LOAD appears limited. Discovery of biologically functional variants at these loci may uncover stronger effects on memory and incident disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced Frontal Activations at High Working Memory Load in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Michael K; Sze, Sophia L; Woo, Jean; Kwok, Timothy; Shum, David H K; Yu, Ruby; Chan, Agnes S

    2016-01-01

    Some functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported altered activations in the frontal cortex during working memory (WM) performance in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but the findings have been mixed. The objective of the present study was to utilize near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an alternative imaging technique, to examine neural processing during WM performance in individuals with MCI. Twenty-six older adults with MCI (7 males; mean age 69.15 years) were compared with 26 age-, gender-, handedness-, and education-matched older adults with normal cognition (NC; 7 males; mean age 68.87 years). All of the participants undertook an n-back task with a low (i.e., 0-back) and a high (i.e., 2-back) WM load condition while their prefrontal dynamics were recorded by a 16-channel NIRS system. Although behavioral results showed that the two groups had comparable task performance, neuroimaging results showed that the MCI group, unlike the NC group, did not exhibit significantly increased frontal activations bilaterally when WM load increased. Compared to the NC group, the MCI group had similar frontal activations at low load (p > 0.05 on all channels) but reduced activations at high load (p load in individuals with MCI. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Insulin Resistance Predicts Medial Temporal Hypermetabolism in Mild Cognitive Impairment Conversion to Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Auriel A.; Modanlo, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by progressive hypometabolism on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans. Peripheral insulin resistance (IR) increases AD risk. No studies have examined associations between FDG metabolism and IR in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, as well as MCI conversion to AD. We studied 26 cognitively normal (CN), 194 MCI (39 MCI-progressors, 148 MCI-stable, 2 years after baseline), and 60 AD subjects with baseline FDG-PET from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Mean FDG metabolism was derived for AD-vulnerable regions of interest (ROIs), including lateral parietal and posteromedial cortices, medial temporal lobe (MTL), hippocampus, and ventral prefrontal cortices (vPFC), as well as postcentral gyrus and global cerebrum control regions. The homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) was used to measure IR. For AD, higher HOMA-IR predicted lower FDG in all ROIs. For MCI-progressors, higher HOMA-IR predicted higher FDG in the MTL and hippocampus. Control regions showed no associations. Higher HOMA-IR predicted hypermetabolism in MCI-progressors and hypometabolism in AD in medial temporal regions. Future longitudinal studies should examine the pathophysiologic significance of the shift from MTL hyper- to hypometabolism associated with IR. PMID:25576061

  19. Fast decay of iconic memory in observers with mild cognitive impairments.

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    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Neuse, James; Madigan, Stephen; Dosher, Barbara Anne

    2005-02-01

    In a previous clinical report, unusually fast decay of iconic memory was obtained from a subject who later developed Alzheimer's disease. By using the partial-report paradigm, iconic memory (a form of visual sensory memory) in a group of observers with mild cognitive impairments (MCI) was characterized and compared with that of young college-age adults and older controls. Relatively long stimulus exposures were used for all three groups to ensure that older observers could perceive the stimuli. A set of conventional neuropsychological tests assessed cognitive functions of the MCI and older control groups. We found that iconic memory decayed much faster for observers with MCI than for normal controls, old or young, although the two groups of older observers performed at equivalent levels in precue tests (assay of visibility) and tests cued at long delays (assay of short-term memory). The result suggests that fast decay of iconic memory might be a general characteristic of observers with MCI who are at much higher than average risk of developing Alzheimer's disease later in life.

  20. Capacity of the Catalan and Spanish Versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Distinguish between Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

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    Gomez-Ruiz, Isabel; Aguilar-Alonso, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the capacity of the Catalan and Spanish versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to distinguish between normal and pathological aging. Both versions of the test were administered to 45 bilingual subjects: 15 healthy aging subjects, 15 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease. To…

  1. Old wine in new bottles: validating the clinical utility of SPECT in predicting cognitive performance in mild traumatic brain injury.

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    Romero, Kristoffer; Lobaugh, Nancy J; Black, Sandra E; Ehrlich, Lisa; Feinstein, Anthony

    2015-01-30

    The neural underpinnings of cognitive dysfunction in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) are not fully understood. Consequently, patient prognosis using existing clinical imaging is somewhat imprecise. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a frequently employed investigation in this population, notwithstanding uncertainty over the clinical utility of the data obtained. In this study, subjects with mild TBI underwent (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT scanning, and were administered a brief battery of cognitive tests and self-report symptom scales of concussion and emotional distress. Testing took place 2 weeks (n=84) and 1 year (n=49) post-injury. Multivariate analysis (i.e., partial least squares analysis) revealed that frontal perfusion in right superior frontal and middle frontal gyri predicted poorer performance on the Stroop test, an index of executive function, both at initial and follow-up testing. Conversely, SPECT scans categorized as normal or abnormal by radiologists did not differentiate cognitively impaired from intact subjects. These results demonstrate the clinical utility of SPECT in mild TBI, but only when data are subjected to blood flow quantification analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Operationalizing the Diagnostic Criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Salience of Objective Measures in Predicting Incident Dementia.

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    Brodaty, Henry; Aerts, Liesbeth; Crawford, John D; Heffernan, Megan; Kochan, Nicole A; Reppermund, Simone; Kang, Kristan; Maston, Kate; Draper, Brian; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2017-05-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia. It is diagnosed in the presence of subjective cognitive decline and objective cognitive impairment without significant functional impairment, although there are no standard operationalizations for each of these criteria. The objective of this study is to determine which operationalization of the MCI criteria is most accurate at predicting dementia. Six-year longitudinal study, part of the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Community-based. 873 community-dwelling dementia-free adults between 70 and 90 years of age. Persons from a non-English speaking background were excluded. Seven different operationalizations for subjective cognitive decline and eight measures of objective cognitive impairment (resulting in 56 different MCI operational algorithms) were applied. The accuracy of each algorithm to predict progression to dementia over 6 years was examined for 618 individuals. Baseline MCI prevalence varied between 0.4% and 30.2% and dementia conversion between 15.9% and 61.9% across different algorithms. The predictive accuracy for progression to dementia was poor. The highest accuracy was achieved based on objective cognitive impairment alone. Inclusion of subjective cognitive decline or mild functional impairment did not improve dementia prediction accuracy. Not MCI, but objective cognitive impairment alone, is the best predictor for progression to dementia in a community sample. Nevertheless, clinical assessment procedures need to be refined to improve the identification of pre-dementia individuals. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 'It's definitely not Alzheimer's': Perceived benefits and drawbacks of a mild cognitive impairment diagnosis.

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    Gomersall, Tim; Smith, Sarah Kate; Blewett, Charlotte; Astell, Arlene

    2017-11-01

    To understand the perceived benefits and drawbacks of a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis from the perspective of those living with the label. Participants were included if they had recently (within 6 months) received a MCI diagnosis. We also recruited close family members to gain their perspectives. Each was interviewed separately with a semi-structured topic guide covering three areas: (1) experience of cognitive impairments and changes in the individual; (2) impact of cognitive impairment(s) on daily activities and social relationships; and (3) experience of the diagnosis process and living with the label. Transcribed interviews were stored in Nvivo ® . Grounded theory procedures of memo writing, open coding, constant comparison, and focused coding were used to derive conceptual themes. Eighteen dyads were interviewed. The overarching themes surrounding diagnosis benefits and drawbacks were as follows: (1) emotional impact of the diagnosis; (2) practical benefits and limitations of the diagnosis, in terms of (a) understanding one's symptoms and (b) access to clinical support. Although participants were glad to have clinical support in place, they expressed frustration at the lack of clarity, and the lack of available treatments for MCI. Consequently, living with MCI can be characterized as an ambivalent experience. As a clinical label, MCI appears to have little explanatory power for people living with cognitive difficulties. Work is needed to clarify how clinicians and patients communicate about MCI, and how people can be helped to live well with the label. Despite an emerging body of prognostic studies, people with MCI are likely to continue living with significant uncertainty. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Mild cognitive impairment is a state of cognitive decline between normal cognitive ageing and dementia. This clinical category has been an important domain of academic debate over recent years. From a clinical

  4. Comparison of the Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in an Australian geriatrics clinic.

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    Clarnette, Roger; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Antony, Deanna N; Svendrovski, Anton; Molloy, D William

    2017-06-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) accurately differentiates mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from mild dementia and normal controls (NC). While the MoCA is validated in multiple clinical settings, few studies compare it with similar tests also designed to detect MCI. We sought to investigate how the shorter Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen compares with the MoCA. Consecutive referrals presenting with cognitive complaints to a teaching hospital geriatric clinic (Fremantle, Western Australia) underwent a comprehensive assessment and were classified as MCI (n = 72) or dementia (n = 109). NC (n = 41) were a sample of convenience. The Qmci and MoCA were scored by trained geriatricians, in random order, blind to the diagnosis. Median Qmci scores for NC, MCI and dementia were 69 (+/-19), 52.5 (+/-12) and 36 (+/-14), respectively, compared with 27 (+/-5), 22 (+/-4) and 15 (+/-7) for the MoCA. The Qmci more accurately identified cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia), area under the curve (AUC) 0.97, than the MoCA (AUC 0.92), p = 0.04. The Qmci was non-significantly more accurate in distinguishing MCI from controls (AUC 0.91 vs 0.84, respectively = 0.16). Both instruments had similar accuracy for differentiating MCI from dementia (AUC of 0.91 vs 0.88, p = 0.35). At the optimal cut-offs, calculated from receiver operating characteristic curves, the Qmci (≤57) had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 93% for cognitive impairment, compared with 87% sensitivity and 80% specificity for the MoCA (≤23). While both instruments are accurate in detecting MCI, the Qmci is shorter and arguably easier to complete, suggesting that it is a useful instrument in an Australian geriatric outpatient population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cognitive profiles in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI patients associated with Parkinson′s disease and cognitive disorders

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    Michele Pistacchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is rapidly becoming one of the most common clinical manifestations affecting the elderly and represents an heterogeneous clinical syndrome that can be ascribed to different etiologies; the construct of MCI in Parkinson′s disease (PD (MCI-PD is more recent but the range of deficits is still variable. Early recognition and accurate classification of MCI-PD could offer opportunities for novel therapeutic interventions to improve the natural pathologic course. Objective: To investigate the clinical phenotype of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and in patients with PD and MCI (MCI-PD. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three patients with aMCI and in 38 patients with MCI-PD were enrolled. They all underwent Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test and the immediate visual memory (IVM item of the Mental Deterioration Battery, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test included the Rey-immediate (Rey-I, and the delayed recall of the word list (Rey test deferred, Rey-D. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS was used for mood assessment. Results: The results of the Rey-I and Rey-D and of the IVM item showed statistically significant differences between the aMCI and the MCI-PD group. The mean Rey-I and Rey-D score was significantly lower as well as the IVM score was higher in patients with aMCI than in those with MCI-PD, aMCI patients showed greater impairment in long-term memory, whereas more aMCI than MCI-PD patients had preserved attention, computation, praxis, and conceptualization. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the cognitive deficit profile is specific for each of the two disorders: Memory impairment was a typical feature in aMCI patients while MCI-PD patients suffered from executive functions and visuospatial attention deficits.

  6. Changes of brain structure in Parkinson's disease patients with mild cognitive impairment analyzed via VBM technology.

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    Gao, Yuyuan; Nie, Kun; Huang, Biao; Mei, Mingjin; Guo, Manli; Xie, Sifen; Huang, Zhiheng; Wang, Limin; Zhao, Jiehao; Zhang, Yuhu; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-09-29

    To analyze changes in cerebral grey matter volume and white matter density in non-dementia Parkinson's disease patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) technology; to investigate features of brain structure changes in Parkinson's disease patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), and reveal their intrinsic pathological changes. Based on the diagnostic criteria of PD-MCI, 23 PD-MCI patients, 23 Parkinson's disease patients with normal cognition (PD-NC), and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy people were recruited for the study. Scans were performed on all subjects on a 3.0T MR scanner to obtain brain structural magnetic resonance images. Images were preprocessed using the VBM8 tool from SPM8 software package on the Matlab R2008a platform, and data were then analyzed using the SPM statistical software package to compare the differences of grey matter volume and white matter density between groups, and to evaluate the brain structural changes corresponding to the overall cognitive function. Compared to the control group, the PD-NC group suffered from grey matter atrophy, mainly found in the prefrontal lobe, limbic lobe and left temporal gyrus. The PD-MCI group suffered from grey matter atrophy found in the frontal lobe, limbic lobe, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Compared to the PD-NC group, the PD-MCI group suffered from grey matter atrophy found in the left-side middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus and frontal lobe. The grey matter regions correlated with MMSE score (mainly memory related) including the right cingulate gyrus and the limbic lobe. The grey matter regions correlated with MoCA score (mainly non-memory related) including the frontal lobe, basal ganglia, parahippocampal gyrus, occipital lobe and the cerebellum. Additionally, overall cognitive function in non-dementia PD was mainly located in the frontal and limbic system, and was dominated by subcortical atrophy. Structural changes in PD-MCI patients are associated with overall

  7. Brain inflammation accompanies amyloid in the majority of mild cognitive impairment cases due to Alzheimer's disease.

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    Parbo, Peter; Ismail, Rola; Hansen, Kim V; Amidi, Ali; Mårup, Frederik H; Gottrup, Hanne; Brændgaard, Hans; Eriksson, Bengt O; Eskildsen, Simon F; Lund, Torben E; Tietze, Anna; Edison, Paul; Pavese, Nicola; Stokholm, Morten G; Borghammer, Per; Hinz, Rainer; Aanerud, Joel; Brooks, David J

    2017-07-01

    See Kreisl (doi:10.1093/awx151) for a scientific commentary on this article.Subjects with mild cognitive impairment associated with cortical amyloid-β have a greatly increased risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that neuroinflammation occurs early in Alzheimer's disease and would be present in most amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment cases. 11C-Pittsburgh compound B and 11C-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography was used to determine the amyloid load and detect the extent of neuroinflammation (microglial activation) in 42 mild cognitive impairment cases. Twelve age-matched healthy control subjects had 11C-Pittsburgh compound B and 10 healthy control subjects had 11C-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography for comparison. Amyloid-positivity was defined as 11C-Pittsburgh compound B target-to-cerebellar ratio above 1.5 within a composite cortical volume of interest. Supervised cluster analysis was used to generate parametric maps of 11C-(R)-PK11195 binding potential. Levels of 11C-(R)-PK11195 binding potential were measured in a selection of cortical volumes of interest and at a voxel level. Twenty-six (62%) of 42 mild cognitive impairment cases showed a raised cortical amyloid load compared to healthy controls. Twenty-two (85%) of the 26 amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment cases showed clusters of increased cortical microglial activation accompanying the amyloid. There was a positive correlation between levels of amyloid load and 11C-(R)-PK11195 binding potentials at a voxel level within subregions of frontal, parietal and temporal cortices. 11C-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography reveals increased inflammation in a majority of amyloid positive mild cognitive impairment cases, its cortical distribution overlapping that of amyloid deposition. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Alterations of whole-brain cortical area and thickness in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Li, Chuanming; Wang, Jian; Gui, Li; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Chen; Du, Hanjian

    2011-01-01

    Gray matter volume and density of several brain regions, determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Animal studies have indicated that changes in cortical area size is relevant to thinking and behavior, but alterations of cortical area and thickness in the brains of individuals with AD or its likely precursor, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), have not been reported. In this study, 25 MCI subjects, 30 AD subjects, and 30 age-matched normal controls were recruited for brain MRI scans and Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessments. Based on the model using FreeSurfer software, two brain lobes were divided into various regions according to the Desikan-Killiany atlas and the cortical area and thickness of every region was compared and analyzed. We found a significant increase in cortical area of several regions in the frontal and temporal cortices, which correlated negatively with MMSE scores, and a significant decrease in cortical area of several regions in the parietal cortex and the cingulate gyrus in AD subjects. Increased cortical area was also seen in some regions of the frontal and temporal cortices in MCI subjects, whereas the cortical thickness of the same regions was decreased. Our observations suggest characteristic differences of the cortical area and thickness in MCI, AD, and normal control subjects, and these changes may help diagnose both MCI and AD.

  9. Cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review of randomised trials.

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    Roberto Raschetti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI refers to a transitional zone between normal ageing and dementia. Despite the uncertainty regarding the definition of MCI as a clinical entity, clinical trials have been conducted in the attempt to study the role of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs currently approved for symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD, in preventing progression from MCI to AD. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of ChEIs (donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine in delaying the conversion from MCI to Alzheimer disease or dementia.The terms "donepezil", "rivastigmine", "galantamine", and "mild cognitive impairment" and their variants, synonyms, and acronyms were used as search terms in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, PsycINFO and three registers: the Cochrane Collaboration Trial Register, Current Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Published and unpublished studies were included if they were randomized clinical trials published (or described in English and conducted among persons who had received a diagnosis of MCI and/or abnormal memory function documented by a neuropsychological assessment. A standardized data extraction form was used. The reporting quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Three published and five unpublished trials met the inclusion criteria (three on donepezil, two on rivastigmine, and three on galantamine. Enrolment criteria differed among the trials, so the study populations were not homogeneous. The duration of the trials ranged from 24 wk to 3 y. No significant differences emerged in the probability of conversion from MCI to AD or dementia between the treated groups and the placebo groups. The rate of conversion ranged from 13% (over 2 y to 25% (over 3 y among treated patients, and from 18% (over 2 y to 28% (over 3 y among those in the placebo groups. Only for two studies was it possible to derive point estimates of the relative risk of

  10. Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia in elderly subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease.

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    Sugimoto, Taiki; Ono, Rei; Murata, Shunsuke; Saji, Naoki; Matsui, Yasumoto; Niida, Shumpei; Toba, Kenji; Sakurai, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    To date, very little is known about the nature of sarcopenia in subjects with cognitive impairment. The aims of this study were firstly to clarify the prevalence of sarcopenia at various stages of cognitive impairment, and secondly to examine factors related to sarcopenia in men and women with cognitive impairment. The subjects were 418 outpatients (normal cognition; NC: 35, amnestic mild cognitive impairment; aMCI: 40, Alzheimer disease; AD: 343) who attended the Memory Clinic at the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology of Japan during the period from October 2010 to July 2014. Cognitive status, vitality, depressive mood, body mass index, hand grip strength, timed up and go test, skeletal muscle mass and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, albumin and creatinine were assessed. Sarcopenia was defined as the presence of both poor muscle function (low physical performance or low muscle strength) and low muscle mass. We performed the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to explore factors associated with sarcopenia. The overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 21.1% (NC = 8.6%, aMCI = 12.5%, AD = 23.3%). In both sexes, factors associated with sarcopenia were age (P sarcopenia (P sarcopenia. Prevention of sarcopenia in patients with cognitive impairment should be approached from physical and psychologic points of view.

  11. Can cognitive enhancers reduce the risk of falls in older people with Mild Cognitive Impairment? A protocol for a randomised controlled double blind trial

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    Wells Jennie L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults with cognitive problems have a higher risk of falls, at least twice that of cognitively normal older adults. The consequences of falls in this population are very serious: fallers with cognitive problems suffer more injuries due to falls and are approximately five times more likely to be admitted to institutional care. Although the mechanisms of increased fall risk in cognitively impaired people are not completely understood, it is known that impaired cognitive abilities can reduce attentional resource allocation while walking. Since cognitive enhancers, such as cholinesterase inhibitors, improve attention and executive function, we hypothesise that cognitive enhancers may reduce fall risk in elderly people in the early stages of cognitive decline by improving their gait and balance performance due to an enhancement in attention and executive function. Method/Design Double blinded randomized controlled trial with 6 months follow-up in 140 older individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Participants will be randomized to the intervention group, receiving donepezil, and to the control group, receiving placebo. A block randomization by four and stratification based on fall history will be performed. Primary outcomes are improvements in gait velocity and reduction in gait variability. Secondary outcomes are changes in the balance confidence, balance sway, attention, executive function, and number of falls. Discussion By characterizing and understanding the effects of cognitive enhancers on fall risk in older adults with cognitive impairments, we will be able to pave the way for a new approach to fall prevention in this population. This RCT study will provide, for the first time, information regarding the effect of a medication designed to augment cognitive functioning have on the risk of falls in older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment. We expect a significant reduction in the risk of falls in this

  12. Older people with mild cognitive impairment -- their views about assessing driving safety.

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    Johnson, David A; Frank, Oliver; Pond, Dimity; Stocks, Nigel

    2013-05-01

    Driving is important for older people to maintain agency, independence and social connectedness. Little research has been conducted into the views of older people with mild cognitive impairment about who decides if they are safe to drive. This qualitative study investigates the views of older people with mild cognitive impairment about decision making on driving cessation. Participants value their agency; they wanted to decide when they should stop driving themselves. However, they were also prepared to accept their general practitioner's advice when they became unfit to drive. In the interim, they self regulated the timing and distance of their driving to reduce accident risk.

  13. Role of inflammatory markers in Elderly Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Hosny, Salwa S; Bahaaeldin, Ahmed M; Khater, Mohamed S; Bekhet, Meram M; Hebah, Hayam A; Hasanin, Ghada A

    2018-04-22

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. The etiology of cognitive impairment in people with T2DM is uncertain but, chronic hyperglycemia, cerebral micro vascular disease, severe hypoglycemia, and increased prevalence of macro vascular disease are implicated. to determine the serum levels of soluble vascular adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in elderly type 2 diabetics with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Our study was conducted on 90 elderly subjects (aged 60 years old or more). They were divided into Group І, 30 patients with T2DM and mild cognitive impairment, group ІІ, 30 patients with T2DM without cognitive impairment and group III, 30 healthy subjects as a control group. They were subjected to history taking, full clinical examination, anthropometric measurement, the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE---III 2012), Fasting plasma glucose, 2 hours plasma glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile, protein/creatinine ratio, serum sVCAM-1 and hs-CRP. Serum levels of sVCAM-1 in diabetic elderly patients with MCI were significantly higher (946.7 ± 162.01 ng/ml) than diabetic elderly patients without cognitive impairment (479.06 ± 65.27 ng/ml) and control (263.7 ± 72.05 ng/ml) with (P=0.002). Serum levels of Hs-CRP in diabetic elderly patients with MCI were significantly higher than as diabetic elderly patients without cognitive impairment and control with (P=0.005). Elderly diabetic patients with mild cognitive impairment, have higher levels of soluble adhesion molecules and markers of low-grade systemic inflammation than other groups. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Development of a decision-making tool for reporting drivers with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment to transportation administrators.

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    Cameron, Duncan H; Zucchero Sarracini, Carla; Rozmovits, Linda; Naglie, Gary; Herrmann, Nathan; Molnar, Frank; Jordan, John; Byszewski, Anna; Tang-Wai, David; Dow, Jamie; Frank, Christopher; Henry, Blair; Pimlott, Nicholas; Seitz, Dallas; Vrkljan, Brenda; Taylor, Rebecca; Masellis, Mario; Rapoport, Mark J

    2017-09-01

    Driving in persons with dementia poses risks that must be counterbalanced with the importance of the care for autonomy and mobility. Physicians often find substantial challenges in the assessment and reporting of driving safety for persons with dementia. This paper describes a driving in dementia decision tool (DD-DT) developed to aid physicians in deciding when to report older drivers with either mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment to local transportation administrators. A multi-faceted, computerized decision support tool was developed, using a systematic literature and guideline review, expert opinion from an earlier Delphi study, as well as qualitative interviews and focus groups with physicians, caregivers of former drivers with dementia, and transportation administrators. The tool integrates inputs from the physician-user about the patient's clinical and driving history as well as cognitive findings, and it produces a recommendation for reporting to transportation administrators. This recommendation is translated into a customized reporting form for the transportation authority, if applicable, and additional resources are provided for the patient and caregiver. An innovative approach was needed to develop the DD-DT. The literature and guideline review confirmed the algorithm derived from the earlier Delphi study, and barriers identified in the qualitative research were incorporated into the design of the tool.

  15. The Cognitive and Neural Expression of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease

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    Joubert, Sven; Brambati, Simona M.; Ansado, Jennyfer; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Lacombe, Jacinthe; Goldstein, Rachel; Chayer, Celine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease have been widely documented, but little is known about the integrity of semantic memory in the prodromal stage of the illness. The aims of the present study were to: (i) investigate naming abilities and semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), early Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to…

  16. Addenbrooke's cognitive examination III: diagnostic utility for mild cognitive impairment and dementia and correlation with standardized neuropsychological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias-Guiu, Jordi A; Cortés-Martínez, Ana; Valles-Salgado, Maria; Rognoni, Teresa; Fernández-Matarrubia, Marta; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III) is a screening test that was recently validated for diagnosing dementia. Since it assesses attention, language, memory, fluency, and visuospatial function separately, it may also be useful for general neuropsychological assessments. The aim of this study was to analyze the tool's ability to detect early stages of Alzheimer's disease and to examine the correlation between ACE-III scores and scores on standardized neuropsychological tests. Our study included 200 participants categorized as follows: 25 healthy controls, 48 individuals with subjective memory complaints, 47 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 47 mild Alzheimer's disease, and 33 patients with other neurodegenerative diseases. The ACE-III memory and language domains were highly correlated with the neuropsychological tests specific to those domains (Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.806 for total delayed recall on the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test vs. 0.744 on the Boston Naming Test). ACE-III scores discriminated between controls and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (AUC: 0.906), and between controls and patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AUC: 0.978). Our results suggest that ACE-III is a useful neuropsychological test for assessing the cognitive domains of attention, language, memory, and visuospatial function. It also enables detection of Alzheimer's disease in early stages.

