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Sample records for normal isolated myocardium

  1. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 ± 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 ± 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells

  2. Myocardial thallium-201 kinetics in normal and ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, A.M.; Watson, D.D.; Holzgrefe, H.H. Jr.; Irving, J.F.; Beller, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The net myocardial accumulation of thallium-201 after injection depends upon the net balance between continuing myocardial extraction from low levels of recirculating thallium in the blood compartment and the net rate of efflux of thallium from the myocardium into the extracardiac blood pool. These experiments were designed to measure separately the myocardial extraction and intrinsic myocardial efflux of thallium-201 at normal and at reduced rates of myocardial blood flow. The average myocardial extraction fraction at normal blood flow in 10 anesthetized dogs was 82 +/- 6% (+/- SD) at normal coronary arterial perfusion pressures and increased insignificantly, to 85 +/- 7%, at coronary perfusion pressures of 10--35 mm Hg. At normal coronary arterial perfusion pressures in 12 additional dogs, the intrinsic thallium washout in the absence of systemic recirculation had a half-time (T 1/2) of 54 +/- 7 minutes. The intrinsic cellular washout rate began to increase as distal perfusion pressures fell below 60 mm Hg and increased markedly to a T 1/2 of 300 minutes at perfusion pressures of 25--30 mm Hg. A second, more rapid component of intrinsic thallium washout (T 1/2 2.5 minutes) representing approximately 7% of the total initially extracted myocardial thallium was observed. The faster washout component is presumed to be due to washout of interstitial thallium unextracted by myocardial cells, whereas the slower component is presumed due to intracellular washout. The net clearance time of thallium measured after i.v. injection is much longer than the intrinsic myocardial cellular washout rate because of continuous replacement of myocardial thallium from systemic recirculation. Myocardial redistribution of thallium-201 in states of chronically reduced perfusion cannot be the result of increased myocardial extraction efficiency, but rather, is the result of the slower intrinsic cellular washout rate at reduced perfusion levels

  3. Reproducibility of P-31 spectroscopic imaging of normal human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, N.J.; Chew, W.; Auffermann, W.; Higgins, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    To assess reproducibility of P-31 MR spectroscopy of human myocardium, ten normal male volunteers were studied on two separate occasions. Spectra were acquired on a clinical 1.5-T MR imaging unit (Signa, General Electric) using a one-dimensional gated spectroscopic imaging sequence (matrix size, 32 X 256) over 20 minutes. Peaks in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) region, phosphocreatine (PCR), phosphodiesters (PD), and peaks attributable to 2,3 diphosphoglycerate from blood were observed. Interindividual and intraindividual variability expressed as standard errors of the mean (mean +- SEM) were 1.54 +- 0.04 (variability among subjects) and 0.04 (variability between first and second studies) for PCR/β ATP; 0.97 +- 0.18 and 0.06 for PD/β ATP; and 0.62 +- 0.10 and 0.05 for PD/PCR, respectively. In conclusion, P-31 MR spectroscopy yields consistent and reproducible myocardial spectra that might be useful in the future for the evaluation and monitoring of cardiac disease

  4. Metabolic reserve in normal myocardium assessed by positron emission tomography with C-11 palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Kawamoto, Masahide; Takahashi, Norio; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Magata, Yasuhiro; Nohara, Ryuji; Kambara, Hirofumi; Kawai, Chuichi; Konishi, Junji

    1991-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with C-11 palmitate has been used in estimating the myocardial utilization of free fatty acid. To assess the metabolic reserve in normal subjects, a PET study was performed at control and during dobutamine infusion at 2 hour intervals in 5 normal subjects. Following monoexponential curve fitting of the time activity curve of the myocardium, the clearance half time (min) and residual fraction (%) were calculated as indices of β-oxydation of free fatty acid. A significant increase in the heart rate and systolic blood pressure were observed during dobutamine infusion (65±5 vs 100±29 bpm, p<0.05 and 119±12 vs 144±16 mmHg, p<0.01, respectively). The clearance half-time and the residual fraction were significantly decreased (23.4±2.6 vs 15.8±2.3 min and 67.0±2.5 vs 58.6±4.0%, p<0.05, each). When the left ventricular myocardium was divided into 4 segments, these indices were similar at control and uniformly decreased without regional differences during dobutamine infusion. These data suggest that β-oxydation of free fatty acid may be uniformly increased in the left ventricular myocardium in relation to the increase in cardiac work in normal subjects. PET with C-11 palmitate at control and during dobutamine infusion is considered to be promising in assessing metabolic reserve in the myocardium. (author)

  5. Isolated noncompaction of myocardium associated with calcification in the interventricular septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nil, M; Mori, K; Yuasa, Y; Ichida, F

    2003-01-01

    We describe a 12-year-old male with isolated noncompaction of the myocardium and associated abnormal calcification in the basal interventricular septum, and we present a review of the literature. The patient has been healthy and free of symptoms. The electrocardiogram showed abnormal Q waves in III, V1, V2, and ST elevation in V1-V3. Exercise testing demonstrated ST depression in V4 and V5. Myocardial scintigraphic examination showed a regional reduction in iodine-1,2,3-beta-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid uptake in the basal interventricular septum. Since coronary angiography demonstrated normal coronary vessels and the trabeculations were not prominent in this region, we hypothesize that coronary microcirculatory dysfunction may cause subendocardial infarction associated with calcification in the same area.

  6. Intrinsic washout rates of thallium-201 in normal and ischemic myocardium after dipyridamole-induced vasodilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.A.; Holzgrefe, H.H.; Watson, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Infusion of dipyridamole has been suggested as an alternative to exercise stress for myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of ischemia, but the mechanism and significance of thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) redistribution after administration of dipyridamole are uncertain. If disparate intrinsic cellular efflux rates of 201 Tl from normal and relatively underperfused myocardium in response to dipyridamole-induced vasodilation were observed, this could explain delayed 201 Tl redistribution. We investigated the effect of an intravenous infusion of 0.15 mg/kg dipyridamole on the intrinsic myocardial washout rate of 201 Tl as measured with a gamma-detector probe after intracoronary injection (50 muCi) of the radionuclide in open-chested anesthetized dogs. In six normal dogs the t 1/2 for intrinsic 201 Tl washout from the myocardium was 89 +/- 11 min (SE) at control conditions and became more rapid at 59 +/- 10 min (p . .0001) after dipyridamole. This corresponded to a significant increase in microsphere-determined epicardial (0.95 +/- 0.11 to 2.23 +/- 0.46 ml/min/g; p . .01) and endocardial (0.86 +/- 0.10 to 1.53 +/- 0.27; p . .029) flows. In 12 dogs with a critical coronary stenosis, the 201 Tl intrinsic washout rate slowed from 70 +/- 5 to 104 +/- 6 min (p . .0001) after production of the stenosis and slowed even further to 169 +/- 21 min (p . .003) after dipyridamole

  7. Segmenting high-frequency intracardiac ultrasound images of myocardium into infarcted, ischemic, and normal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X; Bruce, C J; Pislaru, C; Greenleaf, J F

    2001-12-01

    Segmenting abnormal from normal myocardium using high-frequency intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) images presents new challenges for image processing. Gray-level intensity and texture features of ICE images of myocardium with the same structural/perfusion properties differ. This significant limitation conflicts with the fundamental assumption on which existing segmentation techniques are based. This paper describes a new seeded region growing method to overcome the limitations of the existing segmentation techniques. Three criteria are used for region growing control: 1) Each pixel is merged into the globally closest region in the multifeature space. 2) "Geographic similarity" is introduced to overcome the problem that myocardial tissue, despite having the same property (i.e., perfusion status), may be segmented into several different regions using existing segmentation methods. 3) "Equal opportunity competence" criterion is employed making results independent of processing order. This novel segmentation method is applied to in vivo intracardiac ultrasound images using pathology as the reference method for the ground truth. The corresponding results demonstrate that this method is reliable and effective.

  8. The effect of rigor mortis on the passage of erythrocytes and fluid through the myocardium of isolated dog hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, T J; Gavin, J B; Seelye, R N; Whitehouse, S; Donnell, M

    1978-07-01

    The effect of normal and artificially induced rigor mortis on the vascular passage of erythrocytes and fluid through isolated dog hearts was studied. Increased rigidity of 6-mm thick transmural sections through the centre of the posterior papillary muscle was used as an indication of rigor. The perfusibility of the myocardium was tested by injecting 10 ml of 1% sodium fluorescein in Hanks solution into the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery. In prerigor hearts (20 minute incubation) fluorescein perfused the myocardium evenly whether or not it was preceded by an injection of 10 ml of heparinized dog blood. Rigor mortis developed in all hearts after 90 minutes incubation or within 20 minutes of perfusing the heart with 50 ml of 5 mM iodoacetate in Hanks solution. Fluorescein injected into hearts in rigor did not enter the posterior papillary muscle and adjacent subendocardium whether or not it was preceded by heparinized blood. Thus the vascular occlusion caused by rigor in the dog heart appears to be so effective that it prevents flow into the subendocardium of small soluble ions such as fluorescein.

  9. Myocardial kinetics of thallium-201 after stress in normal and perfusion-reduced canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the emerging use of quantitative computer programs for assessing myocardial thallium uptake and clearance after exercise, little is known about the kinetics of thallium after exercise stress. Accordingly, 11 mongrel dogs with experimental left anterior descending coronary stenoses were given thallium during norepinephrine infusion to simulate exercise. The infusion was discontinued and thallium activity was monitored regionally using miniature radiation detectors for 3 hours. Heart rate, arterial pressure and double product all increased significantly during norepinephrine infusion. The mean fractional myocardial thallium clearance was lower (0.47 +/- 0.03 [+/- standard error of the mean]) for the stenosis zone than for the no-stenosis zone (0.57 +/- 0.03) (p less than 0.0001). The stress blood flow ratio (stenosis/no-stenosis zone = 0.27 +/- 0.06) was significantly lower than the final thallium activity ratio (0.68 +/- 0.07) (p less than 0.001), consistent with thallium redistribution occurring over the 3-hour period. Myocardial thallium activity in the stenosis zone peaked in a mean of 2.2 minutes, then washed out biexponentially with a final decay constant of 0.0035 +/- 0.0005 min-1. Myocardial thallium activity in the no-stenosis zone peaked within 1 minute in all dogs, then washed out biexponentially, with a final decay constant of 0.0043 +/- 0.0003 (p less than 0.001 compared with stenosis zone). In conclusion, fractional clearance of thallium can differentiate myocardium distal to a coronary artery stenosis from that supplied by a normal coronary vessel

  10. Stretch-dependent slow force response in isolated rabbit myocardium is Na+ dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lewinski, Dirk; Stumme, Burkhard; Maier, Lars S; Luers, Claus; Bers, Donald M; Pieske, Burkert

    2003-03-15

    Stretch induces functional and trophic effects in mammalian myocardium via various signal transduction pathways. We tested stretch signal transduction on immediate and slow force response (SFR) in rabbit myocardium. Experiments were performed in isolated right ventricular muscles from adult rabbit hearts (37 degrees C, 1 Hz stimulation rate, bicarbonate-buffer). Muscles were rapidly stretched from 88% of optimal length (L88) to near optimal length (L98) for functional analysis. The resulting immediate and slow increases in twitch force (first phase and SFR, respectively) were assessed at reduced [Na+]o or without and with blockade of stretch activated ion channels (SACs), angiotensin-II (AT1) receptors, endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptors, Na+/H+-exchange (NHE1), reverse mode Na+/Ca2+-exchange (NCX), or Na+/K+-ATPase. The effects of stretch on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-load were characterized using rapid cooling contractures (RCCs). Intracellular pH was measured in BCECF-AM loaded muscles, and action potential duration (APD) was assessed using floating electrodes. On average, force increased to 216+/-8% of the pre-stretch value during the immediate phase, followed by a further increase to 273+/-10% during the SFR (n=81). RCCs significantly increased during SFR, whereas pH and APD did not change. Neither inhibition of SACs, AT1, or ET(A) receptors affected the stretch-dependent immediate phase nor SFR. In contrast, SFR was reduced by NHE inhibition and almost completely abolished by reduced [Na+]o or inhibition of reverse-mode NCX, whereas increased SFR was seen after raising [Na+]i by Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition. The data demonstrate the existence of a delayed, Na+- and Ca2+-dependent but pH and APD independent SFR to stretch in rabbit myocardium. This inotropic response appears to be independent of autocrine/paracrine AT1 or ET(A) receptor activation, but mediated through stretch-induced activation of NHE and reverse mode NCX.

  11. 99mTc-glucarate kinetics differentiate normal, stunned, hibernating, and nonviable myocardium in a perfused rat heart model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, David R.; Liu, Zhonglin; Johnson, Gerald; Okada, Robert D.; Beju, Delia; Khaw, Ban An

    2010-01-01

    99m Tc-glucarate is an infarct-avid imaging agent. However, patients may have mixtures of normal, irreversibly injured, stunned, and hibernating myocardium. The purposes were to determine 99m Tc-glucarate uptake and clearance kinetics in these four conditions, and its ability to determine the extent of injury. Twenty-two perfused rat hearts were studied: controls (n = 5), stunned (n = 5; 20-min no-flow followed by 5-min reflow), hibernating (n = 6; 120-min low flow at 4 ml/min), and ischemic-reperfused (n = 6; 120-min no-flow followed by reflow). 99m Tc-glucarate was then infused. Tracer activity was monitored using a NaI scintillation detector and a multichannel analyzer. Creatine kinase, electron microscopy, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride determined viability. 99m Tc-glucarate 10-min myocardial uptake was significantly greater in ischemic-reperfused (2.50 ± 0.09) (cpm, SEM) than in control (1.74 ± 0.07), stunned (1.68 ± 0.11), and hibernating (1.59 ± 0.11) (p 99m Tc-glucarate 60-min myocardial uptake was significantly greater in ischemic-reperfused (7.60 ± 0.63) than in control (1.98 ± 0.15), stunned (1.79 ± 0.08), and hibernating (2.33 ± 0.15) (p 99m Tc-glucarate activity continually and progressively increased in irreversibly injured myocardium. 99m Tc-glucarate uptake was strongly correlated with myocardial necrosis as determined by three independent assessments of viability. There were minimal and similar 99m Tc-glucarate uptakes in control, stunned, and hibernating myocardium. (orig.)

  12. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate kinetics differentiate normal, stunned, hibernating, and nonviable myocardium in a perfused rat heart model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, David R. [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Liu, Zhonglin [University of Arizona School of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Johnson, Gerald; Okada, Robert D. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma, OK (United States); University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK (United States); Beju, Delia [Oklahoma State University School of Medicine, Tulsa, OK (United States); Khaw, Ban An [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-10-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate is an infarct-avid imaging agent. However, patients may have mixtures of normal, irreversibly injured, stunned, and hibernating myocardium. The purposes were to determine {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate uptake and clearance kinetics in these four conditions, and its ability to determine the extent of injury. Twenty-two perfused rat hearts were studied: controls (n = 5), stunned (n = 5; 20-min no-flow followed by 5-min reflow), hibernating (n = 6; 120-min low flow at 4 ml/min), and ischemic-reperfused (n = 6; 120-min no-flow followed by reflow). {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate was then infused. Tracer activity was monitored using a NaI scintillation detector and a multichannel analyzer. Creatine kinase, electron microscopy, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride determined viability. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate 10-min myocardial uptake was significantly greater in ischemic-reperfused (2.50 {+-} 0.09) (cpm, SEM) than in control (1.74 {+-} 0.07), stunned (1.68 {+-} 0.11), and hibernating (1.59 {+-} 0.11) (p < 0.05). Tracer retention curves for ischemic-reperfused were elevated at all time points as compared with the other groups. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate 60-min myocardial uptake was significantly greater in ischemic-reperfused (7.60 {+-} 0.63) than in control (1.98 {+-} 0.15), stunned (1.79 {+-} 0.08), and hibernating (2.33 {+-} 0.15) (p < 0.05). The 60-min well-counted tracer activity ratio of ischemic-reperfused to control was 9:1 and corroborated the NaI detector results. Creatine kinase, triphenyltetrazolium chloride, and electron microscopy all demonstrated significantly greater injury in ischemic-reperfused compared to the other groups. An excellent correlation was observed between viability markers and tracer activity (r = 0.99 triphenyltetrazolium chloride; r = 0.90 creatine kinase). {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate activity continually and progressively increased in irreversibly injured myocardium. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate uptake was strongly correlated with myocardial necrosis as

  13. Kinetics of Tc-99m hexakis t-butyl isonitrile in normal and ischemic canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.J.; Dragotakos, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Hexakis 99m Tc-tertiary butyl isonitrile ( 99m Tc-TBI) was studied as a cardiac perfusion imaging agent in nine dogs with partial occlusion of the LAD. Thirty min after applying the stenosis, 99m Tc-TBI was injected into the right atrium (RA) in five dogs and left atrium (LA) in four dogs. Normal and ischemic zone regional myocardial 99m Tc-TBI activities were monitored continuously for 4 h. Dogs with LA injections had minimal and equivalent 4 h fractional clearance from the normal and ischemic zones. Dogs with RA injections had minimal, but significantly lower 4 h fractional 99m Tc clearances in the ischemic zone (0.08±0.08) compared to the normal zone (0.16±0.07, P 99m Tc-TBI a promising cardiac perfusion imaging agent. (orig.)

  14. 201Tl scintigraphy of the myocardium in patients with coronary occlusion and normal coronarogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M.; Martin-Comin, J.; Estorch, M.; Freixa, E.; Richart, J.A.; Esplugas, E.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied 3 young male patients which had had a previous myocardial infarction verified by ECG and enzymes. Selective coronary arteriography was normal in all 3 subjects. Left ventriculography showed segmental wall motion abnormalities, and post-exercise and redistribution scintigraphy demonstrated areas with abnormal thallium uptake in all patients. Those observations as well as literature data suggest that among the factors which modify myocardial thallium uptake, the number of myocardial cells and their functional status play an important role, at least in chronic coronary artery disease. (orig.) [de

  15. Exponential relationship between DMIPP uptake and blood flow in normal and ischemic canine myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comans, E.F.I.; Lingen, A. van; Bax, J.J.; Sloof, G.W. [Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Visser, F.C. [Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Cardiology; Vusse, G.J. van der [Limburg Univ., Maastricht (Netherlands). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Knapp, F.F. Jun. [Oak Ridge Lab., TN (United States). Nuclear Medicine Group

    1998-12-31

    In 10 open-chest dogs the left anterior descending coronary artery was cannulated and extracorporally bypass (ECB) perfused at reduced flow. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was assessed with Scandium-46 labeled microspheres. Forty minutes after i.v. injection of DMIPP, the heart was excised and cut into 120 samples. In each sample MBF (ml/g*min) and DMIPP uptake (percentage of the injected dose per gram: %id/g) were assessed. The relation between normalized MBF and DMIPP uptake was assessed using a linear, with a zero and with a non-zero intercept, and an exponential model function: A[1-e{sup -MBF/Fc}], where A and Fc are the amplitude and flow constant, respectively. The goodness of fit for all models was expressed as the standard error of estimate (SEE). In all individual dogs the relation between DMIPP uptake and MBF was significantly better (p<0.001) represented by an exponential model than a linear model with zero intercept. In 8 of 10 dogs the exponential model showed a better fit than the linear model with a non-zero intercept. The difference was significant (p<0.05) in 5 dogs. For Pooled data, linear regression analysis with a non-zero intercept revealed: DMIPP=0.54+0.44*MBF (SEE: 0.18) and with a zero intercept: DMIPP=0.97*MBF (SEE: 0.27). The goodness of fit of the exponential model: DMIPP=1.07[1-e{sup -MBF/0.35}] (SEE: 0.15) was significantly better (p<0.0001) than the linear models. In the normal to low MBF range, uptake of the dimenthyl branched fatty acid analogue DMIPP shows an exponential relationship, which is more appropriate than a linear relationship from a physiological point of view. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] An 10 Hunden mit eroeffnetem Brustkorb wurde der Ramus interventricularis anterior der linken Koronararterie kanueliert und ueber einen extrakorporalen Bypass (ECB) mit einem reduzierten Fluss perfundiert. Der myokardiale Blutfluss (MBF) wurde ueber Scandium-46-markierte Mikrosphaeren erfasst. Vierzig Minuten nach der iv. Injektion von DMIPP wurde

  16. Relationship between iodine-123-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid washout ratio and oxygen consumption in normal and ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimimasa; Okamoto, Ryuji; Saito, Yasuhiro

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between oxygen consumption and iodine-123-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP) washout at rest and after exercise was investigated in normal and ischemic myocardium. Sixteen healthy volunteers and 14 patients with ischemic heart disease were examined. After injection of 111 MBq of 123 I-BMIPP, serial single photon emission computed tomography imaging was performed to evaluate washout ratio after 30 min and 1 hour of rest and after exercise. In the volunteers, the mean washout ratio was 3.3±3.5% after 1 hour of rest and increased during exercise. The exercise washout ratio showed a better correlation with net pressure rate product (net PRP: cumulative values of PRP during exercise) than with the peak PRP. The exercise washout ratio showed a strong correlation with the net PRP in the range from 180 to 300x10 3 mmHg·beat/min and a plateau of 10-15%. In the nine ischemic patients with net PRP≥300x10 3 mmHg·beat/min, the exercise washout ratio values were significantly elevated in normal segments relative to ischemic segments (10.1±1.9% vs 4.7±2.9%, p 3 mmHg·beat/min, washout ratio at rest and after exercise did not differ significantly between normal and ischemic segments. 123 I-BMIPP washout ratio increased with increased oxygen consumption during exercise in normal myocardium but not in ischemic myocardium. The patient must exercise before fatty acid metabolism can be compared between normal and ischemic myocardium. (author)

  17. The kinetics of {beta}-methyl-substituted labelled fatty acids in ischaemic myocardium: an analysis in man and with a blood-perfused isolated heart model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, P.Y.; Ayalew, A.; Hassan, N.; Olivier, P.; Karcher, G.; Bertrand, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, UPRES EA, Nancy (France); Menu, P. [Dept. of Hematology and Physiology, University Henri Poincare, Nancy (France); Angioi, M.; Mertes, P.M.; Danchin, N. [Dept. of Cardiology, UPRES EA, Nancy (France); Fagret, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Grenoble (France); Pasqualini, R. [CIS Bio International, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1999-05-01

    {beta}-Methyl-substituted free fatty acids (FFAs) have been developed for myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging, but little is known about their kinetics in ischaemic conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the myocardial kinetics of a {beta}-methyl-branched FFA, [{sup 123}I]16-iodo-3-methyl-hexadecanoic acid (MIHA), under ischaemic conditions. The kinetics of MIHA were analysed: (a) using a blood-perfused isolated heart model subjected to moderate ischaemia (50% flow reduction) and (b) in patients who had an exercise thallium-201 SPET defect corresponding to either necrotic (n = 13) or chronically ischaemic and viable (n = 15) myocardium, and who underwent two consecutive SPET studies after MIHA injection. In animals, the myocardial early retention fraction of MIHA, but not its clearance rate, was dependent on coronary flow, the early retention fraction being higher in ischaemic than in normoxic conditions (0.24{+-}0.10 vs 0.14{+-}0.04, P = 0.004). In the patient SPET studies, the uptake of MIHA calculated in ischaemic and viable areas (G1: 74%{+-}9% of maximal left ventricular value) was different from that calculated in necrotic (G2: 59%{+-}7%, P<0.001) or normal (G3: 88{+-}6%, P<0.001) areas. By contrast, MIHA-clearance calculated between the two consecutive SPET studies was not different in G1, G2 and G3. Unlike in the case of other FFAs, the myocardial clearance of MIHA is not decreased by ischaemia. However, the early retention of MIHA is increased in the case of a moderate reduction in coronary flow, a property which might help in the detection of viability in chronically ischaemic myocardium. (orig.) With 5 figs., 3 tabs., 44 refs.

  18. Anisotropy of the Elastic Properties of Normal and Pathological Myocardium: Angular Dependence of Ultrasonic Backscatter, Attenuation, and Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Edward Dennis

    The focus of this thesis is the measurement of anisotropies in the ultrasonic parameters of soft tissues. The goal is to contribute to a better understanding of the physics which underlies the interaction of ultrasonic waves with inhomogeneous and anisotropic media. Broadband measurements using a piezoelectric transducer are reported for investigations of excised specimens of human and canine myocardial tissue. Emphasis is placed on identifying the effect that the muscle fiber orientation, relative to the direction of insonification, has on the propagation and scattering properties of ultrasonic waves. Results of the anisotropy of backscatter, the anisotropy of attenuation, and the anisotropy of quasilongitudinal velocity are presented for data obtained in 2^ circ increments through the full 360 ^circ relative to the myofibers. Measured velocities are used in conjunction with measured specimen densities to determine the elastic stiffness constants c_{11} and c_ {33} and to estimate specific mechanical moduli for thin layers of myocardium.

  19. Normal families and isolated singularities of meromorphic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, P.S.; Subramaniam, A.

    1985-06-01

    Based on the criterion of Zalcman for normal families, a generalization of a well-known result relating normal families and isolated essential singularities of meromorphic functions is proved, using a theorem of Lehto and Virtanen on normal functions. (author)

  20. Kinetics of different 123-I and 14-C fatty acids in normal and diabetic rat myocardium in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckurts, T.E.; Shreeve, W.W.; Machulla, H.-J.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    For measuring myocardial metabolism by single photon scintigraphy various iodinated substrate analogues have been proposed. The present study compares in normal and diabetic rats the metabolic pathways of 14-C-palmitic acid (PA), 123-I-para-phenylpentadecanoic acid (I-pPPDA), 123-I-ortho-phenylpentadecanoic acid (I-oPPDA), 14-C-stearic acid (SA) and 123-I-w-heptadecanoic acid (I-ωHDA). In normal and diabetic rats free fatty acids showed a rapid tracer accumulation and an initial rapid, then a slow rate component of release. PA and I-pPPDA were preferentially esterified into triglycerides, whereas SA and I-ωHDA equally distributed between triglycerides and phospholipids. I-oPPDA nearly exclusively labelled the free fatty acid pool. - Turnover of SA and I-ωHDA was similar in triglycerides and phospholipids; yet PA and I-pPPDA continued to increase in triglycerides for 3-5 minutes after injection but decreased in phospholipids. - Following induction of diabetes by Streptocotocin, the primary effect was an inhibition of incorporation of all substrates tested into triglycerides and phospholipids with an initial rapid turnover in the total lipid fraction. - Of the total myocardial activities a considerable fraction was water soluble and another bound to solid tissue residue, with an early maximum and subsequent decline; the values for 14-C-labelled substrates remained below those of radioiodine. Thus different labelled fatty acids behave metabolically differently and promise to be useful for differentiating various intracellular metabolic pathways. External analysis of myocardial fatty acids metabolism requires correction for labelled catabolites. (Author)

  1. Substrate use in ischemic and reperfused canine myocardium: quantitative considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myears, D.W.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The patterns of use of substrate in reperfused myocardium are not yet well elucidated, and their delineation is essential for adequate interpretation of results of analyses performed after positron emission tomography with labeled substrates to differentiate normal from abnormal heart muscle. Accordingly, in open-chest, anesthetized dogs the authors measured glucose and fatty acid utilization in normal, ischemic, and reperfused myocardium and assessed the contributions of metabolism of each substrate to overall oxidative metabolism. Intracoronary [ 3 H]glucose and [ 14 C]palmitate were administered in five control dogs, eight dogs subjected to 1 h of coronary occlusion, and nine dogs subjected to reperfusion after 1 h of ischemia. Regional coronary venous blood samples were assayed sequentially. In reperfused myocardium, utilization of glucose was 103% greater than that in ischemic and 273% greater than in normal myocardium. Utilization of fatty acid during reperfusion, although greater than that in ischemic myocardium, was significantly less than that in normal myocardium despite restoration of flow to 80% of control values. Despite diminished net uptake of fatty acid, oxidation of fatty acid accounted for 63% of total oxygen consumption in reperfused myocardium. These studies indicate that canine myocardium reperfused after 1 h of ischemia exhibits enhanced uptake of glucose and impaired utilization of palmitate. Nevertheless, palmitate continues to comprise the substrate primarily utilized for oxidative metabolism

  2. Consideration of Normal Variation of Perfusion Measurements in the Quantitative Analysis of Myocardial Perfusion SPECT: Usefulness in Assessment of Viable Myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Lim, Il Han; Kim, Ki Bong; Lee, Dong Soo

    2008-01-01

    Although automatic quantification software of myocardial perfusion SPECT provides highly objective and reproducible quantitative measurements, there is still some limitation in the direct use of quantitative measurements. In this study we derived parameters using normal variation of perfusion measurements, and tried to test the usefulness of these parameters. In order to calculate normal variation of perfusion measurements on myocardial perfusion SPECT, 55 patients (M:F=28:27) of low-likelihood for coronary artery disease were enrolled and 201 Tl rest / 99m Tc-MIBI stress SPECT studies were performed. Using 20-segment model, mean (m) and standard deviation (SD) of perfusion were calculated in each segment. As a myocardial viability assessment group, another 48 patients with known coronary artery disease, who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) were enrolled. 201 Tl rest / 99m Tc-MIBI stress / 201 Tl 24-hr delayed SPECT was performed before CABG and SPECT was followed up 3 months after CABG. From the preoperative 24-hr delayed SPECT, Q delay (perfusion measurement), Δ delay (Q delay .m) and Z delay ((Q delay .m)/SD) were defined and diagnostic performances of them for myocardial viability were evaluated using area under curve (AUC) on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Segmental perfusion measurements showed considerable normal variations among segments. In men, the lowest segmental perfusion measurement was 51.8±6.5 and the highest segmental perfusion was 87.0±5.9, and they are 58.7±8.1 and 87.3±6.0, respectively in women. In the viability assessment, Q delay showed AUC of 0.633, while those for Δ delay and Z delay were 0.735 and 0.716, respectively. The AUCs of Δ delay and Z delay were significantly higher than that of Q delay (p=0.001 and 0.018, respectively). The diagnostic performance of Δ delay , which showed highest AUC, was 85% of sensitivity and 53% of specificity at the optimal cutoff of -24.7. On automatic

  3. Experimental study of 31P MR spectroscopy in vitro canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fabao; Zhao Haitao; Suo Liping; Zhang Yushun; Fang Hong; Huang Zhilan

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a dynamic survey of the metabolism of high-energy phosphates in myocardium in order to define, the relationship between the changes in myocardial energy metabolism and the duration of ischemia. Methods: A dynamic survey of isolated heart of 8 dogs was done with the use of 31 P MRS. Results: Myocardial PCr level decreased rapidly after the heart was isolated and was reduced to zero in 2-3 hours. ATP level diminished progressively to its depletion at 6 hours following isolation. Conclusions: After the heart was isolated, the PCr level rapidly decreased and was reduced to zero in 2-3 hours whereas ATP was not depleted until 4-6 hours after isolation. The ATP level remained within normal limits as long as PCr had not been depleted

  4. [Bioelectrical activity of the myocardium in children born to parents irradiated during the Chernobyl disaster with isolated abnormal chords of the left ventricle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashova, V H

    2010-01-01

    A total 156 children of the main group (children born to parents irradiated during the Chernobyl disaster), who according to echocardiography revealed a different number of isolated abnormal chords of the left ventricle, 20 healthy children, 24 children of nosological control group and 50 children of referent group have been observed. It was found that isolated AHLV in children born to irradiated parents, was associated with changes in standard ECG, reflecting the presence of arrhythmias or predictors of their development. No significant differences in subgroups of children with different number of isolated AHLV have been established. Children with isolated AHLV born to parents irradiated during the Chernobyl accident, as all patients with minor structural anomalies of the heart, should be refered to a risk group in connection with the possibility of the development, in the first place, ventricular extrasystoles, paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia. Early diagnosis of isolated AHLV will allow to assess the outlook for further course of the disease and develop a plan of treatment and preventive measures.

  5. Backscatter and attenuation characterization of ventricular myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Allyson Ann

    2009-12-01

    This Dissertation presents quantitative ultrasonic measurements of the myocardium in fetal hearts and adult human hearts with the goal of studying the physics of sound waves incident upon anisotropic and inhomogeneous materials. Ultrasound has been used as a clinical tool to assess heart structure and function for several decades. The clinical usefulness of this noninvasive approach has grown with our understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the interaction of ultrasonic waves with the myocardium. In this Dissertation, integrated backscatter and attenuation analyses were performed on midgestational fetal hearts to assess potential differences in the left and right ventricular myocardium. The hearts were interrogated using a 50 MHz transducer that enabled finer spatial resolution than could be achieved at more typical clinical frequencies. Ultrasonic data analyses demonstrated different patterns and relative levels of backscatter and attenuation from the myocardium of the left ventricle and the right ventricle. Ultrasonic data of adult human hearts were acquired with a clinical imaging system and quantified by their magnitude and time delay of cyclic variation of myocardial backscatter. The results were analyzing using Bayes Classification and ROC analysis to quantify potential advantages of using a combination of two features of cyclic variation of myocardial backscatter over using only one or the other feature to distinguish between groups of subjects. When the subjects were classified based on hemoglobin A1c, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, differences in the magnitude and normalized time delay of cyclic variation of myocardial backscatter were observed. The cyclic variation results also suggested a trend toward a larger area under the ROC curve when information from magnitude and time delay of cyclic variation is combined using Bayes classification than when

  6. Arachidonic acid metabolism in fibroblasts derived from canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.R.; Prescott, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Canine fibroblasts from normal or healing infarcted myocardium were grown in culture. The cells were morphologically indistinguishable, but the doubling time of cells from healing myocardium was 39.6 +/- 3.5 hr whereas that of normals was 24 +/- 3.7 (n=5, p 3 H]arachidonate (AA) into phospholipids. Calcium ionophore A23187 (10 μM) caused release and metabolism of [ 3 H] AA. A23187 or AA (10μM) induced production of 6-keto PGF1α, PGE2, and a hydroxy metabolite of AA. RIA of 6-keto PGF1α showed that subconfluent cells from healing myocardium produced 1202 +/- 354 pg/mg protein whereas that of normals was 551 +/- 222 (n=7, p 3 H]AA released but did not metabolize [ 3 H]AA. In coincubations, fibroblasts incorporated myocyte-derived AA. Subsequent stimulation of the fibroblasts with A23187 induced the synthesis of 6-keto PGF1α, PGE2 and a hydroxy metabolite. The fibroblast content of healing myocardium was 35-1000 times that of normal tissue (n=7). Thus even a moderate change in AA metabolism, amplified by the AA released from deteriorating myocytes, may be a significant physiologic or pathologic event

  7. Pyrophosphate scan of the temporarily ischemized dog myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F.; Novak, J.; Vizda, J.; Kubicek, J.; Kafka, P.; Veverkova, O.

    1981-12-01

    In 9 dogs a transient myocardial ischemia was provoked using complete occlusion of the ramus interventricularis anterior of the left coronary artery. The occlusion was removed after 5, 10 or 15 min. Four hrs after removal of the occlusion a scan of the myocardium was carried out using sup(99m)Tc-labelled pyrophosphate. In 7 out of 9 dogs under study the scan was markedly positive, in 2 dogs negative. ECG demonstrated ischemic changes practically in all dogs; the changes became normal after removal of the occlusion, namely in 5 to 35 min. The histological examination of the tissue demonstrated in all 9 dogs only a slight impairment of the myocardium.

