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Sample records for normal measurements satisfactory

  1. Normal anatomical measurements in cervical computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaunbauer, W.; Daepp, S.; Haertel, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radiodiagnostically relevant normal values and variations for measurements of the cervical region, the arithmetical average and the standard deviation were determined from adequate computer tomograms on 60 healthy women and men, aged 20 to 83 years. The sagittal diameter of the prevertebral soft tissue and the lumina of the upper respiratory tract were evaluated at exactly defined levels between the hyoid bone and the incisura jugularis sterni. - The thickness of the aryepiglottic folds, the maximal sagittal and transverse diameters of the thyroid gland and the calibre of the great cervical vessels were defined. - To assess information about laryngeal function in computerized tomography, measurements of distances between the cervical spine and anatomical fixed points of the larynx and hypopharynx were made as well as of the degree of vocal cord movement during normal respiration and phonation. (orig.) [de

  2. Not Normal: the uncertainties of scientific measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Judging the significance and reproducibility of quantitative research requires a good understanding of relevant uncertainties, but it is often unclear how well these have been evaluated and what they imply. Reported scientific uncertainties were studied by analysing 41 000 measurements of 3200 quantities from medicine, nuclear and particle physics, and interlaboratory comparisons ranging from chemistry to toxicology. Outliers are common, with 5σ disagreements up to five orders of magnitude more frequent than naively expected. Uncertainty-normalized differences between multiple measurements of the same quantity are consistent with heavy-tailed Student's t-distributions that are often almost Cauchy, far from a Gaussian Normal bell curve. Medical research uncertainties are generally as well evaluated as those in physics, but physics uncertainty improves more rapidly, making feasible simple significance criteria such as the 5σ discovery convention in particle physics. Contributions to measurement uncertainty from mistakes and unknown problems are not completely unpredictable. Such errors appear to have power-law distributions consistent with how designed complex systems fail, and how unknown systematic errors are constrained by researchers. This better understanding may help improve analysis and meta-analysis of data, and help scientists and the public have more realistic expectations of what scientific results imply.

  3. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence

  4. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  5. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... the normal thyroid gland has a homogenous increased medium level echo texture. The childhood thyroid gland dimension correlates linearly with age and body surface unlike adults. [14] Iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyroid hormones which function to control the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  6. Normal Corpus Callosum Dimensions Measured by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ham Gyum

    2008-01-01

    As a result of measuring the size of corpus callosum in normal Korean people by using MRI, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. Maximum, minimum, and mean values by the region in whole subjects 1) Anteroposterior length amounted to the mean with 69.30 mm, the minimum with 50.70 mm, and the maximum with 80.40 mm. 2) Diameter of genu amounted to the mean with 11.93 mm, the minimum with 6.00 mm, and the maximum with 18.50 mm. 3) Diameter of mid body amounted to the mean with 7.00 mm, the minimum with 3.40 mm, and the maximum with 10.40 mm. 4) Diameter of narrowing portion amounted to the mean with 4.51 mm, the minimum with 0.80 mm, and the maximum with 9.50 mm. 5) Diameter of splenium amounted to the mean with 12.17 mm, the minimum with 6.90 mm, and the maximum with 17.20 mm. 2. Comparison by region according to the gender in the whole subjects 1) Anteroposterior length was bigger in men than in women, and showed the significant difference depending on gender. 2) Diameter of genu, diameter of mid body, and diameter of narrowing portion were bigger in men than in women, but there was no significant difference. 3) Diameter of splenium was bigger in men than in women, and showed the statistically significant difference. 3. Comparison by region according to the age in the whole subjects 1) Anteroposterior length was the biggest in the 50s at the age, and was smaller in heir 10s than other age levels. In addition, the significant difference was indicated depending on age. 2) Diameter of genu and diameter of mid body were the biggest in their 30s, and were smaller in the 60s than other age levels. And, the statistically significant difference was indicated. 3) Diameter of narrowing portion was the thickest in their 20s, and was thinner in their 60s than other age levels. And, the significant difference was indicated depending on age. 4) Diameter of splenium was the thickest in their 30s, and was thinner in their 10s than other age levels. And, the statistically

  7. Mean-field learning for satisfactory solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul; Vilanova, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in distributed interactive systems is to design efficient, accurate, and fair solutions. In such systems, a satisfactory solution is an innovative approach that aims to provide all players with a satisfactory payoff

  8. 34 CFR 668.34 - Satisfactory progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Satisfactory progress. 668.34 Section 668.34 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.34 Satisfactory... requirements contained in § 668.32(f), the student must be making satisfactory under the provisions of...

  9. Measurement of Lumbosacral Angle in Normal Radiographs: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    normal lumbar lordosis measurement, the retrospective approach is a credible alternative to the prospective ... complaints, low back pain without any radiographically demonstrable ..... effects of hamstring stretching on sagittal spinal curvatures.

  10. What do you mean by "satisfactory"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crebbin, W

    2005-09-01

    One of the difficulties in designing assessment for medical trainees has been defining what is meant by "satisfactory". Whilst a list of "unsatisfactory" and "outstanding" characteristics can be identified with very little difficulty, it is the middle ground that holds the challenge. This is especially true in the non-technical areas of medical practice, which have been brought into greater prominence since the development and publication of CanMEDS 2000. As part of that process, questions about what is meant by "satisfactory", "standards" and/or benchmarks, have been brought into sharper focus. Additional questions are being asked as to whether competencies must necessarily be equated with minimum expectations or if they can be set, in conjunction with standards, to situate required "satisfactory" performance at a level significantly above a minimal level. A search of current literature on competencies and assessment was carried out. From that analysis, it became evident that a definition of "satisfactory" in assessing competence is dependent upon the identification of underlying factors, including the kind of competence, the kind of knowledge, and the level of expertise required to match the standard of assessment. The varying definitions, expectations, and levels of "satisfactory" were mapped to illustrate a way to plot the level of "satisfactory" according to the task, the experience of the trainee, and the stage of training. This map also provides a method for developing shared understandings of the targeted level within the "satisfactory zone".

  11. Coherent normalization of finger strontium XRF measurements: feasibility and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamburlini, M; Pejovic-Milic, A; Chettle, D R [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2008-08-07

    A non-invasive in vivo x-ray fluorescence (XRF) method of measuring bone strontium concentrations has previously been reported as a potential diagnostic tool able to detect strontium concentration in the finger and ankle bones. The feasibility of coherent normalization for {sup 125}I-source-based finger bone strontium x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements is assessed here by theoretical considerations and Monte Carlo simulations. Normalization would have several advantages, among which are the correction for the signal attenuation by the overlying soft tissue, and intersubject variability in the bone size and shape. The coherent normalization of bone strontium XRF measurements presents several challenges dictated by the behaviour of the coherent cross section and mass attenuation coefficient at the energies involved. It was found that the coherent normalization alone with either 22.1 keV or 35.5 keV photons was not successful in correcting for the overlying soft tissue attenuation. However, it was found that the coherent peak at 35.5 keV was able to correct effectively for variability in the finger bone size between people. Thus, it is suggested that, if the overlying soft tissue thickness can be obtained by means of an independent measurement, the 35.5 keV peak can be used to correct for the bone size, with an overall accuracy of the normalization process of better than 10%. (note)

  12. SatisFactory Final System Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sunlight SA

    2018-01-01

    The present document is a deliverable of the SatisFactory project, funded by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Research and Innovation (DG RTD), under its Horizon 2020 Research and innovation programme (H2020). The main objective of this deliverable is to report on the SatisFactory Final System Evaluation, with regards to the industrial pilots at COMAU and SUNLIGHT. The evaluation of SatisFactory platform is based on the implementation of the business scenarios where each tool...

  13. Mean-field learning for satisfactory solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2013-12-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in distributed interactive systems is to design efficient, accurate, and fair solutions. In such systems, a satisfactory solution is an innovative approach that aims to provide all players with a satisfactory payoff anytime and anywhere. In this paper we study fully distributed learning schemes for satisfactory solutions in games with continuous action space. Considering games where the payoff function depends only on own-action and an aggregate term, we show that the complexity of learning systems can be significantly reduced, leading to the so-called mean-field learning. We provide sufficient conditions for convergence to a satisfactory solution and we give explicit convergence time bounds. Then, several acceleration techniques are used in order to improve the convergence rate. We illustrate numerically the proposed mean-field learning schemes for quality-of-service management in communication networks. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Measurements of normal joint angles by goniometry in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengöz Şirin, O; Timuçin Celik, M; Ozmen, A; Avki, S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normal reference values of the forelimb and hindlimb joint angles in normal Holstein calves. Thirty clinically normal Holstein calves that were free of any detectable musculoskeletal abnormalities were included in the study. A standard transparent plastic goniometer was used to measure maximum flexion, maximum extension, and range-of-motion of the shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle, and tarsal joints. The goniometric measurements were done on awake calves that were positioned in lateral recumbency. The goniometric values were measured and recorded by two independent investigators. As a result of the study it was concluded that goniometric values obtained from awake calves in lateral recumbency were found to be highly consistent and accurate between investigators (p <0.05). The data of this study acquired objective and useful information on the normal forelimb and hindlimb joint angles in normal Holstein calves. Further studies can be done to predict detailed goniometric values from different diseases and compare them.

  15. Measurement of Lumbosacral Angle in Normal Radiographs: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hyper.lordosis; most of the data in use in medical practice are based on studies on other races. Aim: To quantify the normal LSA in our population. Subjects and Methods: LSA was measured by the Fergusonfs technique and the data analyzed with SPSS Statistics version 17.0 (Chicago IL, USA). Results: LSA varied between ...

  16. Measurement of normal ocular volume by the use of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reduction or increase in ocular volume may indicate ocular pathology. Unfortunately the reference values utilized for ocular volume had been that of non-Africans. It is therefore pertinent to have a reference value of normal for Africans. Objective: To document the computer tomography (CT) scan measured ...

  17. Measurement of human normal tissue and tumour responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.; Yarnold, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The scarcity of quantitative measures of normal tissue damage and tumour response in patients undergoing radiotherapy is an obstacle to the clinical evaluation of new treatment strategies. Retrospective studies of complications in critical normal tissues taught important lessons in the past concerning the potential dangers of hypofractionation. However, it is unethical to use serious complications as planned end-points in prospective studies. This paper reviews the desirable characteristics of clinical end-points required to compare alternative treatments employing radiotherapy, with emphasis on simple scales applied by clinicians or even the patients themselves

  18. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Sub; Kim, Jong Chul; Kang, Yong Soo; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Young Wol

    1997-01-01

    To measure the mean size of the various portions of the corpus callosum in normal Korean children, using MR imaging. Our subjects were 166 children (male : female=100 : 66) aged under 15 whose findings on MR imaging and neurologic examination were normal. Using midsagittal T1-weighted imaging, we measured the length of the brain and corpus callosum, the height of the latter, and the thickness of its genu body, transitional zone and splenium. The measurements were statistically analysed according to age and sex. Brain length and the size of the various portions of the corpus callosum tended to increase relatively rapidly during the first three years of life, but the rate of growth tended to decrease according to age. The mean lenght of the brain and corpus callosum and the mean thickness of the splenium of the corpus callosum did not differ according to sex. The mean thickness of the genu, body and transitional zone of the corpus callosum was greater in males than in females. The ratio of the length of the corpus callosum to the anteroposterior diameter of the brain was significantly greater in females than in males (alpha=0.05). Using MR imaging, we measured the mean sizes of the various portions of the corpus callosum in normal children;these values may provide a useful basis for determing changes occurring in its structure

  19. Measurement of normal cervical spinal cord in metrizamide CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Fumio; Koyama, Tsunemaro; Aii, Heihachirou

    1985-01-01

    The shape of the spinal cord is the most important factor in diagnosis of spinal disorders by metrizamide CT myelography (met. CT). Even in cases where the spinal cord looks normal in shape its size might be abnormal, for example in cases with spinal cord atrophy, syringomyelia, intramedullary tumor and several other conditions. In detecting the slightest abnormality in such cases, it is absolutely necessary to have in hand the knowledge of the nomal size of the spinal cord at each level. We measured, therefore, the sagittal and transverse diameters of the cervical spinal cord in 55 patients with no known lesions on met. CT (Fig. 1). Comparing our results with those by others, we found some differences as to the size of the spinal cord. We assume that these differences are due to the differences in resolution of the CT scanners used. The size of the spinal cord tends to measure larger with a CT scanner with high resolution than with others. Previous authors reported that the size of the spinal cord would vary by window center settings. Our experimental results indicate, however, that window center settings do not significantly affect the measurements. It is concluded that the normal values of the spinal cord dimensions at each level somewhat differ by CT equipments used. One should have normal values with one's own equipment in hand in order to take full advantage of this sophisticated diagnostic technique. (author)

  20. High-accuracy measurements of the normal specular reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voarino, Philippe; Piombini, Herve; Sabary, Frederic; Marteau, Daniel; Dubard, Jimmy; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean Remy

    2008-01-01

    The French Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is designed and constructed by the French Commissariata l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Its amplifying section needs highly reflective multilayer mirrors for the flash lamps. To monitor and improve the coating process, the reflectors have to be characterized to high accuracy. The described spectrophotometer is designed to measure normal specular reflectance with high repeatability by using a small spot size of 100 μm. Results are compared with ellipsometric measurements. The instrument can also perform spatial characterization to detect coating nonuniformity

  1. Numerically satisfactory solutions of Kummer recurrence relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPairs of numerically satisfactory solutions as $n\\rightarrow \\infty$ for the three-term recurrence relations satisfied by the families of functions $_1\\mbox{F}_1(a+\\epsilon_1 n; b +\\epsilon_2 n;z)$, $\\epsilon_i \\in {\\mathbb Z}$, are given. It is proved that minimal solutions always

  2. Speech Respiratory Measures in Spastic Cerebral Palsied and Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Shemshadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Research is designed to determine speech respiratory measures in spastic cerebral palsied children versus normal ones, to be used as an applicable tool in speech therapy plans.  Materials & Methods: Via a comparative cross-sectional study (case–control, and through a directive goal oriented sampling in case and convenience approach for controls twenty spastic cerebral palsied and twenty control ones with age (5-12 years old and sex (F=20, M=20 were matched and identified. All possible inclusion and exclusion criteria were considered by thorough past medical, clinical and para clinical such as chest X-ray and Complete Blood Counts reviews to rule out any possible pulmonary and/or systemic disorders. Their speech respiratory indices were determined by Respirometer (ST 1-dysphonia, made and normalized by Glasgow University. Obtained data were analyzed by independent T test. Results: There were significant differences between cases and control groups for "mean tidal volume", "phonatory volume" and "vital capacity" at a=0/05 values and these values in patients were less (34% than normal children (P<0/001. Conclusion: Measures obtained are highly crucial for speech therapist in any speech therapy primary rehabilitative plans for spactic cerebral palsied children.

  3. Normalization of natural gas composition data measured by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, Martin J T; Harris, Peter M; Brown, Andrew S; Cowper, Chris J

    2009-01-01

    The composition of natural gas determined by gas chromatography is routinely used as the basis for calculating physico-chemical properties of the gas. Since the data measured by gas chromatography have particular statistical properties, the methods used to determine the composition can make use of a priori assumptions about the statistical model for the data. We discuss a generalized approach to determining the composition, and show that there are particular statistical models for the data for which the generalized approach reduces to the widely used method of post-normalization. We also show that the post-normalization approach provides reasonable estimates of the composition for cases where it cannot be shown to arise rigorously from the statistical structure of the data

  4. Normalized regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Locatelli, Laura; Stival, Barbara; Bratina, Alessio; Nasuelli, Davide; Zorzon, Marino; Grop, Attilio; Brnabic-Razmilic, Ozana

    2003-01-01

    There is still a controversy regarding the best regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies. The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlate better with the MRI-defined regional brain lesions than the absolute measurements of regional brain atrophy. We assessed 45 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS (median disease duration 12 years), and measured T1-lesion load (LL) and T2-LL of frontal lobes and pons, using a reproducible semi-automated technique. The regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of frontal lobes and pons was obtained by use of a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semi-automated and automated segmentation processes. A normalized measurement, the regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF), was calculated as the ratio of RBPV to the total volume of the parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons. The total regional brain volume fraction (TRBVF) was obtained after we had corrected for the total volume of the parenchyma and the CSF in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons for the total intracranial volume. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for RBPF of the pons was 1% for intra-observer reproducibility and 1.4% for inter-observer reproducibility. Generally, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlated with regional brain volumes and disability better than did the absolute measurements. RBPF and TRBVF correlated with T2-LL of the pons (r=-0.37, P=0.011, and r= -0.40, P=0.0005 respectively) and with T1-LL of the pons (r=-0.27, P=0.046, and r=-0.31, P=0.04, respectively), whereas RBPV did not (r=-0.18, P = NS). T1-LL of the frontal lobes was related to RBPF (r=-0.32, P=0.033) and TRBVF (r=-0.29, P=0.05), but not to RBPV (R=-0.27, P= NS). There was only a trend of correlation between T2-LL of the frontal lobes and

  5. Stability measurements on cored cables in normal and superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GHOSH, A.K.; SAMPSON, W.B.; KIM, S.W.; LEROY, D.; OBERLI, L.R.; WILSON, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    The relative stability of LHC type cables has been measured by the direct heating of one of the individual strands with a short duration current pulse. The minimum energy required to initiate a quench has been determined for a number of cables which have a central core to increase the effective inter-strand cross-over resistance. Experiments were performed in both normal helium at 4.4 K and superfluid at 1.9 K. Conductors in general are less stable at the lower temperature when measured at the same fraction of critical current. Results show that the cored-cables, even when partially filled with solder or with a porous-metal filler exhibit a relatively low stability at currents close to the critical current. It is speculated that the high inter-strand electrical and thermal resistance inherent in these cables may effect the stability at high currents

  6. Sonographic Measurement of Normal Splenic Length in Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Bum; Cheon, Byung Kook; Kim, Jong Min; Oh, Kyung Seoung; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To establish upper limit of normal splenic length of Korean adults on ultrasonography and to determice the degree of interobserver and intraobserver variation. Ultrasonographic scans were performed to measure the maximum length of spleen in 105 of 150 adults selected by convenience sampling. Remained 45 cases with any conditions that could alter splenic size were excluded from this study. The maximum length of spleen was measured and correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight, age and sex. In 31 of the 105 adults we evaluated the interobserver and intraobserver variations in sonographic measurements of splenic length obtained by three radiologists in blind fashion. The mean splenic length in 105 adults was 8.56cm ({+-} 0.95). The splenic length positively correlated with body surface area, patient height and weight (P <0.001), and negatively correlated with patient age (P < 0.01). Male spleen (8.87 cm {+-} 1.07) was longer than female spleen (8.35 cm {+-} 0.81) (P < 0.05). The following guidelines are proposed for the upper limit of normal splenic length at different groups of body surface area: no longer than 10 cm at 1.20{approx}1.59 m{sup 2}, 11 cm at1.60{approx}1.79 m{sup 2}, and 12 cm at 1.80{approx}1.99 m{sup 2}. The mean interobserver variation between any two radiologists ranged from 0.32 cm ({+-} 0.29) to 0.39 cm ({+-} 0.33) and interobserver variations were within 1 cm in 96%. The mean intraobserver variations were within 0.5 cm in 91%. The splenic length closely correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight and age. Particularly the upper limit of normal splenic length changed according to body surface area. Interobserver variation about 1 cm and intraobserver variation about 0.5 cm should be considered in the measurement of the splenic length on ultrasonography

  7. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  8. Different methods of measuring ADC values in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Youping; Sheng Junkang; Zhang Caiyuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate better method of measuring ADC values of normal brain, and provide reference for further research. Methods: Twenty healthy people's MR imaging were reviewed. All of them underwent routine MRI scans and echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and ADC maps were reconstructed on work station. Six regions of interest (ROI) were selected for each object, the mean ADC values were obtained for each position on DWI and ADC maps respectively. Results: On the anisotropic DWI map calculated in the hypothalamus, ADC M , ADC P , ADC S values were no significant difference (P>0.05), in the frontal white matter and internal capsule hindlimb, there was a significant difference (P ave value exist significant difference to direct measurement on the anisotropic (isotropic) ADC map (P<0.001). Conclusion: Diffusion of water in the frontal white matter and internal capsule are anisotropic, but it is isotropic in the hypothalamus; different quantitative methods of diffusion measurement of 4ADC values have significant difference, but ADC values calculated through the DWI map is more accurate, quantitative diffusion study of brain tissue should also consider the diffusion measurement method. (authors)

  9. Measurement of cerebral blood flow in normal subjects by phase contrast MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yusuke; Osada, Hisato

    1994-01-01

    Global cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured with a two-dimensional phase contrast cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique in 24 normal subjects (mean age, 38.6 years; range, 12-70 years). Cine transverse images of the upper cervical region (32 phases/cardiac cycle) were acquired with a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging unit. In five subjects, measurement of CBF was performed before and after intravenous administration of acetazolamide (DIAMOX, 15 mg/kg). Inter- and intra-observer variations in flow volume measurement were small (r=0.970, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=2.9 ml/min, n=8; r=0.963, SEE=4.6 ml/min, n=40, respectively). In measuring flow velocity, they were inferior to those of flow volume measurement. On a visually determined setting of region of interest (ROI), reproducibility of the measurement of flow velocity was not satisfactory in this study. Thus only the results of flow volume measurement are presented. Mean summed vertebral flow volume (171 ml/min, SD=40.6) was significantly less than mean summed internal carotid flow volume (523 ml/min, SD=111). Total blood flow volume showed a significant decline with age (r=-0.45, p<0.05). The mean proportions of carotid and vertebral flow volume to total flow volume were 75.3% and 24.7%, respectively, and showed no significant change with age. The left-to-right ratio of vertebral flow volume (1.39) was significantly higher than that of internal carotid flow volume (0.99, r=0.05). After DIAMOX i.v., the mean rate of increase in total flow volume was 157%. Mean rates of increase in carotid and vertebral flow volume were 154% and 166%, respectively, which were not significantly different. In conclusion, this method is useful for estimating carotid and vertebral flow volume. (author)

  10. Measurement of Normal and Friction Forces in a Rolling Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens; Wanheim, Tarras

    2004-01-01

    by the fric-tion conditions. To achieve this important informa-tion, measurements of the normal pressure and friction stresses in the deformation zone are re-quested. The direction of the friction stresses is changing during the rolling gap. At the entrance of the de-formation zone, the peripherical velocity...... of the roll is higher than for the incoming material, which causes frictional stresses at the material acting in the rolling direction. At the outlet of the rolling gap, the velocity of the deformed material exceeds the velocity of the roll, generating frictional stresses contrary to the direction of rolling....... In a narrow area in the deformation zone, the velocity of the de-formed material is equal to the velocity of the rolls. This area or line is named “neutral line”. The posi-tion of the neutral line depends on friction, reduc-tion ratio, diameter of the rolls, and width of the sheet....

  11. Sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Gwun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Goo, Dong Erk; Choi, Deuk Lin; Yang, Seung Boo

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland was performed in the first week of life in 107 term neonates. The serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone was normal in all neonates. Their gestational age at birth was range from 37 to 41 weeks and birth weight was 3305 ± 457.74 g. Sonography was performed with 7.5 MHz linear array transducer (SA-8800 MT, Medison, Korea) within the first week of postnatal age. Maximal transverse (T), anteroposterior (AP), and longitudinal (L) dimensions of thyroid gland were measured. The volume of each lobe was estimate by using standard geometric formula; volume of a prolate ellipsoid = T X AP X L X π/6. The total volume of the thyroid gland was calculated as the sum of the each lobe. The correlations with total thyroid volume and weight, height, the body surface area, gestational age of the neonate were estimated by Pearson's coefficient and p volume on Bivariate correlation analysis. Total thyroid volume was 0.68 ± 0.23 cm 3 , left and right lobe volumes of thyroid gland were 0.32 ± 0.12 cm 3 and 0.36 ± 0.14 cm 3 , respectively. T, AP, and L dimension of right lobe were 0.69 ± 0.14 cm, 0.71 ± 0.13 cm, 1.37 ± 0.22 cm respectively. And those of left lobe were 0.70 ± 0.11 cm, 0.65 ± 0.13 cm, 1.31 ± 0.21 cm, respectively. The Pearson's coefficients for total thyroid volume with the weight, and body surface area of neonate were 0.385, 0.395 (p 3 and was significantly correlated with the weight and body surface area.

  12. Measuring Conflict in a Multi-Source Environment as a Normal Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Pan; Ball, John E.; Anderson, Derek T.; Harsh, Archit; Archibald, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    In a multi-source environment, each source has its own credibility. If there is no external knowledge about credibility then we can use the information provided by the sources to assess their credibility. In this paper, we propose a way to measure conflict in a multi-source environment as a normal measure. We examine our algorithm using three simulated examples of increasing conflict and one experimental example. The results demonstrate that the proposed measure can represent conflict in a me...

  13. 38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Satisfactory conduct and... Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation. The provisions for satisfactory conduct and cooperation...

  14. Ocular axial length measurement among normal adults using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , as visual compromise is a major consequence if they are not diagnosed and managed appropriately. Aim and Objectives: To use magnetic resonance imaging, to determine the normal AL of the eyeball and to establish the association, if any, ...

  15. NORMAL PRESSURE AND FRICTION STRESS MEASUREMENT IN ROLLING PROCESSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens; Lagergren, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    the output from the transducer, the friction stress and normal pressure in the contact zone can be determined. The new concept differs from existing pin designs by a lower disturbance of lubricant film and material flow and limited penetration of material between transducer and roll. Aluminum, cupper...

  16. Measurement of normal auditory ossicles by high-resolusion CT with application of normal criteria to disease cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Jyoko

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to define criteria for the normal position of ossicles and to apply them in patients with rhinolaryngologically or pathologically confirmed diseases. Ossicles were measured on high-resolution CT images of 300 middle ears, including 241 normal ears and 59 diseased ears, in a total of 203 subjects. Angles A, B, and C to the baseline between the most lateral margins of bilateral internal auditory canals, and distance ratio b/a were defined as measurement items. Normal angles A, B, and C and distance ratio b/a ranged from 19 deg to 59 deg, 101 deg to 145 deg, 51 deg to 89 deg, and 0.49 to 0.51, respectively. Based on these criteria, all of these items were within the normal range in 30/34 (88.2 %) ears for otitis media and mastoiditis. One or more items showed far abnormal values (standard deviation; more than 3) in 5/7 (71.4 %) ears for cholesteatoma and 4/4 (100 %) ears for external ear anomaly. These normal measurements may aid in evaluating the position of auditory ossicles especially in the case of cholesteatoma and auditory ossicle abnormality. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Measurement of normal auditory ossicles by high-resolusion CT with application of normal criteria to disease cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Jyoko

    1988-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to define criteria for the normal position of ossicles and to apply them in patients with rhinolaryngologically or pathologically confirmed diseases. Ossicles were measured on high-resolution CT images of 300 middle ears, including 241 normal ears and 59 diseased ears, in a total of 203 subjects. Angles A, B, and C to the baseline between the most lateral margins of bilateral internal auditory canals, and distance ratio b/a were defined as measurement items. Normal angles A, B, and C and distance ratio b/a ranged from 19 deg to 59 deg, 101 deg to 145 deg, 51 deg to 89 deg, and 0.49 to 0.51, respectively. Based on these criteria, all of these items were within the normal range in 30/34 (88.2 %) ears for otitis media and mastoiditis. One or more items showed far abnormal values (standard deviation; more than 3) in 5/7 (71.4 %) ears for cholesteatoma and 4/4 (100 %) ears for external ear anomaly. These normal measurements may aid in evaluating the position of auditory ossicles especially in the case of cholesteatoma and auditory ossicle abnormality. (Namekawa, K.).

  18. 38 CFR 21.362 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Satisfactory conduct and.... Chapter 31 Conduct and Cooperation § 21.362 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation. (a) General. The... satisfactory conduct and cooperation in developing and implementing a program of rehabilitation services under...

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.110 - What is satisfactory service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is satisfactory service? 102-117.110 Section 102-117.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... satisfactory service? You should consider the following factors in assessing whether a TSP offers satisfactory...

  20. 32 CFR 101.6 - Criteria for satisfactory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for satisfactory performance. 101.6..., MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PARTICIPATION IN RESERVE TRAINING PROGRAMS § 101.6 Criteria for satisfactory...) Shall require members to: (1) Meet the standards of satisfactory performance of training duty set forth...

  1. 38 CFR 21.6362 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Satisfactory conduct and cooperation. 21.6362 Section 21.6362 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Pension Recipients Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.6362 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation...

  2. 24 CFR 203.385 - Types of satisfactory title evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of satisfactory title... Title Waivers § 203.385 Types of satisfactory title evidence. The following types of title evidence shall be satisfactory to the Commissioner: (a) Fee or owner's title policy. A fee or owner's policy of...

  3. 16 CFR 1105.3 - A more satisfactory standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false A more satisfactory standard. 1105.3 Section 1105.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS... satisfactory standard. In considering whether a contribution is likely to result in a more satisfactory...

  4. Measurement properties of screening and diagnostic tools for autism spectrum adults of mean normal intelligence: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, A; Russet, F; Mottron, L

    2017-07-01

    The autism spectrum (AS) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental variant associated with lifelong challenges. Despite the relevant importance of identifying AS in adults for epidemiological, public health, and quality of life issues, the measurement properties of the tools currently used to screen and diagnose adults without intellectual disabilities (ID) have not been assessed. This systematic review addresses the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the reported AS screening and diagnostic tools used in adults without ID. Electronic databases and bibliographies were searched, and identified papers evaluated against inclusion criteria. The PRISMA statement was used for reporting the review. We evaluated the quality of the papers using the COSMIN Checklist for psychometric data, and QUADAS-2 for diagnostic data. For the COSMIN assessment, evidence was considered to be strong when several methodologically good articles, or one excellent article, reported consistent evidence for or against a measurement property. For the QUADAS ratings, evidence was considered to be "satisfactory" if at least one study was rated with a low risk of bias and low concern about applicability. We included 38 articles comprising 32 studies, five reviews, and one book chapter and assessed nine tools (three diagnostic and six screening, including eight of their short versions). Among screening tools, only AQ-50, AQ-S, and RAADS-R and RAADS-14 were found to provide satisfactory or intermediate values for their psychometric properties, supported by strong or moderate evidence. Nevertheless, risks of bias and concerns on the applicability of these tools limit the evidence on their diagnostic properties. We found that none of the gold standard diagnostic tools used for children had satisfactory measurement properties. There is limited evidence for the measurement properties of the screening and diagnostic tools used for AS adults with a mean normal range of measured intelligence. This may lessen

  5. Normal CT measurement of sellar and juxtasellar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Hyun; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1988-01-01

    The thorough knowledge of precise anatomy of the sellar, parasellar and suprasellar regions and of normal computed tomographic (CT) features in those areas are very important because there are many tiny but essential structures in which pathology makes only minute changes and so meticulous investigations are required. We performed direct coronal thin section CT scan of sellar and juxtasellar regions in 58 cases in order to evaluate normal CT features such as CT densities, shapes and sizes of normal sellar and juxtasellar structures. The results obtained are as follows: 1.The CT densities of pituitary glands were 87 ± 23 in anterior lobe and 69 ± 22 in posterior lobe. The latter was significantly less dense than the former. Posterior lobes could be identified as oval low density area in sagittal reconstruction in 18/58 (31%). Mean pituitary height was 6.5 ± 1.5mm. In young females of childbearing age, mean height was 7.0 ± 1.7mm. Upper margins of pituitary glands were flat in 29 cases (50%), upward convex in 16 cases (28%), and upward concave in 13 cases (22%). Upper margins of pituitary glands were upward convex in 8/15 (53%) of young female of childbearing age. Pituitary densities were homogeneous in 36 cases (77%) and heterogeneous in 7 cases (15%), and 4 cases (7%) show focal pituitary low density that is greater than 3mm in diameter. 2.Moderate to severe degree of cisternal herniation was found in 10 cases (17%): only 1 case before the age of 30, and 9 cases after the age of 30. 3.The lateral margins of cavernous sinus were bilaterally flat in 42 cases (72%), bilaterally convex in 3 cases (5%), unilaterally convex in 12 cases (21%), and unilaterally concave only in 1 case (2%). The third cranial nerves were found as symmetric filling defects in superolateral aspect of anterior cavernous sinus in most of the cases, the maximal size of which was 2.7 ± 0.9mm in diameter and did not exceed 3.5mm. The other cranial nerves were less frequently identified as

  6. MUSIC-characterization of small scatterers for normal measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesmaier, Roland; Hanke, Martin

    2009-07-01

    We investigate the reconstruction of the positions of a collection of small metallic objects buried beneath the ground from measurements of the vertical component of scattered fields corresponding to vertically polarized dipole excitations on a horizontal two-dimensional measurement device above the surface of the ground. A MUSIC reconstruction method for this problem has recently been proposed by Iakovleva et al (2007 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55 2598). In this paper, we give a rigorous theoretical justification of this method. To that end we prove a characterization of the positions of the scatterers in terms of the measurement data, applying an asymptotic analysis of the scattered fields. We present numerical results to illustrate our theoretical findings.

  7. MUSIC-characterization of small scatterers for normal measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmaier, Roland; Hanke, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the reconstruction of the positions of a collection of small metallic objects buried beneath the ground from measurements of the vertical component of scattered fields corresponding to vertically polarized dipole excitations on a horizontal two-dimensional measurement device above the surface of the ground. A MUSIC reconstruction method for this problem has recently been proposed by Iakovleva et al (2007 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55 2598). In this paper, we give a rigorous theoretical justification of this method. To that end we prove a characterization of the positions of the scatterers in terms of the measurement data, applying an asymptotic analysis of the scattered fields. We present numerical results to illustrate our theoretical findings

  8. Measurement of normal ocular volume by the use of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-03

    Sep 3, 2012 ... ocular axial length measurements from which ocular volume can be calculated. ... The CT scans were performed in axial planes at a thickness of 3 mm and a .... dimension assessing capability, it gives anatomic details .... have larger skeletal size and bone mass than females, despite comparable body size.

  9. A study of the normal interpedicular distance of the spine in Korean teenagers (Estimation of normal range by roentgenographic measurement)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Uk

    1979-01-01

    The radiological measurement of the interpedicular disease using a routine antero-posterior view of the spine gives important clinical criteria in evaluation of the intraspinal tumor and stenosis of the spinal canal, and aids for diagnosis of the lesions. In 1934 Elsberg and Dyke reported values of interpedicular distance as determined on roentgenograms for spine of white adult, and in 1968 Song prepared normal values of interpedicular distance for Korean adult. The present investigation was undertaken to provide normal interpedicular distance of Korean teenagers. The author observed the antero-posterior films of the spine of 200 normal teenagers which were composed of 100 male and 100 female. The normal values of the interpedicular distance of Korean teenagers were obtained, as well as 90% tolerance range for clinical use. In this statistical analysis, there were noted significant differences between male and female, and each age groups. It was observed that average male measurement were consistently larger than female by about 1 mm and the growth of the spinal canal appeared to be continued.

  10. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Seob; Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Hyun Ju

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion

  11. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Seob; Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Hyun Ju [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion.

  12. Upon delineation of normal thyroid from diffuse goiter by terminal thumb phalanx measurement and thyroid scintiscan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenle, R.

    1987-01-01

    In 265 euthyroid patients the terminal thumb phalanx was measured for estimation of a normal thyroid according to the WHO rules of a normal thyroid. The results show up that hitherto published values of a normal thyroid seem to be too high and should be re-evaluated. This is confirmed by comparison with thyroid scans of 28 patients who were normal by WHO criteria, as length and width of the thyroidal lobe as well as the calculated thyroid volume were below or in the lower range of the hitherto published data of a normal thyroid. For delineation of a normal thyroid the average size of the terminal thumb phalanx seems to be less valuable, as in one third of the cases there was no concordance with the WHO rule. The measurement of the terminal thumb phalanx by ruler as a reference value is simple and fast to be performed. (orig.) [de

  13. Is the data quality of current theatre information systems satisfactory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-02-17

    Feb 17, 2006 ... information systems satisfactory to monitor individual surgeons' activity? POSTGRADUATE TRAINING. L Verity, MRCOG, Consultant. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall, UK. D Byrne, FRCOG, Consultant. J M Jenkins, FRCOG, Consultant Senior Lecturer.

  14. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  15. Magnetic measurements on human erythrocytes: Normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhnini, Lama

    2003-05-01

    In this article magnetic measurements were made on human erythrocytes at different hemoglobin states (normal and reduced hemoglobin). Different blood samples: normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle were studied. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples were taken from patients receiving lifelong blood transfusion treatment. All samples examined exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples showed higher diamagnetic susceptibilities than that for the normal, which was attributed to the increase of membrane to hemoglobin volume ratio of the abnormal cells. Magnetic measurements showed that the erythrocytes in the reduced state showed less diamagnetic response in comparison with erythrocytes in the normal state. Analysis of the paramagnetic component of magnetization curves gave an effective magnetic moment of μeff=7.6 μB per reduced hemoglobin molecule. The same procedure was applied to sickle and beta thalassemia major samples and values for μeff were found to be comparable to that of the normal erythrocytes.

  16. Assessment of various hilar measurements on PA chest of Korean normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun; Kang, Si Won; Park, Seog Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Appreciation of the normal position of the hila is essential in screening and diagnosis of the diseases of the chest. Many authors assessed the hilar position in normal adults using PA chest roentgenograms. However there have been no previous publication regarding consolidated assessment of various measurements. The authors carried out the present study to evaluate various hilar measurements including hilar points, hilar distances, difference between both hilar heights, hilar height ratio, and the relationship between the level of the clavicle and hila on the 500 normal PA chest roentgenograms

  17. Characteristics of Patients With Satisfactory Functional Gain Following Total Joint Arthroplasty in a Postacute Rehabilitation Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Avital; Vesilkov, Marina; Beloosesky, Yichayaou; Brill, Shai

    2017-01-10

    Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is an effective and successful treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee as quantified by several measures, such as pain relief, improved walking, improved self-care, functions, and increased quality of life. Data are lacking as to the definition of a satisfactory functional gain in a postacute setting and identifying the characteristics of older patients with TJA who may achieve that gain. Our aim was to characterize patients who may achieve a satisfactory functional gain in a postacute rehabilitation setting following TJA. This was a retrospective study of 180 patients with TJA admitted during 2010-2013. The main outcome measures were the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS) on the motor FIM, and the Timed Get Up and Go Test. Satisfactory functional gain was defined as an mFIM MRFS score above median score. Comparisons of clinical and demographic characteristics between patients who achieved a satisfactory functional gain versus those who did not were performed by the Mann-Whitney U test and the χ test. The proportion of patients who achieved a satisfactory functional gain was similar in the total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty (THA) groups. The most significant characteristic of patients who achieved a satisfactory functional gain was their admission functional ability. Age negatively impacted the ability to achieve a satisfactory functional gain in patients with THA. Functional level on admission is the best predictive factor for a better rehabilitation outcome for patients with TJA. Age negatively affects functional gain in patients with THA.

  18. Three-dimensional sonographic measurement of normal fetal brain volume during the second half of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Roelfsema; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); S.M. Boito; J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: This study was undertaken to develop a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound method of measuring fetal brain volume. Study design: Serial 3D sonographic measurements of fetal brain volume were made in 68 normal singleton pregnancies at 18 to 34 weeks of gestation. A comparison

  19. Measurement and evaluation of EDM bearing currents by the normalized Joule integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, Gregor; Miljavec, Damijan; Agrež, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Apparent current density is the most common criterion used in literature to estimate bearing endangerment due to bearing currents. In the paper, a new criterion called the normalized Joule integral is proposed as a more reliable and accurate one. This approach is more general and gives good correlation between current in the bypass bridge and bearing current. Furthermore, it considers the whole current that causes bearing damage, not just its peak value. The choice of the normalized Joule integral is theoretically explained and supported by measurements and simulations. The levels of bearing endangerment related to the normalized Joule integral of bearing currents are estimated. (paper)

  20. A normalization of the physical tests for external irradiation measuring detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    This report is the result of a normalization work, realized within the Radioprotection Services of the C.E.A., of the physical tests for detectors measuring external irradiation. Among the various tests mentionned are treated more in details, calibration and the establishment of the relative spectral response. As far as calibration is concerned, the normalization refers to: the reference detector, the reference radiation source, the installation and calibration procedure. As for the relative spectral response the normalization refers to: the reference detector, the radiation sources to be used. Finally, a chapter is consecrated to the high flux detectors and to those for pulsed electromagnetic radiations [fr

  1. ACL-RSI and KOOS Measures Predict Normal Knee Function after ACL-SPORTS Training

    OpenAIRE

    White, Kathleen; Zeni, Joseph; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) athletes commonly report increased fear of re-injury and below normal knee function. Implementing a post-operative training protocol (ACL-SPORTS Training) to improve patient perceived knee function, may improve short term outcomes after surgery. Identifying pre-training measures that predict normal knee function after training may allow us to determine who may respond to the treatment intervention. The purpose of this study wa...

  2. Paediatric renal length measurements from ultrasound and DMSA scans: does clinical practice reflect theoretical normal values?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.; Hassan, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Renal length measurement is a routine part of ultrasound examination in children and those results are plotted on a normogram style graph, so that each child's results are compared to a normal range (mean ± 2 S.D.). Renal length measurements from the posterior oblique views of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans in our department have not always correlated well with the ultrasound measurements on the same patients. Renal lengths from the DMSA scans of 120 patients with apparently normal kidneys were recorded and used to generate a normogram of renal length at different ages (0.5-7 years). This DMSA normogram was compared to the ultrasound (US) normogram used in the Paediatric Radiology Department, and it showed slight differences in renal lengths (3-8 mm), but that the US normogram had smaller coefficients of variation (US = 6.6%, NM 8.3%), implying a 'tighter' normal range. 39 of these patients had DMSA and ultrasound measurements of renal length within 3 months, and these were studied first by calculating the mean and CV values for different age groups, and then by plotting individual renal lengths on the appropriate normograms. The measured data produced much greater variability in the ultrasound measurements than the DTPA measurements, and the individual points produced 4/78 (5.1%) abnormal results for DMSA, but 21/78 (26.9%) abnormal results for ultrasound. Thus, in routine clinical use, using patients with apparently normal kidneys, ultrasound was unable to match the 'normal range' set by their current normogram, but the nuclear medicine showed 5.1% of values outside the normal (DMSA) range, which was completely appropriate for a range of ± 2 standard deviations

  3. Optical measurement of isolated canine lung filtration coefficients at normal hematocrits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Finney, C; Roselli, R J

    1997-12-01

    In this study, lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) values were measured in eight isolated canine lung preparations at normal hematocrit values using three methods: gravimetric, blood-corrected gravimetric, and optical. The lungs were kept in zone 3 conditions and subjected to an average venous pressure increase of 10.24 +/- 0.27 (SE) cmH2O. The resulting Kfc (ml . min-1 . cmH2O-1 . 100 g dry lung wt-1) measured with the gravimetric technique was 0.420 +/- 0.017, which was statistically different from the Kfc measured by the blood-corrected gravimetric method (0.273 +/- 0.018) or the product of the reflection coefficient (sigmaf) and Kfc measured optically (0. 272 +/- 0.018). The optical method involved the use of a Cellco filter cartridge to separate red blood cells from plasma, which allowed measurement of the concentration of the tracer in plasma at normal hematocrits (34 +/- 1.5). The permeability-surface area product was measured using radioactive multiple indicator-dilution methods before, during, and after venous pressure elevations. Results showed that the surface area of the lung did not change significantly during the measurement of Kfc. These studies suggest that sigmafKfc can be measured optically at normal hematocrits, that this measurement is not influenced by blood volume changes that occur during the measurement, and that the optical sigmafKfc agrees with the Kfc obtained via the blood-corrected gravimetric method.

  4. Uncertainty evaluation in normalization of isotope delta measurement results against international reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meija, Juris; Chartrand, Michelle M G

    2018-01-01

    Isotope delta measurements are normalized against international reference standards. Although multi-point normalization is becoming a standard practice, the existing uncertainty evaluation practices are either undocumented or are incomplete. For multi-point normalization, we present errors-in-variables regression models for explicit accounting of the measurement uncertainty of the international standards along with the uncertainty that is attributed to their assigned values. This manuscript presents framework to account for the uncertainty that arises due to a small number of replicate measurements and discusses multi-laboratory data reduction while accounting for inevitable correlations between the laboratories due to the use of identical reference materials for calibration. Both frequentist and Bayesian methods of uncertainty analysis are discussed.

  5. Levels of safety satisfactory for commercialization of the breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A brief discussion is presented of the Department of Energy's LMFBR safety program and the safety levels which DOE believes would be satisfactory for the commercialization of the breeder are indicated. Some observations are offered on the Three Mile Island accident and some of its implications are discussed for the LMFBR program

  6. Normalization of voltage-sensitive dye signal with functional activity measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaroh Takagaki

    Full Text Available In general, signal amplitude in optical imaging is normalized using the well-established DeltaF/F method, where functional activity is divided by the total fluorescent light flux. This measure is used both directly, as a measure of population activity, and indirectly, to quantify spatial and spatiotemporal activity patterns. Despite its ubiquitous use, the stability and accuracy of this measure has not been validated for voltage-sensitive dye imaging of mammalian neocortex in vivo. In this report, we find that this normalization can introduce dynamic biases. In particular, the DeltaF/F is influenced by dye staining quality, and the ratio is also unstable over the course of experiments. As methods to record and analyze optical imaging signals become more precise, such biases can have an increasingly pernicious impact on the accuracy of findings, especially in the comparison of cytoarchitechtonic areas, in area-of-activation measurements, and in plasticity or developmental experiments. These dynamic biases of the DeltaF/F method may, to an extent, be mitigated by a novel method of normalization, DeltaF/DeltaF(epileptiform. This normalization uses as a reference the measured activity of epileptiform spikes elicited by global disinhibition with bicuculline methiodide. Since this normalization is based on a functional measure, i.e. the signal amplitude of "hypersynchronized" bursts of activity in the cortical network, it is less influenced by staining of non-functional elements. We demonstrate that such a functional measure can better represent the amplitude of population mass action, and discuss alternative functional normalizations based on the amplitude of synchronized spontaneous sleep-like activity. These findings demonstrate that the traditional DeltaF/F normalization of voltage-sensitive dye signals can introduce pernicious inaccuracies in the quantification of neural population activity. They further suggest that normalization

  7. Interuncal distance measurements in normal controls and patients with dementia. MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazunari; Kitagaki, Hajime; Sakamoto, Setsu; Yamaji, Shigeru; Kono, Michio.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of measuring interuncal distance (IUD) as a reflection of the limbic system, we compared the IUD of 60 dementia patients with that of 10 normal controls. We also measured the width of the intracranial compartment (W1 and W2) to correct for differences in individual brain size, and calculated the ratio of IUD/W1 and IUD/W2. IUD could not separate patients with dementia from normal controls, but there were significant differences in IUD/W1 and IUD/W2 between patients with dementia and normal controls. IUD, IUD/W1 and IUD/W2 did not correlate with Mini-Mental Examination score or ADAS score in patients with dementia. We conclude that IUD measurement is not helpful in distinguishing patients with mild stage dementia from normal aged people or as a scale for dementia. However, we suggest that IUD/W1 and IUD/W2 can discriminate between cases of mild dementia and normal aged people. (author)

  8. Reference intervals of spinal mobility measures in normal individuals: the mobility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramiro, Sofia; van Tubergen, Astrid; Stolwijk, Carmen; van der Heijde, Desiree; Royston, Patrick; Landewe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To establish reference intervals (RIs) for spinal mobility measures as recommended for patients with axial spondyloarthritis, and to determine the effect of age, height and gender on spinal mobility, in normal individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study (MOBILITY) was conducted among

  9. Normal values for bone mineral content measured by dual photon absorptiometry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, F.; Lecouffe, P.; Rousseau, J.; Marchandise, X.; Ythier, H.

    1990-01-01

    The results of dual photon absorptiometry measurements in 43 normal children are analyzed. Results were correlated with age, body weight, and stature. Reference stature-specific values for bone mineral content in children are proposed. Furthermore, the results show that mineralization continues beyond the end of statural growth [fr

  10. Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emission Measured Below 300 Hz in Normal-Hearing Human Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , a custom-built low-frequency acoustic probe was put to use in 21 normal-hearing human subjects (of 34 recruited). Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was measured in the enclosed ear canal volume as the response to two simultaneously presented tones with frequencies f1 and f2. The stimulus...

  11. Measurement of the uterus and gestation sac by ultrasound in early normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, M; Evans, L J; Duff, G B

    1981-01-14

    Uterine volumes measured by two different ultrasonic methods, and gestation sac volumes in early normal pregnancy are reported. The results obtained for uterine volume measurements are compared. Methods using measurements obtained from only a longitudinal scan were simpler but slightly less accurate. Uterine volumes were also calculated in a series of patients with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. The accuracy of the prediction of the outcome of the pregnancy, based solely on uterine volume was 71 percent. Uterine volume measurement is most useful in identifying cases of missed abortion where the period of gestation is known.

  12. SatisFactory Common Information Data Exchange Model

    OpenAIRE

    CERTH

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable defines the Common Information Data Exchange Model (CIDEM). The aim of CIDEM is to provide a model of information elements (e.g. concepts, even, relations, interfaces) used for information exchange between components as well as for modelling work performed by other tasks (e.g. knowledge models to support human resources optimization). The CIDEM definition is considered as a shared vocabulary that enables to address the information needs for the SatisFactory framework components.

  13. MR measurement of normal brainstem cerebellum and corpus callosum on midsagittal section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogame, Saeko; Sawa, S.; Inoue, Yuichi; Fukuda, Teruo; Tada, Takuji; Shakudo, Miyuki; Yahata, Kunifumi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Onoyama, Yasuhito.

    1989-01-01

    The dimensions of the brainstem, cerebellum and corpus callosum were measured on magnetic resonance (MR) images with sagittal spin-echo sequence. Eighty-two normal adults (average 49.6 years old) were measured. The mesencephalic, pontine or cerebellar diamaters and lengths could be measured more accurately and reproducibly than medullary diameter and length. The anterio-posterior diameter of the pons and the cerebellum was 23.2±1.4 mm and 26.4±2.5 mm respectively. The length of the pons and the cerebellum was 27.8±2 mm and 45.8±3.5 mm respectively. We have observed focal thinning at the body of corpus callosum in 73%. This narrowing is almost unquestionably a normal variant. (author)

  14. The measurement of intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity in human tumours and normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Human tumour and normal cell radiosensitivity are thought to be important factors determining the response of tumour and normal tissues to radiotherapy, respectively. Clonogenic assays are the standard method for measuring radiosensitivity but they are of limited applicability for clinical use with fresh human tumours. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the Adhesive Tumour Cell Culture System (ATCCS), as a method for measuring the radiosensitivity of human tumours. A soft agar clonogenic assay, the modified Courtenay-Mills assay, was used as a standard to compare with the ATCCS. The demonstration that fibroblast contamination could occur with both assay methods led to the investigation of a new technique for removing unwanted fibroblasts from tumour cell suspensions and to the use of a multiwell assay for measuring fibroblast radiosensitivity. (author)

  15. The measurement of intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity in human tumours and normal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Human tumour and normal cell radiosensitivity are thought to be important factors determining the response of tumour and normal tissues to radiotherapy, respectively. Clonogenic assays are the standard method for measuring radiosensitivity but they are of limited applicability for clinical use with fresh human tumours. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the Adhesive Tumour Cell Culture System (ATCCS), as a method for measuring the radiosensitivity of human tumours. A soft agar clonogenic assay, the modified Courtenay-Mills assay, was used as a standard to compare with the ATCCS. The demonstration that fibroblast contamination could occur with both assay methods led to the investigation of a new technique for removing unwanted fibroblasts from tumour cell suspensions and to the use of a multiwell assay for measuring fibroblast radiosensitivity. (author).

  16. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  17. Sonographic Measurement of Fetal Ear Length in Turkish Women with a Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucize Eriç Özdemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal fetal ear length is a feature of chromosomal disorders. Fetal ear length measurement is a simple measurement that can be obtained during ultrasonographic examinations. Aims: To develop a nomogram for fetal ear length measurements in our population and investigate the correlation between fetal ear length, gestational age, and other standard fetal biometric measurements. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Ear lengths of the fetuses were measured in normal singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age and fetal ear length in millimetres was analysed by simple linear regression. In addition, the correlation of fetal ear length measurements with biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length were evaluated.Ear length measurements were obtained from fetuses in 389 normal singleton pregnancies ranging between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results: A nomogram was developed by linear regression analysis of the parameters ear length and gestational age. Fetal ear length (mm = y = (1.348 X gestational age-12.265, where gestational ages is in weeks. A high correlation was found between fetal ear length and gestational age, and a significant correlation was also found between fetal ear length and the biparietal diameter (r=0.962; p<0.001. Similar correlations were found between fetal ear length and head circumference, and fetal ear length and femur length. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a nomogram for fetal ear length. The study also demonstrates the relationship between ear length and other biometric measurements.

  18. Position and width of normal adult optic chiasm as measured in coronal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Jin Sook

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the position and transverse dimension of the adult optic chiasm in normal Korean adult. The authors analysed 3D coronal volume images (TR/TE=30/13, flip angle=30 .deg. ) of 136 normal adult subjects without known visual abnormality. All MRI examinations were performed using a 0.5T system. MRI was reviewed retrospectively to determine the position (horizontal and tilted) of the potic chiosm and the transverse dimension of the optic chiasm was measured. Seventy- five (55%) of the 136 normal subjects had horizontal position, and sixty-one (45%) had tilted position. Thirty- eight (62%) of 61 with tilted position showed higher position on the right side, and twenty-three (38%) showed higher position on the side. The average transverse dimension(mean SD) was 15.2 ± 0.7mm in men and 14.6 ± 1.0mm in women. The difference of transverse dimension between men and women was statistically significant. Tilted position of the adult optic chiasm on coronal MRI was seen in approximately half of normal adults. The average of transverse dimension of normal optic chiasm was 15mm

  19. Long-range correlations of serial FEV1 measurements in emphysematous patients and normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, A; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F

    1998-01-01

    are autocorrelated. The purpose of this study was to describe the correlation structure in time series of FEV1 measurements. Nineteen patients with severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (phenotype PiZ) and moderate to severe emphysema and two subjects with normal lungs were followed for several years with daily self......In obstructive lung disease the annual change in lung function is usually estimated from serial measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). Frequent measurements in each patient may not improve this estimate because data are not statistically independent; i.e., the measurements...... measurements show long-range correlations. The practical implication is that FEV1 need not be measured more often than once every 3 mo in studies of the long-term trends in lung function....

  20. Which markers of subclinical organ damage to measure in individuals with high normal blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W

    2009-01-01

    plaques or urine albumin/creatinine ratio of at least the 90th percentile did not produce significantly worse results. Seventy-five percent of individuals with three or more traditional risk factors had SOD. CONCLUSION: In healthy individuals with high normal BP, measuring two of pulse wave velocities......OBJECTIVE: Medical treatment of healthy individuals with high normal blood pressure (BP) is recommended if there is subclinical organ damage (SOD). We examined which markers of SOD to use based on their supplementary prognostic value. METHODS: In a population sample of 1968 individuals, aged 41, 51......, 61 and 71 years, without diabetes, prior stroke or myocardial infarction, not receiving any cardiovascular, antidiabetic or lipid-lowering medications, we measured urine albumin/creatinine ratio, carotid atherosclerotic plaques, carotid/femoral pulse wave velocity and left ventricular mass index...

  1. Normal standards for kidney length as measured with US in premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Hedlund, G.L.; Pierson, W.P.; Null, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to develop normal standards for kidney length in premature infants, the authors measured kidney length by US imaging in 39 (to date) premature infants less than 72 hours old and without known renal disease. Kidney length was compared with four different parameters of body size, including gestational age, birth weight, birth length, and body surface area. Similar standards have been generated previously for normal renal length as measured by US imaging in full-term infants and older children. These standards have proven utility in cases of congenital and acquired disorders that abnormally increase or decrease renal size. Scatter plots of kidney length versus body weight and kidney length versus body surface area conformed well to a logarithmic distribution, with a high correlation coefficient and close-fitting 95% confidence limits (SEE = 2.05)

  2. Measuring the electromagnetic chirality of 2D arrays under normal illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santiago, X; Burger, S; Rockstuhl, C; Fernandez-Corbaton, I

    2017-10-15

    We present an electromagnetic chirality measure for 2D arrays of subwavelength periodicities under normal illumination. The calculation of the measure uses only the complex reflection and transmission coefficients from the array. The measure allows the ordering of arrays according to their electromagnetic chirality, which further allows a quantitative comparison of different design strategies. The measure is upper bounded, and the extreme properties of objects with high values of electromagnetic chirality make them useful in both near- and far-field applications. We analyze the consequences that different possible symmetries of the array have on its electromagnetic chirality. We use the measure to study four different arrays. The results indicate the suitability of helices for building arrays of high electromagnetic chirality, and the low effectiveness of a substrate for breaking the transverse mirror symmetry.