  17. Characterisation of Physical Frailty and Associated Physical and Functional Impairments in Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo characterize the physical frailty phenotype and its associated physical and functional impairments in mild cognitive impairment (MCI.MethodParticipants with MCI (N = 119, normal low cognition (NLC, N = 138, and normal high cognition (NHC, N = 1,681 in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies (SLAS-2 were compared on the prevalence of physical frailty, low lean body mass, weakness, slow gait, exhaustion and low physical activity, and POMA balance and gait impairment and fall risk.ResultsThere were significantly higher prevalence of frailty in MCI (18.5%, than in NLC (8.0% and NHC (3.9%, and pre-frailty in MCI (54.6%, NLC (52.9% than in NHC (48.0%. Age, sex, and ethnicity-adjusted OR (95% CI of association with MCI (versus NHC for frailty were 4.65 (2.40–9.04 and for pre-frailty, 1.67 (1.07–2.61. Similar significantly elevated prevalence and adjusted ORs of association with MCI were observed for frailty-associated physical and functional impairments. Further adjustment for education, marital status, living status, comorbidities, and GDS significantly reduced the OR estimates. However, the OR estimates remained elevated for frailty: 3.86 (1.83–8.17, low body mass: 1.70 (1.08–2.67, slow gait: 1.84 (1.17–2.89, impaired gait: 4.17 (1.98–8.81, and elevated fall risk 3.42 (1.22–9.53.ConclusionTwo-thirds of MCI were physically frail or pre-frail, most uniquely due to low lean muscle mass, slow gait speed, or balance and gait impairment. The close associations of frailty and physical and functional impairment with MCI have important implications for improving diagnostic acuity of MCI and targetting interventions among cognitively frail individuals to prevent dementia and disability.

  18. Dissociation between brain amyloid deposition and metabolism in early mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Wu

    Full Text Available The hypothetical model of dynamic biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD describes high amyloid deposition and hypometabolism at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI stage. However, it remains unknown whether brain amyloidosis and hypometabolism follow the same trajectories in MCI individuals. We used the concept of early MCI (EMCI and late MCI (LMCI as defined by the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI-Go in order to compare the biomarker profile between EMCI and LMCI.To examine the global and voxel-based neocortical amyloid burden and metabolism among individuals who are cognitively normal (CN, as well as those with EMCI, LMCI and mild AD.In the present study, 354 participants, including CN (n = 109, EMCI (n = 157, LMCI (n = 39 and AD (n = 49, were enrolled between September 2009 and November 2011 through ADNI-GO and ADNI-2. Brain amyloid load and metabolism were estimated using [(18F]AV45 and [(18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18F]FDG PET, respectively. Uptake ratio images of [(18F]AV45 and [(18F]FDG were calculated by dividing the summed PET image by the median counts of the grey matter of the cerebellum and pons, respectively. Group differences of global [(18F]AV45 and [(18F]FDG were analyzed using ANOVA, while the voxel-based group differences were estimated using statistic parametric mapping (SPM.EMCI patients showed higher global [(18F]AV45 retention compared to CN and lower uptake compared to LMCI. SPM detected higher [(18F]AV45 uptake in EMCI compared to CN in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, medial and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortices, bilaterally. EMCI showed lower [(18F]AV45 retention than LMCI in the superior temporal, inferior parietal, as well as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortices, bilaterally. Regarding to the global [(18F]FDG, EMCI patients showed no significant difference from CN and a higher uptake ratio compared to LMCI. At the voxel level, EMCI showed higher metabolism in precuneus, hippocampus, entorhinal and

  19. Validation of the German revised Addenbrooke's cognitive examination for detecting mild cognitive impairment, mild dementia in alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, P; Ebert, A; Richter-Schmidinger, T; Schöll, E; Natale, B; Aguilar, C A; Gourzis, P; Weih, M; Perneczky, R; Diehl-Schmid, J; Kneib, T; Förstl, H; Kurz, A; Danek, A; Kornhuber, J

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of the German version of the revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) in identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild dementia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in comparison with the conventional Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was assessed. The study encompasses 76 cognitively healthy elderly individuals, 75 patients with MCI, 56 with AD and 22 with FTLD. ACE-R and MMSE were validated against an expert diagnosis based on a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using the receiver operating characteristic method and regression analyses. The optimal cut-off score for the ACE-R for detecting MCI, AD, and FTLD was 86/87, 82/83 and 83/84, respectively. ACE-R was superior to MMSE only in the detection of patients with FTLD [area under the curve (AUC): 0.97 vs. 0.92], whilst the accuracy of the two instruments did not differ in identifying MCI and AD. The ratio of the scores of the memory ACE-R subtest to verbal fluency subtest contributed significantly to the discrimination between AD and FTLD (optimal cut-off score: 2.30/2.31, AUC: 0.77), whereas the MMSE and ACE-R total scores did not. The German ACE-R is superior to the most commonly employed MMSE in detecting mild dementia in FTLD and in the differential diagnosis between AD and FTLD. Thus it might serve as a valuable instrument as part of a comprehensive diagnostic workup in specialist centres/clinics contributing to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the cause of dementia.

  20. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: do MCI patients have impaired insight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...... heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of awareness. The results demonstrate that subjective memory problems should not be a mandatory prerequisite in suspected dementia or MCI, which makes reports from informants together with thorough clinical interview and observation central when assessing suspected...

  1. Numerical and spatial cognition of students with physical disabilities and mild intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Vidmar, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics has an important effect on an individual's successfulness and satisfaction in the field of education and life. Numerical and spatial cognition are of crucial importance to successfully master mathematics. If this kind of cognition is poorly developed, it represents one of the most important obstacles to achieving success in the field of mathematics. Students with mild intellectual disabilities are in a worse position already at the starting point of the educational process, as the...

  2. Apathy and noradrenaline: silent partners to mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Loued-Khenissi Leyla; Preuschoff Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a comorbid factor in Parkinson's disease. The aim of this review is to examine the recent neuroimaging findings in the search for Parkinson's disease MCI (PD MCI) biomarkers to gain insight on whether MCI and specific cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease implicate striatal dopamine or another system. RECENT FINDINGS: The evidence implicates a diffuse pathophysiology in PD MCI rather than acute dopaminergic involvement. On the one han...

  3. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uemura K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Uemura,1,3 Hiroyuki Shimada,1 Hyuma Makizako,1,3 Takehiko Doi,1 Daisuke Yoshida,1 Kota Tsutsumimoto,1 Yuya Anan,1 Takao Suzuki21Section for Health Promotion, Department for Research and Development to Support Independent Life of Elderly, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 2Research Institute, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, 3Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.Methods: Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability.Results: In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027 and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034. A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (ß = -0.322, P = 0.026 and MMSE score (ß = -0.295, P = 0.041, controlling for age and gender.Conclusion: General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in

  4. Telephone screening for mild cognitive impairment in hispanics using the Alzheimer's questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ricardo; Velez, Carlos E; Royall, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: There is a need for a simple and reliable screening test to detect individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The authors analyzed the relationship between performance of the Alzheimer's Questionnaire (AQ), an informant-rated measure of dementia-related behaviors, relative to the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-modified (TICS-m), Memory Impairment Scale-telephone version (MIS-t), and the Telephone Executive Assessment (TEXAS) as predictors of MCI. Comparative cross-sectional design, with data collected from participants in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium's (TARCC) San Antonio site. One-hundred percent of our sample was Hispanic. The San Antonio subset of TARCC sample is highly enriched with Mexican Americans (MAs). Fifty-five percent of the interviews were conducted in Spanish. Of the 184 persons enrolled, 124 were normal controls (NCs), and 60 participants had MCI. MCI status and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) were determined through clinical consensus and performed blind to telephone assessments. Controlling for age, gender, education, and language of interview, the association between telephone measures and CDR-SOB was evaluated by multivariate regression. AQ scores were not affected by education, gender, and language of interview, but subject's age did show a positive correlation with informant AQ ratings. The AQ predicted CDR-SOB independently of the cognitive measures, adding variance above and beyond demographics. The TICS-m and the TEXAS appear to have additive value in improving the detection of cognitively impaired patients. The MIS-t failed to contribute significantly to CDR-SOB, independent of the other measures. The AQ may have utility as a culture-fair telephone screening for MCI. The AQ was able to modestly distinguish MCI from NCs. The TEXAS adds variance to a model of dementia severity independent of the AQ, suggesting that the latter may weakly assess that

  5. Erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acid status, memory, cognition and mood in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milte, Catherine M; Sinn, Natalie; Street, Steven J; Buckley, Jonathan D; Coates, Alison M; Howe, Peter R C

    2011-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are altered in adults with cognitive decline and also depression. Depression facilitates progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. We investigated associations between omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs and cognition, memory and depression in 50 adults ≥65 years with MCI and 29 controls. Memory, depressive symptoms and erythrocyte PUFAs (% total fatty acids) were assessed. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was lower in MCI vs controls (.94% vs 1.26%, pcognitive decline in this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain-Derived neurotrophic factor levels in late-life depression and comorbid mild cognitive impairment: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Breno Satler; Reynolds, Charles F.; Begley, Amy; Dew, Mary Amanda; Anderson, Stewart J.; Lotrich, Francis; Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar; Aizenstein, Howard; Sibille, Etienne L.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level are implicated in the pathophysiology of cognitive decline in depression and neurodegenerative disorders in older adults. We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association over two years between BDNF and persistent cognitive decline in individuals with remitted late-life depression and Mild Cognitive Impairment (LLD+MCI) compared to either individuals with remitted LLD and no cognitive decline (LLD+NCD) or never-depressed, cognitively normal, elderly control participants. We additionally evaluated the effect of double-blind, placebo-controlled donepezil treatment on BDNF levels in all of the remitted LLD participants (across the levels of cognitive function). We included 160 elderly participants in this study (72 LLD+NCD, 55 LLD+MCI and 33 never-depressed cognitively normal elderly participants). At the same visits, cognitive assessments were conducted and blood sampling to determine serum BDNF levels were collected at baseline assessment and after one and two years of follow-up. We utilized repeated measure, mixed effect models to assess: (1) the effects of diagnosis (LLD+MCI, LLD+NCD, and controls), time, and their interaction on BDNF levels; and (2) the effects of donepezil treatment (donepezil vs. placebo), time, baseline diagnosis (LLD+MCI vs. LLD+NCD), and interactions between these contrasts on BDNF levels. We found a significant effect of time on BDNF level (p=0.02) and a significant decline in BDNF levels over 2 years of follow-up in participants with LLD+MCI (p=0.004) and controls (p=0.04). We found no effect of donepezil treatment on BDNF level. The present results suggest that aging is an important factor related to decline in BDNF level. PMID:24290367

  7. CURRENT PROBLEMS OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Karkashadze

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical pediatrics specialists paid wrongly little attention to identification and treatment of cognitive disorders in children. At the same time it is difficult to overestimate the influence of cognitive functions on the formation of human personality and social maladjustment in this part of population. The paper is devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairments. In addition, the classification of this pathology, highlighting aetiopathogenetic factors, prognosis are showed. One of the important problems of early revealing of cognitive impairments and appropriate management of children with this pathology according to the authors opinion are the following: the deficiency of educational programs for training specialists in neurology, lack of knowledge concerning the possibilities of psychological-pedagogical correction, inefficient system of neurological techniques for primary care. Key words: cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment, classification, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, social maladjustment, psychopedagogical support, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 37–41.

  8. Is mild cognitive impairment a precursor of Alzheimer´s disease? Short review.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoutová, J.; Šerý, Omar; Hosák, L.; Janout, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2015), s. 365-367 ISSN 1210-7778 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : mild cognitive impairment * Alzheimer´s dementia * terminology Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2015

  9. Real-space path integration is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrišová, I.; Laczó, J.; Andel, R.; Gažová, I.; Vyhnálek, M.; Nedělská, Z.; Levčík, David; Cerman, J.; Vlček, Kamil; Hort, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 307, Jul 1 (2016), s. 150-158 ISSN 0166-4328 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer disease * mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * hippocampus * path integration Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2016

  10. Mild Cognitive Impairment as a Risk Factor for Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, Jeroen; Boel, Judith A.; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Schmand, Ben A.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.; Marras, Connie; Adler, Charles H.; Goldman, Jennifer G.; Tröster, Alexander I.; Burn, David J.; Litvan, Irene; Geurtsen, Gert J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society criteria for mild cognitive impairment in PD were recently formulated. Objectives: The aim of this international study was to evaluate the predictive validity of the comprehensive (level II) version of these criteria by assessment

  11. (Social) Cognitive Skills and Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…

  12. Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jekel, K.; Damian, M.; Wattmo, C.; Hausner, L.; Bullock, R.; Connelly, P.J.; Dubois, B.; Eriksdotter, M.; Ewers, M.; Graessel, E.; Kramberger, M.G.; Law, E.; Mecocci, P.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Nygard, L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Orgogozo, J.M.; Pasquier, F.; Peres, K.; Salmon, E.; Sikkes, S.A.; Sobow, T.; Spiegel, R.; Tsolaki, M.; Winblad, B.; Frolich, L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a growing body of evidence that subtle deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) may be present in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is not clear if there are IADL domains that are consistently affected across patients with MCI. In this systematic

  13. COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism is associated with nonverbal cognition following mild traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Winkler (Ethan A.); J.K. Yue (John); T.W. McAllister (Thomas W.); N.R. Temkin (Nancy); S.S. Oh (Sam S.); E.G. Burchard (Esteban); D. Hu (Donglei); A.R. Ferguson (Adam); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); J.F. Burke (John F.); M.D. Sorani (Marco); J. Rosand (Jonathan); E.L. Yuh (Esther); J. Barber (Jason); P.E. Tarapore (Phiroz E.); R.C. Gardner (Raquel C.); S. Sharma (Sourabh); G.G. Satris (Gabriela G.); C. Eng (Celeste); A.M. Puccio (Ava); K.K.W. Wang (Kevin K. W.); P. Mukherjee (Pratik); A.B. Valadka (Alex); D. Okonkwo (David); R. Diaz-Arrastia (Ramon); G. Manley (Geoffrey)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical outcomes, which may be influenced by genetic variation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme which degrades catecholamine neurotransmitters, may influence cognitive deficits

  14. Free and Cued Recall Memory in Parkinson’s Disease Associated with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alberto; Monaco, Marco; Zabberoni, Silvia; Peppe, Antonella; Perri, Roberta; Fadda, Lucia; Iannarelli, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis has been advanced that memory disorders in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are related to either retrieval or consolidation failure. However, the characteristics of the memory impairments of PD patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment have not been clarified. This study was aimed at investigating whether memory deficits in PD patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (PDaMCI) are due to failure of retrieval or consolidation processes. Sixteen individuals with PDaMCI, 20 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment without PD (aMCINPD), and 20 healthy controls were recruited. Participants were administered the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test. An index of cueing was computed for each subject to capture the advantage in retrieval of cued compared to free recall. Individuals with PDaMCI performed worse than healthy controls on the free recall (pcued recall (p>0.10) task, and they performed better than aMCINPD subjects on both recall measures (p0.10) but it was significantly higher than that of the aMCINPD sample (precall trials was significantly predicted by scores on a test investigating executive functions (i.e., the Modified Card Sorting Test; p = 0.042). Findings of the study document that, in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment associated to PD, episodic memory impairment is related to retrieval rather than to consolidation failure. The same data suggest that, in these individuals, memory deficits might be due to altered frontal-related executive functioning. PMID:24465977

  15. Spatial working memory in aging and mild cognitive impairment: effects of task load and contextual cueing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is characterized by episodic memory deficits, while aspects of working memory may also be implicated, but studies into this latter domain are scarce and results are inconclusive. Using a computerized search paradigm, this study compares 25 young adults, 25 typically

  16. Spatial Working Memory in Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Effects of Task Load and Contextual Cueing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is characterized by episodic memory deficits, while aspects of working memory may also be implicated, but studies into this latter domain are scarce and results are inconclusive. Using a computerized search paradigm, this study compares 25 young adults, 25 typically

  17. Prevalence and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease at the mild cognitive impairment stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, S.J.B.; Verhey, F.; Frolich, L.; Kornhuber, J.; Wiltfang, J.; Maier, W.; Peters, O.; Ruther, E.; Nobili, F.; Morbelli, S.; Frisoni, G. B.; Drzezga, A.; Didic, M.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Simmons, A.; Soininen, H.; Kloszewska, I.; Mecocci, P.; Tsolaki, M.; Vellas, B.; Lovestone, S.; Muscio, C.; Herukka, S.K.; Salmon, E.; Bastin, C.; Wallin, A.; Nordlund, A.; de Mendonca, A.; Silva, D.; Santana, I.; Lemos, R.; Engelborghs, S.; Van der Mussele, S.; Freund-Levi, Y.; Wallin, A.K.; Hampel, H.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Three sets of research criteria are available for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: the International Working Group-1, International Working Group-2, and National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer Association criteria. We compared the prevalence and prognosis of

  18. Cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability and alcohol use-related problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvenbode, N. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking

  19. (Social) Cognitive skills and social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline

  20. Increased Sensitivity to Proactive and Retroactive Interference in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: New Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanseeuw, Bernard J.; Seron, Xavier; Ivanoiu, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Increased sensitivity to proactive (PI) and retroactive (RI) interference has been observed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). PI and RI are often explained as being the result of a response competition mechanism. However, patients with aMCI are supposed to suffer mostly from encoding deficits. We hypothesized that in aMCI…

  1. Optimizing the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattila, Jussi; Soininen, Hilkka; Koikkalainen, Juha

    2012-01-01

    of the disease. Several studies have analyzed data of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, showing that conversion from MCI to AD can be predicted with a classification accuracy of 60-80%. This accuracy may not be high enough for influencing diagnostic decisions. In this work, the prediction problem...

  2. Various MRS application tools for Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F; Barker, P B

    2014-06-01

    MR spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique that allows the detection of several naturally occurring compounds (metabolites) from well-defined regions of interest within the human brain. Alzheimer disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. During the past 20 years, multiple studies have been performed on MR spectroscopy in patients with both mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Generally, MR spectroscopy studies have found decreased N-acetylaspartate and increased myo-inositol in both patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease, with greater changes in Alzheimer disease than in mild cognitive impairment. This review summarizes the information content of proton brain MR spectroscopy and its related technical aspects, as well as applications of MR spectroscopy to mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. While MR spectroscopy may have some value in the differential diagnosis of dementias and assessing prognosis, more likely its role in the near future will be predominantly as a tool for monitoring disease response or progression in treatment trials. More work is needed to evaluate the role of MR spectroscopy as a biomarker in Alzheimer disease and its relationship to other imaging modalities. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Perspective taking abilities in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marková, H.; Laczó, J.; Andel, R.; Hort, J.; Vlček, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 281, Mar 15 (2015), s. 229-238 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer's disease * mild cognitive impairment * spatial transformation * standardized road-map test of direction sense * perspective taking task * sexual differences Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2015

  4. Famous Landmark Identification in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sheardová, K.; Laczó, J.; Vyhnálek, M.; Andel, R.; Mokrišová, I.; Vlček, Kamil; Amlerová, J.; Hort, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2014), e105623 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : visual perception * Alzheimer’s disease * brain changes * mild cognitive impairment * medial temporal lobe Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  5. Cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvenbode, N. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2018-01-01

    We examined cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID). Problematic drinkers were expected to show a significantly lower estimated performance IQ (PIQ), but not a lower estimated verbal IQ (VIQ), compared to light drinkers.

  6. Brain perfusion SPECT analysis : New insights in mild cognitive impairment and neuromyelitis optica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez Catasùs, Carlos Alfredo

    2018-01-01

    Het doel van dit proefschrift was om aan te tonen dat hersenperfusie SPECT kan helpen bij het verhelderen van belangrijke vragen met betrekking tot het prodromale “Mild Cognitive Impairment” (MCI) stadium van de ziekte van Alzheimer (AD) en recidiverende Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO). Dit is niet

  7. Brain Substrates of Learning and Retention in Mild Cognitive Impairment Diagnosis and Progression to Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Bondi, Mark W.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; McEvoy, Linda K.; Hagler, Donald J., Jr.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Dale, Anders M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the underlying qualitative features of memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can provide critical information for early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study sought to investigate the utility of both learning and retention measures in (a) the diagnosis of MCI, (b) predicting progression to AD, and (c)…

  8. Risk Factors for Mild Cognitive Impairment, Dementia and Mortality: The Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicki, Darren M; Crawford, John; Kochan, Nicole A; Trollor, Julian N; Draper, Brian; Reppermund, Simone; Maston, Kate; Mather, Karen A; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2017-05-01

    The nature and commonality of late-life risk factors for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and mortality remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate potential risk factors, simultaneously in a single cohort including many individuals initially with normal cognition and followed for 6 years. We classified 873 community-dwelling individuals (70-90 years old and without dementia at baseline) from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study as cognitively normal (CN), having MCI or dementia, or deceased 6 years after baseline. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health, and medical factors were investigated, including apolipoprotein (APOE) genotype, MCI at baseline, and reversion from MCI to CN within 2 years of baseline. Eighty-three (9.5%) participants developed dementia and 114 (13%) died within 6 years; nearly 33% had MCI at baseline, of whom 28% reverted to CN within 2 years. A core set of baseline factors was associated with MCI and dementia at 6 years, including older age (per year: odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals = 1.08, 1.01-1.14 for MCI; 1.19, 1.09-1.31 for dementia), MCI at baseline (5.75, 3.49-9.49; 8.23, 3.93-17.22), poorer smelling ability (per extra test point: 0.89, 0.79-1.02; 0.80, 0.68-0.94), slower walking speed (per second: 1.12, 1.00-1.25; 1.21, 1.05-1.39), and being an APOE ε4 carrier (1.84, 1.07-3.14; 3.63, 1.68-7.82). All except APOE genotype were also associated with mortality (age: 1.11, 1.03-1.20; MCI: 3.87, 1.97-7.59; smelling ability: 0.83, 0.70-0.97; walking speed: 1.18, 1.03-1.34). Compared with stable CN participants, individuals reverting from MCI to CN after 2 years were at greater risk of future MCI (3.06, 1.63-5.72). Those who reverted exhibited some different associations between baseline risk factors and 6-year outcomes than individuals with stable MCI. A core group of late-life risk factors indicative of physical and mental frailty are associated with each of dementia, MCI, and mortality after 6

  9. Rasagiline for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: A placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Daniel; Hauser, Robert A; Elm, Jordan J; Pagan, Fernando; Davis, Matthew D; Choudhry, Azhar

    2016-05-01

    This study's aims were to determine the efficacy and tolerability of rasagiline, a selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor B, for PD patients with mild cognitive impairment. Patients on stable dopaminergic therapy were randomized to adjunct rasagiline 1 mg/day or placebo in this 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multisite study. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline to week 24 on the Scales for Outcomes of Parkinson's Disease-Cognition total score. Key secondary measures included changes in cognition, activities of daily living, motor scores, and Clinical Global Impression of Change, as well as safety and tolerability measures. Of the 170 patients randomized, 151 (88.2%) completed the study. Change in Scales for Outcomes of Parkinson's Disease-Cognition scores were not significantly different in the rasagiline and placebo groups (adjusted mean: 1.6 [standard error {SE} = 0.5] vs. 0.8 [SE = 0.5] points; LS means difference = 0.8; 95% confidence interval: -0.48, 2.05; P = 0.22). There were no between-group differences in change in the MoCA (p=0.84) or Penn Daily Activities Questionnaire (P = 0.48) scores or in the distribution of Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change modified for mild cognitive impairment (P = 0.1). Changes in motor (UPDRS part III; P = 0.02) and activities of daily living (UPDRS part II; P rasagiline. Rasagiline was well tolerated; the most common adverse events in both groups were falls and dizziness. Rasagiline treatment in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment was not associated with cognitive improvement. Rasagiline did not worsen cognition, improved motor symptoms and activities of daily living, and was well tolerated in elderly cognitively impaired patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Semantic memory and depressive symptoms in patients with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Lehrner, J; Coutinho, G; Mattos, P; Moser, D; Pflüger, M; Gleiss, A; Auff, E; Dal-Bianco, P; Pusswald, G; Stögmann, E

    2017-07-01

    Semantic memory may be impaired in clinically recognized states of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationship between semantic memory and depressive symptoms (DS) in patients with cognitive impairment. 323 cognitively healthy controls and 848 patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia were included. Semantic knowledge for famous faces, world capitals, and word vocabulary was investigated. Compared to healthy controls, we found a statistically significant difference of semantic knowledge in the MCI groups and the AD group, respectively. Results of the SCD group were mixed. However, two of the three semantic memory measures (world capitals and word vocabulary) showed a significant association with DS. We found a difference in semantic memory performance in MCI and AD as well as an association with DS. Results suggest that the difference in semantic memory is due to a storage loss rather than to a retrieval problem.

  11. Aberrant Intrinsic Activity and Connectivity in Cognitively Normal Parkinson’s Disease

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    Deborah L. Harrington

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in intrinsic activity during resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD, but have largely been studied in a priori defined subnetworks. The cognitive significance of abnormal intrinsic activity is also poorly understood, as are abnormalities that precede the onset of mild cognitive impairment. To address these limitations, we leveraged three different analytic approaches to identify disturbances in rsfMRI metrics in 31 cognitively normal PD patients (PD-CN and 30 healthy adults. Subjects were screened for mild cognitive impairment using the Movement Disorders Society Task Force Level II criteria. Whole-brain data-driven analytic approaches first analyzed the amplitude of low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations (ALFF and regional homogeneity (ReHo, a measure of local connectivity amongst functionally similar regions. We then examined if regional disturbances in these metrics altered functional connectivity with other brain regions. We also investigated if abnormal rsfMRI metrics in PD-CN were related to brain atrophy and executive, visual organization, and episodic memory functioning. The results revealed abnormally increased and decreased ALFF and ReHo in PD-CN patients within the default mode network (posterior cingulate, inferior parietal cortex, parahippocampus, entorhinal cortex, sensorimotor cortex (primary motor, pre/post-central gyrus, basal ganglia (putamen, caudate, and posterior cerebellar lobule VII, which mediates cognition. For default mode network regions, we also observed a compound profile of altered ALFF and ReHo. Most regional disturbances in ALFF and ReHo were associated with strengthened long-range interactions in PD-CN, notably with regions in different networks. Stronger long-range functional connectivity in PD-CN was also partly expanded to connections that were outside the networks of the control group. Abnormally increased activity and functional connectivity appeared to have a

  12. Association of mild anemia with cognitive, functional, mood and quality of life outcomes in the elderly: the "Health and Anemia" study.