  8. Myocardium tracking via matching distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Ismail; Li, Shuo; Ross, Ian; Islam, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate automatic myocardium tracking in cardiac Magnetic Resonance (MR) sequences using global distribution matching via level-set curve evolution. Rather than relying on the pixelwise information as in existing approaches, distribution matching compares intensity distributions, and consequently, is well-suited to the myocardium tracking problem. Starting from a manual segmentation of the first frame, two curves are evolved in order to recover the endocardium (inner myocardium boundary) and the epicardium (outer myocardium boundary) in all the frames. For each curve, the evolution equation is sought following the maximization of a functional containing two terms: (1) a distribution matching term measuring the similarity between the non-parametric intensity distributions sampled from inside and outside the curve to the model distributions of the corresponding regions estimated from the previous frame; (2) a gradient term for smoothing the curve and biasing it toward high gradient of intensity. The Bhattacharyya coefficient is used as a similarity measure between distributions. The functional maximization is obtained by the Euler-Lagrange ascent equation of curve evolution, and efficiently implemented via level-set. The performance of the proposed distribution matching was quantitatively evaluated by comparisons with independent manual segmentations approved by an experienced cardiologist. The method was applied to ten 2D mid-cavity MR sequences corresponding to ten different subjects. Although neither shape prior knowledge nor curve coupling were used, quantitative evaluation demonstrated that the results were consistent with manual segmentations. The proposed method compares well with existing methods. The algorithm also yields a satisfying reproducibility. Distribution matching leads to a myocardium tracking which is more flexible and applicable than existing methods because the algorithm uses only the current data, i.e., does not

  9. Liposome kinetics in infarcted canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caride, V.J.; Twickler, J.; Zaret, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    To study the mechanisms and kinetics of liposome deposition in the region of the experimental myocardial infarction, the myocardial distribution of positive and negative liposomes was determined as a function of regional myocardial blood flow and time after administration. The study was performed in dogs at 1 and 24 h following experimental myocardial infarction. Twenty-four hours after coronary artery occlusion, the initial myocardial distribution of positive and negative liposomes (2 min) is directly proportional to regional myocardial blood flow. With time, there is reduction of the radiotracer associated with negative liposomes from all myocardial regions (p less than 0.01). In contrast, in areas of moderate and severe blood flow reduction, there is progressive accumulation of tracers entrapped or incorporated in positive liposomes. This increment becomes significant in 120 min (p less than 0.005). Similar findings are observed in studies performed 1 h after coronary artery occlusion. Dual-label liposomes [( 3 H]cholesterol and [99mTc]diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) were used to study the integrity of liposomes in normal and ischemic myocardium. Significant dissociation of the aqueous and lipid labels of positive liposomes is observed 1 h following coronary artery occlusion. In the 24-h myocardial infarction model, dissociation of the aqueous and lipid labels in ischemic myocardium is also observed. This phenomenon is more pronounced with positive than with negative liposomes (p less than 0.02)

  10. Validation of [1-11C]acetate as a tracer for noninvasive assessment of oxidative metabolism with positron emission tomography in normal, ischemic, postischemic, and hyperemic canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbrecht, J.J.; Buxton, D.B.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Extraction and clearance kinetics of [1-11C]acetate were examined in 65 experiments in 30 open-chest dogs. Twenty-nine studies were performed at control, 13 during ischemia, eight after reperfusion, 13 during dipyridamole-induced hyperemia, and two during alteration of cardiac workload. [1-11C]acetate was injected directly into the left anterior descending coronary artery, and myocardial tissue-time activity curves were recorded with a gamma probe. The single-pass extraction fraction averaged 64.2 +/- 9.7% in control, 65.3 +/- 9.1% in ischemia, 70.0 +/- 4.4% in reperfusion, and 46.5 +/- 7.4% in dipyridamole-induced hyperemia groups. 11C clearance was biexponential in all cases. The rate constant k1 for the first rapid clearance phase correlated closely with myocardial oxygen consumption (r = 0.94) in control, ischemia, reperfusion, and dipyridamole-induced hyperemia groups. Monoexponential fitting of only the first linear part of the clearance curve yielded the rate constant kmono, which also correlated with myocardial oxygen consumption (r = 0.96). Arterial lactate concentrations and the amount of free fatty acid oxygen equivalents consumed by the myocardium were shown to have a small but statistically significant impact on the relation between [1-11C]acetate clearance rate constants and myocardial oxygen consumption. The fraction of 14CO2 activity contributing to overall 14C activity leaving the myocardium after simultaneous injection of [1-14C]acetate (n = 24) was relatively high in all cases , indicating that externally measured 11C clearance corresponds to CO2 production and thus to tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. In conclusion, the results validate the use of [1-11C]acetate as a tracer of oxidative myocardial metabolism for use with positron emission tomography

  11. Glucose production and storage in hepatocytes isolated from normal versus diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivieri, M.C.; Dragland-Meserve, C.J.; Parker Botelho, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The rates of glucose production and storage were compared in hepatocytes isolated from normal versus insulin-resistant diabetic rats. A single low-dose (40 mg/kg) IV injection of streptozotocin to 250 g rats resulted in a Type II diabetic animal model which was hyperglycemic with normal insulin levels. Addition of 8 mM 14 C-lactate and 2 mM pyruvate to hepatocytes resulted in a linear increase in total glucose production ( 14 C-glucose and unlabeled glucose) and incorporation into glycogen measured over 120 min. The rate of gluconeogenesis was estimated from the production of 14 C-glucose and the rate of glycogenolysis was estimated from the production of unlabeled glucose in cells incubated in the presence or absence of 14 C-labelled substrate. There was not significant difference in total glucose production in hepatocytes isolated from normal versus diabetic rats, however, the contribution from gluconeogenesis versus glycogenolysis was significantly different. Following a 1 h incubation of cells from normal rats, 42% of the total glucose production was due to gluconeogenesis and 58% was due to glycogenolysis. In cells from diabetic rats, 83% of total glucose production was from gluconeogenesis and 17% from glycogenolysis. Also, incubation with 14 C-lactate/pyruvate resulted in a 3.3-fold increase in 14 C-glucose incorporation into glycogen in hepatocytes isolated from normal rats compared to diabetic rats. These data suggest that alterations occur in the rate-limiting enzymes responsible for glucose production and storage in hepatocytes isolated from a rat model of insulin-resistant Type II diabetes

  12. The comparison of nitroglycerin interventional dual-isotope myocardium perfusion imaging and 201Tl re-injection imaging to detect viable myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhou; Shi yu; Chen Hongyan; Jia Shaowei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Employing the differences in physical properties of 99m Tc-MIBI and 201 Tl, the authors discuss the contrast result of nitroglycerin interventional dual-isotope myocardium perfusion imaging and 201 Tl re-injection imaging to detect viable myocardium so that authors can enhance the image quality and shorten the examination time. Method: 34 OMI patients took the 99m Tc-MIBI and 201 Tl dual-isotope myocardium perfusion imaging and 201 Tl re-injection imaging respectively in two weeks. During the peak of normal dipyridamole stress i.v. 201 Tl 100 MBq was given and myocardium imaging was taken 15 min later. The dual-isotope group was given nitroglycerin 1mg under the tongue. Five min later, i.v. 99m Tc-MIBI 1110 mBq was given. In 201 Tl re-injection group i.v. 201 Tl 40 MBq was given 4 hour later and were imaged. Among the 34 OMI patients, 19 patients undertook another 99m Tc-MIBI static imaging. Results: There are no obvious differences between nitroglycerin interventional dual-isotope myocardium perfusion imaging and 201 Tl re-injection imaging in detection rate of viable myocardium, χ 2 =0.823, p>0.25. But they have great difference in perfusion changed sectional myocardium absorb rate, t=2.73, p 2 =27.867, p 201 Tl re-injection imaging

  13. Isolation and identification of normal conjunctival fungal flora in the Persian Kurd horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saber Mamaghani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the fungi isolated from conjunctival sac of clinically normal Persian Kurd horses of Tabriz, north western Iran and to determine the effect of sex and age variations on the frequency of isolates. Forty horses (17 females and 23 males, aged 2-30 years, without clinical evidence of external ocular inflammation were selected and divided into two age groups (less than 10 years and over 10 years. Samples were taken from both conjunctival sacs of horses and seeded on the sabouraud dextrose agar and malt extract agar. Plates were incubated at 25°C for 7 days. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, Fisher's exact and Kendall Tau tests using SAS 9.1. Filamentous fungi and yeasts comprised 82.35% and 17.65% of total isolates, respectively. The most frequent isolate was Aspergillus species (38.82 % followed by Penicillium spp (14.12%, Fusarium spp (8.24%, Chladosporium, Mucor and Scopulariopsis spp (5.88%, Pseudallescheria, Rhodotorula and Trichoderma spp (1.18 %. Gender had a significant effect on frequency of fungal isolation (p

  14. Analysis of the influence factors on myocardium to liver ratio of 99Tcm-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinming; Tian Jiahe; Zhao Xiaoguang; Liu Zilai; Wang Shengcai

    1995-01-01

    The resting myocardial SPECT by different MIBI kits for 113 cases of normal and ischemic heart disease is performed. The preparation of kits, reducing agents, and the time of imaging are checked using myocardium to liver (M/L) ratio as the parameter of myocardium uptake of MIBI. It shows that MIBI uptake of myocardium has no relation with the reducing agents, the time of imaging between 60-120 min, while M/L ratio varied in every individual case. The ratio of M/L has also no relation to the Radiochemical Purity (RCP) as long as RCP is more than 95%

  15. Effects of isoproterenol on myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, M.E.; Lieber, J.G.; Budinger, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the course of autoradiographic studies designed to localize 14 C-taurine within the cells of the rat myocardium, severe tissue damage was noted after stimulation by very low levels of isoproterenol. This β-adrenergic agonist had previously been shown by others to modulate taurine uptake by what appeared to be a very specific mechanism, but our studies have led to a different mechanism. Within four hours after injection of isoproterenol at all concentrations used, pronounced edema of myocytes in the subendocardium was noted; this was followed by an inflammatory reation and degeneration of mitochondria and myofilaments

  16. Normalization of coagulopathy is associated with improved outcome after isolated traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Daniel S; Mitra, Biswadev; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-07-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) has been reported in the setting of isolated traumatic brain injury (iTBI) and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of procoagulant agents administered to patients with ATC and iTBI during resuscitation, hypothesizing that timely normalization of coagulopathy may be associated with a decrease in mortality. A retrospective review of the Alfred Hospital trauma registry, Australia, was conducted and patients with iTBI (head Abbreviated Injury Score [AIS] ⩾3 and all other body AIS normalized ratio ⩾1.3) were selected for analysis. Data on procoagulant agents used (fresh frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, prothrombin complex concentrates, tranexamic acid, vitamin K) were extracted. Among patients who had achieved normalization of INR or survived beyond 24hours and were not taking oral anticoagulants, the association of normalization of INR and death at hospital discharge was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. There were 157 patients with ATC of whom 68 (43.3%) received procoagulant products within 24hours of presentation. The median time to delivery of first products was 182.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 115-375) minutes, and following administration of coagulants, time to normalization of INR was 605 (IQR 274-1146) minutes. Normalization of INR was independently associated with significantly lower mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.10; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38). Normalization of INR was associated with improved mortality in patients with ATC in the setting of iTBI. As there was a substantial time lag between delivery of products and eventual normalization of coagulation, specific management of coagulopathy should be implemented as early as possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Abnormal mitochondrial respiration in failed human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, V G; Todor, A V; Silverman, N; Goldstein, S; Sabbah, H N

    2000-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with morphologic abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria including hyperplasia, reduced organelle size and compromised structural integrity. In this study, we examined whether functional abnormalities of mitochondrial respiration are also present in myocardium of patients with advanced HF. Mitochondrial respiration was examined using a Clark electrode in an oxygraph cell containing saponin-skinned muscle bundles obtained from myocardium of failed explanted human hearts due to ischemic (ICM, n=9) or idiopathic dilated (IDC, n=9) cardiomyopathy. Myocardial specimens from five normal donor hearts served as controls (CON). Basal respiratory rate, respiratory rate after addition of the substrates glutamate and malate (V(SUB)), state 3 respiration (after addition of ADP, V(ADP)) and respiration after the addition of atractyloside (V(AT)) were measured in scar-free muscle bundles obtained from the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) thirds of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, interventricular septum and right ventricular (RV) free wall. There were no differences in basal and substrate-supported respiration between CON and HF regardless of etiology. V(ADP)was significantly depressed both in ICM and IDC compared to CON in all the regions studied. The respiratory control ratio, V(ADP)/V(AT), was also significantly decreased in HF compared to CON. In both ICM and IDC, V(ADP)was significantly lower in ENDO compared to EPI. The results indicate that mitochondrial respiration is abnormal in the failing human heart. The findings support the concept of low myocardial energy production in HF via oxidative phosphorylation, an abnormality with a potentially impact on global cardiac performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. Pathological mechanism for delayed hyperenhancement of chronic scarred myocardium in contrast agent enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate possible mechanism for delayed hyperenhancement of scarred myocardium by investigating the relationship of contrast agent (CA first pass and delayed enhancement patterns with histopathological changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen pigs underwent 4 weeks ligation of 1 or 2 diagonal coronary arteries to induce chronic infarction. The hearts were then removed and perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. The hearts firstly experienced phosphorus 31 MR spectroscopy. The hearts in group I (n = 9 and II (n = 9 then received the bolus injection of Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (0.05 mmol/kg and gadolinium-based macromolecular agent (P792, 15 µmol/kg, respectively. First pass T2* MRI was acquired using a gradient echo sequence. Delayed enhanced T1 MRI was acquired with an inversion recovery sequence. Masson's trichrome and anti- von Willebrand Factor (vWF staining were performed for infarct characterization. RESULTS: Wash-in of both kinds of CA caused the sharp and dramatic T2* signal decrease of scarred myocardium similar to that of normal myocardium. Myocardial blood flow and microvessel density were significantly recovered in 4-week-old scar tissue. Steady state distribution volume (ΔR1 relaxation rate of Gd-DTPA was markedly higher in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium, whereas ΔR1 relaxation rate of P792 did not differ significantly between scarred and normal myocardium. The ratio of extracellular volume to the total water volume was significantly greater in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium. Scarred myocardium contained massive residual capillaries and dilated vessels. Histological stains indicated the extensively discrete matrix deposition and lack of cellular structure in scarred myocardium. CONCLUSIONS: Collateral circulation formation and residual vessel effectively delivered CA into scarred myocardium. However, residual vessel without abnormal hyperpermeability allowed Gd

  19. Sensitization of the Guinea Pig Myocardium through the Mucous Membrane of the Digestive Tract,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under certain conditions, sessile antibodies can be bound by the guinea - pig myocardium that had been sensitized by direct introduction of the allergen into the stomach. This is confirmed by the positive anaphylactic reaction in the isolated heart of animals treated in this manner, which reaction manifests itself in a modified heart rate when the isolated heart is challenged by the sensitizing allergen.

  20. Incidence of stunned, hibernating and scarred myocardium in ischaemic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Pampaloni, Miguel; Morita, Koichi; Dutka, David P.; Camici, Paolo G.; Bax, Jeroen J.

    2005-01-01

    Different criteria to identify residual viability in chronically dysfunctioning myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) can be derived by the combined assessment of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and glucose utilisation (MRG) using positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a large number of patients, the prevalence of these different patterns by purely quantitative means. One hundred and sixteen consecutive patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy (LVEF ≤40%) underwent resting 2D echocardiography to assess regional contractile function (16-segment model). PET with 15 O-labelled water (H 2 15 O) and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was used to quantify MBF and MRG during hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Dysfunctional segments with normal MBF (≥0.6 ml min -1 g -1 ) were classified as stunned, and segments with reduced MBF ( -1 g -1 ) as hibernating if MRG was ≥0.25 μmol min -1 g -1 . Segments with reduced MBF and MRG -1 g -1 were classified as transmural scars and segments with reduced MBF and MRG between 0.20 and 0.25 μmol min -1 g -1 as non-transmural scars. Eight hundred and thirty-four (46%) segments were dysfunctional. Of these, 601 (72%) were chronically stunned, with 368 (61%) having normal MRG (0.47±0.20 μmol min -1 g -1 ) and 233 (39%) reduced MRG (0.16±0.05 μmol min -1 g -1 ). Seventy-four (9%) segments with reduced MBF had preserved MRG (0.40±0.18 μmol min -1 g -1 ) and were classified as hibernating myocardium. In addition, 15% of segments were classified as transmural and 4% as non-transmural scar. The mean MBF was highest in stunned myocardium (0.95±0.32 ml min -1 g -1 ), intermediate in hibernating myocardium and non-transmural scars (0.47±0.09 ml min -1 g -1 and 0.48±0.08 ml min -1 g -1 , respectively), and lowest in transmural scars (0.40±0.14 ml min -1 g -1 , P -1 g -1 vs 0.46±0.20 μmol min -1 g -1 , NS), and lowest in stunned myocardium with reduced MRG and transmural scars

  1. Nicotine promotes proliferation and collagen synthesis of chondrocytes isolated from normal human and osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Cheng, Shaowen; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; An Rompis, Ferdinand; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Chen, Qingyu; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dongquan; Peng, Lei; Tian, Xin Qiao; Lu, Chuan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to show the direct effect of nicotine with different concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 100 ng/ml) on chondrocytes isolated from normal human and osteoarthritis patients, respectively. Microscopic observation was performed during the culture with an inverted microscope. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay method was adopted to observe the influence of nicotine on the proliferation of chondrocytes, and real-time PCR and ELISA were used to assay the mRNA and protein expression of type II collagen and aggrecan, respectively. We discovered that the OA chondrocytes were similar to fibroblasts in shape and grow slower than normal chondrocytes. The proliferation of the two kinds of chondrocytes was increased in a concentration-dependent manner and in a time-dependent manner (P<0.05). Also, we found that the mRNA level of type II collagen were upregulated under 25-100 ng/ml nicotine doses both in the two kinds of chondrocytes compared with control. The expression of protein levels of type II collagen were synthesized in line with the increase in mRNA. No effect was observed on aggrecan synthesis with any nicotine dose. We concluded that nicotine has the same effect on both chondrocytes, obtained either from osteoarthritis patients or from normal human, and the positive effect of smoking in OA may relate to the alteration in metabolism of chondrocytes.

  2. Optical measurement of isolated canine lung filtration coefficients at normal hematocrits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Finney, C; Roselli, R J

    1997-12-01

    In this study, lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) values were measured in eight isolated canine lung preparations at normal hematocrit values using three methods: gravimetric, blood-corrected gravimetric, and optical. The lungs were kept in zone 3 conditions and subjected to an average venous pressure increase of 10.24 +/- 0.27 (SE) cmH2O. The resulting Kfc (ml . min-1 . cmH2O-1 . 100 g dry lung wt-1) measured with the gravimetric technique was 0.420 +/- 0.017, which was statistically different from the Kfc measured by the blood-corrected gravimetric method (0.273 +/- 0.018) or the product of the reflection coefficient (sigmaf) and Kfc measured optically (0. 272 +/- 0.018). The optical method involved the use of a Cellco filter cartridge to separate red blood cells from plasma, which allowed measurement of the concentration of the tracer in plasma at normal hematocrits (34 +/- 1.5). The permeability-surface area product was measured using radioactive multiple indicator-dilution methods before, during, and after venous pressure elevations. Results showed that the surface area of the lung did not change significantly during the measurement of Kfc. These studies suggest that sigmafKfc can be measured optically at normal hematocrits, that this measurement is not influenced by blood volume changes that occur during the measurement, and that the optical sigmafKfc agrees with the Kfc obtained via the blood-corrected gravimetric method.

  3. Characterization of the positive and negative inotropic effects of acetylcholine in the human myocardium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.Y. Du (Xiaoyi); R.G. Schoemaker (Regien); E. Bos (Egbert); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn the human isolated myocardium, acetylcholine (10−9 to 10−3 M) elicited a biphasic inotropic effect (a decrease in the lower and an increase in the higher concentration range) in atrial and a positive inotropic effect in ventricular trabeculae. However, under conditions of raised

  4. Detection of the myocardium ischemia in scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, M.; Pierquet-Ghazzar, N.; Maunoury, C.

    2005-01-01

    The myocardium scintigraphy (SPECT) gives excellent elements of prognosis allowing to select at the best, the patients having a revascularization, and then an angiography examination. It appears complementary of the coronaries tree imaging and should (in theory) be practised in first in an organisation chart of taking over. In the search of practicable myocardium, the PET with 18 FDG, although being competitive, is more and more forsaken to the MRI profit. In retaliation, the PET with 82 Rb with test of pharmacology stimulation could develop in detection of coronaries disease. (N.C.)

  5. Free Radical Oxidation in Rat Myocardium after Maximum Permissible Hepatic Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaev, P A; Khramykh, T P; Barskaya, L O

    2016-03-01

    Free radical oxidation in rat myocardial homogenate was studied by chemiluminescent assay during the early terms after maximum permissible liver resection. During this period, activation of free radical oxidation was biphasic. The critical terms characterized by dramatic intensification of free radical oxidation in the myocardium are the first hour and the first day after surgery. The period from 3 to 12 h after surgery, in which the indices of chemiluminescence decrease, can be tentatively termed as the period of "putative wellbeing". Normalization of the free radical oxidation processes in the myocardium occurred by day 7 after surgery.

  6. Isolation of primary human hepatocytes from normal and diseased liver tissue: a one hundred liver experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky H Bhogal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful and consistent isolation of primary human hepatocytes remains a challenge for both cell-based therapeutics/transplantation and laboratory research. Several centres around the world have extensive experience in the isolation of human hepatocytes from non-diseased livers obtained from donor liver surplus to surgical requirement or at hepatic resection for tumours. These livers are an important but limited source of cells for therapy or research. The capacity to isolate cells from diseased liver tissue removed at transplantation would substantially increase availability of cells for research. However no studies comparing the outcome of human hepatocytes isolation from diseased and non-diseased livers presently exist. Here we report our experience isolating human hepatocytes from organ donors, non-diseased resected liver and cirrhotic tissue. We report the cell yields and functional qualities of cells isolated from the different types of liver and demonstrate that a single rigorous protocol allows the routine harvest of good quality primary hepatocytes from the most commonly accessible human liver tissue samples.

  7. Temperature dependence of the kinetics of isometric myocardium relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izakov, V.Ya.; Bykov, B.L.; Kimmelman, I.Ya.

    1981-11-01

    The dependence of the exponential decay constant expressing the isometric relaxation of the myocardium on temperature is investigated in animals with various specific contents of myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum. Experiments were performed on cardiac ventricles and atria isolated from rabbits, frogs and turtles and electrically stimulated to produce maximal contraction at temperatures from 10 to 35 C. Arrhenius plots derived from the data are found to be linear in the myocardia of the rabbit and frog, with a greater activation energy for the relaxation found in the rabbit. The Arrhenius plot for the turtle, which has a sarcoplasmic reticulum content intermediate between those of the frog and rabbit, corresponds to two straight lines with different activation energies. Results thus support the hypothesis of two separate mechanisms of calcium removal, involving the sarcoplasmic reticulum and cellular membrane, in muscle relaxation.

  8. Preliminary applied study of assessment ischemic/viable myocardium by 99Tcm-HL91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Gang; Wu Hua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the representation of 99 Tc m -HL91 in the ischemic myocardium, evaluate the diagnosis value of 99 Tc m -HL91 on hypoxic but viable myocardium. Methods: Six patients with cardiac infarction all underwent 99 Tc m -MIBI SPECT and 99 Tc m -HL91 SPECT. Average radioactivity of ischemic area and normal area were respectively obtained by ROI (2 x 2 pixels) on heart minor axis of images, And the radioactivity ratios of target (ischemic area)-to-non target(normal area)were calculated. Results: In image of 99 Tc m -HL91 SPECT, two patients who's radioactivity coloboma of 99 Tc m -MIBI image could be filled with 99 Tc m -HL91, four patients were not caught sight of obvious filling up. Conclusion 99 Tc m -HL91 can be selectively uptaken by ischemic and hypoxic but viable myocardium. it combination of 99 Tc m -MIBI SPECT may be good for accurate diagnosis and differentiation of viable myocardium. (authors)

  9. A Review of Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Biso, Sylvia; Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Agrawal, Akanksha; Yadlapati, Sujani; Kishlyansky, Marina; Figueredo, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Neurologic stunned myocardium (NSM) is a phenomenon where neurologic events give rise to cardiac abnormalities. Neurologic events like stroke and seizures cause sympathetic storm and autonomic dysregulation that result in myocardial injury. The clinical presentation can involve troponin elevation, left ventricular dysfunction, and ECG changes. These findings are similar to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and acute coronary syndrome. It is difficult to distinguish NSM from acute coronary syndrome bas...

  10. Normal age-related viscoelastic properties of chondrons and chondrocytes isolated from rabbit knee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Wang-ping; SUN Zhen-wei; LI Qi; LI Chun-jiang; WANG Li; CHEN Wei-yi; Jennifer Tickner; ZHENG Ming-hao; WEI Xiao-chun

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanical microenvironment of the chondrocytes plays an important role in cartilage homeostasis and in the health of the joint.The pericellular matrix,cellular membrane of the chondrocytes,and their cytoskeletal structures are key elements in the mechanical environment.The aims of this study are to measure the viscoelastic properties of isolated chondrons and chondrocytes from rabbit knee cartilage using micropipette aspiration and to determine the effect of aging on these properties.Methods Three age groups of rabbit knees were evaluated:(1) young (2 months,n=10);(2) adult (8 months,n=10);and (3) old (31 months,n=10).Chondrocytes were isolated from the right knee cartilage and chondrons were isolated from left knees using enzymatic methods.Micropipette aspiration combined with a standard linear viscoelastic solid model was used to quantify changes in the viscoelastic properties of chondrons and chondrocytes within 2 hours of isolation.The morphology and structure of isolated chondrons were evaluated by optical microscope using hematoxylin and eosin staining and collagen-6 immunofluorescence staining.Results In response to an applied constant 0.3-0.4 kPa of negative pressure,all chondrocytes exhibited standard linear viscoelastic solid properties.Model predictions of the creep data showed that the average equilibrium modulus (E∞),instantaneous modulus (E0).and apparent viscosity (μ) of old chondrocytes was significantly lower than the young and adult chondrocytes (P<0.001);however,no difference was found between young and adult chondrocytes (P>0.05).The adult and old chondrons generally possessed a thicker pericellular matrix (PCM) with more enclosed cells.The young and adult chondrons exhibited the same viscoelastic creep behavior under a greater applied pressure (1.0-1.1kPa) without the deformation seen in the old chondrons.The viscoelastic properties (E∞,E0,and u) of young and adult chondrons were significantly greater than that observed

  11. Subacute ghrelin administration inhibits apoptosis and improves ultrastructural abnormalities in remote myocardium post-myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Refaat A; Zaki, Mohamed Samir Ahmed; Al-Shraim, Mubarak; Eleawa, Samy M; El-Kott, Attalla Farag; Al-Hashem, Fahaid H; Eldeen, Muhammad Alaa; Ibrahim, Hoja; Aldera, Hussain; Alkhateeb, Mahmoud A

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of ghrelin on cardiomyocytes function, apoptosis and ultra-structural alterations of remote myocardium of the left ventricle (LV) of rats, 21 days post myocardial infarction (MI). Rats were divided into 4 groups as a control, a sham-operated rats, a sham-operated+ghrelin, an MI + vehicle and an MI + ghrelin-treated rats. MI was induced by LAD ligation and then rats were recievd a concomitant doe of either normal saline as a vehicle or treated with ghrelin (100 μg/kg S.C., 2x/day) for 21 consecutive days. Ghrelin enhanced myocardial contractility in control rats and reversed the decreases in myocardial contractility and the increases in the serum levels of CK-MB and LDH in MI-induced rats. Additionally, it inhibited the increases in levels of Bax and cleaved caspase 3 and increased those for Bcl-2 in the remote myocardium of rat's LV, post-MI. At ultra-structural level, while ghrelin has no adverse effects on LV myocardium obtained from control or sham-treated rats, ghrelin post-administration to MI-induced rats reduced vascular formation, restored normal microfilaments appearance and organization, preserved mitochondria structure, and prevented mitochondrial swelling, collagen deposition and number of ghost bodies in the remote areas of their LV. Concomitantly, in remote myocardium of MI-induced rats, ghrelin enhanced endoplasmic reticulum intracellular organelles count, decreased number of atrophied nuclei and phagocytes, diminished the irregularity in the nuclear membranes and inhibited chromatin condensation. In conclusion, in addition to the physiological, biochemical and molecular evidence provided, this is the first study that confirms the anti-apoptotic effect of ghrelin in the remote myocardium of the LV during late MI at the level of ultra-structural changes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo effect of the D-(-) isomer or natural form of 3-hydroxybutyrate on initial release of lactate dehydrogenase from the acutely ischaemic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerant, J; Huynh-Thu, T; Kolanowski, J

    1986-07-01

    D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, the isomer found in the circulation and in the urine of diabetic patients, generally is believed to be the physiologically important form of 3-hydroxybutyrate [10]. Little is known concerning the effects of an elevated plasma level of the D-(-) isomer of 3-hydroxybutyrate upon the acutely ischaemic heart. Using anaesthetized intact dogs with a balloon catheter inserted into the proximal part of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), we have recently demonstrated that a 1 mM ketonaemia induced with the arginine salt of D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid reduces the uptake of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the myocardial area distal to the inflated balloon [4]. The question arises as to whether the concomitant increase in ketone uptake in this area could be detrimental to the acutely ischaemic myocardium. Indeed, a previous study on isolated coronary ligated hearts from normal rats has shown that the rate of release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during the first 90 min of ischaemia can be enhanced by replacing glucose (11 mM) in the perfusion fluid with either albumin-bound palmitate (0.9 mM) or sodium DL-3-hydroxybutyrate (10 mM) as the sole energy substrate [11]. This would suggest that the ketone might be as deleterious as its metabolic precursors for membrane integrity in the acutely ischaemic myocardium. In the present report, we examine the effect of arginine D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate on LDH release from ischaemic myocardium in our in vivo preparation. The dogs were treated with lidocaine in order to minimize the frequency and, hence, the adverse metabolic effects of ectopic beats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Isolation and genome-wide expression and methylation characterization of CD31+ cells from normal and malignant human prostate tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Deeb, Kristin K.; Ma, Yingyu; Morrison, Carl D.; Liu, Song; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are an important component involved in the angiogenesis. Little is known about the global gene expression and epigenetic regulation in tumor endothelial cells. The identification of gene expression and epigenetic difference between human prostate tumor-derived endothelial cells (TdECs) and those in normal tissues may uncover unique biological features of TdEC and facilitate the discovery of new anti-angiogenic targets. We established a method for isolation of CD31+ endothelial cells from malignant and normal prostate tissues obtained at prostatectomy. TdECs and normal-derived ECs (NdECs) showed >90% enrichment in primary culture and demonstrated microvascular endothelial cell characteristics such as cobblestone morphology in monolayer culture, diI-acetyl-LDL uptake and capillary-tube like formation in Matrigel®. In vitro primary cultures of ECs maintained expression of endothelial markers such as CD31, von Willebrand factor, intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. We then conducted a pilot study of transcriptome and methylome analysis of TdECs and matched NdECs from patients with prostate cancer. We observed a wide spectrum of differences in gene expression and methylation patterns in endothelial cells, between malignant and normal prostate tissues. Array-based expression and methylation data were validated by qRT-PCR and bisulfite DNA pyrosequencing. Further analysis of transcriptome and methylome data revealed a number of differentially expressed genes with loci whose methylation change is accompanied by an inverse change in gene expression. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of isolation of ECs from histologically normal prostate and prostate cancer via CD31+ selection. The data, although preliminary, indicates that there exist widespread differences in methylation and transcription between TdECs and NdECs. Interestingly, only a small

  14. Population Synthesis of Radio and Y-ray Normal, Isolated Pulsars Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, Caleb; Gonthier, P. L.; Harding, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    We present preliminary results of a population statistics study of normal pulsars (NP) from the Galactic disk using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques optimized according to two different methods. The first method compares the detected and simulated cumulative distributions of series of pulsar characteristics, varying the model parameters to maximize the overall agreement. The advantage of this method is that the distributions do not have to be binned. The other method varies the model parameters to maximize the log of the maximum likelihood obtained from the comparisons of four-two dimensional distributions of radio and γ-ray pulsar characteristics. The advantage of this method is that it provides a confidence region of the model parameter space. The computer code simulates neutron stars at birth using Monte Carlo procedures and evolves them to the present assuming initial spatial, kick velocity, magnetic field, and period distributions. Pulsars are spun down to the present and given radio and γ-ray emission characteristics, implementing an empirical γ-ray luminosity model. A comparison group of radio NPs detected in ten-radio surveys is used to normalize the simulation, adjusting the model radio luminosity to match a birth rate. We include the Fermi pulsars in the forthcoming second pulsar catalog. We present preliminary results comparing the simulated and detected distributions of radio and γ-ray NPs along with a confidence region in the parameter space of the assumed models. We express our gratitude for the generous support of the National Science Foundation (REU and RUI), Fermi Guest Investigator Program and the NASA Astrophysics Theory and Fundamental Program.

  15. Manifestation of automaticity in the pulmonary-vein myocardium of rats with abdominal aorto-venocaval shunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Hamaguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of abdominal aorto-venocaval shunt (AVS on the automaticity of the pulmonary-vein myocardium was studied in the rat. Spontaneous electrical activity was observed in one third of the isolated pulmonary-vein preparations from the AVS rats, but scarcely in those from sham-operated rats; the activity was induced by tertiapin and suppressed by carbachol or chelation of intracellular Ca2+. The evoked action potentials in AVS rats had less negative resting membrane potential and longer action potential duration than those in sham-operated rats. These results suggest that the automaticity of the rat pulmonary-vein myocardium is manifested under chronic volume overload.

  16. Proteção da recuperação funcional do miocárdio pelo omeprazol após isquemia-reperfusão em corações isolados de ratos Myocardium functional recovery protection by omeprazole after ischemia-reperfusion in isolated rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otoni Moreira Gomes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar efeitos do omeprazol na proteção da recuperação funcional de corações isolados de ratos submetidos à lesão de isquemia-reperfusão. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 12 ratos Wistar, peso corpóreo médio de 280g. Após anestesia com injeção intra-abdominal de 10mg de cetamina e 2mg de xilazina, os corações foram removidos e mantidos em perfusão com solução Krebs-Henseleit (95%O2 e 5% CO2, 37ºC, 110-120mmHg de pressão de perfusão e pressão diastólica de 8 mmHg em sistema Langendorff, modificado, descartável, modelo FCSFA-ServCor (Comex Ltda.. Os seis corações do Grupo I (GI e os seis do Grupo II (GII foram submetidos a 20 minutos de isquemia e 30 minutos de reperfusão. Nos corações do Grupo II, imediatamente antes da isquemia, foram administrados via perfusão coronária 200mcg de omeprazol. Foram controlados frequência cardíaca (FC, fluxo coronário (FCo, pressão sistólica (PS, +dP/dt e -dP/dt, após estabilização (t0 e no final da reperfusão (t30. Empregou-se método não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis (P0,05 entre os valores de FCo e FC nos dois grupos. No final do período de reperfusão (t30, foram significantes (POBJECTIVE: To evaluate the myocardium contractility alterations of isolated hearts of rats, submitted to ischemia and reperfusion with and without administration of the omeprazole. METHODS: Twelve Wistar breed rats with 270g mean body weight was studied. After anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection of ketamine 10mg and xylazine 2mg, their hearts were removed and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution (95% of O2 and 5% of CO2, 37ºC, 110-120 mmHg perfusion pressure, 8 mmHg ventricular diastolic pressure in the São Francisco de Assis disposable Langendorff system model Comex Ltda, MG. The six hearts of Group I (GI and of the Group II (GII were submitted to 20 min ischemia and 30 min reperfusion. In GII hearts, intracoronary injection of omeprazole 200 mcg was done immediately before the

  17. Tropical diseases of the myocardium: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groom ZC

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoe C Groom,1 Aristotle D Protopapas,2 Vasileios Zochios3,4 1Costello Medical Consulting Limited, Cambridge, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, 3Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, 4College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases are widely distributed throughout the world. Human parasitic infections are ubiquitous. Tropical parasites are increasingly recognized as causes of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we address the most frequently reported parasites that directly infect the myocardium, including Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoal causative agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease, and Taenia solium, the cestode causative agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis. We also discuss tropical endomyocardial fibrosis, trichinellosis and schistosomiasis. Health systems, attitudes, the perceptions of both patients and physicians as well as socioeconomic factors should all be explored and recognized as crucial factors for improving the control of cardiovascular diseases in the tropics. Clinicians throughout the world must remain aware of imported parasites as potential causes of cardiac diseases. Keywords: cardiomyopathy, Chagas disease, myocardium, parasitic infection, tropical infections

  18. ARGINASE ENZYMES IN ISOLATED AIRWAYS FROM NORMAL AND NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE 2-KNOCKOUT MICE EXPOSED TO OVALBUMIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Last, Jerold A.

    2009-01-01

    Arginase has been suggested to compete with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for their common substrate, L-arginine. To study the mechanisms underlying this interaction, we compared arginase expression in isolated airways and the consequences of inhibiting arginase activity in vivo with NO production, lung inflammation, and lung function in both C57BL/6 and NOS2 knockout mice undergoing ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, a mouse model of asthma. Arginases I and II were measured by western blot in isolated airways from sensitized C57BL/6 mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. Physiological and biochemical responses---inflammation, lung compliance, airway hyperreactivity, exhaled NO concentration, arginine concentration--were compared with the responses of NOS2 knockout mice. NOS2 knockout mice had increased total cells in lung lavage, decreased lung compliance, and increased airway hyperreactivity. Both arginase I and arginase II were constitutively expressed in the airways of normal C57BL/6 mice. Arginase I was up-regulated approximately 8-fold in the airways of C57BL/6 mice exposed to ovalbumin. Expression of both arginase isoforms were significantly upregulated in NOS2 knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin, with about 40- and 4-fold increases in arginases I and II, respectively. Arginine concentration in isolated airways was not significantly different in any of the groups studied. Inhibition of arginase by systemic treatment of C57BL/6 mice with a competitive inhibitor, Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA), significantly decreased the lung inflammatory response to ovalbumin in these animals. We conclude that NOS2 knockout mice are more sensitive to ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and its sequelae than are C57BL/6 mice, as determined by increased total cells in lung lavage, decreased lung compliance, and increased airway hyperreactivity, and that these findings are strongly correlated with increased expression of both arginase isoforms in the airways of the NOS2

  19. A Review of Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Agrawal, Akanksha; Yadlapati, Sujani; Kishlyansky, Marina; Figueredo, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Neurologic stunned myocardium (NSM) is a phenomenon where neurologic events give rise to cardiac abnormalities. Neurologic events like stroke and seizures cause sympathetic storm and autonomic dysregulation that result in myocardial injury. The clinical presentation can involve troponin elevation, left ventricular dysfunction, and ECG changes. These findings are similar to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and acute coronary syndrome. It is difficult to distinguish NSM from acute coronary syndrome based on clinical presentation alone. Because of this difficulty, a patient with NSM who is at high risk for coronary heart disease may undergo cardiac catheterization to rule out coronary artery disease. The objective of this review of literature is to enhance physician's awareness of NSM and its features to help tailor management according to the patient's clinical profile. PMID:28875040

  20. Neurogenic stunned myocardium following hemorrhagic cerebral contusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleu, D.; Miyares, F.; Kettern, M.; Kumar, S.; Hassens, Y.; Salim, K.