  3. Spherically symmetric solution and a satisfactory energy-momentum complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashed, G.G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mikhail et al. obtained two spherically symmetric solution in Moeller tetrad theory of gravitation. They calculated their energy content and obtained a strange value for the second solution, in spite that the associated metric of these solutions is the same (the Schwarzschild metric). We use another method given bu Gibbons and Hawking to calculate the energy content of these solutions. We also obtained a strange value of energy for the second solution. Studying the requirements of the satisfactory energy-momentum complex given by Moeller we find that the second solution which behaves as 1/√r does not transform as a four-vector under Lorentz transformation

  4. Comparison of radiographic and anatomic femoral varus angle measurements in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Jennifer K; Radecki, Steven V; Park, Richard D; Palmer, Ross H

    2008-01-01

    To determine if the clinically practiced method of radiographic femoral varus angle (R-FVA) measurement is repeatable, reproducible, and accurate. Radiographic and anatomic study. ANIMALS/SAMPLE POPULATION: Normal Walker hound cadavers (n=5) and femora (n=10). Cadavers were held in dorsally-recumbent and torso-elevated positions as 3 craniocaudal radiographs were made of each femur, by each of 2 different technicians. Femora were then harvested for direct measurement of anatomic femoral varus angle (A-FVA). R-FVA was measured on each radiograph by each of 3 examiners on 3 separate occasions. Intra-observer (repeatability) and inter-observer (reproducibility) variance in R-FVA measurement and the strength of relationship between R-FVA and A-FVA (accuracy) were determined. Mean (+/-SD) A-FVA was 5.2+/-2.1 degrees (range, 2.4-8.2 degrees). Mean (+/-SD) R-FVA was 5.8+/-1.0 degrees (range, 2.7-9.6 degrees). Intra-observer variance (range: 11-16%) and inter-observer variance (16%) were acceptable. The strength of relationship between measured R-FVA and A-FVA (maximum adjusted R(2)hounds. The detected inaccuracy may be real or the result of a selection bias for normal dogs obscuring the true relationship. R-FVA may not be an accurate method of femoral varus measurement in dogs with A-FVA10 degrees), the procedure would not have been erroneously performed in any of the normal dogs of this study.

  5. Straatsma syndrome: Satisfactory amblyopia treatment. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada-Del Cid, N C; Zimmermann-Paiz, Martin A; Ordoñez-Rivas, A M; Burgos-Elías, V Y; Marroquin-Sarti, M J

    2018-06-01

    The cases are presented on 2 female patients with Straatsma syndrome, with satisfactory treatment of amblyopia. The level of anisometropia and myelination of retinal nerve fibres were different in these two patients. However, both achieved 0.20 (logMAR) visual acuity with correction in both eyes following amblyopia treatment with ocular patching. Visual prognosis of amblyopia associated with myelination of retinal nerve fibres and anisometropia is poorer than anisometropic amblyopia without myelination. It is well known that the former is refractory to occlusive therapy. Despite having a poor prognosis, visual rehabilitation should be attempted. The two cases presented were successfully treated with eye-patching. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Hyaline cartilage thickness in radiographically normal cadaveric hips: comparison of spiral CT arthrographic and macroscopic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyler, Annabelle; Bousson, Valérie; Bergot, Catherine; Polivka, Marc; Leveque, Eric; Vicaut, Eric; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2007-02-01

    To assess spiral multidetector computed tomographic (CT) arthrography for the depiction of cartilage thickness in hips without cartilage loss, with evaluation of anatomic slices as the reference standard. Permission to perform imaging studies in cadaveric specimens of individuals who had willed their bodies to science was obtained from the institutional review board. Two independent observers measured the femoral and acetabular hyaline cartilage thickness of 12 radiographically normal cadaveric hips (from six women and five men; age range at death, 52-98 years; mean, 76.5 years) on spiral multidetector CT arthrographic reformations and on coronal anatomic slices. Regions of cartilage loss at gross or histologic examination were excluded. CT arthrographic and anatomic measurements in the coronal plane were compared by using Bland-Altman representation and a paired t test. Differences between mean cartilage thicknesses at the points of measurement were tested by means of analysis of variance. Interobserver and intraobserver reproducibilities were determined. At CT arthrography, mean cartilage thickness ranged from 0.32 to 2.53 mm on the femoral head and from 0.95 to 3.13 mm on the acetabulum. Observers underestimated cartilage thickness in the coronal plane by 0.30 mm +/- 0.52 (mean +/- standard error) at CT arthrography (P cartilage thicknesses at the different measurement points was significant for coronal spiral multidetector CT arthrography and anatomic measurement of the femoral head and acetabulum and for sagittal and transverse CT arthrography of the femoral head (P cartilage thickness from the periphery to the center of the joint ("gradients") were found by means of spiral multidetector CT arthrography and anatomic measurement. Spiral multidetector CT arthrography depicts cartilage thickness gradients in radiographically normal cadaveric hips. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  7. Dual photon absorptiometry measurement of the lumbar bone mineral content. Methodology - Reproductibility - Normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, P.; Duboeuf, F.; Delmas, P.D.; Meunier, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made with a DPA apparatus (Novo Lab 22a) on different phantoms and on volunteers in an attempt to evaluate the system precision. The reproductibility was found in the range of 0.98 to 4.10 % in the case of in vitro measurements, depending on the geometry of the phantoms used, and in the range of 1.6 to 2.94 % for volunteers after repositioning. Secondly, the BMD in the lumbar spine of normal women and normal men was estimated. In control females, the BMD is well fitted to the age by a cubic regression. The maximum value of the BMD is found in this case at the age of 31.5 and the maximum rate of bone loss takes place at 57. Total bone loss between 31.5 and the elderly is about 32 %. In control males, results are more scattered and are represented by a simple linear regression. The average mineral loss between 30 and 80 years is 11.5 % in this area of measurement [fr

  8. Quantitative measurement of normal and hydrocephalic cerebrospinal fluid flow using phase contrast cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Shinji; Asari, Shoji; Ohmoto, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow using phase contrast cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed on a phantom, 12 normal subjects and 20 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). The phantom study demonstrated the applicability of phase contrast in quantitative measurement of the slow flow. The CSF flows of the normal subjects showed a consistent pattern with a to-and-fro movement of the flow in the anterior subarachnoid space at the C2/3 level, and they were dependent on the cardiac cycle in all subjects. However, the patients with NPH showed variable patterns of the CSF pulsatile flow and these patterns could be divided into four types according to velocity and amplitude. The amplitudes of each type were as follows: type 0 (n=1), 87.6 mm; type I (n=2), 58.2 mm (mean); type II (n=6), 48.0±5.0 mm (mean±SEM); and type III (n=11), 19.9±1.8 mm (mean±SEM). The decrease of the amplitudes correlated to a worsening of the clinical symptoms. After the shunting operation, the amplitude of to-and-fro movement of the CSF increased again in the patients with NPH who improved clinically. Some of the type III cases were reclassified type II, I and 0 and also one of the type II cases changed type I after the shunting operation. We conclude that the phase contrast cine MR imaging is a practically and clinically applicable technique for the quantitative measurement of the CSF flow. (author)

  9. Skin perfusion measurement: the normal range, the effects of ambient temperature and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Malone, J.M.; Daly, M.J.; Hughes, J.H.; Moore, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitation of skin perfusion provides objective criteria to determine the optimal amputation level in ischemic limb disease, to assess the maturation of pedicle flaps in reconstructive surgery, and to select appropriate treatment for chronic skin ulcers. A technique for measurement of skin perfusion using intradermal (ID) Xe-133 and a gamma camera/minicomputer system was previously reported. An update of this procedure is now reported, the normal range for the lower extremity in men, observations on the effects of ambient temperature, and an experience using the procedure to determine amputation level

  10. Multi-channel normal speed gated integrator in the measurement of the laser scattering light energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dong; Yu Xiaoqi; Hu Yuanfeng

    2005-01-01

    With the method of integration in a limited time, a Multi-channel normal speed gated integrator based on VXI system has been developed for measuring the signals with changeable pulse width in laser scattering light experiment. It has been tested with signal sources in ICF experiment. In tests, the integral nonlinearity between the integral results of the gated integrator and that of an oscilloscope is less than 1%. In the ICF experiments the maximum error between the integral results of the gated integrator and that of oscilloscope is less than 3% of the full scale range of the gated integrator. (authors)

  11. Measurements of the normal ventricles and cerebral cisterns of 100 adults with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kyoji

    1979-01-01

    The computed tomographical examinations of 100 patients with normal neurological findings including some volunteers between the ages of 20 to 68 years were evaluated. Measurements of various parts of the ventricular system on the polaroid pictures showed an increase with age and sexual difference. The lateral ventricles were found to be larger in the male in the female. Inverse cella media index, bifrontal cerebroventricular index and bicaudate cerebroventricular index were found to be reliable indicators of ventricular size, when the age and the sex is known. (author)

  12. Measurement of elasticity of normal placenta using the Virtual Touch quantification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Size; Nan, Ruixia; Cui, Xiao Jing; Liang, Xian; Zhao, Yanan [Dept. of Ultrasound, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China); Li, Yueping [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of normal placentas using the Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ) technique. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Fifty randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their second trimester and 50 randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their third trimester with a single fetus were included, and their placentas underwent VTQ through shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements. The measurements were performed at different locations to sample different areas of the placenta. Measurements were performed 3-4 times in each location, the mean shear wave velocities were calculated without the highest and lowest values of measurements in each region, and the results were compared. The SWV of the placenta was 0.983±0.260 m/sec, and the minimal and maximal speed was 0.63 m/sec and 1.84 m/sec, respectively. There was no significant difference between the second and third trimester of VTQ of the placenta in terms of SWV (0.978±0.255 m/sec vs. 0.987±0.266 m/sec, P=0.711). The maternal age between second and third trimester was 27.9±4.3 years and 29.2±4.4 years, respectively; there was no significant difference between them (P=0.159). The results of this study show that the SWV of normal placenta tissue is 0.983±0.260 m/sec, it has little variation between the second and third trimesters, and the VTQ technique may potentially play an additional role in placenta evaluation.

  13. Measurement of elasticity of normal placenta using the Virtual Touch quantification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Size; Nan, Ruixia; Cui, Xiao Jing; Liang, Xian; Zhao, Yanan; Li, Yueping

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of normal placentas using the Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ) technique. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Fifty randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their second trimester and 50 randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their third trimester with a single fetus were included, and their placentas underwent VTQ through shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements. The measurements were performed at different locations to sample different areas of the placenta. Measurements were performed 3-4 times in each location, the mean shear wave velocities were calculated without the highest and lowest values of measurements in each region, and the results were compared. The SWV of the placenta was 0.983±0.260 m/sec, and the minimal and maximal speed was 0.63 m/sec and 1.84 m/sec, respectively. There was no significant difference between the second and third trimester of VTQ of the placenta in terms of SWV (0.978±0.255 m/sec vs. 0.987±0.266 m/sec, P=0.711). The maternal age between second and third trimester was 27.9±4.3 years and 29.2±4.4 years, respectively; there was no significant difference between them (P=0.159). The results of this study show that the SWV of normal placenta tissue is 0.983±0.260 m/sec, it has little variation between the second and third trimesters, and the VTQ technique may potentially play an additional role in placenta evaluation

  14. Measurement of elasticity of normal placenta using the Virtual Touch quantification technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Size Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of normal placentas using the Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ technique. Methods: This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Fifty randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their second trimester and 50 randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their third trimester with a single fetus were included, and their placentas underwent VTQ through shear wave velocity (SWV measurements. The measurements were performed at different locations to sample different areas of the placenta. Measurements were performed 3-4 times in each location, the mean shear wave velocities were calculated without the highest and lowest values of measurements in each region, and the results were compared. Results: The SWV of the placenta was 0.983±0.260 m/sec, and the minimal and maximal speed was 0.63 m/sec and 1.84 m/sec, respectively. There was no significant difference between the second and third trimester of VTQ of the placenta in terms of SWV (0.978±0.255 m/sec vs. 0.987±0.266 m/sec, P=0.711. The maternal age between second and third trimester was 27.9±4.3 years and 29.2±4.4 years, respectively; there was no significant difference between them (P=0.159. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the SWV of normal placenta tissue is 0.983±0.260 m/sec, it has little variation between the second and third trimesters, and the VTQ technique may potentially play an additional role in placenta evaluation.

  15. Brain parenchymal density measurements by CT in demented subjects and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M.; Danziger, W.L.; Chi, D.; Hughes, C.P.; Coben, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Parachymal density measurements of 14 regions of gray and white matter from each cerebral hemisphere were made from CT scans of 25 subjects who had varying degrees of dementia as measured by a global Clinical Dementia Rating, and also from CT scans of 33 normal control subjects. There were few significant differences between the two groups in the mean density value for each of the regions examined, although several individual psychometric tests did correlate with density changes. Moreover, for six regions in the cerebral cortex, and for one region in the thalamus of each hemisphere, we found no significant correlation between the gray-white matter density difference and dementia. There was, however, a loss of the discriminability between the gray and white matter with an increase in the size of the ventricles. These findings may be attributed to the loss of white matter volume

  16. Bifactor model of WISC-IV: Applicability and measurement invariance in low and normal IQ groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair; Watson, Shaun

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the applicability and measurement invariance of the bifactor model of the 10 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) core subtests in groups of children and adolescents (age range from 6 to 16 years) with low (IQ ≤79; N = 229; % male = 75.9) and normal (IQ ≥80; N = 816; % male = 75.0) IQ scores. Results supported this model in both groups, and there was good support for measurement invariance for this model across these groups. For all participants together, the omega hierarchical and explained common variance (ECV) values were high for the general factor and low to negligible for the specific factors. Together, the findings favor the use of the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores of the WISC-IV, but not the subscale index scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in normal and diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampetro, O.; Clerico, A.; Cruschelli, L.; Miccoli, R.; Dipalma, L.; Navalesi, R.

    1987-01-01

    The chemico-clinical characteristics of two commercial RIA kits for the measurement of urinary albumin excretion in normal and diabetic subjects were compared. The chief difference between the two methods concerns the bound/free separation of the antigen, since one employs the second antybody plus PEG (Sclavo Kit), while the other uses the solid phase [antiserum bound to sepharose (Pharmacia kit)]. The two RIA methods have demonstrated a similar degree of sensitivity, feasibility and cost. The precision of the two RIAs was also similar, although the Sclavo kit has shown a better precision for lower albumin concentrations and the Pharmacia kit for higher values. In diabetic patients, elevated urinary albumin concentrations (>60 mg/L) have been found more frequently than low values (<5 mg/L); hence the Pharmacia kit seems to be preferable, because it less frequently needs dilution of urinary sample for measuring with a better precision supranormal urinary albumin values. A significant bias (about 15%) was found between the two RIAs. Bias between different albumin RIA methods could partially explain the differences of normal values previously reported in the literature

  18. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Surrogacy assessment using principal stratification when surrogate and outcome measures are multivariate normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Anna S C; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Elliott, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    In clinical trials, a surrogate outcome variable (S) can be measured before the outcome of interest (T) and may provide early information regarding the treatment (Z) effect on T. Using the principal surrogacy framework introduced by Frangakis and Rubin (2002. Principal stratification in causal inference. Biometrics 58, 21-29), we consider an approach that has a causal interpretation and develop a Bayesian estimation strategy for surrogate validation when the joint distribution of potential surrogate and outcome measures is multivariate normal. From the joint conditional distribution of the potential outcomes of T, given the potential outcomes of S, we propose surrogacy validation measures from this model. As the model is not fully identifiable from the data, we propose some reasonable prior distributions and assumptions that can be placed on weakly identified parameters to aid in estimation. We explore the relationship between our surrogacy measures and the surrogacy measures proposed by Prentice (1989. Surrogate endpoints in clinical trials: definition and operational criteria. Statistics in Medicine 8, 431-440). The method is applied to data from a macular degeneration study and an ovarian cancer study.

  20. Computed tomography measurements of the normal and the pathologic cochlea in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, Natacha; Abbeele, Thierry van den; Sebag, Guy; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Radiological investigation is frequently undertaken to assess the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). To establish the CT measurements of the normal cochlea in children and to determine radiological criteria correlated with SNHL. A retrospective study of temporal bone CT performed in 159 children, age range from 3 days to 16 years between February 1999 and July 2004. A control group (n = 88) comprised children without SNHL; the SNHL group comprised 71 children. The width of the second turn of the cochlea (CW), the cochlear height (CH), and the width of the bony canal for the cochlear nerve (WCN) were measured on a reference plane containing the modiolus, the posterior semicircular canal, the footplate, and the stapes arch. Width of the canal measurements ≤1.7 mm or ≥2.5 mm supported the diagnosis of SNHL with a specificity of 97% and 91%, respectively. Cochlear width was found to be significantly smaller in the SNHL group (5.61 ± 0.51 mm) than in the control group (5.75 ± 0.31 mm, P < 0.02), a size <5.4 mm being highly suggestive of SNHL with a specificity of 90%. No significant variations of all measurements were found with age. Appropriate measurements of WCN and CW are highly correlated with SNHL. (orig.)

  1. Is the shortened dental arch still a satisfactory option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manola, M; Hussain, F; Millar, B J

    2017-07-21

    Aims Dental practitioners may hold the view that missing posterior teeth should be replaced to ensure a healthy masticatory system and satisfactory oral function. However, the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept is still in use, but after 35 years is it acceptable? This review searches the literature for the evidence and opinions regarding the suitability of the SDA as a current treatment modality.Methods Medline and PubMed databases were searched for relevant terms, all the abstracts were assessed and articles selected according to the pre-set exclusion and inclusion criteria.Results The search yielded 1,895 articles and after the assessment of the abstracts and application of the exclusion and inclusion criteria, 44 articles were selected for this review. These included 11 cohort studies, two longitudinal studies, two animal studies, three cross sectional studies, eight clinical studies and 18 case control studies. There appears to be a trend over the past three decades for more papers to be opposed to the SDA concept.Conclusion Evidence that the SDA causes pathology is lacking. Clinicians, healthcare authorities and patients have shown favourable attitudes towards the SDA and this continues, although there is an increase in studies opposing the concept and some are dissatisfied with this option. The concept remains viable particularly for the medically compromised patient or where restorations are considered unsuitable but further more specific studies are warranted.

  2. Reflectance Measures from Infant Ears With Normal Hearing and Transient Conductive Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Susan E; Herrmann, Barbara S; Horton, Nicholas J; Amadei, Elizabeth A; Kujawa, Sharon G

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to develop methods to utilize newborn reflectance measures for the identification of middle-ear transient conditions (e.g., middle-ear fluid) during the newborn period and ultimately during the first few months of life. Transient middle-ear conditions are a suspected source of failure to pass a newborn hearing screening. The ability to identify a conductive loss during the screening procedure could enable the referred ear to be either (1) cleared of a middle-ear condition and recommended for more extensive hearing assessment as soon as possible, or (2) suspected of a transient middle-ear condition, and if desired, be rescreened before more extensive hearing assessment. Reflectance measurements are reported from full-term, healthy, newborn babies in which one ear referred and one ear passed an initial auditory brainstem response newborn hearing screening and a subsequent distortion product otoacoustic emission screening on the same day. These same subjects returned for a detailed follow-up evaluation at age 1 month (range 14 to 35 days). In total, measurements were made on 30 subjects who had a unilateral refer near birth (during their first 2 days of life) and bilateral normal hearing at follow-up (about 1 month old). Three specific comparisons were made: (1) Association of ear's state with power reflectance near birth (referred versus passed ear), (2) Changes in power reflectance of normal ears between newborn and 1 month old (maturation effects), and (3) Association of ear's newborn state (referred versus passed) with ear's power reflectance at 1 month. In addition to these measurements, a set of preliminary data selection criteria were developed to ensure that analyzed data were not corrupted by acoustic leaks and other measurement problems. Within 2 days of birth, the power reflectance measured in newborn ears with transient middle-ear conditions (referred newborn hearing screening and passed hearing assessment at age 1 month) was significantly

  3. Association with isokinetic ankle strength measurements and normal clinical muscle testing in sciatica patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, N; Erol, O; Ozcakar, L; Ceceli, E; Ciner, O Akar; Yorgancioglu, Z R

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive muscle strength tests are needed to measure muscle strength in the diagnosis and management of sciatica patients. The aim of this study was to assess the isokinetic muscle strength in sciatica patients' and control subjects' ankles that exhibited normal ankle muscle strength when measured clinically. Forty-six patients with L5 and/or S1 nerve compression, and whose age, sex, weight, and height matched 36 healthy volunteers, were recruited to the study. Heel-walking, toe-walking, and manual muscle testing were used to perform ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion strengths in clinical examination. Patients with normal ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion strengths assessed by manual muscle testing and heel-and toe-walking tests were included in the study. Bilateral isokinetic (concentric/concentric) ankle plantar-flexion-dorsiflexion measurements of the patients and controls were performed within the protocol of 30°/sec (5 repetitions). Peak torque and peak torque/body weight were obtained for each ankle motion of the involved limb at 30°/s speed. L5 and/or S1 nerve compression was evident in 46 patients (76 injured limbs). Mean disease duration was two years. The plantar flexion muscle strength of the patients was found to be lower than that of the controls (p=0.036). The dorsiflexion muscle strength of the patients was found to be the same as that of the controls (p=0.211). Isokinetic testing is superior to clinical muscle testing when evaluating ankle plantar flexion torque in sciatica patients. Therefore, isokinetic muscle testing may be helpful when deciding whether to place a patient into a focused rehabilitation program.

  4. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normals measured by spectral domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendschneider, Delia; Tornow, Ralf P; Horn, Folkert K; Laemmer, Robert; Roessler, Christopher W; Juenemann, Anselm G; Kruse, Friedrich E; Mardin, Christian Y

    2010-09-01

    To determine normal values for peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) measured by spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) in healthy white adults and to examine the relationship of RNFL with age, gender, and clinical variables. The peripapillary RNFL of 170 healthy patients (96 males and 74 females, age 20 to 78 y) was imaged with a high-resolution SOCT (Spectralis HRA+OCT, Heidelberg Engineering) in an observational cross-sectional study. RNFL thickness was measured around the optic nerve head using 16 automatically averaged, consecutive circular B-scans with 3.4-mm diameter. The automatically segmented RNFL thickness was divided into 32 segments (11.25 degrees each). One randomly selected eye per subject entered the study. Mean RNFL thickness in the study population was 97.2 ± 9.7 μm. Mean RNFL thickness was significantly negatively correlated with age (r = -0.214, P = 0.005), mean RNFL decrease per decade was 1.90 μm. As age dependency was different in different segments, age-correction of RNFL values was made for all segments separately. Age-adjusted RNFL thickness showed a significant correlation with axial length (r = -0.391, P = 0.001) and with refractive error (r = 0.396, P<0.001), but not with disc size (r = 0.124). Normal RNFL results with SOCT are comparable to those reported with time-domain OCT. In accordance with the literature on other devices, RNFL thickness measured with SOCT was significantly correlated with age and axial length. For creating a normative database of SOCT RNFL values have to be age adjusted.

  5. Digital PIV Measurements of Acoustic Particle Displacements in a Normal Incidence Impedance Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Bartram, Scott M.; Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    Acoustic particle displacements and velocities inside a normal incidence impedance tube have been successfully measured for a variety of pure tone sound fields using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The DPIV system utilized two 600-mj Nd:YAG lasers to generate a double-pulsed light sheet synchronized with the sound field and used to illuminate a portion of the oscillatory flow inside the tube. A high resolution (1320 x 1035 pixel), 8-bit camera was used to capture double-exposed images of 2.7-micron hollow silicon dioxide tracer particles inside the tube. Classical spatial autocorrelation analysis techniques were used to ascertain the acoustic particle displacements and associated velocities for various sound field intensities and frequencies. The results show that particle displacements spanning a range of 1-60 microns can be measured for incident sound pressure levels of 100-130 dB and for frequencies spanning 500-1000 Hz. The ability to resolve 1 micron particle displacements at sound pressure levels in the 100 dB range allows the use of DPIV systems for measurement of sound fields at much lower sound pressure levels than had been previously possible. Representative impedance tube data as well as an uncertainty analysis for the measurements are presented.

  6. Objective assessment of occlusal and coronal characteristics of untreated normals: a measurement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currim, Simone; Wadkar, Prabodh V

    2004-05-01

    To determine whether tooth shape and position are constant within tooth types, dental casts of 68 Indians (age range, 10-32 years; mean, 18.72 years) were analyzed. The casts were selected from a larger sample and met the following criteria: Class I molar and canine relationships; overjet and overbite within normal limits; well-related vertical, transverse, and anteroposterior relationships with pleasing profiles and well-aligned arches; and no supernumerary teeth or large restorations. None of the subjects had received orthodontic treatment, and all were in good health and exhibited normal growth. Crown angulation, inclination, offset of maxillary molar, curve of Spee, crown facial prominence, horizontal crown contour, and vertical crown contour were assessed. Means, standard deviations, and standard errors were calculated. The measurements were compared with Andrews's data on 120 nonorthodontic normal occlusion casts. The Student t test was used to determine the significance of differences between the 2 sets of data. It was found that teeth of the same tooth type have similar values of horizontal and vertical crown contours. Values for inclination, angulation, and relative prominence were also similar. Hence, we concluded that tooth shape and position are constant for each tooth type. The data from this study were comparable with Andrews's findings. However, from this study, it would be safe to presume that all teeth except the maxillary second molars require alterations in the bracket base inclination value, and that the maxillary lateral incisor, canine, second premolar, and second molar, and the mandibular canine, require alterations in angulation values.

  7. CT measurement of normal pericardial thickness in adults on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Woo; Park, Chan Sup; Jeon, Yong Sun; Bae, In Young; Choi, Sung Gyu; Koo, Jin Hoe; Chung, Won Kyun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish, using computed tomography, the normal thickness of the pericardium in adults. Materials and Methods: CT scans of 50 patients, including sections through the level of the heart, were reviewed. Patients were excluded if there were any suspicions of pericardial abnormality such as infectious or neoplastic diseases. Twenty-four of the 50 were men and 26 were women; their mean age was 47.0(range,18-76) years. We measured pericardial thickness at the level of the right ventricle, interventricular septum and left ventricle, and also compared pericardial thickness in terms of age and sex. Results: In all patients, the pericardium was observed in the right ventricular region; in 41 (82%) at the interventricular septum; and in 41 (82%) along the left ventricle. The mean thickness of normal pericardium at the level of the right ventricle, interventricular septum, and left ventricle was 1.8 mm ± 0.5 mm, 1.8 mm ± 0.4 mm, and 1.7 mm ± 0.5 mm, respectively. No statistically significant correlation was apparent between pericardial thickness and age group (p > 0.63, ANOVA test). Mean pericardial thickness was 1.9 mm ± 0.6 mm in males and 1.7 mm ± 0.4 mm in females; thus, no statistically significant correlation was apparent between pericardial thickness and sex (p >0.29, Student's t-test). Conclusion: The pericardium was best visualized in sections through the right ventricle.The mean thickness of normal pericardium was 1.8 mm ± 0.5 mm and pericardial thickness did not differ according to age or sex

  8. Normal development of brainstem in childhood. Measurement of the area on mid-sagittal MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutomi, Kimiko [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    2005-05-01

    Developmental abnormality of brainstem is shown in pediatric patients with mental retardation, autism, periventricular leukomalacia, neurodegenerative disease, and so on. Our purpose here is to clarify the normal developmental pattern of the brainstem. We measured the area of tectum, midbrain tegmentum, pons, basis pontis and pontine tegmentum on mid-sagittal MR images in 111 children (newborn to 20 year old). Different growth patterns were shown in all parts of the brainstem. Tectum showed a subtle increase in area from the newborn to adult period, while midbrain tegmentum and pontine tegmenturn showed a mild and gradual increase in area. Pons and pontine tegmentum showed a rapid and prominent increase in area from newborn to infant period and gradual increase in area until the adult period. These different growth patterns seemed to be consistent with differences in the myelination cycles of the neuronal fibers, maturation of the nuclei and proliferation of glial cells in each part of the brainstem. Mid-sagittal MR imaging of the head is accurate and reproducible and is used conveniently in routine head MR study, making it very useful for the diagnosis of many central nervous diseases and anomalies. We believe that this new milestone provided in this study will be helpful in distinguishing normal children from those that have neurodegenerative disorders. (author)

  9. Normal development of brainstem in childhood. Measurement of the area on mid-sagittal MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutomi, Kimiko

    2005-01-01

    Developmental abnormality of brainstem is shown in pediatric patients with mental retardation, autism, periventricular leukomalacia, neurodegenerative disease, and so on. Our purpose here is to clarify the normal developmental pattern of the brainstem. We measured the area of tectum, midbrain tegmentum, pons, basis pontis and pontine tegmentum on mid-sagittal MR images in 111 children (newborn to 20 year old). Different growth patterns were shown in all parts of the brainstem. Tectum showed a subtle increase in area from the newborn to adult period, while midbrain tegmentum and pontine tegmenturn showed a mild and gradual increase in area. Pons and pontine tegmentum showed a rapid and prominent increase in area from newborn to infant period and gradual increase in area until the adult period. These different growth patterns seemed to be consistent with differences in the myelination cycles of the neuronal fibers, maturation of the nuclei and proliferation of glial cells in each part of the brainstem. Mid-sagittal MR imaging of the head is accurate and reproducible and is used conveniently in routine head MR study, making it very useful for the diagnosis of many central nervous diseases and anomalies. We believe that this new milestone provided in this study will be helpful in distinguishing normal children from those that have neurodegenerative disorders. (author)

  10. High-frequency ultrasound measurements of the normal ciliary body and iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Julian P S; Spielberg, Leigh; Finger, Paul T

    2011-01-01

    To determine the normal ultrasonographic thickness of the iris and ciliary body. This prospective 35-MHz ultrasonographic study included 80 normal eyes of 40 healthy volunteers. The images were obtained at the 12-, 3-, 6-, and 9-o'clock radial meridians, measured at three locations along the radial length of the iris and at the thickest section of the ciliary body. Mixed model was used to estimate eye site-adjusted means and standard errors and to test the statistical difference of adjusted results. Parameters included mean thickness, standard deviation, and range. Mean thicknesses at the iris root, midway along the radial length of the iris, and at the juxtapupillary margin were 0.4 ± 0.1, 0.5 ± 0.1, and 0.6 ± 0.1 mm, respectively. Those of the ciliary body, ciliary processes, and ciliary body + ciliary processes were 0.7 ± 0.1, 0.6 ± 0.1, and 1.3 ± 0.2 mm, respectively. This study provides standard, normative thickness data for the iris and ciliary body in healthy adults using ultrasonographic imaging. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. DNA measurements on cell nuclei of normal, proliferating and neoplastic thyroid tissues in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christov, K.; Thomas, C.; Sandritter, W.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content was measured in 3 normal, 9 hyperplastic and 16 neoplastic rat thyroid glands. Thyroid hyperplasia and tumor growth were induced after treatment of the animals with X rays and methylthiouracil. In the control animals only diploid thyroid epithelial cells were observed. In stages of diffuse and nodular thyroid hyperplasia, the total DNA content per nucleus indicated that most chromosomes were diploid; only a few cells were hyperdiploid. In thyroid adenomas and carcinomas scattering of the diploid region and an increased number of hyperdiploid cells were found. Among the various types of thyroid tumors neither a difference in the number of hyperdiploid cells, nor the typical pattern of the distribution of these cells in a histogram was found. The increased number of hyperdiploid cells in hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroids only suggested an increase in the proportion of cells entering the cell cycle and not an appearance of a neoplastic strain. (author)

  12. Why do measures of normal and disordered personality correlate? A study of genetic comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, K L; Livesley, W J

    1999-01-01

    The genetic and environmental correlations between measures of normal (NEO-FFI) and abnormal personality (Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology: DAPP-BQ) were estimated in a sample of 545 volunteer general population twin pairs (269 monozygotic and 276 dizygotic pairs). The largest genetic correlations were observed between the 18 DAPP-BQ dimensions and NEO-FFI neuroticism (range = .05 to .81; median = .48), extraversion (range = -.65 to .33; median = -.28), agreeableness (range = -.65 to .00; median = -.38), and conscientiousness (range = -.76 to .52; median = -.31). The smallest genetic correlations were found between the DAPP-BQ dimensions and NEO-FFI openness (range = -.17 to .20; median = -.04). The environmental correlations are lower in magnitude but show the same pattern of correlations between DAPP-BQ and NEO-FFI scales. These results indicate that these two scales share a common broad-based genetic architecture, whereas the environmental influences show greater scale specificity.

  13. DNA measurements on cell nuclei of normal, proliferating and neoplastic thyroid tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, K [National Center of Oncology, Academy of Medicine, Sofia-56 (Bulgaria); Thomas, C; Sandritter, W [Freiburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Pathologisches Inst.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content was measured in 3 normal, 9 hyperplastic and 16 neoplastic rat thyroid glands. Thyroid hyperplasia and tumor growth were induced after treatment of the animals with X rays and methylthiouracil. In the control animals only diploid thyroid epithelial cells were observed. In stages of diffuse and nodular thyroid hyperplasia, the total DNA content per nucleus indicated that most chromosomes were diploid; only a few cells were hyperdiploid. In thyroid adenomas and carcinomas scattering of the diploid region and an increased number of hyperdiploid cells were found. Among the various types of thyroid tumors neither a difference in the number of hyperdiploid cells, nor the typical pattern of the distribution of these cells in a histogram was found. The increased number of hyperdiploid cells in hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroids only suggested an increase in the proportion of cells entering the cell cycle and not an appearance of a neoplastic strain.

  14. One-stop endoscopic hernia surgery: efficient and satisfactory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbrood, C E H; Burgmans, J P J; Clevers, G J; Davids, P H P; Verleisdonk, E J M M; Schouten, N; van Dalen, T

    2015-06-01

    One-stop surgery offers patients diagnostic work-up and subsequent surgical treatment on the same day. In the present study, patient satisfaction and efficiency from an institutional perspective were evaluated in patients who were referred for one-stop endoscopic inguinal hernia repair. In a high-volume inguinal hernia clinic, all consecutive patients referred for one-stop surgical treatment, were registered prospectively. An instructed secretary screened patients for eligibility for the one-stop option when the appointment was made. Totally extraperitoneal hernia repair under general anaesthesia was the preferred operative technique. Patient's satisfaction, successful day surgery and institutional efficiency were evaluated. Between January 2010 and January 2012 a total of 349 patients (17 % of all patients in the hernia clinic) were referred for one-stop hernia repair. Mean age was 47.5 years and 96.3 % were males. Three hundred thirty-six patients underwent hernia surgery on the same day (96.3 %). In thirteen patients (3.7 %) no operative repair was done on the day of presentation due to an incorrect diagnosis (n = 7), a watchful waiting policy for asymptomatic hernia (n = 3), rescheduling due to a large scrotal hernia, and there were two "no shows". Following hernia repair 97 % of the patients were discharged on the same day, while ten patients required hospitalization. Based on the questionnaires the main satisfaction score among patients was 9.0 (8.89-9.17 95 % CI) on a scale ranging from 0 to 10. One-stop hernia surgery is feasible and satisfactory from an institutional as well as from a patient's perspective.

  15. Reference Clinical Database for Fixation Stability Metrics in Normal Subjects Measured with the MAIA Microperimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marco U; Saker, Saker; Wilde, Craig; Pellizzari, Carlo; Pallikaris, Aristophanes; Notaroberto, Neil; Rubinstein, Martin; Rui, Chiara; Limoli, Paolo; Smolek, Michael K; Amoaku, Winfried M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a normal reference database for fixation stability measured with the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA) in the Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA) microperimeter. Subjects were 358 healthy volunteers who had the MAIA examination. Fixation stability was assessed using two BCEA fixation indices (63% and 95% proportional values) and the percentage of fixation points within 1° and 2° from the fovea (P1 and P2). Statistical analysis was performed with linear regression and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient. Average areas of 0.80 deg 2 (min = 0.03, max = 3.90, SD = 0.68) for the index BCEA@63% and 2.40 deg 2 (min = 0.20, max = 11.70, SD = 2.04) for the index BCEA@95% were found. The average values of P1 and P2 were 95% (min = 76, max = 100, SD = 5.31) and 99% (min = 91, max = 100, SD = 1.42), respectively. The Pearson's product moment test showed an almost perfect correlation index, r = 0.999, between BCEA@63% and BCEA@95%. Index P1 showed a very strong correlation with BCEA@63%, r = -0.924, as well as with BCEA@95%, r = -0.925. Index P2 demonstrated a slightly lower correlation with both BCEA@63% and BCEA@95%, r = -0.874 and -0.875, respectively. The single parameter of the BCEA@95% may be taken as accurately reporting fixation stability and serves as a reference database of normal subjects with a cutoff area of 2.40 ± 2.04 deg 2 in MAIA microperimeter. Fixation stability can be measured with different indices. This study originates reference fixation values for the MAIA using a single fixation index.

  16. Measurement of plasma histamine: description of an improved method and normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, J.; Warren, K.; Merlin, S.; Metcalfe, D.D.; Kaliner, M.

    1982-01-01

    The single isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine was modified to increase its sensitivity and to facilitate measurement of plasma histamine levels. The modification involved extracting 3 H-1-methylhistamine (generated by the enzyme N-methyltransferase acting on histamine in the presence of S-[methyl- 3 H]-adenosyl-L-methionine) into chloroform and isolating the 3 H-1-methylhistamine by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC was developed in acetone:ammonium hydroxide (95:10), and the methylhistamine spot (Rf . 0.50) was identified with an o-phthalaldehyde spray, scraped from the plate, and assayed in a scintillation counter. The assay in plasma demonstrated a linear relationship from 200 to 5000 pg histamine/ml. Plasma always had higher readings than buffer, and dialysis of plasma returned these values to the same level as buffer, suggesting that the baseline elevations might be attributable to histamine. However, all histamine standard curves were run in dialyzed plasma to negate any additional influences plasma might exert on the assay. The arithmetic mean (+/- SEM) in normal plasma histamine was 318.4 +/- 25 pg/ml (n . 51), and the geometric mean was 280 +/- 35 pg/ml. Plasma histamine was significantly elevated by infusion of histamine at 0.05 to 1.0 micrograms/kg/min or by cold immersion of the hand of a cold-urticaria patient. Therefore this modified isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine is extremely sensitive, capable of measuring fluctuations in plasma histamine levels within the normal range, and potentially useful in analysis of the role histamine plays in human physiology

  17. Measurement of activity-weighted size distributions of radon decay products in a normally occupied home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Wasiolek, P.; Montassier, N.; Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Socolow, R.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the exposure of individuals to the presence of indoor radioactivity arising from the decay of radon, an automated, semicontinuous graded screen array system was developed to permit the measurement of the activity-weighted size distributions of the radon progeny in homes. The system has been modified so that the electronics and sampling heads can be separated from the pump by approximately 15 m. The system was placed in the living room of a one-storey house with basement in Princeton, NJ and operated for 2 weeks while the house was occupied by the home owners in their normal manner. One of the house occupants was a cigarette smoker. Radon and potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) measurements were also made, but condensation nuclei counts were not performed. PAEC values ranged from 23.4 to 461.6 mWL. In the measured activity size distributions, the amount of activity in the 0.5-1.5 nm size range can be considered to be the unattached fraction. The mean value for the 218 Po unattached fraction is 0.217 with a range of 0.054-0.549. The median value for the unattached fraction of PAEC is 0.077 with a range of 0.022-0.178. (author)

  18. Experimental measurement of flexion-extension movement in normal and corpse prosthetic elbow joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TarniŢă, Daniela; TarniŢă, DănuŢ Nicolae

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative experimental study of flexion-extension movement in healthy elbow and in the prosthetic elbow joint fixed on an original experimental bench. Measurements were carried out in order to validate the functional morphology and a new elbow prosthesis type ball head. The three-dimensional (3D) model and the physical prototype of our experimental bench used to test elbow endoprosthesis at flexion-extension and pronation-supination movements is presented. The measurements were carried out on a group of nine healthy subjects and on the prosthetic corpse elbow, the experimental data being obtained for flexion-extension movement cycles. Experimental data for the two different flexion-extension tests for the nine subjects and for the corpse prosthetic elbow were acquired using SimiMotion video system. Experimental data were processed statistically. The corresponding graphs were obtained for all subjects in the experimental group, and for corpse prosthetic elbow for both flexion-extension tests. The statistical analysis has proved that the flexion angles of healthy elbows were significantly close to the values measured at the prosthetic elbow fixed on the experimental bench. The studied elbow prosthesis manages to re-establish the mobility for the elbow joint as close to the normal one.

  19. Similarity measurement method of high-dimensional data based on normalized net lattice subspace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenfa; Wang Gongming; Li Ke; Huang Su

    2017-01-01

    The performance of conventional similarity measurement methods is affected seriously by the curse of dimensionality of high-dimensional data.The reason is that data difference between sparse and noisy dimensionalities occupies a large proportion of the similarity, leading to the dissimilarities between any results.A similarity measurement method of high-dimensional data based on normalized net lattice subspace is proposed.The data range of each dimension is divided into several intervals, and the components in different dimensions are mapped onto the corresponding interval.Only the component in the same or adjacent interval is used to calculate the similarity.To validate this meth-od, three data types are used, and seven common similarity measurement methods are compared. The experimental result indicates that the relative difference of the method is increasing with the di-mensionality and is approximately two or three orders of magnitude higher than the conventional method.In addition, the similarity range of this method in different dimensions is [0, 1], which is fit for similarity analysis after dimensionality reduction.

  20. New experimental device for high-temperature normal spectral emissivity measurements of coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honnerová, Petra; Martan, Jiří; Kučera, Martin; Honner, Milan; Hameury, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental device for normal spectral emissivity measurements of coatings in the infrared spectral range from 1.38 μm to 26 μm and in the temperature range from 550 K to 1250 K is presented. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) is used for the detection of sample and blackbody spectral radiation. Sample heating is achieved by a fiber laser with a scanning head. Surface temperature is measured by two methods. The first method uses an infrared camera and a reference coating with known effective emissivity, the second method is based on the combination of Christiansen wavelength with contact and noncontact surface temperature measurement. Application of the method is shown on the example of a high-temperature high-emissivity coating. Experimental results obtained with this apparatus are compared with the results performed by a direct method of Laboratoire National d’Essais (LNE) in France. The differences in the spectra are analyzed. (paper)

  1. Elements in normal and cirrhotic human liver. Potassium, iron, copper, zinc and bromine measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, J.; Milman, N.; Leth, Peter Mygind

    1990-01-01

    Various elements (K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br) were measured by X-ray flourescence spectrometry in cellular and connective tissue fractions of normal and cirrhotic liver samples obtained at autopsy. Normal livers: 32 subjects (16 males, 16 females) median age 69 years. Cirrhotic livers: 14 subjects (13 mal...

  2. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Treatment with Dopamine Agonist and Subsequent Pregnancy with a Satisfactory Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Maria Adélia Medeiros E; Carvalho, Jordão Sousa; Feitosa, Francisco Edson de Lucena; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Peixoto, Alberto Borges; Costa Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio; Carvalho, Regina Coeli Marques

    2016-06-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms of peripartum cardiomyopathy are not yet completely defined, although there is a strong association with various factors that are already known, including pre-eclampsia. Peripartum cardiomyopathy treatment follows the same recommendations as heart failure with systolic dysfunction. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that products of prolactin degradation can induce this cardiomyopathy. The pharmacological suppression of prolactin production by D2 dopamine receptor agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline has demonstrated satisfactory results in the therapeutic response to the treatment. Here we present a case of an adolescent patient in her first gestation with peripartum cardiomyopathy that evolved to the normalized left ventricular function after cabergoline administration, which was used as an adjuvant in cardiac dysfunction treatment. Subsequently, despite a short interval between pregnancies, the patient exhibited satisfactory progress throughout the entire gestation or puerperium in a new pregnancy without any cardiac alterations. Dopamine agonists that are orally used and are affordable in most tertiary centers, particularly in developing countries, should be considered when treating peripartum cardiomyopathy cases. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  3. An ultrasonographic study on measurement of normal hip joint in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyo Keun; Choo, In Wook; Park, Soo Sung; Han, Man Chung

    1989-01-01

    The ultrasonography is very useful in evaluation of small amount of effusion in hip joint and has several advantages such as noninvasiveness, easiness, accuracy and no radiation hazard. The data of normal hip joint space and capsule is very important in ultrasonographic evaluation of inflammatory hip joint disease. However, normal ultrasonographic data of hip joint has not been reported except in pediatric age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and measure normal hip joint space and capsule and to provide the basic data for the clinical application. Healthy 70 males and 70 females who have had no past history and present clinical symptom of hip joint were examined with real time sector scanner (5MHz transducer). Width of hip joint spaces and thickness of joint capsule were obtained and analysed by statistical analysis. The results were as follows: 1. The average width of the hip joint space were 2.6±0.5 mm (right), 2.5±0.5 mm (left) in males and 2.4±0.5 (right), 2.5±0.6 mm (left) in females. There was no significant difference by sex. 2. The widths of the hip joint space were increased with aging and decreased after 6th decade (male) and 5th decade (females). 3. The maximal difference of both hip joint space was 1.2 mm and there was no significant difference in both side by sex and age. 4. The average thicknesses of hip joint capsule were 1.9±0.3 mm (right), 1.8±0.2 mm (left) in males and 1.7±0.3 mm (right), 1.7±0.2 mm (left) in females. There was no significant difference by sex. 5. The thickness of the hip joint capsule were increased with aging and were in plateau after 5th decade (male and female). 6. The maximal difference of both hip joint capsules was 0.9 mm and there was no significant difference in both sides by sex and age. It is therefore, considered that ultrasonography could be a very useful modality in diagnosis of hip joint disease in which the hip joint space and the hip joint capsule are changed by various etiologies

  4. Assessment of the ''thermal normalization technique'' for measurement of neutron cross sections vs energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, R.W.; de Sassure, G.

    1977-01-01

    Refined knowledge of the thermal neutron cross sections of the fissile nuclides and of the (n,α) reaction standards, together with the reasonably well known energy dependence of the latter, have permitted resonance-region and low-keV fissile nuclide cross sections to be based on these standards together with count-rate ratios observed as a function of energy using a pulsed ''white'' source. As one evaluates cross sections for energies above 20 keV, optimum results require combination of cross section shape measurements with all available absolute measurements. The assumptions of the ''thermal normalization method'' are reviewed, and an opinion is given of the status of some of the standards required for its use. The complications which may limit the accuracy of results using the method are listed and examples are given. For the 235 U(n,f) cross section, the option is discussed of defining resonance-region fission integrals as standards. The area of the approximately 9 eV resonances in this nuclide may be known to one percent accuracy, but at present the fission integral from 0.1 to 1.0 keV is known to no better than about two percent. This uncertainty is based on the scatter among independent results, and has not been reduced by the most recent measurements. This uncertainty now limits the accuracy attainable for the 235 U(n,f) cross section below about 50 keV. Suggestions are given to indicate how future detailed work might overcome past sources of error

  5. Normal measurement of spinal cord and dural sac by CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Ku Sub; Choi, Yo Won; Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1988-01-01

    The data on the normal measurement of spinal cord are essential for an objective assessment of equivocal change of spinal cord size in the various clinical settings. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate normal range of spinal cord dimensions in Koreas. CT myelography of the cervical and thoracic region was performed in 60 patients who had symptoms referable to lumbosacral region and then computed tomographic measurement of spinal cord and dural sac was performed. The results are as follows: 1. The anteroposterior diameter of spinal cord was maximum at C1 level (8.6±1.4mm) and minimum at T6 level (6.4±1.7mm). 2. The transverse diameter of spinal cord was maximum at C4 and C5 levels (13.3±1.6mm) and minimum at T8 (8.1±1.9mm) and T10 (8.1±1.3mm) levels. 3. The area of spinal cord was maximum at C5 level (76±16mm 2 ) and minimum at T6 (40±24mm 2 ) and T8 (40±23mm 2 ) levels. 4. The ratio of anteroposterior diameter/transverse diameter of spinal cord was smallest at C4 (0.57±0.11) and C5 (0.57±0.09) levels and largest at T12 (0.9±0.17) level. 5. The ratio of anteroposterior diameter of spinal cord/dural sac was maximum at C4 level (0.73±0.14) and minimum at T12 level (0.52±0.15). The ratio of transverse diameter of spinal cord/dural sac was maximum at C3 (0.66±0.10) and C4 (0.66±0.14) levels and minimum at T12 level (0.46±0.18). The ratio of area of spinal cord/dural sac was maximum at C3 level (0.48±0.13) and minimum at T12 level (0.29±0.20). 6. The location of cervical cord in dural sac was mainly ventral (56%) at C1 level, middle (40-73%) from C2 to C6 level and dorsal (44%) at C7 level. The location of thoracic cord in dural sac was chiefly middle (61%) at T2 level and lower thoracic level (T10: 60% and T12: 51%) and mainly ventral (59-84%) at other levels.

  6. Quantitative Measurements of Electronically Excited CH Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A. V.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the electronically excited CH spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of electronically excited CH chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on electronically excited CH concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the electronically excited CH emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the electronically excited CH concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame electronically excited CH concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend

  7. Quantitative Measurements of CH* Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the CH* spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of CH* chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on CH* concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the CH* emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the CH* concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame CH* concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend, albeit with different peak concentrations. Comparisons with numerical simulations display reasonably good agreement between measured and

  8. Measurement of normal intracranial artery diameter using three-dimensional reconstruction rotational angiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Bae Ju; Han, Moon Hee; Go, Joong Seok; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Seung Rho; Hahm, Chang Kok

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the distribution of normal intracranial artery diameter according to sex and age, using three-dimensional reconstruction rotational angiography. One hundred and twenty-five adults with normal intracranial arteries who underwent 3D rotational angiography (n=177) were included in this study. The arterial diameter was measured at four sites of the internal carotid artery (cavernous, paraophthalmic, supraclinoid, and distal), that of the middle cerebral artery at two (proximal and distal), and that of the anterior cerebral artery at one (middle). For each sex and age group (<30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, ≥ 60 years), the mean diameter of the artery at these seven sites was calculated, and differences analysed. In addition, the middle cerebral artery diameter was compared between a younger group (<50 years) and an older group (≥ 50 years). The mean diameter at each site for each sex was as follows: male (mean±SD): 4.61±0.69, 3.96±0.60, 3.48±0.45, 3.61±0.50, 2.44±0.32, 2.44±0.37, 1.81±0.32; female : 4.29±0.57, 3.83±0.56, 3.37±0.56, 3.52±0.48, 2.32±0.37, 2.30±0.36, 1.76±0.34. For those in their 40s, the diameter at five sites (all four sites of the internal cerebral artery and a distal middle cerebral artery) was significantly greater in males than in females. For other age groups, however, the difference between the sexes was absent, or was significant at only one (cavernous internal cerebral artery for those in their 30s) or two (proximal and distal middle cerebral artery was 2.59±0.35 mm in males and 2.38±0.37 mm in females. For the distal middle cerebral artery, the corresponding figures were 2.63±0.43 and 2.39±0.35 mm, respectively. For both sexes, the differences between the two age groups were significant. For those in their 40, the normal diameter of the intracranial artery at most arterial sites was significantly greater in males than in females. The normal diameter of the middle cerebral artery was significantly greater or tended to

  9. Approach for Text Classification Based on the Similarity Measurement between Normal Cloud Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The similarity between objects is the core research area of data mining. In order to reduce the interference of the uncertainty of nature language, a similarity measurement between normal cloud models is adopted to text classification research. On this basis, a novel text classifier based on cloud concept jumping up (CCJU-TC is proposed. It can efficiently accomplish conversion between qualitative concept and quantitative data. Through the conversion from text set to text information table based on VSM model, the text qualitative concept, which is extraction from the same category, is jumping up as a whole category concept. According to the cloud similarity between the test text and each category concept, the test text is assigned to the most similar category. By the comparison among different text classifiers in different feature selection set, it fully proves that not only does CCJU-TC have a strong ability to adapt to the different text features, but also the classification performance is also better than the traditional classifiers.

  10. The effects of detomidine, romifidine or acepromazine on echocardiographic measurements and cardiac function in normal horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Rikke; Ersbøll, Annette K; Larsen, Nanna H; Eriksen, Lis; Koch, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate by echo- and electrocardiography the cardiac effects of sedation with detomidine hydrochloride, romifidine hydrochloride or acepromazine maleate in horses. An experimental study using a cross-over design without randomization. Eight clinically normal Standardbred trotters. Echocardiographic examinations (two-dimensional, guided M-mode and colour Doppler) were recorded on five different days. Heart rate (HR) and standard limb lead electrocardiograms were also obtained. Subsequently, horses were sedated with detomidine (0.01 mg kg(-1)), romifidine (0.04 mg kg(-1)) or acepromazine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) administered intravenously and all examinations repeated. Heart rate before treatment with the three drugs did not differ significantly (p = 0.98). Both detomidine and romifidine induced a significant decrease (p detomidine, there was a significant increase in LVIDd (left ventricular internal diameter in diastole; p = 0.034) and LVIDs (left ventricular internal diameter in systole; p detomidine and to a lesser extent romifidine at the doses given in this study has a significant effect on heart function, echocardiographic measurements of heart dimensions and the occurrence of valvular regurgitation. Although the clinical significance of these results may be minimal, the potential effects of sedative drugs should be taken into account when echocardiographic variables are interpreted in clinical cases.

  11. Instrument development in the measurement of unsupported arm exercise endurance in normal adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, E H; Adams, E; Lutz, A; Roy, C

    1993-06-01

    Many daily activities, from basic grooming to employment tasks, require adequate unsupported arm endurance (UAE). We developed an electromechanical device to measure UAE endurance. The purpose of this study was to standardize the instrument for two rates of arm motion, moderate and slow, in 18 normal adult subjects (FEVI = 3.7L +/- .78, FVC = 4.2L +/- .74, FEV1/FVC = 1.1 +/- .08). Exercise endurance limits, and the following metabolic, ventilatory, and sensation responses were determined at rest prior to exercise and at end-exercise limits for both rates of UAE:minute ventilation (Ve), tidal volume (VT), respiratory rate (RR), duty cycle (Ti/Ttot), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), inspiratory flow (VT/Ti), heart rate (HR), and visual analog scale measurements (VAS) of dyspnea (D), respiratory effort (RE), and arm fatigue (AF). Significance increases from baseline rest were shown at the endurance limits for both rates of UAE in: VO2, VCO2, Ve, VT, RR, VT/Ti, HR, VAS-D, VAS-RE, and VAS-AF. There were no changes in Ti/Ttot and SaO2 with UAE. Peak VO2, RR, Ve, VT/Ti, and VAS-D with moderate exercise were significantly greater than slow UAE; and there was a trend increase in peak HR for moderate as opposed to slow rate UAE. Despite these differences, the endurance time between the two rates of UAE were similar. These data provide standards against which UAE in COPD can be evaluated.

  12. Technegas - A new radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, M.A.; Jones, K.L.; Horowitz, M.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Scintigraphy is now used widely to measure gastric emptying in humans. Both solid and liquid emptying should ideally be measured - most techniques employ test meals of minced beef and eggs. These meals are not always suitable for patients, especially those observing strict dietary regimens or vegetarians, in whom a vegetable-based meal such as rice is likely to be more acceptable. A previous study attempted to label rice with pertechnetate, but label stability was inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine whether Technegas could be used as a radioisotopic marker to assess gastric emptying of rice and liquids. The stability of Technegas rice was evaluated for three brands of rice by incubation in 0.9% saline, 1M HCI and simulated gastric fluid (3.2g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-4). The labelling stability of each type of rice after four hours was greater than 80%. Gastric emptying of 200g (370kcal) rice and 300ml (300kcal) dextrose drink, both labelled with approximately 20MBq of Technegas, was measured in eight normal subjects (6M, 2F) on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained for three hours after ingestion of the meal to quantify intestinal absorption of the radiolabel. Gastric emptying of rice was characterised by a lag phase followed by a linear emptying phase, while emptying of dextrose approximated a linear pattern after a short lag phase. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25±7min vs 4±2min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post lag emptying rate (2.1±0.3kca/min vs 1.7±0.2kcal/min; P=0.2), between the two meals. Intestinal absorption of the radiolabel increased over time, with a plateau after two hours; the total amount absorbed (5.3±13% rice and 6.7±1.8% dextrose) was small. These observations indicate that Technegas labelled rice and dextrose are suitable test meals for measurement of gastric emptying of solids and nutrient containing liquids

  13. Technegas - A new radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatek, M.A.; Jones, K.L. [University of South Australia, SA (Australia). School of Medical Radiation; Burch, W. [Tetley Medical, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Horowitz, M.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Scintigraphy is now used widely to measure gastric emptying in humans. Both solid and liquid emptying should ideally be measured - most techniques employ test meals of minced beef and eggs. These meals are not always suitable for patients, especially those observing strict dietary regimens or vegetarians, in whom a vegetable-based meal such as rice is likely to be more acceptable. A previous study attempted to label rice with pertechnetate, but label stability was inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine whether Technegas could be used as a radioisotopic marker to assess gastric emptying of rice and liquids. The stability of Technegas rice was evaluated for three brands of rice by incubation in 0.9% saline, 1M HCI and simulated gastric fluid (3.2g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-4). The labelling stability of each type of rice after four hours was greater than 80%. Gastric emptying of 200g (370kcal) rice and 300ml (300kcal) dextrose drink, both labelled with approximately 20MBq of Technegas, was measured in eight normal subjects (6M, 2F) on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained for three hours after ingestion of the meal to quantify intestinal absorption of the radiolabel. Gastric emptying of rice was characterised by a lag phase followed by a linear emptying phase, while emptying of dextrose approximated a linear pattern after a short lag phase. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25{+-}7min vs 4{+-}2min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post lag emptying rate (2.1{+-}0.3kca/min vs 1.7{+-}0.2kcal/min; P=0.2), between the two meals. Intestinal absorption of the radiolabel increased over time, with a plateau after two hours; the total amount absorbed (5.3{+-}13% rice and 6.7{+-}1.8% dextrose) was small. These observations indicate that Technegas labelled rice and dextrose are suitable test meals for measurement of gastric emptying of solids and nutrient containing liquids

  14. Measurement with nasal scintigraphy of nasal mucociliary clearance in normal man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Sumiko

    1989-01-01

    Nasal mucociliary function was evaluated by nasal scintigraphy in normal subjects. A microdrop of HSA or saline labelled with 99m Tc was dripped into the middle part of each middle meatus in the nasal cavity and its clearance was observed by scinticamera. The accumulated concentration of RI was determined every 30 seconds for 10 minutes. The changes of accumulated concentration were studied, and a curve of decreasing RI-counts was obtained, with the 'clearance rate' defined as 100% for the count at the initial 30 seconds and 'half time' as the time when radioactivity was reduced to one half the initial count. Nasal resistance was measured by rhinomanometry with the oscillation method. In nonsmokers, 10μl of saline was cleared (78.0±10.4%) significantly faster than 10μl of HSA (59.9±24.6%), and there was no significant difference in the clearance between 10μl and 5μl of HSA (55.9±27.7%). In smakers, the mucociliary clearance of 10μl of HSA and saline was significantly lower than in nonsmokers. The clearance of 10μl of HSA reflects a pathological state much better than that of 5μl. In nonsmokers, there is a significant negative correlation between nasal resistance and clearance rate, suggesting that the more patent the nose, the faster the mucociliary clearance. When both nostrils were closed, the clearance rate was significantly depressed. When one nostril was closed, there was no significant effect on clearance. Nasal resistance was decreased by exercise with a bicycle ergometer. Nasal mucociliary clearance was slightly decreased after exercise but not significantly so. (J.P.N.)