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    Ugo Lucca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the elderly persons, hemoglobin concentrations slightly below the lower limit of normal are common, but scant evidence is available on their relationship with significant health indicators. The objective of the present study was to cross-sectionally investigate the association of mild grade anemia with cognitive, functional, mood, and quality of life (QoL variables in community-dwelling elderly persons. METHODS: Among the 4,068 eligible individuals aged 65-84 years, all persons with mild anemia (n = 170 and a randomly selected sample of non-anemic controls (n = 547 were included in the study. Anemia was defined according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria and mild grade anemia was defined as a hemoglobin concentration between 10.0 and 11.9 g/dL in women and between 10.0 and 12.9 g/dL in men. Cognition and functional status were assessed using measures of selective attention, episodic memory, cognitive flexibility and instrumental and basic activities of daily living. Mood and QoL were evaluated by means of the Geriatric Depression Scale-10, the Short-Form health survey (SF-12, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, mild anemic elderly persons had significantly worse results on almost all cognitive, functional, mood, and QoL measures. In multivariable logistic regressions, after adjustment for a large number of demographic and clinical confounders, mild anemia remained significantly associated with measures of selective attention and disease-specific QoL (all fully adjusted p<.046. When the lower limit of normal hemoglobin concentration according to WHO criteria was raised to define anemia (+0.2 g/dL, differences between mild anemic and non anemic elderly persons tended to increase on almost every variable. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sectionally, mild grade anemia was independently associated with worse selective attention performance and disease-specific QoL ratings.

  13. Agent-Centered Decision Making in Normal and Abnormal Cognition

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    Goldberg, Elkhonon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Much of human cognition is “agent-centered,” subjective, and in that sense relative, directed at deciding, “What is best for me”. This is very different from “veridical” cognition, directed at finding an objectively correct solution inherent in the task and independent of the agent. The frontal lobes in particular are central to agent-centered decision making. Yet very little is available in the arsenal of cognitive paradigms used in the cognitive neuroscience research and in clinical neuropsychology test design to examine “agent-centered” decision making. Current paradigms and tests used to measure decision making clinically and experimentally are veridical in nature and as such miss the essence of “agent-centered” cognition. The dearth of “agent-centered” cognitive paradigms severely limits our ability to understand fully the function and dysfunction of the frontal lobes. The Cognitive Bias Task (CBT is an agent-centered paradigm designed to fill this gap. CBT has been used as a cognitive activation task in fMRI, SPECT, and EEG, as well as in studies of normal development, addiction, dementia, focal lesions, and schizophrenia. This resulted in a range of findings that eluded more traditional “veridical” paradigms and are reviewed here.

  14. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood Is Associated with Cognitive Test Profiles in the Geriatric Population but Not with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's Disease

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    N. Ivanchak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of ADHD in the aging population and its relationship to late-life cognitive decline has not been studied previously. To address this gap in our understanding, the Wender-Utah ADHD Rating scale (WURS was administered to 310 geriatric subjects with cognitive status ranging from normal cognition to mild cognitive impairment to overt dementia. The frequency of WURS-positive ADHD in this sample was 4.4%. WURS scores were not related to cognitive diagnoses, but did show nonlinear associations with tasks requiring sustained attention. The frequency of ADHD appears stable across generations and does not appear to be associated with MCI or dementia diagnoses. The association of attentional processing deficits and WURS scores in geriatric subjects could suggest that such traits remain stable throughout life. Caution should be considered when interpreting cognitive test profiles in the aging population that exhibit signs and symptoms of ADHD, as attentional deficits may not necessarily imply the existence of an underlying neurodegenerative disease state.

  15. The Link between Potassium and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Mexican-Americans

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    Raul M. Vintimilla

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent evidence suggests that increasing dietary intake of minerals reduces the risk of dementia. This study aimed to examine the relationship between potassium and diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI in a sample of older Mexican-Americans from rural and urban populations. Methods: The sample was formed of a total of 139 participants with MCI and 371 normal controls from two independent cohorts: a rural cohort (Facing Rural Obstacles to Healthcare Now through Intervention, Education and Research [Project FRONTIER] and an urban cohort (the Health and Aging Brain among Latino Elders [HABLE] study. Serum electrolytes examined were sodium and potassium. Age and education were entered in the model as covariates. Results: Across both cohorts, the Project FRONTIER (OR = 3.1; p = 0.01 and the HABLE Project (OR = 2.0; p = 0.04, the results indicated that serum potassium levels significantly increased the risk of diagnosis of MCI. Conclusion: Our finding suggested a link between serum potassium levels and a diagnosis of MCI in Mexican-Americans. The results of this study support a previous research which has suggested that the risk factors for MCI may vary by ethnicity.

  16. Neural correlates of incidental memory in mild cognitive impairment: an fMRI study.

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    Mandzia, Jennifer L; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Grady, Cheryl L; Graham, Simon J; Black, Sandra E

    2009-05-01

    Behaviour and fMRI brain activation patterns were compared during encoding and recognition tasks in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=14) and normal controls (NC) (n=14). Deep (natural vs. man-made) and shallow (color vs. black and white) decisions were made at encoding and pictures from each condition were presented for yes/no recognition 20 min later. MCI showed less inferior frontal activation during deep (left only) and superficial encoding (bilaterally) and in both medial temporal lobes (MTL). When performance was equivalent (recognition of words encoded superficially), MTL activation was similar for the two groups, but during recognition testing of deeply encoded items NC showed more activation in both prefrontal and left MTL region. In a region of interest analysis, the extent of activation during deep encoding in the parahippocampi bilaterally and in left hippocampus correlated with subsequent recognition accuracy for those items in controls but not in MCI, which may reflect the heterogeneity of activation responses in conjunction with different degrees of pathology burden and progression status in the MCI group.

  17. Apathy and emotion-based decision-making in amnesic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Bayard, Sophie; Jacus, Jean-Pierre; Raffard, Stéphane; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Apathy and reduced emotion-based decision-making are two behavioral modifications independently described in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The aims of this study were to investigate decision-making based on emotional feedback processing in AD and aMCI and to study the impact of reduced decision-making performances on apathy. We recruited 20 patients with AD, 20 participants with aMCI, and 20 healthy controls. All participants completed the Lille apathy rating scale (LARS) and the Iowa gambling task (IGT). Both aMCI and AD participants had reduced performances on the IGT and were more apathetic compared to controls without any difference between aMCI and AD groups. For the entire sample, LARS initiation dimension was related to IGT disadvantageous decision-making profile. We provide the first study showing that both aMCI and AD individuals make less profitable decisions than controls, whereas aMCI and AD did not differ. Disadvantageous decision-making profile on the IGT was associated with higher level of apathy on the action initiation dimension. The role of an abnormal IGT performance as a risk factor for the development of apathy needs to be investigated in other clinical populations and in normal aging.

  18. Network analysis in detection of early-stage mild cognitive impairment

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    Ni, Huangjing; Qin, Jiaolong; Zhou, Luping; Zhao, Zhigen; Wang, Jun; Hou, Fengzhen

    2017-07-01

    The detection and intervention for early-stage mild cognitive impairment (EMCI) is of vital importance However, the pathology of EMCI remains largely unknown, making it be challenge to the clinical diagnosis. In this paper, the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data derived from EMCI patients and normal controls are analyzed using the complex network theory. We construct the functional connectivity (FC) networks and employ the local false discovery rate approach to successfully detect the abnormal functional connectivities appeared in the EMCI patients. Our results demonstrate the abnormal functional connectivities have appeared in the EMCI patients, and the affected brain regions are mainly distributed in the frontal and temporal lobes In addition, to quantitatively characterize the statistical properties of FCs in the complex network, we herein employ the entropy of the degree distribution (EDD) index and some other well-established measures, i.e., clustering coefficient (CC) and the efficiency of graph (EG). Eventually, we found that the EDD index, better than the widely used CC and EG measures, may serve as an assistant and potential marker for the detection of EMCI.

  19. Mild cognitive impairment as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogland, Jeroen; Boel, Judith A; de Bie, Rob M A; Geskus, Ronald B; Schmand, Ben A; Dalrymple-Alford, John C; Marras, Connie; Adler, Charles H; Goldman, Jennifer G; Tröster, Alexander I; Burn, David J; Litvan, Irene; Geurtsen, Gert J

    2017-07-01

    The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society criteria for mild cognitive impairment in PD were recently formulated. The aim of this international study was to evaluate the predictive validity of the comprehensive (level II) version of these criteria by assessment of their contribution to the hazard of PD dementia. Individual patient data were selected from four separate studies on cognition in PD that provided information on demographics, motor examination, depression, neuropsychological examination suitable for application of level II criteria, and longitudinal follow-up for conversion to dementia. Survival analysis evaluated the predictive value of level II criteria for cognitive decline toward dementia as expressed by the relative hazard of dementia. A total of 467 patients were included. The analyses showed a clear contribution of impairment according to level II mild cognitive impairment criteria, age, and severity of PD motor symptoms to the hazard of dementia. There was a trend of increasing hazard of dementia with declining neuropsychological performance. This is the first large international study evaluating the predictive validity of level II mild cognitive impairment criteria for PD. The results showed a clear and unique contribution of classification according to level II criteria to the hazard of PD dementia. This finding supports their predictive validity and shows that they contribute important new information on the hazard of dementia, beyond known demographic and PD-specific factors of influence. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Olfactory evaluation in Mild Cognitive Impairment: correlation with neurocognitive performance and endothelial function.

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    Tonacci, Alessandro; Bruno, Rosa M; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Pratali, Lorenza; Berardi, Nicoletta; Tognoni, Gloria; Cintoli, Simona; Volpi, Leda; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Sicari, Rosa; Taddei, Stefano; Maffei, Lamberto; Picano, Eugenio

    2017-05-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is an intermediate condition between normal aging and dementia, associated with an increased risk of progression into the latter within months or years. Olfactory impairment, a well-known biomarker for neurodegeneration, might be present in the condition early, possibly representing a signal for future pathological onset. Our study aimed at evaluating olfactory function in MCI and healthy controls in relation to neurocognitive performance and endothelial function. A total of 85 individuals with MCI and 41 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited. Olfactory function was assessed by Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test (Burghart, Medizintechnik, GmbH, Wedel, Germany). A comprehensive neurocognitive assessment was performed. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery by ultrasound. MCI individuals showed an impaired olfactory function compared to controls. The overall olfactory score is able to predict MCI with a good sensitivity and specificity (70.3 and 77.4% respectively). In MCI, olfactory identification score is correlated with a number of neurocognitive abilities, including overall cognitive status, dementia rating, immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial ability and verbal fluency. FMD was reduced in MCI (2.90 ± 2.15 vs. 3.66 ± 1.96%, P = 0.016) and was positively associated with olfactory identification score (ρ s =0.219, P = 0.025). The association remained significant after controlling for age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, olfactory evaluation is able to discriminate between MCI and healthy individuals. Systemic vascular dysfunction might be involved, at least indirectly, in olfactory dysfunction in MCI. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Assessment of Driving Safety in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Anstey, Kaarin J; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Chopra, Sidhant; Price, Jasmine; Wood, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    With population aging, drivers with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are increasing; however, there is little evidence available regarding their safety. We aimed to evaluate risk of unsafe on-road driving performance among older adults with MCI. The study was a cross-sectional observational study, set in Canberra, Australia. Participants were non-demented, current drivers (n = 302) aged 65 to 96 years (M = 75.7, SD = 6.18, 40% female) recruited through the community and primary and tertiary care clinics. Measures included a standardized on-road driving test (ORT), a battery of screening measures designed to evaluate older driver safety (UFOV®, DriveSafe, Multi-D), a neurocognitive test battery, and questionnaires on driving history and behavior. Using Winblad criteria, 57 participants were classified as having MCI and 245 as cognitively normal (CN). While the MCI group had a significantly lower overall safety rating on the ORT (5.61 versus 6.05, p = 0.03), there was a wide range of driving safety scores in the CN and MCI groups. The MCI group performed worse than the CN group on the off-road screening tests. The best fitting model of predictors of ORT performance across the combined sample included age, the Multi-D, and DriveSafe, classifying 90.4% of the sample correctly. Adults with MCI exhibit a similar range of driving ability to CN adults, although on average they scored lower on off-road and on-road assessments. Driving specific tests were more strongly associated with safety ratings than traditional neuropsychological tests.

  2. Assessing Mild Cognitive Impairment Progression using a Spherical Brain Mapping of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

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    Martinez-Murcia, Francisco Jesus; Górriz, Juan Manuel; Ramírez, Javier; Segovia, Fermín; Salas-Gonzalez, Diego; Castillo-Barnes, Diego; Ortiz, Andrés

    2018-04-04

    The early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), particularly in its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), still remains a challenge. Many computational tools have been developed to successfully explore and predict the disease progression. In this context, the Spherical Brain Mapping (SBM) proved its ability in detecting differences between AD and aged subjects without symptoms of dementia. Being a very visual tool, its application in predicting MCI conversion to AD could be of great help to understand neurodegeneration and the disease progression. In this work, we aim at predicting the conversion of MCI affected subjects to AD more than 6 months in advance of their conversion session and understanding the progression of the disease by predicting neuropsychological test outcomes from MRI data. In order to do so, SBM is applied to a series of MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The resulting spherical brain maps show statistical and morphological information of the brain in a bidimensional plane, performing at the same time a significant feature reduction that provides a feature vector used in classification analysis. The study achieves up to 92.3% accuracy in the AD versus normal controls (CTL) detection, and up to a 77.6% in detection a of MCI conversions when trained with AD and CTL subjects. The prediction of neuropsychological test outcomes achieved R2 rates up to more than 0.5. Significant regions according to t-test and correlation analysis match reported brain areas in the literature. The results prove that Spherical Brain Mapping offers good ability to predict conversion patterns and cognitive state, at the same time that provides an additional aid for visualizing a two-dimensional abstraction map of the brain.

  3. Changes of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

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    Zhu, Haoze; Zhou, Peng; Alcauter, Sarael; Chen, Yuanyuan; Cao, Hongbao; Tian, Miao; Ming, Dong; Qi, Hongzhi; Wang, Xuemin; Zhao, Xin; He, Feng; Ni, Hongyan; Gao, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits of working memory, attention, language and many other cognitive functions. Although different stages of the disease are relatively well characterized by clinical criteria, stage-specific pathological changes in the brain remain relatively poorly understood, especially at the level of large-scale functional networks. In this study, we aimed to characterize the potential disruptions of large-scale functional brain networks based on a sample including amnestic mild cognition impairment (aMCI) and AD patients to help delineate the underlying stage-dependent AD pathology. Approach. We sought to identify the neural connectivity mechanisms of aMCI and AD through examination of both intranetwork and internetwork interactions among four of the brain’s key networks, namely dorsal attention network (DAN), default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN) and salience network (SAL). We analyzed functional connectivity based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from 25 Alzheimer’s disease patients, 20 aMCI patients and 35 elderly normal controls (NC). Main results. Intranetwork functional disruptions within the DAN and ECN were detected in both aMCI and AD patients. Disrupted intranetwork connectivity of DMN and anti-correlation between DAN and DMN were observed in AD patients. Moreover, aMCI-specific alterations in the internetwork functional connectivity of SAL were observed. Significance. Our results confirmed previous findings that AD pathology was related to dysconnectivity both within and between resting-state networks but revealed more spatial details. Moreover, the SAL network, reportedly flexibly coupling either with the DAN or DMN networks during different brain states, demonstrated interesting alterations specifically in the early stage of the disease.

  4. Altered Distant Synchronization of Background Network in Mild Cognitive Impairment during an Executive Function Task

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    Pengyun Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies to date have investigated the background network in the cognitive state relying on executive function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients. Using the index of degree of centrality (DC, we explored distant synchronization of background network in MCI during a hybrid delayed-match-to-sample task (DMST, which mainly relies on the working memory component of executive function. We observed significant interactions between group and cognitive state in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and the ventral subregion of precuneus. For normal control (NC group, the long distance functional connectivity (FC of the PCC/precuneus with the other regions of the brain was higher in rest state than that working memory state. For MCI patients, however, this pattern altered. There was no significant difference between rest and working memory state. The similar pattern was observed in the other cluster located in the right angular gyrus. To examine whether abnormal DC in PCC/precuneus and angular gyrus partially resulted from the deficit of FC between these regions and the other parts in the whole brain, we conducted a seed-based correlation analysis with these regions as seeds. The results indicated that the FC between bilateral PCC/precuneus and the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL increased from rest to working memory state for NC participants. For MCI patients, however, there was no significant change between rest and working memory state. The similar pattern was observed for the FC between right angular gyrus and right anterior insula. However, there was no difference between MCI and NC groups in global efficiency and modularity. It may indicate a lack of efficient reorganization from rest state to a working memory state in the brain network of MCI patients. The present study demonstrates the altered distant synchronization of background network in MCI during a task relying on executive function. The results provide a new

  5. Emotional face recognition deficit in amnestic patients with mild cognitive impairment: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

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    Yang L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Linlin Yang, Xiaochuan Zhao, Lan Wang, Lulu Yu, Mei Song, Xueyi Wang Department of Mental Health, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei Medical University Institute of Mental Health, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been conceptualized as a transitional stage between healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, understanding emotional face recognition deficit in patients with amnestic MCI could be useful in determining progression of amnestic MCI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the features of emotional face processing in amnestic MCI by using event-related potentials (ERPs. Patients with amnestic MCI and healthy controls performed a face recognition task, giving old/new responses to previously studied and novel faces with different emotional messages as the stimulus material. Using the learning-recognition paradigm, the experiments were divided into two steps, ie, a learning phase and a test phase. ERPs were analyzed on electroencephalographic recordings. The behavior data indicated high emotion classification accuracy for patients with amnestic MCI and for healthy controls. The mean percentage of correct classifications was 81.19% for patients with amnestic MCI and 96.46% for controls. Our ERP data suggest that patients with amnestic MCI were still be able to undertake personalizing processing for negative faces, but not for neutral or positive faces, in the early frontal processing stage. In the early time window, no differences in frontal old/new effect were found between patients with amnestic MCI and normal controls. However, in the late time window, the three types of stimuli did not elicit any old/new parietal effects in patients with amnestic MCI, suggesting their recollection was impaired. This impairment may be closely associated with amnestic MCI disease. We conclude from our data that face recognition processing and emotional memory is

  6. Prevalence of Dementia, Depression, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in a Rural Area of the Island of Crete, Greece.

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    Tsolaki, Magda; Gkioka, Mara; Verykouki, Eleni; Galoutzi, Niki; Kavalou, Eirini; Pattakou-Parasyri, Vassiliki

    2017-08-01

    The studies on the prevalence of dementia, depression, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Greece are sparse and show major variations of prevalence depending on geographical areas, nutritional habits, and the way of living. The aim of this door-to-door study was to find the prevalence of dementia, depression, and MCI in a rural Greek population. Four hundred and forty-three individuals older than 61years following the application of specific criteria were diagnosed with: normal cognition, depression, MCI with and without depression, and dementia with and without depression. Four diagnostic methods were used, 2 of which included Mungas correction for age and education. After Mungas adjustment, the results were as follows-depression: 33.9%; MCI: 15.3%; MCI with depression: 8.6%; dementia: 2.0%; and dementia with depression: 7.2%. Dementia is less prevalent compared to global data and other Greek areas. Mild cognitive impairment is more prevalent than dementia. High percentages of depression may be related to low education.

  7. Skin Autofluorescence Examination as a Diagnostic Tool for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Healthy People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igase, Michiya; Ohara, Maya; Igase, Keiji; Kato, Takeaki; Okada, Yoko; Ochi, Masayuki; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Ohyagi, Yasumasa

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease. Tissue AGE accumulation can be estimated using the relative simple noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence (SAF), a method based on the fluorescent properties of some AGEs. However, possible involvement of tissue AGE accumulation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has not been fully investigated. We investigated whether tissue AGE accumulation estimated by SAF is associated with mild cognitive impairment. We analyzed 226 community-dwelling subjects. In addition to several atherosclerosis-related clinical parameters, MCI screening test, assessment of brain atrophy, and SAF were performed on people aged > 40 years. MCI was assessed using the Japanese version of the MCI screening method. Atrophy of the brain was assessed by examining the temporal horn area (THA) by brain MRI. SAF was significantly higher in participants with MCI than in those with normal cognitive function (2.56±0.55 versus 2.10±0.41; p  2.27 was significantly related to the presence of MCI (odds, 6.402; 95% CI, 1.590-25.773, p = 0.009). We found an association between SAF and MCI, which was independent of brain atrophy, in healthy subjects.

  8. A dataset of multiresolution functional brain parcellations in an elderly population with no or mild cognitive impairment

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    Angela Tam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present group eight resolutions of brain parcellations for clusters generated from resting-state functional magnetic resonance images for 99 cognitively normal elderly persons and 129 patients with mild cognitive impairment, pooled from four independent datasets. This dataset was generated as part of the following study: Common Effects of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment on Resting-State Connectivity Across Four Independent Studies (Tam et al., 2015 [1]. The brain parcellations have been registered to both symmetric and asymmetric MNI brain templates and generated using a method called bootstrap analysis of stable clusters (BASC (Bellec et al., 2010 [2]. We present two variants of these parcellations. One variant contains bihemisphereic parcels (4, 6, 12, 22, 33, 65, 111, and 208 total parcels across eight resolutions. The second variant contains spatially connected regions of interest (ROIs that span only one hemisphere (10, 17, 30, 51, 77, 199, and 322 total ROIs across eight resolutions. We also present maps illustrating functional connectivity differences between patients and controls for four regions of interest (striatum, dorsal prefrontal cortex, middle temporal lobe, and medial frontal cortex. The brain parcels and associated statistical maps have been publicly released as 3D volumes, available in .mnc and .nii file formats on figshare and on Neurovault. Finally, the code used to generate this dataset is available on Github.

  9. Including persistency of impairment in mild cognitive impairment classification enhances prediction of 5-year decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermorris, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Strauss, Esther

    2011-02-01

    Although older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) show elevated rates of conversion to dementia as a group, heterogeneity of outcomes is common at the individual level. Using data from a prospective 5-year longitudinal investigation of cognitive change in healthy older adults (N = 262, aged 64-92 years), this study addressed limitations in contemporary MCI identification procedures which rely on single occasion assessment ("Single-Assessment [SA] MCI") by evaluating an alternate operational definition of MCI requiring evidence of persistent cognitive impairment over multiple-testing sessions ("Multiple-Assessment [MA] MCI"). As hypothesized, prevalence of SA-MCI exceeded that of MA-MCI. Further, the MA-MCI groups showed lower baseline cognitive and functional performance and steeper cognitive decline compared with Control and SA-MCI group. Results are discussed with reference to retest effects and clinical implications.

  10. Study on EEG power and coherence in patients with mild cognitive impairment during working memory task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zheng-yan

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the features of electroencephalography (EEG) power and coherence at rest and during a working memory task of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty-five patients (17 males, 18 females; 52~71 years old) and 34 sex- and age-matched controls (17 males, 17 females; 51~63 years old) were recruited in the present study. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) of 35 patients with MCI and 34 normal controls revealed that the scores of MCI patients did not differ significantly from those of normal controls (P>0.05). Then, EEGs at rest and during working memory task with three levels of working memory load were recorded. The EEG power was computed over 10 channels: right and left frontal (F3, F4), central (C3,C4), parietal (P3, P4), temporal (TS, T6) and occipital (O1, O2); inter-hemispheric coherences were computed from five electrode pairs of F3-F4, C3-C4, P3-P4, T5-T6 and O1-O2 for delta (1.0~3.5 Hz), theta (4.0~7.5 Hz), alpha-1 (8.0~10.0 Hz), alpha-2 (10.5~13.0 Hz), beta-1 (13.5~18.0 Hz) and beta-2 (18.5~30.0 Hz) frequency bands. All values of the EEG power of MCI patients were found to be higher than those of normal controls at rest and during working memory tasks. Furthermore, the values of EEG power in the theta, alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta-1 bands of patients with MCI were significantly high (P<0.05) in comparison with those of normal controls. Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between the EEG powers and MMSE scores. In addition, during working memory tasks, the EEG coherences in all bands were significantly higher in the MCI group in comparison with those in the control group (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in EEG coherences between two groups at rest. These findings comprise evidence that MCI patients have higher EEG power at rest, and higher EEG power and coherence during working conditions. It suggests that MCI may be associated with compensatory processes at

  11. Working memory binding and episodic memory formation in aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's dementia.

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    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Heringa, Sophie M; van den Berg, Esther; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that in both normal and pathological aging working memory (WM) performance deteriorates, especially when associations have to be maintained. However, most studies typically do not assess the relationship between WM and episodic memory formation. In the present study, we examined WM and episodic memory formation in normal aging and in patients with early Alzheimer's disease (mild cognitive impairment, MCI; and Alzheimer's dementia, AD). In the first study, 26 young adults (mean age 29.6 years) were compared to 18 middle-aged adults (mean age 52.2 years) and 25 older adults (mean age 72.8 years). We used an associative delayed-match-to-sample WM task, which requires participants to maintain two pairs of faces and houses presented on a computer screen for short (3 s) or long (6 s) maintenance intervals. After the WM task, an unexpected subsequent associative memory task was administered (two-alternative forced choice). In the second study, 27 patients with AD and 19 patients with MCI were compared to 25 older controls, using the same paradigm as that in Experiment 1. Older adults performed worse than both middle-aged and young adults. No effect of delay was observed in the healthy adults, and pairs that were processed during long maintenance intervals were not better remembered in the subsequent memory task. In the MCI and AD patients, longer maintenance intervals hampered the task performance. Also, both patient groups performed significantly worse than controls on the episodic memory task as well as the associative WM task. Aging and AD present with a decline in WM binding, a finding that extends similar results in episodic memory. Longer delays in the WM task did not affect episodic memory formation. We conclude that WM deficits are found when WM capacity is exceeded, which may occur during associative processing.