    2007-01-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium NSM is a well-known complication of subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but has been reported rarely in association with other central nervous system disorders. A case of NSM is described in a patient with hemorrhagic brain contusion associated with cerebral edema. An 18-year-old man was admitted with severe cranial trauma following a car roll-over. Six days after admission, he developed findings suggestive for NSM. The troponin T and creatine kinase-MB level were elevated and echocardiogram showed apical and inferoposterior hypokinesis and diffuse left ventricular akinesis with severely reduced ejection fraction 18%. Invasive measurements confirmed low cardiac output. His cardiac function resolved completely within 6 days after decompressive craniotomy. This case supports the presumed unifying role of the increased intracranial pressure, probably triggering a vigorous sympathetic outflow hyperactivity leading to NSM. (author)

  1. The effect of percutaneous transmyocardial laser revascularization on left ventricular function in a porcine model of hibernating myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeda, Francis Q.; Glock, Dana; Sandelski, Joanne; Ibrahim, Osama; Macioch, James E.; Allen, Trisha; Dainauskas, John R.; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Snell, R. Jeffrey; Schaer, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hibernating myocardium is defined as a state of persistently impaired myocardial function at rest due to reduced coronary blood flow that can partially or completely be restored to normal if the myocardial oxygen supply/demand relationship is favorably altered. Percutaneous laser revascularization (PMR) is an emerging catheter-based technique that involves creating channels in the myocardium, directly through a percutaneous approach with a laser delivery system, and has been shown to reduce symptoms in patients with severe refractory angina; however, its effect on improving regional wall motion abnormalities in hibernating myocardium has not been clearly established. We sought to determine the effect of PMR using the Eclipse System (Cardiogenesis) on left ventricular function in a porcine model of hibernating myocardium. Methods: A model of hibernating myocardium was created by placement of an ameroid constrictor in the proximal left anterior descending artery of a 35 kg male Yorkshire pig. The presence of hibernating myocardium was confirmed with dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and defined as severe hypocontractility at rest, with an improvement in systolic wall thickening with low-dose dobutamine in myocardial regions with a subsequent deterioration in function at peak stress (biphasic response). After the demonstration of hibernating myocardium, PMR was performed in the area of hypocontractile function, and the serial echocardiography was performed. The echocardiograms were reviewed by an experienced echocardiologist blinded to the results, and regional wall motion was assessed using the American Society of Echocardiography Wall Motion Score. Six weeks after PMR, the animal was sacrificed and the heart sent for histopathologic studies. Results: A comparison of the regional wall motion function of the area distal to the ameroid constrictor and in the contralateral wall at baseline, post-ameroid placement, and post-PMR was performed

  2. Pre- and post-synaptic sympathetic function in human hibernating myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Anna S.; Pepper, John R.; Dreyfus, Gilles D.; Pennell, Dudley J. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Mongillo, Marco; Khan, Muhammad T. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Depre, Christophe [University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, New Jersey, NJ (United States); University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, New Jersey, NJ (United States); Rimoldi, Ornella E. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); New York Medical College, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Valhalla, NY (United States); Camici, Paolo G. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    Impaired pre-synaptic noradrenaline uptake-1 mechanism has been reported in a swine model of hibernating myocardium (HM). To ascertain whether adrenergic neuroeffector abnormalities are present in human HM, we combined functional measurements in vivo using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) to assess pre- and post-synaptic sympathetic function. Twelve patients with coronary artery disease and chronic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction underwent CMR at baseline and 6 months after bypass for assessment of regional and global LV function and identification of segments with reversible dysfunction. Before surgery, myocardial noradrenaline uptake-1 ([{sup 11}C]meta-hydroxy-ephedrine; HED) and {beta}-adrenoceptor ({beta}-AR) density ([{sup 11}C]CGP-12177) were measured with PET. Patient PET data were compared with those in 18 healthy controls. The volume of distribution (V{sub d}) of HED in HM (47.95{+-}28.05 ml/g) and infarcted myocardium (42.69{+-}25.76 ml/g) was significantly reduced compared with controls (66.09{+-}14.48 ml/g). The V{sub d} of HED in normal myocardium (49.93{+-}20.48 ml/g) of patients was also lower than that in controls and the difference was close to statistical significance (p=0.06). Myocardial {beta}-AR density was significantly lower in HM (5.49{+-}2.35 pmol/g), infarcted (4.82{+-}2.61 pmol/g) and normal (5.86{+-}1.81 pmol/g) segments of patients compared with healthy controls (8.61{+-}1.32 pmol/g). Noradrenaline uptake-1 mechanism and {beta}-AR density are reduced in the myocardium of patients with chronic LV dysfunction and evidence of HM. The increased sympathetic activity to the heart in these patients is a generalised rather than regional phenomenon which is likely to contribute to the remodelling process of the whole LV rather than playing a causative role in HM. (orig.)

  3. Contribution to the study of thallium 201 myocardium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annweiler, Marc.

    1976-01-01

    In this work a new isotope was tested in the field of myocardium scintigraphy: thallium 201. The different radioisotopes used so far in myocardium scintigraphy are reviewed to begin with. The main biological and physical characteristics of thallium and the scintillation camera used for this work are described next. In our opinion thallium 201 owing to its biological behavior similar to that of potassium and to its physical characteristics, appears as one of the better -if not the best- known tracer suitable for use in myocardium scintigraphy. Its properties are suited to the use of a scintillation camera, which considerably shortens the examination time and thus allows an isotopic exploration of the myocardium from several incidences. The only disadvantage of this cyclotron-produced isotope seems to be its high price which will probably limit its use on a large scale. Fifty thallium 201 myocardium scintigraphs were practised on forty-eight coronary thrombosis patients. From this was established a precise topographic correlation between the electrocardiographic diagnosis and the scintigraph. The two corresponded in 47 cases out of 50. The few disagreements between ECG and scintigraphic results seem to be due either to poor-quality images or to an overall myocardium hypofixation connected with a very extensive necrosis. This means that thallium 201 myocardium scintigraphy is a reliable method of examination in the great majority of cases, giving a direct picture of the heart muscle and its necrotic lesions [fr

  4. Kinetics of thallium-201 in reperfused canine myocardium after coronary artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    To study the kinetics of thallium-201 in nonsalvaged acutely infarcted myocardium and salvaged myocardium, the tracer was administered after experimental left anterior descending coronary artery reperfusion 2 hours after occlusion. In 19 dogs, thallium activity was then monitored for 4 hours in the reperfused anterior wall and normal posterior wall using miniature cadmium telluride radiation detectors. After sacrifice, 13 of the dogs were found to have an infarcted anterior wall by triphenyltetrazolium-chloride staining. In these dogs, mean (+/- standard deviation) fractional 4 hour thallium clearance was 0.33 +/- 0.08 for the infarct zone and 0.15 +/- 0.06 for the normal control zone (p less than 0.001). When computer-modeled, the clearance curve from the infarct zone was biexponential. The second exponential clearance curve from the infarct zone began 19.1 +/- 3.2 minutes after tracer administration, and was indistinguishable from the monoexponential clearance curve from the normal control zone. Thallium clearance from the blood pool was triexponential, the final exponential clearance curve being indistinguishable from the normal control zone clearance curve. Six dogs were found to have a salvaged noninfarcted anterior wall by triphenyltetrazolium-chloride staining. In these dogs, mean fractional 4 hour thallium clearance was 0.20 +/- 0.07 for the reperfused zone, and 0.19 +/- 0.08 for the normal control zone (p . NS). When computer-modeled, clearance curves for the reperfused and control zones were monoexponential. The monoexponential clearance curve for the salvaged reperfused zone was indistinguishable from the monoexponential clearance curve for normal myocardium

  5. Characteristics of Endotoxin-Altering Fractions Derived from Normal Serum III. Isolation and Properties of Horse Serum alpha(2)-Macroglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, M; Konno, S

    1970-05-01

    The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an alpha(2)-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III(0), whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate.

  6. Characteristics of Endotoxin-Altering Fractions Derived from Normal Serum III. Isolation and Properties of Horse Serum α2-Macroglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Morimasa; Konno, Seishi

    1970-01-01

    The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an α2-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III0, whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate. Images PMID:16557754

  7. Relationships of risk factors for pre-eclampsia with patterns of occurrence of isolated gestational proteinuria during normal term pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrie Macdonald-Wallis

    Full Text Available Isolated gestational proteinuria may be part of the pre-eclampsia disease spectrum. Confirmation of its association with established pre-eclampsia risk factors and higher blood pressure in uncomplicated pregnancies would support this concept.Data from 11,651 women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who had a term live birth but did not have pre-existing hypertension or diabetes or develop gestational diabetes or preeclampsia were used. Proteinuria was assessed repeatedly (median 12 measurements per woman by dipstick and latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of the population with different patterns of proteinuria in pregnancy.Higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, younger age, nulliparity and twin pregnancy were independently associated with increased odds of any proteinuria in pregnancy. Women who experienced proteinuria showed five patterns: proteinuria in early pregnancy only (≤ 20 weeks gestation, and onset at 21-28 weeks, 29-32 weeks, 33-36 weeks and ≥ 37 weeks gestation. There were higher odds of proteinuria onset after 33 weeks in obese women and after 37 weeks in nulliparous women compared with normal weight and multiparous women respectively. Smoking in pregnancy was weakly negatively associated with odds of proteinuria onset after 37 weeks. Twin pregnancies had higher odds of proteinuria onset from 29 weeks. In women with proteinuria onset after 33 weeks blood pressure was higher in early pregnancy and at the end of pregnancy.Established pre-eclampsia risk factors were related to proteinuria occurrence in late gestation in healthy term pregnancies, supporting the hypothesis that isolated gestational proteinuria may represent an early manifestation of pre-eclampsia.

  8. Probing myocardium biomechanics using quantitative optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Lopez, Andrew L.; Morikawa, Yuka; Tao, Ge; Li, Jiasong; Larina, Irina V.; Martin, James F.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    We present a quantitative optical coherence elastographic method for noncontact assessment of the myocardium elasticity. The method is based on shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography (SWI-OCT), where a focused air-puff system is used to induce localized tissue deformation through a low-pressure short-duration air stream and a phase-sensitive OCT system is utilized to monitor the propagation of the induced tissue displacement with nanoscale sensitivity. The 1-D scanning of M-mode OCT imaging and the application of optical phase retrieval and mapping techniques enable the reconstruction and visualization of 2-D depth-resolved shear wave propagation in tissue with ultra-high frame rate. The feasibility of this method in quantitative elasticity measurement is demonstrated on tissue-mimicking phantoms with the estimated Young's modulus compared with uniaxial compression tests. We also performed pilot experiments on ex vivo mouse cardiac muscle tissues with normal and genetically altered cardiomyocytes. Our results indicate this noncontact quantitative optical coherence elastographic method can be a useful tool for the cardiac muscle research and studies.

  9. Stereological Cell Morphometry In Right Atrium Myocardium Of Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarim-De-Lacerda, Carlos A...; Hureau, Jacques

    1986-07-01

    The mechanism by which the cardiac impulse is propagated in normal hearts from its origin in the sinus node to the atrio-ventricular node has not been agreed on fully. We studied the "internodal posterior tract" through the crista terminalis by light microscopy and stereological morphometry. The hearts of 12 Papio cynocephalus were perfused , after sacrifice,with phosphate-buffered formol saline. The regions of the crista terminalis (CT), interatrial septum (IAS), atrioventricular bundle (AVB) and interventricular septum (IVS) were cut off and embedded in paraplast and sectioned (10 4m). The multipurpose test system M 42 was superimposed over the photomicrographs (1,890 points test, ESR = 2%) to the stereological computing. The quantitative results show that the cells from CT were more closely relationed with IAS cells than others cells (IVS and AVB cells). This results are not a morphological evidence to establish the specificity of the "internodal posterior tract". The cellular arrangement and anatomical variation in CT myocardium is very important.

  10. Focalized contractile impairment at hypertrophied myocardium proven in consideration of wall stress in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Tadashi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Shimamoto, Ryoichi; Tsuji, Taeko; Ohmoto, Yuki; Toyo-oka, Teruhiko; Omata, Masao; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nagai, Ryozo

    2006-01-01

    In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) a hyperkinetic state is sometimes observed in spite of impaired systolic function in the hypertrophied myocardium. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism of this paradox. Seventeen patients with HCM and 10 normal subjects underwent cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to measure percent systolic wall thickening and percent fractional shortening. The ratio of systolic radial wall stress of the LV at the hypertrophied myocardium over that at the nonhypertrophied myocardium was evaluated to describe the focal advantageous condition for wall thickening. The ratio was 0.66±0.36 at the start of contraction and 0.78±0.31 at early-systole, indicating consistently smaller radial wall stress at the hypertrophied myocardium. Although the condition for contraction was favorable (a ratio less than 1.00), percent systolic wall thickening at the hypertrophied myocardium (23.0±11.8%) was smaller than that at the nonhypertrophied myocardium (70.5±32.3%). Smaller end-diastolic dimension (HCM group; 45.2±4.2 mm, reference group; 48.9±4.1 mm, P=0.04) with a statistically identical value of systolic decrease in intraventricular dimension (HCM group; 19.7±3.9 mm, reference group; 18.9±3.2 mm, P=0.60) yielded high percent fractional shortening in patients with HCM (43.5±7.6%). Although contractile impairment was proven at the hypertrophied region with low radial wall stress in the HCM group, the smaller end-diastolic dimension in this group resulted in high percent fractional shortening. (author)

  11. Myocardium scanning with 201TL-chloride in ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shejretova, E.; Beloev, J.; Kaloyanova, A.; Trindev, P.

    1979-01-01

    Results of myocardial scanning with 210 TL-chloride in ischemic herart disease are repoorted. An avearge dose of 500 microcurie and antero-posterior or lateral projection scanning with coloured registration are recommended. The scintigraphic pattern of the normal myocardium and the pathological changes, manifested by reduced isotope fixation, depending on the severity of the damage, are described. The diffuse pathological changes in the myocardium in ischemic heart disease are manifested by diffuse hypofixation of the radionuclide. The focal lesions in ischemic heart disease were manifested by characteristic changes: the infarctions of the posterior wall show a relatively clear scanographic picture on antero-posterior projection, with cold or cool zones in the median sections of the myocardium picture. Infarctions of the anterior myocardial wall, depending on how sizable they are, on antero-posterior projection are seen to occupy the lateral and central parts of the heart muscle. In the left oblique projection the pathologic process is projected frontally and centrally. (A.B.)

  12. Dynamic MRI of ferumoxide-labeled bone mesenchmal stem cells after transplantation in infarcted myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiong; Zhao Shihua; Lu Minjie; Jiang Shiliang; Yan Chaowu; Zhang Yan; Meng Liang; Tang Yue; Meng Xianmin; Wei Yingjie; Wang Qingzhi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in tracking magnetically labeled mesenchymal stem cells (MR-MSCs) in a swine myocardial infarction (MI) model. Methods: Adult Chinese mini-pigs (n=6) were subjected to open-chest experimental MI operation. Their autogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was cultured and doubly labeled with ferumoxides and DAPI. On the 14 th day after MSCs transplantation, the size and location of the myocardial infarction were assessed by using delayed-enhancement MRI (DE-MRI). Then the labeled MSCs were injected intramyocardially into peri-infarct zone and normal myocardium. At 24 hrs and 3 weeks after injection, the contrast and the volume of the MR-MSCs hypointense lesion from the MR images were acquired, and the contrast was determined using the difference in signal intensity between the hypointense and normal myocardium divided by signal intensity of the normal region. After humane euthanasia, the heart was excised and histology corresponding to MRI slices that demonstrated MR-MSCs lesions was performed. Repeated-measures ANOVA and a paired t test were used for comparison of the contrast and the volume of the MR-MSCs hypointense lesion at different time points. Comparisons between independent groups were performed with the standard Student t test. Results: The labeling efficiency of ferumoxides and DAPI was 100%. On the 14 th day after the MI operation, the average percentage of infracted myocardial area was (33.6±8.9)%. Twenty- four hours after MSCs transplantation, MSCs injection sites appeared as ovoid hypointensive lesions with sharp border on T 2 * images. At 24 h after injection, the signal contrast [(67.00±5.48)% vs (61.92±7.76)%,t=1.65, P=0.1158] and the size [(0.56±0.24) cm 2 vs (0.52±0.25) cm 2 , t=0.39, P=0.7044] of the lesions showed no statistical difference between the peri-infarct zone and the normal myocardium. At 3 weeks after injection, the signal contrast

  13. Characterization of the positive and negative inotropic effects of acetylcholine in the human myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xiaoyi; Schoemaker, Regien; Bos, Egbert; Saxena, Pramod Ranjan

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn the human isolated myocardium, acetylcholine (10−9 to 10−3 M) elicited a biphasic inotropic effect (a decrease in the lower and an increase in the higher concentration range) in atrial and a positive inotropic effect in ventricular trabeculae. However, under conditions of raised contractility achieved by exposure to noradrenaline (10−5 M), only negative inotropic effects were observed in both atria and ventricles. Atropine (10−6 M), but not propranolol (10−6 M), antagonized bot...

  14. Mitochondrial complex III defects contribute to inefficient respiration and ATP synthesis in the myocardium of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jian-Jun; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a thorough analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetic function as well as the biochemical and molecular factors that are deregulated and contribute to compromised adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in the myocardium during Trypanosoma cruzi infection. We show that ADP-stimulated state 3 respiration and ATP synthesis supported by pyruvate/malate (provides electrons to complex I) and succinate (provides electrons to complex II) substrates were significantly decreased in left ventricular tissue and isolated cardiac mitochondria of infected mice. The decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis in infected murine hearts was not a result of uncoupling between the electron-transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation and decreased availability of the intermediary metabolites (e.g., NADH). The observed decline in the activities of complex-I, -IV, and -V was not physiologically relevant and did not contribute to compromised respiration and ATP synthesis in infected myocardium. Instead, complex III activity was decreased above the threshold level and contributed to respiratory-chain inefficiency and the resulting decline in mitochondrial ATP synthesis in infected myocardium. The loss in complex III activity occurred as a consequence of cytochrome b depletion. Treatment of infected mice with phenyl-alpha-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN, antioxidant) was beneficial in preserving the mtDNA-encoded cytochrome b expression, and subsequently resulted in improved complex III activity, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP production in infected myocardium. Overall, we provide novel data on the mechanism(s) involved in cardiac bioenergetic inefficiency during T. cruzi infection.

  15. Protein Profiling of Isolated Leukocytes, Myofibroblasts, Epithelial, Basal, and Endothelial Cells from Normal, Hyperplastic, Cancerous, and Inflammatory Human Prostate Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa I. Khamis, Kenneth A. Iczkowski, Ziad J. Sahab, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ neoplastic prostate cells are not lethal unless they become invasive and metastatic. For cells to become invasive, the prostate gland must undergo degradation of the basement membrane and disruption of the basal cell layer underneath the luminal epithelia. Although the roles of proteinases in breaking down the basement membrane have been well-studied, little is known about the factors that induce basal cell layer disruption, degeneration, and its eventual disappearance in invasive cancer. It is hypothesized that microenvironmental factors may affect the degradation of the basal cell layer, which if protected may prevent tumor progression and invasion. In this study, we have revealed differential protein expression patterns between epithelial and stromal cells isolated from different prostate pathologies and identified several important epithelial and stromal proteins that may contribute to inflammation and malignant transformation of human benign prostate tissues to cancerous tissues using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and proteomics methods. Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 was downregulated in basal cells of benign prsotate. Caspase-1 and interleukin-18 receptor 1 were highly expressed in leukocytes of prostate cancer. Proto-oncogene Wnt-3 was downregulated in endothelial cells of prostatitis tissue and tyrosine phosphatase non receptor type 1 was only found in normal and benign endothelial cells. Poly ADP-ribose polymerase 14 was downregulated in myofibroblasts of prostatitis tissue. Interestingly, integrin alpha-6 was upregulated in epithelial cells but not detected in myofibroblasts of prostate cancer. Further validation of these proteins may generate new strategies for the prevention of basal cell layer disruption and subsequent cancer invasion.

  16. The effect of indomethacin on the muscarinic induced contractions in the isolated normal guinea pig urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama'i, Mohammad S; van Koeveringe, Gommert A; van Kerrebroeck, Philip E V; de Wachter, Stefan G G

    2013-02-07

    To investigate the effect of prostaglandin depletion by means of COX-inhibition on cholinergic enhanced spontaneous contractions. The urethra and bladder of 9 male guinea pigs (weight 270-300 g) were removed and placed in an organ bath with Krebs' solution. A catheter was passed through the urethra through which the intravesical pressure was measured. The muscarinic agonist arecaidine, the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin, and PGE2 were subsequently added to the organ bath. The initial average frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contractions in the first 2 minutes after arecaidine application were labelled F(ini) and P(ini), respectively. The steady state frequency (F(steady)) and amplitude (P(steady)) were defined as the average frequency and amplitude during the 5 minutes before the next wash out. Application of 1 μM PGE2 increased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions without affecting frequency. 10 μM of indomethacin reduced amplitude but not frequency.The addition of indomethacin did not alter F(ini) after the first application (p = 0.7665). However, after the second wash, F(ini) was decreased (p = 0.0005). F(steady), P(steady) and P(ini) were not significantly different in any of the conditions. These effects of indomethacin were reversible by PGE2 addition.. Blocking PG synthesis decreased the cholinergically stimulated autonomous contractions in the isolated bladder. This suggests that PG could modify normal cholinergically evoked response. A combination of drugs inhibiting muscarinic receptors and PG function or production can then become an interesting focus of research on a treatment for overactive bladder syndrome.

  17. The effect of indomethacin on the muscarinic induced contractions in the isolated normal guinea pig urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahnama’i Mohammad S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effect of prostaglandin depletion by means of COX-inhibition on cholinergic enhanced spontaneous contractions. Methods The urethra and bladder of 9 male guinea pigs (weight 270–300 g were removed and placed in an organ bath with Krebs’ solution. A catheter was passed through the urethra through which the intravesical pressure was measured. The muscarinic agonist arecaidine, the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin, and PGE2 were subsequently added to the organ bath. The initial average frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contractions in the first 2 minutes after arecaidine application were labelled Fini and Pini, respectively. The steady state frequency (Fsteady and amplitude (Psteady were defined as the average frequency and amplitude during the 5 minutes before the next wash out. Results Application of 1 μM PGE2 increased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions without affecting frequency. 10 μM of indomethacin reduced amplitude but not frequency. The addition of indomethacin did not alter Fini after the first application (p = 0.7665. However, after the second wash, Fini was decreased (p = 0.0005. Fsteady, Psteady and Pini were not significantly different in any of the conditions. These effects of indomethacin were reversible by PGE2 addition.. Conclusions Blocking PG synthesis decreased the cholinergically stimulated autonomous contractions in the isolated bladder. This suggests that PG could modify normal cholinergically evoked response. A combination of drugs inhibiting muscarinic receptors and PG function or production can then become an interesting focus of research on a treatment for overactive bladder syndrome.

  18. Angiogenesis with intramyocardial administration of basic fibroblast growth factor in canine ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lijun; Liu Ying; Zhao Haitao; Huan Yi; Ge Yali; Gao Fabao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of intramyocardial administration of basic fibroblast growth factor on angiogenesis of infarcted myocardium in dogs. Methods: Twenty-four mongrel dogs were randomized into control group and therapeutic group. Acute myocardial infarction was made by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery distal to its first diagonal branch. As soon as coronary artery was occluded, 50 mg of basic fibroblast growth factor in 15 ml of saline was injected into the infarcted and border zone in therapeutic group, whereas 15 ml saline alone was used in the same way in control dogs. Every 3 dogs in each group was studied on the 1 st day, the 3 rd day, the 10 th day, and the 17 th day, respectively. Electron microscope was used to observe the growth of capillaries. Angiogenesis was evaluated by immunohistochemical studies with VIII factor. With sensitivity encoded technique, cine MR and MR perfusion imaging were performed on each dog within 3 hours after surgery and before euthanasia to evaluate cardiac function and the characteristics of myocardial perfusion. Results: In therapeutic group, LVEF improved markedly since the 10 th day (on the 10 th day: control group 24.09 ± 3.32, therapeutic group 45.71 ± 6.27; on the 17 th day: control group 31.46 ± 4.60, therapeutic group 53.46 ± 5.24). Hypoenhancement on first pass and hyperenhancement on delayed phase appeared in infarcted myocardium. There were significant differences for the time of upslope, peak time of signal intensity, upslope curves ratio, and contrast enhancement ratio between infarcted and normal myocardium. The size of infarcted myocardium was markedly decreased on the 17 th day [control group (9.04 ± 1.59)%, therapeutic group (4.07 ± 1.20)%]. The capillaries grew actively in therapeutic group and microvessel density was higher in therapeutic group than in control group except the first day (control group and therapeutic group respectively on the 3 rd day: 92.3 ± 11

  19. Interaction of metabolic and respiratory acidosis with α and β-adrenoceptor stimulation in rat myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biais, Matthieu; Jouffroy, Romain; Carillion, Aude; Feldman, Sarah; Jobart-Malfait, Aude; Riou, Bruno; Amour, Julien

    2012-12-01

    The effects of acute respiratory versus metabolic acidosis on the myocardium and their consequences on adrenoceptor stimulation remain poorly described. We compared the effects of metabolic and respiratory acidosis on inotropy and lusitropy in rat myocardium and their effects on the responses to α- and β-adrenoceptor stimulations. The effects of acute respiratory and metabolic acidosis (pH 7.10) and their interactions with α and β-adrenoceptor stimulations were studied in isolated rat left ventricular papillary muscle (n=8 per group). Intracellular pH was measured using confocal microscopy and a pH-sensitive fluorophore in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. Data are mean percentages of baseline±SD. Respiratory acidosis induced more pronounced negative inotropic effects than metabolic acidosis did both in isotonic (45±3 versus 63±6%, Prespiratory or metabolic acidosis. The inotropic response to β-adrenergic stimulation was impaired only in metabolic acidosis (137±12 versus 200±33%, Pacidosis. The lusitropic response to β-adrenergic stimulation was not modified by respiratory or metabolic acidosis. Acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis induce different myocardial effects related to different decreases in intracellular pH. Only metabolic acidosis impairs the positive inotropic effect of β-adrenergic stimulation.

  20. Development of an in vivo method for determining material properties of passive myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Remme

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of mechanical stresses and strains in the left ventricular (LV myocardium by the finite element (FE method relies on adequate knowledge of the material properties of myocardial tissue. In this paper we present a model-based estimation procedure to characterize the stress-strain relationship in passive LV myocardium. A 3D FE model of the LV myocardium was used, which included morphological fiber and sheet structure and a nonlinear orthotropic constitutive law with different stiffness in the fiber, sheet and sheet-normal directions. The estimation method was based on measured wall strains. We analyzed the method's ability to estimate the material parameters by generating a set of synthetic strain data by simulating the LV inflation phase with known material parameters. In this way we were able to verify the correctness of the solution and to analyze the effects of measurement and model error on the solution accuracy and stability. A sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the observability of the material parameters and to determine which parameters to estimate. The results showed a high degree of coupling between the parameters governing the stiffness in each direction. Thus, only one parameter in each of the three directions was estimated. For the tested magnitudes of added noise and introduced model errors, the resulting estimated stress-strain characteristics in the fiber and sheet directions converged with good accuracy to the known relationship. The sheet-normal stress-strain relationship had a higher degree of uncertainty as more noise was added and model error was introduced.

  1. Native T1 value in the remote myocardium is independently associated with left ventricular dysfunction in patients with prior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Shiro; Alakbarli, Javid; Bellm, Steven; Motiwala, Shweta R; Addae, Gifty; Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza

    2017-10-01

    To compare remote myocardium native T 1 in patients with chronic myocardial infarction (MI) and controls without MI and to elucidate the relationship of infarct size and native T 1 in the remote myocardium for the prediction of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after MI. A total of 41 chronic MI (18 anterior MI) patients and 15 age-matched volunteers with normal LV systolic function and no history of MI underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5T. Native T 1 map was performed using a slice interleaved T 1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. Cine MR was acquired to assess LV function and mass. The remote myocardium native T 1 time was significantly elevated in patients with prior MI, compared to controls, for both anterior MI and nonanterior MI (anterior MI: 1099 ± 30, nonanterior MI: 1097 ± 39, controls: 1068 ± 25 msec, P Remote myocardium native T 1 moderately correlated with LV volume, mass index, and ejection fraction (r = 0.38, 0.50, -0.49, respectively, all P remote myocardium was independently associated with reduced LV ejection fraction, after adjusting for age, gender, infarct size, and comorbidity (β = -0.34, P = 0.03). In chronic MI, the severity of LV systolic dysfunction after MI is independently associated with native T 1 in the remote myocardium. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis in the remote myocardium may play an important pathophysiological role of post-MI LV dysfunction. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1073-1081. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. A Fluorogenic Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction for Demonstrating Normal-Phase Chromatography and Isolation of Nitrobenzoxadiazole Chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Jessie A.; Li, Matthew D.; Cairo, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Normal-phase chromatography is an essential technique for monitoring chemical reactions, identifying the presence of specific components, as well as the purification of organic compounds. An experiment to facilitate the instruction and understanding of the concepts behind normal-phase chromatography at the introductory and intermediate…

  3. Study on the kinetics of high-energy phosphates in myocardium by phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusuoka, Hideo; Tsuneoka, Yutaka; Inoue, Michitoshi; Abe, Hiroshi [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Watari, Hiroshi

    1982-12-01

    Effect of artificial blood, FC 43 (Perfluorochemicals) on the kinetics of high-energy phosphate in the myocardium was evaluated by /sup 31/P-NMR which permits a continuous and non-invasive assessment of in vivo phosphorus compounds. Cardiac perfusion was carried out on a excised rat heart with a Krebs-Henseleit modified solution and FC 43 alternately. Under the normal condition, ischemic condition, and at second perfusion amounts of intramyocardial creatine phosphoric acid, ATP, and inorganic phosphorus were determined by /sup 31/P-NMR. Coronary flow was simultaneously estimated. The ischemic state due to interruption of perfusion resulted in a decrease in creatine phosphoric acid, which was associated with an increase in inorganic phosphorus and intracellular acidosis. No change of ATP amount was observed under ischemic state. With resumption of perfusion, the levels of creatine phosphoric acid and inorganic phosphorus rapidly returned to the normal. In the group of FC 43, coronary flow was 2.68 ml/min/g of the heart weight, about 1/2 of that of the Krebs-Henseleit group (5.68 ml/min/g of the heart weight). In controls, there was no difference between the two groups concerning creatine phosphoric acid level and recovery of creatine phospohric acid level after ischemia. These results showed that FC 43 supplies sufficient oxygen, and has no effect on the kinetics of energy in the myocardium.

  4. Experimental basis of metabolic imaging of the myocardium with radioiodinated aromatic free fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reske, S.N.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Winkler, C.

    1986-01-01

    For the investigation of myocardial perfusion and left ventricular pump function, advanced radioisotopic techniques have been established. New developments in radiopharmacology and single-photon emission computed tomography have recently enabled the investigation of parameters of regional energy metabolism in well defined areas of the heart muscle. For this purpose, various iodine ( 123 I)-labeled free fatty acids (FFA) have been synthesized. The diagnostic application of labeled FFA in heart disease may be important, since FFA are the preferred substrates for cardiac energy production at rest in the fasting state. In addition, regional myocardial FFA uptake and regional myocardial blood flow are tightly coupled in normal myocardium with beta-oxidation which is extremely sensitive to oxygen deprivation. This article outlines the basic physiologic pathways of FFA in normal and ischemic myocardium and reviews the results of animal experiments validating the application of these principles for metabolic imaging of the heart by means of the aromatic radioiodinated FFA, 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid. In addition, the development, physiologic properties, and potential applications of a new generation of 3-methyl-substituted radioiodinated fatty acids that show high myocardial uptake but prolonged retention are discussed. 64 references

  5. Characterization of the functional and anatomical differences in the atrial and ventricular myocardium from three species of elasmobranch fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie; Bushnell, Peter; Steffensen, John

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the functional properties in atrial and ventricular myocardium (using isolated cardiac strips) of smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), and sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) by blocking Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with ryanodine...... positive first derivative (i.e., contractility), and increased time to 50 % relaxation in atrial tissue from smooth dogfish at 30 °C. It also increased times to peak force and half relaxation in clearnose skate atrial and ventricular tissue at both temperatures, but only in atrial tissue from sandbar shark...... at 30 °C; indicating that SR involvement in excitation–contraction (EC) coupling is species- and temperature-specific in elasmobranch fishes, as it is in teleost fishes. Atrial and ventricular myocardium from all three species displayed a negative force–frequency relationship, but there was no evidence...

  6. Pre- and post-synaptic sympathetic function in human hibernating myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Anna S.; Pepper, John R.; Dreyfus, Gilles D.; Pennell, Dudley J.; Mongillo, Marco; Khan, Muhammad T.; Depre, Christophe; Rimoldi, Ornella E.; Camici, Paolo G.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired pre-synaptic noradrenaline uptake-1 mechanism has been reported in a swine model of hibernating myocardium (HM). To ascertain whether adrenergic neuroeffector abnormalities are present in human HM, we combined functional measurements in vivo using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) to assess pre- and post-synaptic sympathetic function. Twelve patients with coronary artery disease and chronic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction underwent CMR at baseline and 6 months after bypass for assessment of regional and global LV function and identification of segments with reversible dysfunction. Before surgery, myocardial noradrenaline uptake-1 ([ 11 C]meta-hydroxy-ephedrine; HED) and β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) density ([ 11 C]CGP-12177) were measured with PET. Patient PET data were compared with those in 18 healthy controls. The volume of distribution (V d ) of HED in HM (47.95±28.05 ml/g) and infarcted myocardium (42.69±25.76 ml/g) was significantly reduced compared with controls (66.09±14.48 ml/g). The V d of HED in normal myocardium (49.93±20.48 ml/g) of patients was also lower than that in controls and the difference was close to statistical significance (p=0.06). Myocardial β-AR density was significantly lower in HM (5.49±2.35 pmol/g), infarcted (4.82±2.61 pmol/g) and normal (5.86±1.81 pmol/g) segments of patients compared with healthy controls (8.61±1.32 pmol/g). Noradrenaline uptake-1 mechanism and β-AR density are reduced in the myocardium of patients with chronic LV dysfunction and evidence of HM. The increased sympathetic activity to the heart in these patients is a generalised rather than regional phenomenon which is likely to contribute to the remodelling process of the whole LV rather than playing a causative role in HM. (orig.)

  7. Measurement of infarct size and percentage myocardium infarcted in a dog preparation with single photon-emission computed tomography, thallium-201, and indium 111-monoclonal antimyosin Fab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.L.; Lerrick, K.S.; Coromilas, J.