  15. A study on brain ventricle measurements of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ung Jin; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebrocventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14 ± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shaped in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  16. A study on brain ventricle measurement of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ung Jin; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be a reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebroventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shape in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  17. Macular thickness and macular volume measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in normal Nepalese eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokharel A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amrit Pokharel,1 Gauri Shankar Shrestha,2 Jyoti Baba Shrestha2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital, 2B P Koirala Lions Centre for Ophthalmic Studies, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal Purpose: To record the normative values for macular thickness and macular volume in normal Nepalese eyes. Methods: In all, 126 eyes of 63 emmetropic subjects (mean age: 21.17±6.76 years; range: 10–37 years were assessed for macular thickness and macular volume, using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography over 6×6 mm2 in the posterior pole. A fast macular thickness protocol was employed. Statistics such as the mean, median, standard deviation, percentiles, and range were used, while a P-value was set at 0.05 to test significance. Results: Average macular thickness and total macular volume were larger in males compared to females. With each year of increasing age, these variables decreased by 0.556 µm and 0.0156 mm3 for average macular thickness and total macular volume, respectively. The macular thickness was greatest in the inner superior section and lowest at the center of the fovea. The volume was greatest in the outer nasal section and thinnest in the fovea. The central subfield thickness (r=-0.243, P=0.055 and foveal volume (r=0.216, P=0.09 did not correlate with age. Conclusion: Males and females differ significantly with regard to macular thickness and macular volume measurements. Reports by other studies that the increase in axial length reduced thickness and volume, were negated by this study which found a positive correlation among axial length, thickness, and volume. Keywords: macular thickness, macular volume, optical coherence tomography, Nepal

  18. Normal spectral emissivity measurement of molten copper using an electromagnetic levitator superimposed with a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Ryo; Inoue, Takamitsu; Baba, Yuya; Sugioka, Ken-ichi; Kubo, Masaki; Tsukada, Takao; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The normal spectral emissivity of molten copper was determined in the wavelength range of 780–920 nm and in the temperature range of 1288–1678 K, by directly measuring the radiance emitted by an electromagnetically levitated molten copper droplet under a static magnetic field of 1.5 T. The spectrometer for radiance measurement was calibrated using the relation between the theoretical blackbody radiance from Planck's law and the light intensity of a quasi-blackbody radiation source measured using a spectrometer at a given temperature. As a result, the normal spectral emissivity of molten copper was determined as 0.075 ± 0.011 at a wavelength of 807 nm, and it was found that its temperature dependence is negligible in the entire measurement temperature range tested. In addition, the results of the normal spectral emissivity and its wavelength dependence were discussed, in comparison with those obtained using the Drude free-electron model. (paper)

  19. A Bootstrap Based Measure Robust to the Choice of Normalization Methods for Detecting Rhythmic Features in High Dimensional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriba, Yolanda; Rueda, Cristina; Fernández, Miguel A; Peddada, Shyamal D

    2018-01-01

    Motivation: Gene-expression data obtained from high throughput technologies are subject to various sources of noise and accordingly the raw data are pre-processed before formally analyzed. Normalization of the data is a key pre-processing step, since it removes systematic variations across arrays. There are numerous normalization methods available in the literature. Based on our experience, in the context of oscillatory systems, such as cell-cycle, circadian clock, etc., the choice of the normalization method may substantially impact the determination of a gene to be rhythmic. Thus rhythmicity of a gene can purely be an artifact of how the data were normalized. Since the determination of rhythmic genes is an important component of modern toxicological and pharmacological studies, it is important to determine truly rhythmic genes that are robust to the choice of a normalization method. Results: In this paper we introduce a rhythmicity measure and a bootstrap methodology to detect rhythmic genes in an oscillatory system. Although the proposed methodology can be used for any high-throughput gene expression data, in this paper we illustrate the proposed methodology using several publicly available circadian clock microarray gene-expression datasets. We demonstrate that the choice of normalization method has very little effect on the proposed methodology. Specifically, for any pair of normalization methods considered in this paper, the resulting values of the rhythmicity measure are highly correlated. Thus it suggests that the proposed measure is robust to the choice of a normalization method. Consequently, the rhythmicity of a gene is potentially not a mere artifact of the normalization method used. Lastly, as demonstrated in the paper, the proposed bootstrap methodology can also be used for simulating data for genes participating in an oscillatory system using a reference dataset. Availability: A user friendly code implemented in R language can be downloaded from http://www.eio.uva.es/~miguel/robustdetectionprocedure.html.

  20. A protocol for classifying normal- and flat-arched foot posture for research studies using clinical and radiographic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several clinical and radiological methods available to classify foot posture in research, however there is no clear strategy for selecting the most appropriate measurements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a foot screening protocol to distinguish between participants with normal- and flat-arched feet who would then subsequently be recruited into a series of laboratory-based gait studies. Methods The foot posture of ninety-one asymptomatic young adults was assessed using two clinical measurements (normalised navicular height and arch index and four radiological measurements taken from antero-posterior and lateral x-rays (talus-second metatarsal angle, talo-navicular coverage angle, calcaneal inclination angle and calcaneal-first metatarsal angle. Normative foot posture values were taken from the literature and used to recruit participants with normal-arched feet. Data from these participants were subsequently used to define the boundary between normal- and flat-arched feet. This information was then used to recruit participants with flat-arched feet. The relationship between the clinical and radiographic measures of foot posture was also explored. Results Thirty-two participants were recruited to the normal-arched study, 31 qualified for the flat-arched study and 28 participants were classified as having neither normal- or flat-arched feet and were not suitable for either study. The values obtained from the two clinical and four radiological measurements established two clearly defined foot posture groups. Correlations among clinical and radiological measures were significant (p r = 0.24 to 0.70. Interestingly, the clinical measures were more strongly associated with the radiographic angles obtained from the lateral view. Conclusion This foot screening protocol provides a coherent strategy for researchers planning to recruit participants with normal- and flat-arched feet. However, further research is

  1. A measure of uncertainty regarding the interval constraint of normal mean elicited by two stages of a prior hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hea-Jung

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers a hierarchical screened Gaussian model (HSGM) for Bayesian inference of normal models when an interval constraint in the mean parameter space needs to be incorporated in the modeling but when such a restriction is uncertain. An objective measure of the uncertainty, regarding the interval constraint, accounted for by using the HSGM is proposed for the Bayesian inference. For this purpose, we drive a maximum entropy prior of the normal mean, eliciting the uncertainty regarding the interval constraint, and then obtain the uncertainty measure by considering the relationship between the maximum entropy prior and the marginal prior of the normal mean in HSGM. Bayesian estimation procedure of HSGM is developed and two numerical illustrations pertaining to the properties of the uncertainty measure are provided.

  2. A Measure of Uncertainty regarding the Interval Constraint of Normal Mean Elicited by Two Stages of a Prior Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea-Jung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a hierarchical screened Gaussian model (HSGM for Bayesian inference of normal models when an interval constraint in the mean parameter space needs to be incorporated in the modeling but when such a restriction is uncertain. An objective measure of the uncertainty, regarding the interval constraint, accounted for by using the HSGM is proposed for the Bayesian inference. For this purpose, we drive a maximum entropy prior of the normal mean, eliciting the uncertainty regarding the interval constraint, and then obtain the uncertainty measure by considering the relationship between the maximum entropy prior and the marginal prior of the normal mean in HSGM. Bayesian estimation procedure of HSGM is developed and two numerical illustrations pertaining to the properties of the uncertainty measure are provided.

  3. 31P MR spectroscopic measurement of intracellular pH in normal human hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Hui Joong; Jang, Yong Min

    2002-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of intracellular pH (pHi), calculated by determining the shift of a high-energy metabolite such as inorganic phosphate (Pi) of γ-ATP after performing MRS with ECG-gated two-dimensional 31 P CSI (chemical shift imaging), as a parameter for the overall state of the intracellular milieu. Proto decoupled 31 P CSI was performed on a 1.5-T scanner using a 1 H 31 P dual-tuned surface coil. Cardiac MRS data were obtained from eight normal volunteers aged 24-32 years with no history of heart disease. From the spectra obtained from several regions of the heart, peack position and peak area were estimated. The metabolic ratios of α-, β-, γ-ATP, PCr, Pi, phosphodiester and diphosphoglycerate were calculated, and pHi was estimated from the chemical shift of Pi and γ-ATP resonance. We then compared the data for the anterior myocardium with those previously published. The major phosphorous metabolites identified in these human hearts were as follows: PCr, at -0.1 to +0.1 ppm; three phosphate peaks from ATP, with a chemical shift centered at about -2.7 ppm (γ-ATP), -7.8 ppm (α-ATP), and -16.3 ppm (β-ATP); and phosphodiester (PDE) at 2-3 ppm, inorganic phosphate (Pi) at 4.5-5.4 ppm, and diphosphoglycerate (DPG) at 5.4-6.3 ppm. The PCr/β-ATP ratio was 2.20±0.17 and the PDE/β-ATP ratio, 1.04±0.09 pHi readings were 7.31±0.23 (calculated by the shift of Pi) and 6.81±0.20 (calculated by the shift of γ-ATP). Pi/PCR was 0.539, a ratio higher than that mentioned in previously published reports. The measurement of intracellular metabolism was affected by various kinds of factors. We believe, however, that pHi readings indicate the overall state of the cardiac intracellular milieu. An unexpected pHi readings, seen at MRS, may reflect errors in the MR procedure itself and, or in the analytical method

  4. {sup 31}P MR spectroscopic measurement of intracellular pH in normal human hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Hui Joong; Jang, Yong Min [Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2002-05-01

    To assess the usefulness of intracellular pH (pHi), calculated by determining the shift of a high-energy metabolite such as inorganic phosphate (Pi) of {gamma}-ATP after performing MRS with ECG-gated two-dimensional {sup 31}P CSI (chemical shift imaging), as a parameter for the overall state of the intracellular milieu. Proto decoupled {sup 31}P CSI was performed on a 1.5-T scanner using a {sup 1}H{sup 31}P dual-tuned surface coil. Cardiac MRS data were obtained from eight normal volunteers aged 24-32 years with no history of heart disease. From the spectra obtained from several regions of the heart, peack position and peak area were estimated. The metabolic ratios of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}-ATP, PCr, Pi, phosphodiester and diphosphoglycerate were calculated, and pHi was estimated from the chemical shift of Pi and {gamma}-ATP resonance. We then compared the data for the anterior myocardium with those previously published. The major phosphorous metabolites identified in these human hearts were as follows: PCr, at -0.1 to +0.1 ppm; three phosphate peaks from ATP, with a chemical shift centered at about -2.7 ppm ({gamma}-ATP), -7.8 ppm ({alpha}-ATP), and -16.3 ppm ({beta}-ATP); and phosphodiester (PDE) at 2-3 ppm, inorganic phosphate (Pi) at 4.5-5.4 ppm, and diphosphoglycerate (DPG) at 5.4-6.3 ppm. The PCr/{beta}-ATP ratio was 2.20{+-}0.17 and the PDE/{beta}-ATP ratio, 1.04{+-}0.09 pHi readings were 7.31{+-}0.23 (calculated by the shift of Pi) and 6.81{+-}0.20 (calculated by the shift of {gamma}-ATP). Pi/PCR was 0.539, a ratio higher than that mentioned in previously published reports. The measurement of intracellular metabolism was affected by various kinds of factors. We believe, however, that pHi readings indicate the overall state of the cardiac intracellular milieu. An unexpected pHi readings, seen at MRS, may reflect errors in the MR procedure itself and, or in the analytical method.

  5. A lung cancer risk classifier comprising genome maintenance genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jiyoun; Crawford, Erin L; Zhang, Xiaolu; Khuder, Sadik; Chen, Tian; Levin, Albert; Blomquist, Thomas M; Willey, James C

    2017-05-02

    Annual low dose CT (LDCT) screening of individuals at high demographic risk reduces lung cancer mortality by more than 20%. However, subjects selected for screening based on demographic criteria typically have less than a 10% lifetime risk for lung cancer. Thus, there is need for a biomarker that better stratifies subjects for LDCT screening. Toward this goal, we previously reported a lung cancer risk test (LCRT) biomarker comprising 14 genome-maintenance (GM) pathway genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC) that accurately classified cancer (CA) from non-cancer (NC) subjects. The primary goal of the studies reported here was to optimize the LCRT biomarker for high specificity and ease of clinical implementation. Targeted competitive multiplex PCR amplicon libraries were prepared for next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of transcript abundance at 68 sites among 33 GM target genes in NBEC specimens collected from a retrospective cohort of 120 subjects, including 61 CA cases and 59 NC controls. Genes were selected for analysis based on contribution to the previously reported LCRT biomarker and/or prior evidence for association with lung cancer risk. Linear discriminant analysis was used to identify the most accurate classifier suitable to stratify subjects for screening. After cross-validation, a model comprising expression values from 12 genes (CDKN1A, E2F1, ERCC1, ERCC4, ERCC5, GPX1, GSTP1, KEAP1, RB1, TP53, TP63, and XRCC1) and demographic factors age, gender, and pack-years smoking, had Receiver Operator Characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) of 0.975 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99). The overall classification accuracy was 93% (95% CI 88%-98%) with sensitivity 93.1%, specificity 92.9%, positive predictive value 93.1% and negative predictive value 93%. The ROC AUC for this classifier was significantly better (p < 0.0001) than the best model comprising demographic features alone. The LCRT biomarker reported here displayed high accuracy and ease

  6. On reconciling ground-based with spaceborne normalized radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgartner, Francois; Munk, Jens; Jezek, K C

    2002-01-01

    This study examines differences in the normalized radar cross section, derived from ground-based versus spaceborne radar data. A simple homogeneous half-space model, indicates that agreement between the two improves as 1) the distance from the scatterer is increased; and/or 2) the extinction...

  7. Measurements of the Aerodynamic Normal Forces on a 12-kW Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dyachuk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of unsteady forces is necessary when designing vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs. Measurement data for turbines operating at an open site are still very limited. The data obtained from wind tunnels or towing tanks can be used, but have limited applicability when designing large-scale VAWTs. This study presents experimental data on the normal forces of a 12-kW straight-bladed VAWT operated at an open site north of Uppsala, Sweden. The normal forces are measured with four single-axis load cells. The data are obtained for a wide range of tip speed ratios: from 1.7 to 4.6. The behavior of the normal forces is analyzed. The presented data can be used in validations of aerodynamic models and the mechanical design for VAWTs.

  8. Satisfactory patient-based outcomes after surgical treatment for idiopathic clubfoot: includes surgeon's individualized technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Susan T; Spencer, Samantha A; Kasser, James R

    2014-09-01

    Treatment of idiopathic clubfoot has shifted towards Ponseti technique, but previously surgical management was standard. Outcomes of surgery have varied, with many authors reporting discouraging results. Our purpose was to evaluate a single surgeon's series of children with idiopathic clubfoot treated with a la carte posteromedial and lateral releases using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. A total of 148 patients with idiopathic clubfoot treated surgically by a single surgeon over 15 years were identified, and mailed PODCI questionnaires. Fifty percent of the patients were located and responded, resulting in 74 complete questionnaires. Median age at surgery was 10 months (range, 5.3 to 84.7 mo), male sex 53/74 (71.6%), bilateral surgery 31/74 (41.9%), and average follow-up of 9.7 years. PODCI responses were compared with previously published normal healthy controls using t test for each separate category. Included in the methods is the individual surgeon's operative technique. In PODCIs where a parent reports for their child or adolescent, there was no difference between our data and the healthy controls in any of the 5 categories. In PODCI where an adolescent self-reports, there was no difference in 4 of 5 categories; significant difference was only found between our data (mean = 95.2; SD = 7.427) and normal controls (mean = 86.3; SD = 12.5) in Happiness Scale (P = 0.0031). In this group of idiopathic clubfoot patients, treated with judicious posteromedial release by a single surgeon, primarily when surgery was treatment of choice for clubfoot, patient-based outcomes are not different from their normal healthy peers through childhood and adolescence. While Ponseti treatment has since become the treatment of choice for clubfoot, surgical treatment, in some hands, has led to satisfactory results. Level III.

  9. Self-normalizing multiple-echo technique for measuring the in vivo apparent diffusion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perman, W.H.; Gado, M.; Sandstrom, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents work to develop a new technique for quantitating the in vivo apparent diffusion/perfusion coefficient (ADC) by obtaining multiple data points from only two images with the capability to normalize the data from consecutive images, thus minimizing the effect of interimage variation. Two multiple-echo (six-to eight-echo) cardiac-gated images are obtained, one without and one with additional diffusion/perfusion encoding gradients placed about the 180 RF pulses of all but the first echo. Since the first echoes of both images have identical pulse sequence parameters, variations in signal intensity-between the first echoes represent image-to-image variation. The signal intensities of the subsequent echoes with additional diffusion/perfusion encoding gradients are then normalized by using the ratio of the first-echo signal intensities

  10. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beomseok Sohn

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  11. The quantitative measurements of foveal avascular zone using optical coherence tomography angiography in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Mirshahi, Reza; Bazvand, Fatemeh; Fadakar, Kaveh; Faghihi, Houshang; Sabour, Siamak

    2017-12-01

    To provide normative data of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and thickness. In this cross-sectional study both eyes of each normal subject were scanned with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) for foveal superficial and deep avascular zone (FAZ) and central foveal thickness (CFT) and parafoveal thickness (PFT). Out of a total of 224 eyes of 112 volunteers with a mean age of 37.03 (12-67) years, the mean superficial FAZ area was 0.27 mm 2 , and deep FAZ area was 0.35 mm 2 ( P  < 0.001), with no difference between both eyes. Females had a larger superficial (0.32 ± 0.11 mm 2 versus 0.23 ± 0.09 mm 2 ) and deep FAZ (0.40 ± 0.14 mm 2 versus 0.31 ± 0.10 mm 2 ) ( P  < 0.001) than males. By multivariate linear regression analysis, in normal eyes, superficial FAZ area varied significantly with the gender, CFT, and deep FAZ. Deep FAZ varied with the gender and CFT. The gender and CFT influence the size of normal superficial and deep FAZ of capillary network.

  12. Age-matched normal values and topographic maps for regional cerebral blood flow measurements by Xe-133 inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Maeda, T.; Yamada, M.; Gui, L.X.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between normal aging and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) computed as initial slope index (ISI) by Fourier method was investigated in 105 right-handed healthy volunteers (132 measurements) by Xe-133 inhalation method, and age-matched normal values were calculated. Mean brain ISI values showed significant negative correlation with advancing age (r . 0.70, p less than 0.001), and the regression line and its 95% confidence interval was Y . -0.32 (X - 19) + 63.5 +/- 11.2 (19 less than or equal to X less than or equal to 80). Regional ISI values also showed significant negative correlations for the entire brain (p less than 0.001). The regional reductions of ISI values with advancing age were significantly greater in the regional distribution of the middle cerebral arteries bilaterally, compared with regions in the distribution of the other arteries (p less than 0.05). Therefore, measured rCBF values for patients must be compared to age-matched normal values for mean hemispheric and each region examined. Two kinds of topographic maps, brain map showing rCBF compared to age-matched normal values and showing hemispheric differences were made by dividing patient's values by the 95% confidence limits for age-matched normal values and displaying laterality index calculated as follows, respectively. (formula; see text) These maps were useful for evaluating significantly decreased or increased regions and regional hemispheric differences

  13. Measured Mass-Normalized Optical Cross Sections For Aerosolized Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Simulants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gurton, Kristan P; Felton, Melvin; Dahmani, Rachid; Ligon, David

    2007-01-01

    We present newly measured results of an ongoing experimental program established to measure optical cross sections in the mid and long wave infrared for a variety of chemical and biologically based aerosols...

  14. Measurement of Placental Blood Flow with {sup 133}Xe in Normal and Pathological Human Pregnancy; Mesure du Debit Placentaire dans les Grossesses Normales et Pathologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontonnier, G.; Delmas, H.; Farre, J.; Favretto, R. [Clinique Obstetricale, Hopital de la Grave, Toulouse (France)

    1971-02-15

    Most authors agree that changes in placental circulation play an important part in the genesis of chronic foetal disorders. However, until recently there was no technique by which a quantitative evaluation of placental haemodynamics could be obtained. Our method of measuring placental blood flow represents one application of the use of radioisotopes for measurements of local blood flows. We use {sup 133}Xe in solution in physiological serum. This radioactive gas has the advantage of being inert and instantly diffusible. After radiographic or ultrasonic localization of the placenta, 50 {mu}Ci of xenon are injected into it transabdominally. A scintillation detector is used to take the {sup 133}Xe clearance curve, which is recorded simultaneously on a linear writer and transmitted to a computer. We have made 111 measurements of placental blood flow - 45 in normal pregnancy, 59 in pathological pregnancy and 7 after perfusion of medication. The measurements made it possible to obtain, for the first time, a quantitative evaluation of placental blood flow in women. The value found for normal pregnancies between the thirty-second and the forty-first weeks was 145 ml/100 g per min. The measurements carried out in pathologically pregnant patients (with arterial hypertension, dysgravidity, urinary infection, diabetes, prolonged pregnancy) showed that such pregnancies are accompanied by a statistically significant diminution of placental blood flow, and that the magnitude of this diminution has a bearing on the clinical condition and the state of the child at birth. This method of measurement, which is easily reproducible in the same patient, is accordingly of interest from two points of view. As far as theoretical studies are concerned, it has made possible a quantitative evaluation of placental blood flow and has supplied proof that the maternal disorders which give rise to chronic foetal disorders are usually accompanied by a diminution in placental blood flow. From the

  15. Normal values for myocardial deformation within the right heart measured by feature-tracking cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyang; Dardeer, Ahmed M; Moody, William E; Edwards, Nicola C; Hudsmith, Lucy E; Steeds, Richard P

    2018-02-01

    Reproducible and repeatable assessment of right heart function is vital for monitoring congenital and acquired heart disease. There is increasing evidence for the additional value of myocardial deformation (strain and strain rate) in determining prognosis. This study aims to determine the reproducibility of deformation analyses in the right heart using cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking (FT-CMR); and to establish normal ranges within an adult population. A cohort of 100 healthy subjects containing 10 males and 10 females from each decade of life between the ages of 20 and 70 without known congenital or acquired cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia or renal, hepatic, haematologic and systemic inflammatory disorders underwent FT-CMR assessment of right ventricular (RV) and right atrial (RA) myocardial strain and strain rate. RV longitudinal strain (Ell) was -21.9±3.24% (FW+S Ell) and -24.2±3.59% (FW-Ell). Peak systolic strain rate (S') was -1.45±0.39s -1 (FW+S) and -1.54±0.41s -1 (FW). Early diastolic strain rate (E') was 1.04±0.26s -1 (FW+S) and 1.04±0.33s -1 (FW). Late diastolic strain rate (A') was 0.94±0.33s -1 (FW+S) and 1.08±0.33s -1 (FW). RA peak strain was -21.1±3.76%. The intra- and inter-observer ICC for RV Ell (FW+S) was 0.92 and 0.80 respectively, while for RA peak strain was 0.92 and 0.89 respectively. Normal values of RV & RA deformation for healthy individuals using FT-CMR are provided with good RV Ell and RA peak strain reproducibility. Strain rate suffered from sub-optimal reproducibility and may not be satisfactory for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modified toe pulp fillet flap coverage: Better wound healing and satisfactory length preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sang Oon; Suh, Hyo Wan; Lee, Jun Yong

    2018-01-01

    Amputation is commonly performed for toe necrosis secondary to peripheral vascular diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. When amputating a necrotic toe, preservation of the bony structure is important for preventing the collapse of adjacent digits into the amputated space. However, in the popular terminal Syme's amputation technique, partial amputation of the distal phalanx could cause increased tension on the wound margin. Herein, we introduce a new way to resect sufficient bony structure while maintaining the normal length, based on a morphological analysis of the toes. Unlike the pulp of the finger in the distal phalanx, the toe has abundant teardrop-shaped pulp tissue. The ratio of the vertical length to the longitudinal length in the distal phalanx was compared between the toes and fingers. Amputation was performed at the proximal interphalangeal joint level. Then, a mobilizable pulp flap was rotated 90° cephalad to replace the distal soft tissue defect. This modified toe fillet flap was performed in 5 patients. The toe pulp was found to have a vertically oriented morphology compared to that of the fingers, enabling length preservation through cephalad rotation. All defects were successfully covered without marginal ischemia. While conventional toe fillet flap coverage focuses on the principle of length preservation as the first priority, our modified method takes both wound healing and length into account. The fattiest part of the pulp is advanced to the toe tip, providing a cushioning effect and enough length to substitute for phalangeal bone loss. Our modified method led to satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcomes.

  17. Analysis of the probability of channel satisfactory state in P2P live ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a model based on user behaviour of P2P live streaming systems was developed in order to analyse one of the key QoS parameter of such systems, i.e. the probability of channel-satisfactory state, the impact of upload bandwidths and channels' popularity on the probability of channel-satisfactory state was also ...

  18. 46 CFR 177.310 - Satisfactory service as a design basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satisfactory service as a design basis. 177.310 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.310 Satisfactory service as a design basis. When scantlings for the hull, deckhouse, and frames of the vessel differ from those...

  19. Contrast sensitivity measured by two different test methods in healthy, young adults with normal visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Baste, Valborg; Roumes, Corinne; Høvding, Gunnar

    2015-03-01

    This study reports contrast sensitivity (CS) reference values obtained by two different test methods in a strictly selected population of healthy, young adults with normal uncorrected visual acuity. Based on these results, the index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) is calculated, aiming to establish ICS reference values for this population and to evaluate the possible usefulness of ICS as a tool to compare the degree of agreement between different CS test methods. Military recruits with best eye uncorrected visual acuity 0.00 LogMAR or better, normal colour vision and age 18-25 years were included in a study to record contrast sensitivity using Optec 6500 (FACT) at spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic and mesopic light and CSV-1000E at spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic light. Index of contrast sensitivity was calculated based on data from the three tests, and the Bland-Altman technique was used to analyse the agreement between ICS obtained by the different test methods. A total of 180 recruits were included. Contrast sensitivity frequency data for all tests were highly skewed with a marked ceiling effect for the photopic tests. The median ICS for Optec 6500 at 85 cd/m2 was -0.15 (95% percentile 0.45), compared with -0.00 (95% percentile 1.62) for Optec at 3 cd/m2 and 0.30 (95% percentile 1.20) FOR CSV-1000E. The mean difference between ICSFACT 85 and ICSCSV was -0.43 (95% CI -0.56 to -0.30, p<0.00) with limits of agreement (LoA) within -2.10 and 1.22. The regression line on the difference of average was near to zero (R2=0.03). The results provide reference CS and ICS values in a young, adult population with normal visual acuity. The agreement between the photopic tests indicated that they may be used interchangeably. There was little agreement between the mesopic and photopic tests. The mesopic test seemed best suited to differentiate between candidates and may therefore possibly be useful for medical selection purposes.

  20. Numerical predictions and measurements of Reynolds normal stresses in turbulent pipe flow of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, P.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: resende@fe.up.pt; Escudier, M.P. [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: escudier@liv.ac.uk; Presti, F [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEM, Universidade do Minho Campus de Azurem, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)]. E-mail: fpinho@dem.uminho.pt; Cruz, D.O.A. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal do Para-UFPa Campus Universitario do Guama, 66075-900 Belem, Para (Brazil)]. E-mail: doac@ufpa.br

    2006-04-15

    An anisotropic low Reynolds number k-{epsilon} turbulence model has been developed and its performance compared with experimental data for fully-developed turbulent pipe flow of four different polymer solutions. Although the predictions of friction factor, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy show only slight improvements over those of a previous isotropic model [Cruz, D.O.A., Pinho, F.T., Resende, P.R., 2004. Modeling the new stress for improved drag reduction predictions of viscoelastic pipe flow. J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 121, 127-141], the new turbulence model is capable of predicting the enhanced anisotropy of the Reynolds normal stresses that accompanies polymer drag reduction in turbulent flow.

  1. Numerical predictions and measurements of Reynolds normal stresses in turbulent pipe flow of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resende, P.R.; Escudier, M.P.; Presti, F; Pinho, F.T.; Cruz, D.O.A.

    2006-01-01

    An anisotropic low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence model has been developed and its performance compared with experimental data for fully-developed turbulent pipe flow of four different polymer solutions. Although the predictions of friction factor, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy show only slight improvements over those of a previous isotropic model [Cruz, D.O.A., Pinho, F.T., Resende, P.R., 2004. Modeling the new stress for improved drag reduction predictions of viscoelastic pipe flow. J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 121, 127-141], the new turbulence model is capable of predicting the enhanced anisotropy of the Reynolds normal stresses that accompanies polymer drag reduction in turbulent flow

  2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone radioimmunoassay and its measurement in normal human plasma, secondary amenorrhea, and postmenopausal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, N.G.; Schlaff, S.

    1976-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been developed for measurement in ethanol extracts of human plasma. Iodinated hormone was prepared with the use of the chloramine-T method, and antibodies were developed in rabbits over a six-month period with a GnRH synthetic copolymer immunogen. A Scatchard plot revealed at least three species of antibody. The assay can measure conservatively at the 5 pg. per milliliter level and shows no cross-reactivity with other available hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. The releasing hormone was quantitatively recovered from human plasma with immunologic identity to native hormone. Unextracted plasma could not be used because of nonspecific displacement. The measurement of GnRH in individuals receiving 100 μg of intravenous bolus infusions of the synthetic decapeptide show extremely elevated values with two half-lives: one of two to four minutes and another of 35 to 40 minutes. In our experiments, we have found measurable GnRH in patients with secondary amenorrhea and at the midcycle in normal women. In the normal cycling woman during the follicular and luteal phases, GnRH was undetectable. In postmenopausal women with extreme hypoestrogenism and markedly elevated luteinizing hormone values, GnRH was also undetectable. No bursts of GnRH could be detected in normal men when sampled every ten minutes over a two-hour period and every two hours throughout the day

  3. Comparison of choroidal thickness measurements between spectral-domain OCT and swept-source OCT in normal and diseased eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sidra Zafar,1 MA Rehman Siddiqui,2,3 Rida Shahzad1 1Medical College, Aga Khan University Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Shahzad Eye Hospital, 3South City Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Purpose: Sub-foveal choroidal thickness (SFCT is affected in many ocular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare SFCT measurements between Topcon 3D 2000 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT and Topcon swept-source OCT (SS-OCT, with different laser wavelengths, in normal and diseased populations. Materials and methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, noninterventional study including 27 normal volunteers and 27 participants with retinal disease. OCT scans were performed sequentially and under standardized conditions using both SD-OCT and SS-OCT. The OCT scans were evaluated by two independent graders. Paired t-tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were used to assess the statistically significant difference between SFCT measurements as measured by the two devices. Results: Mean SFCT measurements for all 54 participants were 264.9±103.1 µm using SD-OCT (range: 47–470 µm and 278.5±110.5 µm using SS-OCT (range: 56–502 µm, with an inter-device ICC of 0.850. Greater variability was noted in the diseased eyes. Inter-device ICCs were 0.870 (95% CI; 0.760–0.924 and 0.840 (95% CI; 0.654–0.930 for normal and diseased eyes, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.132. Conclusion: Both machines reliably measure SFCT. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. Keywords: choroidal imaging, diseased, normal, SD-OCT, SS-OCT

  4. 13C/14C dual isotope breath test measurement of gastric emptying in normal subjects and patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.; Bellon, M.; Chatterton, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: A more flexible alternative to dual isotope scintigraphy for gastric emptying involves measuring breath C0 2 after administration of absorbable tracers. Method: six patients were given 100g hamburger labelled with 25 MBq 99 Tc m sulphur colloid and 74 KBq 14 C octanoic acid, and 150 ml 10% glucose drink labelled with 8 MBq 67 Ga citrate and ISO mg 13 C acetate and seven normals with 14 C and 13 C labels only. Breath was collected at baseline and then regularly for four hours. The 14 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 activity was measured with liquid scintillation counting and mass spectroscopy. The times to maximum 14 CO 2 , and 13 CO 2 , T max, were determined. Results: Comparison was made between 14 CO 2 T max with scintigraphic retention of 99 Tc m at 100 minutes (SR100m) and 13 CO 2 T max with the scintigraphic half-clearance time of 67 Ga (scint T1/2). In conclusion 14 CO 2 T max and 13 CO 2 T max correlate significantly with SR100m and scint T1/2 respectively. The normal threshold is between 165 and 180 minutes for 14 Co 2 T max; probably > 40 minutes for 13 CO 2 T max but overlap exists between normal and abnormal results in this small preliminary study. Recruitment is to continue to better define normal ranges. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  5. Measurements of pulmonary gas exchange efficiency using expired gas and oximetry: results in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B; Wang, Daniel L; Prisk, G Kim

    2018-04-01

    We are developing a novel, noninvasive method for measuring the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange in patients with lung disease. The patient wears an oximeter, and we measure the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inspired and expired gas using miniature analyzers. The arterial Po 2 is then calculated from the oximeter reading and the oxygen dissociation curve, using the end-tidal Pco 2 to allow for the Bohr effect. This calculation is only accurate when the oxygen saturation is ideal alveolar Po 2 minus the measured arterial Po 2 . That measurement requires an arterial blood sample. The present study suggests that this noninvasive procedure will be valuable in assessing the degree of impaired gas exchange in patients with lung disease.

  6. Predicting memory performance in normal ageing using different measures of hippocampal size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lye, T.C.; Creasey, H.; Kril, J.J.; Grayson, D.A.; Piguet, O.; Bennett, H.P.; Ridley, L.J.; Broe, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    A number of different methods have been employed to correct hippocampal volumes for individual variation in head size. Researchers have previously used qualitative visual inspection to gauge hippocampal atrophy. The purpose of this study was to determine the best measure(s) of hippocampal size for predicting memory functioning in 102 community-dwelling individuals over 80 years of age. Hippocampal size was estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry and qualitative visual assessment. Right and left hippocampal volumes were adjusted by three different estimates of head size: total intracranial volume (TICV), whole-brain volume including ventricles (WB+V) and a more refined measure of whole-brain volume with ventricles extracted (WB). We compared the relative efficacy of these three volumetric adjustment methods and visual ratings of hippocampal size in predicting memory performance using linear regression. All four measures of hippocampal size were significant predictors of memory performance. TICV-adjusted volumes performed most poorly in accounting for variance in memory scores. Hippocampal volumes adjusted by either measure of whole-brain volume performed equally well, although qualitative visual ratings of the hippocampus were at least as effective as the volumetric measures in predicting memory performance in community-dwelling individuals in the ninth or tenth decade of life. (orig.)

  7. A new technique for precise measurement of thermal conductivity of metals at normal and high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkele, L.

    1990-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on a new measuring technique are described; a technique similar to the well known Kohlrausch measuring technique, which is characterized by direct electrical sample heating. Subject of the investigations is a cylindrical metallic sample, 5 mm thick and 200 mm in length, which is positioned vertically between water-cooled clamps in a vacuum container. The sample can be heated using two simultaneously operating current sources, a 50 Hz-source for axial flow (main heating) as well as a 200 kHz-induction source for generating eddy currents in two short regions above and below the sample centre (additional heating). By using two heating sources different symmetrical temperature profiles in a central eddy-current-free area of about ± 10mm can be produced for any given central sample temperature. The last chapter contains thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity measuring curves for Pt, W, Fe, Ni, Ag, Al, Mg, Ir, Ru, Re, Ho and Y in the temperature range 273 to 1500 K representative of all the metals and alloys investigated. In cases where comparisons with published precise conductivity data, established by other measuring techniques in restricted temperature ranges, were posible, the new measuring method is greatly supported (in the case of Pt, W, Ni, Ag, Al). For the Metals Ir, Ru, Re, Ho and Y high temperature thermal conductivity data are given for the first time. (orig./MM) [de

  8. Respiratory system loop gain in normal men and women measured with proportional-assist ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Andrew; Malhotra, Atul; Fogel, Robert B; Edwards, Jill K; Schory, Karen; White, David P

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesized that increased chemical control instability (CCI) in men could partially explain the male predominance in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). CCI was assessed by sequentially increasing respiratory control system loop gain (LG) with proportional-assist ventilation (PAV) in 10 men (age 24-48 yr) and 9 women (age 22-36 yr) until periodic breathing or awakening occurred. Women were studied in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The amount by which PAV amplified LG was quantified from the tidal volume amplification factor [(VtAF) assisted tidal volume/unassisted tidal volume]. LG was calculated as the inverse of the VtAF occurring at the assist level immediately preceding the emergence of periodic breathing (when LG x VtAF = 1). Only 1 of 10 men and 2 of 9 women developed periodic breathing with PAV. The rest were resistant to periodic breathing despite moderately high levels of PAV amplification. We conclude that LG is low in the majority of normal men and women and that higher volume amplification factors are needed to determine whether gender differences exist in this low range.

  9. Neurofeedback training produces normalization in behavioural and electrophysiological measures of high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jaime A; Carrasco, Karen; Datko, Mike; Pillen, Steven; Schalles, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition exhibiting impairments in behaviour, social and communication skills. These deficits may arise from aberrant functional connections that impact synchronization and effective neural communication. Neurofeedback training (NFT), based on operant conditioning of the electroencephalogram (EEG), has shown promise in addressing abnormalities in functional and structural connectivity. We tested the efficacy of NFT in reducing symptoms in children with ASD by targeting training to the mirror neuron system (MNS) via modulation of EEG mu rhythms. The human MNS has provided a neurobiological substrate for understanding concepts in social cognition relevant to behavioural and cognitive deficits observed in ASD. Furthermore, mu rhythms resemble MNS phenomenology supporting the argument that they are linked to perception and action. Thirty hours of NFT on ASD and typically developing (TD) children were assessed. Both groups completed an eyes-open/-closed EEG session as well as a mu suppression index assessment before and after training. Parents filled out pre- and post-behavioural questionnaires. The results showed improvements in ASD subjects but not in TDs. This suggests that induction of neuroplastic changes via NFT can normalize dysfunctional mirroring networks in children with autism, but the benefits are different for TD brains.

  10. Direct measurement of α2F in normal metals using point-contacts: noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, A.G.M.; Mueller, F.M.; Wyder, P.

    1976-01-01

    A new technique of forming tiny point junctions, first discussed by Sharvin, is described. By measuring the second derivative of voltage with respect to current, using techniques similar to tunnel junction spectroscopy, structure is found which is consistent with bulk phonon densities of states derived from neutron scattering. The same results were reported at LT 14 by Yanson using a shorted film technique

  11. Objective Color Measurements: Clinimetric Performance of Three Devices on Normal Skin and Scar Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Martijn; Bloemen, Monica; Verhaegen, Pauline; Tuinebreijer, Wim; de Vet, Henrica; van Zuijlen, Paul; Middelkoop, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Color measurements are an essential part of scar evaluation. Thus, vascularization (erythema) and pigmentation (melanin) are common outcome parameters in scar research. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinimetric properties and clinical feasibility of the Mexameter, Colorimeter, and the

  12. A new method to normalize plantar pressure measurements for foot size and foot progression angle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, N.L.; Stolwijk, N.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Plantar pressure measurement provides important information about the structure and function of the foot and is a helpful tool to evaluate patients with foot complaints. In general, average and maximum plantar pressure of 6-11 areas under the foot are used to compare groups of subjects. However,

  13. Serial hemodynamic measurement in normal pregnancy, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rang, Saskia; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Wolf, Hans

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study hypothesis was that hemodynamic measurements in conjunction with uterine artery Doppler could enable selection of women at risk for the development of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction. STUDY DESIGN: Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate (RR), cardiac

  14. Fluoroscopic study of the normal gastrointestinal motility and measurements in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Taylor, W Michael; Jankowski, Gwendolyn; Rademacher, Nathalie; Gaschen, Lorrie; Pariaut, Romain; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-01-01

    Contrast fluoroscopy is a valuable tool to examine avian gastrointestinal motility. However, the lack of a standardized examination protocol and reference ranges prevents the objective interpretation of motility disorders and other gastrointestinal abnormalities. Our goals were to evaluate gastrointestinal motility in 20 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by contrast fluoroscopy. Each parrot was crop-fed an equal part mixture of barium sulfate and hand-feeding formula and placed in a cardboard box for fluoroscopy. Over a 3-h period, 1.5 minute segments of lateral and ventrodorsal fluoroscopy were recorded every 30 min. The gastric cycle and patterns of intestinal motility were described. The frequency of crop contractions, esophageal boluses, and gastric cycles were determined in lateral and ventrodorsal views. A range of 3.4-6.6 gastric cycles/min was noted on the lateral view and 3.0-6.6 gastric cycles/min on the ventrodorsal view. Circular measurements of the proventriculus diameter, ventriculus width, and length were obtained using the midshaft femoral diameter as a standard reference unit. The upper limits of the reference ranges were 3.6 and 4.7 femoral units for the proventriculus diameter in the lateral and ventrodorsal view, respectively. Two consecutive measurements were obtained and the measurement technique was found to have high reproducibility. In this study, we established a standardized protocol for contrast fluoroscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract and a reliable measurement method of the proventriculus and ventriculus using femoral units in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot.

  15. Rectal compliance as a routine measurement: extreme volumes have direct clinical impact and normal volumes exclude rectum as a problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt-Bersma, R J; Sloots, C E; Poen, A C; Cuesta, M A; Meuwissen, S G

    2000-12-01

    The clinical impact of rectal compliance and sensitivity measurement is not clear. The aim of this study was to measure the rectal compliance in different patient groups compared with controls and to establish the clinical effect of rectal compliance. Anorectal function tests were performed in 974 consecutive patients (284 men). Normal values were obtained from 24 controls. Rectal compliance measurement was performed by filling a latex rectal balloon with water at a rate of 60 ml per minute. Volume and intraballoon pressure were measured. Volume and pressure at three sensitivity thresholds were recorded for analysis: first sensation, urge, and maximal toleration. At maximal toleration, the rectal compliance (volume/pressure) was calculated. Proctoscopy, anal manometry, anal mucosal sensitivity, and anal endosonography were also performed as part of our anorectal function tests. No effect of age or gender was observed in either controls or patients. Patients with fecal incontinence had a higher volume at first sensation and a higher pressure at maximal toleration (P = 0.03), the presence of a sphincter defect or low or normal anal pressures made no difference. Patients with constipation had a larger volume at first sensation and urge (P 500 ml had complaints of constipation. No correlation between rectal and anal mucosal sensitivity was found. Rectal compliance measurement with a latex balloon is easily feasible. In this series of 974 patients, some patient groups showed an abnormal rectal visceral sensitivity and compliance, but there was an overlap with controls. Rectal compliance measurement gave a good clinical impression about the contribution of the rectum to the anorectal problem. Patients with proctitis and pouchitis had the smallest rectal compliance. A maximal toleration volume 500 ml was only seen in constipated patients, and therapy should be given to prevent further damage to the pelvic floor. Values close to or within the normal range rule out the

  16. Evaluating new methods for direct measurement of the moderator temperature coefficient in nuclear power plants during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makai, M.; Kalya, Z.; Nemes, I.; Pos, I.; Por, G.

    2007-01-01

    Moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity is not monitored during fuel cycles in WWER reactors, because it is not very easy or impossible to measure it without disturbing the normal operation. Two new methods were tested in our WWER type nuclear power plant to try methodologies, which enable to measure that important to safety parameter during the fuel cycle. One is based on small perturbances, and only small changes are requested in operation, the other is based on noise methods, which means it is without interference with reactor operation. Both method is new that aspects that they uses the plant computer data(VERONA) based signals calculated by C P ORCA diffusion code (Authors)

  17. Meteoric water in normal fault systems: Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on authigenic phases in brittle fault rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S. H.; Anderson, R.; Mulch, A.; Solum, J. G.; Valley, J. W.; van der Pluijm, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    The nature of fluid circulation systems in normal fault systems is fundamental to understanding the nature of fluid movement within the upper crust, and has important implications for the on-going controversy about the strength of faults. Authigenic phases in clay gouges and fault breccias record the isotopic signature of the fluids they formed in equilibrium with, and can be used to understand the ‘plumbing system’ of brittle fault environments. We obtained paired oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on authigenic illite and/or smectite in clay gouge from normal faults in two geologic environments, 1.) low-angle normal faults (Ruby Mountains detachment, NV; Badwater Turtleback, CA; Panamint range-front detachment; CA; Amargosa detachment; CA; Waterman Hills detachment, CA), and 2.) An intracratonic high-angle normal fault (Moab Fault, UT). All authigenic phases in these clay gouges are moderately light isotopically with respect to oxygen (illite δ18O -2.0 - + 11.5 ‰ SMOW, smectite δ18O +3.6 and 17.9 ‰) and very light isotopically with respect to hydrogen (illite δD -148 to -98 ‰ SMOW, smectite δD -147 to -92 ‰). Fluid compositions calculated from the authigenic clays at temperatures of 50 - 130 ○C (as indicated by clay mineralogy) indicate that both illite and smectite in normal fault clay gouge formed in the presence of near-pristine to moderately-evolved meteoric fluids and that igneous or metamorphic fluids are not involved in clay gouge formation in these normal fault settings. We also obtained paired oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on chlorites derived from footwall chlorite breccias in 4 low-angle normal fault detachment systems (Badwater and Mormon Point Turtlebacks, CA, the Chemehuevi detachment, CA, and the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment, AZ). All chlorites are isotopically light to moderately light with respect to oxygen (δ18O +0.29 to +8.1 ‰ SMOW) and very light with respect to hydrogen (δD -97 to -113 ‰) and indicate

  18. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knirsch, Walter; Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias; Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz

    2005-01-01

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  19. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirsch, Walter [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  20. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Beom Seok; Kim, Myung Joon; Han, Sang Won; Im, Young Jae; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To measure shear wave velocities (SWVs) by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound elastography in normal kidneys and in hydronephrotic kidneys in young children and to compare SWVs between the hydronephrosis grades. This study was approved by an institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the parents of all the children included. Children under the age of 24 months were prospectively enrolled. Hydronephrosis grade was evaluated on ultrasonography, and three valid ARFI measurements were attempted using a high-frequency transducer for both kidneys. Hydronephrosis was graded from 0 to 4, and high-grade hydronephrosis was defined as grades 3 and 4. Fifty-one children underwent ARFI measurements, and three valid measurements for both kidneys were obtained in 96% (49/51) of the patients. Nineteen children (38.8%) had no hydronephrosis. Twenty-three children (46.9%) had unilateral hydronephrosis, and seven children (14.3%) had bilateral hydronephrosis. Seven children had ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Median SWVs in kidneys with high-grade hydronephrosis (2.02 m/sec) were higher than those in normal kidneys (1.75 m/sec; P=0.027). However, the presence of UPJO did not influence the median SWVs in hydronephrotic kidneys (P=0.362). Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  1. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, Beom Seok; Kim, Myung Joon; Han, Sang Won; Im, Young Jae; Lee, Mi Jung

    2014-01-01

    To measure shear wave velocities (SWVs) by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound elastography in normal kidneys and in hydronephrotic kidneys in young children and to compare SWVs between the hydronephrosis grades. This study was approved by an institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the parents of all the children included. Children under the age of 24 months were prospectively enrolled. Hydronephrosis grade was evaluated on ultrasonography, and three valid ARFI measurements were attempted using a high-frequency transducer for both kidneys. Hydronephrosis was graded from 0 to 4, and high-grade hydronephrosis was defined as grades 3 and 4. Fifty-one children underwent ARFI measurements, and three valid measurements for both kidneys were obtained in 96% (49/51) of the patients. Nineteen children (38.8%) had no hydronephrosis. Twenty-three children (46.9%) had unilateral hydronephrosis, and seven children (14.3%) had bilateral hydronephrosis. Seven children had ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Median SWVs in kidneys with high-grade hydronephrosis (2.02 m/sec) were higher than those in normal kidneys (1.75 m/sec; P=0.027). However, the presence of UPJO did not influence the median SWVs in hydronephrotic kidneys (P=0.362). Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  2. A comparative study of intraocular pressure measurement by three tonometers in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, S K; Mahesh, B S; Shanthamallappa, M

    2013-01-01

    Contact Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) is gold standard for measuring intraocular pressure; however its routine use is limited by its non-portability and the need for a Slit Lamp Microscope. The Portable Perkins tonometer is also considered gold standard because it is based on the same principles as the GAT. The iCare is a newly introduced, portable, non-contact tonometer (NCT) that measures intraocular pressure (IOP) using a thin metallic probe. To evaluate reliability and accuracy of IOP measurements using iCare and Keeler Pulsair tonometers against Perkins tonometer. A comparative, randomized, prospective clinical study conducted on 166 eyes of 83 (n=83) subjects in the age group 14 to 71 years. The pressures were first recorded by iCare and Pulsair and then by Perkins. The SPSS 11.00 version was used for analysis. Mean pressures and standard deviation (+/-SD) for iCare, Pulsair and Perkins were 14.62(+/- 2.47), 14.53(+/-3.36) and 13.06(+/-2.69) and the Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) was 0.27, 0.36 and 0.30 respectively. There was a good correlation between iCare and Perkins with statistically significant difference (r=0.610, p less than 0.05). Regression analysis was performed. Using the Bland-Altman analysis 95% Limits of Agreement (LoA) for iCare and Pulsair were determined as -6.1 to 2.9 and -4.5 to 7.5 respectively. Although both tonometers overestimated the Perkins values, Pulsair showed a better agreement with Perkins tonometer than iCare tonometer. © NEPjOPH.

  3. Efficiency of measures aimed at improving health by normalization of temperature conditions in the Kochegarka mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, G.I.; Nifonov, V.P.; Kobets, A.N.

    1981-06-01

    This paper evaluates effects of air conditioning in the Kochegarka black coal mine on miners' health. Up to 1975 air temperature in the lowest mine horizon located at a depth of 970 m ranged from 26 to 32 C, in summer from 34 to 36 C. Air humidity ranged from 94 to 98%. Since 1975 KhTMF-248-4000 freon air cooling machines have been used in the mine; their capacity amounts to 3.8 x 10/SUP/6 kcal/h. Use of air cooling systems reduces air temperature to permissible limits. Air temperature measured at a distance of 1 km from mine shaft ranges from 24 to 26 C, and air humidity from 90 to 95%. At a distance of 1.5 km from the mine shaft air temperature in conveyor roadways is 26.4 C, in dead-end development workings 27 C, and at working faces 26 C (with air humidity ranging from 96 to 98%). ARVP systems for local air cooling are used at places distant from the mine shaft. The ARVP reduces air temperature from 2 to 4.5 C at a distance ranging from 4 to 8 m from the machine. Reducing air temperature, combined with other measures aimed at improving miners' health, has caused a decrease in miner absenteeism due to illness by 25.4%.

  4. The measurement of 99mTc-DTPA pulmonary clearance in normals, asymptomatic smokers and diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Ju; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, Yun Seong; Lee, Min Ki; Park, Soon Kew

    1998-01-01

    We measured pulmonary epithelial permeability by 99m Tc-DTPA radioaerosol clearance in patients with diabetes and correlated with the presence of microangiopathy to understand the pathophysiology of pulmonary microangiopathy and evaluate 99m Tc-DTPA radioaerosol clearance as a diagnostic test to assess pulmonary microangiopathy. We performed 99m Tc-DTPA radioaerosol scan in 10 normal subjects, 10 asymptomatic smokers, 20 diabetic patients without history of smoking (10 with microangiopathy, 10 without microangiopathy). 99m Tc-DTPA clearance half-time (T 1/2 ) was calculated, then compared with the result of chest radiography and pulmonary function test. Chest radiography and pulmonary function test were normal in all subjects. There were no significant difference of clinical or laboratory characteristics between these groups except age. The diabetic patients with microangiophaty were significantly older (p 1/2 of normal subjects and asymptomatic smokers were significantly different (65.2±23.7 min vs 39.6±9.8 min, p 1/2 was 90.5±46.5 min and significantly delayed when compared with those of normals and asymptomatic smokers (p 1/2 of diabetic patients without microangiopathy, 70.0±12.7 min, was not significantly different from those of normals or asymptomatic smokers (p>0.05). No significant correlation was found between the T 1/2 and spirometric parameters including DLco, FVC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC (%) and FEF 25-75% in all subjects, and between the T 1/2 and duration of diabetes in diabetic patients. Eventhough the influence of age can't be excluded, delayed 99m Tc-DTPA clearance half-time (T 1/2 ) in diabetic patients with microangiopathy indicates decreased pulmonary capillary permeability as one of the pathophysiologic results of pulmonary microangiopaththy. Further studies are needed in larger number of age matched control and diabetic patients to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy

  5. On combining multi-normalization and ancillary measures for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Anzar, Sharafudeen Thaha; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we have considered the utility of multi-normalization and ancillary measures, for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics. An efficient matching score preprocessing technique based on multi-normalization is employed for improving the performance of the multimodal system, under various noise conditions. Ancillary measures derived from the feature space and the score space are used in addition to the matching score vectors, for weighing the modalities, based on their relative degradation. Reliability (dispersion) and the separability (inter-/intra-class distance and d-prime statistics) measures under various noise conditions are estimated from the individual modalities, during the training/validation stage. The `best integration weights' are then computed by algebraically combining these measures using the weighted sum rule. The computed integration weights are then optimized against the recognition accuracy using techniques such as grid search, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The experimental results show that, the proposed biometric solution leads to considerable improvement in the recognition performance even under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions and reduces the false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR), making the system useful for security as well as forensic applications.

  6. A virtual outpatient department provides a satisfactory patient experience following endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Elizabeth M; Rogers, Ailín C; Hanly, Ann M; McCawley, Niamh; Deasy, Joseph; McNamara, Deborah A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate telephone follow-up of post-endoscopy patients as an alternative to attendance at the outpatient department. Access to outpatient appointments is often a target for improvement in healthcare systems. Increased outpatient clinic capacity is not feasible without investment and extra manpower in an already constrained service. Outpatient attendance was audited at a busy colorectal surgical service. A subset of patients appropriate for follow-up in a "virtual outpatient department" (VOPD) were identified. A pilot study was designed and involved telephone follow-up of low-risk endoscopic procedures. Patient satisfaction was assessed using the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS), which is a standardised survey of patient satisfaction with healthcare experiences. This was conducted via anonymous questionnaire at the end of the study. Of a total of 166 patients undergoing endoscopy in the time period, 79 were prospectively recruited to VOPD follow-up based on eligibility criteria. Overall, 67 (84.8 %) were successfully followed up by telephone consultation; nine patients (11.4 %) were contacted by mail. The remaining three patients (3.8 %) were brought back to the OPD. Patients recruited were more likely to be younger (55.82 ± 14.96 versus 60.78 ± 13.97 years, P = 0.029) and to have had normal examinations (49.4 versus 31.0 %, χ (2) = 5.070, P = 0.025). Nearly three quarters of patients responded to the questionnaire. The mean scores for all four aspects of the MISS were satisfactory, and overall patients were satisfied with the VOPD experience. VOPD is a target for improved healthcare provision, with improved efficiency and a high patient satisfaction rate.