  12. Effect of modified wuzi yanzong granule on patients with mild cognitive impairment from oxidative damage aspect.

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    Wang, Xue-mei; Fu, Hong; Liu, Geng-xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Li; Yang, Jin-xia

    2007-12-01

    To observe the effects of modified Wuzi Yanzong Granule (WYG) on memory function and the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion rate and beta-amyloid protein(1-28) (A beta(1-28)) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty-six patients with MCI were selected based on the internationally recognized Petersen's criteria, and equally and randomly assigned to two groups. The treated group was treated with WYG and the control group was treated with placebo for 3 months. In addition, 20 healthy subjects were included in the study as the normal control group. Changes of memory function, SOD activity, MDA content, leukocyte mtDNA deletion rate and A beta(1-28) content were observed before and after treatment. Compared with the normal control group, the memory quotient and SOD activity in patients with MCI decreased significantly (P < 0.01), while MDA, A beta(1-28) levels and the leukocyte mtDNA deletion rate increased significantly (P < 0.01). After treatment, levels of memory quotient and serum SOD activity increased while the serum MDA level, leukocyte mtDNA deletion rate and A beta(1-28) level decreased in the treated group compared with those before treatment (P<0.01, P<0.05). Meanwhile, leukocyte mtDNA deletion rate and A beta(1-28) content in the treated group were all lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). WYG could improve memory function in patients with MCI and the therapeutic mechanism is possibly related to the increased activity of anti-oxidase, the improved free radical metabolism and the alleviation of leukocyte mtDNA oxidation damage. WYG shows clinical significance in delaying the progression of MCI.

  13. Olfactory identification in amnestic and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and its neuropsychological correlates.

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    Vyhnalek, Martin; Magerova, Hana; Andel, Ross; Nikolai, Tomas; Kadlecova, Alexandra; Laczo, Jan; Hort, Jakub

    2015-02-15

    Olfactory identification impairment in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients is well documented and considered to be caused by underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, contrasting with less clear evidence in non-amnestic MCI (naMCI). The aim was to (a) compare the degree of olfactory identification dysfunction in aMCI, naMCI, controls and mild AD dementia and (b) assess the relation between olfactory identification and cognitive performance in aMCI compared to naMCI. 75 patients with aMCI and 32 with naMCI, 26 patients with mild AD and 27 controls underwent the multiple choice olfactory identification Motol Hospital Smell Test with 18 different odors together with a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. Controlling for age and gender, patients with aMCI and naMCI did not differ significantly in olfactory identification and both performed significantly worse than controls (pmemory and visuospatial tests were significantly related to better olfactory identification ability. Conversely, no cognitive measure was significantly related to olfactory performance in naMCI. Olfactory identification is similarly impaired in aMCI and naMCI. Olfactory impairment is proportional to cognitive impairment in aMCI but not in naMCI. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Subjective memory complaint only relates to verbal episodic memory performance in mild cognitive impairment

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    Gifford, Katherine A.; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M.; Chapman, William G.; Romano, Raymond R.; Samuels, Lauren R.; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    Background A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. Objective We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. Method MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n=191, 77±7 years; complaint n=206, 73±8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Results Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E-4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (β=−1.07, pmemory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (β=−1.06, p=0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Conclusions Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, subjective memory complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer’s disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum. PMID:25281602

  15. Subjective memory complaint only relates to verbal episodic memory performance in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Katherine A; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M; Chapman, William G; Romano Iii, Raymond R; Samuels, Lauren R; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L

    2015-01-01

    A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n = 191, 77 ± 7 years; complaint n = 206, 73 ± 8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (β = -1.07, p memory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (β = -1.06, p = 0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, subjective memory complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer's disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum.

  16. The Test Your Memory for Mild Cognitive Impairment (TYM-MCI).

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    Brown, Jeremy M; Lansdall, Claire J; Wiggins, Julie; Dawson, Kate E; Hunter, Kristina; Rowe, James B; Parker, Richard A

    2017-12-01

    To validate a short cognitive test: the Test Your Memory for Mild Cognitive Impairment (TYM-MCI) in the diagnosis of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease (aMCI/AD). Two hundred and two patients with mild memory problems were recruited. All had 'passed' the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Patients completed the TYM-MCI, the Test Your Memory test (TYM), MMSE and revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), had a neurological examination, clinical diagnostics and multidisciplinary team review. As a single test, the TYM-MCI performed as well as the ACE-R in the distinction of patients with aMCI/AD from patients with subjective memory impairment with a sensitivity of 0.79 and specificity of 0.91. Used in combination with the ACE-R, it provided additional value and identified almost all cases of aMCI/AD. The TYM-MCI correctly classified most patients who had equivocal ACE-R scores. Integrated discriminant improvement analysis showed that the TYM-MCI added value to the conventional memory assessment. Patients initially diagnosed as unknown or with subjective memory impairment who were later rediagnosed with aMCI/AD scored poorly on their original TYM-MCI. The TYM-MCI is a powerful short cognitive test that examines verbal and visual recall and is a valuable addition to the assessment of patients with aMCI/AD. It is simple and cheap to administer and requires minimal staff time and training. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Hippocampal volumes among older Indian adults: Comparison with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

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    Vikas Dhikav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hippocampal volume data from India have recently been reported in younger adults. Data in older adults are unknown. The present paper describes hippocampal volume from India among older adults and compares the same with patients having Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 cognitively normal subjects, 20 patients with AD, and 13 patients with MCI were enrolled. Patients were evaluated for the diagnosis of AD/MCI using the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Related Disorders Association criteria and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR Scale (score = 0.5, respectively. Hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI machine by manual segmentation (Megnatom Symphony 1.5T scanner three-dimensional (3D sequences. Results: Age and duration of illness in the MCI group were 70.6 ± 8.6 years and 1.9 ± 0.9 years, respectively. In the AD group, age and duration of illness were 72 ± 8.1 years and 3.1 ± 2.2 years, respectively. In cognitively normal subjects, the age range was 45-88 years (66.9 ± 10.32 years. Mean mini–mental status examination (MMSE score of healthy subjects was 28.28 ± 1.33. In the MCI group, MMSE was 27.05 ± 1.79. In the AD group, MMSE was 13.32 ± 5.6. In the healthy group, the hippocampal volume was 2.73 ± 0.53 cm3 on the left side and 2.77 ± 0.6 cm3 on the right side. Likewise, in MCI, the volume on the left side was 2.35 ± 0.42 cm3 and the volume on the right side was 2.36 ± 0.38 cm3. Similarly, in the AD group, the volume on the right side was 1.64 ± 0.55 cm3 and on the left side it was 1.59 ± 0.55 cm3. Post hoc analysis using Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD showed, using analysis of variance (ANOVA that there was a statistically significant difference between healthy and AD (P ≤ 0.01, and between healthy and MCI (P ≤ 0.01 subjects. There was a correlation between

  18. Associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease.

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    Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Vogel, Asmus; Lolk, Annette; Gottrup, Hanne; Høgh, Peter; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Beyer, Nina

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes a gradual decline in cognition, limitations of dual-tasking and physical function leading to total dependence. Hence, information about the interaction between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition may lead to new treatment strategies with the purpose of preserving function and quality of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in community-dwelling patients with mild AD. Baseline results from 185 participants (50-90 years old) in the single blinded multicenter RCT 'ADEX' (Alzheimer's disease: the effect of physical exercise) were used. Assessments included tests of physical function: 400-m walk test, 10-m walk test, Timed Up and Go test and 30-s chair stand test; dual-task performance, i.e., 10-m walk while counting backwards from 50 or naming the months backwards; and cognition, i.e., Mini Mental State Examination, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and Lexical verbal fluency test. Results in the 30-s chair stand test correlated significantly with all tests of cognition (r = .208-.242) while the other physical function tests only randomly correlated with tests of cognition. Results in the dual-task counting backwards correlated significantly with results in all tests of cognition (r = .259-.388), which accounted for 7%-15% of the variation indicating that a faster time to complete dual-task performance was associated with better cognitive performance. The evidence of the associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition is important when creating new rehabilitation interventions to patients with mild AD.

  19. N-Terminal Pro-B Type Natriuretic Peptide is Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Kaffer; Mahabadi, Amir Abbas; Weimar, Christian; Winkler, Angela; Neumann, Till; Kälsch, Hagen; Dragano, Nico; Moebus, Susanne; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Jokisch, Martha

    2017-01-01

    N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a marker of cardiac stress and is linked with silent cardiac diseases. While associations of cognitive impairment with manifest cardiovascular diseases are established, data on whether subclinical elevation of NT-proBNP levels below clinically established threshold of heart failure is related with cognitive functioning, especially mild cognitive impairment (MCI), is rare. Aim of the present study was to investigate the cross-sectional association of NT-proBNP levels and MCI in a population-based study sample without heart failure. We used data from the second examination of the population based Heinz-Nixdorf-Recall-Study. Subjects with overt coronary heart disease and subjects with NT-proBNP levels indicating potential heart failure (NT-proBNP≥300 pg/ml) were excluded from this analysis. Participants performed a validated brief cognitive assessment and were classified either as MCI [subtypes: amnestic-MCI (aMCI), non-amnestic-MCI (naMCI)], or cognitively-normal. We included 419 participants with MCI (63.1±7.4 y; 47% men; aMCI n = 209; naMCI n = 210) and 1,206 cognitively normal participants (62.42±7.1 y; 48% men). NT-proBNP-levels≥125 pg/ml compared to heart failure, higher NT-proBNPlevels are associated with MCI and both MCI subtypes independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and sociodemographic parameters.

  20. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality and architecture as well as sleep's homeostatic and circadian controls change with healthy aging. Changes include reductions in slow-wave sleep's (SWS) percent and spectral power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), number and amplitude of sleep spindles, rapid eye movement (REM) density and the amplitude of circadian rhythms, as well as a phase advance (moved earlier in time) of the brain's circadian clock. With mild cognitive impairment (MCI) there are further reductions of sleep quality, SWS, spindles, and percent REM, all of which further diminish, along with a profound disruption of circadian rhythmicity, with the conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sleep disorders may represent risk factors for dementias (e.g., REM Behavior Disorder presages Parkinson's disease) and sleep disorders are themselves extremely prevalent in neurodegenerative diseases. Working memory , formation of new episodic memories, and processing speed all decline with healthy aging whereas semantic, recognition, and emotional declarative memory are spared. In MCI, episodic and working memory further decline along with declines in semantic memory. In young adults, sleep-dependent memory consolidation (SDC) is widely observed for both declarative and procedural memory tasks. However, with healthy aging, although SDC for declarative memory is preserved, certain procedural tasks, such as motor-sequence learning, do not show SDC. In younger adults, fragmentation of sleep can reduce SDC, and a normative increase in sleep fragmentation may account for reduced SDC with healthy aging. Whereas sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy can impair SDC in the absence of neurodegenerative changes, the incidence of sleep disorders increases both with normal aging and, further, with neurodegenerative disease. Specific features of sleep architecture, such as sleep spindles and SWS are strongly linked to SDC. Diminution of these features with healthy aging

  1. ApoE4 effects on automated diagnostic classifiers for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

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    Liana G. Apostolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the only feasible way to detect and monitor presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD. No single biomarker can predict future cognitive decline with an acceptable level of accuracy. In addition to designing powerful multimodal diagnostic platforms, a careful investigation of the major sources of disease heterogeneity and their influence on biomarker changes is needed. Here we investigated the accuracy of a novel multimodal biomarker classifier for differentiating cognitively normal (NC, mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD subjects with and without stratification by ApoE4 genotype. 111 NC, 182 MCI and 95 AD ADNI participants provided both structural MRI and CSF data at baseline. We used an automated machine-learning classifier to test the ability of hippocampal volume and CSF Aβ, t-tau and p-tau levels, both separately and in combination, to differentiate NC, MCI and AD subjects, and predict conversion. We hypothesized that the combined hippocampal/CSF biomarker classifier model would achieve the highest accuracy in differentiating between the three diagnostic groups and that ApoE4 genotype will affect both diagnostic accuracy and biomarker selection. The combined hippocampal/CSF classifier performed better than hippocampus-only classifier in differentiating NC from MCI and NC from AD. It also outperformed the CSF-only classifier in differentiating NC vs. AD. Our amyloid marker played a role in discriminating NC from MCI or AD but not for MCI vs. AD. Neurodegenerative markers contributed to accurate discrimination of AD from NC and MCI but not NC from MCI. Classifiers predicting MCI conversion performed well only after ApoE4 stratification. Hippocampal volume and sex achieved AUC = 0.68 for predicting conversion in the ApoE4-positive MCI, while CSF p-tau, education and sex achieved AUC = 0.89 for predicting conversion in ApoE4-negative MCI. These observations support the proposed biomarker trajectory in AD, which postulates

  2. Cognitive Interventions in Mild Alzheimer's Disease: A Therapy-Evaluation Study on the Interaction of Medication and Cognitive Treatment

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    M. Schecker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Many studies have shown that not only pharmacological treatment but also cognitive stimulation in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD improves language processing and (other cognitive functions, stabilizes Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL functions and increases the subjective quality of life (wherein a combination of pharmacological intervention and cognitive stimulation could provide greater relief of clinical symptoms than either intervention given alone. Today, it is no longer the question of whether cognitive stimulation helps but rather what kind of stimulation helps more than others. Methods: A sample of 42 subjects with mild AD (all medicated with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and well adjusted underwent clinical and cognitive evaluation and participated in a 6-month study with 2 experimental groups (i.e. ‘client-centered' global stimulation vs. cognitive training and a control group. Since the test performance also depends on the individual test, we used a wide variety of tests; we z-transformed the results and then calculated the mean value for the global cognitive status (using the Mini-Mental State Examination as well as for the single functional areas. Results: Between-group differences were found, they were overall in favor of the experimental groups. Different functional areas led to different treatment and test patterns. Client-centered, global, cognitive therapy stimulated many cognitive functions and thus led to a better performance in language processing and ADL/IADL. The subjective quality of life increased as well. The cognitive training (of working memory improved only the ADL/IADL performance (more, however, than client-centered, global, cognitive stimulation and stabilized the level of performance in the other three functional areas.

  3. Hypothyroidism and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Persons - A Population Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Singh, Balwinder; Roberts, Rosebud O; Pankratz, Shane; Edwards, Kelly K.; Geda, Yonas E; Gharib, H; Boeve, Bradley F; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is not established. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with MCI in a large population based cohort. DESIGN A cross-sectional, population-based study. SETTING Olmsted County, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS Randomly selected participants were aged 70 to 89 years on October 1, 2004, and were without documented prevalent dementia. A total of 2,050 participants were evaluated and underwent in-person interview, neurological evaluation and neuropsychological testing to assess performance in memory, attention/executive function, visuospatial, and language domains. Subjects were diagnosed by consensus as cognitively normal, MCI or dementia according to published criteria. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism was ascertained from a medical records-linkage system. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with MCI. Results Among 1904 eligible participants, the frequency of MCI was 16% in 1450 subjects with normal thyroid function, 17% in 313 subjects with clinical hypothyroidism, and 18% in 141 subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. After adjusting for covariates (age, gender, education, education years, sex, ApoE ε 4, depression, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, BMI and coronary artery disease) we found no significant association between clinical or subclinial hypothyroidism and MCI [OR 0.99 (95% CI 0.66–1.48) and OR 0.88 (95% CI 0.38–2.03) respectively]. No effect of gender interaction was seen on these effects. In stratified analysis, the odds of MCI with clinical and subclinical hypothyroidisn among males was 1.02 (95%CI, 0.57–1.82) and 1.29 (95%CI 0.68–2.44), among females was 1.04 (95% 0.66–1.66) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.37–2.02) respectively. Conclusion In this population based cohort of eldery, neither clinical nor subclinical hypothyrpodism was associated with MCI. Our findings

  4. Poorer Financial and Health Literacy Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; James, Bryan D; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A

    2015-09-01

    Literacy is an important determinant of financial and health outcomes in old age, and cognitive decline has been linked with lower literacy. We tested the hypothesis that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer financial and health literacy. Participants (n = 730) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project were given a clinical evaluation and an assessment of total, financial, and health literacy. Regression was used to examine whether MCI was associated with lower literacy. In secondary analyses, we investigated the association of particular cognitive systems with literacy. MCI was associated with lower total, financial, and health literacy. An interaction was observed such that higher education reduced the effect of MCI on total and financial literacy. Multiple cognitive systems were associated with literacy in participants with MCI, and semantic memory accounted for the most variance. Persons with MCI exhibit poorer financial and health literacy, and education mitigates this effect. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. A comparison of two assessments of high level cognitive communication disorders in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Tanya; Scott, Amanda; Bond, Annabelle; Paul, Eldho

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently encounter cognitive communication disorders. Deficits can be subtle but can seriously influence an individual's ability to achieve life goals. Feedback from rehabilitation facilities indicated that high level cognitive communication disorders are not consistently identified in the acute setting. This study aimed to compare the cognitive communication results from two screening assessments, the Cognistat and the Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT), in participants with a mild traumatic brain injury and to relate these findings to a range of prognostic indicators. Eighty-three adults post-TBI (16-81 years; 79.5% males) were recruited at an acute trauma centre. The language components of the two tests were analysed. The CLQT identified more participants with an impairment in language than the Cognistat, 19.3% compared to 1.2% (p communication deficits than the Cognistat in the acute setting.

  6. Effects of Combined Physical and Cognitive Exercises on Cognition and Mobility in Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Park, Hyuntae; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Verghese, Joe; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-11-17

    Although participation in physical and cognitive activities is encouraged to reduce the risk of dementia, the preventive efficacy of these activities for patients with mild cognitive impairment is unestablished. To compare the cognitive and mobility effects of a 40-week program of combined cognitive and physical activity with those of a health education program. A randomized, parallel, single-blind controlled trial. A population-based study of participants recruited from Obu, a residential suburb of Nagoya, Japan. Between August 2011 and February 2012, we evaluated 945 adults 65 years or older with mild cognitive impairment, enrolled 308, and randomly assigned them to the combined activity group (n = 154) or the health education control group (n = 154). The combined activity program involved weekly 90-minute sessions for 40 weeks focused on physical and cognitive activities. The control group attended 90-minute health promotion classes thrice during the 40-week trial period. The outcome measures were assessed at the study's beginning and end by personnel blinded to mild cognitive impairment subtype and group. The primary endpoints were postintervention changes in scores on (1) the Mini-Mental State Examination as a measure of general cognitive status and memory, (2) the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised-Logical Memory II, and (3) the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. We applied mobility assessments and assessed brain atrophy with magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with the control group, the combined activity group showed significantly greater scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (difference = 0.8 points, P = .012) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised-Logical Memory II (difference = 1.0, P = .004), significant improvements in mobility and the nonmemory domains and reduced left medial temporal lobe atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (Z-score difference = -31.3, P physical and cognitive activity improves or maintains

  7. Cognitive reserve and Aβ1-42 in mild cognitive impairment (Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

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    Harris P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Paula Harris,1,2 Marcos Fernandez Suarez,1 Ezequiel I Surace,1,2 Patricio Chrem Méndez,1 María Eugenia Martín,1 María Florencia Clarens,1 Fernanda Tapajóz,1,2 Maria Julieta Russo,1 Jorge Campos,1 Salvador M Guinjoan,1,2 Gustavo Sevlever,1 Ricardo F Allegri1,2 1Instituto de Investigaciones Neurológicas, 2Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive reserve and concentration of Aβ1-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with mild cognitive impairment, those with Alzheimer’s disease, and in control subjects. Methods: Thirty-three participants from the Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database completed a cognitive battery, the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire (CRQ, and an Argentinian accentuation reading test (TAP-BA as a measure of premorbid intelligence, and underwent lumbar puncture for CSF biomarker quantification. Results: The CRQ significantly correlated with TAP-BA, education, and Aβ1-42. When considering Aβ1-42 levels, significant differences were found in CRQ scores; higher levels of CSF Aβ1-42 were associated with higher CRQ scores. Conclusion: Reduced Aβ1-42 in CSF is considered as evidence of amyloid deposition in the brain. Previous results suggest that individuals with higher education, higher occupational attainment, and participation in leisure activities (cognitive reserve have a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Our results support the notion that enhanced neural activity has a protective role in mild cognitive impairment, as evidenced by higher CSF Aβ1-42 levels in individuals with more cognitive reserve. Keywords: amyloid, biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid, Alzheimer’s disease 

  8. Dosimetry of patients submitted to cerebral PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

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    Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de; Bernardes, Felipe Dias; Mamede, Marcelo, E-mail: pridili@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mourao, Arnaldo Prata [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Teogenes Augusto da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the effective radiation dose in patients submitted to PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Materials and methods: TLD-100 detectors inserted into an Alderson Rando® anthropomorphic phantom were utilized to measure the absorbed dose coming from the CT imaging modality. The anthropomorphic phantoms (male and female adult versions) were submitted to the same technical protocols for patients’ images acquisition. The absorbed dose resulting from the radiopharmaceutical injection was estimated by means of the model proposed by the ICRP publication 106. Results: the effective dose in patients submitted to this diagnostic technique was approximately (5.34 ± 1.99) mSv. Conclusion: optimized protocols for calculation of radioactive activity injected into patients submitted to this diagnostic technique might contribute to reduce the effective radiation dose resulting from PET/CT in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. (author)

  9. Dosimetry of patients submitted to cerebral PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de; Bernardes, Felipe Dias; Mamede, Marcelo; Mourao, Arnaldo Prata; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da

    2014-01-01

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the effective radiation dose in patients submitted to PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Materials and methods: TLD-100 detectors inserted into an Alderson Rando® anthropomorphic phantom were utilized to measure the absorbed dose coming from the CT imaging modality. The anthropomorphic phantoms (male and female adult versions) were submitted to the same technical protocols for patients’ images acquisition. The absorbed dose resulting from the radiopharmaceutical injection was estimated by means of the model proposed by the ICRP publication 106. Results: the effective dose in patients submitted to this diagnostic technique was approximately (5.34 ± 1.99) mSv. Conclusion: optimized protocols for calculation of radioactive activity injected into patients submitted to this diagnostic technique might contribute to reduce the effective radiation dose resulting from PET/CT in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. (author)

  10. Atrophy-specific MRI brain template for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonov, Vladimir; Coupe, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed

    Background Rapid brain loss is characteristic for the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) [1]. Increase of the lateral ventricular volume is strongly correlated with the progression of the disease. High variability in the degree of atrophy for subjects with AD....... Alzheimer's and Dementia, 2010. 6(4, Supplement 1). [3] Fonov, V, et al. NeuroImage, 2011. 54(1).......Background Rapid brain loss is characteristic for the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) [1]. Increase of the lateral ventricular volume is strongly correlated with the progression of the disease. High variability in the degree of atrophy for subjects with AD...... of the brain and the contrast between different tissue types for the given level of atrophy. Figure 1 shows images through 6 example values of increasing RLVV. Conclusions The proposed method and resulting template will be useful tools for the development of robust automatic image processing methods targeted...

  11. Dependence and caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2011-03-01

    The dependence scale has been designed to be sensitive to the overall care needs of the patient and is considered distinct from standard measures of functional ability in this regard. Little is known regarding the relationship between patient dependence and caregiver burden. We recruited 100 patients with Alzheimer\\'s disease or mild cognitive impairment and their caregivers through a memory clinic. Patient function, dependence, hours of care, cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and caregiver burden were assessed. Dependence was significantly correlated with caregiver burden. Functional decline and dependence were most predictive of caregiver burden in patients with mild impairment while behavioral symptoms were most predictive in patients with moderate to severe disease. The dependence scale demonstrated good utility as a predictor of caregiver burden. Interventions to reduce caregiver burden should address patient dependence, functional decline, and behavioral symptoms while successful management of the latter becomes more critical with disease progression.

  12. Novel Virtual User Models of Mild Cognitive Impairment for Simulating Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segkouli, Sofia; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Tsakiris, Thanos; Tsolaki, Magda; Karagiannidis, Charalampos

    2015-01-01

    Virtual user modeling research has attempted to address critical issues of human-computer interaction (HCI) such as usability and utility through a large number of analytic, usability-oriented approaches as cognitive models in order to provide users with experiences fitting to their specific needs. However, there is demand for more specific modules embodied in cognitive architecture that will detect abnormal cognitive decline across new synthetic task environments. Also, accessibility evaluation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) requires considerable effort for enhancing ICT products accessibility for older adults. The main aim of this study is to develop and test virtual user models (VUM) simulating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) through novel specific modules, embodied at cognitive models and defined by estimations of cognitive parameters. Well-established MCI detection tests assessed users' cognition, elaborated their ability to perform multitasks, and monitored the performance of infotainment related tasks to provide more accurate simulation results on existing conceptual frameworks and enhanced predictive validity in interfaces' design supported by increased tasks' complexity to capture a more detailed profile of users' capabilities and limitations. The final outcome is a more robust cognitive prediction model, accurately fitted to human data to be used for more reliable interfaces' evaluation through simulation on the basis of virtual models of MCI users. PMID:26339282

  13. Novel Virtual User Models of Mild Cognitive Impairment for Simulating Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Segkouli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual user modeling research has attempted to address critical issues of human-computer interaction (HCI such as usability and utility through a large number of analytic, usability-oriented approaches as cognitive models in order to provide users with experiences fitting to their specific needs. However, there is demand for more specific modules embodied in cognitive architecture that will detect abnormal cognitive decline across new synthetic task environments. Also, accessibility evaluation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs requires considerable effort for enhancing ICT products accessibility for older adults. The main aim of this study is to develop and test virtual user models (VUM simulating mild cognitive impairment (MCI through novel specific modules, embodied at cognitive models and defined by estimations of cognitive parameters. Well-established MCI detection tests assessed users’ cognition, elaborated their ability to perform multitasks, and monitored the performance of infotainment related tasks to provide more accurate simulation results on existing conceptual frameworks and enhanced predictive validity in interfaces’ design supported by increased tasks’ complexity to capture a more detailed profile of users’ capabilities and limitations. The final outcome is a more robust cognitive prediction model, accurately fitted to human data to be used for more reliable interfaces’ evaluation through simulation on the basis of virtual models of MCI users.