    1987-01-01

    Single photon-emission tomography (SPECT) and indium 111-labeled monoclonal antimyosin Fab fragments were used to measure myocardial infarct size in 12 dogs, six subjected to balloon catheter-induced coronary artery occlusion for 6 hr (late reperfusion) and six subjected to occlusion with reperfusion at 2 hr (early reperfusion). Tomographic imaging was performed 24 hr after the intravenous injection of labeled Fab fragments with the use of a dual-head SPECT camera with medium-energy collimators. Immediately after the first tomographic scan, thallium-201 was injected into nine of 12 dogs and imaging was repeated. Estimated infarct size in grams was calculated from transaxially reconstructed, normalized, and background-corrected indium SPECT images with the use of a threshold technique for edge detection. Estimated noninfarcted myocardium in grams was calculated from obliquely reconstructed thallium SPECT images by a similar method. The animals were killed and infarct size in grams and true infarct size as a percentage of total left ventricular myocardial volume were measured by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Estimated infarct size from indium SPECT images showed an excellent correlation with true infarct size (r = .95, SEE = 4.1 g). Estimated percentage myocardium infarcted was calculated by dividing estimated infarct size from indium images by the sum of estimated infarct size plus estimated noninfarcted myocardium obtained from thallium images. Correlation between the estimated percentage of myocardium infarcted and true percentage of myocardium infarcted was excellent

  8. Multimodality imaging demonstrates trafficking of liposomes preferentially to ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, Michael J.; Albelda, M. Teresa; Frias, Juan C.; Anderson, Stasia A.; Luger, Dror; Westman, Peter C.; Escarcega, Ricardo O.; Hellinga, David G.; Waksman, Ron; Arai, Andrew E.; Epstein, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nanoparticles may serve as a promising means to deliver novel therapeutics to the myocardium following myocardial infarction. We sought to determine whether lipid-based liposomal nanoparticles can be shown through different imaging modalities to specifically target injured myocardium following intravenous injection in an ischemia–reperfusion murine myocardial infarction model. Methods: Mice underwent ischemia–reperfusion surgery and then either received tail-vein injection with gadolinium- and fluorescent-labeled liposomes or no injection (control). The hearts were harvested 24 h later and underwent T1 and T2-weighted ex vivo imaging using a 7 Tesla Bruker magnet. The hearts were then sectioned for immunohistochemistry and optical fluorescent imaging. Results: The mean size of the liposomes was 100 nm. T1-weighted signal intensity was significantly increased in the ischemic vs. the non-ischemic myocardium for mice that received liposomes compared with control. Optical imaging demonstrated significant fluorescence within the infarct area for the liposome group compared with control (163 ± 31% vs. 13 ± 14%, p = 0.001) and fluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of liposomes within the ischemic myocardium. Conclusions: Liposomes traffic to the heart and preferentially home to regions of myocardial injury, enabling improved diagnosis of myocardial injury and could serve as a vehicle for drug delivery.

  9. Multimodality imaging demonstrates trafficking of liposomes preferentially to ischemic myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Michael J., E-mail: mjlipinski12@gmail.com [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States); Albelda, M. Teresa [GIBI2" 3" 0, Grupo de Investigación Biomédica en Imagen, IIS La Fe, Valencia (Spain); Frias, Juan C. [Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, Valencia (Spain); Anderson, Stasia A. [Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Luger, Dror; Westman, Peter C.; Escarcega, Ricardo O.; Hellinga, David G.; Waksman, Ron [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States); Arai, Andrew E. [Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Epstein, Stephen E. [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Introduction: Nanoparticles may serve as a promising means to deliver novel therapeutics to the myocardium following myocardial infarction. We sought to determine whether lipid-based liposomal nanoparticles can be shown through different imaging modalities to specifically target injured myocardium following intravenous injection in an ischemia–reperfusion murine myocardial infarction model. Methods: Mice underwent ischemia–reperfusion surgery and then either received tail-vein injection with gadolinium- and fluorescent-labeled liposomes or no injection (control). The hearts were harvested 24 h later and underwent T1 and T2-weighted ex vivo imaging using a 7 Tesla Bruker magnet. The hearts were then sectioned for immunohistochemistry and optical fluorescent imaging. Results: The mean size of the liposomes was 100 nm. T1-weighted signal intensity was significantly increased in the ischemic vs. the non-ischemic myocardium for mice that received liposomes compared with control. Optical imaging demonstrated significant fluorescence within the infarct area for the liposome group compared with control (163 ± 31% vs. 13 ± 14%, p = 0.001) and fluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of liposomes within the ischemic myocardium. Conclusions: Liposomes traffic to the heart and preferentially home to regions of myocardial injury, enabling improved diagnosis of myocardial injury and could serve as a vehicle for drug delivery.

  10. Raman spectroscopy analysis of differences in composition of spent culture media of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Dušan; Kačmarová, Martina; Kubandová, Janka; Čikoš, Štefan; Koppel, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare overall patterns of metabolic activity of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams by means of non-invasive profiling of spent culture media using Raman spectroscopy. To produce females with two different types of body condition (normal and fat), a previously established two-generation model was used, based on overfeeding of experimental mice during prenatal and early postnatal development. Embryos were isolated from spontaneously ovulating and naturally fertilized dams at the 2-cell stage of development and cultured to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal medium KSOMaa. Embryos from fat mice (displaying significantly elevated body weight and fat) showed similar developmental capabilities in vitro as embryos isolated from normal control dams (displaying physiological body weight and fat). The results show that alterations in the composition of culture medium caused by the presence of developing mouse preimplantation embryos can be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Metabolic activity of embryos was reflected in evident changes in numerous band intensities in the 1620-1690cm(-1) (amide I) region and in the 1020-1140cm(-1) region of the Raman spectrum for KSOMaa. Moreover, multivariate analysis of spectral data proved that the composition of proteins and other organic compounds in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos isolated from fat dams was different from that in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos from control dams. This study demonstrates that metabolic activity of cultured preimplantation embryos might depend on the body condition of their donors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of allocryptopine on outward potassium current and slow delayed rectifier potassium current in rabbit myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Liu-Yang; Li, Nan; Chen, Xi; Cai, Zhong-Qi; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yang

    2016-05-01

    Allocryptopine (ALL) is an effective alkaloid of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. Papaveraceae and has proved to be anti-arrhythmic. The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of ALL on transmural repolarizing ionic ingredients of outward potassium current (I to) and slow delayed rectifier potassium current (I Ks). The monophasic action potential (MAP) technique was used to record the MAP duration of the epicardium (Epi), myocardium (M) and endocardium (Endo) of the rabbit heart and the whole cell patch clamp was used to record I to and I Ks in cardiomyocytes of Epi, M and Endo layers that were isolated from rabbit ventricles. The effects of ALL on MAP of Epi, M and Endo layers were disequilibrium. ALL could effectively reduce the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in rabbit transmural ventricular wall. ALL decreased the current densities of I to and I Ks in a voltage and concentration dependent way and narrowed the repolarizing differences among three layers. The analysis of gating kinetics showed ALL accelerated the channel activation of I to in M layers and partly inhibit the channel openings of I to in Epi, M and Endo cells. On the other hand, ALL mainly slowed channel deactivation of I Ks channel in Epi and Endo layers without affecting its activation. Our study gives partially explanation about the mechanisms of transmural inhibition of I to and I Ks channels by ALL in rabbit myocardium. These findings provide novel perspective regarding the anti-arrhythmogenesis application of ALL in clinical settings.

  12. Regulation of collagen production in freshly isolated cell populations from normal and cirrhotic rat liver: Effect of lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerbon-Ambriz, J.; Cerbon-Solorzano, J.; Rojkind, M.

    1991-01-01

    Previous work has shown that lactic acid, and to a lesser extent pyruvic acid, is able to increase collagen synthesis significantly in liver slices of CCl4-treated rats but not normal rats. The purpose of this report is to document which cells in the cirrhotic liver are responsible for the lactate-stimulated increase in collagen synthesis. It was found that (a) incorporation of 3H-proline into protein-bound 3H-hydroxyproline is increased threefold to fourfold in hepatocytes from CCl4-treated rats as compared with normal rat hepatocytes; (b) neither the hepatocytes from normal nor those from CCl4-treated rats modify their collagen synthesizing capacity when 30 mmol/L lactic acid was added to the incubation medium; (c) nonparenchymal cells obtained from livers of CCl4-treated rats synthesize much less collagen than hepatocytes, but their synthesis is stimulated twofold by lactic acid; (d) from the different nonparenchymal cells, only fat-storing (Ito) cells increase collagen synthesis when lactic acid is present in the incubation medium. These results suggest that the increased lactic acid levels observed in patients with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis may play an important role in the development of fibrosis by stimulating collagen production by fat-storing (Ito) cells

  13. Effects of Using Tricaine Methanesulfonate and Metomidate before Euthanasia on the Contractile Properties of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jordan C; Syme, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Because many anesthetics work through depressing cell excitability, unanesthetized euthanasia has become common for research involving excitable tissues (for example muscle and nerve) to avoid these depressive effects. However, anesthetic use during euthanasia may be indicated for studies involving isolated tissues if the potential depressive effects of brief anesthetic exposure dissipate after subsequent tissue isolation, washout, and saline perfusion. We explore this here by measuring whether, when applied prior to euthanasia, standard immersion doses of 2 fish anesthetics, tricaine methanesulfonate (TMS; 100 mg/L, n = 6) and methyl 1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (metomidate, 10 mg/L, n = 6), have residual effects on the contractile properties (force and work output) of isolated and saline-perfused ventricular compact myocardium from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results suggest that direct exposure of muscle to immersion doses of TMS-but not metomidate-impairs muscle contractile performance. However, brief exposure (2 to 3 min) to either anesthetic during euthanasia only-providing that the agent is washed out prior to tissue experimentation-does not have an effect on the contractile properties of the myocardium. Therefore, the use of TMS, metomidate, and perhaps other anesthetics that depress cell excitability during euthanasia may be indicated when conducting research on isolated and rinsed tissues.

  14. Beneficial effects of hyperosmotic perfusion in the myocardium after ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts Efeitos benéficos da perfusão hiperosmótica no miocárdio após lesão isquemia/reperfusão em corações isolados de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A simple method to reduce the ischemia/reperfusion injury that can accompany cardiac surgery would have great clinical value. This study was to investigate the effect of hyperosmotic perfusion on ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated perfused rat hearts. METHOD: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided either to have their isolated hearts perfused with normal osmotic buffer or buffer made hyperosmotic by addition of glucose. Hearts were then subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 30 min reperfusion. Coronary flow, time to ischemic arrest, reperfusion arrhythmia, and ventricular function were recorded. Creatine phosphokinase leakage into the coronary artery, and myocardial content and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were also examined. RESULTS: Rat hearts with hyperosmotic perfusion showed higher coronary flow, a prolonged time to ischemic arrest (10.60 vs. 5.63 min, POBJETIVO: Um método simples para reduzir a lesão de isquemia/reperfusão que pode acompanhar a cirurgia cardíaca teria grande valor clínico. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da perfusão hiperosmótica na isquemia/reperfusão em corações isolados de ratos perfundidos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos machos Sprague-Dawley foram divididos aleatoriamente e tiveram os seus corações isolados perfundidos com tampão osmótico normal ou tampão hiperosmótico com a adição de glucose. Os corações foram então submetidos a 30 minutos de isquemia, seguida de 30 min de reperfusão. O fluxo coronariano, tempo de parada isquêmica, arritmia de reperfusão e da função ventricular foram registrados. Vazamento creatinofosfoquinase na artéria coronária, o miocárdio e atividade de superóxido dismutase e catalase foram também examinados. RESULTADOS: Crações de ratos com perfusão hiperosmótica apresentaram maior fluxo coronariano, tempo prolongado de parada isquêmica (10,60 vs. 5,63 min, P<0,005, menor pontuação de reperfus

  15. Observation of 99Tcm-MIBI uptake of ischemic myocardium in dog models after left circumflex coronary artery constriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Guanghua; Dai Yunhai; Wu Kefang; Xu Quanfeng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe 99 Tc m -MIBI uptake of ischemic myocardium at different times (1h, 4h) in dog models after left circumflex coronary artery constriction. Methods: 12 dog models of coronary artery stenosis were prepared by left circumflex coronary ligation, and were given injection of 99 Tc m -MIBI at the dosage of 185 MBq (5 mCi). Six models were sacrificed at one hour and four hours after the injection respectively. Radio-uptake in about 100 mg myocardium from both ischemic and non-ischemic sites were measured with r-counter. Results: No significant differences were found between ratios of radioactive count of ischemic over normal myocardial tissues at 1h and 4h after injection of 99 Tc m -MIBI (0.726±0.054 and 0.673±0.080, respective, t=1.3452, P >0.05). Conclusion: The extension of post-injection time would not increase 99 Tc m -MIBI uptake in ischemic myocardium. (authors)

  16. Diagnostics of the myocardium with radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W E; Geffers, H; Sigel, H; Kampmann, H; Stauch, M [Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Sektion Nuklearmedizin

    1976-11-01

    Three aspects allow description of myocardial functional state: perfusion, motility and disturbance of structure, to all of which nuclear medicine can provide information. Distribution of /sup 201/thallium reflects myocardial perfusion distribution. Diminished accumulation of radioactive kalium, rubidium, caesium on thallium is correlated to reduced or abolished perfusion in areas of destroyed myocardial structure (infarction), the latter is marked by increased sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate-uptake caused by increased permeability of cellular membranes. Motility can be described globally or regionally by analysis or regional wall motion. Among global parameters ejection fraction as a measure for diminished myocardial contractility was of great interest. However, parameters for evaluation of regional myocardial motility are in the centre of interest. Camera-cinematography is the approach to analyse precordial countrate changes as time volume equivalents caused by cyclic cardial volume changes. The results allow to deliniate areas of hypokinesis and akinesis, areas of dyskinesis with phase shifting in comparison to normokinetic areas, at least evaluation of dV/dtsub(max) for contractility and relaxation. The results of normal subjects without heart disease show excellent reproducibility with strong correlation. The results of 165 patients suspected to have coronary heart disease or vitium cordis delivered additional information in part, in 27 of 29 cases results were identical to conventional invasive cineangiography. Comparison of ejection fraction measured scintigraphically and ventriculographically with the area-diameter-method revealed excellent correlation (r = 0,93).

  17. 99m Technetium pyrophosphate myocardium scintigraphy. First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, Paul.

    1976-01-01

    99m technetium pyrophosphate myocardium scintigraphy is a very recent examination technique. This work gives the results obtained on 61 patients. As a vector of the isotope, pyrophosphate has the advantage over polyphosphate of a fast bone uptake there it should be stressed that a 90 minute pause is necessary between the intraveinous injection of the isotope and the photographic recording so that the reading is not troubled by the labelled intracardiac blood pool image, an image quality criterion being the estimation of a good costal fixation which in fact appears sooner or later according to the subject. The role of pyrophosphate, chelator of calcium in fixation of the isotope on the myocardium, could be explained by the fast appearance of 'dense bodies', made up of calcium hydroxyapathice crystals, in the mitochondria of myocardium cells having undergone an irreversible necrotic process. The choice of 99 m technetium is based on its ease of use: 6 hour half-life, high-energy pure gamma emission at 140 keV. The fixed image studied under two incidences, front and left anterior oblique, is obtained from mobile images given by the scintillation camera used in connection with a data processing system. Several facts are underlined, explaining the disadvantages, advantages and indications of the method [fr

  18. Isolation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells with normal ploidy from bone marrows by reducing oxidative stress in combination with extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolation of mouse MSCs (mMSCs with normal ploidy from bone marrow remains challenging. mMSCs isolated under 20% O2 are frequently contaminated by overgrown hematopoietic cells, and could also be especially vulnerable to oxidative damage, resulting in chromosomal instability. Culture under low oxygen or extracellular matrix (ECM improves proliferation of MSCs in several species. We tested the hypothesis that culture under low oxygen in combination with ECM prepared from mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF-ECM could be used to purify proliferative mMSCs, and to reduce oxidative damage and maintain their chromosomal stability. Results Optimization of culture conditions under 20% O2 resulted in immortalization of mMSCs, showing extensive chromosome abnormalities, consistent with previous studies. In contrast, culture under low oxygen (2% O2 improved proliferation of mMSCs and reduced oxidative damage, such that mMSCs were purified simply by plating at low density under 2% O2. MEF-ECM reduced oxidative damage and enhanced proliferation of mMSCs. However, these isolated mMSCs still exhibited high frequency of chromosome abnormalities, suggesting that low oxygen or in combination with MEF-ECM was insufficient to fully protect mMSCs from oxidative damage. Notably, antioxidants (alpha -phenyl-t-butyl nitrone (PBN and N-acetylcysteine (NAC further reduced DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities, and increased proliferation of mMSCs. mMSCs isolated by the combination method were successfully used to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells by ectopic expression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. Conclusions We have developed a technique that allows to reduce the number of karyotypic abnormalities for isolation of primary mMSCs and for limited culture period by combination of low oxygen, MEF-ECM, antioxidants and low density plating strategy. The effectiveness of the new combination method is demonstrated by successful generation of i

  19. Distribution of beta-adrenergic receptors in failing human myocardium. Implications for mechanisms of down-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphree, S.S.; Saffitz, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The density of beta-adrenergic receptors is reduced in crude membranes prepared from failing human myocardium. We used quantitative autoradiography of radioligand binding sites in intact tissue slices to determine whether the total tissue content of receptors is reduced and to characterize the transmural distribution of receptors in cardiac myocytes and the coronary vasculature in hearts obtained from nine cardiac transplant patients with severe congestive failure. Binding of [125Iodo]cyanopindolol to transmural slices of human myocardium was rapid, saturable, stereoselective, and displaceable by agonists and antagonists with an appropriate rank order of potency. Binding isotherms in four normal and nine failing ventricles showed a significant reduction in the total tissue content of beta-receptors in failing myocardium (38.3 +/- 2.0 fmol/mg protein) compared with normal tissue (52.4 +/- 1.7 fmol/mg protein, p = 0.038). In the normal ventricles, the greatest receptor density was observed autoradiographically in myocytic regions of the subendocardium. Receptor density of the coronary arterioles was approximately 70% of that in adjacent myocytic regions. The density of binding sites in both myocytic regions and arterioles was diminished in all regions of the failing ventricles, but down-regulation was due primarily to a selective reduction of beta-receptors of subendocardial myocytes (63 +/- 5% of subepicardial receptor density vs. 115 +/- 6% in controls, p less than 0.0001). These observations indicate that down-regulation occurs nonuniformly in the transmural distribution and thus is likely not related simply to elevated circulating catecholamine levels

  20. Distinct patterns of constitutive phosphodiesterase activity in mouse sinoatrial node and atrial myocardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hua

    Full Text Available Phosphodiesterases (PDEs are critical regulators of cyclic nucleotides in the heart. In ventricular myocytes, the L-type Ca(2+ current (I(Ca,L is a major target of regulation by PDEs, particularly members of the PDE2, PDE3 and PDE4 families. Conversely, much less is known about the roles of PDE2, PDE3 and PDE4 in the regulation of action potential (AP properties and I(Ca,L in the sinoatrial node (SAN and the atrial myocardium, especially in mice. Thus, the purpose of our study was to measure the effects of global PDE inhibition with Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX and selective inhibitors of PDE2, PDE3 and PDE4 on AP properties in isolated mouse SAN and right atrial myocytes. We also measured the effects of these inhibitors on I(Ca,L in SAN and atrial myocytes in comparison to ventricular myocytes. Our data demonstrate that IBMX markedly increases spontaneous AP frequency in SAN myocytes and AP duration in atrial myocytes. Spontaneous AP firing in SAN myocytes was also increased by the PDE2 inhibitor erythro-9-[2-hydroxy-3-nonyl] adenine (EHNA, the PDE3 inhibitor milrinone (Mil and the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram (Rol. In contrast, atrial AP duration was increased by EHNA and Rol, but not by Mil. IBMX also potently, and similarly, increased I(Ca,L in SAN, atrial and ventricular myocytes; however, important differences emerged in terms of which inhibitors could modulate I(Ca,L in each myocyte type. Consistent with our AP measurements, EHNA, Mil and Rol each increased I(Ca,L in SAN myocytes. Also, EHNA and Rol, but not Mil, increased atrial I(Ca,L. In complete contrast, no selective PDE inhibitors increased I(Ca,L in ventricular myocytes when given alone. Thus, our data show that the effects of selective PDE2, PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors are distinct in the different regions of the myocardium indicating important differences in how each PDE family constitutively regulates ion channel function in the SAN, atrial and ventricular myocardium.

  1. The possibilities of using scale-selective polarization cartography in diagnostics of myocardium pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Yu. A.; Wanchuliak, O. Y.

    2013-06-01

    The optical model of polycrystalline networks of myocardium protein fibrils is presented. The technique of determining the coordinate distribution of polarization azimuth of the points of laser images of myocardium histological sections is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order) parameters are presented which characterize distributions of wavelet-coefficients polarization maps of myocardium layers and death reasons.

  2. Mismatched regional myocardial uptake between [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl SPECT; Comparison between hypertrophic myocardium and dilated myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masuda, Kouji; Ejima, Junichi; Tsuda, Yasuo (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-07-01

    The distribution of a new myocardial fatty acid metabolic agent [sup 123]I-BMIPP was compared in 6 each patients with hypertrophic myocardium (4 cases of hypertensive heart disease and 2 of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) and dilated myocardium (4 of dilated type of valvular heart disease and 2 of dilated cardiomyopathy) with that of [sup 201]Tl. Mismatched regional myocardial uptake between [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl SPECT was observed in all of the hypertrophic myocardium, however no but one in the dilated myocardium. Relative increase or decrease in regional BMIPP from the images of 20 min and to those of 4 h was observed in 3 cases of the hypertrophic myocardium. FDG-PET was performed in 2 cases of the hypertrophic myocardium. The distribution of FDG was different from neither those of BMIPP nor Tl in a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy case with the reserved distribution of BMIPP and Tl. Although more investigations are necessary, we concluded that [sup 123]I-BMIPP is a promising radiopharmaceutical for evaluating myocardial fatty acid metabolism in hypertrophic myocardium. (author).

  3. [The protective action of nimodipine on the ischemic myocardium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsorin, I B; Kazanova, G V; Kirsanova, G Iu; Chirkova, E Iu; Chichkanov, G G

    1992-01-01

    The experiments with unconscious cats and dogs have demonstrated that the calcium antagonist nimodipine has a profound anti-ischemic property. The drug reduces the average value of ST-segment elevation in multiple epicardial ECG leads, during acute myocardial ischemia. Nimodipine maintains cardiac pump and contractile functions, elevates ATP levels in the arbitrarily intact and ischemic myocardium of the left ventricle during 40-min occlusion and 60-min reperfusion of the coronary artery. The protective action of the drug is unassociated with enhanced collateral coronary circulation.

  4. Recommendations to realise and interpret the scintigraphy of myocardium perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, A.; Marie, P.Y.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of these recommendations is to help the physicians in the realization and the interpretation of the tomo-scintigraphies of myocardium perfusion, when this examination is made at the patients having a known or suspected coronary incapacity. These recommendations aim to encourage the practitioners (of nuclear medicine) to reflect and to discuss the procedures applied in their services. These procedures must be also adapted, in every service, to the peculiarities of the environment and to the experiment of each one. (N.C.)

  5. Semi-automatic segmentation of myocardium at risk in T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjögren Jane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has been shown to be a promising technique for determination of ischemic myocardium, referred to as myocardium at risk (MaR, after an acute coronary event. Quantification of MaR in T2-weighted CMR has been proposed to be performed by manual delineation or the threshold methods of two standard deviations from remote (2SD, full width half maximum intensity (FWHM or Otsu. However, manual delineation is subjective and threshold methods have inherent limitations related to threshold definition and lack of a priori information about cardiac anatomy and physiology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an automatic segmentation algorithm for quantification of MaR using anatomical a priori information. Methods Forty-seven patients with first-time acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction underwent T2-weighted CMR within 1 week after admission. Endocardial and epicardial borders of the left ventricle, as well as the hyper enhanced MaR regions were manually delineated by experienced observers and used as reference method. A new automatic segmentation algorithm, called Segment MaR, defines the MaR region as the continuous region most probable of being MaR, by estimating the intensities of normal myocardium and MaR with an expectation maximization algorithm and restricting the MaR region by an a priori model of the maximal extent for the user defined culprit artery. The segmentation by Segment MaR was compared against inter observer variability of manual delineation and the threshold methods of 2SD, FWHM and Otsu. Results MaR was 32.9 ± 10.9% of left ventricular mass (LVM when assessed by the reference observer and 31.0 ± 8.8% of LVM assessed by Segment MaR. The bias and correlation was, -1.9 ± 6.4% of LVM, R = 0.81 (p Conclusions There is a good agreement between automatic Segment MaR and manually assessed MaR in T2-weighted CMR. Thus, the proposed algorithm seems to be a

  6. Semi-automatic segmentation of myocardium at risk in T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Jane; Ubachs, Joey F A; Engblom, Henrik; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar

    2012-01-31

    T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been shown to be a promising technique for determination of ischemic myocardium, referred to as myocardium at risk (MaR), after an acute coronary event. Quantification of MaR in T2-weighted CMR has been proposed to be performed by manual delineation or the threshold methods of two standard deviations from remote (2SD), full width half maximum intensity (FWHM) or Otsu. However, manual delineation is subjective and threshold methods have inherent limitations related to threshold definition and lack of a priori information about cardiac anatomy and physiology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an automatic segmentation algorithm for quantification of MaR using anatomical a priori information. Forty-seven patients with first-time acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction underwent T2-weighted CMR within 1 week after admission. Endocardial and epicardial borders of the left ventricle, as well as the hyper enhanced MaR regions were manually delineated by experienced observers and used as reference method. A new automatic segmentation algorithm, called Segment MaR, defines the MaR region as the continuous region most probable of being MaR, by estimating the intensities of normal myocardium and MaR with an expectation maximization algorithm and restricting the MaR region by an a priori model of the maximal extent for the user defined culprit artery. The segmentation by Segment MaR was compared against inter observer variability of manual delineation and the threshold methods of 2SD, FWHM and Otsu. MaR was 32.9 ± 10.9% of left ventricular mass (LVM) when assessed by the reference observer and 31.0 ± 8.8% of LVM assessed by Segment MaR. The bias and correlation was, -1.9 ± 6.4% of LVM, R = 0.81 (p Segment MaR, -2.3 ± 4.9%, R = 0.91 (p Segment MaR and manually assessed MaR in T2-weighted CMR. Thus, the proposed algorithm seems to be a promising, objective method for standardized MaR quantification in T2

  7. Myocardium scintigraphy and coronaries scanner: results and respective contribution of these two examinations; Scintigraphie myocardique et scanner coronaire: resultats et apport respectif des deux examens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Songy, B.; Balestrini, V.; Sablayrolles, J.L.; Vigoni, F.; Lussato, D. [Centre cardiologique du Nord (CCN), Saint-Denis, (France); Faccio, F. [fondation San Geronimo, Santa Fe, (Argentina)

    2009-05-15

    The objective were to evaluate the results and the respective contribution of the myocardium scintigraphy and the coro-scanner. It exists an excellent correlation between a normal scanner and a normal scintigraphy (97%). 30% of patients having non tight stenosis at scanner and 60% of these ones having tight stenosis have a scintigraphy ischemia; An abnormal scanner, whatever be the the degree of stenosis must be completed by a test of myocardium ischemia. The actual limitations of the coro-scanner (64 gills) are in relation with its spatial resolution (quantification) and temporal resolution (right coronary). The choice of the diagnosis examination to realize in first intention must depend on the age and prevalence of the coronary disease. (N.C.)

  8. Isolation of four phenolic compounds from Mangifera indica L. flowers by using normal phase combined with elution extrusion two-step high speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nusrat; Lu, Yanzhen; Geng, Ping; Shao, Qian; Wei, Yun

    2017-03-01

    Two-step high speed countercurrent chromatography method, following normal phase and elution-extrusion mode of operation by using selected solvent systems, was introduced for phenolic compounds separation. Phenolic compounds including gallic acid, ethyl gallate, ethyl digallate and ellagic acid were separated from the ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) flowers for the first time. In the first step, gallic acid of 3.7mg and ethyl gallate of 3.9mg with the purities of 98.87% and 99.55%, respectively, were isolated by using hexane-ethylacetate-methanol-water (4:6:4:6, v/v) in normal phase high speed countercurrent chromatography from 200mg of crude extract, while ethyl digallate and ellagic acid were collected in the form of mixture fraction. In the second step, further purification of the mixture was carried out with the help of another selected solvent system of dichloromethane-methanol-water (4:3:2, v/v) following elusion-extrusion mode of operation. Ethyl digallate of 3.8mg and ellagic acid of 5.7mg were separated well with high purities of 98.68% and 99.71%, respectively. The separated phenolic compounds were identified and confirmed by HPLC, UPLC-QTOF/ESI-MS, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectrometric analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of Peucedanum praeruptorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Yuan; Li, Jia-Fu; Jian, Ya-Mei; Wu, Zhen; Fang, Mei-Juan; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2015-03-27

    A new on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC × RPLC) system was developed for the separation of complicated natural products. It was based on the use of a silica gel packed medium-pressure column as the first dimension and an ODS preparative HPLC column as the second dimension. The two dimensions were connected with normal-phase (NP) and reversed-phase (RP) enrichment units, involving a newly developed airflow assisted adsorption (AAA) technique. The instrument operation and the performance of this NPLC × RPLC separation method were illustrated by gram-scale isolation of ethanol extract from the roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum. In total, 19 compounds with high purity were obtained via automated multi-step preparative separation in a short period of time using this system, and their structures were comprehensively characterized by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. Including two new compounds, five isomers in two groups with identical HPLC and TLC retention values were also obtained and identified by 1D NMR and 2D NMR. This is the first report of an NPLC × RPLC system successfully applied in an on-line preparative process. This system not only solved the interfacing problem of mobile-phase immiscibility caused by NP and RP separation, it also exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hyperthyroidism causes mechanical insufficiency of myocardium with possibly increased SR Ca2+-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koh; Minakawa, M; Otaki, M; Odagiri, S; Itoh, K; Murakami, A; Yaku, H; Kitamura, N

    2003-12-01

    Hyperthyroidism is known to affect multiple organ functions, and thyroid hormone has been known to improve myocardial function in a failing heart. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the functional and metabolic effects of thyroid hormone on myocardium in a rat model exposed to long-term excess thyroid hormone, particularly focusing on the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2) function. 3,5,3'-Triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), or the vehicle, was subcutaneously given for 4 weeks (T3 and control [C] group). Bolus I.V. Thapsigargin (TG) was used to test the SERCA2 function (C-TG and T3-TG) in Langendorff perfused heart. Myocardial functions such as LV-developed pressure (LVDP; mmHg), +/- dP/dt (mmHg/s), tau (ms), and oxygen consumption (MVO(2); ml/min/g wt) were measured. SERCA2 and GLUT4 protein level were also evaluated by Western immunoblotting. Left ventricle to body weight (LV/BW) ratio was significantly higher in the T3 group. Both negative dP/dt and tau were significantly decreased by TG. It is interesting that the decrement of negative dP/dt and tau attained by TG was significantly larger in the hyperthyroid group (T3-TG) than in a normal heart (C-TG). SERCA2 and GLUT4 protein levels were not significantly different between control and the T3 group. We conclude that prolonged exposure to thyroid hormone causes hypertrophy of the myocardium and an augmentation of the SR Ca(2+) ATPase activity. Care must be taken in hyperthyroid heart during the ischemia-reperfusion process where the SRECA2 function is inhibited.

  11. Miocárdio hibernante: uma realidade clínica Hibernant myocardium: a clinical reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Marin-Neto

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O conceito da hibernação miocárdica implica a ocorrência de disfunção ventricular crônica, potencialmente reversível, causada por dissinergia regional, dependente de isquemia prolongada. Não tem fisiopatologia elucidada, em parte porque não existem modelos experimentais satisfatórios para seu estudo. Diversos métodos são capazes de demonstrar viabilidade miocárdica nas regiões que não exibem capacidade contrátil basal. O desmascaramento da hibernação nesses territórios pode ser feito mediante demonstração de reserva contrátil, de funcionamento normal da membrana celular, ou de metabolismo preservado. A correta identificação de miocárdio hibernante reveste-se de especial significado clínico, por suas implicações prognósticas quanto a intervenções de revascularização miocárdica, destinadas a reabilitar a função ventricular em muitos pacientes coronariopatas crônicos.Myocardial hibernation is believed to occur in ventricular dyssynergic regions chronically deprived of coronary flow enough to warrant the preservation of contractile function. Pathophysiology of this condition remains largely unclear, mainly because good experimental models for its study are still lacking. Various methods can be clinically employed to detect hibernation in patients with chronic ventricular dysfunction. These methods use the principle of unmasking contractile reserve, or are based on the demonstration of preserved membrane function or myocardium metabolism in the dyssynergic regions. The correct identification of viable hibernating myocardium is crucial in the process of deciding which coronary disease patients would potentially benefit from revascularization procedures.

  12. Enhanced detection of ischemic but viable myocardium by the reinjection of thallium after stress-redistribution imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilsizian, V.; Rocco, T.P.; Freedman, N.M.; Leon, M.B.; Bonow, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    The identification of ischemic but viable myocardium by thallium exercise scintigraphy is often imprecise, since many of the perfusion defects that develop in ischemic myocardium during exercise do not fill in on subsequent redistribution images. We hypothesized that a second injection of thallium given after the redistribution images were taken might improve the detection of ischemic but viable myocardium. We studied 100 patients with coronary artery disease, using thallium exercise tomographic imaging and radionuclide angiography. Patients received 2 mCi of thallium intravenously during exercise, redistribution imaging was performed three to four hours later, and a second dose of 1 mCi of thallium was injected at rest immediately thereafter. The three sets of images (stress, redistribution, and reinjection) were then analyzed. Ninety-two of the 100 patients had exercise-induced perfusion defects. Of the 260 abnormal myocardial regions identified by stress imaging, 85 (33 percent) appeared to be irreversible on redistribution imaging three to four hours later. However, 42 of these apparently irreversible defects (49 percent) demonstrated improved or normal thallium uptake after the second injection of thallium, with an increase in mean regional uptake from 56 +/- 12 percent on redistribution studies to 64 +/- 10 percent on reinjection imaging (P less than 0.001). Twenty patients were restudied three to six months after coronary angioplasty. Of the 15 myocardial regions with defects on redistribution studies that were identified as viable by reinjection studies before angioplasty, 13 (87 percent) had normal thallium uptake and improved regional wall motion after angioplasty. In contrast, all eight regions with persistent defects on reinjection imaging before angioplasty had abnormal thallium uptake and abnormal regional wall motion after angioplasty

  13. Development of Bioartificial Myocardium Using Stem Cells and Nanobiotechnology Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Chachques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based regenerative therapy is undergoing experimental and clinical trials in cardiology, in order to limit the consequences of decreased contractile function and compliance of damaged ventricles following myocardial infarction. Over 1000 patients have been treated worldwide with cell-based procedures for myocardial regeneration. Cellular cardiomyoplasty seems to reduce the size and fibrosis of infarct scars, limit adverse postischemic remodelling, and improve diastolic function. The development of a bioartificial myocardium is a new challenge; in this approach, tissue-engineered procedures are associated with cell therapy. Organ decellularization for bioscaffolds fabrication is a new investigated concept. Nanomaterials are emerging as the main candidates to ensure the achievement of a proper instructive cellular niche with good drug release/administration properties. Investigating the electrophysiological properties of bioartificial myocardium is the challenging objective of future research, associating a multielectrode network to provide electrical stimulation could improve the coupling of grafted cells and scaffolds with host cardiomyocytes. In summary, until now stem cell transplantation has not achieved clear hemodynamic benefits for myocardial diseases. Supported by relevant scientific background, the development of myocardial tissue engineering may constitute a new avenue and hope for the treatment of myocardial diseases.

  14. Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkaoui, Choukri; Huang, Shuning; Chen, Howard H; Dai, Guangping; Reese, Timothy G; Kostis, William J; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Ruskin, Jeremy N; Hoffmann, Udo; Jackowski, Marcel P; Sosnovik, David E

    2012-10-12

    The study of myofiber reorganization in the remote zone after myocardial infarction has been performed in 2D. Microstructural reorganization in remodeled hearts, however, can only be fully appreciated by considering myofibers as continuous 3D entities. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a technique for quantitative 3D diffusion CMR tractography of the heart, and to apply this method to quantify fiber architecture in the remote zone of remodeled hearts. Diffusion Tensor CMR of normal human, sheep, and rat hearts, as well as infarcted sheep hearts was performed ex vivo. Fiber tracts were generated with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration technique and classified statistically by the median, mean, maximum, or minimum helix angle (HA) along the tract. An index of tract coherence was derived from the relationship between these HA statistics. Histological validation was performed using phase-contrast microscopy. In normal hearts, the subendocardial and subepicardial myofibers had a positive and negative HA, respectively, forming a symmetric distribution around the midmyocardium. However, in the remote zone of the infarcted hearts, a significant positive shift in HA was observed. The ratio between negative and positive HA variance was reduced from 0.96 ± 0.16 in normal hearts to 0.22 ± 0.08 in the remote zone of the remodeled hearts (p layers of the myocardium. Tractography-based quantification, performed here for the first time in remodeled hearts, may provide a framework for assessing regional changes in the left ventricle following infarction.