  7. TECHNIQUES FOR COMBINED PROCUREMENT OF HEARTS AND KIDNEYS WITH SATISFACTORY EARLY FUNCTION OF RENAL ALLOGRAFTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Byers W.; Rosenthal, J. Thomas; Griffith, Bartley F.; Haresty, Robert L.; Broznik, Brian; Hakala, Thomas; Bahnson, Henry T.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Methods for combination of donor nephrectomy with donor cardiectomy are outlined. The satisfactory early function of 29 of 34 transplanted kidneys harvested with these techniques supports their wider application and should encourage their wider acceptance. PMID:6351307

  8. Volume measurement of thalami in normal Chinese Han nationality adults by the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shuai; Chen Nan; Guo Yulin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To measure the volume of thalamus in 1000 healthy Chinese Han nationality adults, and to analyze the relationship between thalamic volume and age, sex, weight and cerebral volume, to provide reliable data for the construction of database of Chinese adults' digital standard brain. Methods: Totally 1000 healthy Chinese adults of Han nationality aged from 18 to 80 years were recruited.They were divided into 5 groups by age: 18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60 and 61-80 years. Each group included 100 males and 100 females. Brain images were obtained on a 1.5 T MR, and the outline of thalami was drawn with Aquariusws software. Then the thalamic volume was calculated automatically. The volumes of left and right thalamus were compared by paired sample t-test. Thalamic volumes of the same side were compared between males and females by independent sample t-test. And thalamic volumes of different age groups were compared by one-way ANOVA. The relationships between thalamic volume and age, sex, weight and cerebral volume were analyzed respectively. Results: The males' standardized volumes of left and right thalamus of healthy Chinese Han nationality adults were (5776 ± 780), (5655 ± 759) mm 3 , and they were (5464 ±573), (5360 ± 542) mm 3 for female. The males' thalamic volume was more than the females' on the same side (t=2.245, 2.200, P<0.01). The left thalamic volumes of various age groups were (6180 ± 534), (6047 ± 562), (5426 ± 471), (5552 ± 526), (4866 ± 552) mm 3 , respectively, while the right thalamic volumes of the 5 groups were (6069 ± 532), (5895 ± 539), (5357 ± 480), (5396 ± 445),(4791 ± 558)mm 3 , respectively. There were statistically significant difference among the 5 groups (F=165.686, 165.235, P<0.01). The left and right thalamic volume were all negatively correlated with age (r=-0.633, -0.645, P<0.05). Conclusions: With high resolution 1.5 T MR scanner,grey matter and white matter can be depicted clearly and the outline

  9. The effects of frequency-encoding gradient upon detectability of the margins and height measurements of normal adult pituitary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, A.; Sato, N.; Aoki, J.; Endo, K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of frequency-encoding gradient (FEG) upon detectability and height measurements of the normal adult pituitary gland. We obtained two sets of T1-weighted sagittal images of the pituitary gland from 70 adult subjects without known pituitary dysfunction using 1.5 tesla imagers; one with an inferior-superior FEG, and one with an anterior-posterior FEG. We classified the subjects into three types according to the distribution of fatty marrow in the clivus. Each set of images was assessed for pituitary height on midline sagittal images, and detectability of pituitary margins. Height measurements and detectability scores were evaluated for significant difference between the two FEGs. In subjects with fatty marrow in the clivus, there was significant difference between pituitary height measurements (P<0.005) and pituitary margin detectability (P<0.001). Care should be taken to image the pituitary gland using an anterior-posterior FEG. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of moving-coil loudspeaker and passive radiator parameters using normal-incidence sound transmission measurements: theoretical developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Timothy W; Anderson, Brian E

    2013-07-01

    The parameters of moving-coil loudspeaker drivers are typically determined using direct electrical excitation and measurement. However, as electro-mechano-acoustical devices, their parameters should also follow from suitable mechanical or acoustical evaluations. This paper presents the theory of an acoustical method of excitation and measurement using normal-incidence sound transmission through a baffled driver as a plane-wave tube partition. Analogous circuits enable key parameters to be extracted from measurement results in terms of open and closed-circuit driver conditions. Associated tools are presented that facilitate adjacent field decompositions and derivations of sound transmission coefficients (in terms of driver parameters) directly from the circuits. The paper also clarifies the impact of nonanechoic receiving tube terminations and the specific benefits of downstream field decompositions.

  11. Normal regional brain iron concentration in restless legs syndrome measured by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Knake

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Knake1, Johannes T Heverhagen2, Katja Menzler1, Boris Keil2, Wolfgang H Oertel1, Karin Stiasny-Kolster11Department of Neurology, Center of Nervous Diseases, 2Department of Radiology, Philipps University, Marburg, GermanyAbstract: Using a T2* gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI sequence, regional T2 signal intensity (SI values, a surrogate marker for T2 values, were determined in 12 regions of interest (substantia nigra, pallidum, caudate head, thalamus, occipital white matter, and frontal white matter bilaterally and in two reference regions (cerebrospinal fluid and bone in 12 patients suffering from moderate to severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS; mean age 58.5 ± 8.7 years for 12.1 ± 9.1 years and in 12 healthy control subjects (mean age 56.8 ± 10.6 years. Iron deposits shorten T2 relaxation times on T2-weighted MRI. We used regional T2* SI to estimate regional T2-values. A T2-change ratio was calculated for each region of interest relative to the reference regions. We did not find significant differences in any of the investigated brain regions. In addition, serum measures involved in iron metabolism did not correlate with T2 SI values. We could not replicate earlier findings describing reduced regional brain iron concentrations in patients with RLS. Our results do not support the view of substantially impaired regional brain iron in RLS.Keywords: restless legs syndrome, pathophysiology, iron, MRI, substantia nigra

  12. Bicruciate-retaining Total Knee Replacement Provides Satisfactory Function and Implant Survivorship at 23 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, James W

    2015-07-01

    One of the goals of a TKA is to approximate the function of a normal knee. Preserving the natural ligaments might provide a method of restoring close to normal function. Sacrifice of the ACL is common and practical during a TKA. However, this ligament is functional in more than 60% of patients undergoing a TKA and kinematic studies support the concept of bicruciate-retaining (that is, ACL-preserving) TKA; however, relatively few studies have evaluated patients treated with bicruciate-retaining TKA implants. I asked: (1) what is the long-term (minimum 20-year) survivorship, (2) what are the functional results, and (3) what are the reasons for revision of bicruciate-retaining knee arthroplasty prostheses? From January 1989 to September 1992, I performed 639 total knee replacements in 537 patients. Of these, 489 were performed in 390 patients using a bicruciate-retaining, minimally constrained device. During the period in question, this knee prosthesis was used for all patients observed intraoperatively to have an intact, functional ACL with between 15° varus and 15° valgus joint deformity. There were 234 women and 156 men with a mean age at surgery of 65 years (range, 42-84 years) and a primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis in 89%. The patella was resurfaced in all knees. The mean followup was 23 years (range, 20-24 years). At the time of this review, 199 (51%) patients had died and 31 (8%) patients were lost to followup, leaving 160 (41%) patients (214 knees) available for review. Component survivorship was determined by competing-risks analysis and Kaplan Meier survivorship analysis with revision for any reason as the primary endpoint. Patients were evaluated every 2 years to assess ROM, joint laxity, knee stability, and to determine American Knee Society scores. The Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 89% (95% CI, 82%-93%) at 23 years with revision for any reason as the endpoint. Competing-risks survivorship was 94% (95% CI, 91%%-96 %) at 23 years. At followup, the mean

  13. Numerical Analysis of a New Pressure Sensor for Measuring Normal and Tangential Stresses in the Roll Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presz, Wojtek P.; Wanheim, Tarras

    2003-01-01

    The paper is in polish. Orig. title: "Analiza numeryczna nowego czujnika do pomiaru nacisków i naprê¿eñ stycznych w procesie walcowania" A new strain gauge sensor for measuring normal and tangential stresses in the contact arc of a rolling process has been designed and constructed. The complicated...... load history of the sensor results in complicated deformation patterns of it, and consequently the calibration procedure of the sensor should cover a wide range of loading cases, and would thus be very difficult and time-consuming to carry out. As an alternative to this, a FEM simulative experiment has...

  14. Endometrial blood flow measured by xenon 133 clearance in women with normal menstrual cycles and dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, I.S.; McCarron, G.; Hutton, B.; Macey, D.

    1987-01-01

    Endometrial blood flow was measured through the menstrual cycle in nonpregnant women (28 studies of 17 women with normal menstrual cycles and 32 studies of 20 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding) with use of a clearance technique in which 100 to 400 microCi of the gamma-emitting isotope, xenon 133 in saline solution was instilled into the uterine cavity. The mean (+/- SEM) endometrial blood flow in normal cycles was 27.7 +/- 2.6 ml/100 gm/min, with a significant elevation in the middle to late follicular phase, followed by a substantial fall and a secondary slow luteal phase rise that was maintained until the onset of menstruation. There was a significant correlation between plasma estradiol levels and endometrial blood flow in the follicular but not the luteal phase. Blood flow patterns in women with ovulatory dysfunctional bleeding were similar to normal, except for a significantly lower middle follicular rate. Women with anovulatory dysfunctional bleeding exhibited exceedingly variable flow rates

  15. Endometrial blood flow measured by xenon 133 clearance in women with normal menstrual cycles and dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, I.S.; McCarron, G.; Hutton, B.; Macey, D.

    1987-01-01

    Endometrial blood flow was measured through the menstrual cycle in nonpregnant women (28 studies of 17 women with normal menstrual cycles and 32 studies of 20 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding) with use of a clearance technique in which 100 to 400 microCi of the gamma-emitting isotope, xenon 133 in saline solution was instilled into the uterine cavity. The mean (+/- SEM) endometrial blood flow in normal cycles was 27.7 +/- 2.6 ml/100 gm/min, with a significant elevation in the middle to late follicular phase, followed by a substantial fall and a secondary slow luteal phase rise that was maintained until the onset of menstruation. There was a significant correlation between plasma estradiol levels and endometrial blood flow in the follicular but not the luteal phase. Blood flow patterns in women with ovulatory dysfunctional bleeding were similar to normal, except for a significantly lower middle follicular rate. Women with anovulatory dysfunctional bleeding exhibited exceedingly variable flow rates.

  16. Measurement of normal corpus callosum with MRI in Korean adults and morphological change of corpus callosum by grade of hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dong Hoon; Chang, Seung Kuk; Kim, Jong Deok; Eun, Tchoong Kie; Park, Dong Woo

    1995-01-01

    To measure the size of normal corpus callosum in each portion using objective and reproducible method with MRI and evaluation of morphological change of corpus callosum by grade of hydrocephalus. Midsagittal T1-weighted MR imaging of the corpus callosum was investigated in 41 volunteers of normal Korean adults and 19 patients with hydrocephalus. Corpus callosum was measured for the anteroposterior length(A), height(B), and the thickness of genu(C), body(D), splenium(E), and the narrowest portion of body(F). And the analysis of morphology and signal intensity of the corpus callosum were also evaluated. Hydrocephalus was graded as mild, moderate, and severe, and comparison of thickness with normal corpus callosum in each portion was done. The mean length and height were 72.3 mm, 28.6 mm in male, and 70.7 mm, 28.9 mm in female. And the mean dimension for C, D, E and F were 13.1 mm, 8 mm, 13.2 mm, 5.2 mm in male, and 12.8 mm, 7.5 mm, 12.3 mm, 5 mm in female. The morphology of normal corpus callosum was 'hook' shaped on midline sagittal T1-weighted image. Narrowing at posterior third portion of body were present on 30 cases(73.2%) and even in thickness of the body in 11 cases(26.8%). The signal intensity of the corpus callosum on midsagittal T1-weighted spin echo image of normal cases was homogeneous hyperintense as compared with cerebral gray matter. In hydrocephalus, A and B were increased and other portions were decreased in thickness. Genu and the narrowest portion of body showed significant difference of thickness according to the grade of hydrocephalus. The mean dimension of all portion of corpus callosum were larger in male than female except for callosal height but not significant statistically with the exception of splenium. Hydrocephalus lead to morphological change of the corpus callosum. Among the portion of corpus callosum, genu and the narrowest portion of the body were thought to be the most sensitive indicators of degree in hydrocephalus

  17. Comparison of International Normalized Ratio Measurement between CoaguChek XS Plus and STA-R Coagulation Analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Hur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Point-of-care testing (POCT coagulometers are increasingly being used in the hospital setting. We investigated whether the prothrombin time international normalized ratio (INR results by CoaguChek XS Plus (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany can be used reliably without being confirmed with the INR results by STA-R system (Diagnostica Stago S.A.S, Asnières sur Seine, France. Methods. A total of 118 INR measurements by CoaguChek XS Plus and STA-R were compared using Passing/Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman plot. Agreement of the INR measurements was further assessed in relation to dosing decision. Results. The correlation of INR measurements between CoaguChek XS Plus and STA-R was excellent (correlation coefficient = 0.964. The mean difference tended to increase as INR results increased and was 0.25 INR in the therapeutic range (2.0-3.0 INR. The overall agreement was fair to good (kappa = 0.679, and 21/118 (17.8% INR measurements showed a difference in dosing decision. Conclusion. The positive bias of CoaguChek XS Plus may be obvious even in the therapeutic INR range, and dosing decision based on the CoaguChek XS Plus INR results would be different from that based on the STA-R results. The INR measurements by POCT coagulometers still need to be confirmed with the laboratory INR measurements.

  18. GABA-A stimulation in normal volunteers and during temporal epilepsy measured by 18FDG with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinotti, L.; Le Bars, D.; Garcia-Larrea, L.; Peyron, R.; Gregoire, M.C.; Lavenne, F.; Comar, D.; Mauguiere, F.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain and it has been evoked in epilepto-genesis. Using a GABA analog, the THIP, we tried to establish if the gabaergic neurotransmission was modified in the epileptic focus. For this purpose, we measured the effects of this specific GABA agonist on the cerebral glucose consumption (CMRGlu) as measured by 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET). Eight patients presenting temporal epilepsy and three normal volunteers received two 18 FDG PET studies, after placebo and THIP injection, in random order. Clinical symptoms and electroencephalographic data demonstrated a trend towards sleepiness and a diminution of alpha waves after THIP injection. CMRGlu was globally increased with THIP in cortical regions, cerebellum and caudate nuclei. The average increase was 17% in grey matter while it did not reach significancy in white matter. Under the placebo condition, the asymmetry between the focus and the controlateral internal temporal zone was 18% as an average, and reduced significantly to 11% after THIP injection. In the external temporal zones, the asymmetry decreased from 28% to 14%. These results suggest that gabaergic inhibition requires energy in the normal brain tissue and in this with temporal epilepsy. Since the asymmetry of glucose consumption tends to diminish, the inhibitory GABA system appears preserved in temporal epilepsy with an enhanced sensitivity in the focus. (Authors). 6 refs., 4 figs

  19. Normal width of the anterior commissure of true vocal cord in Korea adults measured by helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Woo Young; Lim, Dong Hoon; Moon, Jang Il; Ko, Yong Seok; Byeon, Joo Nam; Oh, Jae Hee

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the mean width of anterior commissure of true vocal cord in Korean adults by measuring its dimension on spiral CT scans. We reviewed the CT scans of 53 Korean adults(age range, 23-73years; mean age 39.2 years;M:F=3D41:12) without laryngeal disorders. Soiral CT scanning was performed around the anterior commissure with 1mm slice thickness and table incrementation for 15 seconds. The anteroposterior width of the anterior commissure was measured on CT scan where the true vocal cord and arytenoid, cricoid and thyroid cartilages were all present. We determined the mean width of the anterior commissure and whether there was a relationship between age and the width of the anterior commissure. The width of the anterior commissure was between 0.9mm and 2.3mm;mean width was 1.60±0.38mm(mean±SD). Using two SDs above the mean would have defined 2.36mm as the upper limit of normal width. Statistically, no significant correlation existed between the age and the width of the anterior commissure(p>0.05). An awareuess of the normal width range of the anterior commissure in Korean adults evaluated by spiral CT enhances the possibility of early detection of invasion of the anterior commissure by glottic cancer.=20

  20. Reports of "satisfactory relief" by IBS patients receiving usual medical care are confounded by baseline symptom severity and do not accurately reflect symptom improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, William E; Palsson, Olafur S; Levy, Rona L; Feld, Andrew D; VonKorff, Michael; Turner, Marsha

    2006-05-01

    Treatment trials for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) usually define a responder as a patient who reports satisfactory relief or adequate relief of symptoms at the end of the trial. However, these measures have not been adequately validated. (1) Compare a binary satisfactory relief measure to alternative ways of defining a treatment responder. (2) Determine whether baseline IBS symptom severity or psychological distress influence the sensitivity of these outcome measures. A total of 350 patients (81% females, average age 50 yr) who had a medical diagnosis of IBS and satisfied Rome II criteria, were recruited from Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound. At baseline the Irritable Bowel Severity Scale (IBSS) was used to assess symptom severity and to classify patients as mild, moderate, or severe. Psychological distress and IBS-specific quality of life (IBS-QOL) were also assessed. After 6 months treatment with standard medical care, IBSS and IBS-QOL were reassessed, and patients were asked whether they had experienced satisfactory relief and whether they were somewhat or markedly better. Initial severity of IBS significantly affected the proportion who reported satisfactory relief (mild, 72%; moderate, 53%; severe, 44%) and the proportion who were somewhat or markedly better (mild, 62%; moderate, 44%; severe, 38%), but did not affect the proportion with a 50% reduction in symptoms (mild, 26%; moderate, 25%; severe, 23%). Although mild patients were the most likely to report satisfactory relief, they showed no average decrease in symptom severity or improvement in IBS-QOL. Conversely, severe patients, who were the least likely to report satisfactory relief, had the largest reductions in IBS symptom severity and the largest improvements in IBS-QOL. Psychological distress had no significant effect on the responder rate after adjusting for IBS symptom severity. These data from a descriptive study suggest that satisfactory relief is confounded with initial IBS symptom

  1. Reproducibility of measurements and variability of the classification algorithm of Stratus OCT in normal, hypertensive, and glaucomatous patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Antón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso Antón1,2,3, Marta Castany1,2, Marta Pazos-Lopez1,2, Ruben Cuadrado3, Ana Flores3, Miguel Castilla11Hospital de la Esperanza-Hospital del Mar (IMAS, Barcelona, Spain; 2Institut Català de la Retina (ICR, Barcelona, Spain. Glaucoma Department; 3Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiología Aplicada (IOBA, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, EspañaPurpose: To assess the reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL measurements and the variability of the probabilistic classification algorithm in normal, hypertensive and glaucomatous eyes using Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT.Methods: Forty-nine eyes (13 normal, 17 ocular hypertensive [OHT] and 19 glaucomatous of 49 subjects were included in this study. RNFL was determined with Stratus OCT using the standard protocol RNFL thickness 3.4. Three different images of each eye were taken consecutively during the same session. To evaluate OCT reproducibility, coefficient of variation (COV and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated for average thickness (AvgT, superior average thickness (Savg, and inferior average thickness (Iavg parameters. The variability of the results of the probabilistic classification algorithm, based on the OCT normative database, was also analyzed. The percentage of eyes with changes in the category assigned was calculated for each group.Results: The 50th percentile of COV was 2.96%, 4.00%, and 4.31% for AvgT, Savg, and Iavg, respectively. Glaucoma group presented the largest COV for all three parameters (3.87%, 5.55%, 7.82%. ICC were greater than 0.75 for almost all measures (except from the inferior thickness parameter in the normal group; ICC = 0.64, 95% CI 0.334–0.857. Regarding the probabilistic classification algorithm for the three parameters (AvgT, Savg, Iavg, the percentage of eyes without color-code category changes among the three images was as follows: normal group, 100%, 84.6% and 92%; OHT group, 89.5%, 52.7%, 79%; and

  2. Measurement of Caesium-137 in the Normal Person; Dosage du Cesium 137 chez un Sujet Normal; 0418 0417 041c 0414 ; Determinacion Cuantitativa del Cesio-137 en el Individuo Normal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huycke, E. J.; Oberhausen, E. [United States Army Medical Research Unit, Europe, Landstuhl/Pfalz, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1964-11-15

    During the period June 1959 to October 1963 the Landstuhl whole-body counter has measured the caesium-137 content of more than 15 000 normal persons. The monthly averages of these measurements indicate a steady increase In the caesium-137 content since June 1962. This increase has become more rapid during the period June 1963 to October 1963. A further evaluation of the monthly averages since June 1962 indicates a mean biologic half-life of caesium-137 of 140 d for persons older than 22 yr. A comparison of the mean caesium-137 content of persons between 8 and 17 yr of age with those older than 22 appears to indicate that the biologic half-life of caesium-137 is shorter in the younger people. This is in agreement with earlier data from this counter concerning measurements of caesium-137 content between June 1959 and December 1960: these data showed a lower caesium-137 content in children than in adults. Another evaluation of recent data from this unit concerns the standard deviation (sigma) of the caesium-137 content in a large population. From this population the sigma of measured caesium/g body potassium values is 33%. This is more than twice the sigma of the body potassium content of this same population. By comparing a group of persons who have undergone several repeat assays over an extended period of time with the monthly means of the total population measured, it has been found that the large sigma of caesium-137 content cannot be caused solely by the varying diets of the population measured. (author) [French] Au cours de la periode allant de juin 1959 a octobre 1963, l'anthropogammametre de Landstuhl a ete utilise pour mesurer la charge corporelle de cesium 137 chez plus de 15 000 sujets normaux. D'apres les moyennes mensuelles de ces mesures, la charge corporelle de cesium 137 a augmente constamment depuis juin 1962. Cette augmentation s'est acceleree au cours de la periode allant de juin 1963 a octobre 1963. Une analyse plus poussee des moyennes mensuelles

  3. Measuring of the cerebellar volume of normal Koreans in their 20s and 40s using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Choi, Do Young; Lee, Beob Yi; Lee, Bong Soo; Eom, Jin Sup; Sohn, Jin Hun

    2004-01-01

    This study purposed to measure the standard volume of the cerebellum of normal Koreans who were in their 20s and 40s, and we also wished to find out the difference in the volume of the cerebellum according to gender and age. This study collected MR brain images from 118 people in their 20s (males: 58, females: 60) and 100 people in their 40s (males: 41, females: 59), for a total of 218 people. For each of sagittal, coronal and axial sections, the cerebellar part of the images was segmented using automatic and manual methods, and the volume was then measured. In order to observe differences according to gender and age and also to observe the interactive effect between gender and age, a two-way ANOVA test was performed using gender (2 levels) and age (2 levels) as independent variables. The average volume of the cerebellum of Koreans in their 20s was 133.74 (cm 3 ) and that of Koreans in their 40s was 121.83 (cm 3 ). The average volume of the cerebellum of male Koreans in their 20s and 40s was 134.55 (cm 3 ) and that of female Koreans was 123.06 (cm 3 ). The volume of the cerebellum was significantly larger in Koreans in their 20s than those volumes of the cerebellum of Koreans in their 40s, and the cerebellum volumes in male Koreans were larger than those of the Korean females. Moreover, the reduction of the volume of the cerebellum with age was significantly larger in male Koreans than in the Korean females. According to the results of measuring the volume of the cerebellum for normal Koreans in their 20s and 40s, the volume was significantly different according to gender and age, and the reduction of the volume of the cerebellum with age was significantly larger in men than in women

  4. Measuring of the cerebellar volume of normal Koreans in their 20s and 40s using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Choi, Do Young; Lee, Beob Yi; Lee, Bong Soo [College of Medicine, Konkuk Univ., Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Jin Sup [Chungbuk National Univ., Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Jin Hun [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-01

    This study purposed to measure the standard volume of the cerebellum of normal Koreans who were in their 20s and 40s, and we also wished to find out the difference in the volume of the cerebellum according to gender and age. This study collected MR brain images from 118 people in their 20s (males: 58, females: 60) and 100 people in their 40s (males: 41, females: 59), for a total of 218 people. For each of sagittal, coronal and axial sections, the cerebellar part of the images was segmented using automatic and manual methods, and the volume was then measured. In order to observe differences according to gender and age and also to observe the interactive effect between gender and age, a two-way ANOVA test was performed using gender (2 levels) and age (2 levels) as independent variables. The average volume of the cerebellum of Koreans in their 20s was 133.74 (cm{sup 3}) and that of Koreans in their 40s was 121.83 (cm{sup 3}). The average volume of the cerebellum of male Koreans in their 20s and 40s was 134.55 (cm{sup 3}) and that of female Koreans was 123.06 (cm{sup 3}). The volume of the cerebellum was significantly larger in Koreans in their 20s than those volumes of the cerebellum of Koreans in their 40s, and the cerebellum volumes in male Koreans were larger than those of the Korean females. Moreover, the reduction of the volume of the cerebellum with age was significantly larger in male Koreans than in the Korean females. According to the results of measuring the volume of the cerebellum for normal Koreans in their 20s and 40s, the volume was significantly different according to gender and age, and the reduction of the volume of the cerebellum with age was significantly larger in men than in women.

  5. Normalization of cortical thickness measurements across different T1 magnetic resonance imaging protocols by novel W-Score standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinyong; Yoo, Kwangsun; Lee, Peter; Kim, Chan Mi; Roh, Jee Hoon; Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Sang Joon; Seo, Sang Won; Shin, Jeong-Hyeon; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Jeong, Yong

    2017-10-01

    The use of different 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance (T1 MR) imaging protocols induces image incompatibility across multicenter studies, negating the many advantages of multicenter studies. A few methods have been developed to address this problem, but significant image incompatibility still remains. Thus, we developed a novel and convenient method to improve image compatibility. W-score standardization creates quality reference values by using a healthy group to obtain normalized disease values. We developed a protocol-specific w-score standardization to control the protocol effect, which is applied to each protocol separately. We used three data sets. In dataset 1, brain T1 MR images of normal controls (NC) and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from two centers, acquired with different T1 MR protocols, were used (Protocol 1 and 2, n = 45/group). In dataset 2, data from six subjects, who underwent MRI with two different protocols (Protocol 1 and 2), were used with different repetition times, echo times, and slice thicknesses. In dataset 3, T1 MR images from a large number of healthy normal controls (Protocol 1: n = 148, Protocol 2: n = 343) were collected for w-score standardization. The protocol effect and disease effect on subjects' cortical thickness were analyzed before and after the application of protocol-specific w-score standardization. As expected, different protocols resulted in differing cortical thickness measurements in both NC and AD subjects. Different measurements were obtained for the same subject when imaged with different protocols. Multivariate pattern difference between measurements was observed between the protocols. Classification accuracy between two protocols was nearly 90%. After applying protocol-specific w-score standardization, the differences between the protocols substantially decreased. Most importantly, protocol-specific w-score standardization reduced both univariate and multivariate differences in the images while

  6. Minimum energy control and optimal-satisfactory control of Boolean control network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fangfei; Lu, Xiwen

    2013-01-01

    In the literatures, to transfer the Boolean control network from the initial state to the desired state, the expenditure of energy has been rarely considered. Motivated by this, this Letter investigates the minimum energy control and optimal-satisfactory control of Boolean control network. Based on the semi-tensor product of matrices and Floyd's algorithm, minimum energy, constrained minimum energy and optimal-satisfactory control design for Boolean control network are given respectively. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained results.

  7. A novel photoplethysmography technique to derive normalized arterial stiffness as a blood pressure independent measure in the finger vascular bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gohichi; Sawada, Yukihiro; Kato, Yuichi; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi; Matsumura, Kenta; Maeda, Kimihito; Horiguchi, Masami; Ohguro, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Stiffening of the small artery may be the earliest sign of arteriosclerosis. However, there is no adequate method for directly assessing small arterial stiffness. In this study, the finger arterial elasticity index (FEI) was defined as the parameter n which denotes the curvilinearity of an exponential model of pressure (P)–volume (V a ) relationship (V a = a − b exp (−nP)). For the original estimation, the FEI was calculated from a compliance index from the finger photoplethysmogram whilst occluding the finger. A simple estimation of the FEI was devised by utilizing normalized pulse volume instead of the compliance index. Both estimations yielded close agreement with the exponential model in healthy young participants (study 1: n = 19). Since the FEI was dependent on finger mean blood pressure, normalized finger arterial stiffness index (FSI) was defined as standardized residual from their relationship: mean and standard deviation (SD) of the FSI were 50 ± 10 (study 2: n = 174). The mean coefficient of variation of the FSI for four measurements was 5.72% (study 3: n = 6). The mean and SD of the FSI in seven arteriosclerotic patients were 100.0 ± 13.5. In conclusion, the FEI and FSI by simple estimation are valid and useful for arteriosclerosis research

  8. Reduction in mean cerebral blood flow measurements using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD-SPECT during normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Daitoh, Nobuyuki; Shirai, Fumie; Hara, Shigeru [Narita Memorial Hospital, Toyohashi, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was measured by SPECT using the {sup 99m}Tc-ECD-Patlak-Plot method in a selected group of 61 normal non-hospitalized subjects aged 51 to 91 years. The mCBF values showed 48.4{+-}4.7 ml/100 g/min in aged 50-59 years group, 49.9{+-}5.9 ml/100 g/min in aged 60-69 years group, 46.4 {+-}6.5 ml/100 g/min in aged 70-79 group, 38.0{+-}3.7 ml/100 g/min in aged 80-89 years group, 38.9 ml/100 g/min in aged 90-99 years group. There was a statistically significant reduction of mCBF with advancing age (R=-0.41; p=0.001). Women have significantly higher mCBF values than men up to aged 70 years group. In this study, there was no significant laterality in the mCBF between right and left hemispheres in all decade groups. The history of hypertension, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking failed to show significant difference in the mCBF values. The present study shows that normal aging is associated with mCBF reduction. (author)

  9. Reduction in mean cerebral blood flow measurements using 99mTc-ECD-SPECT during normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Daitoh, Nobuyuki; Shirai, Fumie; Hara, Shigeru

    1997-01-01

    Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was measured by SPECT using the 99m Tc-ECD-Patlak-Plot method in a selected group of 61 normal non-hospitalized subjects aged 51 to 91 years. The mCBF values showed 48.4±4.7 ml/100 g/min in aged 50-59 years group, 49.9±5.9 ml/100 g/min in aged 60-69 years group, 46.4 ±6.5 ml/100 g/min in aged 70-79 group, 38.0±3.7 ml/100 g/min in aged 80-89 years group, 38.9 ml/100 g/min in aged 90-99 years group. There was a statistically significant reduction of mCBF with advancing age (R=-0.41; p=0.001). Women have significantly higher mCBF values than men up to aged 70 years group. In this study, there was no significant laterality in the mCBF between right and left hemispheres in all decade groups. The history of hypertension, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking failed to show significant difference in the mCBF values. The present study shows that normal aging is associated with mCBF reduction. (author)

  10. Measurement and Analysis of Normal Zone Propagation in a ReBCO Coated Conductor at Temperatures Below 50K

    CERN Document Server

    van Nugteren, J; Wessel, S; Krooshoop, E; Nijhuis, A; ten Kate, H

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the quasi-adiabatic normal zone propagation velocity and quench energies of a Superpower SCS4050 copper stabilised ReBCO superconducting tape are presented over a temperature range of 23 − 47 K; in parallel applied magnetic fields of 6, 10 and 14 T; and over a current range from 50% to 100% of Ic. The data are compared to results of analytic predictions and to one-dimensional numerical simulations. The availability of long lengths of ReBCO coated conductor makes the material interesting for many HTS applications operating well below the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, such as magnets and motors. One of the main issues in the design of such devices is quench detection and protection. At higher temperatures, the quench velocities in these materials are known to be about two orders of magnitude lower compared to low temperature superconductors, resulting in significantly smaller normal zones and the risk of higher peak temperatures. To investigate whether the same also holds for lower tempera...

  11. Normal Development and Measurements of the Occipital Condyle-C1 Interval in Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P; Linscott, L L; Vadivelu, S; Zhang, B; Leach, J L

    2016-05-01

    Widening of the occipital condyle-C1 interval is the most specific and sensitive means of detecting atlanto-occipital dislocation. Recent studies attempting to define normal measurements of the condyle-C1 interval in children have varied substantially. This study was performed to test the null hypothesis that condyle-C1 interval morphology and joint measurements do not change as a function of age. Imaging review of subjects undergoing CT of the upper cervical spine for reasons unrelated to trauma or developmental abnormality was performed. Four equidistant measurements were obtained for each bilateral condyle-C1 interval on sagittal and coronal images. The cohort was divided into 7 age groups to calculate the mean, SD, and 95% CIs for the average condyle-C1 interval in both planes. The prevalence of a medial occipital condyle notch was calculated. Two hundred forty-eight joints were measured in 124 subjects with an age range of 2 days to 22 years. The condyle-C1 interval varies substantially by age. Average coronal measurements are larger and more variable than sagittal measurements. The medial occipital condyle notch is most prevalent from 1 to 12 years and is uncommon in older adolescents and young adults. The condyle-C1 interval increases during the first several years of life, is largest in the 2- to 4-year age range, and then decreases through late childhood and adolescence. A single threshold value to detect atlanto-occipital dissociation may not be sensitive and specific for all age groups. Application of this normative data to documented cases of atlanto-occipital injury is needed to determine clinical utility. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. C3-6 laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy maintains satisfactory long-term surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objective To clarify long-term surgical outcomes of C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Twenty patients who underwent C3-6 open-door laminoplasty for CSM and who were followed for 8 to 10 years were included in this study. Myelopathic symptoms were assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Axial neck pain was graded as severe, moderate, or mild. C2-7 angle was measured using lateral radiographs of the cervical spine before surgery and at final follow-up. Results Mean JOA score before surgery (11.7) was significantly improved to 15.2 at the time of maximum recovery (1 year after surgery), declining slightly to 14.9 by the latest follow-up. Late deterioration of JOA score developed in eight patients, but was unrelated to the cervical spine lesions in each case. No patient suffered from prolonged postoperative axial neck pain at final follow-up. The mean C2-7 angle before surgery (13.8 degrees) significantly increased to 19.2 degrees at final follow-up. Conclusions C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with CSM maintained satisfactory long-term neurologic improvement with significantly reduced frequencies of prolonged postoperative axial neck pain and loss of C2-7 angle after surgery.

  13. Proximal Opening Wedge Osteotomy Provides Satisfactory Midterm Results With a Low Complication Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravakangas, Rami; Leppilahti, Juhana; Laine, Vesa; Niinimäki, Tuukka

    2016-01-01

    Hallux valgus is one of the most common foot deformities. Proximal opening wedge osteotomy is used for the treatment of moderate and severe hallux valgus with metatarsus primus varus. However, hypermobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint can compromise the results of the operation, and a paucity of midterm results are available regarding proximal open wedge osteotomy surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the midterm results of proximal open wedge osteotomy in a consecutive series of patients with severe hallux valgus. Thirty-one consecutive adult patients (35 feet) with severe hallux valgus underwent proximal open wedge osteotomy. Twenty patients (35.5%) and 23 feet (34.3%) were available for the final follow-up examination. The mean follow-up duration was 5.8 (range 4.6 to 7.0) years. The radiologic measurements and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux-metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scores were recorded pre- and postoperatively, and subjective questionnaires were completed and foot scan analyses performed at the end of the follow-up period. The mean hallux valgus angle decreased from 38° to 23°, and the mean intermetatarsal angle correction decreased from 17° to 10°. The mean improvement in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal score increased from 52 to 84. Two feet (5.7%) required repeat surgery because of recurrent hallux valgus. No nonunions were identified. Proximal open wedge osteotomy provided satisfactory midterm results in the treatment of severe hallux valgus, with a low complication rate. The potential instability of the first tarsometatarsal joint does not seem to jeopardize the midterm results of the operation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. C3–6 Laminoplasty for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Maintains Satisfactory Long-Term Surgical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objective To clarify long-term surgical outcomes of C3–6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Twenty patients who underwent C3–6 open-door laminoplasty for CSM and who were followed for 8 to 10 years were included in this study. Myelopathic symptoms were assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Axial neck pain was graded as severe, moderate, or mild. C2–7 angle was measured using lateral radiographs of the cervical spine before surgery and at final follow-up. Results Mean JOA score before surgery (11.7) was significantly improved to 15.2 at the time of maximum recovery (1 year after surgery), declining slightly to 14.9 by the latest follow-up. Late deterioration of JOA score developed in eight patients, but was unrelated to the cervical spine lesions in each case. No patient suffered from prolonged postoperative axial neck pain at final follow-up. The mean C2–7 angle before surgery (13.8 degrees) significantly increased to 19.2 degrees at final follow-up. Conclusions C3–6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with CSM maintained satisfactory long-term neurologic improvement with significantly reduced frequencies of prolonged postoperative axial neck pain and loss of C2–7 angle after surgery. PMID:25083358

  15. Cerebral blood flow measured by arterial spin labeling MRI at resting state in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Gordon, Marc L; Goldberg, Terry E

    2017-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging uses arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this review, based on ASL studies in the resting state, we discuss state-of-the-art technical and data processing improvements in ASL, and ASL CBF changes in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other types of dementia. We propose that vascular and AD risk factors should be considered when evaluating CBF changes in aging, and that other validated biomarkers should be used as inclusion criteria or covariates when evaluating CBF changes in MCI and AD. With improvements in hardware and experimental design, ASL is proving to be an increasingly promising tool for exploring pathogenetic mechanisms, early detection, monitoring disease progression and pharmacological response, and differential diagnosis of AD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Prediction of effectiveness of shunting in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus by cerebral blood flow measurement and computed tomography cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia-Cheng; Kuwana, Nobumasa; Ito, Susumu; Ikegami, Tadashi [Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and computed tomography (CT) cisternography were performed in 37 patients with a tentative diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) to predict their surgical outcome. The mean CBF of the whole brain was measured quantitatively by single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime before surgery. The results of CT cisternography were classified into four patients: type I, no ventricular stasis at 24 hours; type II, no ventricular stasis with delayed clearance of cerebral blush; type III, persistent ventricular stasis with prominent cerebral blush; type IV, persistent ventricular stasis with diminished cerebral blush and/or asymmetrical filling of the sylvian fissures. The mean CBF was significantly lower than that of age-matched controls (p<0.005). Patients with a favorable outcome had a significantly higher mean CBF than patients with an unfavorable outcome (p<0.005). Patients with the type I pattern did not respond to shunting. Some patients with type II and III patterns responded to shunting but improvement was unsatisfactory. Patients with type IV pattern responded well to shunting, and those with a mean CBF of 35 ml/100 g/min or over achieved a favorable outcome. The combination of CBF measurement and CT cisternography can improve the prediction of surgical outcome in patients with suspected NPH. (author)

  17. Prediction of effectiveness of shunting in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus by cerebral blood flow measurement and computed tomography cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chia-Cheng; Kuwana, Nobumasa; Ito, Susumu; Ikegami, Tadashi

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and computed tomography (CT) cisternography were performed in 37 patients with a tentative diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) to predict their surgical outcome. The mean CBF of the whole brain was measured quantitatively by single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime before surgery. The results of CT cisternography were classified into four patients: type I, no ventricular stasis at 24 hours; type II, no ventricular stasis with delayed clearance of cerebral blush; type III, persistent ventricular stasis with prominent cerebral blush; type IV, persistent ventricular stasis with diminished cerebral blush and/or asymmetrical filling of the sylvian fissures. The mean CBF was significantly lower than that of age-matched controls (p<0.005). Patients with a favorable outcome had a significantly higher mean CBF than patients with an unfavorable outcome (p<0.005). Patients with the type I pattern did not respond to shunting. Some patients with type II and III patterns responded to shunting but improvement was unsatisfactory. Patients with type IV pattern responded well to shunting, and those with a mean CBF of 35 ml/100 g/min or over achieved a favorable outcome. The combination of CBF measurement and CT cisternography can improve the prediction of surgical outcome in patients with suspected NPH. (author)

  18. Dependency of cardiac rubidium-82 imaging quantitative measures on age, gender, vascular territory, and software in a cardiovascular normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, John J; Pan, Xiao-Bo; Declerck, Jerome; Menda, Yusuf

    2015-02-01

    Recent technological improvements to PET imaging equipment combined with the availability of software optimized to calculate regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) create a paradigm shifting opportunity to provide new clinically relevant quantitative information to cardiologists. However, clinical interpretation of the MBF and MFR is entirely dependent upon knowledge of MBF and MFR values in normal populations and subpopulations. This work reports Rb-82-based MBF and MFR measurements for a series of 49 verified cardiovascularly normal subjects as a preliminary baseline for future clinical studies. Forty-nine subjects (24F/25M, ages 41-69) with low probability for coronary artery disease and with normal exercise stress test were included. These subjects underwent rest/dipyridamole stress Rb-82 myocardial perfusion imaging using standard clinical techniques (40 mCi injection, 6-minute acquisition) using a Siemens Biograph 40 PET/CT scanner with high count rate detector option. List mode data was rehistogrammed into 26 dynamic frames (12 × 5 seconds, 6 × 10 seconds, 4 × 20 seconds, 4 × 40 seconds). Cardiac images were processed, and MBF and MFR calculated using Siemens syngo MBF, PMOD, and FlowQuant software using a single compartment Rb-82 model. Global myocardial blood flow under pharmacological stress for the 24 females as measured by PMOD, syngo MBF, and FlowQuant were 3.10 ± 0.72, 2.80 ± 0.66, and 2.60 ± 0.63 mL·minute(-1)·g(-1), and for the 25 males was 2.60 ± 0.84, 2.33 ± 0.75, 2.15 ± 0.62 mL·minute(-1)·g(-1), respectively. Rest flows for PMOD, syngo MBF, and FlowQuant averaged 1.32 ± 0.42, 1.20 ± 0.33, and 1.06 ± 0.38 mL·minute(-1)·g(-1) for the female subjects, and 1.12 ± 0.29, 0.90 ± 0.26, and 0.85 ± 0.24 mL·minute(-1)·g(-1) for the males. Myocardial flow reserves for PMOD, syngo MBF, and FlowQuant for the female normals were calculated to be 2.50 ± 0.80, 2.53 ± 0.67, 2.71 ± 0.90, and 2.50 ± 1.19, 2

  19. The value of CT measurement of normal human mandible, hyoid and the airway area at the hyoid level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changliang; Zhang Jia; Ge Pingjiang; Zhang Siyi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the normal value and clinical significance of the lengths and angles of both mandible and hyoid, and their relationship with cervical vertebra as well as the transverse area of the airway at the hyoid level using CT. Methods: Several lines and angles on the CT images were measured in 68 normal subjects. Line A was the length between both free ends of the mandible; line B was the distance from the body of the mandible to line A; Line C was the distance from line A to the anterior aspect of the cervical vertebra. α 1 was the angle between the middle of mandible body and its two free ends. Line a was the distance between two free ends of greater horn of hyoid bone. Line b was the distance from hyoid to line a. Line c was the distance from line a to the cervical vertebra. α 2 was the angle between the middle of hyoid body and its two free ends. S stood for the area of the airway at the hyoid level. SPSS 11.5 statistical analysis package was used to analyze the results. Results: The average and median distance/angle of various measurements were as follows: line A was (89.28±5.90) mm and 88.70 mm, line B was (62.61±5.78) mm and 62.50 mm, line C was (9.29±3.29) mm and 4.20 mm, α 1 was (71.25±6.77) degree and 71.05 degree, line a was (38.69 ± 6.07) mm and 39.90 mm, line b was (28.79 ± 4.37) mm and 28.50 mm, line c was (1.91 ± 3.03) mm and 1.75 mm, α 2 was (68.47 ± 15.71) degree and 66.95 degree. The average S was (436.14 ± 160.37) mm 2 and median was 431.75 mm 2 . Conclusion: It is easy to measure the three lines and the two angles of mandible and hyoid. The measurement is of vital importance in the diagnosis and treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

  20. analysis of the probability of channel satisfactory state in p2p live

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    churn and bits flow was modelled as fluid flow. The applicability of the theory of probability was deduced from Kelly (1991). Section II of the paper provides the model of. P2P live streaming systems taking into account peer behaviour and expression was obtained for the computation of the probability of channel- satisfactory ...

  1. The assessment of four different correction models applied to the diffuse radiation measured with a shadow ring using global and normal beam radiation measurements for Beer Sheva, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudish, Avraham I.; Evseev, Efim G. [Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, E D Bergmann Campus, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2008-02-15

    The measurement of the diffuse radiation incident on a horizontal surface, a priori a straightforward task, is fraught with difficulties. It is possible to measure the diffuse radiation by three different techniques: two of which measure it directly and the third indirectly. The most accurate is the indirect one, which is based upon the concurrent measurements of the horizontal global and the normal incidence beam radiation. The disadvantage of this being the relatively expensive tracking system required for measuring the latter. The diffuse radiation can be measured directly with a pyranometer outfitted with either an occulting disk or shadow ring, which prevent the beam radiation from impinging on the pyranometer sensor. The occulting disk can provide accurate measurements of the diffuse radiation but it requires a relatively expensive sun tracking system in the east-west axis. The shadow ring is a stationary device with regard to the east-west axis and blocks the beam radiation component by creating a permanent shadow on the pyranometer sensor. The major disadvantage of the shadow ring is that it also blocks that portion of the diffuse radiation obscured by the shadow ring. This introduces a measurement error that must be corrected to account for that portion of the sky obscured by the shadow band. In addition to this geometric correction factor there is a need to correct for anisotropic sky conditions. Four correction models have been applied to the data for Beer Sheva, Israel and the results have been evaluated both graphically and statistically. An attempt has been made to score the relative performance of the models under different sky conditions. (author)

  2. 41 CFR 102-117.255 - What actions may I take if the TSP's performance is not satisfactory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What actions may I take if the TSP's performance is not satisfactory? 102-117.255 Section 102-117.255 Public Contracts and... may I take if the TSP's performance is not satisfactory? If the TSP's performance is not satisfactory...

  3. 12 CFR 225.84 - What are the consequences of failing to maintain a satisfactory or better rating under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintain a satisfactory or better rating under the Community Reinvestment Act at all insured depository... satisfactory or better rating under the Community Reinvestment Act at all insured depository institution... depository institution controlled by the financial holding company received a rating below “satisfactory...

  4. The Quantitative Measurements of Vascular Density and Flow Areas of Macula Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Normal Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Fadakar, Kaveh; Bazvand, Fatemeh; Mirshahi, Reza; Mohebbi, Masoumeh; Sabour, Siamak

    2017-06-01

    The quantification of the density of macular vascular networks and blood flow areas in the foveal and parafoveal area in healthy subjects using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Cross-sectional, prospective study in an institutional setting at the Retina Services of Farabi Eye Hospital. One hundred twelve normal volunteers with no known ocular or systemic disease were included, including patient numbers (one or both eyes), selection procedures, inclusion/exclusion criteria, randomization procedure, and masking. En face angiogram OCTA was performed on a 3 mm × 3 mm region centered on the macula. Automated thresholding and measuring algorithm method for foveal and parafoveal blood flow and vascular density (VD) were used. The density of macular vascular networks and blood flow area in the foveal and parafoveal area were measured. A total of 224 healthy eyes from 112 subjects with a mean age of 36.4 years ± 11.3 years were included. In the foveal region, the VD of the superficial capillary network (sCN) was significantly higher than that of the deep capillary network (dCN) (31.1% ± 5.5% vs. 28.3% ± 7.2%; P < .001), whereas in the parafoveal area, VD was higher in the dCN (62.24% ± 2.8% vs. 56.5% ± 2.5%; P < .001). Flow area in the 1-mm radius circle in the sCN was less than in the dCN. Superficial foveal avascular zone (sFAZ) size was negatively correlated with the VD of the foveal sCN, but in the deep FAZ (dFAZ) was not correlated with VD or blood flow area of the fovea. There was no difference between measured VD and blood flow surface area in both eyes of the subjects. OCTA could be used as a noninvasive, repeatable, layer-free method in quantitative evaluation of VD and blood flow of macular area. The normal quantities of the vascular plexus density and flow will help in better understanding the pathophysiological basis of the vascular disease of retina. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:478-486.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK

  5. Site, gender and age variation in normal skin colour on the back and the forearm: tristimulus colorimeter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, A; Serup, J

    1997-02-01

    To study whether anatomical location and age and gender of subjects had any influence on the objective skin colour measurements. Baseline colour in prone position was measured with the Minolta ChromaMeter® in the upper, middle and lower level of the upper back and on the forearm of 168 volunteers. These two sites are commonly used in skin testing. Higher basal a* and lower basal L* levels were found on the upper scapular region compared to the lower scapular region and the subscapular region. The basal b* level showed no variation relative to site. The basal a* and the basal b* levels were lower on the forearm compared to the upper back while the basal L* level was higher. Females above 65 years showed a less coloured skin with lower values as compared to those of younger age. Females were found to have a generally lower basal a* level than males both on the upper back and forearm skin. These relatively major differences and sources of variation have to be considered when planning irritancy studies where colour differences between erythema and normal skin is used.

  6. Measuring the volume of cingulate cortex in Chinese normal adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chao; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhou Xin; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of cingulate cortex volumes of Chinese adults of the Han nationality and its relationship with age, which provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. One thousand Chinese healthy volunteers (age range = 18 to 70) recruited from 15 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i.e., Group A (age range = 18 to 30), B (age range =31 to 40), C (age range =41 to 50), D (age range =51 to 60), and E (age range =61 to 70). Each group contained 100 males and 100 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. Cingulate cortex volume (including bulk volume and the left/right volume) was measured semi-manually using 3D volume analysis software. Cingulate cortex volumes among age groups were compared by one-way ANOVA. Right and left cingulate cortex volumes between sexualities were analyzed by paired samples t test. The relationship between cingulate cortex volume and age was analyzed by Pearson correlations and regression analysis. Results: Cingulate cortex volumes of male and female were (20 347 ± 2504) and (19 432 ± 2184) mm 3 respectively, and the male's was significantly larger than that of female's (two sample t'-test for independent samples, t'=6.156, P 3 respectively, and those of female's were (10 064 ± 1407) and (9368 ± 1441) mm 3 respectively. The volumes of cingulate cortex were significantly different between right and left in male or female (t=-12.960, -8.511, P 3 ; right: (11212±1442), (11 096±1602), (11 040±1403), (10633±1638), (9604±1522) mm 3 ] had statistical differences (F=16.738, 18.707, P 3 ; right: (10 558± 1325), (10 266 ±1463), (10 100 ± 1497), (9779 ± 1304), (9617 ± 1254) mm 3 ] also had significant differences (F=16.859,7.528,P<0.01). Bilateral cingulate cortex volume in both male and female were negatively

  7. Length and volume of morphologically normal kidneys in Korean Children: Ultrasound measurement and estimation using body size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hwee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lim, Sok Hwan; Lee, Mi Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Eun [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and renal length and volume measured with ultrasound in Korean children who have morphologically normal kidneys, and to create simple equations to estimate the renal sizes using the anthropometric measurements. We examined 794 Korean children under 18 years of age including a total of 394 boys and 400 girls without renal problems. The maximum renal length (L) (cm), orthogonal anterior-posterior diameter (D) (cm) and width (W) (cm) of each kidney were measured on ultrasound. Kidney volume was calculated as 0.523 x L x D x W (cm{sup 3}). Anthropometric indices including height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index (m{sup 2}/kg) were collected through a medical record review. We used linear regression analysis to create simple equations to estimate the renal length and the volume with those anthropometric indices that were mostly correlated with the US-measured renal sizes. Renal length showed the strongest significant correlation with patient height (R2, 0.874 and 0.875 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). Renal volume showed the strongest significant correlation with patient weight (R2, 0.842 and 0.854 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). The following equations were developed to describe these relationships with an estimated 95% range of renal length and volume (R2, 0.826-0.884, p < 0.001): renal length = 2.383 + 0.045 x Height (± 1.135) and = 2.374 + 0.047 x Height (± 1.173) for the right and left kidneys, respectively; and renal volume 7.941 + 1.246 x Weight (± 15.920) and = 7.303 + 1.532 x Weight (± 18.704) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Scatter plots between height and renal length and between weight and renal volume have been established from Korean children and simple equations between them have been developed for use in clinical practice.

  8. Length and volume of morphologically normal kidneys in Korean Children: Ultrasound measurement and estimation using body size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hwee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lim, Sok Hwan; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Ji Eun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and renal length and volume measured with ultrasound in Korean children who have morphologically normal kidneys, and to create simple equations to estimate the renal sizes using the anthropometric measurements. We examined 794 Korean children under 18 years of age including a total of 394 boys and 400 girls without renal problems. The maximum renal length (L) (cm), orthogonal anterior-posterior diameter (D) (cm) and width (W) (cm) of each kidney were measured on ultrasound. Kidney volume was calculated as 0.523 x L x D x W (cm 3 ). Anthropometric indices including height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index (m 2 /kg) were collected through a medical record review. We used linear regression analysis to create simple equations to estimate the renal length and the volume with those anthropometric indices that were mostly correlated with the US-measured renal sizes. Renal length showed the strongest significant correlation with patient height (R2, 0.874 and 0.875 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). Renal volume showed the strongest significant correlation with patient weight (R2, 0.842 and 0.854 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). The following equations were developed to describe these relationships with an estimated 95% range of renal length and volume (R2, 0.826-0.884, p < 0.001): renal length = 2.383 + 0.045 x Height (± 1.135) and = 2.374 + 0.047 x Height (± 1.173) for the right and left kidneys, respectively; and renal volume 7.941 + 1.246 x Weight (± 15.920) and = 7.303 + 1.532 x Weight (± 18.704) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Scatter plots between height and renal length and between weight and renal volume have been established from Korean children and simple equations between them have been developed for use in clinical practice.

  9. Reproducibility of isometric shoulder protraction and retraction strength measurements in normal subjects and individuals with winged scapula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Seop; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Dvir, Zeevi

    2016-11-01

    The strength of the shoulder protractors and retractors may be compromised in individuals with winged scapula (IwWS). However, no standard approach to measuring the strength of these muscles has been described. The aim of this study was to study the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of a fixed-base isometric dynamometer and to describe cutoff scores for clinically meaningful change for protraction and retraction isometric strength. Twice during a week, 20 normal subjects and 20 IwWS were tested by 2 independent raters. IwWS were significantly weaker (P isometric strength. Excellent intra-rater and inter-rater correlations were obtained in most combinations, leading to low cutoff scores for meaningful change expressed in terms of the smallest real difference. When it is properly used, the technique described in this paper is recommended as an effective clinical tool for the quantitative assessment of protraction and retraction isometric strength, both for status determination and for monitoring of change in IwWS during and after rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of radioisotope methods for the measurement of phosphate absorption in normal subjects and in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, K.; Mohammed, M.N.; Newman, S.P.; Varghese, Z.; Moorhead, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal phosphate absorption was measured in normal subjects, in patients with chronic renal failure, and in post-transplant patients, by a double isotope technique involving oral administration of 32 P and simultaneous intravenous injection of 33 P with subsequent deconvolution analysis. By this technique intestinal phosphate absorption has been shown to have two components: an initial rapid phase, which is completed by 3 h, and a slower more prolonged phase, which continues beyond 71/2 h. Phosphate malabsorption has been demonstrated in chronic renal failure and transplant patients, which is accounted for by impairment of the initial phase of absorption. Results obtained by deconvolution analysis have been compared with other estimates of phosphate absorption obtained from analysis of 32 P radioactivity curves alone. The fractional hourly rate of absorption and the plasma 32 P radioactivity at 60 min corrected for extracellular fluid volume provided the best approximations to the result obtained by deconvolution analysis, with respect to both the maximal rate of phosphate absorption and cumulative percentage phosphate absorption. (author)

  11. Gait and Balance Measures Can Identify Change From a Cerebrospinal Fluid Tap Test in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ryan; Marquez, Jodie; Osmotherly, Peter

    2018-04-25

    To identify in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) undergoing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT) for consideration of a ventricular peritoneal (VP) shunt: (1) gait and balance measures, which identify symptom change; (2) differences present between pre- and post-CSF TT scores between patients classified as responders and nonresponder; (3) ability of patients with iNPH to accurately quantify change in their gait and balance symptoms from a CSF TT. Prospective observational study. Post-CSF TT assessment was completed 2-4 hours post. Tertiary referral neurological and neurosurgical hospital. Patients (N=74) with iNPH receiving a 30 mL CSF TT for consideration of a VP shunt. Patients underwent a battery of gait and balance measures pre- and post-CSF TT and indicated their perceived change on a global rating of change (GRC). Patients deemed to improve and offered VP shunt insertion by a neurologist or neurosurgeon were labeled responders. Performance oriented mobility assessment (Tinetti), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), timed Up and Go (TUG), 10-meter walk test (10MWT), GRC. Forty patients were classified responders, 34 nonresponders. Significant differences were identified for responders: Tinetti (3.88 points), TUG (3.98 seconds), 10MWT (0.08 m/sec), and BBS (5.29 points). Significant differences were found for nonresponders for the Tinetti (0.91 points) and BBS (2.06 points). Change scores for responders and nonresponders were significantly different for all tests between responders and nonresponders. GRC scores for gait (+2 for responders, 0 for nonresponders) and balance (+2.5 for responders, 0 for nonresponders) were both significantly different. The Tinetti, BBS, and TUG can identify change in patients undergoing a CSF TT for iNPH. Patients appear to be able to accurately identify if change has occurred. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. White matter measures are near normal in controlled HIV infection except in those with cognitive impairment and longer HIV duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A; Soares, James R; Geng, Guangqiang; Scarpetta, Maia; Moffat, Kirsten; Green, Michael; Brew, Bruce J; Henry, Roland G; Rae, Caroline

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to quantify the degree of white matter (WM) abnormalities in chronic and virally suppressed HIV-infected (HIV+) persons while carefully taking into account demographic and disease factors. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted in 40 HIV- and 82 HIV+ men with comparable demographics and life style factors. The HIV+ sample was clinically stable with successful viral control. Diffusion was measured across 32 non-colinear directions with a b-value of 1000 s/mm 2 ; fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps were quantified with Itrack IDL. Using the ENIGMA DTI protocol, FA and MD values were extracted for each participant and in 11 skeleton regions of interest (SROI) from standard labels in the JHU ICBM-81 atlas covering major striato-frontal and parietal tracks. We found no major differences in FA and MD values across the 11 SROI between study groups. Within the HIV+ sample, we found that a higher CNS penetrating antiretroviral treatment, higher current CD4+ T cell count, and immune recovery from the nadir CD4+ T cell count were associated with increased FA and decreased MD (p < 0.05-0.006), while HIV duration, symptomatic, and asymptomatic cognitive impairment were associated with decreased FA and increased MD (p < 0.01-0.004). Stability of HIV treatment and antiretroviral CNS penetration efficiency in addition to current and historical immune recovery were related to higher FA and lower MD (p = 0.04-p < 0.01). In conclusion, WM DTI measures are near normal except for patients with neurocognitive impairment and longer HIV disease duration.