  14. Prediction of time trends in recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Kay; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2009-01-01

    . There was significant improvement of performance after 6 months. APOE-epsilon4 genotype was the only independent factor significantly predicting less improvement. CONCLUSION: The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele predicts less recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury....... change. RESULTS: A Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15, traumatic brain injury demonstrated with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and serum S-100B greater than 0.14 microg/L predicted impaired cognitive performance both at baseline and after 6 months; APOE genotype did not...

  15. Anxiety and behavioural disturbance as markers of prodromal Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2011-02-01

    Depression and anxiety have been reported to be independently predictive of conversion to Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Anxiety symptoms have been less well studied and findings in this regard have been inconsistent. The objectives of this study are to determine which symptoms among a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms known to commonly occur in patients with MCI are predictive of later conversion to AD. We also wish to determine whether these symptoms track existing measures of declining cognitive and functional status or may be considered distinct and sensitive biomarkers of evolving Alzheimer\\'s pathology.

  16. Reduced 5-HT2A receptor binding in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, S G; Madsen, K; Svarer, C

    2008-01-01

    cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and related 5-HT(2A) receptor binding to clinical symptoms. Sixteen patients with MCI of the amnestic type (mean age 73, mean MMSE 26.1) and 17 age and sex matched control subjects were studied with MRI and [(18)F......Previous studies of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have described reduced brain serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor density. It is unclear whether this abnormality sets in early in the course of the disease and whether it is related to early cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. We assessed...

  17. The picture superiority effect in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Ally, Brandon A.; Gold, Carl A.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2008-01-01

    The fact that pictures are better remembered than words has been reported in the literature for over 30 years. While this picture superiority effect has been consistently found in healthy young and older adults, no study has directly evaluated the presence of the effect in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Clinical observations have indicated that pictures enhance memory in these patients, suggesting that the picture superiority effect may be intact. H...

  18. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary investigation

    OpenAIRE

    LAWLOR, BRIAN; COEN, ROBERT; O'MARA, SHANE MICHAEL

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient's daily life. In order to fully explore the impa...

  19. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Irish, Muireann; Lawlor, Brian A; Coen, Robert F; O'Mara, Shane M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient's daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of di...

  20. Free and cued recall memory in Parkinson's disease associated with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Costa

    Full Text Available The hypothesis has been advanced that memory disorders in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD are related to either retrieval or consolidation failure. However, the characteristics of the memory impairments of PD patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment have not been clarified. This study was aimed at investigating whether memory deficits in PD patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (PDaMCI are due to failure of retrieval or consolidation processes. Sixteen individuals with PDaMCI, 20 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment without PD (aMCINPD, and 20 healthy controls were recruited. Participants were administered the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test. An index of cueing was computed for each subject to capture the advantage in retrieval of cued compared to free recall. Individuals with PDaMCI performed worse than healthy controls on the free recall (p0.10 task, and they performed better than aMCINPD subjects on both recall measures (p0.10 but it was significantly higher than that of the aMCINPD sample (p<0.01. Moreover, PD patients' performance on free recall trials was significantly predicted by scores on a test investigating executive functions (i.e., the Modified Card Sorting Test; p = 0.042. Findings of the study document that, in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment associated to PD, episodic memory impairment is related to retrieval rather than to consolidation failure. The same data suggest that, in these individuals, memory deficits might be due to altered frontal-related executive functioning.

  1. Memory evaluation in mild cognitive impairment using recall and recognition tests

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, IJ; Golob, EJ; Parker, ES; Starr, A

    2006-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a selective episodic memory deficit that often indicates early Alzheimer's disease. Episodic memory function in MCI is typically defined by deficits in free recall, but can also be tested using recognition procedures. To assess both recall and recognition in MCI, MCI (n = 21) and older comparison (n = 30) groups completed the USC-Repeatable Episodic Memory Test. Subjects memorized two verbally presented 15-item lists. One list was used for three fre...

  2. Intraindividual Stepping Reaction Time Variability Predicts Falls in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Bunce, D; Haynes, BI; Lord, SR; Gschwind, YJ; Kochan, NA; Reppermund, S; Brodaty, H; Sachdev, PS; Delbaere, K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reaction time measures have considerable potential to aid neuropsychological assessment in a variety of health care settings. One such measure, the intraindividual reaction time variability (IIV), is of particular interest as it is thought to reflect neurobiological disturbance. IIV is associated with a variety of age-related neurological disorders, as well as gait impairment and future falls in older adults. However, although persons diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)...

  3. The Effect of Mild Motion Sickness and Sopite Syndrome on Multitasking Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    useful as a predictor of performance in occupations such as pilot , where demands on multitasking are presumably high.” 33 It is interesting to assess...Council Committee on Selection and Training of Aircraft Pilots , Executive Subcommittee. Washington, D.C. Wendt, G. R. (1951). Vestibular functions. In S...public release; distribution is unlimited THE EFFECT OF MILD MOTION SICKNESS AND SOPITE SYNDROME ON MULTITASKING COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE by

  4. Neural correlates of spatial navigation changes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Kamil; Laczó, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, Mar 17 (2014), s. 89 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.100/02/0123 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spatial navigation * Alzheimer’s disease * spatial disorientation * brain changes * mild cognitive impairment Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  5. Fast decay of iconic memory in observers with mild cognitive impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Neuse, James; Madigan, Stephen; Dosher, Barbara Anne

    2005-01-01

    In a previous clinical report, unusually fast decay of iconic memory was obtained from a subject who later developed Alzheimer's disease. By using the partial-report paradigm, iconic memory (a form of visual sensory memory) in a group of observers with mild cognitive impairments (MCI) was characterized and compared with that of young college-age adults and older controls. Relatively long stimulus exposures were used for all three groups to ensure that older observers could perceive the stimul...

  6. Longitudinal changes in task-evoked brain responses in Parkinson’s disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban eEkman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson’s disease. Previous cross-sectional research has demonstrated a link between cognitive impairments and fronto-striatal dopaminergic dysmodulation. However, longitudinal studies that link disease progression with altered task-evoked brain activity are lacking. Therefore, our objective was to longitudinally evaluate working-memory related brain activity changes in Parkinson’s disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment.Patients were recruited within a longitudinal cohort study of incident patients with idiopathic parkinsonism. We longitudinally (at baseline examination and at 12-months follow-up compared 28 patients with Parkinson’s disease without mild cognitive impairment with 11 patients with Parkinson’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Functional MRI blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured during a verbal two-back working-memory task. Patients with mild cognitive impairment under-recruited bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, right putamen, and lateral parietal cortex at both time-points (main effect of group: p<0.001, uncorrected. Critically, a significant group-by-time interaction effect (p<0.001, uncorrected was found in the right fusiform gyrus, indicating that working-memory related activity decreased for patients with Parkinson’s disease and mild cognitive impairment between baseline and follow-up, while patients without mild cognitive impairment were stable across time-points. The functional connectivity between right fusiform gyrus and bilateral caudate nucleus was stronger for patients without MCI relative to patients with MCI.Our findings support the view that deficits in working-memory updating are related to persistent fronto-striatal under-recruitments in patients with early phase Parkinson’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. The longitudinal evolution of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease translates into additional task

  7. A study on the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment using a co-occurrence matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Naoki; Shimada, Tetsuo; Kaeriyama, Tomoharu; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Fukumoto, Ichiro

    2004-01-01

    We studied the possibility of making an objective diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. An image of the cerebral parenchyma was created from original MR images, and the brain, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the amount of the features from the co-occurrence matrix were measured. When the brain-intracranial ratio, hippocampus-intracranial ratio, and parahippocampal-intracranial ratio were computed, a significant difference was not detected. Discriminant analysis using the hippocampus-intracranial ratio and parahippocampal-intracranial ratio showed an overall accuracy of 63.8%. These are not sufficient results to use clinically. Therefore it is possible to make an objective diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment using the co-occurrence matrix. A statistically significant difference was found in 8 of the 13 features obtained from the co-occurrence matrix. Moreover, discriminant analysis using the eight features showed an overall accuracy of 85.1%. These results indicate that they can be used as an objective diagnostic technique for mild cognitive impairment. (author)

  8. Relationship between Delusion of Theft and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hae-Ran; Kang, Dong Woo; Woo, Young-Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong; Lee, Chang-Uk; Lim, Hyun Kook

    2018-01-01

    Although delusion of theft (DT) is the most frequent type of delusion in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), its relationship to cognitive functions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between DT and cognitive functions in mild AD. Two hundred eighty-nine mild AD patients were enrolled in this study. These subjects were classified into three groups: patients with no delusions (ND, n=82), patients with paranoid delusions (PD, n=114) and patients with DT (n=93). Cognitive functions and their associations with the degree of delusion were compared among the three groups. The results showed that verbal Fluency scores were significantly lower in the PD group than in the DT and ND groups. Word List Recall scores were significantly lower in the DT group than in the PD and ND groups. Interestingly, delusion severity measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory delusion subscale correlated negatively with the Word List Recall scores in the DT group. In this study, we demonstrated that episodic memory functions in mild AD patients were associated with DT, but not with PD. Further studies might be needed to clarify the pathophysiology of delusions associated with AD. PMID:29669410

  9. Relationship between Delusion of Theft and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hae-Ran; Kang, Dong Woo; Woo, Young-Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong; Lee, Chang-Uk; Lim, Hyun Kook

    2018-04-01

    Although delusion of theft (DT) is the most frequent type of delusion in Alzheimer's disease (AD), its relationship to cognitive functions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between DT and cognitive functions in mild AD. Two hundred eighty-nine mild AD patients were enrolled in this study. These subjects were classified into three groups: patients with no delusions (ND, n=82), patients with paranoid delusions (PD, n=114) and patients with DT (n=93). Cognitive functions and their associations with the degree of delusion were compared among the three groups. The results showed that verbal Fluency scores were significantly lower in the PD group than in the DT and ND groups. Word List Recall scores were significantly lower in the DT group than in the PD and ND groups. Interestingly, delusion severity measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory delusion subscale correlated negatively with the Word List Recall scores in the DT group. In this study, we demonstrated that episodic memory functions in mild AD patients were associated with DT, but not with PD. Further studies might be needed to clarify the pathophysiology of delusions associated with AD.

  10. Five-year retrospective changes in hippocampal atrophy and cognitive screening test performances in very mild Alzheimer's disease: the Tajiri Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Meguro, K.; Shimada, M.; Ishizaki, J.; Yamadori, A.; Sekita, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is important for normal cognitive function, especially for memory, and is the region with the earliest and most extensive pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the atrophic changes of the hippocampus over a 5-year period and its relation to cognitive screening test performances in normal elderly subjects, those with very mild AD, and patients with AD. Fifty-seven elderly subjects without a moderate or greater degree of cerebrovascular disease as shown by MRI were randomly selected from the town of Tajiri. Thirty-three subjects with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0 (normal), 18 CDR-0.5 (very mild AD) subjects, and six CDR-1 and 2 (AD) subjects underwent MRI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice during the period. Retrospective changes in the hippocampal width and the MMSE scores were evaluated. There were significant CDR group effects for the changes in the mean bilateral hippocampal widths and the MMSE scores. Normal subjects did not show cognitive decline, although there was a slight tendency for hippocampal atrophy. A significant and meaningful Spearman's correlation was noted between left hippocampal atrophy and the MMSE scores over the 5-year period for the CDR-0.5 group. These CDR-0.5 subjects met the MCI (mild cognitive impairment) criteria as proposed by the consensus paper. Findings suggested that normal elderly subjects maintain a high level of cognitive functions for at least 5 years, although hippocampal atrophy might occur. Atrophic change of the left hippocampus might be a good marker of the very early stage of AD. (orig.)

  11. Five-year retrospective changes in hippocampal atrophy and cognitive screening test performances in very mild Alzheimer's disease: the Tajiri Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Meguro, K.; Shimada, M.; Ishizaki, J.; Yamadori, A. [Division of Neuropsychology, Department of Disability Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sekita, Y. [Tohoku University Graduate School of Economics, Sendai (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is important for normal cognitive function, especially for memory, and is the region with the earliest and most extensive pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the atrophic changes of the hippocampus over a 5-year period and its relation to cognitive screening test performances in normal elderly subjects, those with very mild AD, and patients with AD. Fifty-seven elderly subjects without a moderate or greater degree of cerebrovascular disease as shown by MRI were randomly selected from the town of Tajiri. Thirty-three subjects with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0 (normal), 18 CDR-0.5 (very mild AD) subjects, and six CDR-1 and 2 (AD) subjects underwent MRI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice during the period. Retrospective changes in the hippocampal width and the MMSE scores were evaluated. There were significant CDR group effects for the changes in the mean bilateral hippocampal widths and the MMSE scores. Normal subjects did not show cognitive decline, although there was a slight tendency for hippocampal atrophy. A significant and meaningful Spearman's correlation was noted between left hippocampal atrophy and the MMSE scores over the 5-year period for the CDR-0.5 group. These CDR-0.5 subjects met the MCI (mild cognitive impairment) criteria as proposed by the consensus paper. Findings suggested that normal elderly subjects maintain a high level of cognitive functions for at least 5 years, although hippocampal atrophy might occur. Atrophic change of the left hippocampus might be a good marker of the very early stage of AD. (orig.)

  12. Prospective memory function and cue salience in mild cognitive impairment: Findings from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire L; Henry, Julie D; Rendell, Peter G; Withall, Adrienne; Kochan, Nicole A; Sachdev, Perminder; Brodaty, Henry

    2017-12-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is crucial to the maintenance of functional independence in late adulthood and is consistently impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). There remains a need for brief but valid measures of this construct that can be used as part of a comprehensive clinical assessment of cognition. Since the distinctiveness of PM cues is argued to determine the degree of strategic, controlled demands of PM paradigms, two variants of a brief measure were developed, one of which presented low-salience and the other high-salience PM cues. A large cohort of older adults with normal cognition or MCI was assessed with one of the two variants of our brief, novel measure of PM. Participants were asked to remember to execute PM tasks where the target cue was either high or low in salience, while concurrently engaged in an ongoing task of olfactory assessment. The task was able to discriminate between groups of participants with MCI or no cognitive impairment, albeit with a small effect size. The high-salience cue improved performance on the PM task; however, there was no interaction of cue salience with group. These results suggest that the temporal reliability and construct validity of very brief measures of the type used in this study need further exploration to determine their potential to provide meaningful insights into PM function. This measure may have utility as a brief screening tool, with identified deficits being followed up with a more comprehensive PM assessment.

  13. Voxel-based morphometry in Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of studies addressing the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luís Gustavo; Busatto, Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a useful approach for investigating neurostructural brain changes in dementia. We systematically reviewed VBM studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), specifically focusing on grey matter (GM) atrophy in the frontal lobe. Two searches were performed on the Pubmed database. A set of exclusion criteria was applied to ensure the selection of only VBM studies that directly investigated GM volume abnormalities in AD and/or MCI patients compared to cognitively normal controls. From a total of 46 selected articles, 35 VBM studies reported GM volume reductions in the frontal lobe. The frontal subregions, where most of the volume reductions were reported, included the inferior, superior and middle frontal gyri, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found studies in which reduced frontal GM was detected in MCI patients who converted to AD. In a minority of studies, correlations between frontal GM volumes and behavioural changes or cognitive deficits in AD patients were investigated, with variable findings. Results of VBM studies indicate that the frontal lobe should be regarded as an important brain area when investigating GM volume deficits in association with AD. Frontal GM loss might not be a feature specific to late AD only. Future VBM studies involving large AD samples are warranted to further investigate correlations between frontal volume deficits and both cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  14. Sex differences in progression to mild cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholerton, Brenna; Johnson, Catherine O; Fish, Brian; Quinn, Joseph F; Chung, Kathryn A; Peterson-Hiller, Amie L; Rosenthal, Liana S; Dawson, Ted M; Albert, Marilyn S; Hu, Shu-Ching; Mata, Ignacio F; Leverenz, James B; Poston, Kathleen L; Montine, Thomas J; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Edwards, Karen L

    2018-05-01

    Identification of factors associated with progression of cognitive symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is important for treatment planning, clinical care, and design of future clinical trials. The current study sought to identify whether prediction of cognitive progression is aided by examining baseline cognitive features, and whether this differs according to stage of cognitive disease. Participants with PD in the Pacific Udall Center Clinical Consortium who had longitudinal data available and were nondemented at baseline were included in the study (n = 418). Logistic and Cox regression models were utilized to examine the relationship between cognitive, demographic, and clinical variables with risk and time to progression from no cognitive impairment to mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) or dementia (PDD), and from PD-MCI to PDD. Processing speed (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009) and working memory (OR = 1.01, p = 0.03) were associated with conversion to PDD among those with PD-MCI at baseline, over and above demographic variables. Conversely, the primary predictive factor in the transition from no cognitive impairment to PD-MCI or PDD was male sex (OR = 4.47, p = 0.004), and males progressed more rapidly than females (p = 0.01). Further, among females with shorter disease duration, progression was slower than for their male counterparts, and poor baseline performance on semantic verbal fluency was associated with shorter time to cognitive impairment in females but not in males. This study provides evidence for sex differences in the progression to cognitive impairment in PD, while specific cognitive features become more important indicators of progression with impending conversion to PDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety of disclosing amyloid status in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jeffrey M; Johnson, David K; Liebmann, Edward P; Bothwell, Rebecca J; Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D

    2017-09-01

    Disclosing amyloid status to cognitively normal individuals remains controversial given our lack of understanding the test's clinical significance and unknown psychological risk. We assessed the effect of amyloid status disclosure on anxiety and depression before disclosure, at disclosure, and 6 weeks and 6 months postdisclosure and test-related distress after disclosure. Clinicians disclosed amyloid status to 97 cognitively normal older adults (27 had elevated cerebral amyloid). There was no difference in depressive symptoms across groups over time. There was a significant group by time interaction in anxiety, although post hoc analyses revealed no group differences at any time point, suggesting a minimal nonsustained increase in anxiety symptoms immediately postdisclosure in the elevated group. Slight but measureable increases in test-related distress were present after disclosure and were related to greater baseline levels of anxiety and depression. Disclosing amyloid imaging results to cognitively normal adults in the clinical research setting with pre- and postdisclosure counseling has a low risk of psychological harm. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Roles of Education and IQ in Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease-Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Armstrong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The role of cognitive reserve in Parkinson’s disease (PD-mild cognitive impairment (MCI is incompletely understood. Methods: The relationships between PD-MCI, years of education, and estimated premorbid IQ were examined in 119 consecutive non-demented PD patients using logistic regression models. Results: Higher education and IQ were associated with reduced odds of PD-MCI in univariate analysis. In multivariable analysis, a higher IQ was associated with a significantly decreased odds of PD-MCI, but education was not. Conclusion: The association of higher IQ and decreased odds of PD-MCI supports a role for cognitive reserve in PD, but further studies are needed to clarify the interaction of IQ and education and the impact of other contributors such as employment and hobbies.

  17. Brain-wide slowing of spontaneous alpha rhythms in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eGarcés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI include an increase in low frequency activity, as measured with electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography (MEG. A relevant property of spectral measures is the alpha peak, which corresponds to the dominant alpha rhythm. Here we studied the spatial distribution of MEG resting state alpha peak frequency and amplitude values in a sample of 27 MCI patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Power spectra were reconstructed in source space with linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer. Then, 88 Regions of Interest (ROIs were defined and an alpha peak per ROI and subject was identified. Statistical analyses were performed at every ROI, accounting for age, sex and educational level. Peak frequency was significantly decreased (p< 0.05 in MCIs in many posterior ROIs. The average peak frequency over all ROIs was 9.68±0.71 Hz for controls and 9.05±0.90 Hz for MCIs and the average normalized amplitude was (2.57±0.59•10-2 for controls and (2.70±0.49•10-2 for MCIs. Age and gender were also found to play a role in the alpha peak, since its frequency was higher in females than in males in posterior ROIs and correlated negatively with age in frontal ROIs. Furthermore, we examined the dependence of peak parameters with hippocampal volume, which is a commonly used marker of early structural AD-related damage. Peak frequency was positively correlated with hippocampal volume in many posterior ROIs. Overall, these findings indicate a pathological alpha slowing in MCI.

  18. Comparison of performance on neuropsychological tests in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease patients

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    Patrícia Helena Figueirêdo do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI can be an intermediate state between normality and dementia in some patients. An early diagnosis, through neuropsychological assessment, could identify individuals at risk of developing dementia. Objective: To verify differences in performance on neuropsychological tests among controls, amnestic MCI (aMCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Methods: Sixty-eight AD patients (mean age 73.77±7.24; mean schooling 9.04±4.83; 40 women and 28 men, 34 aMCI patients (mean age 74.44±7.05; mean schooling 12.35±4.01; 20 women and 60 controls (mean age 68.90±7.48; mean schooling 10.72±4.74; 42 women were submitted to a neuropsychological assessment composed of tasks assessing executive functions, language, constructive abilities, reasoning and memory. Results: There were statistically significant differences in performance across all tests among control, aMCI and AD groups, and also between only controls and AD patients. On comparing control and aMCI groups, we found statistically significant differences in memory tasks, except for immediate recall of Visual Reproduction. There were also statistically significant differences between aMCI and AD groups on tasks of constructive and visuoperceptual abilities, attention, language and memory, except for delayed recall of Visual Reproduction. Conclusions: Neuropsychological assessment was able to discriminate aMCI from AD patients in almost all tests except for delayed recall of Visual Reproduction, visual organization (Hooper and executive functions (WCST; and discriminate controls from AD patients in all tests, and controls from aMCI patients in all memory tests except for immediate recall of Visual Reproduction.

  19. Studying ventricular abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment with hyperbolic Ricci flow and tensor-based morphometry.

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    Shi, Jie; Stonnington, Cynthia M; Thompson, Paul M; Chen, Kewei; Gutman, Boris; Reschke, Cole; Baxter, Leslie C; Reiman, Eric M; Caselli, Richard J; Wang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia and people with MCI are at high risk of progression to dementia. MCI is attracting increasing attention, as it offers an opportunity to target the disease process during an early symptomatic stage. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures have been the mainstay of Alzheimer's disease (AD) imaging research, however, ventricular morphometry analysis remains challenging because of its complicated topological structure. Here we describe a novel ventricular morphometry system based on the hyperbolic Ricci flow method and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) statistics. Unlike prior ventricular surface parameterization methods, hyperbolic conformal parameterization is angle-preserving and does not have any singularities. Our system generates a one-to-one diffeomorphic mapping between ventricular surfaces with consistent boundary matching conditions. The TBM statistics encode a great deal of surface deformation information that could be inaccessible or overlooked by other methods. We applied our system to the baseline MRI scans of a set of MCI subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI: 71 MCI converters vs. 62 MCI stable). Although the combined ventricular area and volume features did not differ between the two groups, our fine-grained surface analysis revealed significant differences in the ventricular regions close to the temporal lobe and posterior cingulate, structures that are affected early in AD. Significant correlations were also detected between ventricular morphometry, neuropsychological measures, and a previously described imaging index based on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans. This novel ventricular morphometry method may offer a new and more sensitive approach to study preclinical and early symptomatic stage AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Implicit perceptual-motor skill learning in mild cognitive impairment and Parkinson's disease.

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    Gobel, Eric W; Blomeke, Kelsey; Zadikoff, Cindy; Simuni, Tanya; Weintraub, Sandra; Reber, Paul J

    2013-05-01

    Implicit skill learning is hypothesized to depend on nondeclarative memory that operates independent of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system and instead depends on cortico striatal circuits between the basal ganglia and cortical areas supporting motor function and planning. Research with the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task suggests that patients with memory disorders due to MTL damage exhibit normal implicit sequence learning. However, reports of intact learning rely on observations of no group differences, leading to speculation as to whether implicit sequence learning is fully intact in these patients. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often exhibit impaired sequence learning, but this impairment is not universally observed. Implicit perceptual-motor sequence learning was examined using the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI; n = 11) and patients with PD (n = 15). Sequence learning in SISL is resistant to explicit learning and individually adapted task difficulty controls for baseline performance differences. Patients with MCI exhibited robust sequence learning, equivalent to healthy older adults (n = 20), supporting the hypothesis that the MTL does not contribute to learning in this task. In contrast, the majority of patients with PD exhibited no sequence-specific learning in spite of matched overall task performance. Two patients with PD exhibited performance indicative of an explicit compensatory strategy suggesting that impaired implicit learning may lead to greater reliance on explicit memory in some individuals. The differences in learning between patient groups provides strong evidence in favor of implicit sequence learning depending solely on intact basal ganglia function with no contribution from the MTL memory system.