  15. Detection of viable myocardium in canine model with myocardial ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion by 125I-BMIPP: relation to regional blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gang; Zhao Huiyang; Shen Xuedong; Li Qing; Yuan Jimin; Zhu Cuiying

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The effects of BMIPP (β-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid) on detecting viable myocardium and the relation between regional blood flow and the uptake of BMIPP were evaluated in canine model of myocardial ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion. Methods: 12 open-chest dogs under anesthesia were divided into two groups. Group I (ischemia group) had left circumflex coronary arterial occlusion for 2 h and group II (ischemia-reperfusion group) was occluded for 1 h and followed by 2 h reperfusion. Myocardial blood flow was measured with 99 Tc m -microspheres. 30 min after intravenous injection of 125 I-BMIPP and 99 Tc m -microspheres, the heart was excised rapidly and stained with Evans blue and NBT. Tissue samples (divided into approximately 1 g) of left ventricle were obtained, weighed and counted for 125 I and 99 Tc m . Regional blood flow and the uptake of BMIPP were expressed as percentages of average values in non-ischemic myocardium (two to three tissue samples) from the normal myocardium. Results: In ischemic myocardium (NBT positive samples), the uptake of BMIPP was relatively higher compared with regional blood flow [(67 +- 23)% vs (42 +- 19)%, P 0.05]. In ischemia-reperfusion group, regional blood flow was increased in ischemic and necrotic tissues, but the uptake of BMIPP was not enhanced with the increasing blood flow. Conclusions: BMIPP uptake seems to provide metabolic information independent of regional blood flow. The mismatching between regional blood flow and BMIPP uptake may indicate myocardial viability in the regions of hypoperfusion and the uptake of BMIPP in ischemic myocardium was related to existence of cellular metabolism

  16. Evaluation of noncoronary sources of left ventricular perfusion to intercoronary collateral-dependent myocardium due to chronic major vessel occlusion: absent contribution of luminal and extracardiac channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, G.J.; Downey, H.F.; Bashour, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    Liminal contribution to perfusion of collateral-dependent left ventricular (LV) myocardium was evaluated in six dogs. A portion of LV free wall was rendered collateral-dependent by gradual occlusion of left circumflex artery with Ameroid constrictor. Eight to 10 weeks after implantation of constrictor, measurements of LV myocardial flow were made by left atrial injections of 9-10 micro radioactive microspheres. To measure total collateral flow, microspheres were injected under control conditions, and to measure luminal contribution to collateral flow, microspheres were injected after ligation of right coronary artery during extracorporeal perfusion of left common coronary artery (LCCA) with microsphere-free arterial blood, and during stoppage of flow through LCCA. Under control conditions, myocardial blood flow in collateral-dependent region, 1.01 +/- 0.31 ml/min/gm, was not significantly different from that in normal region, 1.06 +/- 0.32 ml/min/gm. Flow from luminal collateral vessels was negligible (less than 0.005 ml/min/gm) in both collateral-dependent and normal myocardium, and was not affected by stoppage of flow through LCCA. These results indicate that luminal collateral vessels, as well as collateral vessels originating from other noncoronary sources, do not contribute significantly to perfusion of normal or collateral-dependent LV myocardium

  17. Probability mapping of scarred myocardium using texture and intensity features in CMR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The myocardium exhibits heterogeneous nature due to scarring after Myocardial Infarction (MI). In Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging, Late Gadolinium (LG) contrast agent enhances the intensity of scarred area in the myocardium. Methods In this paper, we propose a probability mapping technique using Texture and Intensity features to describe heterogeneous nature of the scarred myocardium in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) images after Myocardial Infarction (MI). Scarred tissue and non-scarred tissue are represented with high and low probabilities, respectively. Intermediate values possibly indicate areas where the scarred and healthy tissues are interwoven. The probability map of scarred myocardium is calculated by using a probability function based on Bayes rule. Any set of features can be used in the probability function. Results In the present study, we demonstrate the use of two different types of features. One is based on the mean intensity of pixel and the other on underlying texture information of the scarred and non-scarred myocardium. Examples of probability maps computed using the mean intensity of pixel and the underlying texture information are presented. We hypothesize that the probability mapping of myocardium offers alternate visualization, possibly showing the details with physiological significance difficult to detect visually in the original CMR image. Conclusion The probability mapping obtained from the two features provides a way to define different cardiac segments which offer a way to identify areas in the myocardium of diagnostic importance (like core and border areas in scarred myocardium). PMID:24053280

  18. A study on the kinetics of high-energy phosphates in myocardium by phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusuoka, Hideo; Tsuneoka, Yutaka; Inoue, Michitoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Watari, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of artificial blood, FC 43 (Perfluorochemicals) on the kinetics of high-energy phosphate in the myocardium was evaluated by 31 P-NMR which permits a continuous and non-invasive assessment of in vivo phosphorus compounds. Cardiac perfusion was carried out on a excised rat heart with a Krebs-Henseleit modified solution and FC 43 alternately. Under the normal condition, ischemic condition, and at second perfusion amounts of intramyocardial creatine phosphoric acid, ATP, and inorganic phosphorus were determined by 31 P-NMR. Coronary flow was simultaneously estimated. The ischemic state due to interruption of perfusion resulted in a decrease in creatine phosphoric acid, which was associated with an increase in inorganic phosphorus and intracellular acidosis. No change of ATP amount was observed under ischemic state. With resumption of perfusion, the levels of creatine phosphoric acid and inorganic phosphorus rapidly returned to the normal. In the group of FC 43, coronary flow was 2.68 ml/min/g of the heart weight, about 1/2 of that of the Krebs-Henseleit group (5.68 ml/min/g of the heart weight). In controls, there was no difference between the two groups concerning creatine phosphoric acid level and recovery of creatine phospohric acid level after ischemia. These results showed that FC 43 supplies sufficient oxygen, and has no effect on the kinetics of energy in the myocardium. (Ueda, J.)

  19. Protective Effect of Ischemic Postconditioning against Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Myocardium Oxidative Injury in IR Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangwei Ma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR employed during reperfusion after a prolonged ischemic insult may attenuate the total ischemia-reperfusion injury. This phenomenon has been termed ischemic postconditioning. In the present study, we studied the possible effect of ischemic postconditioning on an ischemic reperfusion (IR-induced myocardium oxidative injury in rat model. Results showed that ischemic postconditioning could improve arrhythmia cordis, reduce myocardium infarction and serum creatin kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and aspartate transaminase (AST activities in IR rats. In addition, ischemic postconditioning could still decrease myocardium malondialdehyde (MDA level, and increased myocardium Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione reductase (GR activities. It can be concluded that ischemic postconditioning possesses strong protective effects against ischemia reperfusion-induced myocardium oxidative injury in IR rats.

  20. Anatomy of Atrioventricular Node Artery and Pattern of Dominancy in Normal Coronary Subject: A Comparison between Individuals with and without Isolated Right Bundle Branch Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemisaeid, Ali; Pakbaz, Marziyeh; Yaminisharif, Ahmad; Davoodi, Gholamreza; Lotfi Tokaldany, Masoumeh; Hakki Kazazi, Elham

    2012-11-01

    Isolated right bundle branch block (RBBB) is a common finding in the general population. The atrioventricular node (AVN) artery contributes to the blood supply of the right bundle branch. Our hypothesis was that the anatomy of the AVN artery and the pattern of dominancy differ between subjects with and without RBBB. We retrospectively studied the coronary angiography of 92 patients with RBBB and 184 age- and gender-matched controls without RBBB. All the subjects had angiographically proven normal coronary arteries. The dominant circulation and precise origin of the AVN artery were determined in each subject. Obtained data were compared between the two study groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of dominancy (p value = 0.200). Origination of the AVN artery from the right circulatory system was more common in both groups, but this pattern was more prevalent in the cases than in the controls (p value = 0.021). There was a great variation of the AVN artery origin. In the total study population, the AVN artery was more commonly separated from a non crux origin than from the crux area. The prevalence of the non-crux origination of the AVN artery was significantly higher in the cases than in the controls (p value AVN artery from the right circulatory system was more common in both groups, the prevalence of the right origin of the AVN artery was significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. We observed that the AVN artery most commonly originated from the dominant artery but not necessarily from the crux. The anatomy of the AVN artery but not the pattern of dominancy is somewhat different in subjects with RBBB compared with normal individuals.

  1. Proteomic analysis identifies mitochondrial metabolic enzymes as major discriminators between different stages of the failing human myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Wiggers, Henrik; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM).......Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM)....

  2. Blood flow, flow reserve, and glucose utilization in viable and nonviable myocardium in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Schindler, Thomas H; Prior, John O; Sayre, James; Dahlbom, Magnus; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Schelbert, Heinrich R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether glucose uptake in viable myocardium of ischemic cardiomyopathy patients depends on rest myocardial blood flow (MBF) and the residual myocardial flow reserve (MFR). Thirty-six patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction 25 ± 10 %) were studied with (13)N-ammonia and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Twenty age-matched normals served as controls. Regional MBF was determined at rest and during dipyridamole hyperemia and regional FDG extraction was estimated from regional FDG to (13)N-ammonia activity ratios. Rest MBF was reduced in viable (0.42 ± 0.18 ml/min per g) and nonviable regions (0.32 ± 0.09 ml/min per g) relative to remote regions (0.68 ± 0.23 ml/min per g, p MFRs did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Compared to MFR in remote myocardium, MFRs in viable regions were similar (1.39 ± 0.56 vs 1.70 ± 0.45, p > 0.05) but were significantly lower in nonviable regions (1.23 ± 0.43, p MFRs (r =-0.424, p MFRs in viable myocardium are associated with increasing glucose extraction that likely reflects a metabolic adaptation of remodeling hibernating myocytes.

  3. Radionuclide imaging in primary and secondary disorders of the myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follansbee, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    The list of all potential causes of myocardial disease or injury is an extensive one: a condensed version is presented. Conceptually these processes can be categorized into those which are, or appear to be, primary to the myocardium and those which secondarily involve it. Nuclear imaging procedures, particularly those used to assess ventricular function, are in a general sense potentially applicable to the clinical evaluation of any of these entities. In certain of these conditions, however, nuclear cardiac procedures have a demonstrated or potential additional and more specific role for the diagnosis and quantification of the entity. A number of these, including coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, cor pulmonale, and myocardial trauma, are the topics of other chapters and, therefore, are not dealt with further here. The remainder of the myocardial disorders in which nuclear imaging procedures have a recognized or potential specific role are the focus of this discussion

  4. Pathomorphological Changes of the Myocardium in Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on ventricular and atrial wall preparations from 11 dogs with clinically diagnosed dilated cardiomyopathy. After fixation, the specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Masson-Goldner trichrome technique. Parenchymal changes (fibrosis and fatty infiltration, vascular changes (congestion and coronary vessel wall hypertrophy, degenerative changes (loss of striation, changes in cardiomycyte and nuclei structure, and presence of inflammatory infiltrates (mononuclear and polynuclear were estimated. Complex histological changes in both ventricular and atrial muscles were shown. It was not determined whether the processes occurring in the myocardium have a primary character, or are a consequence of developing heart failure. Such issues will be put under further and more detailed examination.

  5. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging of the myocardium: a technical note on improvement of image quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Muenzel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To improve image and diagnostic quality in dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI by using motion compensation and a spatio-temporal filter. METHODS: Dynamic CT MPI was performed using a 256-slice multidetector computed tomography scanner (MDCT. Data from two different patients-with and without myocardial perfusion defects-were evaluated to illustrate potential improvements for MPI (institutional review board approved. Three datasets for each patient were generated: (i original data (ii motion compensated data and (iii motion compensated data with spatio-temporal filtering performed. In addition to the visual assessment of the tomographic slices, noise and contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR were measured for all data. Perfusion analysis was performed using time-density curves with regions-of-interest (ROI placed in normal and hypoperfused myocardium. Precision in definition of normal and hypoperfused areas was determined in corresponding coloured perfusion maps. RESULTS: The use of motion compensation followed by spatio-temporal filtering resulted in better alignment of the cardiac volumes over time leading to a more consistent perfusion quantification and improved detection of the extend of perfusion defects. Additionally image noise was reduced by 78.5%, with CNR improvements by a factor of 4.7. The average effective radiation dose estimate was 7.1±1.1 mSv. CONCLUSION: The use of motion compensation and spatio-temporal smoothing will result in improved quantification of dynamic CT MPI using a latest generation CT scanner.

  6. Isolated myocardial hydatid cyst: Managed with total curative excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is still prevalent in developing countries, and isolated cardiac hydatid cysts are the rarest presentation. We report a 40-year-old nondiabetic, nonhypertensive female who presented with low-grade fever for 2 months shortness of breath and orthopnea for 2 weeks. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large, round cystic lesion with multiple daughter cysts without any obvious intraluminal detached membranes with mass effect on the left ventricular outflow tract. After total excision, residual tissue was closed with Teflon patch. Germinative membrane and hundreds of daughter cysts were seen. Following total excision of the cyst from myocardium, myocardial cavity was washed thoroughly with 10% Betadine solution. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Preoperatively started albendazole was continued for 4 weeks even after the operation. On follow-up after 4 weeks, the patient is doing well and cardiac imaging showed normal contours of the heart.

  7. Immunohistochemical evidence for expression of fast-twitch type sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA1) in German shepherd dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Nuala; Peters, Mary E; Hercock, Carol A; Mobasheri, Ali; Young, Iain S

    2010-04-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the most common acquired canine heart diseases. It is particularly common in large and giant breed dogs. Although a great deal is known about the clinical progression and manifestations of the disease, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. One widely held belief is that calcium-handling abnormalities are critically involved in the disease process. This study investigates the changes in expression of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) isoforms in DCM myocardium from German shepherd dogs. Affected tissue samples were obtained from German shepherd dogs with DCM, euthanized for intractable congestive heart failure while normal myocardial tissue samples were obtained from German shepherd dogs, euthanized for non-cardiovascular reasons. Tissue microarrays containing normal and DCM myocardium samples were prepared, immunostained with SERCA1 and SERCA2 antibodies and analyzed. We were able to demonstrate, for the first time, that while there is little change in the expression of the cardiac isoform (SERCA2), there is clear expression of the fast-twitch skeletal muscle isoform SERCA1 in the myocardium of dogs diagnosed with DCM. We propose that SERCA1 expression is evidence of a natural adaptive response to the impaired Ca2+ handling thought to occur in German shepherd dogs with DCM and heart failure. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased cross-bridge recruitment contributes to transient increase in force generation beyond maximal capacity in human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Chung, Jae-Hoon; Canan, Benjamin D; Fedorov, Vadim V; Whitson, Bryan A; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L

    2018-01-01

    Cross-bridge attachment allows force generation to occur, and rate of tension redevelopment (k tr ) is a commonly used index of cross-bridge cycling rate. Tension overshoots have been observed briefly after a slack-restretch k tr maneuver in various species of animal models and humans. In this study, we set out to determine the properties of these overshoots and their possible underlying mechanism. Utilizing human cardiac trabeculae, we have found that tension overshoots are temperature-dependent and that they do not occur at resting states. In addition, we have found that myosin cross-bridge cycle is vital to these overshoots as inhibition of the cycle results in the blunting of the overshoots and the magnitude of the overshoots are dependent on the level of myofilament activation. Lastly, we show that the number of cross-bridges transiently increase during tension overshoots. These findings lead us to conclude that tension overshoots are likely due to a transient enhancement of the recruitment of myosin heads into the cross-bridge cycling, regulated by the myocardium, and with potential physiological significance in determining cardiac output. We show that isolated human myocardium is capable of transiently increasing its maximal force generation capability by increasing cross-bridge recruitment following slack-restretch maneuver. This process can potentially have important implications and significance in cardiac contraction in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Peculiarities of cardiac hemodynamics and functional state of left ventricular myocardium in teenagers with connective heart tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhmudova F.M.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of investigation is to study heart hemodynamics in teenagers with connective tissue dysplasia of heart (CTDH. 35 patients ages 12 to 15 years with CTDH have been observed: Group I (n=14 are the patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP without mitral regurgitation (MR and myxomatous degeneration(MD or isolated minor heart abnormalities (MHA, Group II (n=11are patients with MVP and MR in combination with 1 or2 MHA, and Group III (n=10 are patients with MVP and mixoid degeneration (MD in combination with 2 or more MHA. The control group consisted of 15 patients of the same age without MHA. All the children passed Doppler and echocardiography. According to the results significant changes of cardiohemodynamic indices in patients of Group I were not observed. The changes of size and volume indices of the left ventricle (LV, increase in wall thickness and diastolic dysfunction of the LV were observed in Group II. The significant changes of systolic function of left ventricular myocardium were observed in Group III. The study comes to the conclusion that teenagers with CTDH have definite changes of heart hemodynamics and functional state of left ventricular myocardium. These changes depend on mitral regurgitation, myxomatous degeneration and MHA combination

  10. Normal IncA expression and fusogenicity of inclusions in Chlamydia trachomatis isolates with the incA I47T mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Y.; van der Ende, A.; Eijk, P. P.; van Marle, J.; de Witte, M. A.; Ossewaarde, J. M.; van den Brule, A. J.; Morré, S. A.; Dankert, J.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the incA I47T mutation in Chlamydia trachomatis and the nonfusogenic phenotype, the incA genes of 25 isolates were sequenced. Four major sequence types were identified. Seven isolates (28%) had the I47T mutation. Isolates representing the four sequence types

  11. The alteration of interelemental ratios in myocardium under the congenital heart disease (SRXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunova, V.A.; Zvereva, V.V.; Okuneva, G.N.; Levicheva, E.N.

    2007-01-01

    It is the myocardium that bears the basic functional loading during heart working, including muscle contractility and enzyme activity. The elemental concentrations in myocardium tissue of heart were determined by SRXRF technique. Our investigation is systematical: the elemental content in each compartment (left and right ventricles, left and right auricles) of hearts of healthy and diseased children (congenital heart diseases, transposition of main vessels (TMV)) was analyzed. The elemental distribution in myocardium of four heart chambers of human fetuses was also analyzed. Following elements were determined: S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr. It was revealed that the elemental concentrations in myocardium of both ventricles are almost constant in heart of fetuses and healthy children. The transition from pre-natal study (fetus) to post-natal study is accompanied by the redistribution of chemical elements in myocardium. The higher concentrations of S, Fe, Ca, Sr and Cu in myocardium of children are observed, the content of K, Br, Rb and especially Se is lower than in heart of fetuses. The elemental distribution in myocardium of children TMV is considerably different in comparison with the healthy children: the higher levels of Cu are observed. The content of Se is lower

  12. Diagnosis of Non-compacted Myocardium of the Left Ventricle in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Yershova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors presented a review of published literature data on rare congenital abnormalities in children — a non-compacted myocardium of the left ventricle, which refers to unclassified cardiomyopathy. This pathology by the American Heart Association classification relates to genetic cardiomyopathy. Non-compacted myocardium of the left ventricle in children develops due to violation of myocardial induration of the fetus in utero. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult due to the lack of specific clinical signs. The authors also presented a clinical case of non-compacted left ventricular myocardium in 6-year-old girl.

  13. The influence of the perinatal chronic hyperglycaemia on the pattern of NOS isoforms expression in left ventricle myocardium in male rats of pre-pubertal age

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    O. V. Gancheva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to find out the features of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS isoforms expression in longitudinal and transversal layers of the myocardium of the left ventricle in male rats of 3 months, which are descendants of female rats with experimental gestational diabetes (EGD. Materials and methods. Study was carried out on 10 male rats descendants of female rats with normal course of pregnancy and 10 descendants of female rats with EGD. We evaluated the expression of neuronal, endothelial and inducible isoforms of NOS in histological sections both of transversal and longitudinal layers of the myocardium of left ventricle. With the aim to analyze the pattern of the NOS isoforms expression in 5 um histological slices of left ventricle myocardium we have carried out a complex of histochemical assays. Slices were allocated to 3 groups: 1st one was incubated with rabbit IgG to neuronal NOS (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA in dilution of 1:200; 2nd group underwent the incubation with rabbit IgG to endothelial NOS (eNos (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA in dilution 1:200; 3rd group was incubated with mice IgG to inducible NOS (iNos conjugated with FITC (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA in dilution of 1:200. The analysis of images was carried out with VIDAS-2.5 application package (Kontron Elektronik, Germany. Microimages of the left ventricle myocardium obtained with AxioScope (Carl Zeiss, Germany and COHU 4922 (COHU Inc., USA camera were processed in the system of digital image analysis VIDAS-386 (Kontron Elektronik, Germany. Results. In the study we have found that prenatal hyperglycaemia leads to the significant changes of the expression of NOS isoforms in the myocardium of left ventricle in male rats descendants of females with EGD, and the contain and the allocation of these enzymes are dependent both on type of the enzyme and its location in muscular layers. For eNOS the increase of the expression and the allocation in both transversal and

  14. Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation

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    Mekkaoui Choukri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of myofiber reorganization in the remote zone after myocardial infarction has been performed in 2D. Microstructural reorganization in remodeled hearts, however, can only be fully appreciated by considering myofibers as continuous 3D entities. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a technique for quantitative 3D diffusion CMR tractography of the heart, and to apply this method to quantify fiber architecture in the remote zone of remodeled hearts. Methods Diffusion Tensor CMR of normal human, sheep, and rat hearts, as well as infarcted sheep hearts was performed ex vivo. Fiber tracts were generated with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration technique and classified statistically by the median, mean, maximum, or minimum helix angle (HA along the tract. An index of tract coherence was derived from the relationship between these HA statistics. Histological validation was performed using phase-contrast microscopy. Results In normal hearts, the subendocardial and subepicardial myofibers had a positive and negative HA, respectively, forming a symmetric distribution around the midmyocardium. However, in the remote zone of the infarcted hearts, a significant positive shift in HA was observed. The ratio between negative and positive HA variance was reduced from 0.96 ± 0.16 in normal hearts to 0.22 ± 0.08 in the remote zone of the remodeled hearts (p Conclusions A significant reorganization of the 3D fiber continuum is observed in the remote zone of remodeled hearts. The positive (rightward shift in HA in the remote zone is greatest in the subepicardium, but involves all layers of the myocardium. Tractography-based quantification, performed here for the first time in remodeled hearts, may provide a framework for assessing regional changes in the left ventricle following infarction.

  15. Normal IncA Expression and Fusogenicity of Inclusions in Chlamydia trachomatis Isolates with the incA I47T Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; van der Ende, Arie; Eijk, Paul P.; van Marle, Jan; de Witte, Moniek A.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.; van den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Dankert, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the incA I47T mutation in Chlamydia trachomatis and the nonfusogenic phenotype, the incA genes of 25 isolates were sequenced. Four major sequence types were identified. Seven isolates (28%) had the I47T mutation. Isolates representing the four sequence types expressed IncA in the membrane of one large single inclusion. In conclusion, the incA I47T mutation is not associated with the nonfusogenic phenotype.

  16. Change of short-term memory effect in acute ischemic ventricular myocardium: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xi; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Zhi-cheng; Zhang, Zhen-xi

    2014-02-01

    The ionic mechanism of change in short-term memory (STM) during acute myocardial ischemia has not been well understood. In this paper, an advanced guinea pig ventricular model developed by Luo and Rudy was used to investigate STM property of ischemic ventricular myocardium. STM response was calculated by testing the time to reach steady-state action potential duration (APD) after an abrupt shortening of basic cycling length (BCL) in the pacing protocol. Electrical restitution curves (RCs), which can simultaneously visualize multiple aspects of APD restitution and STM, were obtained from dynamic and local S1S2 restitution portrait (RP), which consist of a longer interval stimulus (S1) and a shorter interval stimulus (S2). The angle between dynamic RC and local S1S2 RC reflects the amount of STM. Our results indicated that compared with control (normal) condition, time constant of STM response in the ischemic condition decreased significantly. Meanwhile the angle which reflects STM amount is less in ischemic model than that in control model. By tracking the effect of ischemia on intracellular ion concentration and membrane currents, we declared that changes in membrane currents caused by ischemia exert subtle influences on STM; it is only the decline of intracellular calcium concentration that give rise to the most decrement of STM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The helical ventricular myocardial band: global, three-dimensional, functional architecture of the ventricular myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio F; Carreras-Costa, Francesc; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Moghbel, Mark C; Cueva, Clotario N C; Lackovic, Vesna; Kanjuh, Vladimir I; Torrent-Guasp, Francisco

    2006-04-01

    We are currently witnessing the advent of new diagnostic tools and therapies for heart diseases, but, without serious scientific consensus on fundamental questions about normal and diseased heart structure and function. During the last decade, three successive, international, multidisciplinary symposia were organized in order to setup fundamental research principles, which would allow us to make a significant step forward in understanding heart structure and function. Helical ventricular myocardial band of Torrent-Guasp is the revolutionary new concept in understanding global, three-dimensional, functional architecture of the ventricular myocardium. This concept defines the principal, cumulative vectors, integrating the tissue architecture (i.e. form) and net forces developed (i.e. function) within the ventricular mass. Here we expose the compendium of Torrent-Guasp's half-century long functional anatomical investigations in the light of ongoing efforts to define the integrative approach, which would lead to new understanding of the ventricular form and function by linking across multiple scales of biological organization, as defined in ongoing Physiome project. Helical ventricular myocardial band of Torrent-Guasp may also, hopefully, allow overcoming some difficulties encountered in contemporary efforts to create a comprehensive mathematical model of the heart.

  18. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sozzi (Fabiola); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); A. Elhendy (Abdou); E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); R. Valkema (Roelf); J. de Sutter; A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); A. Borghetti; J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. PATIENTS: 30 patients with chronic left

  19. The myocardium functional reserve indicators in junior children with recurrent acute upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Ovcharenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The problem of early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases in children is relevant throughout the world and in Ukraine, as in childhood the health and quality of life of an adult are formed. The psychoemotional stress in junior children as well as increasingly complicating school curriculum, information overload with electronic gadgets, increased frequency of colds in children cause physical inactivity. In addition, infectious agents have a toxic effect on the myocardium, altering its functional state. All these together adversely affect the formation and development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of children. The aim was to study the functional reserve of the myocardium in junior children, depending on the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Materials and methods. The study examined 1109 children aged 6 to 9 years old. The URTI incidence was analyzed depending on the age. In the study, the children were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of the children with URTI — 210. Group 2 involved the children with occasional URTI — 899. Results. Among 210 surveyed children with upper respiratory infections 171 schoolboys (81.4 % had reduced functional reserve of the myocardium, which is consistent with findings from other studies. In children aged 7 and 9 years old, the number of reduced functional reserve of the myocardium varies from 70 to 82 % in seven-year children, among the schoolboys aged 6 and 8 years old the incidence of reduced functional reserve of the myocardium increased from 83 to 100 % in six-year children. Conclusions. Children with URTI have a reduced functional reserve of the myocardium. Children with episodic URTI have higher rates of functional reserve of the myocardium, therefore reducing the incidence of URTI will lead to the improvement of the myocardium functional state.

  20. Reductions in mitochondrial O(2) consumption and preservation of high-energy phosphate levels after simulated ischemia in chronic hibernating myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingsong; Suzuki, Gen; Young, Rebeccah F; Page, Brian J; Fallavollita, James A; Canty, John M

    2009-07-01

    We performed the present study to determine whether hibernating myocardium is chronically protected from ischemia. Myocardial tissue was rapidly excised from hibernating left anterior descending coronary regions (systolic wall thickening = 2.8 +/- 0.2 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.3 mm in remote myocardium), and high-energy phosphates were quantified by HPLC during simulated ischemia in vitro (37 degrees C). At baseline, ATP (20.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 26.7 +/- 2.1 micromol/g dry wt, P < 0.05), ADP (8.1 +/- 0.4 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.8 micromol/g, P < 0.05), and total adenine nucleotides (31.2 +/- 1.3 vs. 40.1 +/- 2.9 micromol/g, P < 0.05) were depressed compared with normal myocardium, whereas total creatine, creatine phosphate, and ATP-to-ADP ratios were unchanged. During simulated ischemia, there was a marked attenuation of ATP depletion (5.6 +/- 0.9 vs. 13.7 +/- 1.7 micromol/g at 20 min in control, P < 0.05) and mitochondrial respiration [145 +/- 13 vs. 187 +/- 11 ng atoms O(2).mg protein(-1).min(-1) in control (state 3), P < 0.05], whereas lactate accumulation was unaffected. These in vitro changes were accompanied by protection of the hibernating heart from acute stunning during demand-induced ischemia. Thus, despite contractile dysfunction at rest, hibernating myocardium is ischemia tolerant, with reduced mitochondrial respiration and slowing of ATP depletion during simulated ischemia, which may maintain myocyte viability.

  1. Perfusion single photon emission computed tomography of myocardium with 99mTc-tetra-phosmine (Myoview)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khusainova, Sh.K.; Zholdybaj, Zh.; Potapov, A.V.; Karaev, O.S.; Akhmetova, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work is study of diagnostic valuation of myocardium scintigraphy with help of the 99m Tc-tetrophosmin, Myoview in determination of latent coronary blood-circulation destabilization in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident (LChA) and persons living in the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) region. The perfusion myocardium scintigraphy was made to 71 patients (5 women and 66 men) from those - 33 LChA and 37 - residents of STS region. The examination was carried out in 'ADAC Genesys Epic' apparatus (USA). Mean age of the patients was 46.3±2.3 years old. In the result of examination the left ventricle myocardium perfusion reduction on 30 % and more was revealed. The distribution of radiopharmaceutical by the myocardium parts were relatively proportional both with pharmacologic load (ATF, dipiridamol) and the rest in 48 (67.7 %) patients. So, the 99m Tc-tetrophosmin, Myoview pharmaceutical allows with high rate estimate the myocardium perfusion and get a high qualitative images, that permits to identify localization, character and distribution of myocardium perfusion reduction in the revealed areas. In the result of myocardine scintigraphy with the pharmacologic load trial conducting the both the latent coronary blood-circulation destabilization forms and the incoming ones were differentiated

  2. Reduced myocardial perfusion reserve in myocardium having coronary artery aneurysm of Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, S. N.; Lee, D. S.; Choi, J. Y.; Kil, H. R.; Jeong, Z. K.; Lee, M. C.; Ko, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    stenosis or aneurysms on CAG, that is normal. It was concluded that decreased perfusion reserve could be found in myocardium having only aneurysmal coronary arteries without stenosis on CAG in Kawasaki disease, and this result imply that epicardial rest flow assessed by CAG was not enough to ensure tissue perfusion enough to cover coronary flow reserve

  3. Studies concerning the effect of X-rays on electrolytic shifts and on the metabolism of the myocardium. Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prignitz, R.; Saurbier, B.; Hoffmeister, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the myocardium of guinea-pigs, the behaviour of the catecholamines noradrenalin and adrenalin as well as the monoamine oxidase activity was biochemically studied following a local irradiation with 250 up to 6,000 R surface dose. The noradrenalin content is significantly reduced already after a surface dose of 250 R. This drop of the noradrenalin content is beginning 15 min after irradiation, and not till 72 hours later, a complete normalization of the noradrenalin content is to be shown. A fractionated irradiation with twice 250 R SD in an interval of 24 hours leads to a further reduction. The changes of the adrenalin content are uncharacteristic, the activity of the monoamine oxidase is unaffected. (orig.) [de

  4. Anisotropy of the apparent frequency dependence of backscatter in formalin fixed human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C S; Verdonk, E D; Wickline, S A; Perez, J E; Miller, J G

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the frequency dependence of ultrasonic backscatter are presented for specific angles of insonification for regions of infarcted and noninfarcted human myocardium. A 5-MHz transducer was used to insonify cylindrical cores taken from 7 noninfarcted regions and 12 infarcted regions of the left ventricular free wall of 6 formalin-fixed human hearts explanted because of ischemic cardiomyopathy. The dependence of apparent (uncompensated for diffraction effects and attenuation) backscatter on frequency was approximated by a power-law dependence, magnitude of B(f)2 = afn. Under ideal conditions in a lossless medium, the effect of not compensating for the effects of diffraction and attenuation leads to the value of n to be 2.0 for Rayleigh scatterers while the frequency dependence of the fully compensated backscatter coefficient would be f4. The value of n was determined over the frequency range, 3-7 MHz. Both nonifarcted and infarcted myocardium exhibited anisotropy of the frequency dependence of backscatter, with maxima occurring at angles that were perpendicular to the predominant myofiber direction and minima when parallel to the fibers. Perpendicular insonification yielded results for n of 1.8 +/- 0.1 for noninfarcted myocardium and 1.2 +/- 0.1 for infarcted myocardium while parallel insonification yielded results of 0.4 +/- 0.1 for noninfarcted and 0.0 +/- 0.1 for infarcted myocardium. The functional form of the angle-dependent backscatter is similar for both noninfarcted and infarcted myocardium, although the frequency dependence is clearly different for both tissue states for all angles of insonification. The results of this study indicate that the anisotropy of the frequency dependence of backscatter may play a significant role in ultrasonic imaging and is an important consideration for ultrasonic tissue characterization in myocardium.

  5. Isolated Asymptomatic Metastasis in the Myocardium: A Rare Scenario in Case of Carcinoma Penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is a common malignancy in developing countries. It commonly metastasizes to the lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bones. Myocardial metastasis is rare. A 40-year-old male patient presented with ulcerative growth over glans penis. Histologic evaluation of the biopsy sample diagnosed the lesion as squamous cell cancer. Assessment of the stage of the disease revealed cardiac metastasis. Patient received six cycles of chemotherapy. He partially responded, but later succumbed to cardiac failure due to pericardial and pleural effusion.

  6. Bioprinting 3D microfibrous scaffolds for engineering endothelialized myocardium and heart-on-a-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Arneri, Andrea; Bersini, Simone; Shin, Su-Ryon; Zhu, Kai; Goli-Malekabadi, Zahra; Aleman, Julio; Colosi, Cristina; Busignani, Fabio; Dell'Erba, Valeria; Bishop, Colin; Shupe, Thomas; Demarchi, Danilo; Moretti, Matteo; Rasponi, Marco; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Atala, Anthony; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Engineering cardiac tissues and organ models remains a great challenge due to the hierarchical structure of the native myocardium. The need of integrating blood vessels brings additional complexity, limiting the available approaches that are suitable to produce integrated cardiovascular organoids. In this work we propose a novel hybrid strategy based on 3D bioprinting, to fabricate endothelialized myocardium. Enabled by the use of our composite bioink, endothelial cells directly bioprinted within microfibrous hydrogel scaffolds gradually migrated towards the peripheries of the microfibers to form a layer of confluent endothelium. Together with controlled anisotropy, this 3D endothelial bed was then seeded with cardiomyocytes to generate aligned myocardium capable of spontaneous and synchronous contraction. We further embedded the organoids into a specially designed microfluidic perfusion bioreactor to complete the endothelialized-myocardium-on-a-chip platform for cardiovascular toxicity evaluation. Finally, we demonstrated that such a technique could be translated to human cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells to construct endothelialized human myocardium. We believe that our method for generation of endothelialized organoids fabricated through an innovative 3D bioprinting technology may find widespread applications in regenerative medicine, drug screening, and potentially disease modeling. PMID:27710832

  7. Bioprinting 3D microfibrous scaffolds for engineering endothelialized myocardium and heart-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Arneri, Andrea; Bersini, Simone; Shin, Su-Ryon; Zhu, Kai; Goli-Malekabadi, Zahra; Aleman, Julio; Colosi, Cristina; Busignani, Fabio; Dell'Erba, Valeria; Bishop, Colin; Shupe, Thomas; Demarchi, Danilo; Moretti, Matteo; Rasponi, Marco; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Atala, Anthony; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Engineering cardiac tissues and organ models remains a great challenge due to the hierarchical structure of the native myocardium. The need of integrating blood vessels brings additional complexity, limiting the available approaches that are suitable to produce integrated cardiovascular organoids. In this work we propose a novel hybrid strategy based on 3D bioprinting, to fabricate endothelialized myocardium. Enabled by the use of our composite bioink, endothelial cells directly bioprinted within microfibrous hydrogel scaffolds gradually migrated towards the peripheries of the microfibers to form a layer of confluent endothelium. Together with controlled anisotropy, this 3D endothelial bed was then seeded with cardiomyocytes to generate aligned myocardium capable of spontaneous and synchronous contraction. We further embedded the organoids into a specially designed microfluidic perfusion bioreactor to complete the endothelialized-myocardium-on-a-chip platform for cardiovascular toxicity evaluation. Finally, we demonstrated that such a technique could be translated to human cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells to construct endothelialized human myocardium. We believe that our method for generation of endothelialized organoids fabricated through an innovative 3D bioprinting technology may find widespread applications in regenerative medicine, drug screening, and potentially disease modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Atrial remodeling and metabolic dysfunction in idiopathic isolated fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chang; Jiang, Xiaohong; Ju, Weizhu; Wang, Jiaxian; Wang, Daowu; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Minglong

    2018-04-26

    Idiopathic isolated fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy (IIF-ACM) is a novel subtype of cardiomyopathy characterized by atrial fibrosis that does not involve the ventricular myocardium and is associated with significant atrial tachyarrhythmia. The mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are unknown. Atrium samples were obtained from 3 patients with IIF-ACM via surgical intervention. Control samples were consisted of 3 atrium biopsies from patients with congenital heart disease and normal sinus rhythm, matched for gender, age and basic clinical characteristics. Comparative histology, immunofluorescence staining, electron microscopy and proteomics analyses were carried out to explore the unique pathogenesis of IIF-ACM. IIF-ACM atria displayed disordered myofibrils, profound fibrosis and mitochondrial damages compared to the control atria. Proteomics profiling identified metabolic pathways as the most profound changes in IIF-ACM. Our study suggested that metabolic changes in the atrial myocardium caused mitochondrial oxidative stress and potential cell damage, which further led to atrial fibrosis and myofibril disorganization, the characteristic phenotype of IIF-ACM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Do indices of coronary conductance after reperfusion reflect the extent of salvaged myocardium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takahiro; Watanabe, Hisashi; Tsurusaki, Tetsushi; Minai, Kousuke; Ogawa, Takayuki; Iwano, Keiji; Tamura, Tetsutarou; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mutou, Makoto; Imai, Kamon; Horie, Toshinobu; Mochizuki, Seibu

    2004-05-01

    Existing indices of coronary conductance (hyperemic flow-versus-pressure slope index, FPSI, and zero flow pressure, Pzf) have been developed as measures of microcoronary resistance. These indices, however, refer to cases of normal hearts, and there are no reports studying these indices following acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we investigated whether FPSI and Pzf truly measure the extent of myocardial salvage after successful reperfusion therapy. We also developed a new index of zero pressure flow, Fzp. Nineteen patients who underwent successful reperfusion therapy to the proximal portion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) were studied. After successful reperfusion therapy, a Doppler wire was placed into the LAD. Aortic pressure was recorded in real time. Results from the aortic pressure and flow meter were combined to produce FPSI, Pzf, and Fzp. All cases underwent a resting thallium (Tl) and BMIPP scintigram within five days of successful reperfusion therapy. Infarcted myocardium was estimated using a severity score calculated from the Tl scintigraphy (TlSS), and the BMIPP (BMIPPSS) was estimated using a severity score. Patients with a TlSS/BMIPPSS ratio of less than 0.4 were assigned to the successful salvage group (group S), while the others were assigned to the failed salvage group (group F). FPSI of group F was 1.91 +/- 0.26 m/sec and of group S was 0.92 +/- 0.43 m/sec (P < 0.01). Pzf of group F was 51 +/- 3 mmHg and of group S was 51 +/- 5 mmHg (NS). Fzp of group F was -98 +/- 16 cm/sec and of group S was -46 +/- 4 cm/sec (P < 0.05). FPSI and the new index of Fzp were useful in estimating the extent of myocardial salvage. Our results suggest that the Pzf index could not differentiate between the two groups.