  13. Music Perception by Cochlear Implant and Normal Hearing Listeners as Measured by the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William B.; Tobey, Emily; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the utility/possibility of using the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) test (Peretz, Champod, & Hyde, 2003) to assess the music perception abilities of cochlear implant (CI) users. Design The MBEA was used to measure six different aspects of music perception (Scale, Contour, Interval, Rhythm, Meter, and Melody Memory) by CI users and normal hearing (NH) listeners presented with stimuli processed via CI simulations. The spectral resolution (number of channels) was varied in the CI simulations to determine: (a) the number of channels (4, 6, 8, 12, 16) needed to achieve the highest levels of music perception and (b) the number of channels needed to produce levels of music perception performance comparable to that of CI users. Results CI users and NH listeners performed higher on temporal-based tests (Rhythm and Meter) than on pitch-based tests (Scale, Contour, and Interval) – a finding that is consistent with previous research studies. The CI users' scores on pitch-based tests were near chance. The CI users' (but not NH listeners') scores for the Memory test, a test that incorporates an integration of both temporal-based and pitch-based aspects of music, were significantly higher than the scores obtained for the pitch-based Scale test and significantly lower than the temporal-based Rhythm and Meter tests. The data from NH listeners indicated that 16 channels of stimulation did not provide the highest music perception scores and performance was as good as that obtained with 12 channels. This outcome is consistent with other studies showing that NH listeners listening to vocoded speech are not able to utilize effectively F0 cues present in the envelopes, even when the stimuli are processed with a large number (16) of channels. The CI user data appear to most closely match with the 4- and 6- channel NH listener conditions for the pitch-based tasks. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, both CI

  14. Music perception by cochlear implant and normal hearing listeners as measured by the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William B; Tobey, Emily; Loizou, Philipos C

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the utility/possibility of using the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) test (Peretz, et al., Ann N Y Acad Sci, 999, 58-75) to assess the music perception abilities of cochlear implant (CI) users. The MBEA was used to measure six different aspects of music perception (Scale, Contour, Interval, Rhythm, Meter, and Melody Memory) by CI users and normal-hearing (NH) listeners presented with stimuli processed via CI simulations. The spectral resolution (number of channels) was varied in the CI simulations to determine: (a) the number of channels (4, 6, 8, 12, and 16) needed to achieve the highest levels of music perception and (b) the number of channels needed to produce levels of music perception performance comparable with that of CI users. CI users and NH listeners performed higher on temporal-based tests (Rhythm and Meter) than on pitch-based tests (Scale, Contour, and Interval)--a finding that is consistent with previous research studies. The CI users' scores on pitch-based tests were near chance. The CI users' (but not NH listeners') scores for the Memory test, a test that incorporates an integration of both temporal-based and pitch-based aspects of music, were significantly higher than the scores obtained for the pitch-based Scale test and significantly lower than the temporal-based Rhythm and Meter tests. The data from NH listeners indicated that 16 channels of stimulation did not provide the highest music perception scores and performance was as good as that obtained with 12 channels. This outcome is consistent with other studies showing that NH listeners listening to vocoded speech are not able to use effectively F0 cues present in the envelopes, even when the stimuli are processed with a large number (16) of channels. The CI user data seem to most closely match with the 4- and 6-channel NH listener conditions for the pitch-based tasks. Consistent with previous studies, both CI users and NH listeners

  15. A 3% Measurement of the Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in Forward Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering using the Qweak Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waidyawansa, Dinayadura Buddhini [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The beam normal single spin asymmetry generated in the scattering of transversely polarized electrons from unpolarized nucleons is an observable of the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange process. Moreover, it is a potential source of false asymmetry in parity violating electron scattering experiments. The Q{sub weak} experiment uses parity violating electron scattering to make a direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton. The targeted 4% measurement of the weak charge of the proton probes for parity violating new physics beyond the Standard Model. The beam normal single spin asymmetry at Q{sub weak} kinematics is at least three orders of magnitude larger than 5 ppb precision of the parity violating asymmetry. To better understand this parity conserving background, the Q{sub weak} Collaboration has performed elastic scattering measurements with fully transversely polarized electron beam on the proton and aluminum. This dissertation presents the analysis of the 3% measurement (1.3% statistical and 2.6% systematic) of beam normal single spin asymmetry in electronproton scattering at a Q2 of 0.025 (GeV/c)2. It is the most precise existing measurement of beam normal single spin asymmetry available at the time. A measurement of this precision helps to improve the theoretical models on beam normal single spin asymmetry and thereby our understanding of the doubly virtual Compton scattering process.

  16. Measurement of optic tracts in normal Chinese adults of the Han nationality based on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changying; Shi Linping; Zhang Yang; Wang Jian; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    [(3.33 ± 0.45), (3.34 ± 0.41), ( 3.33 ± 0.36), (3.23 ± 0.38), (3.23 ± 0.39) mm] had statistical differences (F=3.458, 2.735,4.711, P= 0.008, 0.028,0.001). The LSD analysis found that the 50 years old group was the watershed with significant differences (P 0.05). (3) Comparisons of the measurements between left and right optic tracts: TD1 of bilateral optic tracts were (4.52 ± 0.57) and (4.72 ± 0.60) mm respectively; H1 of bilateral optic tracts were (2.56 ± 0.30)and (2.61 ± 0.30) mm respectively; H2 of bilateral optic tracts were (2.66 ± 0.30 )and (2.70 ± 0.30) mm respectively; and L of bilateral optic tracts were (11.14 ± 1.47)and (10.98±1.50)mm respectively. There were significant differences in these measurements between left and right optic tracts (t= 12.460, -6.013,5.595,4.784, P=0.000), while there were no significant differences in TD2, H3, H4 and H5 (P>0.05). Conclusions: With high-resolution MRI and 3D reconstruction, optic tract can be displayed clearly and measured accurately. There are definite differences in anterior segments of optic tracts between sexualities, sides and among ages in normal Chinese Hah adults, while the posterior segments of optic tracts keep stable. Normal reference values of optic tracts in Chinese Han adults are provided to clinical practices and scientific researches, which are valuable for building of Chinese standard brain. (authors)

  17. Gamma-ray multiplicity measurements for the determination of the initial angular momentum ranges in normal and fast fission processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Masri, Y.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Martin, V.; Bizard, G.; Brou, R.; Laville, J.L.; Regimbart, R.; Tamain, B.; Peter, J.

    1990-01-01

    Gamma-ray multiplicities (first and second moments) have been measured, in the 220 MeV 20 Ne+ nat Re and 315 meV 40 Ar+ 165 Ho reactions, as a function of fission fragment masses and centre-of-mass total kinetic energies. The two reactions lead to the same fusion nucleus, 205 At, at the same excitation energy (167 MeV). The experimental critical angular momentum for the fission process in the Ne+Re system (91±3) ℎ is close to I Bf=0 (∝80 ℎ) while in the Ar+Ho reaction this critical angular momentum (136±4) ℎ is much larger than I Bf=0 value, favoring the occurrence of the fast fission process. The observed widths of the fission fragment mass distribution: (42±2) u in the Ne+Re system and (56±4) u in the Ar+Ho reaction strengthen this hypothesis. For both compound nucleus fission and fast fission components in Ar+Ho, the total spin values obtained in absolute magnitude and in their dependence on the mass asymmetry are well described by assuming rigid rotation of the fissioning complex and statistical excitation of some collective rotational modes such as 'Bending' and 'Wriggling' according to the Schmitt-Pacheco model. These modes, however, are not all fully excited, their degrees of excitation are approximately the same for both fission components. From theoretical estimates of equilibration times, one anticipates the 'Tilting' mode to be by far the last to be excited, and from its non-excitation in the present data together with the excitation of bending and wriggling, a time interval of about 10 -21 s to 2x10 -20 s can be derived for the reaction time of both normal fission and fast fission. (orig./HSI)

  18. Comparison of microarray platforms for measuring differential microRNA expression in paired normal/cancer colon tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Callari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microarray technology applied to microRNA (miRNA profiling is a promising tool in many research fields; nevertheless, independent studies characterizing the same pathology have often reported poorly overlapping results. miRNA analysis methods have only recently been systematically compared but only in few cases using clinical samples. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the inter-platform reproducibility of four miRNA microarray platforms (Agilent, Exiqon, Illumina, and Miltenyi, comparing nine paired tumor/normal colon tissues. The most concordant and selected discordant miRNAs were further studied by quantitative RT-PCR. Globally, a poor overlap among differentially expressed miRNAs identified by each platform was found. Nevertheless, for eight miRNAs high agreement in differential expression among the four platforms and comparability to qRT-PCR was observed. Furthermore, most of the miRNA sets identified by each platform are coherently enriched in data from the other platforms and the great majority of colon cancer associated miRNA sets derived from the literature were validated in our data, independently from the platform. Computational integration of miRNA and gene expression profiles suggested that anti-correlated predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs are commonly enriched in cancer-related pathways and in genes involved in glycolysis and nutrient transport. CONCLUSIONS: Technical and analytical challenges in measuring miRNAs still remain and further research is required in order to increase consistency between different microarray-based methodologies. However, a better inter-platform agreement was found by looking at miRNA sets instead of single miRNAs and through a miRNAs - gene expression integration approach.

  19. Intraocular pressure measurements and corneal biomechanical properties using a dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer, after several keratoplasty techniques, versus normal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, J; Granget, E; Ho Wang Yin, G; Sampo, M; Hoffart, L

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical properties of the cornea and their impact on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement after lamellar keratoplasty, compared to healthy eyes, using a non-contact tonometer with a Scheimpflug camera. This study, from 2014 to 2015, included 22 primary DSAEK, 5 DALK, 6 DSAEK after PK, and 50 control eyes. Using a non-contact tonometer with a high-speed Scheimpflug camera (CORVIS ST, Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany), several biomechanical parameters were recorded, including radius at highest concavity (R hc ) and defomation amplitude (DA). Central corneal thickness (CCT) and uncorrected IOP, were also recorded. For the control eyes only, a corrected IOP was calculated, based on age, central corneal thickness, and biomechanical parameters. R hc was significantly lower after DALK (R hc =5.54±0.71, P=0.007) and DSAEK (R hc =6.26±0.77, P=0.042) compared to control eyes (R hc =6.82±0.76). DA was higher after DALK and DSAEK, but not significantly (respectively 1.24±0.09 P=0.41 and 1.22±0.15, P=0.923) compared to normal eyes (1.18±0.15). Uncorrected IOP was not significantly different between post-keratoplasty and control eyes. In control eyes, the corrected IOP (15.23±1.88) was lower than the uncorrected IOP (16.10±2.34); a statistically significant positive correlation between R hc and CCT (R 2 =0.6020, P<0001), and a significant negative correlation between DA and CCT (R 2 =-0.641, P<0.0001) were found. Our study showed that, after lamellar keratoplasty, corneal biomechanics are altered. Corneas with higher ocular rigidity will show a lower DA and a higher R hc . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Modified Grice-Green subtalar arthrodesis performed using a partial fibular graft yields satisfactory results in patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Melih; Tokyay, Abbas; Akman, Budak; Encan, Mehmet E; Altintaş, Faik

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report the experience with the use of a modified Grice-Green technique, which was performed using a partial subperiosteal fibular bone graft because of valgus unstable foot in children with cerebral palsy. Fifteen feet of 11 patients were evaluated on the basis of the appearance of the feet, clinical symptoms, and radiographic measurements. After an average follow-up duration of 24 (9-39) months, all feet showed satisfactory clinical and radiological results. Solid fusion and sustained correction took place in all feet. The gap at the donor site was bridged with new bone in all cases. No donor-site morbidity was detected. This modification of the Grice-Green technique can be used effectively in the correction of planovalgus foot in cerebral palsy.

  1. Arthroscopic treatment for intratendinous rotator cuff tear results in satisfactory clinical outcomes and structural integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sang Jin; Lee, Hyo Yeol; Jeon, Woong Ki

    2018-04-20

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and structural integrity of arthroscopic repair of intratendinous rotator cuff tear. Patients who were diagnosed with an intratendinous tear but in whom conservative treatment failed were selected and underwent arthroscopic repair. Between 2008 and 2014, a total of 30 patients (6 men, 24 women; mean age, 59 ± 3.7 years) met the inclusion criteria and were followed up. The mean follow-up period was 26.3 ± 0.7 months. The results were evaluated using the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) score, the Society of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons rating scale (ASES) questionnaire, and the visual analog scale (VAS) and range of motion (ROM) were measured preoperatively and at final follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed preoperatively and at 6.7 ± 0.2 months postoperatively. Postoperative MRI was performed on 27 out of 30 patients and analysed using the Sugaya classification. Corresponding to the preoperative MRI findings, arthroscopic findings of intratendinous tears were observed in all 30 patients. The mean active forward elevation ROM was 137.3° ± 15.4° before surgery and 168.8° ± 15.2° at the final follow-up. The internal and external rotations at abduction were 31.7° ± 5.1° and 63.0° ± 11.6° before surgery, respectively, and 60.5° ± 8.0° and 75.2° ± 10.8° after surgery, respectively. The UCLA score improved from of 20.1 ± 7.4 points preoperative to 28.4 ± 5.5 points at the final follow-up. The ASES score improved from 55.7 ± 15.3 points preoperative to 82.6 ± 9.7 points postoperatively. The VAS for pain score decreased from 6.4 ± 1.2 points preoperative to 1.6 ± 0.9 points postoperative. Satisfactory outcomes (excellent/good) in terms of UCLA and ASES scores were observed in 29 of 30 patients. Based on Sugaya classification, grades I, II, and III structural integrities were observed in 9

  2. Sonographic measurement of fetal aortic size: Normative values in a sample of normal fetuses in a Lagos suburb, Southwest Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, C.U.; Ilounoh, C.E.; Irurhe, N.K.; Akpochafor, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common congenital anomalies while prenatal ultrasound screening is a necessity even in low risk populations. Aim: To measure fetal ascending aortic diameter (AAD) between 18 and 38 weeks of gestation in order to provide a normal reference data for the population studied. Method: In the prospective cross sectional study, a sample of 300 healthy pregnant women was selected to undergo trans-abdominal echocardiography. Data Collection: Logiq 3 ultrasound machine fitted with a 3.5 MHz–5 MHz variable curvilinear transducer was used for data collection. Results: Mean AAD was 4.59 ± 1.56 mm. There was a linear relationship between AAD and gestational age (GA) while there was a strong positive correlation between AAD and GA (r = 0.9915). Mean AAD for male and female fetuses was 4.60 ± 0.57 mm and 4.58 ± 0.55 mm respectively and the difference in mean AAD was not significant (p = 0.8420) between both sexes. Mean AAD in the study was significantly different from the mean AAD in a European and Asian studies (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Trans-abdominal echocardiography carried out between the 18th and 38th week of gestation appears useful in screening for CHD especially if screening is performed by an experienced sonographer using a high resolution ultrasound machine. - Highlights: • The mean ascending aortic diameter (AAD) in the population is 4.59 ± 1.56 mm. • The mean AAD for male and female fetuses is 4.60 ± 0.57 mm and 4.58 ± 0.55 mm respectively. • No significant difference in mean AAD in the population with respect to sex (p = 0.8420). • Mean AAD in the population is significantly different from European and Asian data (p = 0.001). • Trans-abdominal echocardiography performed for CHD screening appears useful.

  3. Determination of Sample Entropy and Fuzzy Measure Entropy Parameters for Distinguishing Congestive Heart Failure from Normal Sinus Rhythm Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Entropy provides a valuable tool for quantifying the regularity of physiological time series and provides important insights for understanding the underlying mechanisms of the cardiovascular system. Before any entropy calculation, certain common parameters need to be initialized: embedding dimension m, tolerance threshold r and time series length N. However, no specific guideline exists on how to determine the appropriate parameter values for distinguishing congestive heart failure (CHF from normal sinus rhythm (NSR subjects in clinical application. In the present study, a thorough analysis on the selection of appropriate values of m, r and N for sample entropy (SampEn and recently proposed fuzzy measure entropy (FuzzyMEn is presented for distinguishing two group subjects. 44 long-term NRS and 29 long-term CHF RR interval recordings from http://www.physionet.org were used as the non-pathological and pathological data respectively. Extreme (>2 s and abnormal heartbeat RR intervals were firstly removed from each RR recording and then the recording was segmented with a non-overlapping segment length N of 300 and 1000, respectively. SampEn and FuzzyMEn were performed for each RR segment under different parameter combinations: m of 1, 2, 3 and 4, and r of 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 respectively. The statistical significance between NSR and CHF groups under each combination of m, r and N was observed. The results demonstrated that the selection of m, r and N plays a critical role in determining the SampEn and FuzzyMEn outputs. Compared with SampEn, FuzzyMEn shows a better regularity when selecting the parameters m and r. In addition, FuzzyMEn shows a better relative consistency for distinguishing the two groups, that is, the results of FuzzyMEn in the NSR group were consistently lower than those in the CHF group while SampEn were not. The selections of m of 2 and 3 and r of 0.10 and 0.15 for SampEn and the selections of m of 1 and 2 whenever r (herein

  4. Metabolic Rather Than Body Composition Measurements Are Associated With Lower Serum Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Normal Weight and Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that obese persons have lower circulating natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations. The cause of the relative NP deficiency seen in obese persons is poorly understood, although variation in body composition and metabolic abnormalities has been suggested to play...... a role. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess whether variation in circulating NP concentrations would be associated with differences in metabolic disturbances rather than with differences in body composition. METHODS: In 27 normal weight men (body mass index (BMI) = 20.0-24.9kg/m(2)) and 103 obese...... weight ± SD was 74.9±6.7kg in the normal weight men and 106.1±10.8kg in obese men. Applying multiple regressions, adjusting for age and weight status (normal weight vs. obese), serum MR-proANP concentrations were significantly inversely associated with serum insulin concentrations (β = -0.39; P

  5. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. Aims: To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Setting and Design: Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Materials and Methods: Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Results: Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032 and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2. Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ2 = 1.5; P = 0.2. Conclusions: Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  6. Assessment of block height for satisfactory spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, R; Egan, C; Dowling, K; Cyna, A M

    2012-12-01

    We investigated block heights that anaesthetists considered adequate for caesarean section to proceed under spinal anaesthesia. During 3 months, 15 obstetric anaesthetists recorded block height to touch, pinprick or cold when spinal anaesthesia was considered satisfactory for caesarean section to proceed. Median (IQR [range]) block height for touch, pinprick, first cold and icy were: T10 (T7-T12 [T3-L1]); T5 (T4-T6 [C7-L1]); T5 (T4-T6 [C7-L1]); and T3 (T2-T4 [C7-L1]), respectively. Modalities were significantly correlated for: touch and cold, p = 0.0001; touch and icy, p = 0.0007; touch and pinprick, p = 0.0018; cold and icy, p satisfactory anaesthesia despite 76 (81%) having a block to touch below T6. Single modality assessment of block height, particularly using touch, may erroneously indicate inadequate anaesthesia for caesarean section. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Trained nurses can obtain satisfactory bone marrow aspirates and trephine biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, S; Aston, S; Baker, L; Fegan, C D; Milligan, D W

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the feasibility of training nurse practitioners to perform bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy, and to compare the quality of these samples with those obtained by medical staff. METHODS: A retrospective audit was undertaken of nurse practitioner and medical staff performance in bone marrow procedures in a busy haematology day unit. RESULTS: Nurse practitioners fared favourably in comparison with medical staff in performing bone marrow trephine biopsies, with mean biopsy lengths of 11 mm and 10.7 mm respectively. However, only 78% of the smears obtained by the nurses were judged technically satisfactory, compared with 91% prepared by doctors. This discrepancy was thought to be due largely to the quality of slide spreading. CONCLUSIONS: With motivated staff and a structured educational and training programme it is possible for nurse practitioners to perform the techniques of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, and obtain specimens of satisfactory quality, thus improving efficiency of the haematology day unit and increasing quality of patient care. Images PMID:10396248

  8. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pervinder; Kushtagi, Pralhad

    2013-07-01

    Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay) spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032) and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2). Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ(2) = 1.5; P = 0.2). Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  9. The determination of the first normal stress coefficient of an exopolysaccharide solution by rheo-optical measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarzycki, R.; Linden, van der E.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Venema, P.; Babuchowski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This paper illustrates how rheo-optical techniques may be utilized to determine the first normal stress coefficient for an exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by the Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LY03, which is widely used in yoghurt production. In this technique both shear stress,

  10. 41 CFR 102-117.285 - What are my choices if a TSP's performance is not satisfactory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are my choices if a TSP's performance is not satisfactory? 102-117.285 Section 102-117.285 Public Contracts and Property... are my choices if a TSP's performance is not satisfactory? You may choose to place a TSP in temporary...

  11. Can an inadequate cervical cytology sample in ThinPrep be converted to a satisfactory sample by processing it with a SurePath preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Pedersen, Mette Kristin; Ekeberg, Bente; Williams, Merete E Johansen; Sauer, Torill; Chen, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Program recommends screening every 3 years for women between 25 and 69 years of age. There is a large difference in the percentage of unsatisfactory samples between laboratories that use different brands of liquid-based cytology. We wished to examine if inadequate ThinPrep samples could be satisfactory by processing them with the SurePath protocol. A total of 187 inadequate ThinPrep specimens from the Department of Clinical Pathology at University Hospital of North Norway were sent to Akershus University Hospital for conversion to SurePath medium. Ninety-one (48.7%) were processed through the automated "gynecologic" application for cervix cytology samples, and 96 (51.3%) were processed with the "nongynecological" automatic program. Out of 187 samples that had been unsatisfactory by ThinPrep, 93 (49.7%) were satisfactory after being converted to SurePath. The rate of satisfactory cytology was 36.6% and 62.5% for samples run through the "gynecology" program and "nongynecology" program, respectively. Of the 93 samples that became satisfactory after conversion from ThinPrep to SurePath, 80 (86.0%) were screened as normal while 13 samples (14.0%) were given an abnormal diagnosis, which included 5 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 5 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 2 atypical glandular cells not otherwise specified, and 1 atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. A total of 2.1% (4/187) of the women got a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or higher at a later follow-up. Converting cytology samples from ThinPrep to SurePath processing can reduce the number of unsatisfactory samples. The samples should be run through the "nongynecology" program to ensure an adequate number of cells.

  12. Consideration of Normal Variation of Perfusion Measurements in the Quantitative Analysis of Myocardial Perfusion SPECT: Usefulness in Assessment of Viable Myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Lim, Il Han; Kim, Ki Bong; Lee, Dong Soo

    2008-01-01

    Although automatic quantification software of myocardial perfusion SPECT provides highly objective and reproducible quantitative measurements, there is still some limitation in the direct use of quantitative measurements. In this study we derived parameters using normal variation of perfusion measurements, and tried to test the usefulness of these parameters. In order to calculate normal variation of perfusion measurements on myocardial perfusion SPECT, 55 patients (M:F=28:27) of low-likelihood for coronary artery disease were enrolled and 201 Tl rest / 99m Tc-MIBI stress SPECT studies were performed. Using 20-segment model, mean (m) and standard deviation (SD) of perfusion were calculated in each segment. As a myocardial viability assessment group, another 48 patients with known coronary artery disease, who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) were enrolled. 201 Tl rest / 99m Tc-MIBI stress / 201 Tl 24-hr delayed SPECT was performed before CABG and SPECT was followed up 3 months after CABG. From the preoperative 24-hr delayed SPECT, Q delay (perfusion measurement), Δ delay (Q delay .m) and Z delay ((Q delay .m)/SD) were defined and diagnostic performances of them for myocardial viability were evaluated using area under curve (AUC) on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Segmental perfusion measurements showed considerable normal variations among segments. In men, the lowest segmental perfusion measurement was 51.8±6.5 and the highest segmental perfusion was 87.0±5.9, and they are 58.7±8.1 and 87.3±6.0, respectively in women. In the viability assessment, Q delay showed AUC of 0.633, while those for Δ delay and Z delay were 0.735 and 0.716, respectively. The AUCs of Δ delay and Z delay were significantly higher than that of Q delay (p=0.001 and 0.018, respectively). The diagnostic performance of Δ delay , which showed highest AUC, was 85% of sensitivity and 53% of specificity at the optimal cutoff of -24.7. On automatic

  13. Measurement and Analysis of Normal Zone Propagation in a ReBCO Coated at Temperatures Below 50 K (Proc. 25th ICEC & ICMC2014 conference)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Nijhuis, Arend; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the quasi-adiabatic normal zone propagation velocity and quench energies of a Superpower SCS4050 copper stabilised ReBCO superconducting tape are presented over a temperature range of 23 − 47 K; in parallel applied magnetic fields of 6, 10 and 14 T; and over a current range from 50%

  14. Oxygen Supplementation to Stabilize Preterm Infants in the Fetal to Neonatal Transition: No Satisfactory Answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Cuevas, Isabel; Cernada, Maria; Nuñez, Antonio; Escobar, Javier; Kuligowski, Julia; Chafer-Pericas, Consuelo; Vento, Maximo

    2016-01-01

    Fetal life elapses in a relatively low oxygen environment. Immediately after birth with the initiation of breathing, the lung expands and oxygen availability to tissue rises by twofold, generating a physiologic oxidative stress. However, both lung anatomy and function and the antioxidant defense system do not mature until late in gestation, and therefore, very preterm infants often need respiratory support and oxygen supplementation in the delivery room to achieve postnatal stabilization. Notably, interventions in the first minutes of life can have long-lasting consequences. Recent trials have aimed to assess what initial inspiratory fraction of oxygen and what oxygen targets during this transitional period are best for extremely preterm infants based on the available nomogram. However, oxygen saturation nomogram informs only of term and late preterm infants but not on extremely preterm infants. Therefore, the solution to this conundrum may still have to wait before a satisfactory answer is available.

  15. Oxygen supplementation to stabilize preterm infants in the fetal to neonatal transition: no satisfactory answer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel eTorres-Cuevas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal life elapses in a relatively low oxygen environment. Immediately after birth with the initiation of breathing the lung expands and oxygen availability to tissue rises by twofold generating a physiologic oxidative stress. However, both lung anatomy and function and the antioxidant defense system do not mature until late in gestation and therefore very preterm infants often need respiratory support and oxygen supplementation in the delivery room to achieve postnatal stabilization. Notably, interventions in the first minutes of life can have long-lasting consequences. Recent trials have aimed to assess what initial inspiratory fraction of oxygen and what oxygen targets during this transitional period are best for extremely preterm infants based on the available nomogram. However, oxygen saturation nomogram informs only of term and late preterm infants but not on extremely preterm infants. Therefore, the solution to this conundrum may still have to wait before a satisfactory answer is available.

  16. SPM analysis of cerebrovascular reserve capacity after stimulation with acetazolamide measured by Tc-99m ECD SPECT in normal brain MRI patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. H.; Yoon, S. N.; Yoon, J. K.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ajou, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate normal response of acetazolamide in normal individuals, whose brain MRI is normal, using SPM99. In total, 10 Tc- 99m ECD brain SPECT were evaluated retrospectively. The half of the patients were male. Their mean age was 47.1 years old with a range of 33-61 years. They all visited our neurology department to evaluate stroke symptom. Their brain MRI was normal. Rest/acetazolamide brain SPECT was perfomed using Tc-99m ECD and the sequential injection and subtraction method. SPECT was acquired using fanbeam collimators and triple-head gamma camera (MultiSPECT III, Siemens medical systems, Inc. Hoffman Estates, III, USA). Chang's attenuation correction was applied their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis by two nuclear physician and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared rest brain SPECT images with those of acetazolamide brain SPECT and measured the extent of the area with significant perfusion change (P<0.05) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Acetazolamide brain SPECT showed no significant decreased region in comparison to rest brain SPECT. Only small portion of left mid temporal gyrus revealed increased rCBF on acetazolamide brain SPECT in comparison to rest brain SPECT. It apperas that there is no significant change in rCBF between rest and acetazolamide brain SPECT using Tc-99m ECD. The small number of this study is limitation of our study.

  17. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with two-dimensional cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Evaluation of normal subjects and patients with vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Osada, Hisato

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the vertebral flow of patients with vertigo and normal brain magnetic resonance (MR) images was decreased in comparison with normal controls. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured by a two-dimensional phase contrast cine MR imaging technique in 24 normal controls (mean age, 38.6 years; range, 12-70) and 23 patients (mean age, 53.7 years; range, 19-76) with a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging unit. Inter-and intraobserver variation in blood flow measurements was small (r=0.970, standard error of the estimate [SEE]=2.9 ml, n=80; r=0.963, SEE=4.6 ml, n=40, respectively), In the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (171 ml/min, SD=40.6) was significantly less than mean summed carotid flow (523 ml/min, SD=111). Right vertebral flow (80.2 ml/min, SD=30.5) was less than left vertebral flow (91.2 ml/min, SD=38.2), but the difference was not statistically significant (p<0.05), In the 23 patients, although the summed vertebral flows of two patients (63.3, 88.8 ml/min) were significantly less than that of the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (165 ml/min, SD=59.1) showed no significant difference from that of the normal group (p<0.05). In this study, the majority of patients had normal CBF. This method is clinically useful for estimating CBF. (author)

  18. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with two-dimensional cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Evaluation of normal subjects and patients with vertigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Osada, Hisato [Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Saitama Medical Center

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the vertebral flow of patients with vertigo and normal brain magnetic resonance (MR) images was decreased in comparison with normal controls. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured by a two-dimensional phase contrast cine MR imaging technique in 24 normal controls (mean age, 38.6 years; range, 12-70) and 23 patients (mean age, 53.7 years; range, 19-76) with a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging unit. Inter-and intraobserver variation in blood flow measurements was small (r=0.970, standard error of the estimate [SEE]=2.9 ml, n=80; r=0.963, SEE=4.6 ml, n=40, respectively), In the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (171 ml/min, SD=40.6) was significantly less than mean summed carotid flow (523 ml/min, SD=111). Right vertebral flow (80.2 ml/min, SD=30.5) was less than left vertebral flow (91.2 ml/min, SD=38.2), but the difference was not statistically significant (p<0.05), In the 23 patients, although the summed vertebral flows of two patients (63.3, 88.8 ml/min) were significantly less than that of the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (165 ml/min, SD=59.1) showed no significant difference from that of the normal group (p<0.05). In this study, the majority of patients had normal CBF. This method is clinically useful for estimating CBF. (author).

  19. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  20. An online Vce measurement and temperature estimation method for high power IGBT module in normal PWM operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    An on-state collector-emitter voltage (Vce) measurement and thereby an estimation of average temperature in space for high power IGBT module is presented while power converter is in operation. The proposed measurement circuit is able to measure both high and low side IGBT and anti parallel diode...

  1. Brain Tumor Therapy-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing Brainstem Measured With Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Chiaho; Merchant, Thomas E.; Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto; Zhang, Yong; Li Yimei; Glenn, George R.; Kun, Larry E.; Ogg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize therapy-induced changes in normal-appearing brainstems of childhood brain tumor patients by serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods and Materials: We analyzed 109 DTI studies from 20 brain tumor patients, aged 4 to 23 years, with normal-appearing brainstems included in the treatment fields. Those with medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (n = 10) received postoperative craniospinal irradiation (23.4–39.6 Gy) and a cumulative dose of 55.8 Gy to the primary site, followed by four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy. Patients with high-grade gliomas (n = 10) received erlotinib during and after irradiation (54–59.4 Gy). Parametric maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were computed and spatially registered to three-dimensional radiation dose data. Volumes of interest included corticospinal tracts, medial lemnisci, and the pons. Serving as an age-related benchmark for comparison, 37 DTI studies from 20 healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 25 years, were included in the analysis. Results: The median DTI follow-up time was 3.5 years (range, 1.6–5.0 years). The median mean dose to the pons was 56 Gy (range, 7–59 Gy). Three patterns were seen in longitudinal FA and apparent diffusion coefficient changes: (1) a stable or normal developing time trend, (2) initial deviation from normal with subsequent recovery, and (3) progressive deviation without evidence of complete recovery. The maximal decline in FA often occurred 1.5 to 3.5 years after the start of radiation therapy. A full recovery time trend could be observed within 4 years. Patients with incomplete recovery often had a larger decline in FA within the first year. Radiation dose alone did not predict long-term recovery patterns. Conclusions: Variations existed among individual patients after therapy in longitudinal evolution of brainstem white matter injury and recovery. Early response

  2. A strand specific high resolution normalization method for chip-sequencing data employing multiple experimental control measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enroth, Stefan; Andersson, Claes; Andersson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing is becoming the standard tool for investigating protein-DNA interactions or epigenetic modifications. However, the data generated will always contain noise due to e.g. repetitive regions or non-specific antibody interactions. The noise will appear in the form of a backg......, the background is only used to adjust peak calling and not as a pre-processing step that aims at discerning the signal from the background noise. A normalization procedure that extracts the signal of interest would be of universal use when investigating genomic patterns....

  3. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with /sup 133/Xe inhalation and dynamic single photon emission computer tomography. Normal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rootwelt, K; Dybevold, S; Nyberg-Hansen, R; Russell, D

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow was studied by /sup 133/Xe inhalation tomography in 25 healthy subjects. Mean age was 41 years and range 23-66 years. Mean hemispheric CBF at rest was 59.8 ml/100 g/min, and cerebellar flow 60.8 ml/100 g/min. The distribution of CBF values was skewed and approximated a log normal distribution. Estimated lower and upper normal reference range limits calculated as mean (log) = - 2 S.D. (log) were 47-74 ml/100 g/min. Women had approximately 5 ml/100 g/min higher CBF values than men, corresponding to the difference in hematocrit. Neither in men or women was there any tendency to age dependent reduction or increase in flow. In both sexes hemispheric regional CBF (rCBF) was asymmetric with higher flow values in the right cerebral hemisphere; particularly in the anterior distribution territory of the middle cerebral artery. Emotional activation as a consequence of the study conditions is assumed to be the cause of this observed asymmetry. Cerebellar flow was not assymetric. No significant difference in cerebellar or hemispheric CBF was found when a second study followed the first by 3-15 months, PCO/sub 2/ correction of flow improved reproducibility. Acetazolamide responses are reported.

  4. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with 133Xe inhalation and dynamic single photon emission computer tomography. Normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootwelt, Kjell; Dybevold, Synnoeve; Nyberg-Hansen, Rolf; Russell, David

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow was studied by 133 Xe inhalation tomography in 25 healthy subjects. Mean age was 41 years and range 23-66 years. Mean hemispheric CBF at rest was 59.8 ml/100 g/min, and cerebellar flow 60.8 ml/100 g/min. The distribution of CBF values was skewed and approximated a log normal distribution. Estimated lower and upper normal reference range limits calculated as mean (log) = - 2 S.D. (log) were 47-74 ml/100 g/min. Women had approximately 5 ml/100 g/min higher CBF values than men, corresponding to the difference in hematocrit. Neither in men or women was there any tendency to age dependent reduction or increase in flow. In both sexes hemispheric regional CBF (rCBF) was asymmetric with higher flow values in the right cerebral hemisphere; particularly in the anterior distribution territory of the middle cerebral artery. Emotional activation as a consequence of the study conditions is assumed to be the cause of this observed asymmetry. Cerebellar flow was not assymetric. No significant difference in cerebellar or hemispheric CBF was found when a second study followed the first by 3-15 months, PCO 2 correction of flow improved reproducibility. Acetazolamide responses are reported. (author)

  5. DNA double-strand breaks measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in irradiated lymphocytes from normal humans and those with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobi, S.E.; Itzhaki, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The authors previously found that radiation-induced chromosome aberrations (dicentrics) are more numerous in lymphocytes from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients than in those from age-matched normal individuals (Tobi et al. 1990). They have examined double-strand breaks (dsb) produced by g amma - irradiation in the DNA of AD and normal lymphocytes by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The percentage of DNA migrating into the gels is an indirect measure of the number of dsb; DNA content of sequential slices of the gel was assayed by direct fluorometry and the percentage migrating was dose dependent. Results show that the level of damage is similar in AD and normal lymphocytes and preliminary assays of the rate of repair suggest that the half-time is also similar, the value being > 1 h. The latter is consistent with the known rate of rejoining of chromosome fragments in interphase lymphocytes (Pantelias and Maillie 1985). (Author)

  6. Further evidence for the fifth higher trait of personality pathology: a correlation study using normal and disordered personality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hao; Xu, Shaofang; Zhu, Junpeng; Chen, Wanzhen; Xu, You; He, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2012-12-30

    Studies between disordered personality and the Big-Five or the Alternative Five-Factor model of normal personality have consistently shown four higher traits. The fifth higher trait, relating to Openness to Experience or Impulsive Sensation Seeking was less supported. The culture-free Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (NPQ) might help us to characterise the fifth higher trait. We therefore tried the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP), the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) and the NPQ in 253 healthy participants. Our results yielded five factors, four of which resembled the previous ones. The fifth one, namely Peculiarity Seeking, was defined by NPQ and NEO-PI-R Openness to Experience, ZKPQ Impulsive Sensation Seeking and DAPP Stimulus Seeking. Whether the fifth factor is linked to the schizotypal personality disorder as proposed remains unanswered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Normal incidence spectrophotometer using high density transmission grating technology and highly efficiency silicon photodiodes for absolute solar EUV irradiance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Korde, R.

    1992-01-01

    New developments in transmission grating and photodiode technology now make it possible to realize spectrometers in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (wavelengths less than 1000 A) which are expected to be virtually constant in their diffraction and detector properties. Time dependent effects associated with reflection gratings are eliminated through the use of free standing transmission gratings. These gratings together with recently developed and highly stable EUV photodiodes have been utilized to construct a highly stable normal incidence spectrophotometer to monitor the variability and absolute intensity of the solar 304 A line. Owing to its low weight and compactness, such a spectrometer will be a valuable tool for providing absolute solar irradiance throughout the EUV. This novel instrument will also be useful for cross-calibrating other EUV flight instruments and will be flown on a series of Hitchhiker Shuttle Flights and on SOHO. A preliminary version of this instrument has been fabricated and characterized, and the results are described.

  8. A non-parametric conditional bivariate reference region with an application to height/weight measurements on normal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2009-01-01

    A conceptually simple two-dimensional conditional reference curve is described. The curve gives a decision basis for determining whether a bivariate response from an individual is "normal" or "abnormal" when taking into account that a third (conditioning) variable may influence the bivariate...... response. The reference curve is not only characterized analytically but also by geometric properties that are easily communicated to medical doctors - the users of such curves. The reference curve estimator is completely non-parametric, so no distributional assumptions are needed about the two......-dimensional response. An example that will serve to motivate and illustrate the reference is the study of the height/weight distribution of 7-8-year-old Danish school girls born in 1930, 1950, or 1970....

  9. 36 CFR 51.44 - How will the Director determine if a concessioner was satisfactory for purposes of a right of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determine if a concessioner was satisfactory for purposes of a right of preference? 51.44 Section 51.44... satisfactory for purposes of a right of preference? To be a satisfactory concessioner for the purposes of a... concessioner made subsequent to May 17, 2000 are less than satisfactory for any two or more years of operation...

  10. An Automatic System for Determining Solar Absorptance and Thermal Emittance of Surfaces from Spectral Normal Reflectance Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teichman, Louis

    1965-01-01

    .... The system consists of two spectrophotometers used to make optical reflectance measurements, electronic digitizing equipment to record the data, and a high-speed electronic computer to calculate the desired results...

  11. Networks of conforming or nonconforming individuals tend to reach satisfactory decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazi, Pouria; Riehl, James; Cao, Ming

    2016-11-15

    Binary decisions of agents coupled in networks can often be classified into two types: "coordination," where an agent takes an action if enough neighbors are using that action, as in the spread of social norms, innovations, and viral epidemics, and "anticoordination," where too many neighbors taking a particular action causes an agent to take the opposite action, as in traffic congestion, crowd dispersion, and division of labor. Both of these cases can be modeled using linear-threshold-based dynamics, and a fundamental question is whether the individuals in such networks are likely to reach decisions with which they are satisfied. We show that, in the coordination case, and perhaps more surprisingly, also in the anticoordination case, the agents will indeed always tend to reach satisfactory decisions, that is, the network will almost surely reach an equilibrium state. This holds for every network topology and every distribution of thresholds, for both asynchronous and partially synchronous decision-making updates. These results reveal that irregular network topology, population heterogeneity, and partial synchrony are not sufficient to cause cycles or nonconvergence in linear-threshold dynamics; rather, other factors such as imitation or the coexistence of coordinating and anticoordinating agents must play a role.

  12. Inverted Lobes Have Satisfactory Functions Compared With Noninverted Lobes in Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayawake, Hidenao; Chen-Yoshikawa, Toyofumi F; Motoyama, Hideki; Hamaji, Masatsugu; Hijiya, Kyoko; Aoyama, Akihiro; Goda, Yasufumi; Oda, Hiromi; Ueda, Satoshi; Date, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    To overcome the problem of small-for-size grafts in standard living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT), we developed inverted LDLLT, in which a right lower lobe from 1 donor is implanted as a right graft and another right lower lobe from another donor is implanted as a left graft. We retrospectively analyzed the functions of inverted grafts vs noninverted grafts. Between 2008 and 2015, 64 LDLLTs were performed. Included were 35 LDLLTs whose recipients were adults and monitored for more than 6 months without developing chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Among them, 65 implanted lobes were eligible for this analysis. There were 31 right lower lobes implanted as right grafts (right-to-right group), 7 right lower lobes as inverted left grafts (right-to-left group), and 27 left lower lobes as left grafts (left-to-left group). We evaluated the graft forced vital capacity (G-FVC) and graft volume of the 65 lobes before and 6 months after LDLLT and compared them among the three groups. Preoperatively, G-FVC in the right-to-left group (1,050 mL) was comparable to that in the right-to-right group (1,177 mL) and better than that in the left-to-left group (791 mL, p satisfactory compared with those of noninverted grafts. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [MESGI50 study: description of a cohort on Maturity and Satisfactory Ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas Barnadas, Josep María; López-Pousa, Secundino; Vilalta-Franch, Joan; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Juvinyà Canal, Dolors; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    To describe the demographic, health and socio-economic characteristics of the participants in the Study on Maturity and Satisfactory Ageing in Girona (MESGI50 study). Population-based Study linked to the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The reference population was the inhabitants of the province of Girona (Spain) aged 50 and over. A probabilistic two-stage stratified cluster sampling according to the number of inhabitants and the degree of ageing of the population was used. Twenty-eight municipalities were randomly selected according to their type (demographically aged or young), and then stratified by the population size. The response rate was 65% with a mean of 1.7 eligible individuals per household and a final sample of 2,065 households and 3,331 participants. The design effect was 1.27. 52.9% were women and the mean age was 66.9 years (SD=11.5). The self-rated health status, hand grip strength, restriction in daily life activities and depressive symptomatology increased with age and more markedly in women. There were differences in alcohol consumption and eating patterns depending on the area of residence. The demographic, health and socio-economic characteristics during the ageing process differ depending on age group, gender, and area of residence. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient's Perceptions Regarding Orthodontic Needs and Satisfactory Level with the Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farishta, Saibel

    2015-09-01

    In order to keep the patients satisfied with Orthodontic treatment and to address the growing concern among new orthodontic patients, this study was undertaken to evaluate patient's perceptions of their orthodontic treatment needs and the satisfactory level with the procedure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 362 patients who had received orthodontic treatment. Questionnaires included information factors that encouraged them to take orthodontic treatment, painful experience of orthodontic therapy, and also to know the effectiveness of the treatment. Student's t-test and ANOVA test were used to analyze results at P = 0.05. Most of the participants faced problems due to their dentition (60.2%), followed by mastication 23.6%. It was found that most of the study subjects were motivated by orthodontist to receive the treatment (29.7%). When the participants were asked about the complications faced by them during the procedure and the most common answer was a longer duration of the treatment (23.3%). Pain was also a common factor faced by the participants (15.9%). Significant results were seen according to gender and age. The study concluded that problems in the dentition were the main factor to seek orthodontic treatment and most of the subjects were convinced by the specialist to undergo orthodontic therapy. Many problems faced during the treatment, but still majority gave a positive response to the treatment.

  15. Video capsule endoscopy after bariatric and gastric surgery: oral ingestion is associated with satisfactory completion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanich, Peter P; Kleinman, Bryan; Porter, Kyle M; Meyer, Marty M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the outcomes of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) performed on patients after bariatric and gastric surgery with a focus on delivery method (oral ingestion or endoscopic placement). There is minimal published data regarding the use of VCE in patients after bariatric and gastric surgery and the optimal delivery method is unknown. Retrospective case series of patients with bariatric or gastric surgery undergoing VCE in a tertiary care center over 3 years. Outcomes of interest were completion of the procedure and bowel transit times. Twenty-three patients met study criteria. They underwent 24 VCE in the study period, with 13/16 (81.3%; 95% CI, 54%-96%) completed to the colon after oral ingestion and 5/8 (62.5%; 95% CI, 24%-91%) completed after endoscopic deployment. The median gastric transit time after oral ingestion was 440) (P=0.48). There were no instances of capsule retention. Oral ingestion of VCE resulted in a satisfactory completion rate with rapid gastric transit after bariatric and gastric surgery. There were no capsule retention events. Given this and the favorable risk and cost profile, oral ingestion should be favored over endoscopic placement in this patient population.

  16. Anthropometric indices are not satisfactory predictors of metabolic comorbidities in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anita; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; Martino, Francesco; Martino, Eliana; Bozzola, Mauro; Maffeis, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    To assess the accuracy of body mass index (BMI), Z score of the BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio in selecting obese children with fasting metabolic impairments or impaired glucose tolerance. In a cohort of 883 obese children and adolescents (age 8-18 years), we assessed the associations of anthropometric indices with traditional metabolic complications of obesity (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol). The accuracy of anthropometric indices as markers of metabolic impairment was assessed by receiver operating characteristic analysis and the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROCs) of anthropometric indices were compared with each other by the DeLong test. BMI, Z score of the BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with metabolic impairments but showed low to moderate accuracy in discriminating both single and clustered metabolic impairments. The AUROCs ranged from 0.55-0.70. The 4 anthropometric indices did not show significantly different AUROCs as predictors of clustered metabolic risk factors (all P values of DeLong tests: >.05). Commonly used anthropometric indices are not satisfactory markers of metabolic comorbidity among obese children and adolescents and should not be adopted as screening tools for the metabolic assessment of this category of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does Excision of Heterotopic Ossification of the Elbow Result in Satisfactory Patient-Rated Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, K N; Suresh, G; Gopisankar, B; Abhishek, N; Sujiv, A

    2017-03-01

    Treatment of heterotopic ossification (HO) of the elbow is challenging and fraught with complications. Patients who sustain direct trauma to the elbow joint, the central nervous system, and thermal burns are at increased risk for development of HO. There is a paucity of studies and reports on patient's self-evaluation after the excision of the heterotopic ossification. This retrospective study assessed outcomes after excision of heterotopic ossification around the elbow in a cohort of ten patients operated from 2012 to 2015. The outcome assessment was done by the Mayo Elbow Performance index (MEPI) and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons-Elbow score (ASES-E scores). The mean follow-up was 18.11 months after the operation. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score was excellent in two elbows, good in six and fair in two. The mean gain in flexion-extension arc after excision of HO was 80 degrees. All of the patients had residual flexion deformity postoperatively. Eight of the nine patients were able to do activities requiring flexion at final follow-up. Excision of HO around the elbow is associated with satisfactory patient-rated outcomes in spite of failure to regain full range of motion.

  18. Is the classical two-term approximation of electron kinetic theory satisfactory for swarms and plasmas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R D; Robson, R E; Schmidt, B; Morrison, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    The 'two-term' approximation (representation of the electron distribution by the first two terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics in velocity space) continues to occupy a central role in the low-temperature plasma physics literature, in spite of the mass of evidence illustrating its inadequacy in the swarm (free diffusion) limit for many molecular gases. Part of the problem lies in the failure of many authors to specify quantitatively what they mean when they say that the two-term approximation is 'acceptable'. Thus for example, an error of 10% in transport coefficients may well be acceptable in many plasma applications, but for analysis of highly accurate swarm experiments to compare with ab initio and beam-derived cross-sections, 0.1% or less is required, making 'multi-term' analysis mandatory. While reconciliation of the swarm and plasma literature along the lines of two different accuracy regimes may thus be possible, we dispute claims that the two-term approximation is generally satisfactory for inversion of swarm experiment data to obtain electron impact cross-sections. The unsatisfactory nature of other assumptions implicit in much of the modern plasma kinetic theory literature is also discussed

  19. Comparison of objective optical quality measured by double-pass aberrometry in patients with moderate dry eye: Normal saline vs. artificial tears: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeer, G; Chamy, Y; Pisella, P-J

    2018-02-01

    Dry eye is defined by a tear film instability resulting in variable but systematic fluctuations in quality of vision. Variability in optical quality can be demonstrated using a double pass aberrometer such as the Optical Quality Analyzing System, Visiometrics (OQAS). The goal of this work is to compare fluctuations in objective quality of vision measured by OQAS between treatment with normal saline eye drops and treatment with carmellose 0.5% and hyaluronic acid 0.1% (Optive Fusion [OF], Allergan) in patients with moderate dry eye syndrome. Optical quality was measured by evaluating the variations in the Optical Scattering Index (OSI) over 20seconds using the OQAS. Inclusion criteria were dry eye syndrome with an ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score >23 treated only with artificial tears. The patients were their own controls: OF in one eye and normal saline in the fellow eye. The choice of the subject eye and control eye was determined in a randomized fashion. OSI variations were measured in each eye before instillation, 5minutes and 2hours after instillation. The primary endpoint was OSI fluctuation over 20seconds of measurement. Secondary endpoints were the number of blinks and patient preference (preferred eye). Preliminary results were obtained on 19 patients. Average OSDI score was 36.8. Visual acuity was 10/10 with no significant difference between the two eyes. Prior to instillation, there was no significant difference between "normal saline" and "OF" eyes in terms of OSI, OSI variability or number of blinks. In the normal saline eye, there were no significant variations in mean OSI, OSI variability, OSI slope, or number of blinks. However, in the "OF" eye, there was a significant variation between initial and 2-hour OSI variability (0.363 versus 0.204, Peye, 24% did not have a preference, and 11% preferred the normal saline eye. Objective quality of vision measured by OQAS is an interesting parameter for evaluating the effectiveness of a lacrimal

  20. [Comparison of objective optical quality measured by double-pass aberrometry in patients with moderate dry eye: Normal saline vs. artificial tears: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeer, G; Chamy, Y; Pisella, P-J

    2018-03-01

    Dry eye is defined by a tear film instability resulting in variable but systematic fluctuations in the quality of vision. Variability in optical quality can be demonstrated using a double pass aberrometer such as the OQAS (Optical Quality Analyzing System, Visiometrics). The goal of this work is to compare fluctuations in objective quality of vision measured by OQAS between treatment with normal saline eye drops and treatment with carmellose 0.5% and hyaluronic acid 0.1% (Optive Fusion [OF], Allergan) in patients with moderate dry eye syndrome. Optical quality was measured by evaluating the variations in the Optical Scattering Index (OSI) over 20seconds using the OQAS. Inclusion criteria were dry eye syndrome with an Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score>23 treated only with artificial tears. The patients were their own controls: OF in one eye and normal saline in the fellow eye. The choice of the subject eye and control eye was determined in a randomized fashion. OSI variations were measured in each eye before instillation, 5minutes and 2hours after instillation. The primary endpoint was OSI fluctuation over 20seconds of measurement. Secondary endpoints were the number of blinks and patient's preference (preferred eye). Preliminary results were obtained on 19 patients. Average OSDI score was 36.8. Visual acuity was 10/10 with no significant difference between the two eyes. Prior to instillation, there was no significant difference between "normal saline" and "OF" eyes in terms of OSI, OSI variability or number of blinks. In the normal saline eye, there was no significant variation in mean OSI, OSI variability, OSI slope, or number of blinks. However, in the "OF" eye, there was a significant variation between initial and 2-hour OSI variability (0.363 versus 0.204; Peye, 24% did not have a preference, and 11% preferred the normal saline eye. Objective quality of vision measured by OQAS is an interesting parameter for evaluating the effectiveness of a lacrimal

  1. Improving and measuring inpatient documentation of medical care within the MS-DRG system: education, monitoring, and normalized case mix index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Lorenz, Robert R; Luther, Ralph B; Knowles-Ward, Lisa; Kelly, Dianne L; Weil, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Documentation of the care delivered to hospitalized patients is a ubiquitous and important aspect of medical care. The majority of references to documentation and coding are based on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS). We educated the members of a clinical care team in a single department (neurosurgery) at our hospital. We measured subsequent documentation improvements in a simple, meaningful, and reproducible fashion. We created a new metric to measure documentation, termed the "normalized case mix index," that allows comparison of hospitalizations across multiple unrelated MS-DRG groups. Compared to one year earlier, the traditional case mix index, normalized case mix index, severity of illness, and risk of mortality increased one year after the educational intervention. We encourage other organizations to implement and systematically monitor documentation improvement efforts when attempting to determine the accuracy and quality of documentation achieved.

  2. Satisfactory visualization rates of standard cardiac views at 18 to 22 weeks' gestation using spatiotemporal image correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Leeber; Mangers, Kristie; Grobman, William A; Platt, Lawrence D

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency with which 3 standard screening views of the fetal heart (4-chamber, left ventricular outflow tract [LVOT], and right ventricular outflow tract [RVOT]) can be obtained satisfactorily with the spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) technique. A prospective study of 111 patients undergoing anatomic surveys at 18 to 22 weeks was performed. Two ultrasound machines with fetal cardiac settings were used. The best volume set that could be obtained from each patient during a 45-minute examination was graded by 2 sonologists with regard to whether the 4-chamber, LVOT, and RVOT images were satisfactory for screening. All 3 views were judged satisfactory for screening in most patients: 1 sonologist graded the views as satisfactory in 70% of the patients, whereas the other found the views to be satisfactory in 83%. The position of the placenta did not alter the probability of achieving a satisfactory view, but a fetus in the spine anterior position was associated with a significantly lower probability that the views were regarded as satisfactory for screening (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.70; P < .05). This study suggests that STIC may assist with screening for cardiac anomalies at 18 to 22 weeks' gestation.

  3. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  4. Impact of stress on the satisfactory completion of a simulated crisis scenario by reactor operator and senior reactor operator requalification trainees at the Susquehanna Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wircenski, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The sample of 21 requalification trainees used in this study involved four groups of trainees, who participated in the requalification training cycle from December 19, 1984, to January 16, 1985. The interference-response stress measurement was studied through the performance of tasks as measured by the instructor on the Trainee Scenario Evaluation Report. The direct-response stress measurement was examined through the measurement of heart beat and blood pressure of the trainees during the crisis scenarios as monitored by the Pollenex Digital Blood Pressure Machine. The reported-response stress measurement was studied through the trainee's self-evaluation on the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (Anxiety Scale)-Today Form. The major findings are: (1) because of the satisfactory completion of the crisis scenario by all of the requalification trainees, the study was unable to draw a significant relationship between any single trainee characteristic and the satisfactory completion of a crisis scenario; (2) an overall pattern exists in the heart beat and blood pressure of the direct-response stress measurement and in the MAACL of the reported-response stress measurement; and (3) twelve pairs of variables compared the unusual event, the general emergency event, and following the scenario means with the baseline mean for significance. Those twelve pairs included a significant difference at the 0.05 level between six pairs

  5. 13C-octanoic acid breath test for measurement of solid gastric emptying: reproducibility in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Bo; Dan, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine the intra-individual reproducibility of the octanoic acid breath test in normal subjects and diabetics and to investigate whether cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying influence the intra-individual reproducibility. Methods: Nine normal subjects (six men, three women,mean age 38 years) and 15 diabetics with insulin treatment [nine men, six women; mean age 47 years; six had cardiovascular autonomic diabetic neuropathy (CADN) and/or delayed gastric emptying time] were, after a nocturnal fasting period, given a standard test meal (labelled with 13 C-octanoic acid, 1 046 kJ). Breath samples were taken at ten minute intervals over first one hour and at fifteen minute intervals over the following three hours and examined for 13 CO 2 by isotope ratio infrared spectrometry. Using a regression method gastric emptying half times (t 1/2 ) and lag phase (t lag ) were determined. Results: There was not a significant difference of t 1/2 and t lag between two measurements in normal subjects and diabetics. The coefficients of variation of day-to-day reproducibility were 11.7% for t 1/2 , 19.4% for t lag in normal subjects and 17.8% for t 1/2 , 28.2% for t lag in diabetics, but there was not significant difference between normal subjects and diabetics. There was not significant difference of intra-individual coefficient of variation of t 1/2 and t lag between diabetics with/without CADN and between diabetics with normal gastric emptying time and diabetics with delayed gastric emptying time. Conclusions: The 13 C-octanoic acid breath test has a high intra-individual reproducibility which is not affected by the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying. It can be recommended as a non-invasive test for assessing gastric emptying time after a solid test meal in diabetics

  6. Measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube in the lumbar spine on magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison between normal, pre- and post-discectomy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, Yasutomo

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbar disc hernia with special attention to measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube. Twenty-five patients (20 men and 5 women; 25 discs) who underwent posterior lumbar discectomy and 73 normal individuals (44 men and 29 women; 219 discs) of a similar age distribution were studied. Axial MRI was mainly used for the measurement of the dural tube. In the patient group, MRI examination was performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Assessment of the clinical symptoms was also included and used for comparison with the MRI evaluation. The cross-sectional area was significantly reduced to about 50% of the normal preoperatively. One month postoperatively, there was no significant increase in the size of the area, but after three months, the area increased significantly and progressed to the normal size within a year. One-month postoperatively, MRI examination was not considered useful because of postoperative hematoma and/or edema at the surgical site. The increase in the size of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube correlated well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. Three-months postoperatively, MRI evaluation of the lumbar disc seemed useful and measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube appeared to serve as an indicator of the effectiveness of the surgery. (author)

  7. Measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube in the lumbar spine on magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison between normal, pre- and post-discectomy conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubayashi, Yasutomo [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-07-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbar disc hernia with special attention to measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube. Twenty-five patients (20 men and 5 women; 25 discs) who underwent posterior lumbar discectomy and 73 normal individuals (44 men and 29 women; 219 discs) of a similar age distribution were studied. Axial MRI was mainly used for the measurement of the dural tube. In the patient group, MRI examination was performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Assessment of the clinical symptoms was also included and used for comparison with the MRI evaluation. The cross-sectional area was significantly reduced to about 50% of the normal preoperatively. One month postoperatively, there was no significant increase in the size of the area, but after three months, the area increased significantly and progressed to the normal size within a year. One-month postoperatively, MRI examination was not considered useful because of postoperative hematoma and/or edema at the surgical site. The increase in the size of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube correlated well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. Three-months postoperatively, MRI evaluation of the lumbar disc seemed useful and measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube appeared to serve as an indicator of the effectiveness of the surgery. (author)

  8. Normal LVEF measurements are significantly higher in females asassessed by post-stress resting Tc-99m sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Shin, Eak Kyun

    1999-01-01

    Volume-LVEF relationship is one of the most important factors of automatic EF quantification algorithm from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT(gMPS) (Germano et al. JNM, 1995). Gender difference whereby normal LVEF measurements are higher in females assessed by gMPS (Yao et al. JNM 1997). To validate true physiologic value of LVEF vs sampling or measured error, various parameters were evaluated statistically in both gender and age matched 200 subjects (mean age= 58.41±15.01) with normal LVEF more than 50%, and a low likelihood of coronary artery disease. Correlation between LVEDVi(ml/m2) and LVEF was highly significant (r=-0.62, p<0.0001) with similar correlations noted in both male (r=-0.45, p<0.0001) and female (r=-0.67, p<0.0001) subgroups. By multivariate analysis, LV volume and stroke volume was the most significant factor influencing LVEF in male and female, respectively. In conclusion, there is a significant negative correlation between LV volume and LVEF as measured by Tc-99m gated SPECT. Higher normal LVEF value should be applied to females as assessed by post-stress resting Tc-99m Sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

  9. Virtual planning of complex head and neck reconstruction results in satisfactory match between real outcomes and virtual models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Henning; Schablowsky, Clemens; Smeets, Ralf; Heiland, Max; Sehner, Susanne; Riecke, Björn; Nourwali, Ibrahim; Vorwig, Oliver; Gröbe, Alexander; Al-Dam, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    The reconstruction of large facial bony defects using microvascular transplants requires extensive surgery to achieve full rehabilitation of form and function. The purpose of this study is to measure the agreement between virtual plans and the actual results of maxillofacial reconstruction. This retrospective cohort study included 30 subjects receiving maxillofacial reconstruction with a preoperative virtual planning. Parameters including defect size, position, angle and volume of the transplanted segments were compared between the virtual plan and the real outcome using paired t test. A total of 63 bone segments were transplanted. The mean differences between the virtual planning and the postoperative situation were for the defect sizes 1.17 mm (95 % confidence interval (CI) (-.21 to 2.56 mm); p = 0.094), for the resection planes 1.69 mm (95 % CI (1.26-2.11); p = 0.033) and 10.16° (95 % CI (8.36°-11.96°); p satisfactory postoperative results are the basis for an optimal functional and aesthetic reconstruction in a single surgical procedure. The technique should be further investigated in larger study populations and should be further improved.