  1. A Brainnetome Atlas Based Mild Cognitive Impairment Identification Using Hurst Exponent

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    Zhuqing Long

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI, which generally represents the transition state between normal aging and the early changes related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD, has drawn increasing attention from neuroscientists due that efficient AD treatments need early initiation ahead of irreversible brain tissue damage. Thus effective MCI identification methods are desperately needed, which may be of great importance for the clinical intervention of AD. In this article, the range scaled analysis, which could effectively detect the temporal complexity of a time series, was utilized to calculate the Hurst exponent (HE of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data at a voxel level from 64 MCI patients and 60 healthy controls (HCs. Then the average HE values of each region of interest (ROI in brainnetome atlas were extracted and compared between MCI and HC. At last, the abnormal average HE values were adopted as the classification features for a proposed support vector machine (SVM based identification algorithm, and the classification performance was estimated with leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV. Our results indicated 83.1% accuracy, 82.8% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity, and an area under curve of 0.88, suggesting that the HE index could serve as an effective feature for the MCI identification. Furthermore, the abnormal HE brain regions in MCI were predominately involved in left middle frontal gyrus, right hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral amygdala, left cingulate gyrus, left insular gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left superior parietal gyrus, left orbital gyrus and left basal ganglia.

  2. Common effects of amnestic mild cognitive impairment on resting-state connectivity across four independent studies

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    Angela eTam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional connectivity is a promising biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease. However, previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in Alzheimer’s disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have shown limited reproducibility as they have had small sample sizes and substantial variation in study protocol. We sought to identify functional brain networks and connections that could consistently discriminate normal aging from aMCI despite variations in scanner manufacturer, imaging protocol, and diagnostic procedure. We therefore combined four datasets collected independently, including 112 healthy controls and 143 patients with aMCI. We systematically tested multiple brain connections for associations with aMCI using a weighted average routinely used in meta-analyses. The largest effects involved the superior medial frontal cortex (including the anterior cingulate, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and middle temporal lobe. Compared with controls, patients with aMCI exhibited significantly decreased connectivity between default mode network nodes and between regions of the cortico-striatal-thalamic loop. Despite the heterogeneity of methods among the four datasets, we identified common aMCI-related connectivity changes with small to medium effect sizes and sample size estimates recommending a minimum of 140 to upwards of 600 total subjects to achieve adequate statistical power in the context of a multisite study with 5-10 scanning sites and about 10 subjects per group and per site. If our findings can be replicated and associated with other established biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (e.g. amyloid and tau quantification, then these functional connections may be promising candidate biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease.

  3. Delayed finger tapping and cognitive responses in preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia.

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    Gao, Fei; Mei, Xi; Chen, Andrew C N

    2015-02-01

    Information on fine motor and basic cognitive functions in spastic diplegia is sparse in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate index finger's tapping speed and cognitive functions in categorization and old/new recognition of pictures in patients with mild spastic diplegia. Fifteen preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia and 15 healthy male teenagers participated in this study. Finger-tapping tests and cognitive tests were performed on all participants. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. In the finger-tapping tests, the tapping speed was significantly slower in patients than in controls. In the tests of tapping one key persistently and tapping two keys alternately, the reaction time gaps between the left and right digits were larger in patients than in controls. In the categorization tests, the accuracies and reaction times for animal/plant and girl face pictures, but not for boy face pictures, were significantly worse in patients than in controls. In the recognition tests, the accuracies for old/new, animal/plant, and boy/girl face pictures were significantly lower in patients than in controls. The reaction times for old/new, animal/plant, and new face pictures, but not for old face pictures, were significantly longer in patients compared with controls. Our results demonstrate delayed finger tapping and cognitive responses in preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia. Our experimental paradigm is sensitive for the study of fine motor and cognitive functions between patients and healthy controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Old worries and new anxieties: behavioral symptoms and mild cognitive impairment in a population study.

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    Andreescu, Carmen; Teverovsky, Esther; Fu, Bo; Hughes, Tiffany F; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Ganguli, Mary

    2014-03-01

    To disentangle the complex associations of depression and anxiety with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at the population level. We examined subgroups of anxiety symptoms and depression symptom profiles in relation to MCI, which we defined using both cognitive and functional approaches. We used an epidemiologic, cross-sectional study with an age-stratified, random, population-based sample of 1,982 individuals aged 65 years and over. Three definitions of MCI were used: 1) a purely cognitive classification into amnestic and nonamnestic MCI, 2) a combined cognitive-functional definition by International Working Group (IWG) criteria, and 3) a purely functional definition by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 0.5. Three depression profiles were identified by factor analysis of the modified Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale: core mood, self-esteem/interpersonal, and apathy/neurovegetative profiles. Three anxiety groups, chronic mild worry, chronic severe anxiety, and recent-onset anxiety, were based on screening questions. Recent-onset anxiety was associated with MCI by nonamnestic and IWG criteria, chronic severe anxiety was associated with MCI by all definitions, and chronic mild worry was associated with none. Of the depression profiles, the core mood profile was associated with CDR-defined MCI, the apathy/neurovegetative profile was associated with MCI by amnestic, IWG, and CDR definitions, and the self-esteem/interpersonal profile was associated with none. In this population-based sample, subgroups with different anxiety and depression profiles had different relationships with cognitive and functional definitions of MCI. Anxiety, depression, and MCI are all multidimensional entities, interacting in complex ways that may shed light on underlying neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Driving with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia: Cognitive Test Performance and Proxy Report of Daily Life Function in Older Women.

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    Vaughan, Leslie; Hogan, Patricia E; Rapp, Stephen R; Dugan, Elizabeth; Marottoli, Richard A; Snively, Beverly M; Shumaker, Sally A; Sink, Kaycee M

    2015-09-01

    To investigate associations between proxy report of cognitive and functional limitations and cognitive performance and current or former driving status in older women with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and all-cause dementia. Cross-sectional data analysis of retrospectively identified older women with adjudicated MCI and all-cause dementia in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-Epidemiology of Cognitive Health Outcomes (WHIMS-ECHO). Academic medical center. Women (mean age ± standard deviation 83.7 ± 3.5) adjudicated with MCI or dementia during Year 1, 2, 3, or 4 of the WHIMS-ECHO follow-up period (N = 385). The telephone-administered cognitive battery included tests of attention, verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, executive function, working memory, and global cognitive function plus self-report measures of depressive symptomatology. The Dementia Questionnaire (DQ) was administered to a knowledgeable proxy (family member, friend). Sixty percent of women with MCI and 40% of those with dementia are current drivers. Proxy reports of functional limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are associated with current driving status in women with MCI, whereas performance-based cognitive tests are not. In women with dementia, proxy reports of functional limitations in IADLs and performance-based cognitive tests are associated with current driving status, as expected. These findings have clinical implications for the importance of evaluating driving concurrently with other instrumental functional abilities in MCI and dementia. Additional work is needed to determine whether proxy report of cognitive and functional impairments should help guide referrals for driving assessment and rehabilitation or counseling for driving transition. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Relationship between Motor Symptoms, Cognition, and Demographic Characteristics in Treated Mild/Moderate Parkinson's Disease.

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    Jay S Schneider

    Full Text Available Although Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by motor symptoms, PD patients, at all stages of the disease, can experience cognitive dysfunction. However, the relationships between cognitive and motor symptoms and specific demographic characteristics are not well defined, particularly for patients who have progressed to requiring dopaminergic medication.To examine relationships between motor and cognitive symptoms and various demographic factors in mild to moderate, PD patients requiring anti-PD medication.Cognitive function was assessed in 94 subjects with a variety of neuropsychological tests during baseline evaluations as part of an experimental treatment study. Data were analyzed in relation to Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores and demographic variables.Of the UPDRS subscores analyzed, posture/balance/gait was associated with the highest number of adverse cognitive outcomes followed by speech/facial expression, bradykinesia, and rigidity. No associations were detected between any of the cognitive performance measures and tremor. Motor functioning assessed in the "off" condition correlated primarily with disease duration; neuropsychological performance in general was primarily related to age.In PD patients who have advanced to requiring anti-PD therapies, there are salient associations between axial signs and cognitive performance and in particular, with different aspects of visuospatial function suggesting involvement of similar circuits in these functions. Associations between executive functions and bradykinesia also suggest involvement similar circuits in these functions.

  7. Structural brain differences between monolingual and multilingual patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease: Evidence for cognitive reserve.

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    Duncan, Hilary D; Nikelski, Jim; Pilon, Randi; Steffener, Jason; Chertkow, Howard; Phillips, Natalie A

    2018-01-31

    Two independent lines of research provide evidence that speaking more than one language may 1) contribute to increased grey matter in healthy younger and older adults and 2) delay cognitive symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer disease (AD). We examined cortical thickness and tissue density in monolingual and multilingual MCI and AD patients matched (within Diagnosis Groups) on demographic and cognitive variables. In medial temporal disease-related (DR) areas, we found higher tissue density in multilingual MCIs versus monolingual MCIs, but similar or lower tissue density in multilingual AD versus monolingual AD, a pattern consistent with cognitive reserve in AD. In areas related to language and cognitive control (LCC), both multilingual MCI and AD patients had thicker cortex than the monolinguals. Results were largely replicated in our native-born Canadian MCI participants, ruling out immigration as a potential confound. Finally, multilingual patients showed a correlation between cortical thickness in LCC regions and performance on episodic memory tasks. Given that multilinguals and monolinguals were matched on memory functioning, this suggests that increased gray matter in these regions may provide support to memory functioning. Our results suggest that being multilingual may contribute to increased gray matter in LCC areas and may also delay the cognitive effects of disease-related atrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulatory effects of acupuncture on brain networks in mild cognitive impairment patients

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    Ting-ting Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used to investigate the effects of acupuncture on neural activity. However, most functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have focused on acute changes in brain activation induced by acupuncture. Thus, the time course of the therapeutic effects of acupuncture remains unclear. In this study, 32 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into two groups, where they received either Tiaoshen Yizhi acupuncture or sham acupoint acupuncture. The needles were either twirled at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints, including Sishencong (EX-HN1, Yintang (EX-HN3, Neiguan (PC6, Taixi (KI3, Fenglong (ST40, and Taichong (LR3, or at related sham acupoints at a depth of approximately 15 mm, an angle of ± 60°, and a rate of approximately 120 times per minute. Acupuncture was conducted for 4 consecutive weeks, five times per week, on weekdays. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging indicated that connections between cognition-related regions such as the insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, inferior parietal lobule, and anterior cingulate cortex increased after acupuncture at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints. The insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus acted as central brain hubs. Patients in the Tiaoshen Yizhi group exhibited improved cognitive performance after acupuncture. In the sham acupoint acupuncture group, connections between brain regions were dispersed, and we found no differences in cognitive function following the treatment. These results indicate that acupuncture at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints can regulate brain networks by increasing connectivity between cognition-related regions, thereby improving cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

  9. Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekel, Katrin; Damian, Marinella; Wattmo, Carina; Hausner, Lucrezia; Bullock, Roger; Connelly, Peter J; Dubois, Bruno; Eriksdotter, Maria; Ewers, Michael; Graessel, Elmar; Kramberger, Milica G; Law, Emma; Mecocci, Patrizia; Molinuevo, José L; Nygård, Louise; Olde-Rikkert, Marcel Gm; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Pasquier, Florence; Peres, Karine; Salmon, Eric; Sikkes, Sietske Am; Sobow, Tomasz; Spiegel, René; Tsolaki, Magda; Winblad, Bengt; Frölich, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that subtle deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) may be present in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is not clear if there are IADL domains that are consistently affected across patients with MCI. In this systematic review, therefore, we aimed to summarize research results regarding the performance of MCI patients in specific IADL (sub)domains compared with persons who are cognitively normal and/or patients with dementia. The databases PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science were searched for relevant literature in December 2013. Publications from 1999 onward were considered for inclusion. Altogether, 497 articles were retrieved. Reference lists of selected articles were searched for potentially relevant articles. After screening the abstracts of these 497 articles, 37 articles were included in this review. In 35 studies, IADL deficits (such as problems with medication intake, telephone use, keeping appointments, finding things at home and using everyday technology) were documented in patients with MCI. Financial capacity in patients with MCI was affected in the majority of studies. Effect sizes for group differences between patients with MCI and healthy controls were predominantly moderate to large. Performance-based instruments showed slight advantages (in terms of effect sizes) in detecting group differences in IADL functioning between patients with MCI, patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. IADL requiring higher neuropsychological functioning seem to be most severely affected in patients with MCI. A reliable identification of such deficits is necessary, as patients with MCI with IADL deficits seem to have a higher risk of converting to dementia than patients with MCI without IADL deficits. The use of assessment tools specifically designed and validated for patients with MCI is therefore strongly recommended. Furthermore, the development of performance-based assessment instruments

  10. Electrophysiological Repetition Effects in Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment depend upon Working Memory Demand.

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    Broster, Lucas S; Jenkins, Shonna L; Holmes, Sarah D; Edwards, Matthew G; Jicha, Gregory A; Jiang, Yang

    2018-05-07

    Forms of implicit memory, including repetition effects, are preserved relative to explicit memory in clinical Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, cognitive interventions for persons with Alzheimer's disease have been developed that leverage this fact. However, despite the clinical robustness of behavioral repetition effects, altered neural mechanisms of repetition effects are studied as biomarkers of both clinical Alzheimer's disease and pre-morbid Alzheimer's changes in the brain. We hypothesized that the clinical preservation of behavioral repetition effects results in part from concurrent operation of discrete memory systems. We developed two experiments that included probes of emotional repetition effects differing in that one included an embedded working memory task. We found that neural repetition effects manifested in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, the earliest form of clinical Alzheimer's disease, during emotional working memory tasks, but they did not manifest during the task that lacked the embedded working memory manipulation. Specifically, the working memory task evoked neural repetition effects in the P600 time-window, but the same neural mechanism was only minimally implicated in the task without a working memory component. We also found that group differences in behavioral repetition effects were smaller in the experiment with a working memory task. We suggest that cross-domain cognitive challenge can expose "defunct" neural capabilities of individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Remembering a visit to the psychology lab: Implications of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Davidson, Patrick S R; Cooper, Lara; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Morris Moscovitch has emphasized the importance of sensitively and carefully measuring cognition in the real world. With this lesson in mind, we examined the real-world episodic memory problems of older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). MCI patients often complain of episodic memory problems and perform poorly on standardized neuropsychological measures, but we still do not know enough about their actual difficulties remembering real experiences. A few days after their visit to the laboratory for an experimental session, we telephoned 19 MCI patients and 34 healthy participants without warning to ask what they could recollect about 16 elements of their visit. The patients had difficulty remembering the details of their visit, and reported lower ratings of memory vividness compared to healthy participants. Patients' memory for the visit was commensurate with their performance on three standard clinical memory assessment measures (delayed 5 word recall from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, long delay free recall from the California Verbal Learning Test-II and recall of the details of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III Logical Memory stories), providing evidence for the generalizability of the clinical measures. Putting these findings together with those from Moscovitch and colleagues (Murphy et al., 2008) can help us better understand the real-world memory implications of Mild Cognitive Impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mild cognitive impairment. Diagnostic value of different MR techniques; ''Mild cognitive impairment''. Diagnostische Wertigkeit verschiedener MR-Techniken

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    Hauser, T.; Stieltjes, B.; Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung E010 Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Thomann, P.A. [Zentrum fuer Psychosoziale Medizin, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, AG Strukturelle Bildgebung, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Psychiatrie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    In view of an increasingly aging population the prevalence of dementia is also expected to increase rapidly. As well as clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia which is important in the precursor stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). On the one hand this stage is associated with an increased risk of dementia and on the other hand an early treatment in this stage could attenuate development of the disease. In addition to morphological changes different functional MRI techniques can help in the early diagnosis of dementia and the precursor stages. Moreover, it is important to detect those MCI patients who are at particularly risk for developing dementia. In the differentiation of converters to non-converters initial studies suggest that particularly voxel-based morphometry, MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging can provide important additional information. (orig.) [German] Angesichts einer immer aelter werdenden Bevoelkerung sind wir mit dem Problem einer zunehmenden Zahl an Patienten mit Demenzerkrankungen konfrontiert. In der Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz spielen neben klinischen, neuropsychologischen und laborchemischen Untersuchungen nichtinvasive Bildgebungsverfahren wie die MRT eine bedeutende Rolle. Wichtig ist dabei die Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz bereits im Vorstadium der leichten kognitiven Beeintraechtigung (''mild cognitive impairment'', MCI), da dieses Krankheitsbild mit einem deutlich erhoehten Demenzrisiko einhergeht und durch eine fruehzeitige Therapie der Krankheitsverlauf abgemildert oder deutlich verzoegert werden kann. Neben morphologischen Veraenderungen helfen verschiedene funktionelle MR-Verfahren bei der Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz. Darueber hinaus ist es von grosser Bedeutung, diejenigen MCI-Patienten zu detektieren, die in besonderem Masse von einer Demenz bedroht sind. Bei der Differenzierung von

  13. Cognitive sequelae in survivors of traumatic frontal lobe injury: comparison between mild and moderate injury effects

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    Anjum, A.; Ahmad, W.; Tahir, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of cognitive deficits in the survivors of traumatic frontal lobe injury of mild to moderate severity. Study Design: Mix method study. Place and Duration of Study: Nishter Hospital Multan, Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur and Sheikh Zaid Hospital Rahim Yar Khan, from Sep 2010 to Jun 2011. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 55 participants. Fifteen of these were taken from healthy population with the age range of 20-30 years (Mean = 25.7 ± SD = 4.6) and 40 participants were medically documented patients of frontal lobe injury of mild (20) to moderate (20) severity. The age range of mild traumatic frontal lobe injury patients was 20-32 years (Mean= 26.5 ± SD = 4.9). The age range of moderate severity patients was also 20-32 years (Mean= 26.4 ± SD = 5.0). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale revised and case history interview were administered to determine cognitive deficits following traumatic frontal lobe injury. Results: Statistical test, one way analysis was used to compare the performance of all these three (control, mild and moderate) groups. Results of present study reflected that cognitive deficits like memory deficits, language problems, trouble in concentrating and difficulty in planning are the major consequences of traumatic frontal lobe injury. Conclusion: To conclude, frontal lobe injury patients not only showed poor performance in clinically-driven structured and comprehensive memory tests when they were compared with healthy people but their performance also varied according to the severity of injury. (author)

  14. Cross-Sectional Relationships of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With Cognitive Function in Older Adults With Probable Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Ryan S; Landry, Glenn J; Best, John R; Davis, Jennifer C; Chiu, Bryan K; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-10-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transition between normal cognitive aging and dementia and may represent a critical time frame for promoting cognitive health through behavioral strategies. Current evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior are important for cognition. However, it is unclear whether there are differences in PA and sedentary behavior between people with probable MCI and people without MCI or whether the relationships of PA and sedentary behavior with cognitive function differ by MCI status. The aims of this study were to examine differences in PA and sedentary behavior between people with probable MCI and people without MCI and whether associations of PA and sedentary behavior with cognitive function differed by MCI status. This was a cross-sectional study. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults dwelling in the community (N = 151; at least 55 years old) were measured using a wrist-worn actigraphy unit. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment was used to categorize participants with probable MCI (scores of Cognitive function was indexed using the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive-Plus (ADAS-Cog Plus). Physical activity and sedentary behavior were compared based on probable MCI status, and relationships of ADAS-Cog Plus with PA and sedentary behavior were examined by probable MCI status. Participants with probable MCI (n = 82) had lower PA and higher sedentary behavior than participants without MCI (n = 69). Higher PA and lower sedentary behavior were associated with better ADAS-Cog Plus performance in participants without MCI (β = -.022 and β = .012, respectively) but not in participants with probable MCI (β cognitive function. The diagnosis of MCI was not confirmed with a physician; therefore, this study could not conclude how many of the participants categorized as having probable MCI would actually have been diagnosed with MCI by a physician. Participants with probable MCI were less active

  15. Cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability.

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    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; VanDerNagel, Joanne El; Korzilius, Hubert Plm; Engels, Rutger Cme

    2018-03-01

    We examined cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID). Problematic drinkers were expected to show a significantly lower estimated performance IQ (PIQ), but not a lower estimated verbal IQ (VIQ), compared to light drinkers. Participants ( N = 474) were divided into four groups based on IQ and severity of alcohol use-related problems. IQ was estimated using (a short form of) the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale third edition. Severity of alcohol use-related problems was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Overall, there were no significant differences between light and problematic drinkers on estimated VIQ. Within the group without MBID, estimated PIQ was significantly lower. Estimated PIQ was not lower in problematic drinkers with MBID compared to light drinkers with MBID. The results are indicative of cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers without MBID. Screening for cognitive deficits with additional instruments is advised.

  16. Glutamate-glutamine and GABA in brain of normal aged and patients with cognitive impairment.

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    Huang, Dandan; Liu, Dan; Yin, Jianzhong; Qian, Tianyi; Shrestha, Susan; Ni, Hongyan

    2017-07-01

    To explore the changes of glutamate-glutamine (Glx) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain in normal old age and cognitive impairment using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Seventeen normal young controls (NYC), 15 normal elderly controls (NEC), 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 17 with Alzheimer disease (AD) patients were included in this study. Glx and GABA+ levels in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right hippocampus (rHP) were measured by using a MEGA-PRESS sequence. Glx/Cr and GABA+/Cr ratios were compared between NYC and NEC and between the three elderly groups using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA); the tissue fractions of voxels were used as covariates. The relationships between metabolite ratios and cognitive performance were analysed using Spearman correlation coefficients. For NEC and NYC groups, Glx/Cr and GABA+/Cr ratios were lower in NEC in ACC and rHP. For the three elderly groups, Glx/Cr ratio was lower in AD in ACC compared to NEC and MCI; Glx/Cr ratio was lower in AD in rHP compared to NEC. There was no significant decrease for GABA+/Cr ratio. Glx and GABA levels may decrease simultaneously in normal aged, and Glx level decreased predominantly in AD, and it is helpful in the early diagnosis of AD. • Glx and GABA levels may decrease simultaneously in normal aged. • Glx level may decrease predominantly in Alzheimer disease. • The balance in excitatory-inhibitory systems may be broken in AD. • Decreased Glx level may be helpful in early diagnosis of AD.

  17. Computer related self-efficacy and anxiety in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Katherine V.; Mattek, Nora; Maxwell, Shoshana A.; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Jimison, Holly B.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examines differences in computer related self-efficacy and anxiety in subgroups of older adults, and changes in those measures following exposure to a systematic training program and subsequent computer use. Methods Participants were volunteers in the Intelligent Systems for Assessment of Aging Changes Study (ISAAC) carried out by the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology. Participants were administered two questionnaires prior to training and again one year later, related to computer self-efficacy and anxiety. Continuous recording of computer use was also assessed for a subset of participants. Results Baseline comparisons by gender, age, education, living arrangement, and computer proficiency, but not cognitive status, yielded significant differences in confidence and anxiety related to specific aspects of computer use. At one-year follow-up, participants reported less anxiety and greater confidence. However, the benefits of training and exposure varied by group and task. Comparisons based on cognitive status showed that the cognitively intact participants benefited more from training and/or experience with computers than did participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), who after one year continued to report less confidence and more anxiety regarding certain aspects of computer use. Conclusion After one year of consistent computer use, cognitively intact participants in this study reported reduced levels of anxiety and increased self-confidence in their ability to perform specific computer tasks. Participants with MCI at baseline were less likely to demonstrate increased efficacy or confidence than their cognitively intact counterparts. PMID:23102124

  18. Mild cognitive dysfunction does not affect diabetes mellitus control in minority elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Golden, Sherita H; Teresi, Jeanne; Palmas, Walter; Weinstock, Ruth S; Shea, Steven; Manly, Jennifer J; Luchsinger, Jose A

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction have poorer metabolic control of glycosylated hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than those without cognitive dysfunction. Prospective cohort study. A minority cohort in New York City previously recruited for a trial of telemedicine. Persons aged 73.0 ± 3.0 (N = 613; 69.5% female; 82.5% Hispanic, 15.5% non-Hispanic black). Participants were classified with executive or memory dysfunction based on standardized score cutoffs (<16th percentile) for the Color Trails Test and Selective Reminding Test. Linear mixed models were used to compare repeated measures of the metabolic measures and evaluate the rates of change in individuals with and without dysfunction. Of the 613 participants, 331 (54%) had executive dysfunction, 202 (33%) had memory dysfunction, and 96 (16%) had both. Over a median of 2 years, participants with executive or memory dysfunction did not exhibit significantly poorer metabolic control than those without executive function or memory type cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive dysfunction in the mild range did not seem to affect diabetes mellitus control parameters in this multiethnic cohort of older adults with diabetes mellitus, although it cannot be excluded that cognitive impairment was overcome through assistance from formal or informal caregivers. It is possible that more-severe cognitive dysfunction could affect control. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Saudi Arabia: A Community-Based Study.

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    Alkhunizan, Muath; Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Basudan, Loay

    2018-01-01

    The age of the population in Saudi Arabia is shifting toward elderly, which can lead to an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia) among elderly patients in a community-based setting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, we included patients aged 60 years and above who were seen in the Family Medicine Clinics affiliated with King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre. Patients with delirium, active depression, and patients with a history of severe head trauma in the past 3 months were excluded. Patients were interviewed during their regular visit by a trained physician to collect demographic data and to administer the validated Arabic version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. One hundred seventy-one Saudi patients were recruited based on a calculated sample size for the aim of this study. The mean age of included sample was 67 ± 6 years. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 45%. The prevalence of MCI was 38.6% and the prevalence of dementia was 6.4%. Age, low level of education, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were risk factors for cognitive impairment. Prevalence of MCI and dementia in Saudi Arabia using MoCA were in the upper range compared to developed and developing countries. The high rate of risk factors for cognitive impairment in Saudi Arabia is contributing to this finding.