  10. Quantitative stress-redistribution planar T1-201 scintigraphy: Assessment of the extent of hypoperfused myocardium by relationship to angiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassir, R.; Maddahi, J.; Garcia, E.

    1984-01-01

    The size of hypoperfused myocardium (HM) in coronary artery (CA) disease (D) potentially provides a prognostic index that may not be accurately assess by conventional angiographic classification. The authors studied 62 consecutive patients (pts) with planar stress-redistribution T1-201 scintigraphy (T1-201) and coronary arteriography who did not have prior myocardial infarction and achieved 85% predicted maximum heart rate on exercise. Of 62 pts, 42 had CAD (>50% stenosis). For T1-201 quantification of the size of HM, maximum count circumferential profiles of initial distribution and % washout were obtained and compared to previously established normal limits. The area enclosed between the normal limits and the abnormal portion of the pt's profiles represented a quantitative T1-201 jeopardy score (JS). Despite increasing T1-201 JS from 1 to 3 vessel (V) and left-main (LM) D, significant overlap between the different angiographic groups was observed; of 45 pts with mild JS (<300), 14 (31%) had 3VD and/or LMD. The angiographic extent of CAD was also analyzed using a method (CLASS) proposed by Gensini et al based on the CA territory, location and severity of stenosis, and collateral circulation. T1-201 JS correlated significantly with CLASS (r=.78, p<.01). Of the 45 pts with mild JS, only 5 (11%) had severe CLASS score. Thus, the size of the hypoperfused myocardium by quantitative stress- and redistribution T1-201 correlates better with a more complex angiographic estimate of myocardium at risk than conventional 1, 2, and 3 vessel disease classification

  11. Multivariate prediction of spontaneous repetitive responses in ventricular myocardium exposed in vitro to simulated ischemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiariti, M; Puddu, P E; Rouet, R

    1994-06-01

    Guinea-pig ventricular myocardium was partly exposed to normal Tyrode's superfusion and partly to altered conditions (using modified Tyrode's solution) set to simulate acute myocardial ischemia (PO2 80 +/- 10 mmHg; no glucose; pH 7.00 +/- 0.05; K+ 12 mM). Using a double-chamber tissue bath and standard microelectrode technique, the occurrence of spontaneous repetitive responses was investigated during simulated ischemia (occlusion) and after reperfusing the previously ischemic superfused tissue with normal Tyrode's solution (reperfusion). In 62 experiments (42 animals) the effects of: (1) duration of simulated ischemia (1321 +/- 435 s), (2) stimulation rate (1002 +/- 549 ms) and (3) number of successive simulated ischemic periods (occlusions) (1.58 +/- 0.92) on: (1) resting membrane potential, (2) action potential amplitude, (3) duration of 50 and 90% action potentials and (4) maximal upstroke velocity of action potential were studied. All variables were considered as gradients (delta) between normal and ischemic tissue. Both during occlusion and upon reperfusion, spontaneous repetitive responses were coded as single, couplets, salvos (three to nine and > 10) or total spontaneous repetitive responses (coded present when at least one of the above-mentioned types was seen). The incidence of total spontaneous repetitive responses was 31% (19/62) on occlusion and 85% (53/62) upon reperfusion. Cox's models (forced and stepwise) were used to predict multivariately the occurrence of arrhythmic events considered as both total spontaneous repetitive responses and as separate entities. These models were applicable since continuous monitoring of the experiments enabled exact timing of spontaneous repetitive response onset during both occlusion and reperfusion. In predicting reperfusion spontaneous repetitive responses, total spontaneous repetitive responses and blocks observed during the occlusion period were also considered. Total occlusion spontaneous repetitive responses

  12. NMR study of damage on isolated perfused rat heart exposed to ischemia and hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xuechun; Yan Yongbin; Zhang Riqing; Fan Lili

    2001-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia is the most common and primary cause of myocardium damage. Numerous conventional techniques and methods have been developed for ischemia and reperfusion studies. However, because of damage to the heart sample, most of these techniques can not be used to continuously monitor the full dynamic course of the myocardial metabolic pathway. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) surface coil technique, which overcomes the limitations of conventional instrumentation, can be used to quantitatively study every stage of the perfused heart (especially after perfusion stoppage) continuously, dynamically, and without damage under normal or designed physiological conditions at the molecular level. In this paper, 31 P-NMR was used to study the effects of ischemia and hypoxia on isolated perfused hearts. The results show that complete hypoxia caused more severe functional damage to the myocardial cells than complete ischemia

  13. Identification of ischemic and hibernating myocardium: feasibility of post-exercise F-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwick, T.H.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Salcedo, E.E.; Go, R.T.; Saha, G.; Beachler, A.

    1991-01-01

    The identification of ischemic and hibernating myocardium facilitates the selection of patients most likely to benefit from revascularization. This study examined the feasibility of metabolic imaging, using post-exercise F-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for the diagnosis of both ischemia and hibernation in 27 patients with known coronary anatomy. Normal post-exercise FDG uptake was defined in each patient by reference to normal resting perfusion and normal coronary supply. Abnormal elevation of FDG (ischemia or hibernation) was compared in 13 myocardial segments in each patient, with the results of dipyridamole stress perfusion imaging performed by rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (Rb-PET). Myocardial ischemia was diagnosed by either FDG-PET or Rb-PET in 34 segments subtended by significant local coronary stenoses. Increased FDG uptake was present in 32/34 (94%) and a reversible perfusion defect was identified by Rb-PET in 22/34 (65%, p less than .01). In 3 patients, ischemia was identified by metabolic imaging alone. In 16 patients with previous myocardial infarction, perfusion defects were present at rest in 89 regions, 30 of which (34%) demonstrated increased FDG uptake, consistent with the presence of hibernation. Increased post-exercise FDG uptake appears to be a sensitive indicator of ischemia and myocardial hibernation. Increased post-exercise FDG uptake, appears to be a sensitive indicator of ischemia and myocardial hibernation. This test may be useful in selecting post-infarction patients for revascularization

  14. MRI in the diagnosis of non-compacted ventricular Myocardium (NCVM) compared to echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, F.; Habermann, C.R.; Sievers, J.; Weil, J.; Adam, G.; Lilje, C.; Razek, W.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To report the detection of con-compacted ventricular myocardium (NVCM) with MRI compared to echocardiography in 8 patients. Material and methods: Non-compaction of the ventricular myocardium is a congenital disorder characterized by an altered structure of the myocardial wall resulting from an intrauterine arrest in endomyocardial embryogenesis. The morphological findings consist of a prominent meshwork of multiple myocardial trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses, communicating with the left ventricular cavity. 8 consecutive patients (mean age 7.3 years) with clinical and echocardiographic signs of NCVM were examined by MRI (1.5 T, Vision, Siemens) in short axis and 2- and 4-chamber views, using T 1 -weighted TSE and Cine-GRE in 6 patients and true FISP sequences in 2 patients. MRI and echocardiography were evaluated for visibility, signs of NCVM and involvement of myocardial wall segments. Thickness was measured for non-compacted and compacted myocardium and the non-compacted to compacted (N/C) ratio calculated. Results: MRI diagnosed 6 of 8 patients of having NCVM. Myocardial thickness as measured by echocardiography and MRI showed a good correlation in compacted myocardium (r = 0.82) and no correlation in non-compacted myocardium (r = 0.4). In 2 cases, non-compacted myocardium was detected, but echocardiography did not reach the N/C ratio > 2 as required to diagnose NCVM in accordance with the criteria found in the literature. Both patients were also misdiagnosed by MRI performed with Cine-GRE. MRI reached a N/C ratio > 2 in only three patients. Newer TruFisp sequences showed no definite advantages. Extent of non-compaction could be visualized correctly with MRI. (orig.) [de

  15. Statistical and fractal analysis of autofluorescent myocardium images in posthumous diagnostics of acute coronary insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichuk, T. M.; Bachinskiy, V. T.; Vanchuliak, O. Ya.; Minzer, O. P.; Garazdiuk, M.; Motrich, A. V.

    2014-08-01

    This research presents the results of investigation of laser polarization fluorescence of biological layers (histological sections of the myocardium). The polarized structure of autofluorescence imaging layers of biological tissues was detected and investigated. Proposed the model of describing the formation of polarization inhomogeneous of autofluorescence imaging biological optically anisotropic layers. On this basis, analytically and experimentally tested to justify the method of laser polarimetry autofluorescent. Analyzed the effectiveness of this method in the postmortem diagnosis of infarction. The objective criteria (statistical moments) of differentiation of autofluorescent images of histological sections myocardium were defined. The operational characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy) of these technique were determined.

  16. Fibrinogen Vicenza and Genova II: two new cases of congenital dysfibrinogenemia with isolated defect of fibrin monomer polymerization and inhibitory activity on normal coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeghiero, F; Castaman, G C; Dal Belin Peruffo, A; Dini, E; Galletti, A; Barone, E; Gastaldi, G

    1987-06-03

    Two new cases of congenital dysfibrinogenemia are presented in which defective fibrin monomer polymerization and inhibitory activity on normal coagulation were observed. They have been tentatively called fibrinogen Vicenza and Genova II. The first was discovered in a family with mild bleeding diathesis, the second in an asymptomatic family. In almost all reported cases of fibrinogens with defective fibrin monomer polymerization, additional functional or structural defects have been detected. In our cases, on the contrary, detailed investigations failed to show any other abnormality. Fibrinogen Genova II is apparently identical to fibrinogen Baltimore IV, whereas fibrinogen Vicenza is similar to fibrinogen Troyes and Genova I, but also exerts an evident inhibitory activity on normal coagulation and differs from fibrinogen Genova II and Baltimore IV showing a different kinetic pattern of fibrin monomer polymerization.

  17. Clinical correlations, lactate extraction, coronary venous bloodflow and Thallium-201 myocardial imaging in patients with isolated left anterior descending muscle brigdes: Normal variant or obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, H.; Kupper, W.; Hanrath, P.; Mathey, D.; Montz, R.; Buecking, J.; Hamburg Univ.; Hamburg Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In 848 coronary arteriograms performed in a two-years period 21 patients (2.5%) showed a myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending artery. Resting- and/or stress-ECG were abnormal in half of the patients. Regional lactate-metabolism measured in the great cardiac vein at rest and during maximal atrial pacing was normal (29 +- 12 resp. 24 +- 9%). Thermodilution of great cardiac vein bloodflow at rest and during atrial pacing also demonstrated normal values (94 +- 33 resp. 138 +- 30 ml/min). Biphasic 201-Thallium myocardial imaging revealed no case of reversible perfusion defect, but surprisingly frequent (5 of 16 patients) clearly irreversible defects limited to the interventricular septum. We conclude that muscle bridges do not cause myocardial ischemia at rest or during exercice. (orig.) [de

  18. Hyperventilation and circadian rhythm of the electrical stability of rat myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svorc P

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pavol Svorc,1,2 Alexander Marossy,1 Pavol Svorc Jr2 1Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Safarik University, Kosice, Slovak Republic; 2Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Ostrava University, Ostrava, Czech Republic Objective: Respiratory alkalosis is an extremely common and complicated problem affecting virtually every organ system where the etiologies may be related to pulmonary or cardiovascular disorders. However, there are only few works describing daytime experiments or synchronization of animals to the external environmental periodicity. The aim of the study is to describe the circadian rhythm of the electrical stability of the heart under hyperventilatory conditions. Methods: Circadian rhythms of the electrical stability of the heart, measured by ventricular arrhythmia threshold ([VAT] measurement in 3 hour intervals, were followed during normal artificial ventilation (40 breaths/minute, tidal volume = 1 mL/100 g; n = 17 and hyperventilation (80 breaths/minute, tidal volume = 2 mL/100 g; n = 7 in pentobarbital (40 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally anesthetized female Wistar rats, after 4 week adaptation on the light/dark regime of 12 hour light/12 hour dark (40%–60% humidity, room temperature of 24°C in cages, two animals/cage with access to food and water ad libitum, with the dark period from 18.00h to 06.00h for 4 weeks. Results: The 24 hour course of the VAT showed the highest susceptibility of the rat ventricular myocardium to arrhythmias between 12.00h and 15.00h, and highest resistance between 19.20h and 00.28h (acrophase −338° in time at 22.53h with confidence intervals −2,880° to −70°, under normoxic conditions. Mesor was 2.59 ± 0.53 mA and amplitude 0.33 ± 0.11 mA. Hyperventilation increased the VAT at each interval of the measurement, but did not change the character of its circadian rhythm. Acrophase was on −40° (02.40h, mesor was increased (2.91 mA, and amplitude was decreased (0.13 m

  19. Review of the emerging role of optical polarimetry in characterization of pathological myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2017-10-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI), a cause of significant morbidity and mortality, is typically followed by microstructural alterations where the necrotic myocardium is steadily replaced with a collagen scar. Engineered remodeling of the fibrotic scar via stem cell regeneration has been shown to improve/restore the myocardium function after MI. Nevertheless, the heterogeneous nature of the scar patch may impair the myocardial electrical integrity, leading to the formation of arrhythmogenesis. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) offers an effective treatment for focal arrhythmias where local heating generated via electric current at specific spots in the myocardium ablate the arrhythmogenic foci. Characterization of these myocardial pathologies (i.e., infarcted, stem cell regenerated, and RFA-ablated myocardial tissues) is of potential clinical importance. Optical polarimetry, the use of light to map and characterize the polarization signatures of a sample, has emerged as a powerful imaging tool for structural characterization of myocardial tissues, exploiting the underlying highly fibrous tissue nature. This study aims to review the recent progress in optical polarimetry pertaining to the characterization of myocardial pathologies while describing the underlying biological rationales that give rise to the optical imaging contrast in various pathologies of the myocardium. Future possibilities of and challenges to optical polarimetry in cardiac imaging clinics are also discussed. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  20. Pitx2 confers left morphological, molecular, and functional identity to the sinus venosus myocardium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ammirabile, G.; Tessari, A.; Pignataro, V.; Szumska, D.; Sardo, F.S.; Beneš Jr., Jiří; Balistreri, M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Sedmera, David; Campione, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2012), s. 291-301 ISSN 0008-6363 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0615 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Pitx2 * sinus venosus myocardium * optical mapping * mouse cardiac development Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.940, year: 2012

  1. Synchronous In Situ ATPase Activity, Mechanics, and Ca2+ Sensitivity of Human and Porcine Myocardium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Griffiths, P. J.; Isackson, H.; Pelc, Radek; Redwood, C.S.; Funari, S.S.; Watkins, H.; Ashley, C. C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 9 (2009), s. 2503-2512 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Grant - others:EC(XE) RII3-CT-2004-506008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : myocardium * actomyosin- ATPase * synchrotron-radiation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.390, year: 2009

  2. Distribution and function of sodium channel subtypes in human atrial myocardium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, Susann G.; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Maass, Alexander H.; Lange, Volkmar; Renner, Andre; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Bonz, Andreas; Muck, Jenny; Ertl, Georg; Catterall, William A.; Scheuer, Todd; Maier, Sebastian K. G.

    Voltage-gated sodium channels composed of a pore-forming alpha subunit and auxiliary beta subunits are responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in cardiac muscle. However, their localization and expression patterns in human myocardium have not yet been clearly defined. We used

  3. Defined Engineered Human Myocardium with Advanced Maturation for Applications in Heart Failure Modelling and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcy, Malte; Hudson, James E.; Balfanz, Paul; Schlick, Susanne; Meyer, Tim; Liao, Mei-Ling Chang; Levent, Elif; Raad, Farah; Zeidler, Sebastian; Wingender, Edgar; Riegler, Johannes; Wang, Mouer; Gold, Joseph D.; Kehat, Izhak; Wettwer, Erich; Ravens, Ursula; Dierickx, Pieterjan; van Laake, Linda W.; Goumans, Marie Jose; Khadjeh, Sara; Toischer, Karl; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Couture, Larry A.; Unger, Andreas; Linke, Wolfgang A.; Araki, Toshiyuki; Neel, Benjamin; Keller, Gordon; Gepstein, Lior; Wu, Joseph C.; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus

    2017-01-01

    Background Advancing structural and functional maturation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes remains a key challenge for applications in disease modelling, drug screening, and heart repair. Here, we sought to advance cardiomyocyte maturation in engineered human myocardium (EHM) towards an adult phenotype under defined conditions. Methods We systematically investigated cell composition, matrix and media conditions to generate EHM from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts with organotypic functionality under serum-free conditions. We employed morphological, functional, and transcriptome analyses to benchmark maturation of EHM. Results EHM demonstrated important structural and functional properties of postnatal myocardium, including: (1) rod-shaped cardiomyocytes with M-bands assembled as a functional syncytium; (2) systolic twitch forces at a similar level as observed in bona fide postnatal myocardium; (3) a positive force-frequency-response; (4) inotropic responses to β-adrenergic stimulation mediated via canonical β1- and β2-adrenoceptor signaling pathways; and (5) evidence for advanced molecular maturation by transcriptome profiling. EHM responded to chronic catecholamine toxicity with contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte death, and NT-proBNP release; all are classical hallmarks of heart failure. Additionally, we demonstrate scalability of EHM according to anticipated clinical demands for cardiac repair. Conclusions We provide proof-of-concept for a universally applicable technology for the engineering of macro-scale human myocardium for disease modelling and heart repair from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes under defined, serum-free conditions. PMID:28167635

  4. Defined Engineered Human Myocardium With Advanced Maturation for Applications in Heart Failure Modeling and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcy, Malte; Hudson, James E; Balfanz, Paul; Schlick, Susanne; Meyer, Tim; Chang Liao, Mei-Ling; Levent, Elif; Raad, Farah; Zeidler, Sebastian; Wingender, Edgar; Riegler, Johannes; Wang, Mouer; Gold, Joseph D; Kehat, Izhak; Wettwer, Erich; Ravens, Ursula; Dierickx, Pieterjan; van Laake, Linda W; Goumans, Marie Jose; Khadjeh, Sara; Toischer, Karl; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Couture, Larry A; Unger, Andreas; Linke, Wolfgang A; Araki, Toshiyuki; Neel, Benjamin; Keller, Gordon; Gepstein, Lior; Wu, Joseph C; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus

    2017-05-09

    Advancing structural and functional maturation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes remains a key challenge for applications in disease modeling, drug screening, and heart repair. Here, we sought to advance cardiomyocyte maturation in engineered human myocardium (EHM) toward an adult phenotype under defined conditions. We systematically investigated cell composition, matrix, and media conditions to generate EHM from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts with organotypic functionality under serum-free conditions. We used morphological, functional, and transcriptome analyses to benchmark maturation of EHM. EHM demonstrated important structural and functional properties of postnatal myocardium, including: (1) rod-shaped cardiomyocytes with M bands assembled as a functional syncytium; (2) systolic twitch forces at a similar level as observed in bona fide postnatal myocardium; (3) a positive force-frequency response; (4) inotropic responses to β-adrenergic stimulation mediated via canonical β 1 - and β 2 -adrenoceptor signaling pathways; and (5) evidence for advanced molecular maturation by transcriptome profiling. EHM responded to chronic catecholamine toxicity with contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte death, and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide release; all are classical hallmarks of heart failure. In addition, we demonstrate the scalability of EHM according to anticipated clinical demands for cardiac repair. We provide proof-of-concept for a universally applicable technology for the engineering of macroscale human myocardium for disease modeling and heart repair from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes under defined, serum-free conditions. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium Associated with Acute Spinal Cord Infarction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian A. Beauchamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM is a reversible cardiomyopathy resulting in transient left ventricular apical ballooning presumed to result from catecholamine surge occurring under physiologic stress. Acute spinal cord ischemia is a rare ischemic vascular lesion. We report a case of neurogenic stunned myocardium occurring in the setting of acute spinal cord infarction. Methods. Singe case report was used. Results. We present the case of a 63-year-old female with a history of prior lacunar stroke, hypertension, chronic back pain, and hypothyroidism who presented with a brief episode of diffuse abdominal and bilateral lower extremity pain which progressed within minutes to bilateral lower extremity flaccid paralysis. MRI of the spinal cord revealed central signal hyperintensity of T2-weighted imaging from conus to T8 region, concerning for acute spinal cord ischemia. Transthoracic echocardiogram was performed to determine if a cardiac embolic phenomenon may have precipitated this ischemic event and showed left ventricular apical hypokinesis and ballooning concerning for NSM. Conclusion. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a reversible cardiomyopathy which has been described in patients with physiologic stress resulting in ventricular apical ballooning. Our case suggests that it is possible for neurogenic stunned myocardium to occur in the setting of acute spinal cord ischemia.

  6. Effects of Cordyceps sinensis on the Expressions of NF-κB and TGF-β1 in Myocardium of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-you Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of Cordyceps sinensis (CS on the expressions of NF-κB and TGF-β1 in myocardium of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods. A total of 53 healthy male SD rats, mice age of 8 weeks and weight of 220 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into five groups by randomized block design: normal control group (n=10, diabetic group (n=10, low dose of CS group (n=12; CS 0.6 g·kg−1·d−1, middle dose of CS group (n=11; CS 2.5 g·kg−1·d−1, and high dose of CS group (n=10; CS 5 g·kg−1·d−1. The diabetic models with tail intravenous injection by streptozotocin (45 mg·kg−1. Diabetic rats were sacrificed after 8 weeks; the expressions of NF-κB and TGF-β1 proteins and mRNA in the cardiac muscle were determined by using immunohistochemistry staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method. The data were analyzed using one factor analysis of variance. Result. The expressions of NF-κB and TGF-β1 proteins and mRNA in the cardiac muscle of diabetic rats were significantly raised (P<0.05, which could be decreased by CS (P<0.05. Conclusions. The changes on the expressions of NF-κB and TGF-β1 in myocardium may be involved in the occurrence of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC. CS may play its role on myocardial protection by regulating the expressions of NF-κB and TGF-β1 in myocardium.

  7. Radiolabeled Rhein as Small-Molecule Necrosis Avid Agents for Imaging of Necrotic Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi; Jin, Qiaomei; Su, Chang; Zhang, Dongjian; Jiang, Cuihua; Fish, Anne Folta; Feng, Yuanbo; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi

    2017-01-17

    A rapid and accurate identification of necrotic myocardium is of great importance for diagnosis, risk stratification, clinical decision-making, and prognosis evaluation of myocardial infarction. Here, we explored technetium-99m labeled rhein derivatives for rapid imaging of the necrotic myocardium. Three hydrazinonicotinic acid-linker-rhein (HYNIC-linker-rhein) derivatives were synthesized, and then, these synthetic compounds were labeled with technetium-99m using ethylenediaminediacetic acid (EDDA) and tricine as coligands [ 99m Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-linker-rhein]. The necrosis avidity of the three 99m Tc-labeled rhein derivatives was tested in a mouse model of ethanol-induced muscular necrosis by gamma counting, histochemical staining, and autoradiography. A lead tracer for visualization of necrotic myocardium was assessed by single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging in a rat model with reperfused myocardial infarction. The necrosis avidity mechanism of the tracer was explored by DNA binding studies in vitro and blocking experiments in vivo. Results showed that the uptake in necrotic muscles of the three 99m Tc-compounds was higher than that in viable muscles (P EDDA)-HYNIC-ethylenediamine-rhein [ 99m Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-2C-rhein] displayed the best distribution profiles for imaging. The necrotic myocardium lesions were clearly visualized by SPECT/CT using 99m Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-2C-rhein at 1 h after injection. The necrotic-to-viable myocardium and necrotic myocardium-to-blood uptake ratios of 99m Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-2C-rhein were 4.79 and 3.02 at 1 h after injection. DNA binding studies suggested HYNIC-linker-rhein bound to DNA through intercalation. The uptake of 99m Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-2C-rhein in necrotic muscle was significantly blocked by excessive unlabeled rhein, with 77.61% decline at 1 h after coinjection. These findings suggested 99m Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-2C-rhein emerged as a "hot spot" imaging probe that has a potential for rapid imaging of

  8. Effect of insulin on albumin production and incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins in isolated parenchymal liver cells from normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, J; Gluud, C N

    1975-01-01

    the immunologically determined increment in the incubation medium was 1.7 +/- 0.2 mug albumin/min per g liver wet wt. This is about 30% of the rate of production in the perfused liver. Addition of insulin (10(-6)-10(-10) M) enhanced albumin production (50-17%), and incorporation of 14C-leucine both into albumin (50......Parenchymal rat liver cells were isolated by a modification of the collagenase method of Quistorff, Bondesen and Grunnet. The cells secreted albumin into the medium and incorporated 14C-leucine both into cell proteins and proteins secreted into the medium. Albumin production measured from......-8%), secreted proteins (40-9%) and cell proteins (20-8%). Insulin does not increase the production of albumin by depleting the cells. The effect of insulin on albumin production is compatible with an effect on the rate of synthesis as the specific activity of albumin is unaffected by addition of insulin....

  9. Amino acid transamination is crucial for ischaemic cardioprotection in normal and preconditioned isolated rat hearts--focus on L-glutamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Povlsen, Jonas Agerlund; Rasmussen, Lars Ege

    2010-01-01

    We have found that cardioprotection by l-glutamate mimics protection by classical ischaemic preconditioning (IPC). We investigated whether the effect of IPC involves amino acid transamination and whether IPC modulates myocardial glutamate metabolism. In a glucose-perfused, isolated rat heart model...... subjected to 40 min global no-flow ischaemia and 120 min reperfusion, the effects of IPC (2 cycles of 5 min ischaemia and 5 min reperfusion) and continuous glutamate (20 mm) administration during reperfusion on infarct size and haemodynamic recovery were studied. The effect of inhibiting amino acid...... transamination was evaluated by adding the amino acid transaminase inhibitor amino-oxyacetate (AOA; 0.025 mm) during reperfusion. Changes in coronary effluent, interstitial (microdialysis) and intracellular glutamate ([GLUT](i)) concentrations were measured. Ischaemic preconditioning and postischaemic glutamate...

  10. 14(R,S)-[18F]Fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid as a tracer of free fatty acid uptake and oxidation in myocardium and skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takala, Teemu O.; Nuutila, Pirjo; Pulkki, Kari; Oikonen, Vesa; Groenroos, Tove; Bergman, Joergen; Forsback, Sarita; Knuuti, Juhani; Savunen, Timo; Vaehaesilta, Tommi; Luotolahti, Matti; Kallajoki, Markku

    2002-01-01

    14(R,S)-[ 18 F]Fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid ([ 18 F]FTHA) is a long-chain fatty acid substrate for fatty acid metabolism. [ 18 F]FTHA has been used to study fatty acid metabolism in human heart and skeletal muscle. It has been suggested that the rate of radioactivity accumulation in the myocardium reflects the beta-oxidation rate of free fatty acids (FFAs). However, the net accumulation of FFAs in tissue always represents the sum of FFA oxidation and incorporation into triglycerides. The fraction of [ 18 F]FTHA entering directly into mitochondria for oxidation has not been previously measured. Eight anaesthetized pigs were studied with [ 18 F]FTHA and positron emission tomography (PET). Immediately after each PET experiment, tissue samples from myocardium and skeletal muscle were taken for the isolation of mitochondria and measurements of radioactivity accumulation, and for intracellular [ 18 F]FTHA metabolite analysis. Fractional [ 18 F]FTHA uptake rates were calculated both by graphical analysis of PET data and by measuring 18 F in the tissue samples. Fractional [ 18 F]FTHA uptake rates based on the analysis of tissue samples were 0.56±0.17 ml g -1 min -1 and 0.037±0.007 ml g -1 min -1 for myocardium and skeletal muscle (mean ± SD), respectively. The myocardial results obtained from the PET data (0.50±0.11 ml g -1 min -1 ) were similar to the values obtained from the tissue samples (r=0.94, P=0.002). We also found that 89%±23% (mean±SD, n=7) of the 18 F entered mitochondria in myocardium, as compared with only 36%±15% (mean±SD, n=7) in skeletal muscle. Intracellular [ 18 F]FTHA metabolite analysis showed that a major part of [ 18 F]FTHA is metabolized in the mitochondria in the heart. Our data suggest that 89% of [ 18 F]FTHA taken up by the heart enters mitochondria. This supports the hypothesis that [ 18 F]FTHA traces FFA beta-oxidation in the heart. In contrast to this, only 36% of [ 18 F]FTHA accumulated in skeletal muscle appears to directly enter

  11. Comparative study between MRI and echocardiography in noncompaction of ventricular myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Ziyan; Xia Liming; Wang Chengyuan; Rao Jingjing; Shenyu Weihui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the MRI and echocardiography manifestations of noncompaction of ventricular myocardium(NVM) and assess the role of MR1 in the diagnosis of NVM by comparing it with echocardiography. Methods: Fourteen cases of NVM diagnosed by echocardiography were examined with MRI, including scanning of black-blood sequences, double inversion recovery fast spin echo (DIBFSE) and triple inversion recovery fast spin echo (TIRFSE), and white blood sequence: fast imaging employ steady state acquisition (FIESTA). Scanning plane includes short axis view, four-chamber view and long axis view. Results: Both MRI and echocardiography displayed involvement of left ventricles in thirteen cases and involvement of double ventricles in one case. Apexes of heart and the intermedius are commonly affected. MRI showed 54 segments and echocardiography showed 53 segments affected, and there is no significant difference between the capability of MRI and echocardiography (P=1,000). The affected myocardium consisted of two layers: subendocardial noncompacted myocardium and epicardial compacted myocardium, and the ratio measurement of N/C by MRI was 3.37±0.89 and it was 3.19±0.82 by echocardiography. Noncompacted myocardium was characterized by prominent and excessive myocardial trabeculations and deep intratrabecular recesses, in which the blood flow was communicated with the ventricle. One case was complicated with ventricular aneurysm, and coronary arteriography was performed with unremarkable findings. One case underwent heart transplantation because of progressive heart failure, Gross findings demonstrated prominent muscular' trabeculations with deep intratrabecular recesses, which coincided well with MRI findings. Conclusion: The MRI manifestation of NVM is characteristic, and MRI with multiple series and planes is helpful in the diagnose of NVM. Compared with echocardiography, MRI could display the pathological cardiac muscle more clearly, because of its high soft

  12. Decline of Phosphotransfer and Substrate Supply Metabolic Circuits Hinders ATP Cycling in Aging Myocardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emirhan Nemutlu

    Full Text Available Integration of mitochondria with cytosolic ATP-consuming/ATP-sensing and substrate supply processes is critical for muscle bioenergetics and electrical activity. Whether age-dependent muscle weakness and increased electrical instability depends on perturbations in cellular energetic circuits is unknown. To define energetic remodeling of aged atrial myocardium we tracked dynamics of ATP synthesis-utilization, substrate supply, and phosphotransfer circuits through adenylate kinase (AK, creatine kinase (CK, and glycolytic/glycogenolytic pathways using 18O stable isotope-based phosphometabolomic technology. Samples of intact atrial myocardium from adult and aged rats were subjected to 18O-labeling procedure at resting basal state, and analyzed using the 18O-assisted HPLC-GC/MS technique. Characteristics for aging atria were lower inorganic phosphate Pi[18O], γ-ATP[18O], β-ADP[18O], and creatine phosphate CrP[18O] 18O-labeling rates indicating diminished ATP utilization-synthesis and AK and CK phosphotransfer fluxes. Shift in dynamics of glycolytic phosphotransfer was reflected in the diminished G6P[18O] turnover with relatively constant glycogenolytic flux or G1P[18O] 18O-labeling. Labeling of G3P[18O], an indicator of G3P-shuttle activity and substrate supply to mitochondria, was depressed in aged myocardium. Aged atrial myocardium displayed reduced incorporation of 18O into second (18O2, third (18O3, and fourth (18O4 positions of Pi[18O] and a lower Pi[18O]/γ-ATP[18 O]-labeling ratio, indicating delayed energetic communication and ATP cycling between mitochondria and cellular ATPases. Adrenergic stress alleviated diminished CK flux, AK catalyzed β-ATP turnover and energetic communication in aging atria. Thus, 18O-assisted phosphometabolomics uncovered simultaneous phosphotransfer through AK, CK, and glycolytic pathways and G3P substrate shuttle deficits hindering energetic communication and ATP cycling, which may underlie energetic

  13. Selective blockade of protein kinase B protects the rat and human myocardium against ischaemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Palomino, José; Husainy, Muhammad A; Lai, Vien K; Dickenson, John M; Galiñanes, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) plays a critical role in cell survival but the investigation of its involvement has been limited by the lack of specific pharmacological agents. In this study, using novel PKB inhibitors (VIII and XI), we investigated the role of PKB in cardioprotection of the rat and human myocardium, the location of PKB in relation to mitoKATP channels and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and whether the manipulation of PKB can overcome the unresponsiveness to protection of the diabetic myocardium. Myocardial slices from rat left ventricle and from the right atrial appendage of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were subjected to 90 min ischaemia/120 min reoxygenation at 37°C. Tissue injury was assessed by creatine kinase (CK) released and determination of cell necrosis and apoptosis. The results showed that blockade of PKB activity caused significant reduction of CK release and cell death, a benefit that was as potent as ischaemic preconditioning and could be reproduced by blockade of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) with wortmannin and LY 294002. The protection was time dependent with maximal benefit seen when PKB and PI-3K were inhibited before ischaemia or during both ischaemia and reoxygenation. In addition, it was revealed that PKB is located downstream of mitoKATP channels but upstream of p38 MAPK. PKB inhibition induced a similar degree of protection in the human and rat myocardium and, importantly, it reversed the unresponsiveness to protection of the diabetic myocardium. In conclusion, inhibition of PKB plays a critical role in protection of the mammalian myocardium and may represent a clinical target for the reduction of ischaemic injury. PMID:20403980

  14. DNA-content in isolated nuclei of postembryonic stages of progeny from normal and irradiated males of Tetranychus urticae (Acari Tetranychidoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelaar, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The lC DNA-content of isolated nuclei of postembryonic stages of Tetranychus urticae stained with the classic and a modified Schiff's reagent was cytophotometrically estimated as 0.1 pg, a low value in animals. For many tissues of this arrhenotokus species the ploidy ratio between males and females is 1:2, indicating the absence of sex-related differences in ploidy. In addition, DNA measurements were performed to evaluate irradiation-experiments, starting with X-irradiation of mature sperm in males with doses known from previous work to induce chromosomal fragments that are subject to loss and missegregation in the embryonic mitotic stages of the female progeny despite the presumed holokinetic nature of the chromosomes. The DNA-content of the nuclei of the surviving postembryonic preadult stages did not indicate the occurrence of nuclei with in-between male/female values, ruling out loss and missegregation of fragments as important factors in postembryonic lethality. Abnormally low DNA-values in some adult females could be attributed to development of embryos before oviposition caused by radiation-induced effects. (orig.) [de

  15. Differentiation of recently infarcted myocardium from chronic myocardial scar: the value of contrast-enhanced SSFP-based cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Ah; Seo, Joon Beom; Do, Kyoung Hyun; Heo, Jeong Nam; Lee, Young Kyung; Song, Jae Woo; Lee, Jin Seong; Song, Koun Sik; Lim, Tae Hwan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether the signal intensity (SI) of myocardial infarction (MI) on contrast enhanced (CE)-cine MRI is useful for differentiating recently infarcted myocardium from chronic scar. This study included 24 patients with acute MI (36-84) years, mean age: 57) and 19 patients with chronic MI (44-80) years, mean age: 64). The diagnosis of acute MI was based on the presence of typical symptoms, i.e. elevation of the cardiac enzymes and the absence of any remote infarction history. The diagnosis of chronic MI was based on a history of MI or coronary artery disease of more than one month duration and on the absence of any recent MI within the previous six months. Retrospectively, the ECG-gated breath-hold cine imaging was performed in the short axis plane using a segmented, balanced, turbo-field, echo-pulse sequence two minutes after the administration of Gd-DTPA at a dose of 0.2 mmol/kg body weight. Delayed contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE MRI) in the same plane was performed 10 to 15 minutes after contrast administration, and this was served as the gold standard of reference. The SI of the infarcted myocardium on the CE-cine MRI was compared with that of the normal myocardium on the same image. The area of abnormal SI on the CE-cine MRI was compared with the area of hyper enhancement on the DCE MRI. The area of high SI on the CE-cine MRI was detected in 23 of 24 patients with acute MI (10 with homogenous high SI, 13 high SI with subendocardial low SI, and one with iso SI). The area of high SI on the CE- cine MRI was larger than that seen on the DCE MRI (ρ < 0.05). In contrast, the areas of chronic MI were seen as iso-SI with thin subendocardial low SI on the CE-cine MR in all the chronic MI patients. The presence of high SI on both the CE-cine MRI and the DCE MRI is more sensitive (95.8%) for determining the age of a MI than the presence of myocardial thinning (66.7%). The study showed the different SI patterns between recently

  16. Regional glucose utilization in infarcted and remote myocardium: its relation to coronary anatomy and perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, G; Chierchia, S L; Landoni, C; Lucignani, G; Rossetti, E; Sciammarella, M; Vanoli, G E; Fazio, F

    1998-07-01

    -revascularized patients of those remote areas which are apparently normally perfused, but show abnormal fasting FDG uptake after myocardial infarction. Such studies may have important implications for the management of post-infarct patients, as the preservation of coronary vasodilator reserve and myocardial metabolism in remote myocardium may be seen as an additional goal in the treatment of such patients.