  10. Satisfactory treatment of a large connective tissue nevus with intralesional steroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, Nasrin; Dorostkar, Azadeh; Heiran, Alireza; Aslani, Fatemeh Sari

    2018-01-01

    Collagenoma is a type of connective tissue nevi, a rare hamartomatous malformation characterized by the predominant proliferation of normal collagen fibers and normal, decreased, or increased elastic fibers. Collagenomas present as multiple or solitary, hereditary or sporadic, asymptomatic, skin-colored papules, nodules, and plaques with variable sizes, and are usually located on the trunk, arm, and back. Here, we report on a 14-year-old boy who presented with an isolated giant collagenoma of the frontal area that dramatically responded to intralesional triamcinolone acetonide.

  11. Sequential multipoint motion of the tympanic membrane measured by laser Doppler vibrometry: preliminary results for normal tympanic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimoto, Yasuomi; Hasegawa, Kensaku; Arii, Shiro; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Yazama, Hiroaki; Kuya, Junko; Kitano, Hiroya

    2014-04-01

    Numerous studies have reported sound-induced motion of the tympanic membrane (TM). To demonstrate sequential motion characteristics of the entire TM by noncontact laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), we have investigated multipoint TM measurement. A laser Doppler vibrometer was mounted on a surgical microscope. The velocity was measured at 33 points on the TM using noncontact LDV without any reflectors. Measurements were performed with tonal stimuli of 1, 3, and 6 kHz. Amplitudes were calculated from these measurements, and time-dependent changes in TM motion were described using a graphics application. TM motions were detected more clearly and stably at 1 and 3 kHz than at other frequencies. This is because the external auditory canal acted as a resonant tube near 3 kHz. TM motion displayed 1 peak at 1 kHz and 2 peaks at 3 kHz. Large amplitudes were detected in the posterosuperior quadrant (PSQ) at 1 kHz and in the PSQ and anteroinferior quadrant (AIQ) at 3 kHz. The entire TM showed synchronized movement centered on the PSQ at 1 kHz, with phase-shifting between PSQ and AIQ movement at 3 kHz. Amplitude was smaller at the umbo than at other parts. In contrast, amplitudes at high frequencies were too small and complicated to detect any obvious peaks. Sequential multipoint motion of the tympanic membrane showed that vibration characteristics of the TM differ according to the part and frequency.

  12. Forehead Skin Blood Flow in Normal Neonates during Active and Quiet Sleep, Measured with a Diode Laser Doppler Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suichies, H.E.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Okken, A.; Jentink, H.W.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Greve, Jan

    1988-01-01

    Changes in forehead skin blood flow during active and quiet sleep were determined in 16 healthy neonates using a recently developed semi-conductor laser Doppler flow meter without light conducting fibres. Measurements were carried out at a postnatal age varying from 5 hours to 7 days. The two sleep

  13. Comparison of the corrosion potential for stainless steel measured in-plant and in laboratory during BWR normal water chemistry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molander, A.; Pein, K.; Tarkpea, P.; Takagi, Junichi; Karlberg, G.; Gott, K.

    1998-01-01

    To obtain reliable crack growth rate date for stainless steel in BWR environments careful laboratory simulation of the environmental conditions is necessary. In the plant the BWR normal water chemistry environment contains hydrogen peroxide, oxygen and hydrogen. However, in crack growth rate experiments in laboratories, the environment is normally simulated by adding 200 ppb oxygen to the high temperature water. Thus, as hydrogen peroxide is a more powerful oxidant than oxygen, it is to be expected that a lower corrosion potential will be measured in the laboratory than in the plant. To resolve this issue this work has been performed. In-plant and laboratory measurements have often been performed with somewhat different equipment, due to the special requirements concerning in-plant measurements. In this work such differences have been avoided and two identical sets of equipment for electrochemical measurements were built and used for measurements in-plant in a Swedish BWR and in high purity water in the laboratory. The host plant was Barsebaeck 1. Corrosion potential monitoring in-plant was performed under both NWC (Normal Water Chemistry) and HWC (Hydrogen Water Chemistry) conditions. This paper is, however, focused on NWC conditions. This is due to the fact, that the total crack growth obtained during a reactor cycle, can be determined by NWC conditions, even for plants running with HWC due to periodic stops in the hydrogen addition for turbine inspections or failure of the dosage or hydrogen production equipment. Thus, crack growth data for NWC is of great importance both for BWRs operating with HWC and NWC. Measurements in-plant and in the laboratory were performed during additions of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to the autoclave systems. The corrosion potentials were compared for various conditions in the autoclaves, as well as versus in-plant in-pipe corrosion potentials. (J.P.N.)

  14. One-stage Revision ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft results in satisfactory outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejriwal, Ritwik; Buelow, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is associated with poorer outcomes and higher rerupture rates when compared to primary ACL reconstruction. There is also a significant heterogeneity in surgical technique, number of stages, and graft options. We report a large single surgeon case series with hamstring autograft as a graft option. Methods: Observational series of revision ACL reconstructions performed by the senior author between 2005 and 2015 was carried out. Chart reviews and clinic follow-ups were performed with the following recorded – re-rupture rate, radiographic grading of osteoarthritis, KT-1000 arthrometer test, IKDC outcome scores and knee range of motion. All patients underwent single bundle four-strand hamstring autograft performed in one stage with use of new tunnels in majority of the cases. Results: 66 patients underwent hamstring autograft one-stage revision ACL reconstruction by Dr Jens Buelow. Chart review was carried out on all patients, and 26 (39%) were followed up in clinic and/or by phone with a mean follow up of 4.7 years. Outcomes included re-rupture rate of 4.5%, reoperation rate of 12%, mean visual analogue scale score of 7.6, mean side-to-side difference of 2.6 mm for KT-1000 arthrometer test, and mean IKDC score of 79. Of the 17 patients with radiographs, 40% had moderate osteoarthritis (grade 2 or 3) at follow-up. Conclusion: Revision ACL reconstruction can result in a satisfactory outcome when performed with a hamstring autograft in one stage.

  15. Association of Anthropometric Measures with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Normal-Weight Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN III Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Qorbani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This nationwide study was conducted to determine the association of anthropometric measures with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS in Iranian normal-weight children and adolescents. Methods: We analyzed the data of 3,565 children and adolescents (50.3% boys, aged 10-18 years, with a normal BMI (5th-84th percentile obtained from the third survey of ‘Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable Disease' (CASPIAN III study. The diagnostic criteria for MetS were defined by the International Diabetes Federation consensus. Results: The prevalence of MetS for 10- to 13.9-year-old boys, 14- to 18-year-old boys, 10- to 13.9-year-old girls, and 14- to 18-year-old girls were 1.4, 2.8, 2.3, and 3.3%, respectively. After adjustment for age and sex, each unit increase in BMI (within normal range and waist circumference increased the odds of MetS from 6 to 72% and from 1 to 20%, respectively. The dominant pattern of dyslipidemia among the participants was high triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion: This study complements recent research about the high frequency of metabolic risk factors among normal-weight individuals in the pediatric age group.

  16. Meta-analysis of prediction model performance across multiple studies: Which scale helps ensure between-study normality for the C-statistic and calibration measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Kym Ie; Ensor, Joie; Debray, Thomas Pa; Moons, Karel Gm; Riley, Richard D

    2017-01-01

    If individual participant data are available from multiple studies or clusters, then a prediction model can be externally validated multiple times. This allows the model's discrimination and calibration performance to be examined across different settings. Random-effects meta-analysis can then be used to quantify overall (average) performance and heterogeneity in performance. This typically assumes a normal distribution of 'true' performance across studies. We conducted a simulation study to examine this normality assumption for various performance measures relating to a logistic regression prediction model. We simulated data across multiple studies with varying degrees of variability in baseline risk or predictor effects and then evaluated the shape of the between-study distribution in the C-statistic, calibration slope, calibration-in-the-large, and E/O statistic, and possible transformations thereof. We found that a normal between-study distribution was usually reasonable for the calibration slope and calibration-in-the-large; however, the distributions of the C-statistic and E/O were often skewed across studies, particularly in settings with large variability in the predictor effects. Normality was vastly improved when using the logit transformation for the C-statistic and the log transformation for E/O, and therefore we recommend these scales to be used for meta-analysis. An illustrated example is given using a random-effects meta-analysis of the performance of QRISK2 across 25 general practices.

  17. Normal and system lupus erythematosus red blood cell interactions studied by double trap optical tweezers: direct measurements of aggregation forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Maria D.; Lyubin, Eugeny V.; Zhdanov, Alexander G.; Rykova, Sophia Yu.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2012-02-01

    Direct measurements of aggregation forces in piconewton range between two red blood cells in pair rouleau are performed under physiological conditions using double trap optical tweezers. Aggregation and disaggregation properties of healthy and pathologic (system lupus erythematosis) blood samples are analyzed. Strong difference in aggregation speed and behavior is revealed using the offered method which is proposed to be a promising tool for SLE monitoring at single cell level.

  18. Corneal thickness and elevation measurements using swept-source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning topography in normal and keratoconic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhanji, Vishal; Yang, Bingzhi; Yu, Marco; Ye, Cong; Leung, Christopher K S

    2013-11-01

    To compare corneal thickness and corneal elevation using swept source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning topography. Prospective study. 41 normal and 46 keratoconus subjects. All eyes were imaged using swept source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning tomography during the same visit. Mean corneal thickness and best-fit sphere measurements were compared between the instruments. Agreement of measurements between swept source optical coherence tomography and scanning slit topography was analyzed. Intra-rater reproducibility coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient were evaluated. In normal eyes, central corneal thickness measured by swept source optical coherence tomography was thinner compared with slit scanning topography (p topography. In keratoconus eyes, central corneal thickness was thinner on swept source optical coherence tomography than slit scanning topography (p = 0.081) and ultrasound pachymetry (p = 0.001). There were significant differences between thinnest corneal thickness, and, anterior and posterior best-fit sphere measurements between both instruments (p topography. With better reproducibility coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients, swept source optical coherence tomography may provide a reliable alternative for measurement of corneal parameters. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. Diffractive optical element-based glossmeter for the on-line measurement of normal reflectance on a printed porous coated paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksman, Antti; Kuivalainen, Kalle; Ta˚G, Carl-Mikael; Juuti, Mikko; Mattila, Rauno; Hietala, Eero; Gane, Patrick A. C.; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2011-04-01

    Gloss of a product, such as print gloss, is mainly inspected with conventional white light glossmeters both at laboratory or production facilities. However, problems occur in conventional gloss measurement when the inspected surface is vertically moved in the plane of incidence and reflection or when the measurement area is small or curved. For a partial solution to these problems, we have previously introduced diffractive optical element-based glossmeters (DOGs) for the gloss inspection in laboratories and off-line use. We present a new construction of DOG, termed μDOG 1D, for the one-dimensional on-line print gloss measurement, in the form of the reflectance determination normal to the surface. The function of the glossmeter is demonstrated by laboratory tests and on-line measurements at a heat-set web offset printing machine. It is shown that gloss (i.e., normal reflectance) and minute gloss variation of papers and prints can be measured at the printing line using the glossmeter. This glossmeter is expected to be useful in real-time monitoring of the gloss and surface-specific absorption not only in the printing industry but also in inspection of products in other industrial sectors, such as metal finishing, laminating, paper, and construction materials manufacturing.

  20. The ISNT Rule: How Often Does It Apply to Disc Photographs and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements in the Normal Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Linda Yi-Chieh; Solá-Del Valle, David; Turalba, Angela V; Falkenstein, Iryna A; Horsley, Michael; Kim, Julie H; Song, Brian J; Takusagawa, Hana L; Wang, Kaidi; Chen, Teresa C

    2017-12-01

    To determine what percentage of normal eyes follow the ISNT rule, and whether ISNT rule variants may be more generalizable to the normal population. Cross-sectional study. Setting: Institutional setting. Total of 110 normal subjects. Neuroretinal rim assessments from disc photographs and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The percentages of subjects that obeyed the ISNT rule and its variants. The ISNT rule is only valid for 37.0% of disc photograph rim assessments and 43.8% of RNFL measurements. Deviation of the nasal sector from the expected ISNT pattern was a major cause for the ISNT rule not being obeyed for both rim and RNFL assessments. Specifically, 10.9% of subjects had wider nasal rims than the inferior rims, 29.4% had wider nasal rims than the superior rims, 14.7% had narrower nasal rims than the temporal rims, and 42.9% had thinner nasal RNFLs compared to the temporal quadrant. Exclusion of the nasal quadrant from the ISNT rule significantly increased the validity of ISNT variant rules, with 70.9% and 76.4% of disc photographs following the IST rule and the IS rule, respectively. Similarly, for RNFL thickness, 70.9% and 71.8% of patients followed the IST and IS rule, respectively. The ISNT rule is only valid for about a third of disc photographs and less than half of RNFL measurements in normal patients. ISNT rule variants, such as the IST and IS rule, may be considered, as they are valid in more than 70% of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of normalized differential $t\\bar{t}$ cross sections in the dilepton channel from pp collisions at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Roh, Youn

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of normalized differential cross sections for top quark pair production are performed in the dilepton decay channels in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV. The differential cross sections are measured with data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.1~fb$^{-1}$ recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. We have measured the cross sections differentially as a function of the kinematic properties of the leptons (electron or muon), jets from bottom quark hadronization, top quarks, and top quark pairs at the particle and parton levels. The $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross section measurements are compared to several Monte Carlo generators that implement calculations up to next-to-leading order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics interfaced with parton showering, and also to fixed-order theoretical calculations of top quark pair production beyond next-to-leading order accuracy.

  2. Analysis of a simplified normalized covariance measure based on binary weighting functions for predicting the intelligibility of noise-suppressed speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Loizou, Philipos C

    2010-12-01

    The normalized covariance measure (NCM) has been shown previously to predict reliably the intelligibility of noise-suppressed speech containing non-linear distortions. This study analyzes a simplified NCM measure that requires only a small number of bands (not necessarily contiguous) and uses simple binary (1 or 0) weighting functions. The rationale behind the use of a small number of bands is to account for the fact that the spectral information contained in contiguous or nearby bands is correlated and redundant. The modified NCM measure was evaluated with speech intelligibility scores obtained by normal-hearing listeners in 72 noisy conditions involving noise-suppressed speech corrupted by four different types of maskers (car, babble, train, and street interferences). High correlation (r = 0.8) was obtained with the modified NCM measure even when only one band was used. Further analysis revealed a masker-specific pattern of correlations when only one band was used, and bands with low correlation signified the corresponding envelopes that have been severely distorted by the noise-suppression algorithm and/or the masker. Correlation improved to r = 0.84 when only two disjoint bands (centered at 325 and 1874 Hz) were used. Even further improvements in correlation (r = 0.85) were obtained when three or four lower-frequency (<700 Hz) bands were selected.

  3. Influence of Time-Series Normalization, Number of Nodes, Connectivity and Graph Measure Selection on Seizure-Onset Zone Localization from Intracranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Pieter; Lie, Octavian; Staljanssens, Willeke; Coito, Ana; Vulliémoz, Serge

    2018-04-26

    We investigated the influence of processing steps in the estimation of multivariate directed functional connectivity during seizures recorded with intracranial EEG (iEEG) on seizure-onset zone (SOZ) localization. We studied the effect of (i) the number of nodes, (ii) time-series normalization, (iii) the choice of multivariate time-varying connectivity measure: Adaptive Directed Transfer Function (ADTF) or Adaptive Partial Directed Coherence (APDC) and (iv) graph theory measure: outdegree or shortest path length. First, simulations were performed to quantify the influence of the various processing steps on the accuracy to localize the SOZ. Afterwards, the SOZ was estimated from a 113-electrodes iEEG seizure recording and compared with the resection that rendered the patient seizure-free. The simulations revealed that ADTF is preferred over APDC to localize the SOZ from ictal iEEG recordings. Normalizing the time series before analysis resulted in an increase of 25-35% of correctly localized SOZ, while adding more nodes to the connectivity analysis led to a moderate decrease of 10%, when comparing 128 with 32 input nodes. The real-seizure connectivity estimates localized the SOZ inside the resection area using the ADTF coupled to outdegree or shortest path length. Our study showed that normalizing the time-series is an important pre-processing step, while adding nodes to the analysis did only marginally affect the SOZ localization. The study shows that directed multivariate Granger-based connectivity analysis is feasible with many input nodes (> 100) and that normalization of the time-series before connectivity analysis is preferred.

  4. Meta-analysis of Pentacam vs. ultrasound pachymetry in central corneal thickness measurement in normal, post-LASIK or PRK, and keratoconic or keratoconus-suspect eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjing; Wang, Yan; Xu, Lulu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement differences between Pentacam (Oculus Inc., Germany) and Ultrasound Pachymetry (USP) in normal (unoperated eyes , myopic and astigmatic eyes without corneal disease or topographic irregularity), after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), and keratoconic or keratoconus suspected eyes. We assess whether Pentacam and USP have similar CCT differences in normal, thinner corneas after LASIK or PRK procedures, and kerotoconic or keratoconus suspected eyes. Data sources, including PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials on the Cochrane Library, were searched to find the relevant studies. Primary outcome measures were CCT measurement between Pentacam and USP. Three groups of eyes were analyzed: normal; LASIK or PRK eyes; and keratoconus suspected or keratoconic eyes. Nineteen studies describing 1,908 eyes were enrolled in the normal group. Pentacam results were 1.47 μm ,95 % confidence interval (CI) -2.32 to 5.27, higher than USP without statistically significant difference (P = 0.45). Nine studies with total 539 eyes were included in the corneas after LASIK or PRK. The mean difference in the CCT measurement with Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry was 1.03 μm, with the 95 % CI -3.36 to 5.42, there was no statistically difference (P = 0.64). Four studies with a total of 185 eyes were included in the keratoconic eyes or keratoconus-suspect group, however,the mean difference was -6.33 μm (95 % CI -9.17 to-3.49), which was statistically different between Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry in the CCT measurement (P LASIK or PRK procedures. However, in keratoconic or keratoconus-suspect eyes, Pentacam slightly underestimates the central corneal thickness than does ultrasound pachymetry, which may result from the difficulty in fixation of keratoconic eyes, misalignment of Pentacam and the variation

  5. Measurement of normalized differential t-tbar cross sections in the dilepton channel from pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-08-25

    Normalized differential cross sections for top quark pair production are measured in the dilepton (e-e, mu-mu, and mu-e) decay channels in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The measurements are performed with data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.1 inverse-femtobarns using the CMS detector at the LHC. The cross sections are measured differentially as a function of the kinematic properties of the leptons, jets from bottom quark hadronization, top quarks, and top quark pairs at the particle and parton levels. The results are compared to several Monte Carlo generators that implement calculations up to next-to-leading order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics interfaced with parton showering, and also to fixed-order theoretical calculations of top quark pair production up to next-to-next-to-leading order.

  6. Measurement of normalized differential t\\overline{t} cross sections in the dilepton channel from pp collisions at √{s}=13 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Ambrogi, F.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Grossmann, J.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, N.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Madlener, T.; Mikulec, I.; Pree, E.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Spanring, M.; Spitzbart, D.; Strauss, J.; Waltenberger, W.; Wittmann, J.; Wulz, C.-E.; Zarucki, M.; Chekhovsky, V.; Mossolov, V.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; De Bruyn, I.; De Clercq, J.; Deroover, K.; Flouris, G.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Roskas, C.; Salva, S.; Tytgat, M.; Verbeke, W.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Melo De Almeida, M.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Misheva, M.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Gao, X.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Yazgan, E.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Courbon, B.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Mesic, B.; Susa, T.; Ather, M. W.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Mohammed, Y.; Salama, E.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Kadastik, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Negro, G.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Titov, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Lobanov, A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Stahl Leiton, A. G.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Zghiche, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Jansová, M.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Finco, L.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Viret, S.; Khvedelidze, A.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Schomakers, C.; Schulz, J.; Verlage, T.; Albert, A.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hamer, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Flügge, G.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Müller, T.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Arndt, T.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bin Anuar, A. A.; Borras, K.; Botta, V.; Campbell, A.; Connor, P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Eren, E.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grados Luyando, J. M.; Grohsjean, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kasemann, M.; Keaveney, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Lenz, T.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Savitskyi, M.; Saxena, P.; Shevchenko, R.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wen, Y.; Wichmann, K.; Wissing, C.; Zenaiev, O.; Bein, S.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Garutti, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kurz, S.; Lapsien, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Sonneveld, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baur, S.; Butz, E.; Caspart, R.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Freund, B.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Kassel, F.; Kudella, S.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Schröder, M.; Shvetsov, I.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Triantis, F. A.; Csanad, M.; Filipovic, N.; Pasztor, G.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Makovec, A.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Choudhury, S.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Bahinipati, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhawandeep, U.; Chawla, R.; Dhingra, N.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Kumari, P.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, A.; Chauhan, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhardwaj, R.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dey, S.; Dutt, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Thakur, S.; Behera, P. K.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Dugad, S.; Mahakud, B.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Das, P.; Guchait, M.; Jain, Sa.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Sarkar, T.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Hegde, V.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Pandey, S.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Chenarani, S.; Eskandari Tadavani, E.; Etesami, S. M.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Errico, F.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Cavanaugh, R.; Chen, X.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hangal, D. A.; Hofman, D. J.; Jung, K.; Kamin, J.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trauger, H.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Castle, J.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Royon, C.; Sanders, S.; Schmitz, E.; Stringer, R.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kunkle, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Demiragli, Z.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Tatar, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Loukas, N.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Benaglia, A.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Mei, K.; Ojalvo, I.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Tully, C.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Schulte, J. F.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Cheng, T.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Ciesielski, R.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Montalvo, R.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Sturdy, J.; Zaleski, S.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Hussain, U.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2018-04-01

    Normalized differential cross sections for top quark pair production are measured in the dilepton (e+e-, μ + μ -, and μ ∓e±) decay channels in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The measurements are performed with data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.1 fb-1 using the CMS detector at the LHC. The cross sections are measured differentially as a function of the kinematic properties of the leptons, jets from bottom quark hadronization, top quarks, and top quark pairs at the particle and parton levels. The results are compared to several Monte Carlo generators that implement calculations up to next-to-leading order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics interfaced with parton showering, and also to fixed-order theoretical calculations of top quark pair production up to next-to-next-to-leading order. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Establishing normal values for pediatric nighttime sleep measured by actigraphy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Barbara C; Short, Michelle A; Terrill, Philip; Rigney, Gabrielle; Haszard, Jillian J; Coussens, Scott; Foster-Owens, Mistral; Biggs, Sarah N

    2018-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of actigraphy in pediatric sleep studies, there are currently no age-related normative data. To systematically review the literature, calculate pooled mean estimates of actigraphy-derived pediatric nighttime sleep variables and to examine the magnitude of change with age. A systematic search was performed across eight databases of studies that included at least one actigraphy sleep variable from healthy children aged 0-18 years. Data suitable for meta-analysis were confined to ages 3-18 years with seven actigraphy variables analyzed using random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression performed using age as a covariate. In total, 1334 articles did not meet inclusion criteria; 87 had data suitable for review and 79 were suitable for meta-analysis. Pooled mean estimates for overnight sleep duration declined from 9.68 hours (3-5 years age band) to 8.98, 8.85, 8.05, and 7.4 for age bands 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-18 years, respectively. For continuous data, the best-fit (R2 = 0.74) equation for hours over the 0-18 years age range was 9.02 - 1.04 × [(age/10)^2 - 0.83]. There was a significant curvilinear association between both sleep onset and offset with age (p < .001). Sleep latency was stable at 19.4 min per night. There were significant differences among the older age groups between weekday and weekend/nonschool days (18 studies). Total sleep time in 15-18 years old was 56 min longer, and sleep onset and offset almost 1 and 2 hours later, respectively, on weekend or nonschool days. These normative values have potential application to assist the interpretation of actigraphy measures from nighttime recordings across the pediatric age range, and aid future research.

  8. Development of the apparatus for measuring magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets in arbitrary directions under compressive stress normal to their surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Maeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In designing motors, one must grasp the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets considering actual conditions in motors. Especially important is grasping the stress dependence of magnetic power loss. This paper describes a newly developed apparatus to measure two-dimensional (2-D magnetic properties (properties under the arbitrary alternating and the rotating flux conditions of electrical steel sheets under compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. The apparatus has a 2-D magnetic excitation circuit to generate magnetic fields in arbitrary directions in the evaluation area. It also has a pressing unit to apply compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. During measurement, it is important to apply uniform stress throughout the evaluation area. Therefore, we have developed a new flux density sensor using needle probe method. It is composed of thin copper foils sputtered on electrical steel sheets. By using this sensor, the stress can be applied to the surface of the specimen without influence of this sensor. This paper described the details of newly developed apparatus with this sensor, and measurement results of iron loss by using are shown.

  9. Development of the apparatus for measuring magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets in arbitrary directions under compressive stress normal to their surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yoshitaka; Urata, Shinya; Nakai, Hideo; Takeuchi, Yuuya; Yun, Kyyoul; Yanase, Shunji; Okazaki, Yasuo

    2017-05-01

    In designing motors, one must grasp the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets considering actual conditions in motors. Especially important is grasping the stress dependence of magnetic power loss. This paper describes a newly developed apparatus to measure two-dimensional (2-D) magnetic properties (properties under the arbitrary alternating and the rotating flux conditions) of electrical steel sheets under compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. The apparatus has a 2-D magnetic excitation circuit to generate magnetic fields in arbitrary directions in the evaluation area. It also has a pressing unit to apply compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. During measurement, it is important to apply uniform stress throughout the evaluation area. Therefore, we have developed a new flux density sensor using needle probe method. It is composed of thin copper foils sputtered on electrical steel sheets. By using this sensor, the stress can be applied to the surface of the specimen without influence of this sensor. This paper described the details of newly developed apparatus with this sensor, and measurement results of iron loss by using are shown.

  10. Carotid artery intima-media thickness measurement in children with normal and increased body mass index: a comparison of three techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jalbout, Ramy; Cloutier, Guy; Cardinal, Marie-Hélène Roy; Henderson, Mélanie; Lapierre, Chantale; Soulez, Gilles; Dubois, Josée

    2018-05-09

    Common carotid artery intima-media thickness is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. In children, increased intima-media thickness is associated with obesity and the risk of cardiovascular events in adulthood. To compare intima-media thickness measurements using B-mode ultrasound, radiofrequency (RF) echo tracking, and RF speckle probability distribution in children with normal and increased body mass index (BMI). We prospectively measured intima-media thickness in 120 children randomly selected from two groups of a longitudinal cohort: normal BMI and increased BMI, defined by BMI ≥85th percentile for age and gender. We followed Mannheim recommendations. We used M'Ath-Std for automated B-mode imaging, M-line processing of RF signal amplitude for RF echo tracking, and RF signal segmentation and averaging using probability distributions defining image speckle. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests, and Pearson correlation coefficient and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Children were 10-13 years old (mean: 11.7 years); 61% were boys. The mean age was 11.4 years (range: 10.0-13.1 years) for the normal BMI group and 12.0 years (range: 10.1-13.5 years) for the increased BMI group. The normal BMI group included 58% boys and the increased BMI group 63% boys. RF echo tracking method was successful in 79 children as opposed to 114 for the B-mode method and all 120 for the probability distribution method. Techniques were weakly correlated: ICC=0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27-0.39). Intima-media thickness was significantly higher in the increased BMI than normal BMI group using the RF techniques and borderline for the B-mode technique. Mean differences between weight groups were: B-mode, 0.02 mm (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.04), P=0.05; RF echo tracking, 0.03 mm (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05), P=0.01; and RF speckle probability distribution, 0.03 mm (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05), P=0.002. Though techniques are not interchangeable, all showed

  11. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Parameters Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry with Enhanced Corneal Compensation in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Mirian; Ferreras, Antonio; Pajarin, Ana B; Calvo, Pilar; Figus, Michele; Frezzotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the intrasession repeatability and intersession reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) with enhanced corneal compensation (ECC) in healthy and glaucomatous eyes. One randomly selected eye of 82 healthy individuals and 60 glaucoma subjects was evaluated. Three scans were acquired during the first visit to evaluate intravisit repeatability. A different operator obtained two additional scans within 2 months after the first session to determine intervisit reproducibility. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (COV), and test-retest variability (TRT) were calculated for all SLP parameters in both groups. ICCs ranged from 0.920 to 0.982 for intravisit measurements and from 0.910 to 0.978 for intervisit measurements. The temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average was the highest (0.967 and 0.946) in normal eyes, while nerve fiber indicator (NFI; 0.982) and inferior average (0.978) yielded the best ICC in glaucomatous eyes for intravisit and intervisit measurements, respectively. All COVs were under 10% in both groups, except NFI. TSNIT average had the lowest COV (2.43%) in either type of measurement. Intervisit TRT ranged from 6.48 to 12.84. The reproducibility of peripapillary RNFL measurements obtained with SLP-ECC was excellent, indicating that SLP-ECC is sufficiently accurate for monitoring glaucoma progression.

  12. Microelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for the Differentiation between Normal and Cancerous Human Urothelial Cell Lines: Real-Time Electrical Impedance Measurement at an Optimal Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangkyu Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To distinguish between normal (SV-HUC-1 and cancerous (TCCSUP human urothelial cell lines using microelectrical impedance spectroscopy (μEIS. Materials and Methods. Two types of μEIS devices were designed and used in combination to measure the impedance of SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells flowing through the channels of the devices. The first device (μEIS-OF was designed to determine the optimal frequency at which the impedance of two cell lines is most distinguishable. The μEIS-OF trapped the flowing cells and measured their impedance at a frequency ranging from 5 kHz to 1 MHz. The second device (μEIS-RT was designed for real-time impedance measurement of the cells at the optimal frequency. The impedance was measured instantaneously as the cells passed the sensing electrodes of μEIS-RT. Results. The optimal frequency, which maximized the average difference of the amplitude and phase angle between the two cell lines (p<0.001, was determined to be 119 kHz. The real-time impedance of the cell lines was measured at 119 kHz; the two cell lines differed significantly in terms of amplitude and phase angle (p<0.001. Conclusion. The μEIS-RT can discriminate SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells by measuring the impedance at the optimal frequency determined by the μEIS-OF.

  13. Compliance of the normal-sized aorta in adolescents with Marfan syndrome: comparison of MR measurements of aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, J.G.; Ruediger, H.J.; Gorenflo, M.; Khalil, M.; Ulmer, H.; Krissak, R.; Kauczor, H.U.; Ley, S.; Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg; Arnold, R.; Universitaetskinderklinik Freiburg; Boese, J.; Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim; Krug, R.; Fink, C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the aortic compliance of the normal-sized aorta of adolescents with Marfan syndrome and healthy controls using MR measurements of the aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients (median age: 15 [9-21] years) and 11 healthy subjects (23 [12-32] years) were examined at 1.5 T. The MR protocol included 2D steady-state free precession (SSFP)-CINE MRI of the aortic distensibility and PC-MRI of the pulse wave velocity. All measurements were positioned perpendicular to the descending aorta at the level of the diaphragm for assessing the changes in the aortic cross-sectional areas and additionally above and below this plane for assessing the pulse wave velocity. In addition contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography was performed in adolescents with Marfan syndrome to exclude morphologic changes and to prove normal-sized aorta. Results: Compared with control subjects, adolescents with Marfan syndrome had significantly decreased distensibility and significantly increased pulse wave velocity (χ 2 -test, p = 0.0002) using an age-related non-linear regression analysis. The related aortic compliance was significantly decreased (χ 2 -test, p = 0.0002). There was a good correlation between the two methods (r = 0.86). A low intraobserver variability was found for both methods (≤ 2 %). (orig.)

  14. Predictors of satisfactory improvements in pain for patients with early rheumatoid arthritis in a treat-to-target study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, P.M. ten; Vonkeman, H.E.; Voshaar, M.A.; Siemons, L.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Laar, M.A.F.J. van de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify baseline predictors of achieving patient-perceived satisfactory improvement (PPSI) in pain after 6 months of treat to target in patients with early RA. METHODS: Baseline and 6 month data were used from patients included in the Dutch Rheumatoid

  15. Editorial Commentary: All-Inside Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Can Afford Satisfactory Clinical Outcome and Functional Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    Anatomic all-inside anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft can afford satisfactory outcomes, achieving significant postoperative improvement in all clinical parameters. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Day case shoulder surgery: satisfactory pain control without regional anaesthesia. A prospective analysis of a perioperative protocol.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daruwalla, Z J

    2009-03-01

    Pain control is an issue which may limit patients\\' acceptance of day case shoulder surgery. This study prospectively examined the outcome of a protocol for day case shoulder surgery to determine if satisfactory pain relief could be achieved without regional anaesthesia.

  17. 49 CFR 385.413 - What happens if a motor carrier receives a proposed safety rating that is less than Satisfactory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... proposed safety rating that is less than Satisfactory? 385.413 Section 385.413 Transportation Other... Satisfactory? (a) If a motor carrier does not already have a safety permit, it will not be issued a safety permit (including a temporary safety permit) unless and until a Satisfactory safety rating is issued to...

  18. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1d - Satisfactory Subordination Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Satisfactory Subordination...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-1d Satisfactory Subordination Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). (a) Introduction. (1) This Appendix sets forth minimum and non-exclusive requirements for satisfactory...

  19. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  20. A probit- log- skew-normal mixture model for repeated measures data with excess zeros, with application to a cohort study of paediatric respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Neil W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A zero-inflated continuous outcome is characterized by occurrence of "excess" zeros that more than a single distribution can explain, with the positive observations forming a skewed distribution. Mixture models are employed for regression analysis of zero-inflated data. Moreover, for repeated measures zero-inflated data the clustering structure should also be modeled for an adequate analysis. Methods Diary of Asthma and Viral Infections Study (DAVIS was a one year (2004 cohort study conducted at McMaster University to monitor viral infection and respiratory symptoms in children aged 5-11 years with and without asthma. Respiratory symptoms were recorded daily using either an Internet or paper-based diary. Changes in symptoms were assessed by study staff and led to collection of nasal fluid specimens for virological testing. The study objectives included investigating the response of respiratory symptoms to respiratory viral infection in children with and without asthma over a one year period. Due to sparse data daily respiratory symptom scores were aggregated into weekly average scores. More than 70% of the weekly average scores were zero, with the positive scores forming a skewed distribution. We propose a random effects probit/log-skew-normal mixture model to analyze the DAVIS data. The model parameters were estimated using a maximum marginal likelihood approach. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of the proposed mixture model if the underlying distribution of the positive response is different from log-skew normal. Results Viral infection status was highly significant in both probit and log-skew normal model components respectively. The probability of being symptom free was much lower for the week a child was viral positive relative to the week she/he was viral negative. The severity of the symptoms was also greater for the week a child was viral positive. The probability of being symptom free was

  1. A novel corrective approach to achieve satisfactory function of a 'sunk' colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, K; Prud'Homme, G; Samuel, N; Avil-Griffiths, K; Offori, T

    2016-05-01

    Creation of gastrointestinal stomas is a common colorectal procedure associated with early or late complications, some of which demand advanced technical skills and expertise for optimal management. A 63-year-old male underwent a defunctioning loop colostomy for locally advanced rectal cancer with liver metastasis. Three months later, he had developed a skinfold over his stoma that resulted in a horizontal skin crease traversing through the stoma, causing the stoma to 'sink' leading to obliteration of the stomal opening. This scenario led to ineffective attachment of a stoma appliance, resulting in painful peristomal ulcers. After excision of the anterior abdominal wall, assessment of colostomy opening was carried out, followed by closure of the subcutaneous tissues and drain fixation. An elevated colostomy with an adequate functional opening was seen after wound closure. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged home. After 3 weeks, he had a fully opened, normally functioning colostomy and peristomal ulcers were almost healed. This case highlights the challenges of stoma management, its related risks, avoidance of delay in chemotherapy, a patient wish for early return to work, and the novel approach we adopted to deal with these issues.

  2. A novel corrective approach to achieve satisfactory function of a ‘sunk’ colostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, K; Prud’Homme, G; Samuel, N; Avil-Griffiths, K; Offori, T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Creation of gastrointestinal stomas is a common colorectal procedure associated with early or late complications, some of which demand advanced technical skills and expertise for optimal management. Case History A 63-year-old male underwent a defunctioning loop colostomy for locally advanced rectal cancer with liver metastasis. Three months later, he had developed a skinfold over his stoma that resulted in a horizontal skin crease traversing through the stoma, causing the stoma to ‘sink’ leading to obliteration of the stomal opening. This scenario led to ineffective attachment of a stoma appliance, resulting in painful peristomal ulcers. After excision of the anterior abdominal wall, assessment of colostomy opening was carried out, followed by closure of the subcutaneous tissues and drain fixation. An elevated colostomy with an adequate functional opening was seen after wound closure. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged home. After 3 weeks, he had a fully opened, normally functioning colostomy and peristomal ulcers were almost healed. Conclusions This case highlights the challenges of stoma management, its related risks, avoidance of delay in chemotherapy, a patient wish for early return to work, and the novel approach we adopted to deal with these issues. PMID:27087345

  3. How Can Polarization States of Reflected Light from Snow Surfaces Inform Us on Surface Normals and Ultimately Snow Grain Size Measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. M.; Flanner, M.; Yang, P.; Yi, B.; Huang, X.; Feldman, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Snow Grain Size and Pollution (SGSP) algorithm is a method applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data to estimate snow grain size from space-borne measurements. Previous studies validate and quantify potential sources of error in this method, but because it assumes flat snow surfaces, however, large scale variations in surface normals can cause biases in its estimates due to its dependence on solar and observation zenith angles. To address these variations, we apply the Monte Carlo method for photon transport using data containing the single scattering properties of different ice crystals to calculate polarization states of reflected monochromatic light at 1500nm from modeled snow surfaces. We evaluate the dependence of these polarization states on solar and observation geometry at 1500nm because multiple scattering is generally a mechanism for depolarization and the ice crystals are relatively absorptive at this wavelength. Using 1500nm thus results in a higher number of reflected photons undergoing fewer scattering events, increasing the likelihood of reflected light having higher degrees of polarization. In evaluating the validity of the model, we find agreement with previous studies pertaining to near-infrared spectral directional hemispherical reflectance (i.e. black-sky albedo) and similarities in measured bidirectional reflectance factors, but few studies exist modeling polarization states of reflected light from snow surfaces. Here, we present novel results pertaining to calculated polarization states and compare dependences on solar and observation geometry for different idealized snow surfaces. If these dependencies are consistent across different ice particle shapes and sizes, then these findings could inform the SGSP algorithm by providing useful relationships between measurable physical quantities and solar and observation geometry to better understand variations in snow surface normals from remote sensing observations.

  4. Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry in Deep-Inelastic Scattering from the Reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katich, Joseph; Qian, Xin; Zhao, Yuxiang; Allada, Kalyan; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Averett, Todd; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Bradshaw, Elliott; Bosted, Peter; Camsonne, Alexandre; Canan, Mustafa; Cates, Gordon; Chen, Chunhua; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chen, Wei; Chirapatpimol, Khem; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Cornejo, Juan; Cusanno, Francesco; Dalton, Mark; Deconinck, Wouter; De Jager, Cornelis; De Leo, Raffaele; Deng, Xiaoyan; Deur, Alexandre; Ding, Huaibo; Dolph, Peter; Dutta, Chiranjib; Dutta, Dipangkar; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Garibaldi, Franco; Gaskell, David; Gilad, Gilad; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Golge, Serkan; Guo, Lei; Hamilton, David; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, Jijun; Huang, Min; Ibrahim Abdalla, Hassan; Iodice, Mauro; Jin, Ge; Jones, Mark; Kelleher, Aidan; Kim, Wooyoung; Kolarkar, Ameya; Korsch, Wolfgang; LeRose, John; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Y; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Long, Elena; Lu, Hai-jiang; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; McNulty, Dustin; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nanda, Sirish; Narayan, Amrendra; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Norum, Blaine; Oh, Yoomin; Osipenko, Mikhail; Parno, Diana; Peng, Jen-chieh; Phillips, Sarah; Posik, Matthew; Puckett, Andrew; Qiang, Yi; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Ransome, Ronald; Riordan, Seamus; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Schulte, Elaine; Shahinyan, Albert; Hashemi Shabestari, Mitra; Sirca, Simon; Stepanyan, Stepan; Subedi, Ramesh; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tang, Liguang; Tobias, William; Urciuoli, Guido; Vilardi, Ignazio; Wang, Kebin; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X; Yao, Huan; Ye, Yunxiu; Ye, Z; Yuan, Lulin; Zhan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, Bo; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zong, Xing

    2014-07-01

    We report the first measurement of the target single-spin asymmetry in deep-inelastic scattering from the inclusive reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X on a 3He gas target polarized normal to the lepton plane. Assuming time-reversal invariance, this asymmetry is strictly zero in the Born approximation. The experiment, conducted at Jefferson Lab using a 5.89 GeV electron beam, covers a range of 1.7measured proton-to-3He cross section ratios. The measured neutron asymmetries are negative with an average value of (−1.04+/-0.38)×10−2 for invariant mass W>2 GeV, which is non-zero at the 2.75sigma level. Theoretical calculations, which assume two-photon exchange with quasi-free quarks, predict a neutron asymmetry of O(10−4) when both photons couple to one quark, and O(10−2) for the photons coupling to different quarks. Our measured asymmetry agrees both in sign and magnitude with the prediction that uses input based on the Sivers transverse momentum distribution obtained from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  5. Comparative measurement of ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, EGF and IGF-1 in breast milk of mothers with overweight/obese and normal-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Rooki, H; Vakili, R; Hashemy, S-I; Mirhafez, S R; Shakeri, M-T; Kashanifar, R; Pourbafarani, R; Mirzaei, H; Dahri, M; Mazidi, M; Ferns, G; Safarian, M

    2015-05-01

    Obese infants are more susceptible to develop adulthood obesity and its related comorbidities. Previous studies have shown the presence of hormones and growth factors in maternal breast milk that may influence infant adiposity. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in concentrations of three hormones and two growth factors in the breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants. In this cross-sectional study, 40 mothers with overweight or obese infants (weight for length percentile >97) and 40 age-matched mothers with normal-weight infant (-10 milk concentrations of ghrelin and adiponectin, leptin, epithelial growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The mean breast milk concentration of ghrelin was higher in mothers with normal-weight infants, 137.50 pg/ml, than in mothers with obese infants, 132.00 pg/ml (P=0.001). This was also true regarding the concentration of EGF in mothers with (0/04 ng/ml) and without (0/038 ng/ml) normal-weight infants (P=0.01). No significant differences were observed in concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and IGF-1 between two groups (P > 0.05). There was also a significant positive correlation between EGF and ghrelin in both groups. This study revealed that there was a correlation between ghrelin and EGF level in breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants, suggesting a possible regulatory effect of these two hormones on weight in infants.

  6. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Quantification of differences between nailfold capillaroscopy images with a scleroderma pattern and normal pattern using measures of geometric and algorithmic complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwin, Samuel George; Griffiths, Bridget; Allen, John

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to quantify and investigate differences in the geometric and algorithmic complexity of the microvasculature in nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) images displaying a scleroderma pattern and those displaying a 'normal' pattern. 11 NFC images were qualitatively classified by a capillary specialist as indicative of 'clear microangiopathy' (CM), i.e. a scleroderma pattern, and 11 as 'not clear microangiopathy' (NCM), i.e. a 'normal' pattern. Pre-processing was performed, and fractal dimension (FD) and Kolmogorov complexity (KC) were calculated following image binarisation. FD and KC were compared between groups, and a k-means cluster analysis (n  =  2) on all images was performed, without prior knowledge of the group assigned to them (i.e. CM or NCM), using FD and KC as inputs. CM images had significantly reduced FD and KC compared to NCM images, and the cluster analysis displayed promising results that the quantitative classification of images into CM and NCM groups is possible using the mathematical measures of FD and KC. The analysis techniques used show promise for quantitative microvascular investigation in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  8. Heat Capacity and Thermal Conductance Measurements of a Superconducting-Normal Mixed State by Detection of Single 3 eV Photons in a Magnetic Penetration Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Balvin, M. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Denis, K. L.; Lee, S.-J.; Nagler, P. C.; Smith, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report on measurements of the detected signal pulses in a molybdenum-gold Magnetic Penetration Thermometer (MPT) in response to absorption of one or more 3 eV photons. We designed and used this MPT sensor for x-ray microcalorimetry. In this device, the diamagnetic response of a superconducting MoAu bilayer is used to sense temperature changes in response to absorbed photons, and responsivity is enhanced by a Meissner transition in which the magnetic flux penetrating the sensor changes rapidly to minimize free energy in a mixed superconducting normal state. We have previously reported on use of our MPT to study a thermal phonon energy loss to the substrate when absorbing x-rays. We now describe results of extracting heat capacity C and thermal conductance G values from pulse height and decay time of MPT pulses generated by 3 eV photons. The variation in C and G at temperatures near the Meissner transition temperature (set by an internal magnetic bias field) allow us to probe the behavior in superconducting normal mixed state of the condensation energy and the electron cooling power resulting from quasi-particle recombination and phonon emission. The information gained on electron cooling power is also relevant to the operation of other superconducting detectors, such as Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors.

  9. Measurement of intestinal progression of a meal and its residues in normal subjects and patients with functional diarrhoea by a dual isotope technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, R; Najean, Y; Bernier, J J [Hopital Saint-Lazare, 75 - Paris (France). Service de Medecine; Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France))

    1984-07-01

    A new double isotopic method was used to measure the gastrointestinal progression of a meal in nine healthy subjects and seven patients with functional diarrhoea. 51 Chromium chloride (colonic marker) was ingested eight hours before the beginning of the scintigraphic study so that it was by then located in the colon at that time. A second marker, 99m Technetium sulphur colloid labelled the meal. Scintigraphic images were taken before and after the meal for two hours, detecting simultaneously the two isotopes. In the 51Cr window right colon was localised and intracolonic propulsion was studied; and in the 99m Tc window gastric emptying and colon filling of the meal marker was quantified. A propulsive gastrocolic reflex was evidenced in five of the seven patients with functional diarrhoea but in none of the normal subjects. Unabsorbed residues of the meal are propelled rapidly in the ileocaecal region. Small intestinal transit of the meal marker was twice as rapid in patients with functional diarrhoea as in normal subjects.

  10. Optimum Concentration of Caudal Ropivacaine & Clonidine - A Satisfactory Analgesic Solution for Paediatric Infraumbilical Surgery Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhamurthy, Girish Chikkanayakanahalli; Patel, Muralidhara Danappa; Menezes, Yvonne; Gurushanth, Kavyashree Nagenahalli

    2016-04-01

    Ropivacaine is amide local anaesthetic pure S(-)enantiomer of bupivacaine. Its duration of analgesia is similar to that of Bupivacaine (in equivalent doses) but the motor block is slower in onset, less intense, shorter in duration for a given level of sensory block with lesser cardiac side effects but addition of an adjuvant like clonidine which is an imidazoline derivative has been studied for its sedative, anxiolytic and analgesic properties. This study was aimed to show the optimum concentrations of Ropivacaine and Clonidine to maximize analgesia without side effects by evaluating its safety and efficacy. Sixty children aged 2-10 years of ASA grade 1, scheduled to undergo infraumbilical surgeries were randomly allocated to Group A & Group B of 30 each. Group A received 0.2% Ropivacaine with normal saline and Group B received 0.2% Ropivacaine and preservative free Clonidine 1μg/kg, the total volume of solution being 1ml/kg haemodynamic changes were monitored intraoperatively and haemodynamic parameters along with motor blockade, pain score and sedation score were assessed postoperatively. Done with unpaired student t and Mann-Whitney test. The groups were comparable regarding demographic characterstics. The mean duration of analgesia was prolonged in group B (12+2.22 hours) than in group A (6.53+1.16 hours) with p-value <0.001 leading to less rescue analgesia in former group. None of the children in the groups had a pain score of ≥ 4 at the end of 2 hours. A 6.6% and 60% of group A children had score of ≥ 4 at the end of 4(th) & 6(th) hour respectively. None in Group B had a score of ≥ 4. At the end of 8(th) hour, only 6.6% of the children in Group B had a pain score of ≥ 4 whereas it was 33.33% in Group A which is statistically significant. No bradycardia or hypotension and no significant sedation. Combination of Ropivacaine and Clonidine in the concentration used (0.2% ropivacaine and 1μg/kg of clonidine) can be optimal for postoperative analgesia in

  11. Pitfalls with the use of enhancement ratios or normalized excess mixing ratios measured in plumes to characterize pollution sources and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Yokelson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs, also known as enhancement ratios, are a common way to characterize plumes of pollution in atmospheric research. As single-source pollutant plumes disperse in the atmosphere, they are diluted by mixing with the adjacent background air. Changes in the composition of this background air can cause large changes to the NEMR that is subsequently measured by remote-sensing, airborne, or ground-based instruments. This scenario is common when boundary layer plumes enter the free troposphere and could also impact long-range transport or plumes near the top of the troposphere. We provide a context for these issues and an example showing that neglect of this effect could lead to serious errors in data interpretation.

  12. The 2010 Russian Drought Impact on Satellite Measurements of Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence: Insights from Modeling and Comparisons with the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y.; Joiner, J.; Tucker, C.; Berry, J.; Lee, J. -E.; Walker, G.; Reichle, R.; Koster, R.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We examine satellite-based measurements of chlorophyll solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) over the region impacted by the Russian drought and heat wave of 2010. Like the popular Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) that has been used for decades to measure photosynthetic capacity, SIF measurements are sensitive to the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically-active radiation (fPAR). However, in addition, SIF is sensitive to the fluorescence yield that is related to the photosynthetic yield. Both SIF and NDVI from satellite data show drought-related declines early in the growing season in 2010 as compared to other years between 2007 and 2013 for areas dominated by crops and grasslands. This suggests an early manifestation of the dry conditions on fPAR. We also simulated SIF using a global land surface model driven by observation-based meteorological fields. The model provides a reasonable simulation of the drought and heat impacts on SIF in terms of the timing and spatial extents of anomalies, but there are some differences between modeled and observed SIF. The model may potentially be improved through data assimilation or parameter estimation using satellite observations of SIF (as well as NDVI). The model simulations also offer the opportunity to examine separately the different components of the SIF signal and relationships with Gross Primary Productivity (GPP).

  13. Comparison of uteroplacental blood flow in normal and pre-eclamptic patients measurement with technetium-99m and a computer-linked gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.H.; Moon, H.; Kim, D.S.; Cho, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    Uteroplacental blood flow studies in preeclampsia are of special interest since the vascular changes reported in this disease might constitute a structural basis for a reduction of blood flow. Evidence has also been given for a decreased uteroplacental blood flow in preeclampsia. Among the various methods to estimate the maternal placental blood flow, the one most frequently reported in the literature during the last years has been the time activity analysis of short lived radiotracer such as technetium-99m or indium-113m injected intravenously. Only few studies with the above mentioned technique comparing normal and preeclampsia cases have been undertaken. In clinical practice we frequently experience difficuly in finding the optimal time to get the delivery in preeclampsia patients. The aim of this study was first to measure uteroplacental blood flow in preeclamptic pregnancies using a computer-linked gamma camera method for the time-activity analysis of technetium-99m and second to discuss the possibility of clinical application of these measurements for determination of fetal well-being and the timing of the delivery in these patients. Uteroplacental blood flow was measured from 13 preeclamptic patients and 19 pregnancies without any complication after 35 completed weeks of gestation from Jan. 1983 to Sep. 1983 at Obstetrics department of Hanyang University Hospital. (Author)

  14. Comparison of uteroplacental blood flow in normal and pre-eclamptic patients measurement with technetium-99m and a computer-linked gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.H.; Moon, H.; Kim, D.S.; Cho, S.S.

    1985-05-01

    Uteroplacental blood flow studies in preeclampsia are of special interest since the vascular changes reported in this disease might constitute a structural basis for a reduction of blood flow. Evidence has also been given for a decreased uteroplacental blood flow in preeclampsia. Among the various methods to estimate the maternal placental blood flow, the one most frequently reported in the literature during the last years has been the time activity analysis of short lived radiotracer such as technetium-99m or indium-113m injected intravenously. Only few studies with the above mentioned technique comparing normal and preeclampsia cases have been undertaken. In clinical practice we frequently experience difficuly in finding the optimal time to get the delivery in preeclampsia patients. The aim of this study was first to measure uteroplacental blood flow in preeclamptic pregnancies using a computer-linked gamma camera method for the time-activity analysis of technetium-99m and second to discuss the possibility of clinical application of these measurements for determination of fetal well-being and the timing of the delivery in these patients. Uteroplacental blood flow was measured from 13 preeclamptic patients and 19 pregnancies without any complication after 35 completed weeks of gestation from Jan. 1983 to Sep. 1983 at Obstetrics department of Hanyang University Hospital. (Author).