  20. Conversion Discriminative Analysis on Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Multiple Cortical Features from MR Images

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    Shengwen Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging measurements derived from magnetic resonance imaging provide important information required for detecting changes related to the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Cortical features and changes play a crucial role in revealing unique anatomical patterns of brain regions, and further differentiate MCI patients from normal states. Four cortical features, namely, gray matter volume, cortical thickness, surface area, and mean curvature, were explored for discriminative analysis among three groups including the stable MCI (sMCI, the converted MCI (cMCI, and the normal control (NC groups. In this study, 158 subjects (72 NC, 46 sMCI, and 40 cMCI were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. A sparse-constrained regression model based on the l2-1-norm was introduced to reduce the feature dimensionality and retrieve essential features for the discrimination of the three groups by using a support vector machine (SVM. An optimized strategy of feature addition based on the weight of each feature was adopted for the SVM classifier in order to achieve the best classification performance. The baseline cortical features combined with the longitudinal measurements for 2 years of follow-up data yielded prominent classification results. In particular, the cortical thickness produced a classification with 98.84% accuracy, 97.5% sensitivity, and 100% specificity for the sMCI–cMCI comparison; 92.37% accuracy, 84.78% sensitivity, and 97.22% specificity for the cMCI–NC comparison; and 93.75% accuracy, 92.5% sensitivity, and 94.44% specificity for the sMCI–NC comparison. The best performances obtained by the SVM classifier using the essential features were 5–40% more than those using all of the retained features. The feasibility of the cortical features for the recognition of anatomical patterns was certified; thus, the proposed method has the potential to improve the clinical diagnosis of sub-types of MCI and

  1. A Large, Cross-sectional Observational Study of Serum BDNF, Cognitive Function, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly

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    Hiroyuki eShimada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The clinical relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between serum BDNF and cognitive function and MCI, and determine whether serum BDNF level might be a useful biomarker for assessing risk for MCI in older people.Materials and Methods: A total of 4463 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years participating in the study. We measured performance in a battery of neuropsychological and cognitive function tests; serum BDNF concentration.Results: Eight hundred twenty-seven participants (18.8% had MCI. After adjustment for sex, age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking, serum BDNF was associated with poorer performance in the story memory, and digit symbol substitution task scores. Serum BDNF was marginally associated with the presence of MCI (OR, 95% CI: 1.41, 1.00–1.99 when BDNF was 1.5 SD lower than the mean value standardized for sex and age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking.Conclusion: Low serum BDNF was associated with lower cognitive test scores and MCI. Future prospective studies should establish the discriminative value of serum BDNF for the risk of MCI.

  2. The process of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment: A national survey of specialist physicians in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Svensson, Birthe Hjorth; Rohr, Gitte; Gottrup, Hanne; Vestergaard, Karsten; Høgh, Peter; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2018-01-01

    Background Although general recommendations for diagnostic disclosure of dementia are available, little is known about how these recommendations are implemented. The aim of the current study was to investigate the process and content of dementia diagnostic disclosure meetings, and to compare key aspects of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Method A total of 54 specialist physicians in Danish dementia diagnostic departments completed an online survey on their practices regarding diagnostic disclosure of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The influence of respondent characteristics was assessed, and differences on key aspects of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment were analyzed. Results The results suggest that among Danish specialist physicians, there is a general consensus regarding the organization of diagnostic disclosure meetings. However, differences in employed terminology and information provided when disclosing a dementia diagnosis were evident. Significant differences were present on key aspects of the diagnostic disclosure of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. For instance, 91% would use the term dementia during diagnostic disclosures compared to just 72% for mild cognitive impairment. Conclusion The range of practices reflected in the present study confirms the complexity of diagnostic disclosure and highlights the importance of preparation and follow-up strategies to tailor the disclosure process to the needs of individual patients with dementia and their caregivers. Due to earlier diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders, more research is urgently needed on this aspect of the diagnostic process, especially to develop evidence-based models for the disclosure of mild cognitive impairment.

  3. Does the combination of the MMSE and clock drawing test (mini-clock) improve the detection of mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Jesús; Benito-León, Julián; García-García, Ricardo; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino; Vicente-Villardón, José Luis; Mitchell, Alex J

    2010-01-01

    There is currently a need to develop tools to identify patients with mild AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We determined the validity and reliability of a brief, easily administered cognitive screening battery consisting of fusion of two well-known brief tests (Mini-Mental Status Examination [MMSE] and Clock Drawing Test [CDT]) (Mini-clock) to differentiate between patients with mild AD, MCI, and healthy control subjects. 66 consecutive patients with mild AD, 21 with MCI, and 66 healthy controls seen in a memory clinic setting were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to calculate the cut-off value permitting discrimination between mild AD, MCI, and healthy control subjects. Interrater and test-retest reliability were also assessed. Mean cognitive scores for patients with AD, MCI, and control subjects on all two individual tests were significantly different (for each, p Mini-clock was higher than that obtained with MMSE or CDT in differentiating mild AD from controls (0.973 vs. 0.952 and 0.881, respectively) and MCI from controls (0.855 vs. 0.821 and 0.779, respectively). Test-retest reliability for the Mini-clock was 0.99, meanwhile interrater reliability was 0.87. The mean time to complete the test for all subjects was 8 min and 50 s. The Mini-clock is highly sensitive and specific in the detection of mild AD and reasonably accurate when attempting to separate MCI from health controls. It has a high interrater and test-retest reliability, can be quickly administered, and does not require major training.

  4. Screening for mild cognitive impairment in patients with cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaneva-Sirakova T

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Teodora Yaneva-Sirakova,1 Latchezar Traykov,2 Julia Petrova,2 Ivan Gruev,3 Dobrin Vassilev1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiology Clinic, 2Department of Neurology, Neurology Clinic, Medical University Sofia, 3Cardiology Clinic, National Transport Hospital “Tsar Boris III”, Sofia, Bulgaria Aim: Cardiovascular risk factors are also risk factors for cognitive impairment. They have cumulative effect in target organ damage. The precise correlation between cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive impairment, as well as assessing the extent to which they may affect cognitive functioning, is difficult to ascertain in everyday clinical practice. Quick, specific, and sensitive neuropsychological tests may be useful in screening for, and the prophylaxis of, target organ damage in hypertensive patients.Methods: We gathered full anamnesis, performed physical examination, laboratory screening and echocardiography. These variables were observed at office and home for all patients, For half of the patients, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and neuropsychological testing using Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Geriatric Depression Scale, and the 4-instrumental activities of daily living scale were undertaken.Results: For a period of 2 years, 931 patients were included after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean age was 65.90±10.00 years. Two hundred and sixty three patients (85 [32.32%] males and 178 [67.68%] females were reevaluated after a mean follow-up period of 12 months (6–20 months. The mean results of MoCA and MMSE were significantly lower (p<0.05 in the group of patients with poorly controlled blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors. There was mild to intermediate negative correlation between Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE and the neuropsychological tests’ results.Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors play an important role for the development

  5. Ketogenic diet, high intensity interval training (HIIT) and memory training in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment: A case study.

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    Dahlgren, Kaitlyn; Gibas, Kelly J

    2018-04-11

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise. Ketones are neuroprotective agents that shelter the aging brain from memory loss and neurodegeneration. Induced ketone production has been shown to ameliorate mitochondrial function, reduce the expression of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators and provide neuroprotection to cells (Lange et al., 2017). This case study highlights an innovative research design aimed at attenuating memory decline in a 57 year old female previously diagnosed with comorbid mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Mild cognitive impairment is a predementia syndrome known to precede AD (Michaud et al, 2017). The 12-week intervention included ketogenic nutrition protocol, high intensity interval training (HIIT) and memory training using the PEAK brain training app. Memory function was assessed via the MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) pre/post intervention. Physiological biomarkers for MetS including HOMA-IR(homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), triglyceride/HDL ratio, HgA1c, fasting triglycerides and HDL were measured pre/post intervention. MoCA baseline score was 22/30 (MCI); post intervention score: 30/30 (normal). MetS biomarker improvements also reflected statistical significance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Normal people working in normal organizations with normal equipment: system safety and cognition in a mid-air collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues; Gomes, José Orlando; Huber, Gilbert Jacob; Vidal, Mario Cesar

    2009-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in improving the safety of complex systems is to understand how accidents emerge in normal working situations, with equipment functioning normally in normally structured organizations. We present a field study of the en route mid-air collision between a commercial carrier and an executive jet, in the clear afternoon Amazon sky in which 154 people lost their lives, that illustrates one response to this challenge. Our focus was on how and why the several safety barriers of a well structured air traffic system melted down enabling the occurrence of this tragedy, without any catastrophic component failure, and in a situation where everything was functioning normally. We identify strong consistencies and feedbacks regarding factors of system day-to-day functioning that made monitoring and awareness difficult, and the cognitive strategies that operators have developed to deal with overall system behavior. These findings emphasize the active problem-solving behavior needed in air traffic control work, and highlight how the day-to-day functioning of the system can jeopardize such behavior. An immediate consequence is that safety managers and engineers should review their traditional safety approach and accident models based on equipment failure probability, linear combinations of failures, rules and procedures, and human errors, to deal with complex patterns of coincidence possibilities, unexpected links, resonance among system functions and activities, and system cognition.

  7. Functional neuroimaging using F-18 FDG PET/CT in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Sharma, Rajnish; Jaimini, Abhinav; D'Souza, Maria M.; Saw, Sanjiv; Mondal, Anupam; Kushwaha, Suman

    2013-01-01

    People with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimers Dementia (AD) than their cognitively normal peers. Decreased glucose metabolism with 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a downstream marker of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration. The risk of developing AD is higher in patients with aMCI who have a pattern of AD related glucose metabolic changes on FDG-PET than those who do not have these changes. We evaluated the utility of visual and 'statistical parametric mapping (SPM)-supported reading' of the FDG-PET scans of patients clinically classified as aMCI for identification of predementia patterns and for prediction of their progression to AD (PTAD). On visual analysis, four scans were classified as high likelihood of PTAD and reveled hypometabolism in AD related territories. Seven patients had hypometabolism in at least one AD related territory and were classified as intermediate likelihood for PTAD. Two patients had hypometabolism in other than AD territories, while 22 patients did not show any significant hypometabolism on their FDG-PET scans and were classified as low likelihood for PTAD. SPM analysis of these cases confirmed the areas hypometabolism in all 13 patients compared to a normal subgroup (P < 0.05). On follow-up of 24 months, all four cases with high likelihood scans had progression of cognitive deficits and were confirmed as AD in the CDM clinic while none of the others showed cognitive decline. A pattern of AD hypometabolism on the FDG-PET study is useful for predicting PTAD. A longer follow-up of patients with hypometabolism in single AD territories is needed to predict their clinical behavior

  8. Social Relationships and Risk of Incident Mild Cognitive Impairment in U.S. Alzheimer’s Disease Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenowitz, Willa D.; Kukull, Walter A.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Monsell, Sarah E.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships are hypothesized to prevent or slow cognitive decline. We sought to evaluate associations between social relationships and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center database who were cognitively normal, aged 55 and older at baseline, and had at least two in-person visits (n=5,335) were included. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models evaluated the association between four social relationships at baseline (marital status, living situation, having children, and having siblings) and risk of developing MCI (based on clinician diagnosis following established criteria). Primary models were adjusted for baseline demographics. Participants were followed, on average, for 3.2 years; 15.2% were diagnosed with MCI. Compared to married participants, risk of MCI was significantly lower for widowed participants (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76, 0.99) but not for divorced/separated or never married participants. Compared to living with a spouse/partner, risk of MCI was significantly higher for living with others (HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.77) but not for living alone. Risk of MCI was not associated with having children or having siblings. These results did not consistently identify social relationships as a strong risk factor for, or independent clinical predictor of, MCI. PMID:24577205

  9. Cognitive Training Using a Novel Memory Game on an iPad in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulich, George; Piercy, Thomas; Fox, Chris; Suckling, John; Rowe, James B; O'Brien, John T; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive training is effective in patients with mild cognitive impairment but does not typically address the motivational deficits associated with older populations with memory difficulties. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of cognitive training using a novel memory game on an iPad in 42 patients with a diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment assigned to either the cognitive training (n=21; 8 hours of gameplay over 4 weeks) or control (n=21; clinic visits as usual) groups. Significant time-by-pattern-by-group interactions were found for cognitive performance in terms of the number of errors made and trials needed on the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Paired Associates Learning task (P=.044; P=.027). Significant time-by-group interactions were also found for the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Paired Associates Learning first trial memory score (P=.002), Mini-Mental State Examination (P=.036), the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test (P=.032), and the Apathy Evaluation Scale (P=.026). Within-group comparisons revealed highly specific effects of cognitive training on episodic memory. The cognitive training group maintained high levels of enjoyment and motivation to continue after each hour of gameplay, with self-confidence and self-rated memory ability improving over time. Episodic memory robustly improved in the cognitive training group. "Gamified" cognitive training may also enhance visuospatial abilities in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Gamification maximizes engagement with cognitive training by increasing motivation and could complement pharmacological treatments for amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Larger, more controlled trials are needed to replicate and extend these findings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  10. Utility and limitations of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised for detecting mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

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    Komadina, Natalie C; Terpening, Zoe; Huang, Yue; Halliday, Glenda M; Naismith, Sharon L; Lewis, Simon J G

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) as a screening tool for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI). PD patients underwent comprehensive neuropsychological and neurological evaluations and ACE-R assessment. The ACE-R was superior to the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) in detecting PD-MCI, with a cutoff score of ≤93 offering a sensitivity of 61% and a specificity of 64%. The utility of the ACE-R in detecting PD-MCI is largely influenced by the fluency sub-domain score, and has optimal discriminability when utilized in patients with lower levels of education (≤12 years of formal schooling). The ACE-R must be used cautiously as a screening tool for PD-MCI, with results being most influenced by its fluency sub-domain score and patient education levels. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Visualizing Hyperactivation in Neurodegeneration Based on Prefrontal Oxygenation: A Comparative Study of Mild Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Healthy Controls

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    Kah Hui Yap

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive performance is relatively well preserved during early cognitive impairment owing to compensatory mechanisms.Methods: We explored functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS alongside a semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT to investigate any compensation exhibited by the prefrontal cortex (PFC in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. In addition, a group of healthy controls (HC was studied. A total of 61 volunteers (31 HC, 12 patients with MCI and 18 patients with mild AD took part in the present study.Results: Although not statistically significant, MCI exhibited a greater mean activation of both the right and left PFC, followed by HC and mild AD. Analysis showed that in the left PFC, the time taken for HC to achieve the activation level was shorter than MCI and mild AD (p = 0.0047 and 0.0498, respectively; in the right PFC, mild AD took a longer time to achieve the activation level than HC and MCI (p = 0.0469 and 0.0335, respectively; in the right PFC, HC, and MCI demonstrated a steeper slope compared to mild AD (p = 0.0432 and 0. 0107, respectively. The results were, however, not significant when corrected by the Bonferroni-Holm method. There was also found to be a moderately positive correlation (R = 0.5886 between the oxygenation levels in the left PFC and a clinical measure [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score] in MCI subjects uniquely.Discussion: The hyperactivation in MCI coupled with a better SVFT performance may suggest neural compensation, although it is not known to what degree hyperactivation manifests as a potential indicator of compensatory mechanisms. However, hypoactivation plus a poorer SVFT performance in mild AD might indicate an inability to compensate due to the degree of structural impairment.Conclusion: Consistent with the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition, the task-elicited hyperactivation in MCI might reflect the presence of compensatory mechanisms and

  12. Effects of a multidisciplinar cognitive rehabilitation program for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

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    Luciane F. Viola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program on cognition, quality of life, and neuropsychiatry symptoms in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. METHOD: The present study was a single-blind, controlled study that was conducted at a university-based day-hospital memory facility. The study included 25 Alzheimer's patients and their caregivers and involved a 12-week stimulation and psychoeducational program. The comparison group consisted of 16 Alzheimer's patients in waiting lists for future intervention. INTERVENTION: Group sessions were provided by a multiprofessional team and included memory training, computer-assisted cognitive stimulation, expressive activities (painting, verbal expression, writing, physiotherapy, and physical training. Treatment was administered twice a week during 6.5-h gatherings. MEASUREMENTS: The assessment battery comprised the following tests: Mini-Mental State Examination, Short Cognitive Test, Quality of Life in Alzheimer's disease, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Test scores were evaluated at baseline and the end of the study by raters who were blinded to the group assignments. RESULTS: Measurements of global cognitive function and performance on attention tasks indicated that patients in the experimental group remained stable, whereas controls displayed mild but significant worsening. The intervention was associated with reduced depression symptoms for patients and caregivers and decreased neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's subjects. The treatment was also beneficial for the patients' quality of life. CONCLUSION: This multimodal rehabilitation program was associated with cognitive stability and significant improvements in the quality of life for Alzheimer's patients. We also observed a significant decrease in depressive symptoms and caregiver burden. These results support the notion that structured nonpharmacological interventions can yield

  13. The role of social frailty in explaining the association between hearing problems and mild cognitive impairment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seongryu; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Jung, Songee; Makino, Keitaro; Park, Hyuntae; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-01

    We examined the role of social frailty in the association between hearing problems and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and investigated which cognitive impairment domains are most strongly involved. Participants were 4251 older adults (mean age 72.5 ± 5.2 years, 46.1% male) who met the study inclusion criteria. Hearing problems were measured using the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly. Social frailty was identified using responses to five questions. Participants were divided into four groups depending on the presence of social frailty and hearing problems: control, social frailty, hearing problem, and co-occurrence. We assessed memory, attention, executive function, and processing speed using the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Functional Assessment Tool. Participants were categorized into normal cognition, single- and multiple-domain MCI, depending on the number of impaired cognitive domains. Participants with multiple-domain MCI exhibited the highest odds ratios (OR) of the co-occurrence group (OR: 3.89, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.96-7.72), followed by the social frailty (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.49-4.67), and hearing problem (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.08-3.34) groups, compared with the control group. However, single-domain MCI was not significantly associated with any group. Cognitive domain analysis revealed that impaired executive function and processing speed were associated with the co-occurrence, hearing problem, and social frailty groups, respectively. Social frailty and hearing problems were independently associated with multiple-domain MCI. Comorbid conditions were more strongly associated with multiple-domain MCI. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the causal role of social frailty in the association between hearing impairment and MCI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Voxel-based comparison of whole brain gray matter of patients with mild Alzheimer's disease with normal aging volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Sheng; Wu Hongkun; Xiao Jiangxi; Wang Yinhua; Jiang Xuexiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect gray matter abnormalities of whole brain in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Thirteen patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and sixteen normal aging volunteers underwent 3D SPGR scanning. For every subject, data was transferred to PC to be normalized, segmented and smoothed using SPM99. Non-dependent samples T-tests were conducted to compare gray matter' density voxel to voxel between the two groups. Results Significant reductions in gray matter density were found in the bilateral hippocampi and nucleus amygdalae, bilateral insulae, bilateral medial thalami, bilateral rectus gyri, right superior temporal gyms, right caudate nucleus, fight prefrontal lobe, right basal forebrain and portions of right occipital lobe. Conclusion: VBM reveals significant gray matter' reductions of numeral cortices in mild Alzheimer's disease. It can be a useful method to evaluate the anatomical changes in the progress of the disease. (authors)

  15. Exercise-induced cognitive plasticity, implications for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip P. Foster

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle factors such as intellectual stimulation, cognitive and social engagement, nutrition, and various types of exercise appear to reduce the risk for common age-associated disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia. In fact, many studies have suggested that promoting physical activity can have a protective effect against cognitive deterioration later in life. Slowing or a deterioration of walking speed is associated with a poor performance in tests assessing psychomotor speed and verbal fluency in elderly individuals. Fitness training influences a wide range of cognitive processes, and the largest positive impact observed is for executive (a.k.a. frontal lobe functions. Studies show that exercise improves additional cognitive functions such as tasks mediated by the hippocampus, and result in major changes in plasticity in the hippocampus. Interestingly, this exercise-induced plasticity is also pronounced in APOE ε4 carriers who express a risk factor for late-onset AD that may modulate the effect of treatments. Based on AD staging by Braak et al., we propose that the effects of exercise occur in two temporo-spatial continua of events. The inward continuum from isocortex (neocortex to entorhinal cortex/hippocampus for amyloidosis and a reciprocal outward continuum for neurofibrillary alterations. The exercise-induced hypertrophy of the hippocampus at the core of these continua is evaluated in terms of potential for prevention to stave off neuronal degeneration. Exercise-induced production of growth factors such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been shown to enhance neurogenesis and to play a key role in positive cognitive effects. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 may mediate the exercise-induced response to exercise on BDNF, neurogenesis and cognitive performance. It is also postulated to regulate brain amyloid β (Aβ levels by increased clearance via the choroid plexus. Growth factors

  16. Executive functions in mild cognitive impairment: emergence and breakdown of neural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Francis; Gauthier, Serge; Belleville, Sylvie

    2013-05-01

    Our goal was to test the effect of disease severity on the brain activation associated with two executive processes: manipulation and divided attention. This was achieved by administrating a manipulation task and a divided attention task using functional magnetic resonance imaging to 24 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 14 healthy controls matched for age, sex and education. The Mattis Dementia Rating Scale was used to divide persons with MCI into those with better and worse cognitive performances. Both tasks were associated with more brain activation in the MCI group with higher cognition than in healthy controls, particularly in the left frontal areas. Correlational analyses indicated that greater activation in a frontostriatal network hyperactivated by the higher-cognition group was related with better task performance, suggesting that these activations may support functional reorganization of a compensatory nature. By contrast, the lower-cognition group failed to show greater cerebral hyperactivation than controls during the divided attention task and, during the manipulation task, and showed less brain activation than controls in the left ventrolateral cortex, a region commonly hypoactivated in patients with Alzheimer's disease. These findings indicate that, during the early phase of MCI, executive functioning benefits from neural reorganization, but that a breakdown of this brain plasticity characterizes the late stages of MCI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Unobtrusive Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults Through Home Monitoring*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Ahmad; Snoek, Jasper; Mihailidis, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The early detection of dementias such as Alzheimer’s disease can in some cases reverse, stop or slow cognitive decline and in general greatly reduce the burden of care. This is of increasing significance as demographic studies are warning of an aging population in North America and worldwide. Various smart homes and systems have been developed to detect cognitive decline through continuous monitoring of high risk individuals. However, the majority of these smart homes and systems use a number of predefined heuristics to detect changes in cognition, which has been demonstrated to focus on the idiosyncratic nuances of the individual subjects and thus does not generalize. In this paper, we address this problem by building generalized linear models of home activity of subjects monitored using unobtrusive sensing technologies. We use inhomogenous Poisson processes to model the presence of subjects within different rooms throughout the day. We employ an information theoretic approach to compare the activity distributions learned, and we observe significant statistical differences between the cognitively intact and impaired subjects. Using a simple thresholding approach, we were able to detect mild cognitive impairment in older adults with an average area under the ROC curve of 0.716 and an average area under the precision-recall curve of 0.706 using distributions estimated over time windows of 12 weeks. PMID:26841424

  18. Unobtrusive Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults Through Home Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Ahmad; Snoek, Jasper; Mihailidis, Alex

    2017-03-01

    The early detection of dementias such as Alzheimer's disease can in some cases reverse, stop, or slow cognitive decline and in general greatly reduce the burden of care. This is of increasing significance as demographic studies are warning of an aging population in North America and worldwide. Various smart homes and systems have been developed to detect cognitive decline through continuous monitoring of high risk individuals. However, the majority of these smart homes and systems use a number of predefined heuristics to detect changes in cognition, which has been demonstrated to focus on the idiosyncratic nuances of the individual subjects, and thus, does not generalize. In this paper, we address this problem by building generalized linear models of home activity of older adults monitored using unobtrusive sensing technologies. We use inhomogenous Poisson processes to model the presence of the recruited older adults within different rooms throughout the day. We employ an information theoretic approach to compare the generalized linear models learned, and we observe significant statistical differences between the cognitively intact and impaired older adults. Using a simple thresholding approach, we were able to detect mild cognitive impairment in older adults with an average area under the ROC curve of 0.716 and an average area under the precision-recall curve of 0.706 using activity models estimated over a time window of 12 weeks.

  19. A randomized controlled trial of Kundalini yoga in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Harris A; Siddarth, Prabha; Acevedo, Bianca; Van Dyk, Kathleen; Paholpak, Pattharee; Ercoli, Linda; St Cyr, Natalie; Yang, Hongyu; Khalsa, Dharma S; Lavretsky, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Global population aging will result in increasing rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, effective, low-cost, and low side-effect interventions for the treatment and prevention of cognitive decline are urgently needed. Our study is the first to investigate the effects of Kundalini yoga (KY) training on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Older participants (≥55 years of age) with MCI were randomized to either a 12-week KY intervention or memory enhancement training (MET; gold-standard, active control). Cognitive (i.e. memory and executive functioning) and mood (i.e. depression, apathy, and resilience) assessments were administered at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks. At baseline, 81 participants had no significant baseline group differences in clinical or demographic characteristics. At 12 weeks and 24 weeks, both KY and MET groups showed significant improvement in memory; however, only KY showed significant improvement in executive functioning. Only the KY group showed significant improvement in depressive symptoms and resilience at week 12. KY group showed short- and long-term improvements in executive functioning as compared to MET, and broader effects on depressed mood and resilience. This observation should be confirmed in future clinical trials of yoga intervention for treatment and prevention of cognitive decline (NCT01983930).

  20. Dual-tasking and gait in people with Mild Cognitive Impairment. The effect of working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Natalie A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition and mobility in older adults are closely associated and they decline together with aging. Studies evaluating associations between cognitive factors and gait performance in people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI are scarce. In this study, our aim was to determine whether specific cognitive factors have a more identifiable effect on gait velocity during dual-tasking in people with MCI. Methods Fifty-five participants, mean age 77.7 (SD = 5.9, 45% women, with MCI were evaluated for global cognition, working memory, executive function, and attention. Gait Velocity (GV was measured under a single-task condition (single GV and under two dual-task conditions: 1 while counting backwards (counting GV, 2 while naming animals (verbal GV. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to examine associations with an alpha-level of 0.05. Results Participants experienced a reduction in GV while engaging in dual-task challenges (p Conclusion In older adults with MCI, low working memory performance was associated with slow GV. Dual-task conditions showed the strongest associations with gait slowing. Our findings suggest that cortical control of gait is associated with decline in working memory in people with MCI.