  17. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Czompa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related cardiovascular disease. Methods: Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM extract suspended in mucin–water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control. Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO and treatment (Control or BM. Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results: Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in

  18. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czompa, Attila; Gyongyosi, Alexandra; Szoke, Kitti; Bak, Istvan; Csepanyi, Evelin; Haines, David D; Tosaki, Arpad; Lekli, Istvan

    2017-03-20

    Objective : A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM)) extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease. Methods : Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO) rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM) extract suspended in mucin-water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control). Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO) and treatment (Control or BM). Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results : Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in blood of ZO

  19. Separate effects of ischemia, hypoxia, and contractility on thallium-201 kinetics in rabbit myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppo, J.A.; Macneil, P.B.; Moring, A.F.; Apstein, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of hypoxia and ischemia, as well as altered contractility, on thallium-201 ( 201 TI) kinetics were evaluated in 42 isolated isovolumetrically contracting rabbit hearts. In Group A, three subgroups (n = 7 each) were studied that had either normal flow and oxygenation, hypoxia and normal flow, or ischemic flow and normal perfusate oxygen content. In Group B, three subgroups (n = 7 each) were studied and all hearts had normal flow but the contractile state was either enhanced with isoproterenol or impaired by hypocalcemia. A hemoglobin-free buffer perfusate was used in all experiments and multiple timed collections of arterial and coronary sinus effluent were used to model myocardial isotope activity during 30 min of constant uptake followed by 30 min of tracer clearance. During ischemia, hypoxia and hypocalcemia peak developed pressure and peak positive and negative dP/dt were all significantly reduced when compared to normal hemodynamic parameters (p less than 0.01). As expected, isoproterenol significantly elevated these parameters (p less than 0.04). Myocardial 201 TI kinetics were adequately described utilizing a bi-exponential model having a fast and slow component. Only ischemic hearts had significantly lower rate constants for 201 TI uptake and clearance than normal hearts (p less than 0.001). The mean (+/- s.d.) myocardial uptake and clearance rates for 201 TI (%/min) varied between 4.86 +/- 0.87 and 7.18 +/- 1.45 for the remaining groups of hearts. Therefore, myocardial 201 TI kinetics appear to be dominated by coronary flow and may not reflect marked alterations in the metabolic and contractile state. These data suggest that normal 201 TI uptake in impaired or hypercontractile cells, receiving normal flow, may not represent normal cellular function

  20. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  1. Advances in Cell Transplantation Therapy for Diseased Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi M. Villet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of cell transplantation is to repopulate postinfarction scar with contractile cells, thus improving systolic function, and to prevent or to regress the remodeling process. Direct implantation of isolated myoblasts, cardiomyocytes, and bone-marrow-derived cells has shown prospect for improved cardiac performance in several animal models and patients suffering from heart failure. However, direct implantation of cultured cells can lead to major cell loss by leakage and cell death, inappropriate integration and proliferation, and cardiac arrhythmia. To resolve these problems an approach using 3-dimensional tissue-engineered cell constructs has been investigated. Cell engineering technology has enabled scaffold-free sheet development including generation of communication between cell graft and host tissue, creation of organized microvascular network, and relatively long-term survival after in vivo transplantation.

  2. Quantitative estimation of viable myocardium in the infarcted zone by infarct-redistribution map from images of exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiai, Yasuhiro

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate, quantitatively, the viable myocardium in the infarcted zone, we invented the infarct-redistribution map which is produced from images of exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography performed on 10 healthy subjects and 20 patients with myocardial infarction. The map displayed a left ventricle in which the infarcted area both with and without redistribution, the redistribution area without infarction, and normal perfusion area were shown separated in same screen. In these circumstances, the nonredistribution infarct lesion was found as being surrounded by the redistribution area. Indices of infarct and redistribution extent (defect score, % defect, redistribution ratio (RR) and redistribution index (RI)), were induced from the map and were used for quantitative analysis of the redistribution area and as the basis for comparative discussion regarding regional wall motion of the left ventricle. The quantitative indices of defect score, % defect, RR and RI were consistent with the visual assessment of planar images in detecting the extent of redistribution. Furthermore, defect score and % defect had an inverted linear relationship with % shortening (r = -0.573; p < 0.05, r = -0.536; p < 0.05, respectively), and RI had a good linear relationship with % shortening (r = 0.669; p < 0.01). We conclude that the infarct-redistribution map accurately reflects the myocardial viability and therefore may be useful for quantitative estimation of viable myocardium in the infarcted zone. (author)

  3. Fractal analysis of phasic laser images of the myocardium for the purpose of diagnostics of acute coronary insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchuliak, O. Y.; Bachinskyi, V. T.

    2011-09-01

    In this work on the base of Mueller-matrix description of optical anisotropy, the possibility of monitoring of time changes of myocardium tissue birefringence, has been considered. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of myocardium is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the distributions of Mueller matrix elements in the points of laser images of myocardium histological sections. The criteria of differentiation of death coming reasons are determined.

  4. Effect of L-glutamate on the metabolic recovery of the myocardium after K sup (+)- induced cardioplegic arrest. Die effek van L-glutamaat op die metaboliese herstel van die miokard na K sup (+)-geinduseerde kardioplegiese arres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neethling, W M.L.

    1984-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effect of L-glutamate on the metabolic recovery of the myocardium after K sup (+)-induced cardioplegic arrest. Isolated rat hearts and intact dog hearts were subjected to a K sup (+)-induced cardioplegic period of 60 minutes. Preservation temperature was kept constant at 26 degrees Celsius during the entire cardioplegic period. Different concentrations of L-glutamate were added to a dose of secondary cardioplegia. Several parameters, such as isotonic contraction, left ventricular function, enzymatic changes, coronary vascular resistance (coronary flow), oedema, re-animation time-interval and lactate-release were used to determine the above mentioned effect. Radioactive L-glutamate was used to determine the quantitative uptake and distribution of L-glutamate in the myocardium. Basic spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase and lactate. Standard differential separation methods were used to divide myocardial samples into the different tissue and cytologic fractions. Biophysical methods were used to measure radioactivity in the respective tissue and cytologic fractions. Experimental results were statistically analyzed according to analysis of variance and at-test (Tukey's Test). Preliminary findings stress the important role of L-glutamate in the metabolic recovery of the myocardium after K sup (+)-induced arrest and consequently the positive contribution in the search for the best method of myocardial preservation during cardiac surgery.

  5. The Histological Effects of L-arginine on Ventricular Myocardium in Iron Treated Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sofiabadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Iron overload is detrimental for the body and can create damage to different body tissues, such as myocardium by producing oxidative stress. Therefore, the antioxidant factors can neutralize iron induced damages. According to available reports, L-arginine as a precursor nitric oxide production has antioxidant effects. This study was carried out to evaluate the histological effects of iron overload on ventricular muscle and preventive role of L-arginine in male rats.
    Methods: In this experiment, 40 male rats with weight range of 300-250g were divided at random into five equal groups including:1- Control, 2- Iron (10mg/kg, ip, 3- Iron(10mg/kg, ip+L-arginine (1mg/ml, po, 4- Iron (50mg/kg, ip and 5- Iron (50mg/kg,ip+L-arginine(1mg/ml,po. After treatment (6 weeks, the animals were anesthetized and the samples of left apical ventricular myocardium were taken out and morphological studies were done following fixation with 10% formalin and H&E staining. Microscopic parameters under study were cell swelling, vessel dilatation and hypercongestion, cell necrosis and tissue deformity. The type and severity of damage to the tissue were also noted. Data were analyzed using chi-square statistical procedure, and Pvalue≤0.05 were considered to be significant. 
    Results: The data showed moderate changes in the ventricular myocardium of group 2 that was significant in comparison to the control group (P<0.05. The ventricular myocardium of group 3 showed low changes and wasn't significant in comparison to control group (P=0.84. The ventricular myocardium of the group 4 showed severe changes in comparison to the control group (P<0.01. The low change showed in the ventricular myocardium of group 5 that wasn't significant in comparison to the control group.

    Conclusion: This study showed

  6. Application of cine cardiac MR imaging in normal subjects and patients with valvular, coronary artery, and aortic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddahi, J.; Ostrzega, E.; Crues, J.; Honma, H.; Siegel, R.; Charuzi, Y.; Berman, D.

    1987-01-01

    Cine MR imaging was performed on 15 normal subjects and 27 patients with cardiac disease. In normal subjects, high signal intensity of flowing blood contrasted with that of the myocardium. In 16 patients with valvular regurgitation, signal void jet due to turbulence was visualized across the diseased valves. In three IHSS patients, thickened LV myocardium, mitral regurgitant jets, and systolic LV outflow jets were noted. Five patients with myocardial infarction (MI) showed thinning and/or hypokinesis of MI regions. In three patients with Marfan syndrome, aortic dilatation, insufficiency, and flap (one pt) were identified. Cine MR imaging is potentially useful for evaluation of a variety of cardiac diseases

  7. Characterization of the functional and anatomical differences in the atrial and ventricular myocardium from three species of elasmobranch fishes: smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), and clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Julie; Bushnell, Peter; Steffensen, John; Pedersen, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus; Brill, Richard

    2017-02-01

    We assessed the functional properties in atrial and ventricular myocardium (using isolated cardiac strips) of smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), and sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) by blocking Ca 2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with ryanodine and thapsigargin and measuring the resultant changes in contraction-relaxation parameters and the force-frequency relationship at 20 °C and 30 °C. We also examined ultrastructural differences with electron microscopy. In tissues from smooth dogfish, net force (per cross-sectional area) and measures of the speeds of contraction and relaxation were all higher in atrial than ventricular myocardium at both temperatures. Atrial-ventricular differences were evident in the other two species primarily in measures of the rates of contraction and relaxation. Ryanodine-thapsigargin treatment reduced net force and its maximum positive first derivative (i.e., contractility), and increased time to 50 % relaxation in atrial tissue from smooth dogfish at 30 °C. It also increased times to peak force and half relaxation in clearnose skate atrial and ventricular tissue at both temperatures, but only in atrial tissue from sandbar shark at 30 °C; indicating that SR involvement in excitation-contraction (EC) coupling is species- and temperature-specific in elasmobranch fishes, as it is in teleost fishes. Atrial and ventricular myocardium from all three species displayed a negative force-frequency relationship, but there was no evidence that SR involvement in EC coupling was influenced by heart rate. SR was evident in electron micrographs, generally located in proximity to mitochondria and intercalated discs, and to a lesser extent between the myofibrils; with mitochondria being more numerous in ventricular than atrial myocardium in all three species.

  8. Endothelial progenitor cells regenerate infracted myocardium with neovascularisation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Aziz, M T; Abd El Nabi, E A; Abd El Hamid, M; Sabry, D; Atta, H M; Rahed, L A; Shamaa, A; Mahfouz, S; Taha, F M; Elrefaay, S; Gharib, D M; Elsetohy, Khaled A

    2015-03-01

    We achieved possibility of isolation, characterization human umbilical cord blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), examination potency of EPCs to form new blood vessels and differentiation into cardiomyoctes in canines with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). EPCs were separated and cultured from umbilical cord blood. Their phenotypes were confirmed by uptake of double stains dioctadecyl tetramethylindocarbocyanine-labeled acetylated LDL and FITC-labeled Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (DILDL-UEA-1). EPCs of cord blood were counted. Human VEGFR-2 and eNOS from the cultured EPCs were assessed by qPCR. Human EPCs was transplanted intramyocardially in canines with AMI. ECG and cardiac enzymes (CK-MB and Troponin I) were measured to assess severity of cellular damage. Histopathology was done to assess neovascularisation. Immunostaining was done to detect EPCs transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes in peri-infarct cardiac tissue. qPCR for human genes (hVEGFR-2, and eNOS) was done to assess homing and angiogenic function of transplanted EPCs. Cultured human cord blood exhibited an increased number of EPCs and significant high expression of hVEGFR-2 and eNOS genes in the culture cells. Histopathology showed increased neovascularization and immunostaining showed presence of EPCs newly differentiated into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings suggested that hEPCs can mediate angiogenesis and differentiate into cardiomyoctes in canines with AMI.

  9. Endothelial progenitor cells regenerate infracted myocardium with neovascularisation development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Abd El Aziz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We achieved possibility of isolation, characterization human umbilical cord blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, examination potency of EPCs to form new blood vessels and differentiation into cardiomyoctes in canines with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. EPCs were separated and cultured from umbilical cord blood. Their phenotypes were confirmed by uptake of double stains dioctadecyl tetramethylindocarbocyanine-labeled acetylated LDL and FITC-labeled Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (DILDL-UEA-1. EPCs of cord blood were counted. Human VEGFR-2 and eNOS from the cultured EPCs were assessed by qPCR. Human EPCs was transplanted intramyocardially in canines with AMI. ECG and cardiac enzymes (CK-MB and Troponin I were measured to assess severity of cellular damage. Histopathology was done to assess neovascularisation. Immunostaining was done to detect EPCs transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes in peri-infarct cardiac tissue. qPCR for human genes (hVEGFR-2, and eNOS was done to assess homing and angiogenic function of transplanted EPCs. Cultured human cord blood exhibited an increased number of EPCs and significant high expression of hVEGFR-2 and eNOS genes in the culture cells. Histopathology showed increased neovascularization and immunostaining showed presence of EPCs newly differentiated into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings suggested that hEPCs can mediate angiogenesis and differentiate into cardiomyoctes in canines with AMI.

  10. Age-dependent changes in expression of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in rat myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, W.; Williams, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The expression of alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors within ventricular myocardium of rats ranging in age from 21 days of fetal life to 24 months after birth was measured from [ 125 I] 2-(β hydroxy phenyl) ethylaminomethyl tetralone binding isotherms. No difference was observed in binding affinity between any of the age groups studied. The number of alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors was found to be 60-120% higher in membranes from fetal or immature rats up to 25 days of age when compared with adult animals. The increased expression of alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors in the developing heart relative to that observed in adult heart is consistent with the hypothesis that alpha 1 -adrenergic receptor stimulation may modulate protein synthesis and growth in mammalian myocardium

  11. Kronisk iskaemisk hjerteinsufficiens. Revaskularisering bedrer overlevelsen blandt patienter med hibernating myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdgaard, Paw Chr; Nielsen, Søren Steen; Wiggers, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    imaging was performed with 99mTc-sestamibi and glucose metabolism was visualized with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) gamma camera PET. Medical records and death certificate were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: 50 patients were included. We found an increased survival among patients with HIB who......INTRODUCTION: Patients with ischemic heart failure and reversible dysfunctional myocardium (Hibernating myocardium, HIB) can benefit from revascularization. These patients can be selected with nuclear methods. The purpose of this study was to describe the results of the imaging procedures...... in patients tested for HIB and relate the results to the choice of treatment and cause of death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a 2-year period 51 patients were referred to determine the amount of HIB. This can be determined with blood flow and metabolic imaging of the heart. Resting-myocardial perfusion...

  12. Influence of the sarcoplasmic reticulum on the inotropic responses of the rat myocardium resulting from changes in rate and rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, J G; Vassallo, D V; Leite, C M; Campagnaro, P

    1994-06-01

    1. The role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the inotropic responses produced by changes in stimulation rate and rhythm and resting tension was investigated in the rat myocardium. 2. Rat papillary muscles contracting isometrically (basic stimulation rate = 30/min) were superfused in vitro with normal Krebs solution and after addition of ryanodine (1 microM). Post-rest potentiation was obtained after pauses of 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 120 s, and the stimulation rate was changed from 6 to 90 bpm. Post-extrasystolic potentiation was induced by interpolating an extra stimulus after an interval of 413 +/- 15 ms. NiCl2 (2 mM) was used to confirm that contractions obtained after SR blockade with ryanodine were activated only by sarcolemmal calcium influx. 3. In the presence of ryanodine, the post-rest potentiation phenomenon disappears and the force-frequency relationship changes from the typical force decrease produced by rate increase to force increase. Under the effect of ryanodine, resting tension increased with the increase in stimulation rate. This behavior was enhanced by reducing extracellular KCl from 5.4 mM to 1 mM. This maneuver decreases Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and increases intracellular Na+ activity, which reduces Ca2+ extrusion through the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange mechanism. 4. SR participation in the post-extrasystolic potentiation phenomenon is also suggested because ryanodine treatment reversed the extrasystolic force depression into potentiation. In the presence of ryanodine, blockade of Ca2+ influx with NiCl2 (2 mM) abolished isometric contractions indicating that after SR blockade contractions are mainly dependent on sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx. 5. The results suggest that the SR is involved in the genesis of post-rest potentiation and contributes to the typical force-frequency relationship of the rat myocardium and to the post-extrasystolic potentiation phenomenon. Moreover, SR activity seems to be important for the maintenance of low resting tension in the

  13. Distinction of salvaged and infarcted myocardium within the ischaemic area-at-risk with T2 mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Hansen, Sophia; Ugander, Martin; Hsu, Li-Yueh

    2014-01-01

    values from T2 maps and signal intensities on T2-weighted images were measured in the corresponding areas. RESULTS: At both imaging time points, the T2 of the salvaged myocardium was longer than of remote (66.0 ± 6.9 vs. 51.4 ± 3.5 ms, P ...AIM: Area-at-risk (AAR) measurements often rely on T2-weighted images, but subtle differences in T2 may be overlooked with this method. To determine the differences in oedema between salvaged and infarcted myocardium, we performed quantitative T2 mapping of the AAR. We also aimed to determine...... (14.7 ± 5.6 vs. 8.7 ± 5.1 ms, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: T2 relaxation parameters are different in the infarcted and salvaged myocardium, and both are significantly longer than remote. Furthermore, the magnitude of increase in T2 was less in the salvaged myocardium after longer reperfusion, indicating...

  14. The contribution of nuclear medicine in the six months following a myocardium infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, Ph.R.

    2002-01-01

    The techniques of nuclear medicine allow to estimate the myocardial infarction size, to measure the ejection fraction and the ventricles volumes and to identify the presence of high-risk and viable myocardium. This information is essential to evaluate the important complications risks after an acute myocardial infarction, that is to say the infarction recurrence and the cardiac death coming from rhythm troubles or a left ventricle failure. (N.C.)

  15. Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on carbohydrate metabolism protein synthesis in the myocardium during sustained hypodynamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    Glycolysis and the intensity of protein synthesis were studied in 140 white male rats in subcellular fractions of the myocardium during 45 day hypodynamia and hyperbaric oxygenation. Hypodynamia increased: (1) the amount of lactic acids; (2) the amount of pyruvic acid; (3) the lactate/pyruvate coefficient; and (4) the activities of aldolase and lactate dehydrogenase. Hyperbaric oxygenation was found to have a favorable metabolic effect on the animals with hypodynamia.

  16. Imaging of the myocardium using {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferda, Jiří, E-mail: ferda@fnplzen.cz [Clinic of the Imaging Methods, University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 304 60 Plzeň (Czech Republic); Hromádka, Milan, E-mail: hromadkam@fnplzen.cz [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 304 60 Plzeň (Czech Republic); Baxa, Jan, E-mail: baxaj@fnplzen.cz [Clinic of the Imaging Methods, University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 304 60 Plzeň (Czech Republic)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The natural combination of the metabolic and structural information is the most important strenghtof myocardial PET/MRI. • Metabolic conversion to glycolysis is needed in the assesment ov the viable myocardium. • Metabolic conversion to the fatty acid metabolism is the crucial in the assesment of the ischemic memory and myocardial inflammation. - Abstract: The introduction of the integrated hybrid PET/MRI equipment creates the possibility to perform PET and MRI simultaneously. Depending on the clinical question, the metabolic conversion to glycolytic activity or beta-oxidation is performed before the application of FDG. Since FDG aids to evaluate the energetic metabolism of the myocytes and myocardial MRI reaches the imaging capabilities of perfusion and tissue characterization in the daily routine, FDG-PET/MRI looks to be a promising method of PET/MRI exploitation in cardiac imaging. When myocardial FDG uptake should be evaluated in association with the perfusion distribution, the cross-evaluation of FDG accumulation distribution and perfusion distribution pattern is necessary. The different scenarios may be used in the assessment of myocardium, the conversion to glycolytic activity is used in the imaging of the viable myocardium, but the glycolytic activity suppression might be used in the indications of the identification of injured myocardium by ischemia or inflammation. FDG-PET/MRI might aid to answer the clinical tasks according to the structure, current function and possibilities to improve the function in ischemic heart disease or to display the extent or activity of myocardial inflammation in sarcoidosis. The tight coupling between metabolism, perfusion and contractile function offers an opportunity for the simultaneous assessment of cardiac performance using one imaging modality.

  17. Effect of ethanol and the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole on lipid peroxidation in the rat myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchenko, L.F.; Pirozhkov, S.V.; Popova, S.V.; Antonenkov, V.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors study the effect of chronic administration of ethanol and aminotriazole on the level of lipid peroxidation in the ray myocardium. The action of natural and artificial antioxidants on alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation also was studied. To determine the level of chemiluminescence, 1 ml of a sample of nuclear free homogenate or of the total fraction of particles was introduced for radioactivity measurement. After incubation the spontaneous weak luminescence was measured

  18. [Effect of compound danshen dripping pill combined with intravenous transplantation of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells on local inflammatory response in the myocardium of rabbits with acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liu-xia; Yu, Guo-long; Al, Qi; Yuan, Chun-ju

    2013-11-01

    To investigate effect of Compound Danshen Dripping Pill (CDDP) on the inflammatory response of the myocardium of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rabbits, to observe the therapeutic effect of CDDP combined intravenous transplantation of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCBMCs) on inflammatory response, pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) , and heart function in the myocardium of AMI rabbits, and to explore the possible protective mechanisms of the combined therapy. The AMI model was successfully established by ligation of the left anterior coronary artery (LAD) in 40 healthy rabbits.Then they were randomly divided into four groups, i.e., the control group, the CDDP group, the transplantation group, and the combined group, 10 in each group. Rabbits in the control group received intravenous injection of 0.5 mL normal saline via ear vein within 24 h after AMI and then intragastric infusion of normal saline at 5 mL per day. Rabbits in the CDDP group received intravenous injection of 0.5 mL normal saline via ear vein within 24 h after AMI and then intragastric infusion of solution obtained by solving 270 mg CDDP in 5 mL normal saline per day. Rabbits in the transplantation group received intravenous injection of 0.5 mL normal saline labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) containing 3 x 10(7) of HUCBMCs via ear vein within 24 h after AMI and then intragastric infusion of normal saline at 5 mL per day. Rabbits in the combined group received intravenous injection of 0.5 mL normal saline labeled with GFP containing 3 x 10(7) of HUCBMCs via ear vein within 24 h after AMI and then intragastric infusion of solution obtained by solving 270 mg CDDP in 5 mL normal saline per day. At week 1 and 4 after treatment, cardiac function indices such as left ventricular fractional shorting (LVFS) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were performed by echocardiography; the number of transplanted cells in the myocardium was found

  19. Healthy aging and myocardium: A complicated process with various effects in cardiac structure and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakou, E S; Parthenakis, F I; Kallergis, E M; Marketou, M E; Nakos, K S; Vardas, P E

    2016-04-15

    It is known that there is an ongoing increase in life expectancy worldwide, especially in the population older than 65years of age. Cardiac aging is characterized by a series of complex pathophysiological changes affecting myocardium at structural, cellular, molecular and functional levels. These changes make the aged myocardium more susceptible to stress, leading to a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (heart failure, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease) in the elderly population. The aging process is genetically programmed but modified by environmental influences, so that the rate of aging can vary widely among people. We summarized the entire data concerning all the multifactorial changes in aged myocardium and highlighting the recent evidence for the pathophysiological basis of cardiac aging. Keeping an eye on the clinical side, this review will explore the potential implications of the age-related changes in the clinical management and on novel therapeutic strategies potentially deriving from the scientific knowledge currently acquired on cardiac aging process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic modification of stem cells for improved therapy of the infarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Husnain Kh; Mustafa, Anique; Feng, Yuliang; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2011-10-03

    The conventional treatment modalities for ischemic heart disease only provide symptomatic relief to the patient without repairing and regenerating the damaged myocardium. Stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising alternative therapeutic approach for cardiovascular diseases. Stem cells possess the potential of differentiation to adopt morphofunctional cardiac and vasculogenic phenotypes to repopulate the scar tissue and restore regional blood flow in the ischemic myocardium. These beneficial therapeutic effects make stem cell transplantation the method of choice for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. The efficacy of stem cell transplantation may be augmented by genetic manipulation of the cells prior to transplantation. Not only will insertion of therapeutic transgene(s) into the stem cells support the survival and differentiation of cells in the unfavorable microenvironment of the ischemic myocardium, but also the genetically manipulated stem cells will serve as a source of the transgene expression product in the heart for therapeutic benefits. We provide an overview of the extensively studied stem cell types for cardiac regeneration, the various methods in which these cells have been genetically manipulated and rationale of genetic modification of stem cells for use in regenerative cardiovascular therapeutics.

  1. Metabolic shifts in the myocardium in the long-term effect of atmospheric pollution on the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapok, P I; Turdakin, P G; Barkov, L V; Ovcharuk, I N; Protod' iakonova, T N

    1981-04-01

    Metabolic shifts in the myocardium under conditions of long-term exposure of the body to air pollution were studied in experiments on albino rats. Study of the content of protein, RNA, DNA, glycogen, ATP, lactic and pyruvic acids and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in the heart muscle allowed the conclusion that the glycolytic processes are intensified, the bioenergic processes are inhibited and the synthesis of protein and RNA are increased in the myocardium of the experimental animals.

  2. Importance of scintigraphy of the myocardium with Csup(99m)-Tc-pyrophosphate in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botnar' , V I; Dvoskina, I S [Inst. Kardiologii Vsesoyuznogo Kardiologicheskogo Nauchnogo Tsentra AN SSSR

    1983-10-01

    The following aspects of the method of scintigraphy of the myocardium with sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate as test sensitivity, possibility of estimating necrosis focus, prognostic importance of the method, scintigram dynamics in case of acute infarction, pyrophosphate accumulation in myocardial cells are considered. Advantages and prospects of the method for visualization of acute myocardium infarction focus and in cases of other pathological states are pointed out.

  3. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  4. Treatment with Docosahexaenoic Acid, but Not Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Delays Ca2+-Induced Mitochondria Permeability Transition in Normal and Hypertrophied Myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Khairallah, Ramzi J.; O'Shea, Karen M.; Brown, Bethany H.; Khanna, Nishanth; Des Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Intake of fish oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) prevents heart failure; however, the mechanisms are unclear. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening contributes to myocardial pathology in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and treatment with DHA + EPA delays MPTP opening. Here, we assessed: 1) whether supplementation with both DHA and EPA is needed for optimal prevention of MPTP opening, and 2) whether this benefit occurs in hyper...

  5. Myocardial perfusion of infarcted and normal myocardium in propofol-anesthetized minipigs using 82Rubidium PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Larsen, Bjarke Follin; Kastrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac Rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron-emission-tomography (PET) is a good method for quantification of myocardial blood flow in man. Quantification of myocardial blood flow in animals to evaluate new treatment strategies or to understand underlying disease is also of great interest but raises some...... challenges. Animals, which have been anesthetized during PET acquisition, might react differently to used stress medications, and therefore difficulties might exist while evaluating the resulting PET images using standard software packages from commercial vendors optimized for human hearts. Furthermore...... propofol, used for anesthesia, can influence myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve due to its vasorelaxant effect, and interactions might exist between propofol and used stress agents, potentially affecting the result of the examination. We present cardiac 82Rb-PET studies performed in propofol...

  6. Intracellular activity of antibiotics in a model of human THP-1 macrophages infected by a Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variant strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient: pharmacodynamic evaluation and comparison with isogenic normal-phenotype and revertant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Denis, Olivier; Vergison, Anne; Theunis, Anne; Tulkens, Paul M; Struelens, Marc J; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2009-04-01

    Small-colony variant (SCV) strains of Staphylococcus aureus show reduced antibiotic susceptibility and intracellular persistence, potentially explaining therapeutic failures. The activities of oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, gentamicin, rifampin, vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, tigecycline, moxifloxacin, telavancin, and oritavancin have been examined in THP-1 macrophages infected by a stable thymidine-dependent SCV strain in comparison with normal-phenotype and revertant isogenic strains isolated from the same cystic fibrosis patient. The SCV strain grew slowly extracellularly and intracellularly (1- and 0.2-log CFU increase in 24 h, respectively). In confocal and electron microscopy, SCV and the normal-phenotype bacteria remain confined in acid vacuoles. All antibiotics tested, except tigecycline, caused a net reduction in bacterial counts that was both time and concentration dependent. At an extracellular concentration corresponding to the maximum concentration in human serum (total drug), oritavancin caused a 2-log CFU reduction at 24 h; rifampin, moxifloxacin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin caused a similar reduction at 72 h; and all other antibiotics had only a static effect at 24 h and a 1-log CFU reduction at 72 h. In concentration dependence experiments, response to oritavancin was bimodal (two successive plateaus of -0.4 and -3.1 log CFU); tigecycline, moxifloxacin, and rifampin showed maximal effects of -1.1 to -1.7 log CFU; and the other antibiotics produced results of -0.6 log CFU or less. Addition of thymidine restored intracellular growth of the SCV strain but did not modify the activity of antibiotics (except quinupristin-dalfopristin). All drugs (except tigecycline and oritavancin) showed higher intracellular activity against normal or revertant phenotypes than against SCV strains. The data may help rationalizing the design of further studies with intracellular SCV strains.

  7. Effects of telmisartan on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits in the myocardium of type 2 diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-wei LI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of telmisartan on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits p22phox and NOX4 in the myocardiam of type 2 diabetic rats.Methods Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: normal control group(group A,n=10,diabetic model group(n=26.Type 2 diabetic model was established by high-fat and high-sugar diet followed by intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozotocin(STZ.After the model was reproduced successfully,20 diabetic rats were randomly divided into diabetic subgroup(group B,n=10 and telmisartan-treated subgroup(group C,n=10.Rats in group C were orally administered telmisartan(5mg/kg/d,and rats in group A and B were given equivalent volume of normal saline.All rats were sacrificed 12 weeks after treatment.The mRNA expressions of myocardial p22phox and NOX4 were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR,and the protein expressions of myocardial connective tissue growth factor(CTGF and copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase(Cu-Zn-SOD were detected by immunohistochemical staining.Results Compared with group A,the ratio of heart/body weight,the mRNA expression of myocardial p22phox and NOX4,and the protein expression of myocardial CTGF increased significantly in group B,and the protein expression of myocardial Cu-Zn-SOD decreased significantly(P 0.05.Conclusions Telmisartan can down-regulate the over-expression of myocardial NOX4 and p22phox mRNA in type 2 diabetic rats,lessen the myocardial damage induced by oxidative stress,thus plays a protective role in the myocardium of diabetic rats.

  8. Effects of a new antiarrhythmic drug SS-68 on electrical activity in working atrial and ventricular myocardium of mouse and their ionic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida K. Bogus

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SS-68 is a derivative of indole, which demonstrated strong antiarrhythmic effects not associated with significant QT prolongation in dog models of atrial fibrillation. Therefore, SS-68 was proposed as a new antiarrhythmic drug and the present study is the first describing its effects on action potentials (APs configuration and elucidating the ionic mechanisms of these effects. Sharp microelectrodes were used to record APs in isolated preparations of mouse atrial and ventricular myocardium. In both types of myocardium 10−6 M SS-68 produced reduction of AP duration, 3 × 10−6 M failed to alter AP waveform and 10−5 – 3 × 10−5 M prolonged APs. Sensitivity of main ionic currents to SS-68 was determined using whole-cell patch clamp. Transient potassium current Ito was slightly inhibited by SS-68 with IC50 = 1.43 × 10−4 M. IKur was more sensitive with IC50 = 1.84 × 10−5 M. Background inward rectifier showed very low sensitivity to SS-68 – only 10−4 M SS-68 caused significant reduction of IK1. ICaL was significantly inhibited by 10−6M – 3 × 10−5 M SS-68. The IC50 value for the ICaL was 1.84 × 10−6 M. Thus, main ionic currents of mouse cardiomyocytes are inhibited by SS-68 in the following order of potency: ICaL > IKur > Ito > IK1. While lower concentration of SS-68 shorten APs via suppression of ICaL, higher concentrations inhibit K+-currents leading to APs prolongation.

  9. Sustained nonoxidative glucose utilization and depletion of glycogen in reperfused canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Neese, R.A.; Araujo, L.