  15. The measurement and analysis of normal incidence solar UVB radiation and its application to the photoclimatherapy protocol for psoriasis at the Dead Sea, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudish, Avraham I; Harari, Marco; Evseev, Efim G

    2011-01-01

    The broad-band normal incidence UVB beam radiation has been measured at Neve Zohar, Dead Sea basin, using a prototype tracking instrument composed of a Model 501A UV-Biometer mounted on an Eppley Solar Tracker Model St-1. The diffuse and beam fraction of the solar global UVB radiation have been determined using the concurrently measured solar global UVB radiation. The diffuse fraction was observed to exceed 80% throughout the year. The application of the results of these measurements to the possible revision of the photoclimatherapy protocol for psoriasis patients at the Dead Sea medical spas is now under investigation. The suggested revision would enable the sun-exposure treatment protocol to take advantage of the very high diffuse fraction by allowing the patient to receive the daily dose of UVB radiation without direct exposure to the sun, viz. receive the diffuse UVB radiation under a sunshade. This would require an increase in sun-exposure time intervals, as the UVB radiation intensity beneath a sunshade is less than that on an exposed surface. © 2010 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2010 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. Satisfactory Short-Term Results of Navigation-Assisted Gap-Balancing Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Ultracongruent Insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Ro; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

    2018-03-01

    The use of highly conforming ultracongruent (UC) polyethylene insert is bone-preserving and became a relatively common alternative to the conventional posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty (TKA) design. The purpose of this study was to analyze the short-term clinical and radiologic results of UC insert TKA using the navigation-assisted gap-balancing technique. Two hundred thirty-three knees were operated with a mean follow-up period of 8.1 years (minimum of 5 years). Radiologic and clinical outcomes were assessed before operation and at latest follow-up using the Knee Society Score and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score. For statistical analysis, paired sample t-test and analysis of variance were used. Significance was considered as P satisfactory short-term outcome. Strict gap-balancing technique using the offset-type-force-controlled-spreader-system aided in the satisfactory results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.D.; Knapp, E.E.; Key, C.H.; Skinner, C.N.; Isbell, C.J.; Creasy, R.M.; Sherlock, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data have become a common tool used in the mapping of wildland fire effects. Fire severity, defined as the degree to which a site has been altered, is often the variable mapped. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) used in an absolute difference change detection protocol (dNBR), has become the remote sensing method of choice for US Federal land management agencies to map fire severity due to wildland fire. However, absolute differenced vegetation indices are correlated to the pre-fire chlorophyll content of the vegetation occurring within the fire perimeter. Normalizing dNBR to produce a relativized dNBR (RdNBR) removes the biasing effect of the pre-fire condition. Employing RdNBR hypothetically allows creating categorical classifications using the same thresholds for fires occurring in similar vegetation types without acquiring additional calibration field data on each fire. In this paper we tested this hypothesis by developing thresholds on random training datasets, and then comparing accuracies for (1) fires that occurred within the same geographic region as the training dataset and in similar vegetation, and (2) fires from a different geographic region that is climatically and floristically similar to the training dataset region but supports more complex vegetation structure. We additionally compared map accuracies for three measures of fire severity: the composite burn index (CBI), percent change in tree canopy cover, and percent change in tree basal area. User's and producer's accuracies were highest for the most severe categories, ranging from 70.7% to 89.1%. Accuracies of the moderate fire severity category for measures describing effects only to trees (percent change in canopy cover and basal area) indicated that the classifications were generally not much better than random. Accuracies of the moderate category for the CBI classifications were somewhat better, averaging in the 50%-60% range. These results underscore the difficulty in

  18. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal pancreas: reproducibility and variations of apparent diffusion coefficient measurement at 1.5- and 3.0-Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, M; Soyer, P; Ben Hassen, W; Gayat, E; Aout, M; Chiaradia, M; Rahmouni, A; Luciani, A

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate reproducibility and variations in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in normal pancreatic parenchyma at 1.5- and 3.0-Tesla and determine if differences may exist between the four pancreatic segments. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the pancreas was performed at 1.5-Tesla in 20 patients and at 3.0-Tesla in other 20 patients strictly matched for gender and age using the same b values (0, 400 and 800s/mm(2)). Two independent observers placed regions of interest within the four pancreatic segments to measure ADC at both fields. Intra- and inter-observer agreement in ADC measurement was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis and comparison between ADC values obtained at both fields using non-parametrical tests. There were no significant differences in ADC between repeated measurements and between ADC obtained at 1.5-Tesla and those at 3.0-Tesla. The 95% limits of intra-observer agreement between ADC were 2.3%-22.7% at 1.5-Tesla and 1%-24.2% at 3.0-Tesla and those for inter-observer agreement between 1.9%-14% at 1.5-Tesla and 8%-25% at 3.0-Tesla. ADC values were similar in all pancreatic segments at 3.0-T whereas the tail had lower ADC at 1.5-Tesla. ADC measurement conveys high degrees of intra- and inter-observer reproducibility. ADC have homogeneous distribution among the four pancreatic segments at 3.0-Tesla. Copyright © 2012 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  20. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  1. THE ZAKAH RECIPIENTS SATISFACTORY AMONG LOW LEVEL INCOME SOCIETY IN YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein Muttaqin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in the last decade, zakah has become a new hope for the low-level income society to improve their opportunity to break through the poverty line. However, the potential of zakah to eradicate the poverty is yet to be achieved, it happens due to three reasons, they are (1 the proportion of zakah fund that has been distributed into the economy sectors has not become a major program; (2 the regulation regarding zakat still hanging; (3 the consumptive behavior still become the driving factors in the society. This paper is attempted to measure mustahiqs’ satisfaction over zakah distribution, which is affecting they opportunities to improve their living standard. By presenting the data in form of field research and using regression found that the service quality mentoring is influencing the satisfaction of mustahiqs. =========================================== Perkembangan zakat dalam dekade terakhir ini menjadikannya sebagai sebuah harapan baru bagi masyarakat berpendapatan rendah untuk meningkatkan kesempatannya untuk keluar dari garis kemiskinan. Namun, potensi zakat dalam mengurangi kemiskinan masih belum dapat dicapai, hal ini terjadi karena tiga alasan, (1 proporsi dana zakat yang didistribusikan kepada sektor- sektor ekonomi bukanlah menjadi program utama; (2 Aturan yang berkaitan dengan zakat masih belum berjalan dengan baik; (3 Perilaku konsumtif masih menjadi faktor yang berpengaruh di dalam masyarakat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur kepuasan mustahiq melalui distribusi zakat yang dapat mempengaruhi kesempatan guna meningkatkan standar hidup mereka. Dengan memaparkan data dalam bentuk riset lapangan dan menggunakan regresi maka ditemukan bahwa kualitas pelayanan, mentoring dapat mempengaruhi kepuasan mustahiq.

  2. Low degree of satisfactory individual pain relief in post-operative pain trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, A; Dahl, J B; Karlsen, A P H; Persson, E; Mathiesen, O

    2017-01-01

    The majority of clinical trials regarding post-operative pain treatment focuses on the average analgesic efficacy, rather than on efficacy in individual patients. It has been argued, that in acute pain trials, the underlying distributions are often skewed, which makes the average unfit as the only way to measure efficacy. Consequently, dichotomised, individual responder analyses using a predefined 'favourable' response, e.g. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain scores ≤ 30, have recently been suggested as a more clinical relevant outcome. We re-analysed data from 16 randomised controlled trials of post-operative pain treatment and from meta-analyses of a systematic review regarding hip arthroplasty. The predefined success criterion was that at least 80% of patients in active treatment groups should obtain VAS < 30 at 6 and 24 h post-operatively. In the analysis of data from the randomised controlled trials, we found that at 6 h post-operatively, 50% (95% CI: 31-69) of patients allocated to active treatment reached the success criterion for pain at rest and 14% (95% CI: 5-34) for pain during mobilisation. At 24 h post-operatively, 60% (95% CI: 38-78) of patients allocated to active treatment reached the success criterion for pain at rest, and 15% (95% CI: 5-36) for pain during mobilisation. Similar results were found for trials from the meta-analyses. Our results indicate that for conventional, explanatory trials of post-operative pain, individual patient's achievement of a favourable response to analgesic treatment is rather low. Future pragmatic clinical trials should focus on both average pain levels and individual responder analyses in order to promote effective pain treatment at the individually patient level. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Normal ranges and test-retest reproducibility of flow and velocity parameters in intracranial arteries measured with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia de Verdier, Maria; Wikstroem, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate normal ranges and test-retest reproducibility of phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI)-measured flow and velocity parameters in intracranial arteries. Highest flow (HF), lowest flow (LF), peak systolic velocity (PSV), and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were measured at two dates in the anterior (ACA), middle (MCA), and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries of 30 healthy volunteers using two-dimensional PC-MRI at 3 T. Least detectable difference (LDD) was calculated. In the left ACA, HF was (mean (range, LDD)) 126 ml/min (36-312, 59 %), LF 61 ml/min (0-156, 101 %), PSV 64 cm/s (32-141, 67 %), and EDV 35 cm/s (18-55, 42 %); in the right ACA, HF was 154 ml/min (42-246, 49 %), LF 77 ml/min (0-156, 131 %), PSV 75 cm/s (26-161, 82 %), and EDV 39 cm/s (7-59, 67 %). In the left MCA, HF was 235 ml/min (126-372, 35 %), LF 116 ml/min (42-186, 48 %), PSV 90 cm/s (55-183, 39 %), and EDV 46 cm/s (20-66, 28 %); in the right MCA, HF was 238 ml/min (162-342, 44 %), LF 120 ml/min (72-216, 48 %), PSV 88 cm/s (55-141, 35 %), and EDV 45 cm/s (26-67, 23 %). In the left PCA, HF was 108 ml/min (42-168, 54 %), LF 53 ml/min (18-108, 64 %), PSV 50 cm/s (24-77, 63 %), and EDV 28 cm/s (14-40, 45 %); in the right PCA, HF was 98 ml/min (30-162, 49 %), LF 49 ml/min (12-84, 55 %), PSV 47 cm/s (27-88, 59 %), and EDV 27 cm/s (16-41, 45 %). PC-MRI-measured flow and velocity parameters in the main intracranial arteries have large normal ranges. Reproducibility is highest in MCA. (orig.)

  4. Normal ranges and test-retest reproducibility of flow and velocity parameters in intracranial arteries measured with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia de Verdier, Maria; Wikstroem, Johan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate normal ranges and test-retest reproducibility of phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI)-measured flow and velocity parameters in intracranial arteries. Highest flow (HF), lowest flow (LF), peak systolic velocity (PSV), and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were measured at two dates in the anterior (ACA), middle (MCA), and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries of 30 healthy volunteers using two-dimensional PC-MRI at 3 T. Least detectable difference (LDD) was calculated. In the left ACA, HF was (mean (range, LDD)) 126 ml/min (36-312, 59 %), LF 61 ml/min (0-156, 101 %), PSV 64 cm/s (32-141, 67 %), and EDV 35 cm/s (18-55, 42 %); in the right ACA, HF was 154 ml/min (42-246, 49 %), LF 77 ml/min (0-156, 131 %), PSV 75 cm/s (26-161, 82 %), and EDV 39 cm/s (7-59, 67 %). In the left MCA, HF was 235 ml/min (126-372, 35 %), LF 116 ml/min (42-186, 48 %), PSV 90 cm/s (55-183, 39 %), and EDV 46 cm/s (20-66, 28 %); in the right MCA, HF was 238 ml/min (162-342, 44 %), LF 120 ml/min (72-216, 48 %), PSV 88 cm/s (55-141, 35 %), and EDV 45 cm/s (26-67, 23 %). In the left PCA, HF was 108 ml/min (42-168, 54 %), LF 53 ml/min (18-108, 64 %), PSV 50 cm/s (24-77, 63 %), and EDV 28 cm/s (14-40, 45 %); in the right PCA, HF was 98 ml/min (30-162, 49 %), LF 49 ml/min (12-84, 55 %), PSV 47 cm/s (27-88, 59 %), and EDV 27 cm/s (16-41, 45 %). PC-MRI-measured flow and velocity parameters in the main intracranial arteries have large normal ranges. Reproducibility is highest in MCA. (orig.)

  5. Measurements of normalized differential cross-sections for $t\\bar{t}$ production in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; 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Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; 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Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; 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Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-10-13

    Measurements of normalized differential cross-sections for top-quark pair production are presented as a~function of the top-quark transverse momentum, and of the mass, transverse momentum, and rapidity of the $t\\bar{t}$ system, in proton--proton collisions at a~center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb$^{-1}$, recorded in 2011 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Events are selected in the lepton+jets channel, requiring exactly one lepton and at least four jets with at least one of the jets tagged as originating from a~$b$-quark. The measured spectra are corrected for detector efficiency and resolution effects and are compared to several Monte Carlo simulations and theory calculations. The results are in fair agreement with the predictions in a~wide kinematic range. Nevertheless, data distributions are softer than predicted for higher values of the mass of the $t\\bar{t}$ system and of the top-quark transverse momentum. The ...

  6. Simultaneous 13C/14C dual isotope breath test measurement of gastric emptying of solid and liquid in normal subjects and patients: comparison with scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, C. G.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.; Bellon, M.; Chatterton, B. E.

    2003-01-01

    To develop a simple method for simultaneous solid and liquid gastric emptying assessment using a dual isotope labelled breath test. 13 patients were given 100 g ground beef labelled with 25 MBq 99m Tc sulphur colloid and 74 KBq 14 C octanoic acid, and 150 ml 10% glucose drink labelled with 8 MBq 67 Ga citrate and 150 mg 13 C acetate. 10 normal volunteers were given the same test meals but labelled with 14 C and 13 C only. Breath was collected at baseline and regularly for 4 hours. The 14 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 activity was measured with liquid scintillation counting and mass spectroscopy. The times to maximum 14 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 , were determined. Comparison was made between times to maximum 14 CO 2 with scintigraphic retention of 99m Tc at 100 minutes and times to maximum 13 CO 2 with the scintigraphic half-clearance time of 67 Ga. For the solid meal, the times to maximum 14 CO 2 were: 60-120 minutes in the 8 patients with normal gastric emptying of 99m Tc; 75-145 minutes for the 10 healthy volunteers; 75-180 minutes for the remaining 5 patients with abnormal gastric emptying of 99m Tc. There was a weak but significant correlation (r = 0.56, p 14 CO 2 and gastric retention of 99m Tc at 100 minutes. For the liquid meal, times to maximum 13 CO 2 were: 20-35 minutes for the 4 with normal gastric emptying of 67 Ga; 15-40 minutes for the 10 healthy volunteers; 20-75 minutes for the remaining 9 patients with abnormal gastric emptying of 67 Ga. There was a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.88, p 13 CO 2 and gastric half-clearance time of 67 Ga. Breath tests utilising test meals labelled with *C isotopes are valid alternatives to scintigraphic studies using 99m Tc and 67 Ga for the simultaneous assessment of gastric emptying of solids and liquids. (author)

  7. Determination of the structure and composition of Au-Ag bimetallic spherical nanoparticles using single particle ICP-MS measurements performed with normal and high temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéri, Albert; Kálomista, Ildikó; Ungor, Ditta; Bélteki, Ádám; Csapó, Edit; Dékány, Imre; Prohaska, Thomas; Galbács, Gábor

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the information that can be obtained by combining normal and high resolution single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) measurements for spherical bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) was assessed. One commercial certified core-shell Au-Ag nanoparticle and three newly synthesized and fully characterized homogenous alloy Au-Ag nanoparticle batches of different composition were used in the experiments as BNP samples. By scrutinizing the high resolution spICP-MS signal time profiles, it was revealed that the width of the signal peak linearly correlates with the diameter of nanoparticles. It was also observed that the width of the peak for same-size nanoparticles is always significantly larger for Au than for Ag. It was also found that it can be reliably determined whether a BNP is of homogeneus alloy or core-shell structure and that, in the case of the latter, the core comprises of which element. We also assessed the performance of several ICP-MS based analytical methods in the analysis of the quantitative composition of bimetallic nanoparticles. Out of the three methods (normal resolution spICP-MS, direct NP nebulization with solution-mode ICP-MS, and solution-mode ICP-MS after the acid dissolution of the nanoparticles), the best accuracy and precision was achieved by spICP-MS. This method allows the determination of the composition with less than 10% relative inaccuracy and better than 3% precision. The analysis is fast and only requires the usual standard colloids for size calibration. Combining the results from both quantitative and structural analyses, the core diameter and shell thickness of core-shell particles can also be calculated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In the field of ionizing radiation, are the dosimetric data satisfactory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.; Hubert, P.

    2002-01-01

    The quantification of the dose is a key element for the surveillance of radiological exposures of the population. The objectives are the reduction as low as reasonably achievable of exposures, the assessment of the risk in complement to epidemiologic surveys and refining the dose/effect relationship. However, two difficulties should be highlighted: first, the dose delivered into organs or to the whole organism is not directly measurable and second, its translation into risk (cancer hazard, for instance) requires precautions. The questions associated with the development of a good dosimetry depend on metrology, modeling, investigations, management of databases, and give rise to debates with regard to the notion of realism and confidentiality of individual data. This activity experiences deep changes due, not only to the development of techniques and the increasing social demand, but also to changes to the regulations, in particular with the transposition of the European Directive for the protection of the patients (97/43, June 30, 1997) and of the Directive relating to the basic safety standards (96/29, May 13, 1996). Various types of situations are distinguished: professional exposure, public exposure (releases of facilities handling radioactive materials, natural sources, contaminated sites, nuclear test fallouts) and patients'exposure (radiology and radiotherapy). Recent investigations at European or domestic level are mentioned, the purpose of which is to evidence the benefits and lacks, if any, in the dosimetric monitoring for these various types of situations. As a conclusion, orientations are defined and some of them are already applied, following the above-mentioned investigations or works. As the two main sources of exposure for the population are medical (41 %) and natural irradiations (58%), the effort of the reduction should first cover these two components. With regard to natural radioactivity, the main stake is to identify the sectors with a high radon

  9. Ultrasonographic Measurement of the Diameter of a Normal Bile Duct, Hepatic Artery and Portal Vein in Infants Younger Than 3 Months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Young Seok

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on measuring the diameter of the normal bile duct, hepatic artery and portal vein with high resolution US in infants younger than 3 months, and we wanted to determine the relative ratio of these diameters. Fifty US examinations were performed on infants younger than 3 months and who did not have any clinical or laboratory abnormality associated with the hepatobiliary system. We measured the diameter of the bile duct, hepatic artery and portal vein at the level of the portal vein bifurcation with using 17-5 MHz US and we determined the relative ratios of these diameters. To evaluate the statistical difference in the diameter of the bile duct, hepatic artery and portal vein, we performed one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's multiple comparison test. To determine the relative ratio of these diameters, the ratio of the bile duct to the hepatic artery was defined as the hepatic artery/bile duct, the ratio of the hepatic artery to the portal vein was defined as the portal vein/hepatic artery and the ratio of the bile duct to the portal vein was defined as the portal vein/bile duct. We calculated the averages ± standard deviations of this data (minimum ∼ maximum). In all fifty infants, the bile duct, hepatic artery and portal vein were detectable and measurable. The average diameter of a bile duct was 0.85 ± 0.19 mm (0.56 ∼ 1.47 mm), it was 1.33 ± 0.31 mm (0.90 ∼ 2.37 mm) for the hepatic artery and 3.32 ± 0.68 mm (2.06 ∼ 5.08 mm) for the portal vein. The diameter of these structures was significantly different from each other according to one-way ANOVA (p < 0.001). The average diameter of the hepatic artery was significantly larger than that of the bile duct and the average diameter of the portal vein was significantly larger than that of bile duct and hepatic artery on Scheffe's multiple comparison test. The relative ratio of the bile duct to the hepatic artery was 1.60 ± 0.41 (0.77 ∼ 2.66), that of the hepatic artery to the portal vein was 2

  10. Structure of ultrathin films of Co on Cu(111) from normal-incidence x-ray standing wave and medium-energy ion scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, M.T.; Crapper, M.D.; Noakes, T.C.Q.; Bailey, P.; Jackson, G.J.; Woodruff, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    Applications of the techniques of normal-incidence x-ray standing wave (NIXSW) and medium-energy ion scattering (MEIS) to the elucidation of the structure of an ultrathin metallic film, Co on Cu(111), are reported. NIXSW and MEIS are shown to yield valuable and complementary information on the structure of such systems, yielding both the local stacking sequence and the global site distribution. For the thinnest films of nominally two layers, the first layer is of entirely fcc registry with respect to the substrate, but in the outermost layer there is significant occupation of hcp local sites. For films up to 8 monolayers (ML) thick, the interlayer spacing of the Co layers is 0.058±0.006 Aa smaller than the Cu substrate (111) layer spacing. With increasing coverage, the coherent fraction of the (1(bar sign)11) NIXSW decreases rapidly, indicating that the film does not grow in a fcc continuation beyond two layers. For films in this thickness range, hcp-type stacking dominates fcc twinning by a ratio of 2:1. The variation of the (1(bar sign)11) NIXSW coherent fraction with thickness shows that the twinning occurs close to the Co/Cu interface. For thicker films of around 20 ML deposited at room temperature, medium-energy ion scattering measurements reveal a largely disordered structure. Upon annealing to 300 deg. C the 20-ML films order into a hcp structure

  11. The concurrent use of three implicit measures (eye movements, pupillometry, and event-related potentials) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Kerry; Coderre, Emily; Bosley, Laura; Buz, Esteban; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Gordon, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen the advent and proliferation of the use of implicit techniques to study learning and cognition. One such application is the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge. Other implicit assessment techniques that may be well-suited to other testing situations or to use with varied participant groups have not been used as widely to study receptive vocabulary knowledge. We sought to develop additional implicit techniques to study receptive vocabulary knowledge that could augment the knowledge gained from the use of the ERP technique. Specifically, we used a simple forced-choice paradigm to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adult participants using eye movement monitoring (EM) and pupillometry. In the same group of participants, we also used an N400 semantic incongruity ERP paradigm to assess their knowledge of two groups of words: those expected to be known to the participants (high-frequency, familiar words) and those expected to be unknown (low-frequency, unfamiliar words). All three measures showed reliable differences between the known and unknown words. EM and pupillometry thus may provide insight into receptive vocabulary knowledge similar to that from ERPs. The development of additional implicit assessment techniques may increase the feasibility of receptive vocabulary testing across a wider range of participant groups and testing situations, and may make the conduct of such testing more accessible to a wider range of researchers, clinicians, and educators.

  12. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  13. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-01-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone. (author)

  14. Radiometric Normalization of Temporal Images Combining Automatic Detection of Pseudo-Invariant Features from the Distance and Similarity Spectral Measures, Density Scatterplot Analysis, and Robust Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira de Carvalho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric precision is difficult to maintain in orbital images due to several factors (atmospheric conditions, Earth-sun distance, detector calibration, illumination, and viewing angles. These unwanted effects must be removed for radiometric consistency among temporal images, leaving only land-leaving radiances, for optimum change detection. A variety of relative radiometric correction techniques were developed for the correction or rectification of images, of the same area, through use of reference targets whose reflectance do not change significantly with time, i.e., pseudo-invariant features (PIFs. This paper proposes a new technique for radiometric normalization, which uses three sequential methods for an accurate PIFs selection: spectral measures of temporal data (spectral distance and similarity, density scatter plot analysis (ridge method, and robust regression. The spectral measures used are the spectral angle (Spectral Angle Mapper, SAM, spectral correlation (Spectral Correlation Mapper, SCM, and Euclidean distance. The spectral measures between the spectra at times t1 and t2 and are calculated for each pixel. After classification using threshold values, it is possible to define points with the same spectral behavior, including PIFs. The distance and similarity measures are complementary and can be calculated together. The ridge method uses a density plot generated from images acquired on different dates for the selection of PIFs. In a density plot, the invariant pixels, together, form a high-density ridge, while variant pixels (clouds and land cover changes are spread, having low density, facilitating its exclusion. Finally, the selected PIFs are subjected to a robust regression (M-estimate between pairs of temporal bands for the detection and elimination of outliers, and to obtain the optimal linear equation for a given set of target points. The robust regression is insensitive to outliers, i.e., observation that appears to deviate

  15. Interocular symmetry of retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head parameters measured by Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography in a normal pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Neelam; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Ramakrishnan, Renagappa

    2017-10-01

    To determine interocular differences in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in a pediatric population using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). Seventy normal Indian children aged 5-17 years presenting to the Pediatric Clinic were included in this observational cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and an evaluation of the RNFL and ONH by Cirrus HD-OCT. Differences between the right and left eyes were calculated and values were compared by means of a paired t-test. Subjects were also divided into two groups based on age (under or over 10 years of age). Interocular differences in RNFL and ONH parameters together with sex and age variations for these differences were determined. The mean age of studied pediatric population was 11.83 ± 3.3 years (range 5-17). Average RNFL thickness was 94.46 ± 8.7 μm (± SD) (range 77-111). Differences in the average RNFL between right and left eyes were not statistically significant (P = 0.060). Superior quadrant RNFL was thicker in the left eye and temporal quadrant was thicker in the right eye. Among ONH parameters, there were no statistically significant differences in any parameters, except vertical cup-disc (CD) ratio which was significant (P = 0.007). The 2.5%-97.5% limits of asymmetry were 9 μm for average RNFL, 0.14 for average CD ratio, and 0.22 for vertical CD ratio. Mean interocular RNFL thickness differences in superior, superior nasal, and temporal superior quadrants were 10.61 (P sex, while only significant differences with age were observed in 12 clock hour sector analysis, mainly in nasal inferior and inferior quadrant. We report the degree of interocular symmetry of RNFL and ONH parameters measured by Cirrus HD-OCT in a healthy pediatric population. The normal interocular RNFL asymmetry should not exceed 9 μm and vertical CD ratio beyond 0.22 should be considered for further investigations. The

  16. Why is Housing Always Satisfactory? A Study into the Impact of Preference and Experience on Housing Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sylvia J T

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on residents' perceptions of residential quality concerning 23 different dwelling aspects. Respondents were asked to indicate their appreciation of these dwelling aspects on a scale ranging from 0 ("extremely unattractive") to 100 ("extremely attractive"). The influence of two potential factors on the appreciation of dwelling aspects is examined: (1) preference and (2) experience. It was hypothesized that residents who live according to their preferences give higher appreciation scores than residents who do not. This should even apply to low-quality housing. Furthermore, it was argued that residents appreciate their current housing situation more than residents who do not live in that particular housing situation. This effect should be independent of preference. The impact of both preference and of experience could be confirmed. The results also showed an interaction effect between preference and experience: the positive effect of experience on appreciation is larger in residents who live in a housing situation that they do not prefer. This result would be expected if the impact of experience works to decrease the 'gap' in residential satisfaction due to the discrepancy between what residents have and what they want. In conclusion, why is housing always satisfactory? In this paper, housing is satisfactory because the 'gap' between what residents want and what they have is small; residents seem to have realistic aspirations. Furthermore, residents appreciate what they already have, even if this is not what they prefer.

  17. [Perception of UCI nurses in relation with satisfactory care: convergences and divergences with the perception of critical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover-Sancho, C; Romero-García, M; Delgado-Hito, P; de la Cueva-Ariza, L; Solà-Solé, N; Acosta-Mejuto, B; Ricart-Basagaña, M T; Solà-Ribó, M; Juandó-Prats, C L

    2015-01-01

    Explore convergences and divergences between perception of nurses and of critically ill patients, in relation to the satisfactory care given and received. It is part of a larger qualitative study, according to the Grounded Theory. Carried out in 3 intensive care units with 34 boxes. Sampling theoretical profiles with n=19 patients and n=7 nurses after data saturation. Recruitment of patients included in the profiles of elderly and long-stay got stretched over some time due to the low incidence of cases. Data collection consisted of: in-depth interview to critically ill patients, group discussion of expert nurses in the critical care patient and field diary. Analysis themed on Grounded Theory according Strauss and Corbin: open coding, axial and selective. Analysis followed criteria of Guba and Lincoln rigor, Calderón quality and Gastaldo and McKeever ethical reflexivity. There was a favorable report from the ethical committee of the Hospital and informed consent of the participants. Four matching categories were found: professional skills, human, technical and continued care. Combination of these elements creates feelings of security, calmness and feeling like a person, allowing the patient a close and trusting relationship with the nurse who takes individualized care. Not divergent categories were found. Perceptions of nurses in relation to care match perceptions of critically ill patients in both the definition and dimensions upon satisfactory care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of spontaneous DNA damage and DNA repair capacity in healthy adult individuals from high and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Jaikrishan, G.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2014-01-01

    Inhabitants of the south west coastal areas of Kerala receive high level natural radiation due to the presence of monazite ( 232 Th) in the beach sand. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the biological effects of high level natural radiation on humans. This study evaluate basal DNA damage in 149 healthy adult male subjects (104 from high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA, > 1mSv year -1 ) and 45 from normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA, d''1mSv year -1 ) by the alkaline comet assay. Oxidative DNA damage (ENDO III, FPG and hOGG1-sensitive sites) was measured by the enzyme modified comet assay. Induction and rejoining of DNA strand breaks was measured after irradiating peripheral blood lymphocytes with 2 Gy or 4 Gy gamma radiation. Basal damage due to age and residential area of the donors showed significant interaction (P=0.001), when all subjects were analyzed using a general linear model (GLM). In subgroup analysis, basal damage increased with age in subjects from the NLNRA (P=0.007), while a significant negative correlation (P=0.01) was observed in subjects from HLNRA. Oxidative DNA damage was not influenced by age, smoking habit or residential area in the entire sample. Subjects of high dose group from HLNRA (>5.75 mSv/y, N=34) showed a significant reduction in the induction of DNA damage after 2 Gy (P=0.03) and 4 Gy (P=0.05) compared to subjects form NLNRA. The study showed increased rejoining of DNA strand breaks in subjects from HLNRA when measured at 7 minutes after irradiation (P=0.04). In this pilot study, a low basal damage in elderly subjects from HLNRA and a reduced induction of DNA damage after 2 Gy and 4 Gy irradiation in high dose group subjects from HLNRA might suggest a possible role of chronic low dose natural radiation on the induction of an in vivo radio adaptive response. However, our findings need more validation in a larger study population. (author)

  19. Hospital outpatients are satisfactory for case-control studies on cancer and diet in China: a comparison of population versus hospital controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the internal validity of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed for use in Chinese women and to compare habitual dietary intakes between population and hospital controls measured by the FFQ. A quantitative FFQ and a short food habit questionnaire (SFHQ) were developed and adapted for cancer and nutritional studies. Habitual dietary intakes were assessed in 814 Chinese women aged 18-81 years (407 outpatients and 407 population controls) by face-to-face interview using the FFQ in Shenyang, Northeast China in 2009-2010. The Goldberg formula (ratio of energy intake to basal metabolic rate, EI/BMR) was used to assess the validity of the FFQ. Correlation analyses compared the SFHQ variables with those of the quantitative FFQ. Differences in dietary intakes between hospital and population controls were investigated. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. The partial correlation coefficients were moderate to high (0.42 to 0.80; all pcontrols were comparable to population controls in consumption of 17 measured food groups and mean daily intakes of energy and selected nutrients. The FFQ had reasonable validity to measure habitual dietary intakes of Chinese women. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group for food consumption and intakes of energy and nutrients measured by the FFQ in a Chinese hospital setting.

  20. Diffusion weighted imaging of the normal breast: reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and variation with menstrual cycle and menopausal status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Flynn, Elizabeth A.M.; Morgan, Veronica A.; Giles, Sharon L.; de Souza, Nandita M.

    2012-01-01

    To establish the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in normal fibroglandular breast tissue and to assess variation in ADC values with phase of the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Thirty-one volunteers (13 premenopausal, 18 postmenopausal) underwent magnetic resonance twice (interval 11-22 days) using diffusion-weighted MRI. ADC total and a perfusion-insensitive ADC high (omitting b = 0) were calculated. Reproducibility and inter-observer variability of mean ADC values were assessed. The difference in mean ADC values between the two phases of the menstrual cycle and the postmenopausal breast were evaluated. ADC total and ADC high showed good reproducibility (r% = 17.6, 22.4). ADC high showed very good inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.83). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.93 and 0.91. Mean ADC values were significantly lower in the postmenopausal breast (ADC total 1.46 ± 0.3 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC high 1.33 ± 0.3 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) compared with the premenopausal breast (ADC total 1.84 ± 0.26 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC high 1.77 ± 0.26 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s; both P total P = 0.2, ADC high P = 0.24) or between postmenopausal women taking or not taking oestrogen supplements (ADC total P = 0.6, ADC high P = 0.46). ADC values in fibroglandular breast tissue are reproducible. Lower ADC values within the postmenopausal breast may reduce diffusion-weighted contrast and have implications for accurately detecting tumours. (orig.)

  1. Diffusion weighted imaging of the normal breast: reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and variation with menstrual cycle and menopausal status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flynn, Elizabeth A.M.; Morgan, Veronica A.; Giles, Sharon L. [Cancer Research UK and ESPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Clinical Magnetic Resonance Group, Surrey (United Kingdom); deSouza, Nandita M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Clinical Magnetic Resonance Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    To establish the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in normal fibroglandular breast tissue and to assess variation in ADC values with phase of the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Thirty-one volunteers (13 premenopausal, 18 postmenopausal) underwent magnetic resonance twice (interval 11-22 days) using diffusion-weighted MRI. ADC{sub total} and a perfusion-insensitive ADC{sub high} (omitting b = 0) were calculated. Reproducibility and inter-observer variability of mean ADC values were assessed. The difference in mean ADC values between the two phases of the menstrual cycle and the postmenopausal breast were evaluated. ADC{sub total} and ADC{sub high} showed good reproducibility (r% = 17.6, 22.4). ADC{sub high} showed very good inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.83). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.93 and 0.91. Mean ADC values were significantly lower in the postmenopausal breast (ADC{sub total} 1.46 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, ADC{sub high} 1.33 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) compared with the premenopausal breast (ADC{sub total} 1.84 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, ADC{sub high} 1.77 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; both P < 0.001). No significant difference was seen in ADC values in relation to menstrual cycle (ADC{sub total} P = 0.2, ADC{sub high} P = 0.24) or between postmenopausal women taking or not taking oestrogen supplements (ADC{sub total} P = 0.6, ADC{sub high} P = 0.46). ADC values in fibroglandular breast tissue are reproducible. Lower ADC values within the postmenopausal breast may reduce diffusion-weighted contrast and have implications for accurately detecting tumours. (orig.)

  2. Heuristic Relative Entropy Principles with Complex Measures: Large-Degree Asymptotics of a Family of Multi-variate Normal Random Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Michael Karl-Heinz

    2017-10-01

    Let z\\in C, let σ ^2>0 be a variance, and for N\\in N define the integrals E_N^{}(z;σ ) := {1/σ } \\int _R\\ (x^2+z^2) e^{-{1/2σ^2 x^2}}{√{2π }}/dx \\quad if N=1, {1/σ } \\int _{R^N} \\prod \\prod \\limits _{1≤ k1. These are expected values of the polynomials P_N^{}(z)=\\prod _{1≤ n≤ N}(X_n^2+z^2) whose 2 N zeros ± i X_k^{}_{k=1,\\ldots ,N} are generated by N identically distributed multi-variate mean-zero normal random variables {X_k}N_{k=1} with co-variance {Cov}_N^{}(X_k,X_l)=(1+σ ^2-1/N)δ _{k,l}+σ ^2-1/N(1-δ _{k,l}). The E_N^{}(z;σ ) are polynomials in z^2, explicitly computable for arbitrary N, yet a list of the first three E_N^{}(z;σ ) shows that the expressions become unwieldy already for moderate N—unless σ = 1, in which case E_N^{}(z;1) = (1+z^2)^N for all z\\in C and N\\in N. (Incidentally, commonly available computer algebra evaluates the integrals E_N^{}(z;σ ) only for N up to a dozen, due to memory constraints). Asymptotic evaluations are needed for the large- N regime. For general complex z these have traditionally been limited to analytic expansion techniques; several rigorous results are proved for complex z near 0. Yet if z\\in R one can also compute this "infinite-degree" limit with the help of the familiar relative entropy principle for probability measures; a rigorous proof of this fact is supplied. Computer algebra-generated evidence is presented in support of a conjecture that a generalization of the relative entropy principle to signed or complex measures governs the N→ ∞ asymptotics of the regime iz\\in R. Potential generalizations, in particular to point vortex ensembles and the prescribed Gauss curvature problem, and to random matrix ensembles, are emphasized.

  3. Selective Sensing of Gas Mixture via a Temperature Modulation Approach: New Strategy for Potentiometric Gas Sensor Obtaining Satisfactory Discriminating Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-An; Jin, Han; Wang, Jinxia; Zou, Jie; Jian, Jiawen

    2017-03-12

    A new strategy to discriminate four types of hazardous gases is proposed in this research. Through modulating the operating temperature and the processing response signal with a pattern recognition algorithm, a gas sensor consisting of a single sensing electrode, i.e., ZnO/In₂O₃ composite, is designed to differentiate NO₂, NH₃, C₃H₆, CO within the level of 50-400 ppm. Results indicate that with adding 15 wt.% ZnO to In₂O₃, the sensor fabricated at 900 °C shows optimal sensing characteristics in detecting all the studied gases. Moreover, with the aid of the principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm, the sensor operating in the temperature modulation mode demonstrates acceptable discrimination features. The satisfactory discrimination features disclose the future that it is possible to differentiate gas mixture efficiently through operating a single electrode sensor at temperature modulation mode.

  4. Satisfactory arterial repair 1 year after ultrathin strut biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent implantation: an angioscopic observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Takayuki; Awata, Masaki; Iida, Osamu; Fujita, Masashi; Masuda, Masaharu; Okamoto, Shin; Nanto, Kiyonori; Kanda, Takashi; Tsujimura, Takuya; Uematsu, Masaaki; Mano, Toshiaki

    2018-01-15

    The ultrathin strut biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (Orsiro, O-SES) exhibits satisfactory clinical outcomes. However, no report to date has documented the intravascular status of artery repair after O-SES implantation. We examined 5 O-SES placed in 4 patients (age 65 ± 12 years, male 75%) presenting with stable angina pectoris due to de novo lesions in native coronary arteries. Coronary angioscopy was performed immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention and 1 year later. Angioscopic images were analyzed to determine the following: (1) dominant grade of neointimal coverage (NIC) over the stent; (2) maximum yellow plaque grade; and (3) existence of thrombus. Yellow plaque grade was evaluated both immediately after stent implantation and at the time of follow-up observation. The other parameters were evaluated at the time of follow-up examination. NIC was graded as: grade 0, stent struts exposed; grade 1, struts bulging into the lumen, although covered; grade 2, struts embedded in the neointima, but translucent; grade 3, struts fully embedded and invisible. Yellow plaque severity was graded as: grade 0, white; grade 1, light yellow; grade 2, yellow; and grade 3, intensive yellow. Angioscopic findings at 1 year demonstrated the following: dominant NIC grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3 in 1, 2, and 2 stents, respectively; all stents were covered to some extent; focal thrombus adhesion was observed in only 1 stent. Yellow plaque grade did not change from immediately after stent implantation to follow-up. O-SES demonstrated satisfactory arterial repair 1 year after implantation.

  5. Predictors of satisfactory improvements in pain for patients with early rheumatoid arthritis in a treat-to-target study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Klooster, Peter M; Vonkeman, Harald E; Oude Voshaar, Martijn A H; Siemons, Liseth; van Riel, Piet L C M; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify baseline predictors of achieving patient-perceived satisfactory improvement (PPSI) in pain after 6 months of treat to target in patients with early RA. Baseline and 6 month data were used from patients included in the Dutch Rheumatoid Arthritis Monitoring remission induction cohort study. Simple and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify significant predictors of achieving an absolute improvement of 30 mm or a relative improvement of 50% on a visual analogue scale for pain. At 6 months, 125 of 209 patients (59.8%) achieved an absolute PPSI and 130 patients (62.2%) achieved a relative PPSI in pain. Controlling for baseline pain, having symmetrical arthritis was the strongest independent predictor of achieving an absolute [odds ratio (OR) 3.17, P = 0.03] or relative (OR 3.44, P = 0.01) PPSI. Additionally, anti-CCP positivity (OR 2.04, P = 0.04) and having ≤12 tender joints (OR 0.29, P = 0.01) were predictive of achieving a relative PPSI. The total explained variance of baseline predictors was 30% for absolute and 18% for relative improvements, respectively. Symmetrical joint involvement, anti-CCP positivity and fewer tender joints at baseline are prognostic signs for achieving satisfactory improvement in pain after 6 months of treat to target in patients with early RA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Interleaving subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation to avoid side effects while achieving satisfactory motor benefits in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhen; Zhou, Peizhi; Jiang, Shu; Wang, Wei; Li, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD). However, achieving ideal outcomes by conventional programming can be difficult in some patients, resulting in suboptimal control of PD symptoms and stimulation-induced adverse effects. Interleaving stimulation (ILS) is a newer programming technique that can individually optimize the stimulation area, thereby improving control of PD symptoms while alleviating stimulation-induced side effects after conventional programming fails to achieve the desired results. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed PD patients who received DBS programming during the previous 4 years in our hospital. We collected clinical and demographic data from 12 patients who received ILS because of incomplete alleviation of PD symptoms or stimulation-induced adverse effects after conventional programming had proven ineffective or intolerable. Appropriate lead location was confirmed with postoperative reconstruction images. The rationale and clinical efficacy of ILS was analyzed. Results: We divided our patients into 4 groups based on the following symptoms: stimulation-induced dysarthria and choreoathetoid dyskinesias, gait disturbance, and incomplete control of parkinsonism. After treatment with ILS, patients showed satisfactory improvement in PD symptoms and alleviation of stimulation-induced side effects, with a mean improvement in Unified PD Rating Scale motor scores of 26.9%. Conclusions: ILS is a newer choice and effective programming strategy to maximize symptom control in PD while decreasing stimulation-induced adverse effects when conventional programming fails to achieve satisfactory outcome. However, we should keep in mind that most DBS patients are routinely treated with conventional stimulation and that not all patients benefit from ILS. ILS is not recommended as the first choice of programming, and it is recommended only when patients have

  7. Do instability markers predict satisfactory reduction and requirement for later surgery in emergency department patients with wrist fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winayak, Amar; Gossat, Alyza; Cooper, Jenny; Ritchie, Peter; Lim, Wei; Klim, Sharon; Kelly, Anne-Maree

    2018-02-01

    Research suggests that the presence of instability markers in patients with displaced distal radial fractures is associated with poorer outcome. Our aims were to determine whether the presence of previously defined instability markers could predict the likelihood of successful ED reduction and requirement for a secondary procedure after ED reduction. Retrospective cohort study performed by medical record review. Adult ED patients coded as having an isolated wrist fracture and having fracture reduction in ED were eligible for inclusion. Data collected included demographics, history of osteoporosis, mechanism of injury, radiological features on X-rays and performance of a secondary procedure. Outcomes of interest were the rate of successful fracture reduction in ED (against defined radiological criteria), the rate of secondary procedures and the association between the number of defined instability risk factors and successful reduction and performance of a secondary surgical procedure. Analysis was by χ 2 test, receiver operating characteristic curve, logistic regression analyses. Three hundred and nineteen patients were studied; median age 62 years, 77% female. Sixty-five per cent of patients had satisfactory fracture reduction in ED (95% CI 59%-70%). Eighty-six patients underwent a secondary procedure to reduce/stabilise their fracture (28%, 95% CI 23%-33%). Younger age, lack of satisfactory ED reduction and increased number of instability factors were independently predictive of the performance of a secondary procedure. Instability risk factors are common in patients with wrist fractures requiring reduction in ED. The number of instability factors is not a strong predictor of the performance of secondary procedures. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  8. Background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): An approach based on 133Cs normalization and lead isotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussiez, Vincent; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Probst, Jean-Luc; Monaco, Andre

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to reach natural background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). To correct for the grain-size effect, normalization procedures based on a clay mineral indicator element are commonly used, after a first grain size separation by sieving. In our study, we tested the applicability of this method with respect to commonly used normalizer elements, and found that stable Cs shows the best ability to reflect the fine sediment fraction. Background levels were successfully reached for Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb, compared to various literature references. Nevertheless, in the case of lead, the normalized data depicted a general enrichment in all samples, and the natural levels could only be reached when concentrations were corrected for the atmospheric contribution by analysing lead isotope ratios. Also for Zn, a general enrichment was found in our samples, although less important. - Among several potential normalizers, stable Cs ( 133 Cs) depicted the best ability to correct for the grain-size effect of shelf sediments and was used to estimate regional background levels of heavy metals

  9. Hypoxyradiotherapy: lack of experimental evidence for a preferential radioprotective effect on normal versus tumor tissue as shown by direct oxygenation measurements in experimental sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, Debra K.; Thews, Oliver; Vaupel, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Aim: In order to investigate possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the postulated preferential protective effect of hypoxia on normal tissue during radiotherapy, the impact of acute respiratory hypoxia (8.2% O 2 + 91.8% N 2 ) on tissue oxygenation was assessed. Methods: Tumor and normal tissue oxygenation was directly determined using O 2 -sensitive electrodes in two experimental rat tumors (DS and Yoshida sarcomas) and in the normal subcutis of the hind foot dorsum. Results: During respiratory hypoxia, arterial blood O 2 tension (pO 2 ), oxyhemoglobin saturation and mean arterial blood pressure decreased. Changes in the arterial blood gas status were accompanied by a reflex hyperventilation leading to hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis. In the subcutis, tissue oxygenation worsened during acute hypoxia, with decreases in the mean and median pO 2 . Significant increases in the hypoxic fractions were, however, not seen. In tumor tissues, oxygenation also worsened upon hypoxic hypoxia with significant decreases in the mean and median pO 2 and increases in the size of the hypoxic fractions for both sarcomas. Conclusion: These results suggest that during respiratory hypoxia, radiobiologically relevant reductions in the oxygenation (and a subsequent selective radioprotection) of normal tissue may not be achieved. In addition, in the tumor models studied, a worsening of tumor oxygenation was seen which could result in an increased radioresistance

  10. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  11. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Vind, Susanne Haase

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical...... blood pressure cuff with continuous decrease from suprasystolic arm pressure. The validity of skin perfusion pressure with the new device was compared to that of isotope washout below the knee in normal subjects and in patients with an ischemic forefoot with acceptable agreement. The method had a high...... reproducibility within and between days in normal subjects. Compared to systolic arterial pressure measured using a strain gauge with a cuff on the ankle in normal subjects and patients with intermittent claudication the new device showed blood pressure in the skin closer to the diastolic pressure. The new...

  12. Satisfactory reliability among nursing students using the instrument PVC ASSESS to evaluate management of peripheral venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlqvist, Margary; Berglund, Britta; Nordström, Gun; Klang, Birgitta; Johansson, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Nursing students should be given opportunities to participate in clinical audits during their education. However, audit tools are seldom tested for reliability among nursing students. The aim of this study was to present reliability among nursing students using the instrument PVC assess to assess management of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) and PVC-related signs of thrombophlebitis. PVC assess was used to assess 67 inserted PVCs in 60 patients at ten wards at a university hospital. One group of nursing students (n=4) assessed PVCs at the bedside (inter-rater reliability) and photographs of these PVCs were taken. Another group of students (n=3) assessed the PVCs in the photographs after 4 weeks (test-retest reliability). To determine reliability, proportion of agreement [P(A)] and Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) were calculated. For bedside assessment of PVCs, P(A) ranged from good to excellent (0.80-1.0) in 55% of the 26 PVC assess items that were tested. P(A) was poor (satisfactory reliability among nursing students. However, students need training in how to use the instrument before assessing PVCs.

  13. 17 CFR 402.2d - Appendix D-Modification of § 240.15c3-1d of this title, relating to satisfactory subordination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appendix D-Modification of § 240.15c3-1d of this title, relating to satisfactory subordination agreements, for purposes of § 402.2...—Modification of § 240.15c3-1d of this title, relating to satisfactory subordination agreements, for purposes of...

  14. Measurement of blood flow in the superior sagittal sinus in healthy volunteers, and in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus and idiopathic intracranial hypertension with phase-contrast cine MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Gjerris, F

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure blood flow and velocity in the superior sagittal ++sinus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MR velocity mapping was used to examine 14 healthy volunteers, 15 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), 3 patients with high pressure hydrocephalus (HPH), and 11 patients with idiopathic...

  15. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  16. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  17. Impact of hydration status on body composition as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in normal volunteers and patients on haemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horber, F.F.; Thomi, F.; Casez, J.P.; Fonteille, J.; Jaeger, Ph.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of hydration status on the estimation of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), six normal volunteers and seven patients on maintenance haemodialysis were investigated using two different DXA machines (Lunar DPX, Hologic QDR 1000/W). Normal volunteers were studied (Hologic QDR 1000/W) before and 1 h after ingestion of breakfast, lunch and dinner (drinking various amounts of liquids at each meal, 0.5-2.4 kg). Whereas bone mineral content and body fat mass did not change, lean body mass of the trunk increased as a consequence of the meals. Conversely in patients on haemodialysis (Lunar DPX), lean body mass decreased in all segments of the body as a consequence of removal of 0.9-4.4 kg of salt-containing fluid by haemodialysis (trunk 61%, legs 30%, arms 5.5% and rest of the body 3.5%), whereas bone mineral content and body fat mass remained unchanged. (author)

  18. Positron emission tomography study on pancreatic somatostatin receptors in normal and diabetic rats with 68Ga-DOTA-octreotide: a potential PET tracer for beta cell mass measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Takeo; Hasegawa, Koki; Nishimura, Mie; Kanayama, Yousuke; Wada, Yasuhiro; Hayashinaka, Emi; Cui, Yilong; Kataoka, Yosky; Senda, Michio; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-12-06

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, and the loss or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells has been reported before the appearance of clinical symptoms and hyperglycemia. To evaluate beta cell mass (BCM) for improving the detection and treatment of DM at earlier stages, we focused on somatostatin receptors that are highly expressed in the pancreatic beta cells, and developed a positron emission tomography (PET) probe derived from octreotide, a metabolically stable somatostatin analog. Octreotide was conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), a chelating agent, and labeled with (68)Gallium ((68)Ga). After intravenous injection of (68)Ga-DOTA-octreotide, a 90-min emission scan of the abdomen was performed in normal and DM model rats. The PET studies showed that (68)Ga-DOTA-octreotide radioactivity was highly accumulated in the pancreas of normal rats and that the pancreatic accumulation was significantly reduced in the rats administered with an excess amount of unlabeled octreotide or after treatment with streptozotocin, which was used for the chemical induction of DM in rats. These results were in good agreement with the ex vivo biodistribution data. These results indicated that the pancreatic accumulation of (68)Ga-DOTA-octreotide represented specific binding to the somatostatin receptors and reflected BCM. Therefore, PET imaging with (68)Ga-DOTA-octreotide could be a potential tool for evaluating BCM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Choice of measure matters: A study of the relationship between socioeconomic status and psychosocial resources in a middle-aged normal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Festin

    Full Text Available Psychosocial resources may serve as an important link to explain socioeconomic differences in health. Earlier studies have demonstrated that education, income and occupational status cannot be used interchangeably as indicators of a hypothetical latent social dimension. In the same manner, it is important to disentangle the effect of measuring different constructs of psychosocial resources. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse if associations between socioeconomic status (SES and psychosocial resources differ depending on the measures used. A cross-sectional population-based study of a random sample (n = 1007 of middle-aged individuals (45-69 years old, 50% women in Sweden was performed using questionnaire and register data. SES was measured as education, occupation, household income and self-rated economy. Psychosocial resources were measured as social integration, social support, mastery, self-esteem, sense of coherence (SOC and trust. Logistic regression models were applied to analyse the relationships controlling for the effects of possible confounders. The measures of SES were low or moderately correlated to each other as were the measures of psychosocial resources. After controlling for age, sex, country of birth and employment status, household income and self-rated economy were associated with all six psychosocial resources; occupation was associated with three (social integration, self-esteem and trust and education with two (social integration and self-esteem. Social integration and self-esteem showed a significant and graded relationship with all SES measures; trust was associated with all SES measures except education, whereas SOC and mastery were only associated with household income and self-rated economy. After controlling for other SES measures, no associations with psychosocial resources remained for education or occupation. In conclusion, associations between SES and psychosocial resources did differ depending on the

  20. The results of Scarf osteotomy combined with distal soft tissue procedure are mostly satisfactory in surgical management of moderate to severe hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şaylı, Uğur; Akman, Budak; Tanrıöver, Altuğ; Kaspar, Çiğdem; Güven, Melih; Özler, Turhan

    2017-05-29

    Intrinsically stable diaphyseal osteotomy gained popularity in recent years for symptomatic hallux valgus deformities. In this study, Scarf osteotomy results, in surgical management of moderate to severe hallux valgus, are presented. Study group consisted of 40 feet of 32 (28 females, four males) patients surgically managed by Scarf osteotomy between September 2009 and 2011, with a mean age of 52,98 (range, 31-75) years at the time of surgery. Patient satisfaction and VAS were used for subjective evaluation while for objective measures AOFAS score, first metatarsophalangeal joint ROM and radiological measurements (intermetatarsal, hallux valgus and distal metatarsal articular angles) were evaluated. Mean follow-up period was 38 (range, 24-60) months. Sixteen feet (40%) were reported as very satisfied, 19 (47,5%) as satisfied and the remaining five (12,5%) as unsatisfied resulting with a total of 35 (87,5%) satisfaction. The mean preoperative VAS and AOFAS forefoot scores improved from 8,13±0,791 to 2,68±1,228 (p=0,0001) and from 58,25±6,15 to 78,25±8,13 (p=0,0001) on the final follow-up, respectively. The postoperative change of first metatarsophalangeal joint ROM was not statistically significant (p=0,281). On the radiological evaluation; intermetatarsal and hallux valgus angles improved from a mean value of 14,77±1,76 to 8,13±1,52° (p=0,0001) and from 35,28±5,86 to 20,10±5,55° (p=0,0001), respectively. Distal metatarsal articular angle did not show any statistically significant change (p=0,195). Scarf osteotomy combined with distal soft tissue procedure is a technically demanding procedure. The osteotomy is intrinsically stable and the correction power is high and the results are mostly satisfactory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Proposal of a new analytical procedure for the measurement of water absorption by stone. Preliminary study for an alternative to the Italian technical normative NORMAL 07-81

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plattner Susanne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Italian technical normative in the field of cultural heritage is often considered insufficient or not suitable in practise, therefore efforts are necessary to design new and/or improve already existing ones. Results In this paper an alternative analytical procedure for the determination of water absorption (by full immersion by stone material, described in the NORMAL 07-81 document, is proposed. Improvements concern methods accuracy and reduction of sample size; further also density data is obtained. Conclusions The new procedure was applied on three different marble samples and outcomes are encouraging, but further testing is running to better understand to what extent sample size can be reduced without worsening accuracy of results, taking into account that stone is a very heterogeneous material.

  2. Whole-body bone mineral content, lean body mass, and fat mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in a population of normal Canadian children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, A. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca; Morrison, J. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Beaumont, L.F. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Barr, R.D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Measurements of body composition have evident value in evaluating growing children and adolescents, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a tool that provides accurate measurements of whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM). To interpret such measurements in the context of ill health, normative values must be available. Such information could be expected to be regionally specific because of differences in ethnic, dietary, and physical activity determinants. In this study, DXA was performed with Hologic densitometers in normal girls (n = 91) and boys (n 88) between 3 and 18 years of age. The derivation of normal ranges is presented for boys and girls. The correlation of the sum of WBBMC, LBM, and FM with directly measured body weight was almost perfect (r > 0.997). As expected, FM and body mass index correlated strongly. The normal values for WBBMC, LBM, and FM from this study are compared with other Canadian data and with published normative data from Argentina and the Netherlands, all of which use different densitometers. The results of this study allow the calculation of z scores for each facet of body composition and facilitate the use of DXA to report routine evaluations of body composition in children and adolescents. (author)

  3. Whole-body bone mineral content, lean body mass, and fat mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in a population of normal Canadian children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, A.; Webber, C.E.; Morrison, J.; Beaumont, L.F.; Barr, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of body composition have evident value in evaluating growing children and adolescents, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a tool that provides accurate measurements of whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM). To interpret such measurements in the context of ill health, normative values must be available. Such information could be expected to be regionally specific because of differences in ethnic, dietary, and physical activity determinants. In this study, DXA was performed with Hologic densitometers in normal girls (n = 91) and boys (n 88) between 3 and 18 years of age. The derivation of normal ranges is presented for boys and girls. The correlation of the sum of WBBMC, LBM, and FM with directly measured body weight was almost perfect (r > 0.997). As expected, FM and body mass index correlated strongly. The normal values for WBBMC, LBM, and FM from this study are compared with other Canadian data and with published normative data from Argentina and the Netherlands, all of which use different densitometers. The results of this study allow the calculation of z scores for each facet of body composition and facilitate the use of DXA to report routine evaluations of body composition in children and adolescents. (author)

  4. Comparing biomarker measurements to a normal range: when to use standard error of the mean (SEM) or standard deviation (SD) confidence intervals tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    This commentary is the second of a series outlining one specific concept in interpreting biomarkers data. In the first, an observational method was presented for assessing the distribution of measurements before making parametric calculations. Here, the discussion revolves around...

  5. The contribution of 3D quantitative meniscal and cartilage measures to variation in normal radiographic joint space width—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Melanie; Wirth, Wolfgang; Emmanuel, Katja; Culvenor, Adam G.; Eckstein, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. Methods: The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0 ± 7.6; BMI 24.4 ± 3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. Results: The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.67) than for meniscal (−0.31 ≤ r ≤ 0.50) or demographic measures (−0.15 ≤ r ≤ 0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r ≥ 0.68 medially; r ≥ 0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r ≤ |0.32| medially; r ≤ |0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r 2 = 58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r 2 = 60/51%, respectively). Conclusions: In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations between

  6. The contribution of 3D quantitative meniscal and cartilage measures to variation in normal radiographic joint space width—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.roth@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Wirth, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.wirth@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404, Ainring (Germany); Emmanuel, Katja, E-mail: katja.emmanuel@icloud.com [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Paracelsus Medical University, Müllner Hauptstraße 48, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Culvenor, Adam G., E-mail: adam.culvenor@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, 3086, Victoria (Australia); Eckstein, Felix, E-mail: felix.eckstein@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404, Ainring (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Objective: To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. Methods: The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0 ± 7.6; BMI 24.4 ± 3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. Results: The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.67) than for meniscal (−0.31 ≤ r ≤ 0.50) or demographic measures (−0.15 ≤ r ≤ 0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r ≥ 0.68 medially; r ≥ 0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r ≤ |0.32| medially; r ≤ |0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r{sup 2} = 58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r{sup 2} = 60/51%, respectively). Conclusions: In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations

  7. Validation of normalized pulse volume in the outer ear as a simple measure of sympathetic activity using warm and cold pressor tests: towards applications in ambulatory monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jihyoung; Matsumura, Kenta; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi; Rolfe, Peter; Kim, Kyungho

    2013-01-01

    Normalized pulse volume (NPV) derived from the ear has the potential to be a practical index for monitoring daily life stress. However, ear NPV has not yet been validated. Therefore, we compared NPV derived from an index finger using transmission photoplethysmography as a reference, with NPV derived from a middle finger and four sites of the ear using reflection photoplethysmography during baseline and while performing cold and warm water immersion in ten young and six middle-aged subjects. The results showed that logarithmically-transformed NPV (lnNPV) during cold water immersion as compared with baseline values was significantly lower, only at the index finger, the middle finger and the bottom of the ear-canal. Furthermore, lnNPV reactivities (ΔlnNPV; the difference between baseline and test values) from an index finger were significantly related to ΔlnNPV from the middle finger and the bottom of the ear-canal (young: r = 0.90 and 0.62, middle-aged: r = 0.80 and 0.58, respectively). In conclusion, these findings show that reflection and transmission photoplethysmography are comparable methods to derive NPV in accordance with our theoretical prediction. NPV derived from the bottom of the ear-canal is a valid approach, which could be useful for evaluating daily life stress. (paper)

  8. Measurement of the specific heat of small vanadium particles in the normal- and superconducting state in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara Garcia, O.