  1. Validation of the Dutch version of the quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci-D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, Steven; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Krijnen, Wim P; Molloy, D William; Goodijk, Geert Pieter; van der Schans, Cees P; Hobbelen, Hans J S M

    2015-10-02

    Differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from dementia is important, as treatment options differ. There are few short (Dutch language. The Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen is sensitive and specific in differentiating MCI from NC and mild dementia. Given this, we adapted the Qmci for use in Dutch-language countries and validated the Dutch version, the Qmci-D, against the Dutch translation of the Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE-D). The Qmci was translated into Dutch with a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. In all, 90 participants were recruited from a hospital geriatric clinic (25 with dementia, 30 with MCI, 35 with NC). The Qmci-D and SMMSE-D were administered sequentially but randomly by the same trained rater, blind to the diagnosis. The Qmci-D was more sensitive than the SMMSE-D in discriminating MCI from dementia, with a significant difference in the area under the curve (AUC), 0.73 compared to 0.60 (p = 0.024), respectively, and in discriminating dementia from NC, with an AUC of 0.95 compared to 0.89 (p = 0.006). Both screening instruments discriminated MCI from NC with an AUC of 0.86 (Qmci-D) and 0.84 (SMMSE-D). The Qmci-D shows similar,(good) accuracy as the SMMSE-D in separating NC from MCI; greater,(albeit fair), accuracy differentiating MCI from dementia, and significantly greater accuracy in separating dementia from NC. Given its brevity and ease of administration, the Qmci-D seems a useful cognitive screen in a Dutch population. Further study with a suitably powered sample against more sensitive screens is now required.

  2. Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve?Evidence from cerebral glucose metabolism in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Eva Kowoll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bilingualism is discussed as one factor contributing to ‘cognitive reserve’ (CR as it enhances executive control functions. To elucidate the underlying cerebral correlates regional glucose uptake was compared between bilinguals and monolinguals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and beginning Alzheimer´s disease (AD by using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET. Methods: 30 patients (73.2 ± 7.4 diagnosed with MCI or probable AD received physical and neuropsychological examinations, blood tests and FDG-PET scans. 16 patients were classified as lifelong bilinguals following the criterion of Bialystok et al.; groups were matched for age, sex and MMSE scores. Analyses were conducted using SPM 8 using the whole brain as reference region for intensity normalization controlling for years of education.Results: Bilingual patient groups showed substantially greater impairment of glucose uptake in frontotemporal and parietal regions (including Brodmann areas 9, 47, 40 and 21 and in the left cerebellum relative to monolingual patients.Conclusions: Bilingualism is likely to contribute to CR given that bilingual patients showed more severe brain changes than monolinguals when adjusting for severity of cognitive impairment . The latter did not only comprise Brodmann areas relevant to speech and language but also structures typically involved in AD pathology such as the temporal and the parietal cortices.

  3. Destination memory and cognitive theory of mind in normal ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Raffard, Stéphane; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Destination memory is the ability to remember the destination to which a piece of information has been addressed (e.g., "Did I tell you about the promotion?"). This ability is found to be impaired in normal ageing. Our work aimed to link this deterioration to the decline in theory of mind. Forty younger adults (M age = 23.13 years, SD = 4.00) and 36 older adults (M age = 69.53 years, SD = 8.93) performed a destination memory task. They also performed the False-belief test addressing cognitive theory of mind and the Reading the mind in the eyes test addressing affective theory of mind. Results showed significant deterioration in destination memory, cognitive theory of mind and affective theory of mind in the older adults. The older adults' performance on destination memory was significantly correlated with and predicted by their performance on cognitive theory of mind. Difficulties in the ability to interpret and predict others' mental states are related to destination memory decline in older adults.

  4. Effect of Baduanjin exercise on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guohua; Huang, Maomao; Li, Shuzhen; Li, Moyi; Xia, Rui; Zhou, Wenji; Tao, Jing; Chen, Lidian

    2016-04-11

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the cognitive changes of normal aging and dementia characterised by a reduction in memory and/or other cognitive processes. An increasing number of studies have indicated that regular physical activity/exercise may have beneficial association with cognitive function of older adults with or without cognitive impairment. As a traditional Chinese Qigong exercise, Baduanjin may be even more beneficial in promoting cognitive ability in older adults with MCI, but the evidence is still insufficient. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Baduanjin exercise on neuropsychological outcomes of community-dwelling older adults with MCI, and to explore its mechanism of action from neuroimaging based on functional MRI (fMRI) and cerebrovascular function. The design of this study is a randomised, controlled trial with three parallel groups in a 1:1:1 allocation ratio with allocation concealment and assessor blinding. A total of 135 participants will be enrolled and randomised to the 24-week Baduanjin exercise intervention, 24-week brisk walking intervention and 24-week usual physical activity control group. Global cognitive function and the specific domains of cognition (memory, processing speed, executive function, attention and verbal learning and memory) will be assessed at baseline and 9, 17, 25 and 37 weeks after randomisation, while the structure and function of brain regions related to cognitive function and haemodynamic variables of the brain will be measured by fMRI and transcranial Doppler, respectively, at baseline and 25 and 37 weeks after randomisation. Ethics approval was given by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Second People's Hospital of Fujian Province (approval number 2014-KL045-02). The findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and at scientific conferences. ChiCTR-ICR-15005795; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  5. Effects of Tai Chi on Cognition and Fall Risk in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkarat, Somporn; Boripuntakul, Sirinun; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Watcharasaksilp, Kanokwan; Lord, Stephen R

    2017-04-01

    To examine whether combined center- and home-based Tai Chi training can improve cognitive ability and reduce physiological fall risk in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Randomized controlled trial. Chiang Mai, Thailand. Adults aged 60 and older who met Petersen's criteria for multiple-domain a-MCI (N = 66). Three weeks center-based and 12 weeks home-based Tai Chi (50 minutes per session, 3 times per week). Cognitive tests, including Logical Memory (LM) delayed recall, Block Design, Digit Span forward and backward, and Trail-Making Test Part B-A (TMT B-A), and fall risk index using the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA). At the end of the trial, performance on LM, Block Design, and TMT B-A were significantly better for the Tai Chi group than the control group after adjusting for baseline test performance. The Tai Chi group also had significantly better composite PPA score and PPA parameter scores: knee extension strength, reaction time, postural sway, and lower limb proprioception. Combined center- and home-based Tai Chi training three times per week for 15 weeks significantly improved cognitive function and moderately reduced physiological fall risk in older adults with multiple-domain a-MCI. Tai Chi may be particularly beneficial to older adults with this condition. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Network Disruption in the Preclinical Stages of Alzheimer's Disease: From Subjective Cognitive Decline to Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanz, David; Garcés, Pilar; Álvarez, Blanca; Delgado-Losada, María Luisa; López-Higes, Ramón; Maestú, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) is a largely unknown state thought to represent a preclinical stage of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) previous to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the course of network disruption in these stages is scarcely characterized. We employed resting state magnetoencephalography in the source space to calculate network smallworldness, clustering, modularity and transitivity. Nodal measures (clustering and node degree) as well as modular partitions were compared between groups. The MCI group exhibited decreased smallworldness, clustering and transitivity and increased modularity in theta and beta bands. SCD showed similar but smaller changes in clustering and transitivity, while exhibiting alterations in the alpha band in opposite direction to those showed by MCI for modularity and transitivity. At the node level, MCI disrupted both clustering and nodal degree while SCD showed minor changes in the latter. Additionally, we observed an increase in modular partition variability in both SCD and MCI in theta and beta bands. SCD elders exhibit a significant network disruption, showing intermediate values between HC and MCI groups in multiple parameters. These results highlight the relevance of cognitive concerns in the clinical setting and suggest that network disorganization in AD could start in the preclinical stages before the onset of cognitive symptoms.

  7. Episodic-like memory impairment in subtypes of mild cognitive impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Kamil; Laczó, J.; Vajnerová, O.; Ort, Michael; Vyhnálek, M.; Hort, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, - (2007), s. 69-69 ISSN 0792-8483. [Annual general meeting of the European Brain and Behaviour Society /39./. 15.09.2007-19.09.2007, Trieste] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/0693; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1231; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * Alzheimer 's disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  8. Spatial navigation testing discriminates two types of amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laczó, J.; Vlček, Kamil; Vyhnálek, M.; Vajnerová, O.; Ort, M.; Holmerová, I.; Tolar, M.; Andel, R.; Bojar, M.; Hort, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 202, č. 2 (2009), s. 252-259 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/1053; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * Alzheimer’s disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.220, year: 2009

  9. Mobile Delivery of Health Information for People with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Gareth; Munro, Susan D; Arnott, John L

    2017-01-01

    The design of a smartphone application (app) for promoting healthy lifestyle choices has been investigated for people with mild cognitive impairment. The app was designed to provide health-related messages and assist users to keep track of activities such as walking, eating and drinking water. A reward scheme with gold, silver and bronze awards was incorporated as a means of assisting user motivation. Responses to the app and user feedback were gathered for purposes of evaluation and improvement. Outcomes indicate that the approach has some potential and could have good implications for encouraging positive health-related behaviour change in this population, hence prompting further investigation and development of the concept.

  10. Association between cortical thickness and CSF biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohades, Sara; Dubois, Jonathan; Parent, Maxime

    regional cortical thinning (CT) measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and brain amyloidosis (measured by CSF Ab 1-42 concentrations), or tau hyperphosphorylation (tau 181; p-tau) in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients. We test the hypothesis that the association...... (CN; n¼8) were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. Cortical surface reconstruction and group registration were generated using Freesurfer. A general linear model was used to conduct regressions between CSF markers and cortical thickness. Results: Correlation...

  11. Long-Term Interrelationship between Brain Metabolism and Amyloid Deposition in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemppainen, Nina; Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) study was to evaluate the interrelationship between brain metabolism and amyloid accumulation during the disease process from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nine MCI patients, who converted to AD between...... especially in the temporal-parietal regions in MCI compared to controls at baseline, and widely over the cortex at the 5-year follow-up. The reduction in metabolism during the follow-up was significant in the posterior brain regions. In addition, brain amyloid load was positively associated with metabolism...

  12. Apathy and Emotion-Based Decision-Making in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bayard, Sophie; Jacus, Jean-Pierre; Raffard, Stéphane; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background. Apathy and reduced emotion-based decision-making are two behavioral modifications independently described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Objectives. The aims of this study were to investigate decision-making based on emotional feedback processing in AD and aMCI and to study the impact of reduced decision-making performances on apathy. Methods. We recruited 20 patients with AD, 20 participants with aMCI, and 20 healthy controls. All parti...

  13. Design of a prototype device for remote patient care with mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ocampo, M.; Segura-Giraldo, B.; Floréz-Hurtado, R.; Cortés-Aguirre, C.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a prototype telecare system, which allows to provide home care to patients with mild cognitive impairment and thus ensures their permanence in their usual environment. Telecare is oriented towards people who require constant attention due to conditions of advanced age, illness, physical risk or limited capabilities. Telecare offers these people a greater degree of independence. QFD methodology is used to develop electronic devices intended to monitor the environment and physiological state of the user continuously, providing communication between the telecare system and a monitoring center in order to take the most appropriate actions in any abnormal event.

  14. Design of a prototype device for remote patient care with mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Ocampo, M; Segura-Giraldo, B; Floréz-Hurtado, R; Cortés-Aguirre, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a prototype telecare system, which allows to provide home care to patients with mild cognitive impairment and thus ensures their permanence in their usual environment. Telecare is oriented towards people who require constant attention due to conditions of advanced age, illness, physical risk or limited capabilities. Telecare offers these people a greater degree of independence. QFD methodology is used to develop electronic devices intended to monitor the environment and physiological state of the user continuously, providing communication between the telecare system and a monitoring center in order to take the most appropriate actions in any abnormal event. (paper)

  15. Age Effects on Cortical Thickness in Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Hurtz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Atrophy in both grey and white matter is found in normal aging. The prefrontal cortex and the frontal lobe white matter are thought to be the most affected regions. Our aim was to examine the effects of normal aging on cortical grey matter using a 3D quantitative cortical mapping method. Methods: We analyzed 1.5-tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 44 cognitively normal elderly subjects using cortical pattern matching and cortical thickness analyses. Linear regression analysis was used to study the effect of age on cortical thickness. 3D map-wide correction for multiple comparisons was conducted with permutation analyses using a threshold of p Results: We found a significant negative association between age and cortical thickness in the right hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.009 and a trend level association in the left hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.081. Age-related changes were greatest in the sensorimotor, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortices, and the right posterior middle and inferior frontal gyri. Age effects greater in the medial than lateral visual association cortices were also seen bilaterally. Conclusion: Our novel method further validates that normal aging results in diffuse cortical thinning that is most pronounced in the frontal and visual association cortices.

  16. Magnetization transfer ratio relates to cognitive impairment in normal elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSeiler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI can detect microstructural brain tissue changes and may be helpful in determining age-related cerebral damage. We investigated the association between the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR in gray and white matter and cognitive functioning in 355 participants of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study (ASPS-Fam aged 38 to 86 years. MTR maps were generated for the neocortex, deep gray matter structures, white matter hyperintensities, and normal appearing white matter. Adjusted mixed models determined whole brain and lobar cortical MTR to be directly and significantly related to performance on tests of memory, executive function and motor skills. There existed an almost linear dose-effect relationship. MTR of deep gray matter structures and normal appearing white matter correlated to executive functioning. All associations were independent of demographics, vascular risk factors, focal brain lesions and cortex volume.Further research is needed to understand the basis of this association at the tissue level, and to determine the role of MTR in predicting cognitive decline and dementia.

  17. Symptom validity testing in memory clinics: Hippocampal-memory associations and relevance for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Anne; Groot, Paul F. C.; Spaan, Pauline E. J.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Walstra, Gerard J. M.; de Jonghe, Jos F. M.; van Gool, Willem A.; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; Korkhov, Vladimir V.; Schmand, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) do not always convert to dementia. In such cases, abnormal neuropsychological test results may not validly reflect cognitive symptoms due to brain disease, and the usual brain-behavior relationships may be absent. This study examined symptom validity in

  18. Age-correction of test scores reduces the validity of mild cognitive impairment in predicting progression to dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessler, Johannes; Tucha, Oliver; Förstl, Hans; Mönsch, Edelgard; Bickel, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: A phase of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) precedes most forms of neurodegenerative dementia. Many definitions of MCI recommend the use of test norms to diagnose cognitive impairment. It is, however, unclear whether the use of norms actually improves the detection of individuals at risk

  19. Global efficiency of structural networks mediates cognitive control in mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlot, R. (Rok); Metzler-Baddeley, C. (Claudia); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); Jones, D.K. (Derek K.); O'Sullivan, M.J. (Michael J.)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Cognitive control has been linked to both the microstructure of individual tracts and the structure of whole-brain networks, but their relative contributions in health and disease remain unclear. __Objective:__ To determine the contribution of both localized white

  20. A Mutual Self- and Informant-Report of Cognitive Complaint Correlates with Neuropathological Outcomes in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Gifford

    Full Text Available This study examines whether different sources of cognitive complaint (i.e., self and informant predict Alzheimer's disease (AD neuropathology in elders with mild cognitive impairment (MCI.Data were drawn from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform and Neuropathology Datasets (observational studies for participants with a clinical diagnosis of MCI and postmortem examination (n = 1843, 74±8 years, 52% female. Cognitive complaint (0.9±0.5 years prior to autopsy was classified into four mutually exclusive groups: no complaint, self-only, informant-only, or mutual (both self and informant complaint. Postmortem neuropathological outcomes included amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Proportional odds regression related complaint to neuropathology, adjusting for age, sex, race, education, depressed mood, cognition, APOE4 status, and last clinical visit to death interval.Mutual complaint related to increased likelihood of meeting NIA/Reagan Institute (OR = 6.58, p = 0.004 and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease criteria (OR = 5.82, p = 0.03, and increased neurofibrillary tangles (OR = 3.70, p = 0.03, neuritic plaques (OR = 3.52, p = 0.03, and diffuse plaques (OR = 4.35, p = 0.02. Informant-only and self-only complaint was not associated with any neuropathological outcome (all p-values>0.12.In MCI, mutual cognitive complaint relates to AD pathology whereas self-only or informant-only complaint shows no relation to pathology. Findings support cognitive complaint as a marker of unhealthy brain aging and highlight the importance of obtaining informant corroboration to increase confidence of underlying pathological processes.

  1. The Validity and Reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination-2 for Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease in a Korean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Baek

    Full Text Available To examine the validity and reliability of the MMSE-2 for assessing patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD in a Korean population. Specifically, the usefulness of the MMSE-2 as a screening measure for detecting early cognitive change, which has not been detectable through the MMSE, was examined.Two-hundred and twenty-six patients with MCI, 97 patients with AD, and 91 healthy older adults were recruited. All participants consented to examination with the MMSE-2, the MMSE, and other detailed neuropsychological assessments.The MMSE-2 performed well in discriminating participants across Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR stages and CDR-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB, and it showed excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, high interrater reliability, and good concurrent validity with the MMSE and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. The MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests that are sensitive to decline in cognitive functions vs. tests that are not sensitive to decline in cognitive functions in normal cognitive aging. Moreover, the MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests related overall cognitive functioning other than memory vs. tests related to episodic memory in patients with AD. Finally, the MMSE-2 was divided into three factors (tests related to working memory and frontal lobe functioning vs. tests related to verbal memory vs. tests related to orientation and immediate recall in patients with MCI. The sensitivity and specificity of the three versions of the MMSE-2 were relatively high in discriminating participants with normal cognitive aging from patients with MCI and AD.The MMSE-2 is a valid and reliable cognitive screening instrument for assessing cognitive impairment in a Korean population, but its ability to distinguish patients with MCI from those with normal cognitive aging may not be as highly sensitive as expected.

  2. The Validity and Reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination-2 for Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease in a Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Karyeong; Park, Young Ho; Kim, SangYun

    To examine the validity and reliability of the MMSE-2 for assessing patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a Korean population. Specifically, the usefulness of the MMSE-2 as a screening measure for detecting early cognitive change, which has not been detectable through the MMSE, was examined. Two-hundred and twenty-six patients with MCI, 97 patients with AD, and 91 healthy older adults were recruited. All participants consented to examination with the MMSE-2, the MMSE, and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. The MMSE-2 performed well in discriminating participants across Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) stages and CDR-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB), and it showed excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, high interrater reliability, and good concurrent validity with the MMSE and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. The MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests that are sensitive to decline in cognitive functions vs. tests that are not sensitive to decline in cognitive functions) in normal cognitive aging. Moreover, the MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests related overall cognitive functioning other than memory vs. tests related to episodic memory) in patients with AD. Finally, the MMSE-2 was divided into three factors (tests related to working memory and frontal lobe functioning vs. tests related to verbal memory vs. tests related to orientation and immediate recall) in patients with MCI. The sensitivity and specificity of the three versions of the MMSE-2 were relatively high in discriminating participants with normal cognitive aging from patients with MCI and AD. The MMSE-2 is a valid and reliable cognitive screening instrument for assessing cognitive impairment in a Korean population, but its ability to distinguish patients with MCI from those with normal cognitive aging may not be as highly sensitive as expected.

  3. Modifications in resting state functional anticorrelation between default mode network and dorsal attention network: comparison among young adults, healthy elders and mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Roberto; Cieri, Filippo; Chiacchiaretta, Piero; Cera, Nicoletta; Lauriola, Mariella; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Tartaro, Armando; Ferretti, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Resting state brain activity incorporates different components, including the Default Mode Network and the Dorsal Attention Network, also known as task-negative network and task-positive network respectively. These two networks typically show an anticorrelated activity during both spontaneous oscillations and task execution. However modifications of this anticorrelated activity pattern with age and pathology are still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate differences in resting state Default Mode Network-Dorsal Attention Network functional anticorrelation among young adults, healthy elders and Mild Cognitive Impairment patients. We retrospectively enrolled in this study 27 healthy young adults (age range: 25-35 y.o.; mean age: 28,5), 26 healthy elders (age range: 61-72 y.o.; mean age: 65,1) and 17 MCI patients (age range 64-87 y.o.; mean age: 73,6). Mild Cognitive Impairment patients were selected following Petersen criteria. All participants underwent neuropsychological evaluation and resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spontaneous anticorrelated activity between Default Mode Network and Dorsal Attention Network was observed in each group. This anticorrelation was significantly decreased with age in most Default Mode Network-Dorsal Attention Network connections (p Default Mode Network and the right inferior parietal sulcus node of the Dorsal Attention Network was significantly decreased when comparing Mild Cognitive Impairment with normal elders (p Default Mode Network and Dorsal Attention Network is part of the normal aging process and that Mild Cognitive Impairment status is associated with more evident inter-networks functional connectivity changes.

  4. The clinical utility of naturalistic action test in differentiating mild cognitive impairment from early dementia in memory clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Irene; Ntlholang, Ontefetse; Crosby, Lisa; Cunningham, Conal; Lawlor, Brian

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the validity of the Naturalistic Action Test in differentiating Mild Cognitive Impairment from early dementia compared to clinical diagnosis and ascertain Naturalistic Action Test cut-off points. This was a cross-sectional study of 70 consecutive patients diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment attending the memory clinic in St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Patients with a diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment who attended for routine annual assessment were asked to participate in the study. The Naturalistic Action Test was carried out after the patient had completed their routine assessment in the clinic. The Area under the Curve, AUC ± SE was 0.808 ± 0.058, p Cognitive Impairment in our study (PPV 50%, NPV 91%, sensitivity 78%, specificity 73% and accuracy of 74%). There was discrepancy in 18 patients using the new cut-off point (≥11 for Mild Cognitive Impairment vs ≤10 for dementia). The Naturalistic Action Test is a useful tool that can increase diagnostic accuracy in differentiating Mild Cognitive Impairment from early dementia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Validation of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status and Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment Against Detailed Cognitive Testing and Clinical Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietemann, Vera; Kopczak, Anna; Müller, Claudia; Wollenweber, Frank Arne; Dichgans, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Assessment of cognitive status poststroke is recommended by guidelines but follow-up can often not be done in person. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS) and the Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (T-MoCA) are considered useful screening instruments. Yet, evidence to define optimal cut-offs for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) after stroke is limited. We studied 105 patients enrolled in the prospective DEDEMAS study (Determinants of Dementia After Stroke; NCT01334749). Follow-up visits at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months included comprehensive neuropsychological testing and the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, both of which served as reference standards. The original TICS and T-MoCA were obtained in 2 separate telephone interviews each separated from the personal visits by 1 week (1 before and 1 after the visit) with the order of interviews (TICS versus T-MoCA) alternating between subjects. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves was determined. Ninety-six patients completed both the face-to-face visits and the 2 interviews. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves ranged between 0.76 and 0.83 for TICS and between 0.73 and 0.94 for T-MoCA depending on MCI definition. For multidomain MCI defined by multiple-tests definition derived from comprehensive neuropsychological testing optimal sensitivities and specificities were achieved at cut-offs <36 (TICS) and <18 (T-MoCA). Validity was lower using single-test definition, and cut-offs were higher compared with multiple-test definitions. Using Clinical Dementia Rating as the reference, optimal cut-offs for MCI were <36 (TICS) and approximately 19 (T-MoCA). Both the TICS and T-MoCA are valid screening tools poststroke, particularly for multidomain MCI using multiple-test definition. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Cognitive correlates of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mild Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Osama; Meyer, Philipp M; Gräf, Susanne; Hesse, Swen; Wilke, Stephan; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Rullmann, Michael; Patt, Marianne; Luthardt, Julia; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Hoepping, Alexander; Smits, Rene; Franke, Annegret; Sattler, Bernhard; Tiepolt, Solveig; Fischer, Steffen; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Hegerl, Ulrich; Barthel, Henryk; Schönknecht, Peter; Brust, Peter

    2018-06-01

    In early Alzheimer's dementia, there is a need for PET biomarkers of disease progression with close associations to cognitive dysfunction that may aid to predict further cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Amyloid biomarkers are not suitable for that purpose. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) are widely abundant in the human brain. As neuromodulators they play an important role in cognitive functions such as attention, learning and memory. Post-mortem studies reported lower expression of α4β2-nAChRs in more advanced Alzheimer's dementia. However, there is ongoing controversy whether α4β2-nAChRs are reduced in early Alzheimer's dementia. Therefore, using the recently developed α4β2-nAChR-specific radioligand (-)-18F-flubatine and PET, we aimed to quantify the α4β2-nAChR availability and its relationship to specific cognitive dysfunction in mild Alzheimer's dementia. Fourteen non-smoking patients with mild Alzheimer's dementia, drug-naïve for cholinesterase therapy, were compared with 15 non-smoking healthy controls matched for age, sex and education by applying (-)-18F-flubatine PET together with a neuropsychological test battery. The one-tissue compartment model and Logan plot method with arterial input function were used for kinetic analysis to obtain the total distribution volume (VT) as the primary, and the specific binding part of the distribution volume (VS) as the secondary quantitative outcome measure of α4β2-nAChR availability. VS was determined by using a pseudo-reference region. Correlations between VT within relevant brain regions and Z-scores of five cognitive functions (episodic memory, executive function/working memory, attention, language, visuospatial function) were calculated. VT (and VS) were applied for between-group comparisons. Volume of interest and statistical parametric mapping analyses were carried out. Analyses revealed that in patients with mild Alzheimer's dementia compared to healthy controls

  7. Implementation of Segmentation Methods for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoug, S; Abdel-Dayem, A

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting seniors age 65 and over. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with behavioural assessments and cognitive tests, often followed by a brain scan. Advanced medical imaging is a good tool to predict conversion from prodromal stages (mild cognitive impairment) to Alzheim