    1982-01-01

    The specific heat of small crystalline vanadium particles in form of polyeders with diameters between 2.9 and 13.2 mm was measured in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K. Quantum effects are interpreted in the frame of theoretical models. (BEF)

  9. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex volumetric MRI measurements in discrimination between Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Elshafey

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Semi-automated MR volumetric measurements can be used to determine atrophy in hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex which aided in discrimination of healthy elderly control subjects from subjects with AD and MCI and predict clinical decline of MCI leading to increase the efficiency of clinical treatments, delay institutionalization and improve cognition and behavioral symptoms.

  10. Does repeat Hb measurement within 2 hours after a normal initial Hb in stable trauma patients add value to trauma evaluation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierink, Joanne C.; Joosse, Pieter; de Castro, Steve M. M.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2014-01-01

    In our level I trauma center, it is considered common practice to repeat blood haemoglobin measurements in patients within 2 h after admission. However, the rationale behind this procedure is elusive and can be considered labour-intensive, especially in patients in whom haemorrhaging is not to be

  11. A measure of the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilenkin, Alexander [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2007-06-22

    I review recent progress in defining a probability measure in the inflationary multiverse. General requirements for a satisfactory measure are formulated and recent proposals for the measure are clarified and discussed.

  12. A measure of the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilenkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    I review recent progress in defining a probability measure in the inflationary multiverse. General requirements for a satisfactory measure are formulated and recent proposals for the measure are clarified and discussed

  13. Inhibition of nucleotide excision repair by fludarabine in normal lymphocytes in vitro, measured by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kawai, Yasukazu; Ueda, Takanori [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Alkylating agents or platinum analogues initiate several excision repair mechanisms, which involve incision of the DNA strand, excision of the damaged nucleotide, gap filling by DNA resynthesis, and rejoining by ligation. The previous study described that nucleotide excision repair permitted incorporation of fludarabine nucleoside (F-area-A) into the repair patch, thereby inhibiting the DNA resynthesis. In the present study, to clarify the repair kinetics in view of the inhibition by F-ara-A, normal lymphocytes were stimulated to undergo nucleotide excision repair by ultraviolet C (UV) irradiation in the presence or absence of F-ara-A. The repair kinetics were determined as DNA single strand breaks resulting from the incision and the rejoining using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. DNA resynthesis was evaluated in terms of the uptake of tritiated thymidine into DNA. The lymphocytes initiated the incision step maximally at 1 h, and completed the rejoining process within 4 h after UV exposure. UV also initiated thymidine uptake, which increased time-dependently and reached a plateau at 4 h. A 2-h pre-incubation with F-ara-A inhibited the repair in a concentration-dependent manner, with the maximal inhibition by 5 {mu}M. This inhibitory effect was demonstrated by the reduction of the thymidine uptake and by the inhibition of the rejoining. A DNA polymerase inhibitor, aphidicolin, and a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, hydroxyurea, were not so inhibitory to the repair process as F-ara-A at equimolar concentrations. The present findings suggest that inhibition of nucleotide excision repair may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against cancer, especially in the context of resistant cells with an increased repair capacity. (author)

  14. Effect of whey protein and a free amino acid mixture simulating whey protein on measures of satiety in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-11-01

    Dietary protein is considered more satiating than carbohydrate, and whey protein is more satiating than other protein sources. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be due to direct effects of the unique mixture of proteins in whey, due to the effects of peptides released upon digestion and/or its amino acid composition. The objective of the present study was to compare the satiating effects of intact whey protein isolate (WPI) or a free amino acid mixture (AAM) simulating the amino acid composition of the WPI. A single-blind completely randomised block design included twenty, healthy, adult women (age 24·2 (sem 0·8) years) of normal weight (BMI 22·7 (sem 0·4) kg/m2). Following consumption of isoenergetic (approximately 1800 kJ) preload meals enriched (52 g amino acid equivalent) with WPI or AAM, consumption of an ad libitum test meal 120 min later and subjective feelings of appetite using visual analogue scales (VAS) were determined. There were no significant differences (P=0·24) in the ad libitum test meal intakes between the WPI (268·5 (sem 27·3) g) and the AAM (238·4 (sem 22·7) g) preload meals. Subjective VAS ratings of appetite did not differ significantly between the WPI and the AAM preload meals (P>0·05). Intact whey protein and a free AAM simulating the whey protein showed similar effects on satiety. This suggests that the satiating effect of whey protein may be related to its specific amino acid composition.

  15. Visceral adiposity is associated with altered myocardial glucose uptake measured by (18)FDG-PET in 346 subjects with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyuri; Jo, Kwanhyeong; Kim, Kwang Joon; Lee, Yong-ho; Han, Eugene; Yoon, Hye-jin; Wang, Hye Jin; Kang, Eun Seok; Yun, Mijin

    2015-11-04

    The heart requires constant sources of energy mostly from free fatty acids (FFA) and glucose. The alteration in myocardial substrate metabolism occurs in the heart of diabetic patients, but its specific association with other metabolic variables remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate glucose uptake in hearts of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET) in association with visceral and subcutaneous adiposity, and metabolic laboratory parameters. A total of 346 individuals (NGT, n = 76; prediabetes, n = 208; T2DM, n = 62) in a health promotion center of a tertiary hospital were enrolled. The fasting myocardial glucose uptake, and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas were evaluated using (18)FDG-PET and abdominal computed tomography, respectively. Myocardial glucose uptake was significantly decreased in subjects with T2DM compared to the NGT or prediabetes groups (p for trend = 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that visceral fat area (β = -0.22, p = 0.018), fasting FFA (β = -0.39, p < 0.001), and uric acid levels (β = -0.21, p = 0.007) were independent determinants of myocardial glucose uptake. Multiple logistic analyses demonstrated that decreased myocardial glucose uptake (OR 2.32; 95% CI 1.02-5.29, p = 0.045) and visceral fat area (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, p = 0.018) were associated with T2DM. Our findings indicate visceral adiposity is strongly associated with the alteration of myocardial glucose uptake evaluated by (18)FDG-PET, and its association further relates to T2DM.

  16. A new model for separation between brain dopamine and serotonin transporters in {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT SPECT measurements: normal values and sex and age dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryding, Erik; Rosen, Ingmar [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lindstroem, Mats; Bosson, Peter; Traeskman-Bendz, Lil [Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Braadvik, Bjoern; Grabowski, Martin [Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT is a radioactive ligand for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the pre-synaptic (transporter) re-uptake sites for dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (5HTT), and it is widely used to visualize monoamine turnover. Since {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT uptake occurs at 5HTT and DAT sites in conjunction with the presence of freely soluble {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT in brain tissue, adequate separation of these three components is necessary. However, only partial separation is possible with current methods. Two main strategies have previously been used for {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT component separation, based on the following considerations: (1) the faster uptake rate for 5HTT compared with DAT enables temporal separation by performing 5HTT imaging at 1-2 h and DAT imaging at 20-24 h; (2) blocking the 5HTT re-uptake with citalopram renders {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT imaging DAT (non-5HTT) specific. In a new analytical model, we combined these two approaches with methods to isolate the passively dissolved {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT in brain tissue from the monoamine transporter uptake, and to correct the 5HTT and DAT values for concomitant uptake. The new analytical model was used to study brain 5HTT and DAT in 23 normal subjects, with the aim of clarifying the effect of age and sex. A significant correlation between 5HTT and DAT values was found only in the thalamus, indicating successful component separation. Negative correlations between age and DAT were found for basal ganglia, thalami, brain stem and temporal lobes, but not for the frontal, parietal or occipital regions. No correlation with age was found for 5HTT. We found no sex difference for 5HTT or DAT. (orig.)

  17. Measurement of fission gas release, internal pressure and cladding creep rate in the fuel pins of PHWR bundle of normal discharge burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, U.K. [Post Irradiation Examination Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sah, D.N., E-mail: dnsah@barc.gov.i [Post Irradiation Examination Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Rath, B.N.; Anantharaman, S. [Post Irradiation Examination Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2009-08-01

    Fuel pins of a Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) fuel bundle discharged from Narora Atomic Power Station unit no. 1 after attaining a fuel burnup of 7528 MWd/tU have been subjected to two types of studies, namely (i) puncture test to estimate extent of fission gas release and internal pressure in the fuel pin and (ii) localized heating of the irradiated fuel pin to measure the creep rate of the cladding in temperature range 800 deg. C - 900 deg. C. The fission gas release in the fuel pins from the outer ring of the bundle was found to be about 8%. However, only marginal release was found in fuel pins from the middle ring and the central fuel pin. The internal gas pressure in the outer fuel pin was measured to be 0.55 +- 0.05 MPa at room temperature. In-cell isothermal heating of a small portion of the outer fuel pins was carried out at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C and 900 deg. C for 10 min and the increase in diameter of the fuel pin was measured after heat treatment. Creep rates of the cladding obtained from the measurement of the diameter change of the cladding due to heating at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C and 900 deg. C were found respectively to be 2.4 x 10{sup -5} s{sup -1}, 24.6 x 10{sup -5} s{sup -1} and 45.6 x 10{sup -5} s{sup -1}.

  18. Challenging the present definition of "normal" vitamin D levels obtained by a single blood test. Can we develop a formula to predict vitamin D levels in the 4 seasons from a single season's measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandeter, Howard

    2014-08-01

    Publications on the health effects of vitamin D (25(OH) D) had almost triplicate in the last 10years, not only for its known "calcemic effects" (calcium, phosphor, PTH), but for the more recent findings on its "non-calcemic effects" (all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and relation with certain types of cancer). Part of these publications deal with the definition of what is a "normal" circulating level of 25(OH) D that may distinguish between health and disease. The literature also deals with seasonal variations of vitamin D, showing levels that rise in summer and fall in winter and with DBP phenotypes and geographical location that affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements. Despite the knowledge of the existence of these phenomena many studies on vitamin D fail to acknowledge the time of the year the blood sample was extracted. Thus, when we compare results from different studies without defining the season that the samples were drawn, we compare incomparable figures. Furthermore, it is quite absurd to define "normal levels" as a static measure (over or under a certain value) using a single blood test when the value measured is known to change with seasons. Knowing that people have different vitamin D levels in different seasons of the year, we should ask ourselves which of these measurements should be used to define a "real" or "normal" level? Is it the lower one? Is there a "mean measure" that should be used for this matter? If yes, how do we obtain it? Do we have to make 4 seasonal measurements in each patient? Alternatively, might there be a possibility of developing a formula to help us obtain the mean from a single season's measure or one season's prediction from another season's measurement? And knowing that DBP phenotypes and geographical location affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements; shouldn't we include this in the equation? In this article I will discuss the hypothetical existence of an Individual Mean Annual vitamin D level that I will

  19. Comparative evaluation of hemodynamic and respiratory parameters during mechanical ventilation with two tidal volumes calculated by demi-span based height and measured height in normal lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mousavi Seresht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Appropriate determination of tidal volume (VT is important for preventing ventilation induced lung injury. We compared hemodynamic and respiratory parameters in two conditions of receiving VTs calculated by using body weight (BW, which was estimated by measured height (HBW or demi-span based body weight (DBW. Materials and Methods : This controlled-trial was conducted in St. Alzahra Hospital in 2009 on American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I and II, 18-65-years-old patients. Standing height and weight were measured and then height was calculated using demi-span method. BW and VT were calculated with acute respiratory distress syndrome-net formula. Patients were randomized and then crossed to receive ventilation with both calculated VTs for 20 min. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were analyzed with SPSS version 20.0 using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results : Forty nine patients were studied. Demi-span based body weight and thus VT (DTV were lower than Height based body weight and VT (HTV (P = 0.028, in male patients (P = 0.005. Difference was observed in peak airway pressure (PAP and airway resistance (AR changes with higher PAP and AR at 20 min after receiving HTV compared with DTV. Conclusions : Estimated VT based on measured height is higher than that based on demi-span and this difference exists only in females, and this higher VT results higher airway pressures during mechanical ventilation.

  20. Database of normal human cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT: II. Quantification of I-123-IMP studies with ARG method and effects of partial volume correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Shidahara, Miho; Goto, Ryoi; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Taki, Yasuyuki; Okada, Ken; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2006-02-01

    The limited spatial resolution of SPECT causes a partial volume effect (PVE) and can lead to the significant underestimation of regional tracer concentration in the small structures surrounded by a low tracer concentration, such as the cortical gray matter of an atrophied brain. The aim of the present study was to determine, using 123I-IMP and SPECT, normal CBF of elderly subjects with and without PVE correction (PVC), and to determine regional differences in the effect of PVC and their association with the regional tissue fraction of the brain. Quantitative CBF SPECT using 123I-IMP was performed in 33 healthy elderly subjects (18 males, 15 females, 54-74 years old) using the autoradiographic method. We corrected CBF for PVE using segmented MR images, and analyzed quantitative CBF and regional differences in the effect of PVC using tissue fractions of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in regions of interest (ROIs) placed on the cortical and subcortical GM regions and deep WM regions. The mean CBF in GM-ROIs were 31.7 +/- 6.6 and 41.0 +/- 8.1 ml/100 g/min for males and females, and in WM-ROIs, 18.2 +/- 0.7 and 22.9 +/- 0.8 ml/100 g/min for males and females, respectively. The mean CBF in GM-ROIs after PVC were 50.9 +/- 12.8 and 65.8 +/- 16.1 ml/100 g/min for males and females, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the effect of PVC among ROIs, but not between genders. The effect of PVC was small in the cerebellum and parahippocampal gyrus, and it was large in the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule and precentral gyrus. Quantitative CBF in GM recovered significantly, but did not reach values as high as those obtained by invasive methods or in the H2(15)O PET study that used PVC. There were significant regional differences in the effect of PVC, which were considered to result from regional differences in GM tissue fraction, which is more reduced in the frontoparietal regions in the atrophied brain of the elderly.

  1. Database of normal human cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT. II. Quantification of I-123-IMP studies with ARG method and effects of partial volume correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Shidahara, Miho

    2006-01-01

    The limited spatial resolution of SPECT causes a partial volume effect (PVE) and can lead to the significant underestimation of regional tracer concentration in the small structures surrounded by a low tracer concentration, such as the cortical gray matter of an atrophied brain. The aim of the present study was to determine, using 123 I-IMP and SPECT, normal cerebral blood flow (CBF) of elderly subjects with and without PVE correction (PVC), and to determine regional differences in the effect of PVC and their association with the regional tissue fraction of the brain. Quantitative CBF SPECT using 123 I-IMP was performed in 33 healthy elderly subjects (18 males, 15 females, 54-74 years old) using the autoradiographic method. We corrected CBF for PVE using segmented MR images, and analyzed quantitative CBF and regional differences in the effect of PVC using tissue fractions of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in regions of interest (ROIs) placed on the cortical and subcortical GM regions and deep WM regions. The mean CBF in GM-ROIs were 31.7±6.6 and 41.0±8.1 ml/100 g/min for males and females, and in WM-ROIs, 18.2±0.7 and 22.9±0.8 ml/100 g/min for males and females, respectively. The mean CBF in GM-ROIs after PVC were 50.9±12.8 and 65.8±16.1 ml/100 g/min for males and females, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the effect of PVC among ROIs, but not between genders. The effect of PVC was small in the cerebellum and parahippocampal gyrus, and it was large in the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule and precentral gyrus. Quantitative CBF in GM recovered significantly, but did not reach values as high as those obtained by invasive methods or in the H 2 15 O PET study that used PVC. There were significant regional differences in the effect of PVC, which were considered to result from regional differences in GM tissue fraction, which is more reduced in the frontoparietal regions in the atrophied brain of the elderly

  2. Computation of a numerically satisfactory pair of solutions of the differential equation for conical functions of non-negative integer orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Dunster (Mark); A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of computing satisfactory pair of solutions of the differential equation for Legendre functions of non-negative integer order $\\mu$ and degree $-\\frac12+i\\tau$, where $\\tau$ is a non-negative real parameter. Solutions of this equation are the conical functions

  3. Satisfactory spinal anesthesia with a total of 1.5 mg of bupivacaine for transurethral resection of bladder tumor in an elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Yoshimichi; Yamakage, Michiaki; Tanaka, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Spinal anesthesia is popular for endoscopic urological surgery. Many patients undergoing urological surgery are elderly. It is important to limit the dose to reduce any resultant hemodynamic effect. We present a case in which incremental administration of 0.1 % bupivacaine up to 1.5 mg was sufficient to produce satisfactory spinal anesthesia for transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).

  4. A Better Leveled Playing Field for Assessing Satisfactory Job Performance of Superintendents on the Basis of High-Stakes Testing Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Cox, Edward P.; Buckman, David G.

    2014-01-01

    To assess satisfactory job performance of superintendents on the basis of school districts' high-stakes testing outcomes, existing teacher models were reviewed and critiqued as potential options for retrofit. For these models, specific problems were identified relative to the choice of referent groups. An alternate referent group (statewide…

  5. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  6. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Vind, Susanne Haase; Thomassen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical blood pressure cuff with continuous decrease from suprasystolic arm pressure. The validity of skin perfusion pressure with the new device was compared to that of isotope washout below the knee in normal subjects and in patients with an ischemic forefoot with acceptable agreement. The method had a high reproducibility within and between days in normal subjects. Compared to systolic arterial pressure measured using a strain gauge with a cuff on the ankle in normal subjects and patients with intermittent claudication the new device showed blood pressure in the skin closer to the diastolic pressure. The new pressure device thus had acceptable validity and reproducibility for estimation of the skin perfusion pressure and can be used on bony and tendineous sites on the lower limb in regions where critical wound healing is frequent, e.g. ankle and forefoot

  7. The Influence of the Size, Age and Sex on the Computed Tomographic Measured Size of the Pituitary Gland in Normal Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crijns, C P; Van Bree, H J; Broeckx, B J G; Schauvliege, S; Van Loon, G; Martens, A; Vanderperren, K; Dingemanse, W B; Gielen, I M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of the size, age and sex of the horse on the size of the pituitary gland and determine the possibility of using the pituitary gland height-to-brain area ratio (P:B ratio) to allow comparison of different sized and aged horses. Thirty-two horses without pituitary pars inter-media dysfunction that underwent a contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) examination were included in a cross-sectional study. On the CT images, the pituitary gland height was measured and the P:B ratio was calculated. These measurements were correlated to the size, age and sex of the horses. The pituitary gland height was significantly associated with the size (P horses. No significant association was found between the P:B ratio and the size (P = 0.25), the age (P = 0.06) or the sex (P = 0.25) of the horses. In conclusion, the pituitary gland size varies between different sized and aged horses. The use of the P:B ratio is a valuable metric for making comparisons between the pituitary glands of these horses. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Comparative potency of formulations of mometasone furoate in terms of inhibition of ′PIRHR′ in the forearm skin of normal human subjects measured with laser doppler velocimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhalli Prabhakar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Topical glucocorticoid formulations are widely used for effective treatment and control of a variety of dermatoses. Mometasone furoate is a newer corticoid that has high potency but low systemic toxicity. Pharmaceutical factors are known to significantly influence potency and systemic absorption of topically applied glucocorticoids. We studied the potency of "Elocon", a topical formulation of mometasone furoate, compared with two other branded formulations of the same corticoid. METHODS: Corticoid potency was measured by employing a pharmacodynamic parameter of an inhibitory effect of the corticoid on post-ischemic-reactive-hyperemic-response (PIRHR in human forearm skin under occlusive dressing. The PIRHR was expressed in terms of % increase in the skin blood flow (SBF as measured with laser doppler velocimetry (LDV. RESULTS : All three active branded formulations of mometasone furoate produced significant inhibition of PIRHR. The AUC(0-2min of PIRHR was ( Mean ± SEM , Control = 213.52 ± 11.80, Placebo = 209.77 ± 19.31, Formulation A = 119.83 ± 13.71, Formulation C = 53.67 ± 4.85 and Formulation D = 111.46 ± 22.87. Formulation "C" exhibited significantly higher topical anti-inflammatory potency than formulations "A" or "D". CONCLUSIONS: Thus, branded formulations of the same glucocorticoid, mometasone furoate significantly differed in their topical anti-inflammatory potency. "Elocon" was significantly more potent than the two other branded formulations studied.

  9. Evaluation of lumbar tap test combined with mean cerebral blood flow measurement and electroencephalographic topography on idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Totaro; Iwasaki, Mitsuyoshi; Shirata, Kanji

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the diagnostic precision of the lumbar tap test (LTT). Thirty one patients (mean age, 65.4 years; male to female ratio, 12: 19) suspected of having idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) were used in the study. They underwent LTT (20-30 ml of cerebrospinal fluid was drained through a puncture with a 18 G needle; evaluation within 3 days after LTT). Based on changes in symptoms after LTT, including dementia (evaluated according to the duration of time needed to accomplish No. 7 items in the N method psychofunction test) and gait disturbance (evaluated according to the duration and the number of steps needed to walk 4 m in a straight line), mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) monitored with 133Xe-CT, and electroencephalographic topography (EEG-T). The patients were divided into symptom-improved [LTT(+)] and no change [LTT(-)] groups. Changing patterns of EEG-T and mCBF after LTT and the efficacy of V-P shunt at 1 month after shunt administration (effective: E; non-effective: NE) were analyzed and compared. Changing patterns of EEG-T and mCBF after LTT were categorized as improvement of both parameters (type A), that of mCBF only (type B), that of EEG-T only (type C), and no change in either parameter (type D). Twenty patients were classified as LTT(+) and eleven as LTT(-). The false positive rate was 25% (5/20) for LTT(+); the false negative rate was 27.3% (3/11) for LTT(-). In all the patients, in relation to changing patterns of EEG-T and mCBF, 100% of type A patients (9/9), 75% of type B (6/8), 42.9% of type C (3/7), and 0% of type D (0/7) responded to shunting. Increased rates (IR) of mCBF in 17 patients with improvement of mCBF were 24.2±10.6% in E patients and 8.9±5.2% in NE patients, demonstrating a significantly higher percentage in E patients (p<0.005). The borderline of IR between E and NE was around 15%. Although quantitative evaluation of symptoms (dementia and gait disturbance) before and after LTT, 27

  10. What are the factors that influence the attainment of satisfactory energy intake in pediatric intensive care unit patients receiving enteral or parenteral nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Fernanda Souza; Leite, Heitor Pons; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar Koch

    2013-01-01

    Children admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of inadequate energy intake. Although studies have identified factors contributing to an inadequate energy supply in critically ill children, they did not take into consideration the length of time during which patients received their estimated energy requirements after having achieved a satisfactory energy intake. This study aimed to identify factors associated with the non-attainment of estimated energy requirements and consider the time this energy intake is maintained. This was a prospective study involving 207 children hospitalized in the ICU who were receiving enteral and/or parenteral nutrition. The outcome variable studied was whether 90% of the estimated basal metabolic rate was maintained for at least half of the ICU stay (satisfactory energy intake). The exposure variables for outcome were gender, age, diagnosis, use of vasopressors, malnutrition, route of nutritional support, and Pediatric Index of Mortality and Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction scores. Satisfactory energy intake was attained by 20.8% of the patients, within a mean time of 5.07 ± 2.48 d. In a multivariable analysis, a diagnosis of heart disease (odds ratio 3.62, 95% confidence interval 1.03-12.68, P = 0.045) increased the risk of insufficient energy intake, whereas malnutrition (odds ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.92, P = 0.030) and the use of parenteral nutrition (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.77, P = 0.001) were protective factors against this outcome. A satisfactory energy intake was reached by a small proportion of patients during their ICU stay. Heart disease was an independent risk factor for the non-attainment of satisfactory energy intake, whereas malnutrition and the use of parenteral nutrition were protective factors against this outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Basic experiment of flux gate sensor. no. 1, normalization of measurement data; Furakkusu geto jiryokukei no kisojikken. (1) Sokutei deta no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Naito, Yoshihiro; Segawa, Hiroki

    1999-02-01

    While using a single shaft differential flux gate magnetometer to conduct magnetic inspection of a buried iron, a theoretical equation and simulation waves are known, but the real waves may be different from the theoretical waves depending on the characters of the magnetometer. In general, a magnetic field produced by a static magnet is investigated with a moving sensor. However, in order to investigate a magnetic field only produced by a magnet, it is necessary to investigate the magnetic field by the manner of moving the magnet and not moving the sensor. These two methods are compared. In order to compare and study the digital data obtained from the basic experiment, it is necessary to eliminate the difference caused by the speed differences of the sensor during measurement. The method is explained in detail. (translated by NEDO)

  12. Objective measurement of minimal fat in normal skeletal muscles of healthy children using T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Serai, Suraj; Merrow, Arnold C; Wang, Lily; Horn, Paul S; Laor, Tal

    2014-02-01

    Various skeletal muscle diseases result in fatty infiltration, making it important to develop noninvasive biomarkers to objectively measure muscular fat. We compared T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with physical characteristics previously correlated with intramuscular fat to validate T2 maps and MRS as objective measures of skeletal muscle fat. We evaluated gluteus maximus muscles in 30 healthy boys (ages 5-19 years) at 3 T with T1-weighted images, T2-W images with fat saturation, T2 maps with and without fat saturation, and MR spectroscopy. We calculated body surface area (BSA), body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile (BMI %). We performed fat and inflammation grading on T1-W imaging and fat-saturated T2-W imaging, respectively. Mean T2 values from T2 maps with fat saturation were subtracted from T2 maps without fat saturation to determine T2 fat values. We obtained lipid-to-water ratios by MR spectroscopy. Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships between BSA, BMI, BMI %, T2 fat values, and lipid-to-water ratios for each boy. Twenty-four boys completed all exams; 21 showed minimal and 3 showed no fatty infiltration. None showed muscle inflammation. There was correlation between BSA, BMI, and BMI %, and T2 fat values (P values and lipid-to-water ratios (P skeletal muscles, even in microscopic amounts, and validate each other. Both techniques might enable detection of minimal pathological fatty infiltration in children with skeletal muscle disorders.

  13. One normal void and residual following MUS surgery is all that is necessary in most patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Paul; Shawer, Sami; Anderson, Colette; Khunda, Aethele

    2018-04-01

    There is considerable variation worldwide on how the assessment of voiding function is performed following midurethral sling (MUS) surgery. There is potentially a financial cost, and reduction in efficiency when patient discharge is delayed. Using our current practice of two normal void and residual (V&R) readings before discharge, the aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the likelihood of an abnormal second V&R test if the first V&R test was normal in order to determine if a policy of discharge after only one satisfactory V&R test is reasonable. Data from 400 patients who had had MUS surgery with or without other procedures were collected. Our unit protocol included two consecutive voids of greater than 200 ml with residuals less than 150 ml before discharge. The patients were divided into the following groups: MUS only, MUS plus anterior colporrhaphy (AR) plus any other procedures (MUS/AR), and MUS with any non-AR procedures (MUS+). Complete datasets were available for 335 patients. Once inadequate tests (low volume voids <200 ml) had been excluded (28% overall), the likelihood of an abnormal second V&R test if the first test was normal was 7.1% overall, but 3.6% for MUS, 11.5% for MUS/AR and 8.6% for MUS+. The findings in the MUS-only group indicate that it is probably safe to discharge patients after one satisfactory V&R test, as long as safety measures such as 'open access' are available so that patients have unhindered readmission if problems arise.

  14. normal'>Be7 solar neutrino measurement with KamLAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hanakago, H.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, R.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Obata, A.; Oki, A.; Oki, Y.; Otani, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamada, S.; Yamauchi, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; McKee, D. W.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Murayama, H.; O' Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Learned, J. G.; Sakai, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Downum, K. E.; Tolich, K.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Heeger, K.; Decowski, M. P.

    2015-11-30

    We report a measurement of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate of 862 keV 7Be solar neutrinos based on a 165.4 kt d exposure of KamLAND. The observed rate is 582±94(kt d)₋1, which corresponds to an 862-keV 7Be solar neutrino flux of (3.26±0.52)×109cm₋2s₋1, assuming a pure electron-flavor flux. Comparing this flux with the standard solar model prediction and further assuming three-flavor mixing, a νe survival probability of 0.66±0.15 is determined from the KamLAND data. Lastly, utilizing a global three-flavor oscillation analysis, we obtain a total 7Be solar neutrino flux of (5.82±1.02)×109cm₋2s₋1, which is consistent with the standard solar model predictions.

  15. Implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act; here: Regulation governing ambient radioactivity monitoring subject to the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Pt. 1. Measuring programme for specified normal operation monitoring (routine measuring programme). BMU circular letter dated 28.07.94 -RS II 6 - 15 603/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The regulation addresses the competent Federal and Land authorities responsible for implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act, and the competent highest Land authorities. The regulation defines the scope of obligatory measurement of ambient radioactivity during normal operation of installations and determines the measuring techniques to be applied for this purpose. The programme determines compulsory instructions to be observed in the performance of the routine measuring programme by the competent Federal and Land authorities and thus ensures nationwide application of standard procedures

  16. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  17. Effects of radiochemical impurities on measurements of transfer constants for [14C]sucrose permeation of normal and injured blood-brain barrier of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, E; Foster, D O; Mills, P A

    1998-01-01

    Radiolabeled sucrose is often used to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury in the rat, but published transfer constants (K[i]s) for sucrose permeation of the intact BBB (control K[i]s) are highly discrepant. A potential problem with the commonly used tracer, [14C(U)]sucrose, is radiolytic generation, preuse, of radiocontaminants that might readily penetrate the BBB. How such contaminants might affect measurements of sucrose K(i)s was examined for both the intact and the ischemically injured BBB. Three stocks of [14C(U)]sucrose were studied: newly purchased ("new"), 4-year-old, and 7-year-old. A high purity (99.9%) "new" and a 2-year-old stock of [3H(fructose-1)]sucrose were also tested. Pentobarbital-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected i.v. with each tracer separately (six to eight rats) and K(i)s in five brain regions were measured by the multiple-time graphical method. The "new" 14C-, "new" 3H-, and 2-year-old 3H-sucrose yielded comparable K(i)s , ranging from 1.2 +/- 0.1 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 nl x g(-1) x s(-1) (mean +/- SE) across the regions. The two old stocks of 14C-sucrose yielded significantly higher regional K(i)s : 5.1-6.3 (4-year-old) and 8.4-9.7 (7-year-old). Thin-layer chromatography of the three 14C-tracers revealed that each contained radioimpurities (ca. 2% in both the "new" and 4-year-old, and 9% in the 7-year-old), but that the old stocks contained larger amounts of relatively mobile (more lipophilic) impurities, which can be suspected as the main cause of the elevated K(i)s obtained. Additional rats were subjected to 10 min of cerebral ischemia, which effects a delayed BBB injury, and 6 h later the "new" 3H- and the 4-year-old 14C-sucrose were injected together. The K(i)s for both tracers were elevated by like, absolute amounts (deltaK[i]s), but by very different percentages, over their disparate baseline values in uninjured rats (for striatum and hippocampus, the most injured regions, deltaK(i)s were 3.9 to 4.4 nl x g[-1] x s[-1

  18. Dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in normal humans treated with a novel antipsychotic drug YKP1358 measured by PET and [11c]raclopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. S.; Kim, S. J.; Lee, K. J.; Kim, E.; Yu, K. S.; Jang, I. J.; Kwon, J. S.; Kang, W. J.; Jeong, J. M.; Lee, D. S.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    YKP1358 is a novel serotonin (5-HT 2A ) and dopamine (D 2 ) antagonist, and fitted the general profile of an atypical neuroleptic agent in preclinical studies. The time course of D 2 receptor occupancy in the brain of living human after a single oral dose of YKP1358 was measured using PET and related to the plasma drug levels. A single oral dose, dose escalation (100 mg, 200 mg, and 250 mg), open-label study was performed in 9 healthy male volunteers (3 per each dose) using the [ 11 C]raclopried PET. After the baseline scan, each subject was studied at 2, 5, and 10 hours after the single administration of YKP1358. Blood samples for evaluation of plasma concentration of YKP1358 were also taken at various time points (0-32 hours post-dose). Binding potential (BP) of [ 11 C]raclopride in the putamen was estimated with simplified reference tissue model and percent reduction of the BP was calculated to obtain the D 2 receptor occupancy. BP parametric image was generated using a pixel-wise Logan noninvasive plot. T max of plasma concentration-time profiles was 0.67 hours, and elimination half-life was 5.71, 7.46, and 8.58 hours in 100 mg, 200 mg, and 250 mg dosing groups, respectively. D 2 receptor occupancy of YKP1358 was 60 to 80% at 2 hours, 40 to 60% at 5 hours, and 20 to 50% at 10 hours. The relationship of plasma concentration and D 2 receptor occupancy of YKP1358 was well predicted by Emax model, and Emax was 100 %, EC50 was 8.9 (=1.1) ng/mI, and Hills coefficient was 0.525. PK profile of YKP1358 showed individual variation, but the D 2 receptor occupancy was less variable and well predicted by an Emax model. Since D 2 antagonists show therapeutic effects at 50 to 80% D 2 occupancy and the EC50 of YKP1358 is less than 10 ng/ml, doses of YKP1358 which maintain plasma concentrations above 10 ng/ml are expected to show therapeutic effects

  19. Open-label study of etanercept treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who lost a satisfactory response to adalimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagel, J; Tyring, S; Rice, K C; Collier, D H; Kricorian, G; Chung, J; Iles, J; Stolshek, B S; Kaliyaperumal, A; Papp, K A

    2017-08-01

    Some patients with plaque psoriasis experience secondary failure of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor therapy. To evaluate efficacy, safety and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) with etanercept in patients with secondary adalimumab failure. This phase IV open-label single-arm estimation study (NCT01543204) enrolled patients on adalimumab who had achieved static Physician's Global Assessment (sPGA) score 0/1 (clear/almost clear). Patients subsequently lost response, defined as sPGA ≥ 3 or loss of 50% improvement in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI 50). At baseline, patients had involved body surface area ≥ 10%, sPGA ≥ 3 and PASI ≥ 10. Antiadalimumab antibodies (ADAs) were measured at screening. Patients received etanercept 50 mg twice weekly for 12 weeks, followed by 50 mg weekly. The primary end point was sPGA 0/1 at week 12 (intention-to-treat analysis; no hypothesis tested). Additional outcomes included rates of sPGA 0/1, PASI responses, safety, PROs of itch, pain and flaking, Dermatology Life Quality Index, treatment satisfaction and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Sixty-four patients enrolled; 67% had ADAs. sPGA 0/1 rates at week 12 were 39·7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27·6-52·8; primary end point] and 45% (95% CI 29·3-61·5) for patients positive for ADAs and 35% (95% CI 15·4-59·2) for patients negative for ADAs. PASI 75 response rates at week 12 were 47·5% (95% CI 31·5-63·9) for patients who were positive for ADAs and 50% (95% CI 27·2-72·8) for patients negative for ADAs. No new safety signals were observed. PROs of itch, pain and flaking consistently improved at week 12 and were maintained through week 24. Patients with psoriasis who experienced secondary failure of adalimumab achieved satisfactory response to etanercept regardless of ADA status. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Satisfactory knee function after single-stage posterolateral corner reconstruction in the multi-ligament injured/dislocated knee using the anatomic single-graft technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Thomas L; Johnson, Nick R; Pareek, Ayoosh; Krych, Aaron J; Marx, Robert G; Stuart, Michael J; Levy, Bruce A

    2018-04-01

    Increasing importance has been placed on the posterolateral corner (PLC) in maintaining varus and rotational stability of the knee. The goal of this study was to evaluate knee function and clinical stability following a single-graft PLC reconstruction technique and identify factors associated with poor knee function. This study identified patients with a multi-ligament knee injury between 2006 and 2013. Patients who received a single-graft fibular collateral ligament and PLC reconstruction with a single-stage surgery during the study period and had a minimum follow-up of 2 years after surgery were included. Functional outcomes were assessed using Lysholm and IKDC scores. Varus and rotational knee laxity and range of motion were assessed using physical examination. The final study cohort included 61 patients who underwent PLC reconstruction using a single-graft technique. The mean IKDC score was 74.1 (± 22.3) and the mean Lysholm score was 80.3 (± 21.8) at mean follow-up of 3.8 years (range 2-9 years). Mean range of motion at final follow-up measured from 0° to 126° [range flexion: 95-145, range extension: 0-5]. Fifty-eight patients (95%) had grade 0 varus laxity in full knee extension, and 54 patients (88.5%) had grade 0 varus laxity at 30° of knee flexion. Female gender was associated with a lower postoperative IKDC score (p = 0.04). Surgical treatment of the PLC using a single-graft technique can result in satisfactory knee function and stable physical examination findings at minimum 2 years after surgery. Female gender was predictive of poor knee function after PLC reconstruction. Surgical treatment of PLC injuries should be individualized based on the timing of surgery, specific injured knee structures, and physical examination findings. This study helps validate the use of a single-graft technique for PLC reconstruction and can be used to help counsel patients about expected knee function after surgical treatment of PLC injuries. Level of evidence

  1. Evaluation and Improvement of the Nurse Satisfactory Status in a Tertiary Hospital using the Professional Practice Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Xiaoqin

    2017-02-18

    The present study was performed to quantitatively examine nurse satisfaction, to investigate the associated factors influencing satisfaction, and to evaluate the effect of improvement measures based on these factors. A survey using the 38-item Chinese version of the Practice Environment Scale (CPPE-38) was performed in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China in 2013. Linear regression analysis was performed to screen for associated factors related to each CPPE-3 score and the total satisfaction score. Several improvement measures were established to improve nurse satisfaction, and the CPPE-38 survey was again performed in 2015 to evaluate the effect of these improvement measures. A total of 1,050 respondents were recruited in 2013, with a response rate of 87.6%. The total satisfaction score of the CPPE-38 was 2.99±0.64. The lowest score in a subscale of the CPPE-38 was 2.40±0.59 for interpersonal interaction and the highest score was 3.15±0.40 for internal work motivation. Work location was associated with scores for work motivation and total satisfaction, while the highest education degree was associated with scores for internal relationship and autonomy. The scores for internal work motivation, control over practice, interpersonal interaction, and internal relationship and autonomy were significantly improved in 2015 after two years of improvement efforts, while the total satisfaction score was not significantly different compared to the 2013 score. Working location and education degree were two factors correlated with CPPE-38 scores in our hospital. Humanistic concerns, continuing education, and pay raise may improve the practice satisfaction of nurses.

  2. Sense of coherence, self-esteem, and health locus of control in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus with/without satisfactory metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccitelli, C; Valentini, A; Caletti, M T; Caselli, C; Mazzella, N; Forlani, G; Marchesini, G

    2018-03-01

    Despite intensive training, a few individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) fail to reach the desired metabolic targets. To evaluate the association between disease-related emotional and cognitive aspects and metabolic control in subjects with T1DM. Health locus of control (HLOC), sense of coherence (SOC), and self-esteem were assessed in T1DM subjects using validated questionnaires. Sixty-seven consecutive subjects who did not attain the desired HbA1c target (mean HbA1c, 8.3% [67 mmol/mol]) were compared with 30 cases in satisfactory metabolic control (HbA1c levels satisfactory metabolic control tend to rely on significant others, trusting in the physicians' skills or on the efficiency of the health-care system. Strategies aimed at increasing self-efficacy and SOC, based on personal ability, are eagerly awaited to help patients improve diabetes care.

  3. Satisfactory rate of postprocessing visualization of standard fetal cardiac views from 4-dimensional cardiac volumes acquired during routine ultrasound practice by experienced sonographers in peripheral centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Giuseppe; Capponi, Alessandra; Pietrolucci, Maria Elena; Capece, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Ernesto; Colosi, Enrico; Ferrentino, Salvatore; Sica, Carmine; Di Meglio, Aniello; Arduini, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of visualizing standard cardiac views from 4-dimensional (4D) cardiac volumes obtained at ultrasound facilities with no specific experience in fetal echocardiography. Five sonographers prospectively recorded 4D cardiac volumes starting from the 4-chamber view on 500 consecutive pregnancies at 19 to 24 weeks' gestation undergoing routine ultrasound examinations (100 pregnancies for each sonographer). Volumes were sent to the referral center, and 2 independent reviewers with experience in 4D fetal echocardiography assessed their quality in the display of the abdominal view, 4-chamber view, left and right ventricular outflow tracts, and 3-vessel and trachea view. Cardiac volumes were acquired in 474 of 500 pregnancies (94.8%). The 2 reviewers respectively acknowledged the presence of satisfactory images in 92.4% and 93.6% of abdominal views, 91.5% and 93.0% of 4-chamber views, in 85.0% and 86.2% of left ventricular outflow tracts, 83.9% and 84.5% of right ventricular outflow tracts, and 85.2% and 84.5% of 3-vessel and trachea views. The presence of a maternal body mass index of greater than 30 altered the probability of achieving satisfactory cardiac views, whereas previous maternal lower abdominal surgery did not affect the quality of reconstructed cardiac views. In conclusion, cardiac volumes acquired by 4D sonography in peripheral centers showed high enough quality to allow satisfactory diagnostic cardiac views.

  4. Precaval retropancreatic space: Normal anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Myung Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    The authors defined precaval retropancreatic space as the space between pancreatic head with portal vein and IVC and analyzed the CT findings of this space to know the normal structures and size in this space. We evaluated 100 cases of normal abdominal CT scan to find out normal anatomic structures of precaval retropancreatic space retrospectively. We also measured the distance between these structures and calculated the minimum, maximum and mean values. At the splenoportal confluence level, normal structures between portal vein and IVC were vessel (21%), lymph node (19%), and caudate lobe of liver (2%) in order of frequency. The maximum AP diameter of portocaval lymph node was 4 mm. Common bile duct (CBD) was seen in 44% and the diameter was mean 3 mm and maximum 11 mm. CBD was located in extrapancreatic (75%) and lateral (60.6%) to pancreatic head. At IVC-left renal vein level, the maximum distance between CBD and IVC was 5 mm and the structure between posterior pancreatic surface and IVC was only fat tissue. Knowledge of these normal structures and measurement will be helpful in differentiating pancreatic mass with retropancreatic mass such as lymphadenopathy.

  5. Satisfactory safety and immunogenicity of MSP3 malaria vaccine candidate in Tanzanian children aged 12–24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segeja Method D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development and deployment of an effective malaria vaccine would complement existing malaria control measures. A blood stage malaria vaccine candidate, Merozoite Surface Protein-3 (MSP3, produced as a long synthetic peptide, has been shown to be safe in non-immune and semi-immune adults. A phase Ib dose-escalating study was conducted to assess the vaccine's safety and immunogenicity in children aged 12 to 24 months in Korogwe, Tanzania (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00469651. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, dose escalation phase Ib trial, in which children were given one of two different doses of the MSP3 antigen (15 μg or 30 μg or a control vaccine (Engerix B. Children were randomly allocated either to the MSP3 candidate malaria vaccine or the control vaccine administered at a schedule of 0, 1, and 2 months. Immunization with lower and higher doses was staggered for safety reasons starting with the lower dose. The primary endpoint was safety and reactogenicity within 28 days post-vaccination. Blood samples were obtained at different time points to measure immunological responses. Results are presented up to 84 days post-vaccination. Results A total of 45 children were enrolled, 15 in each of the two MSP3 dose groups and 15 in the Engerix B group. There were no important differences in reactogenicity between the two MSP3 groups and Engerix B. Grade 3 adverse events were infrequent; only five were detected throughout the study, all of which were transient and resolved without sequelae. No serious adverse event reported was considered to be related to MSP3 vaccine. Both MSP3 dose regimens elicited strong cytophilic IgG responses (subclasses IgG1 and IgG3, the isotypes involved in the monocyte-dependant mechanism of Plasmodium falciparum parasite-killing. The titers reached are similar to those from African adults having reached a state of premunition. Furthermore, vaccination induced seroconversion in

  6. Does a satisfactory relationship with her mother influence when a 16-year-old begins to have sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Cheryl L; Salsberry, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    To examine aspects of the mother-daughter relationship as perceived by the 16-year-old (cohesion, flexibility, communication, monitoring, and satisfaction with time spent together) as they relate to when the daughter began having sex. A secondary analysis using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child (1992-2000) and Young Adult (1996-2004) surveys were analyzed (N = 1,592). Logistic regression models estimated reports of cohesion, flexibility, communication, monitoring, and satisfaction with time spent together with sexual initiation by age 16. All models controlled for the mother's sociodemographic characteristics, lack of independence due to sisters in the sample, and extended time away from mother. Girls who reported being satisfied with the amount of time spent with their mother were less likely to report early sexual initiation. In addition, these girls were three times more likely to report good communication and four times more likely to report high levels of cohesion with their mothers. Individually, in addition to satisfaction with time spent together, high levels of cohesion and good communication were also associated with lower reports of sexual initiation by age 16. The feeling of being satisfied with the time spent together appears to be a global measure of the individual dimensions of cohesion and communication. Efforts in delaying sexual initiation in adolescents need to be directed at the mother-daughter relationship. Interventions to develop these dimensions within the relationship during early adolescence, as compared to interventions when sexual activity may have already occurred, are warranted.

  7. Comparison of normalization methods for the analysis of metagenomic gene abundance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mariana Buongermino; Wallroth, Mikael; Jonsson, Viktor; Kristiansson, Erik

    2018-04-20

    In shotgun metagenomics, microbial communities are studied through direct sequencing of DNA without any prior cultivation. By comparing gene abundances estimated from the generated sequencing reads, functional differences between the communities can be identified. However, gene abundance data is affected by high levels of systematic variability, which can greatly reduce the statistical power and introduce false positives. Normalization, which is the process where systematic variability is identified and removed, is therefore a vital part of the data analysis. A wide range of normalization methods for high-dimensional count data has been proposed but their performance on the analysis of shotgun metagenomic data has not been evaluated. Here, we present a systematic evaluation of nine normalization methods for gene abundance data. The methods were evaluated through resampling of three comprehensive datasets, creating a realistic setting that preserved the unique characteristics of metagenomic data. Performance was measured in terms of the methods ability to identify differentially abundant genes (DAGs), correctly calculate unbiased p-values and control the false discovery rate (FDR). Our results showed that the choice of normalization method has a large impact on the end results. When the DAGs were asymmetrically present between the experimental conditions, many normalization methods had a reduced true positive rate (TPR) and a high false positive rate (FPR). The methods trimmed mean of M-values (TMM) and relative log expression (RLE) had the overall highest performance and are therefore recommended for the analysis of gene abundance data. For larger sample sizes, CSS also showed satisfactory performance. This study emphasizes the importance of selecting a suitable normalization methods in the analysis of data from shotgun metagenomics. Our results also demonstrate that improper methods may result in unacceptably high levels of false positives, which in turn may lead

  8. An ICSI rate of 90% minimizes complete failed fertilization and provides satisfactory implantation rates without elevating fetal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovich, John L; Conceicao, Jason L; Marjanovich, Nicole; Ye, Yun; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Keane, Kevin N

    2018-05-22

    IVF cycles utilizing the ICSI technique for fertilization have been rising over the 25 years since its introduction, with indications now extending beyond male factor infertility. We have performed ICSI for 87% of cases compared with the ANZARD average of 67%. This retrospective study reports on the outcomes of 1547 autologous ART treatments undertaken over a recent 3-year period. Based on various indications, cases were managed within 3 groupings - IVF Only, ICSI Only or IVF-ICSI Split insemination where oocytes were randomly allocated. Overall 567 pregnancies arose from mostly single embryo transfer procedures up to December 2016, with 402 live births, comprising 415 infants and a low fetal abnormality rate (1.9%) was recorded. When the data was adjusted for confounders such as maternal age, measures of ovarian reserve and sperm quality, it appeared that IVF-generated and ICSI-generated embryos had a similar chance of both pregnancy and live birth. In the IVF-ICSI Split model, significantly more ICSI-generated embryos were utilised (2.5 vs 1.8; p < 0.003) with productivity rates of 67.8% for pregnancy and 43.4% for livebirths per OPU for this group. We conclude that ART clinics should apply the insemination method which will maximize embryo numbers and the first treatment for unexplained infertility should be undertaken within the IVF-ICSI Split model. Whilst ICSI-generated pregnancies are reported to have a higher rate of fetal abnormalities, our data is consistent with the view that the finding is not due to the ICSI technique per se. Copyright © 2018 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry Ayn in the Deep Inelastic Region from the Reaction 3He(e,e')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katich, Joseph [Coll. of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A first measurement of the inclusive target single-spin asymmetry, Any, has been performed in deep-inelastic scattering of electrons from a 3He target polarized normal to the electron scattering plane. This asymmetry is void of contributions at the Born level, and thus is a direct observable for two-photon physics. The experiment was performed in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility from October 2008 through early February 2009. The measurement is the first from a polarized neutron target. The final overall precision is several times better than previously existing SLAC proton data, and significantly extends the kinematic range over which the asymmetry has been measured. The asymmetry was measured at five kinematic points in the deep inelastic scattering region covering Q2 = 1 - 3 GeV2 and xB = 0.16 to 0.41. The asymmetry varied from 0.006 to 0.071 with astatistical precision at the 10-2 level.

  10. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  11. Positron emission tomography study on pancreatic somatostatin receptors in normal and diabetic rats with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide: A potential PET tracer for beta cell mass measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Takeo [Division of Bio-function Dynamics Imaging, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Division of Molecular Imaging, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Hasegawa, Koki; Nishimura, Mie; Kanayama, Yousuke; Wada, Yasuhiro; Hayashinaka, Emi; Cui, Yilong; Kataoka, Yosky [Division of Bio-function Dynamics Imaging, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Senda, Michio [Division of Bio-function Dynamics Imaging, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Division of Molecular Imaging, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Watanabe, Yasuyoshi, E-mail: yywata@riken.jp [Division of Bio-function Dynamics Imaging, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •PET images showed high uptake of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide in the normal pancreas. •{sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide specifically binds to somatostatin receptors in the pancreas. •The pancreatic uptake of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide was decreased in the diabetic rats. •{sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide could be a candidate PET probe to measure the beta cell mass. -- Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, and the loss or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells has been reported before the appearance of clinical symptoms and hyperglycemia. To evaluate beta cell mass (BCM) for improving the detection and treatment of DM at earlier stages, we focused on somatostatin receptors that are highly expressed in the pancreatic beta cells, and developed a positron emission tomography (PET) probe derived from octreotide, a metabolically stable somatostatin analog. Octreotide was conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), a chelating agent, and labeled with {sup 68}Gallium ({sup 68}Ga). After intravenous injection of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide, a 90-min emission scan of the abdomen was performed in normal and DM model rats. The PET studies showed that {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide radioactivity was highly accumulated in the pancreas of normal rats and that the pancreatic accumulation was significantly reduced in the rats administered with an excess amount of unlabeled octreotide or after treatment with streptozotocin, which was used for the chemical induction of DM in rats. These results were in good agreement with the ex vivo biodistribution data. These results indicated that the pancreatic accumulation of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide represented specific binding to the somatostatin receptors and reflected BCM. Therefore, PET imaging with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide could be a potential tool for evaluating BCM.

  12. CT and MRI normal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.

    1998-01-01

    This book gives answers to questions frequently heard especially from trainees and doctors not specialising in the field of radiology: Is that a normal finding? How do I decide? What are the objective criteria? The information presented is three-fold. The normal findings of the usual CT and MRI examinations are shown with high-quality pictures serving as a reference, with inscribed important additional information on measures, angles and other criteria describing the normal conditions. These criteria are further explained and evaluated in accompanying texts which also teach the systematic approach for individual picture analysis, and include a check list of major aspects, as a didactic guide for learning. The book is primarily intended for students, radiographers, radiology trainees and doctors from other medical fields, but radiology specialists will also find useful details of help in special cases. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  14. Normal-Force and Hinge-Moment Characteristics at Transonic Speeds of Flap-Type Ailerons at Three Spanwise Locations on a 4-Percent-Thick Sweptback-Wing-Body Model and Pressure-Distribution Measurements on an Inboard Aileron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runckel, Jack F.; Hieser, Gerald

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the loading characteristics of flap-type ailerons located at inboard, midspan, and outboard positions on a 45 deg. sweptback-wing-body combination. Aileron normal-force and hinge-moment data have been obtained at Mach numbers from 0.80 t o 1.03, at angles of attack up to about 27 deg., and at aileron deflections between approximately -15 deg. and 15 deg. Results of the investigation indicate that the loading over the ailerons was established by the wing-flow characteristics, and the loading shapes were irregular in the transonic speed range. The spanwise location of the aileron had little effect on the values of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against aileron deflection, but the inboard aileron had the greatest value of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against angle of attack and the outboard aileron had the least. Hinge-moment and aileron normal-force data taken with strain-gage instrumentation are compared with data obtained with pressure measurements.

  15. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  16. Direct Extraction of InP/GaAsSb/InP DHBT Equivalent-Circuit Elements From S-Parameters Measured at Cut-Off and Normal Bias Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Leblanc, Rémy; Poulain, Julien

    2016-01-01

    A unique direct parameter extraction method for the small-signal equivalent-circuit model of InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) is presented. $S$-parameters measured at cut-off bias are used, at first, to extract the distribution factor $X_{0}$ for the base-collector......A unique direct parameter extraction method for the small-signal equivalent-circuit model of InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) is presented. $S$-parameters measured at cut-off bias are used, at first, to extract the distribution factor $X_{0}$ for the base......-collector capacitance at zero collector current and the collector-to-emitter overlap capacitance $C_{ceo}$ present in InP DHBT devices. Low-frequency $S$-parameters measured at normal bias conditions then allows the extraction of the external access resistances $R_{bx}$, $R_{e}$, and $R_{cx}$ as well as the intrinsic...

  17. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  18. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  19. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  20. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  1. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  2. Double half-cone flap umbilicoplasty for proboscoid umbilical hernia in a 2 years old child with satisfactory results 2 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashu, Eseme Ebai; Leroy, Guifo Marc; Aristide, Bang Guy; Joss, Bitang Mafok Louis; Bonaventure, Jemea; Patrick, Savom Eric; Myriam, Fotso Guegne

    2015-01-01

    Surgical repair of large umbilical hernias may present a challenging surgical problem; standard surgical techniques have proven to be inadequate for both closing the fascial defect of the umbilicus and providing a satisfactory cosmetic result. We describe here a case of double half-cone flap umbilicoplasty that was performed in a 2 years old boy. The case of a 2 years old child with proboscoid umbilical hernia. The protruding umbilical skin was excised sharply by two V-shaped cuts leaving two half cones, a short cephalic (0.5cm) and a long caudal (1cm). A classic herniotomy was carried out, with repair of the facial defect. The caudal half cone was sutured from its apex till half it's length upon itself with interrupted sutures and it was anchored deeply to the fascia. Then we inverted the cephalic half cone which was sutured to the caudal cone to form the new umbilicus. The early result was excellent with no complications and the result after 2years revealed a cosmetically satisfactory shape of the umbilicus. this technique provides a good solution for reconstruction of the protruding umbilical skin and it is easy to learn, easy to be taught and perform in surgical environments and may be applicable for any kind of umbilical reconstruction.

  3. Serum hepatitis B core-related antigen is a satisfactory surrogate marker of intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA in chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, En-Qiang; Feng, Shu; Wang, Meng-Lan; Liang, Ling-Bo; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Du, Ling-Yao; Yan, Li-Bo; Tao, Chuan-Min; Tang, Hong

    2017-03-14

    Recently, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been suggested as an additional marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to investigate whether serum quantitative HBcrAg (qHBcrAg) was a satisfactory surrogate marker of intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). A total of 139 patients with liver biopsy were enrolled, consisting of 59 patients in immune tolerance (IT) phase, 52 patients in immune clearance (IC) phase, 18 patients in low-replication (LR) phase, and 10 patients in reactivation phase. All patients in IC phase have received entecavir (ETV) therapy, and 32 of them undergone a second liver biopsy at 24 months. Among those patients, qHBcrAg was strongly correlated with intrahepatic cccDNA, which is superior to that of qHBsAg and HBV DNA. And similar findings were also observed in patients in IT, IC, LR and reactivation phases. Among the 32 ETV-treated patients with a second liver biopsy in IC phase, the decline of intrahepatic cccDNA was accompanied by changes in both qHBcrAg and qHBsAg. However, as compared to qHBsAg, the change of qHBcrAg was more strongly associated with intrahepatic cccDNA-decline. In summary, serum qHBcrAg should be a satisfactory surrogate of intrahepatic HBV cccDNA in CHB patients.

  4. Shack-Hartmann centroid detection method based on high dynamic range imaging and normalization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Javier; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Luis; Quiroga, Juan Antonio; Belenguer, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    In the optical quality measuring process of an optical system, including diamond-turning components, the use of a laser light source can produce an undesirable speckle effect in a Shack-Hartmann (SH) CCD sensor. This speckle noise can deteriorate the precision and accuracy of the wavefront sensor measurement. Here we present a SH centroid detection method founded on computer-based techniques and capable of measurement in the presence of strong speckle noise. The method extends the dynamic range imaging capabilities of the SH sensor through the use of a set of different CCD integration times. The resultant extended range spot map is normalized to accurately obtain the spot centroids. The proposed method has been applied to measure the optical quality of the main optical system (MOS) of the mid-infrared instrument telescope smulator. The wavefront at the exit of this optical system is affected by speckle noise when it is illuminated by a laser source and by air turbulence because it has a long back focal length (3017 mm). Using the proposed technique, the MOS wavefront error was measured and satisfactory results were obtained.

  5. Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement theory takes measurement as the assignment of numbers to properties of an empirical system so that a homomorphism between the system and a numerical system is established. To avoid operationalism, two approaches can be distinguished. In the axiomatic approach it is asserted that if the

  6. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the