    1989-01-01

    Ischemically injured reperfused myocardium is characterized by increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake as demonstrated by positron emission tomography. To elucidate the metabolic fate of exogenous glucose entering reperfused myocardium, D-[6-14C] glucose and L-[U-13C] lactate were used to determine glucose uptake, glucose oxidation and the contribution of exogenous glucose to lactate production. The pathologic model under investigation consisted of a 3 h balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 24 h of reperfusion in canine myocardium. The extent and severity of myocardial injury after the ischemia and reperfusion were assessed by histochemical evaluation (triphenyltetrazolium chloride and periodic acid-Schiff stains). Thirteen intervention and four control dogs were studied. The glucose uptake in the occluded/reperfused area was significantly enhanced compared with that in control dogs (0.40 +/- 0.14 versus 0.15 +/- 0.10 mumol/ml, respectively). In addition, a significantly greater portion of the glucose extracted immediately entered glycolysis in the intervention group (75%) than in the control dogs (33%). The activity of the nonoxidative glycolytic pathway was markedly increased in the ischemically injured reperfused area, as evidenced by the four times greater lactate release in this area compared with the control value. The dual carbon-labeled isotopes showed that 57% of the exogenous glucose entering glycolysis was being converted to lactate. Exogenous glucose contributed to greater than 90% of the observed lactate production. This finding was confirmed by the histochemical finding of sustained glycogen depletion in the occlusion/reperfusion area. The average area of glycogen depletion (37%) significantly exceeded the average area of necrosis

  10. Metabolic syndrome impairs notch signaling and promotes apoptosis in chronically ischemic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadhun, Nassrene Y; Sabe, Ashraf A; Lassaletta, Antonio D; Chu, Louis M; Kondra, Katelyn; Sturek, Michael; Sellke, Frank W

    2014-09-01

    Impaired angiogenesis is a known consequence of metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, the mechanism is not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that the notch signaling pathway is an integral component of cardiac angiogenesis. We tested, in a clinically relevant swine model, the effects of MetS on notch and apoptosis signaling in chronically ischemic myocardium. Ossabaw swine were fed either a regular diet (control [CTL], n = 8) or a high-cholesterol diet (MetS, n = 8) to induce MetS. An ameroid constrictor was placed to induce chronic myocardial ischemia. Eleven weeks later, the wine underwent cardiac harvest of the ischemic myocardium. Downregulation of pro-angiogenesis proteins notch2, notch4, jagged2, angiopoietin 1, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were found in the MetS group compared with the CTL group. Also, upregulation of pro-apoptosis protein caspase 8 and downregulation of anti-angiogenesis protein phosphorylated forkhead box transcription factor 03 and pro-survival proteins phosphorylated P38 and heat shock protein 90 were present in the MetS group. Cell death was increased in the MetS group compared with the CTL group. Both CTL and MetS groups had a similar arteriolar count and capillary density, and notch3 and jagged1 were both similarly concentrated in the smooth muscle wall. MetS in chronic myocardial ischemia significantly impairs notch signaling by downregulating notch receptors, ligands, and pro-angiogenesis proteins. MetS also increases apoptosis signaling, decreases survival signaling, and increases cell death in chronically ischemic myocardium. Although short-term angiogenesis appears unaffected in this model of early MetS, the molecular signals for angiogenesis are impaired, suggesting that inhibition of notch signaling might underlie the decreased angiogenesis in later stages of MetS. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of acute and chronic uremia on active cation transport in rat myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druml, W.; Kelly, R.A.; England, B.K.; O' Hara, D.S.; Mitch, W.E. (Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-12-01

    As abnormalities of active cation transport could contribute to the genesis of uremic cardiomyopathy, we investigated myocardial sodium pump function in rats with acute renal failure (ARF) and with a model of experimental chronic renal failure (CRF) that has metabolic similarities to advanced chronic uremia in humans. CRF rats were hypertensive and had left ventricular hypertrophy (33% higher heart:body weight ratio; P less than 0.01) at four weeks compared to pair-fed sham-operated rats. Importantly, both ouabain- and furosemide-sensitive 86Rb uptake rates were unchanged in left ventricular myocardial slices from CRF, and the intracellular sodium concentration was not different from that of control rats even though skeletal muscle sodium was increased, as we found previously. Insulin-stimulated, ouabain-sensitive 86Rb influx was also preserved. There also were no abnormalities in myocardium cation transport in rats with ARF. However, (3H)ouabain binding was decreased 45% in CRF rats (P less than 0.01); it was unchanged in acute uremia. Decreased ouabain binding in chronic uremia was due entirely to fewer low affinity (3H)ouabain binding sites (the binding affinity for ouabain was unaffected). We conclude that in chronic, (but not acute) renal failure, sodium pump number is reduced in myocardium but intracellular sodium is unchanged and active cation flux rates are maintained. These results emphasize that in rats with chronic uremia, intracellular sodium homeostasis is preserved in myocardium, despite the presence of marked abnormalities of active cation transport in skeletal muscle that are characteristic of chronic uremia.

  12. Analysis of immune cell populations in atrial myocardium of patients with atrial fibrillation or sinus rhythm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Smorodinova

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmia and despite obvious clinical importance remains its pathogenesis only partially explained. A relation between inflammation and AF has been suggested by findings of increased inflammatory markers in AF patients.The goal of this study was to characterize morphologically and functionally CD45-positive inflammatory cell populations in atrial myocardium of patients with AF as compared to sinus rhythm (SR.We examined 46 subjects (19 with AF, and 27 in SR undergoing coronary bypass or valve surgery. Peroperative bioptic samples of the left and the right atrial tissue were examined using immunohistochemistry.The number of CD3+ T-lymphocytes and CD68-KP1+ cells were elevated in the left atrial myocardium of patients with AF compared to those in SR. Immune cell infiltration of LA was related to the rhythm, but not to age, body size, LA size, mitral regurgitation grade, type of surgery, systemic markers of inflammation or presence of diabetes or hypertension. Most of CD68-KP1+ cells corresponded to dendritic cell population based on their morphology and immunoreactivity for DC-SIGN. The numbers of mast cells and CD20+ B-lymphocytes did not differ between AF and SR patients. No foci of inflammation were detected in any sample.An immunohistochemical analysis of samples from patients undergoing open heart surgery showed moderate and site-specific increase of inflammatory cells in the atrial myocardium of patients with AF compared to those in SR, with prevailing population of monocyte-macrophage lineage. These cells and their cytokine products may play a role in atrial remodeling and AF persistence.

  13. Adaptation of the cardiovascular system to postinfarction cardiosclerosis in rats with congenital adrenoreactivity of the myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usacheva, M A; Popkova, E V; Smirnova, E A; Saltykova, V A; Belkina, L M

    2007-12-01

    Three months after myocardial infarction the severity of heart failure and size of postinfarction scars in August rats with inherently reduced adrenoreactivity of the myocardium were similar to those in Wistar rats. The mortality rate in August rats was 2.5-fold lower than in Wistar rats. During the postinfarction period, myocardial adrenoreactivity in August rats remained lower, while the efficiency of cardiac function was 62% higher than in Wistar rats. The incidence of epinephrine-induced arrhythmias in August rats was much lower than in Wistar rats.

  14. Method for radio imaging the myocardium of mammals using radio-labelled lipophil cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the radio imaging of myocardia of mammals by concentrating a radiolabelled cation in myocardial tissue and by producing a radiograph using imaging techniques. According to the invention, it is found that a group of substances shows a preference to myocardial tissues upon intravenous injection in mammals. The characteristic of the invention is that radiolabelled quaternary ammonium, quaternary phosphorous or quaternary arsenic compounds with at least two aryl groups are intravenously injected. These substances provide a sufficiently high radioactivity giving an approved diagnostic image of the myocardium. (G.J.P.)

  15. Role of the Purkinje-Muscle Junction on the Ventricular Repolarization Heterogeneity in the Healthy and Ischemic Ovine Ventricular Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine E. Martinez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Alteration of action potential duration (APD heterogeneity contributes to arrhythmogenesis. Purkinje-muscle junctions (PMJs present differential electrophysiological properties including longer APD. The goal of this study was to determine if Purkinje-related or myocardial focal activation modulates ventricular repolarization differentially in healthy and ischemic myocardium. Simultaneous epicardial (EPI and endocardial (ENDO optical mapping was performed on sheep left ventricular (LV wedges with intact free-running Purkinje network (N = 7. Preparations were paced on either ENDO or EPI surfaces, or the free-running Purkinje fibers (PFs, mimicking normal activation. EPI and ENDO APDs were assessed for each pacing configuration, before and after (7 min of the onset of no-flow ischemia. Experiments were supported by simulations. In control conditions, maximal APD was found at endocardial PMJ sites. We observed a significant transmural APD gradient for PF pacing with PMJ APD = 347 ± 41 ms and EPI APD = 273 ± 36 ms (p < 0.001. A similar transmural gradient was observed when pacing ENDO (49 ± 31 ms; p = 0.005. However, the gradient was reduced when pacing EPI (37 ± 20 ms; p = 0.005. Global dispersion of repolarization was the most pronounced for EPI pacing. In ischemia, both ENDO and EPI APD were reduced (p = 0.005 and the transmural APD gradient (109 ± 55 ms was increased when pacing ENDO compared to control condition or when pacing EPI (p < 0.05. APD maxima remained localized at functional PMJs during ischemia. Local repolarization dispersion was significantly higher at the PMJ than at other sites. The results were consistent with simulations. We found that the activation sequence modulates repolarization heterogeneity in the ischemic sheep LV. PMJs remain active following ischemia and exert significant influence on local repolarization patterns.

  16. Thallium reinjection after stress-redistribution imaging. Does 24-hour delayed imaging after reinjection enhance detection of viable myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilsizian, V.; Smeltzer, W.R.; Freedman, N.M.; Dextras, R.; Bonow, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    Thallium reinjection immediately after conventional stress-redistribution imaging improves the detection of viable myocardium, as many myocardial regions with apparently 'irreversible' thallium defects on standard 3-4-hour redistribution images manifest enhanced thallium uptake after reinjection. Because the 10-minute period between reinjection and imaging may be too short, the present study was designed to determine whether 24-hour imaging after thallium reinjection provides additional information regarding myocardial viability beyond that obtained by imaging shortly after reinjection. We studied 50 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease undergoing exercise thallium tomography, radionuclide angiography, and coronary arteriography. Immediately after the 3-4-hour redistribution images were obtained, 1 mCi thallium was injected at rest, and images were reacquired at 10 minutes and 24 hours after reinjection. The stress, redistribution, reinjection, and 24-hour images were then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Of the 127 abnormal myocardial regions on the stress images, 55 had persistent defects on redistribution images by qualitative analysis, of which 25 (45%) demonstrated improved thallium uptake after reinjection. At the 24-hour study, 23 of the 25 regions (92%) with previously improved thallium uptake by reinjection showed no further improvement. Similarly, of the 30 regions determined to have irreversible defects after reinjection, 29 (97%) remained irreversible on 24-hour images. These findings were confirmed by the quantitative analysis. The mean normalized thallium activity in regions with enhanced thallium activity after reinjection increased from 57 +/- 13% on redistribution studies to 70 +/- 14% after reinjection but did not change at 24 hours (71 +/- 14%)

  17. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  18. Metabolic borderzone in acutely ischemic canine myocardium demonstrated by positron-CT (PCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Hansen, H.; Selin, C.; Wittmer, S.; Barrio, J.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Acute coronary ligation in dogs results in an area of myocardial dysfunction that exceeds the area of subsequent necrosis suggesting the existence of an ischemic ''borderzone'' of reversibly injured myocardium. The authors tested this hypothesis in 9 closed chest dogs with C-11 plamitate (CPA) and serial PCT imaging after an LAD occlusion. Using a blood flow (MBF) image obtained with iv N-13 ammonia prior to CPA, regions of interest were assigned on the serial CPA cross-sectional images to the center (IC) and border (IB) of the ischemic segment and to control myocardium (CO). CPA uptake was closely related to MBF (r=0.88) implicating flow as a major determinant of CPA uptake. Clearance helftimes (T 1/2) and relative sizes (RS) of the early rapid phase on the C-11 tissue time activity curves were determined for IC, IB and CO. In IC, MBF, RS and T 1/2 were markedly depressed indicating impaired CPA utilization and oxidation. In IB, MBF was less than in CO though only insignificantly, while RS and T 1/2 were highly abnormal. The authors conclude that FFA metabolism in areas adjacent to ischemic segments but without significant MBF decreases in abnormal, presenting evidence for a metabolic borderzone which now can be identified noninvasively with positron emission tomography

  19. Study of shape memory alloy fibers for the development of artificial myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoulas, Ioannis A; Ladopoulos, Vlassios S; Kalogerakos, Paris-Dimitrios K

    2010-01-01

    Circulatory support devices are employed to treat heart failure. Such a device could be made from shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers. These Ni-Ti fibers contract when electric current flows through them, thus resembling artificial muscles. An artificial myocardium device made from SMA fibers can directly compress the epicardial surface of a failing heart, thus contributing to the pumping action. Unlike modern mechanical circulatory support devices, there is no blood-contacting surface to provoke thromboembolism, hemorrhage, inflammatory response or hemolysis. The experimental setup permitted a detailed study of a sample SMA fiber with great accuracy while the ambient temperature was controlled to resemble that of the human body. The current profile through the fiber was controlled (current shaping, CS) by a microcontroller and a portable computer. Parameters such as strain, contraction and relaxation velocities and the effect of ambient temperature were measured. The contraction and relaxation velocities were measured after applying various effective currents. It was found that the contraction velocity could be manipulated to reach that of the healthy myocardium through CS. On the other hand, the relaxation velocity was independent of the contraction velocity. A cardiac assist device can be made from SMA fibers. More studies need to be conducted in this direction.

  20. Effects of hydroxyl radical induced-Injury in atrial versus ventricular myocardium of dog and rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitisha Hiranandani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Despite the widespread use of ventricular tissue in the investigation involving hydroxyl-radical (OH* injury, one of the most potent mediators in ischemia-reperfusion injury, little is known about the impact on atrial myocardium. In this study we thus compared the OH*-induced injury response between atrial and right ventricular muscles from both rabbits and dogs under identical experimental conditions. Methods: Small, contracting ventricular and atrial rabbit and dog trabeculae were directly exposed to OH*, and contractile properties were examined and quantified. Results: A brief OH* exposure led to transient rigor like contracture with marked elevation of diastolic tension and depression of developed force. Although the injury response showed similarities between atrial and ventricular myocardium, there were significant differences as well. In rabbit atrial muscles, the development of the contracture and its peak was much faster as compared to ventricular muscles. Also, at the peak of contracture, both rabbit and dog atrial muscles show a lesser degree of contractile dysfunction. Conclusion: These results indicate that both atrial and ventricular muscles develop a rigor like contracture after acute OH*-induced injury, and atrial muscles showed a lesser degree of contractile dysfunction. Comparison of dog versus rabbit tissue shows that the response was similar in magnitude, but slower to develop in dog tissue.

  1. Biophysical foundations for the study of the electrical excitability and action potential propagation in myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    1991-01-01

    The electric current flow in the heterogeneous and anysotropic volume conductor of the myocardium is studied. The equations of bidomain theory are derived using an approach framed in the theory of averaged fields, introducing microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic spatial scales. However, the procedure, compatible with the histological and the anatomical details of the organ, is different from the multiple scale asymptotic expansions usually applied in homogeneization problems. A probabilistic approach framed in large numbers theorems is used to derive the equation for membrane ionic current from the stochastic activity of the channels at the microscopic level. An operational procedure suitable to define a sharp bidomain boundary from the fuzzy distribution of structural details and physical properties at the histological level is given. The problem of threshold is studied. The sizes and shapes of critical masses of cardiac cells that must be depolarized above threshold in order to produce a propagated action potential are determined by an approximate analytical procedure. The concept of family of threshold patterns for the emergence of action potentials in the heart is introduced. This concept is applied to discuss the conditions of emergence of ectopic focus. Analytical formulae are derived, for the time constant and the rheobase for electrical stimulation of the myocardium. These formulae are in good agreement with known experimental results. New experiments that could be done to confirm or reject them are suggested

  2. Oxygen supply and oxidative phosphorylation limitation in rat myocardium in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, U; Mekhamer, Y; Chung, Y; Jue, T

    2001-05-01

    The 1H-NMR signal of the proximal histidyl-N(delta)H of deoxymyoglobin is detectable in the in situ rat myocardium and can reflect the intracellular PO2. Under basal normoxic conditions, the cellular PO2 is sufficient to saturate myoglobin (Mb). No proximal histidyl signal of Mb is detectable. On ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, the Mb signal at 78 parts/million (ppm) appears, along with a peak shoulder assigned to the corresponding signal of Hb. During dopamine infusion up to 80 microg. kg(-1) x min(-1), both the heart rate-pressure product (RPP) and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) increase by about a factor of 2. Coronary flow increases by 84%, and O2 extraction (arteriovenous O2 difference) rises by 31%. Despite the increased respiration and work, no deoxymyoglobin signal is detected, implying that the intracellular O2 level still saturates MbO2, well above the PO2 at 50% saturation of Mb. The phosphocreatine (PCr) level decreases, however, during dopamine stimulation, and the ratio of the change in P(i) over PCr (DeltaP(i)/PCr) increases by 0.19. Infusion of either pyruvate, as the primary substrate, or dichloroacetate, a pyruvate dehydrogenase activator, abolishes the change in DeltaP(i)/PCr. Intracellular O2 supply does not limit MVO2, and the role of ADP in regulating respiration in rat myocardium in vivo remains an open question.

  3. Delayed uptake and washout of contrast in non-viable infarcted myocardium shown with dynamic computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udholm, Sebastian; Laugesen, Sofie; Agger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of ischemic but potentially viable myocardium plays an important role in the planning of coronary revascularization. Until now SPECT, PET, and MRI have been used to identify viable myocardium. Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to diagnose coronary atherosclerosis...... descending artery, followed by removal of the balloon and reperfusion. Four pigs died due to refractory ventricular fibrillation. After 6 weeks, dynamic cardiac CT was performed assessing both wall motion and contrast attenuation. Measurements of attenuation values in Hounsfield units (HU) in the infarct...

  4. Arteriosclerotic changes in the myocardium, lung, and kidney in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure and myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Bo Torkel; Jönsson, Lennart; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2006-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of small vessel arteriosclerosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease has not been previously investigated systematically. Methods: Twenty-one dogs with naturally occurring congestive heart failure and 21 age......-matched, sex-matched, and weight-matched control dogs underwent extensive pathological and histopathological examination. Morphometry and scoring of tissue sections were used to measure arterial narrowing and fibrosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung; and intimal thickness and plaque formation in the aorta...... and pulmonary artery. Results: Dogs with congestive heart failure had significantly more arterial narrowing in the left ventricle (Pdogs. However...

  5. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Normal 201Tl SPECT myocardial scintigram - a basis for quantification of tomographic data using 1800 rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, A.; Frenzel, R.; Meyer, M.; Pink, V.; Reisinger, I.; Strangfeld, D.

    1990-01-01

    Using 180 0 rotation for 201 Tl myocardial perfusion SPECT the influence of different myocardial wall thickness, depth-dependent resolution, attenuation and other facts is the reason for about 30% inhomogenity from anterolateral to posteroseptal myocardium in polar coordinate Bull's eye. It is very difficult for a visual observer to assess patients without knowledge of the corresponding normal distribution. We studied 25 normal males and calculated pixelwice vitality, washout rate between stress, 2-hr and 3.5-hr delay to obtain a normal Bull's eye reference databank. Before the patient's data can be analysed it is necessary to multiplicate them with the inverse normal Bull's eye. (author)

  7. Isolated Systolic Hypertension: A Health Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolated systolic hypertension: A health concern? Is having a high top number (systolic) blood pressure, but a normal bottom number (diastolic) ... mm Hg, you have a common type of high blood pressure called isolated systolic hypertension. Isolated systolic hypertension can ...

  8. Level of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and myocardium remodeling in patients with acute postinfarction aneurism of left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Syvolap

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 67 patients with diagnosis: Q-wave myocardial infarction – were examined. Level of matrix metalloproteinase-9, structural and functional indexes of myocardium remodeling were studied in patients with acute postinfarction aneurism of left ventricle. Early predictors of left ventricle aneurism formation were revealed in patients with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction. Abstract Background. Problem of acute myocardial infarction till nowadays remains relevant, because it’s one of the leading causes of mortality, morbidity and disability in most developed countries. Severity of postinfarction remodeling is a factor that determines the degree of myocardial dysfunction and prognosis of survival. During the first few days after the onset of AMI disproportionately thinned and stretched infarcted area, which is no longer able to resist to intraventricular pressure, which subsequently leads to an expansion of a heart attack until the formation of an aneurysm or heart failure. In this case, the structural and functional changes in the heart muscle affects both the affected and intact areas of the myocardium , marked by the passage of the phase of adaptive and maladaptive processes. Mechanisms of postinfarction remodeling caused by the interaction of cell as well as extracellular factors, starting immediately after coronary artery occlusion with the normal degradation of the extracellular matrix , migration of inflammatory cells to the site of damage and induction of biologically active peptides. In recent studies there was a high expression of MMP -9 in patients with acute coronary syndrome, showing the value of its serum concentration as a marker of inflammation, a predictor of restenosis and cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. This gives reason to explore the prognostic value of early detection of the level of MMP -9 in myocardial infarction as a marker of adverse postinfarction remodeling. Methods. Sixty seven patients

  9. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  10. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  11. Serial change of 123I-BMIPP SPECT imaging during recovery from stunned myocardium after acute myocardial infarction. Correlation with 201Tl and two-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Akira; Kondo, Makoto; Tokunaga, Satoshi; Akiyama, Kiyozumi; Mori, Yoshihisa; Nosue, Yasuhiro; Makita, Toshinori; Tanio, Hitoshi; Shimono, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    Using 123 I-β-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP), we investigated changes in myocardial fatty acid metabolism at recovery from stunned myocardium after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), correlation with recovery of regional wall motion and thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) distribution in particular. The subjects were 15 patients who underwent successful reperfusion therapy after the first onset of AMI. None of the patients had multi-vessel disease or ischemic episode during their clinical course. Patients underwent 123 I-BMIPP scintigraphy, 201 Tl scintigraphy and two-dimensional echocardiography during the acute and chronic phases. Then, we compared regional wall motion with distribution of 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl. Regional wall motion and SPECT were evaluated by the established 16 segment model. In patients, showing serial improvement in regional wall motion, there was 80.0% (8/10) showed normal 201 Tl distribution during the acute phase or normalized during the chronic phase. However, distribution of 123 I-BMIPP normalized only in 10.0% (1/10) of this group. In examination of each segment that showed serial improvement in regional wall motion, 92.3% (24/26) of these segments showed normal distribution of 201 Tl during the acute phase or normalized distribution during chronic phase, despite distribution of 123 I-BMIPP improved in only 3.8% (1/26) of these segments. These indicate that, in the process of recovery from myocardial stunning after AMI, abnormal distribution of 123 I-BMIPP continued longer than abnormal distribution of 201 Tl. (author)

  12. Nitrate administration increases blood flow in dysfunctional but viable myocardium, leading to improved assessment of myocardial viability : A PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Agool, Ali; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Bax, Jeroen J.

    SPECT with Tc-99m-labeled agents is better able to detect viability after nitrate administration. Nitrates induce vasoclilation and may increase blood flow to severely hypoperfused but viable myocardium, thereby enhancing tracer delivery and improving the detection of viability. Quantitative data on

  13. Collateral circulation as a marker of the presence of viable myocardium in patients with recent myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, M.; Ohno, A.; Wada, O.; Miwa, K.; Nozawa, T.; Yamanishi, K.; Sasayama, S.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between the presence of viable myocardium and the extent of coronary collateral circulation to the infarct area was evaluated in 20 patients with a recent anterior myocardial infarction who had complete obstruction of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The viability of myocardial tissue was assessed by exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, and the collateral circulation was angiographically evaluated by means of a collateral index ranging from 0 to 3. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (group 1, n = 10) or absence (group 2, n = 10) of viable myocardium in the perfusion territory of the infarct-related artery. The collateral index in group 1 was 2.5 ± 0.5 (SD), which was significantly higher than the 0.7 ± 0.8 in group 2. These findings indicate that the presence of ischemic but viable myocardium is intimately related to the development of collateral circulation in patients with myocardial infarction, and the existence of well-developed collateral channels predicts the presence of viable myocardium in the infarct area

  14. Volume of myocardium perfused by coronary artery branches as estimated from 3D micro-CT images of rat hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Patricia E.; Naessens, Lauren C.; Seaman, Catherine A.; Reyes, Denise A.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2000-04-01

    Average myocardial perfusion is remarkably consistent throughout the heart wall under resting conditions and the velocity of blood flow is fairly reproducible from artery to artery. Based on these observations, and the fact that flow through an artery is the product of arterial cross-sectional area and blood flow velocity, we would expect the volume of myocardium perfused to be proportional to the cross-sectional area of the coronary artery perfusing that volume of myocardium. This relationship has been confirmed by others in pigs, dogs and humans. To test the body size-dependence of this relationship we used the hearts from rats, 3 through 25 weeks of age. The coronary arteries were infused with radiopaque microfil polymer and the hearts scanned in a micro- CT scanner. Using these 3D images we measured the volume of myocardium and the arterial cross-sectional area of the artery that perfused that volume of myocardium. The average constant of proportionality was found to be 0.15 +/- 0.08 cm3/mm2. Our data showed no statistically different estimates of the constant of proportionality in the rat hearts of different ages nor between the left and right coronary arteries. This constant is smaller than that observed in large animals and humans, but this difference is consistent with the body mass-dependence on metabolic rate.

  15. Capillary transfer constant of Gd-DTPA in the myocardium at rest and during vasodilation assessed by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz-Hansen, T; Rostrup, Egill; Søndergaard, Lise

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the capillary transfer constant (Ki) of gadolinium-DTPA was sensitive to perfusion changes and whether ischemic regions in the myocardium could be identified using the modified Kety formula. Ki was measured at rest and during dipyridamole...

  16. New perspectives in the treatment of damaged myocardium using autologous skeletal myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigatelli, Gianluca; Rossini, Katia; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Mazzoleni, Francesco; Rigatelli, Giorgio; Carraro, Ugo

    2004-01-01

    Autologous skeletal myoblast transplantation may be used to ameliorate the healing process following myocardium infarct and, hopefully, cardiomyopathies. Despite successful animal experimentation, several issues need to be addressed in clinical settings, i.e., the impact of the delivery route, the extent of short- and long-term survival, and differentiation of the injected skeletal myoblasts. The authors offer some new hypotheses resulting from basic research, i.e., where and when to inject the myogenic cells, whatever their source, how to decrease new myofiber atrophy and improve their regeneration. Although these new hypotheses still need to be tested in humans, they may be decisive for future experimental studies and will lead to making endovascular cell implantation a more effective way to treat ischemic heart disease and failure

  17. Comparison of exercise and pharmacologic stress in myocardium perfusion imaging for CHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zebo; Zheng Kangni; Cheng Xiaorui; Liu Hui; Cheng Yihai

    1995-01-01

    In order to provide a proper stress test, exercise, dipyridamole and ATP stress were compared. Three modalities were compared with respect to the detecting rate, methodology, hemodynamic and side effects. There are no significant differences in their ability of detecting coronary heart disease (CHD) (P>0.05). Exercise stress causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure and myocardium oxygen consumption. Pharmacologic stress cause a slight increase in heart rate, but a decrease in blood pressure (P<0.01). Exercise stress is a basic method with good image quality, but it needs a special equipment. Pharmacologic stress is an easier, cheaper and safer method, particularly useful for patients unable to perform exercise test

  18. Myocardium at risk assessed by electrocardiographic scores and cardiovascular magnetic resonance - a MITOCARE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersten, Maria; Fakhri, Yama; Pape, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The myocardium at risk (MaR) represents the quantitative ischemic area destined to myocardial infarction (MI) if no reperfusion therapy is initiated. Different ECG scores for MaR have been developed, but there is no consensus as to which should be preferred. Objective Comparisons...... of ECG scores and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) for determining MaR. Methods MaR was determined by 3 different ECG scores, and by CMR in ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) patients from the MITOCARE cardioprotection trial. The Aldrich score (AL) is based on the number of leads with ST-elevation...... for anterior MI and the sum of ST-segment elevation for inferior MI on the admission ECG. The van Hellemond score (VH) considers both the ischemic and infarcted component of the MaR by adding the AL and the QRS score, which is an estimate of final infarct size. The Hasche score is based on the maximal possible...

  19. Fractional flow reserve guided percutaneous coronary intervention results in reduced ischemic myocardium and improved outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Abhishek C; Bhardwaj, Aishwarya; Banerjee, Kinjal; Jobanputra, Yash; Kumar, Arnav; Parikh, Parth; Kandregula, Krishna C; Poddar, Kanhaiya; Ellis, Stephen G; Nair, Ravi; Corbelli, John; Kapadia, Samir

    2018-02-06

    To determine if fractional flow reserve guided percutaneous coronary intervention (FFR-guided PCI) is associated with reduced ischemic myocardium compared with angiography-guided PCI. Although FFR-guided PCI has been shown to improve outcomes, it remains unclear if it reduces the extent of ischemic myocardium at risk compared with angiography-guided PCI. We evaluated 380 patients (190 FFR-guided PCI cases and 190 propensity-matched controls) who underwent PCI from 2009 to 2014. Clinical, laboratory, angiographic, stress testing, and major adverse cardiac events [MACE] (all-cause mortality, recurrence of MI requiring PCI, stroke) data were collected. Mean age was 63 ± 11 years; the majority of patients were males (76%) and Caucasian (77%). Median duration of follow up was 3.4 [Range: 1.9, 5.0] years. Procedural complications including coronary dissection (2% vs. 0%, P = .12) and perforation (0% vs. 0%, P = 1.00) were similar between FFR-guided and angiography-guided PCI patients. FFR-guided PCI patients had lower unadjusted (14.7% vs. 23.2%, P = .04) and adjusted [OR = 0.58 (95% CI: 0.34-0.98)] risk of repeat revascularization at one year. FFR-guided PCI patients were less likely (23% vs. 32%, P = .02) to have ischemia and had lower (5.9% vs. 21.1%, P guided PCI, FFR-guided PCI results in less repeat revascularization and a lower incidence of post PCI ischemia translating into improved survival, without an increase in complications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Constitutive activation of Nrf2 induces a stable reductive state in the mouse myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinath Shanmugam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Redox homeostasis regulates key cellular signaling pathways in both physiology and pathology. The cell's antioxidant response provides a defense against oxidative stress and establishes a redox tone permissive for cell signaling. The molecular regulation of the well-known Keap1/Nrf2 system acts as sensor responding to changes in redox homeostasis and is poorly studied in the heart. Importantly, it is not yet known whether Nrf2 alone can serve as a master regulator of cellular redox homeostasis without compensation of the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant response element (ARE genes through alternate mechanisms. Here, we addressed this question using cardiac-specific transgenic expression at two different levels of constitutively active nuclear erythroid related factor 2 (caNrf2 functioning independently of Keap1. The caNrf2 mice showed augmentation of glutathione (GSH, the key regulator of the cellular thiol redox state. The Trans-AM assay for Nrf2-binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE showed a dose-dependent increase associated with upregulation of several major antioxidant genes and proteins. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in dihydroethidium staining and malondialdehyde (MDA in the caNrf2-TG mice myocardium. Interestingly, caNrf2 gene-dosage dependent redox changes were noted resulting in generation of a multi-stage model of pro-reductive and reductive conditions in the myocardium of TG-low and TG-high mice, respectively. These data clearly show that Nrf2 levels alone are capable of serving as the master regulator of the ARE. These models provide an important platform to investigate the impact of the Nrf2 system independent of the need to regulate the activity of Keap1 and the consequent exposure to pro-oxidants or electrophiles, which have numerous off-target effects.

  1. Retention and clearance of C-11 palmitic acid in ischemic and reperfused canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Schelbert, H.R.; Keen, R.; Vinten-Johansen, J.; Hansen, H.; Selin, C.; Barrio, J.; Huang, S.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Free fatty acids are the major energy source for cardiac muscle. Oxidation of fatty acid decreases or even ceases during ischemia. Its recovery after transient ischemia remains largely unexplored. Using intracoronary carbon-11 palmitic acid as a tracer of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in an open chest dog model, retention and clearance of tracer in myocardium were evaluated at control, during ischemia and after reperfusion following a 20 minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial C-11 time-activity curves were analyzed with biexponential curve-fitting routines yielding fractional distribution and clearance half-times of C-11 palmitic acid in myocardial tissue. In animals with permanent occlusion and intracoronary injection of C-11 palmitic acid distal to the occlusion site, the relative size and half-time of the early clearance curve component differed markedly from control values and did not change with ongoing ischemia. Conversely, in animals with only 20 minutes of coronary occlusion, the relative size of the early C-11 clearance phase was still significantly depressed at 20 and 90 minutes of reperfusion but returned to control level at 180 minutes. Tissue C-11 clearance half-times remained significantly prolonged throughout the reperfusion period. Regional function in reperfused myocardium monitored with ultrasonic crystals recovered slowly and was still less than control after 3 hours of reperfusion. The data indicate that after transient ischemia, myocardial fatty acid metabolism fails to recover immediately. Because the metabolic recovery occurs in parallel with recovery of regional function, C-11 palmitic acid in conjunction with positron tomography may be useful for studying regional fatty acid metabolism noninvasively after an ischemic injury, and may be helpful in identifying reversible tissue injury

  2. Enhanced Electrical Integration of Engineered Human Myocardium via Intramyocardial versus Epicardial Delivery in Infarcted Rat Hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaytlyn A Gerbin

    Full Text Available Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising approach to provide large-scale tissues for transplantation to regenerate the heart after ischemic injury, however, integration with the host myocardium will be required to achieve electromechanical benefits. To test the ability of engineered heart tissues to electrically integrate with the host, 10 million human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived cardiomyocytes were used to form either scaffold-free tissue patches implanted on the epicardium or micro-tissue particles (~1000 cells/particle delivered by intramyocardial injection into the left ventricular wall of the ischemia/reperfusion injured athymic rat heart. Results were compared to intramyocardial injection of 10 million dispersed hESC-cardiomyocytes. Graft size was not significantly different between treatment groups and correlated inversely with infarct size. After implantation on the epicardial surface, hESC-cardiac tissue patches were electromechanically active, but they beat slowly and were not electrically coupled to the host at 4 weeks based on ex vivo fluorescent imaging of their graft-autonomous GCaMP3 calcium reporter. Histologically, scar tissue physically separated the patch graft and host myocardium. In contrast, following intramyocardial injection of micro-tissue particles and suspended cardiomyocytes, 100% of the grafts detected by fluorescent GCaMP3 imaging were electrically coupled to the host heart at spontaneous rate and could follow host pacing up to a maximum of 300-390 beats per minute (5-6.5 Hz. Gap junctions between intramyocardial graft and host tissue were identified histologically. The extensive coupling and rapid response rate of the human myocardial grafts after intramyocardial delivery suggest electrophysiological adaptation of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to the rat heart's pacemaking activity. These data support the use of the rat model for studying electromechanical integration of human cardiomyocytes, and they

  3. Characterization of the Structural and Functional Changes in the Myocardium Following Focal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Navdeep; Roy, Sashwati; Radtke, Jared; Simonetti, Orlando; Gnyawali, Surya; Zweier, Jay L.; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Sen, Chandan K.

    2015-01-01

    High resolution (11.7T) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological approaches have been employed in tandem to characterize the secondary damage suffered by the murine myocardium following the initial insult caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR). IR induced changes in the myocardium were examined in five separate groups at the following time-points after IR: 1h, 1d, 3d, 7d and 14 d. Infarct volume increased from 1h to 1d post-IR. Over time, loss of myocardial function was observed to be associated with increased infarct volume and worsened regional wall motion. In the infarct region, IR caused a decrease in end-systolic thickness coupled with small changes in end-diastolic thickness, leading to massive wall thickening abnormalities. In addition, compromised wall thickening was also observed in left ventricular regions adjacent to the infarct region. A tight correlation (r2 = 0.86) between measured MRI and triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) infarct volumes was noted. Our observation that until day 3 post-IR, the infarct size as measured by TTC staining and MRI were much larger than the myocyte-silent regions in trichrome or H&E stained sections is consistent with the literature and leads to the conclusion that at such early phase the infarct site contains structurally intact myocytes that are functionally compromised. Over time, such affected myocytes were noted to structurally disappear resulting in consistent infarct sizes obtained from MRI, TTC as well as trichrome and hematoxylin/eosin analyses on day 7 following IR. Myocardial remodeling following IR includes secondary myocyte death followed by loss of cardiac function over time. PMID:18375718

  4. Stereoselective handling of perhexiline: implications regarding accumulation within the human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Cher-Rin; Drury, Nigel E; Licari, Giovanni; Frenneaux, Michael P; Horowitz, John D; Pagano, Domenico; Sallustio, Benedetta C

    2015-12-01

    Perhexiline is a prophylactic anti-ischaemic agent with weak calcium antagonist effect which has been increasingly utilised in the management of refractory angina. The metabolic clearance of perhexiline is modulated by CYP2D6 metaboliser status and stereoselectivity. The current study sought to (1) determine whether the acute accumulation of perhexiline in the myocardium is stereoselective and (2) investigate the relationship between duration of short-term therapy and the potential stereoselective effects of perhexiline within myocardium. Patients (n = 129) from the active arm of a randomised controlled trial of preoperative perhexiline in cardiac surgery were treated with oral perhexiline for a median of 9 days. Correlates of atrial and ventricular concentrations of enantiomers were sought via univariate followed by multivariate analyses. Myocardial uptake of both (+) and (-) perhexiline was greater in ventricles than in atria, and there was more rapid clearance of (-) than (+) perhexiline. The main determinants of atrial uptake of both (+) and (-) perhexiline were the plasma concentrations [(+) perhexiline: β = -0.256, p = 0.015; (-) perhexiline: β = -0.347, p = 0.001] and patients' age [(+) perhexiline: β = 0.300, p = 0.004; (-) perhexiline: β = 0.288, p = 0.005]. Atrial uptake of (+) enantiomer also varied directly with duration of therapy (β = 0.228, p = 0.025), while atrial uptake of (-) perhexiline varied inversely with simultaneous heart rate (β = -0.240, p = 0.015). (1) Uptake of both perhexiline enantiomers into atrium is greater with advanced age and displays evidence of both saturability and minor stereoselectivity. (2) Atrial uptake of (-) perhexiline may selectively modulate heart rate reduction.

  5. Gene Expression Networks in the Murine Pulmonary Myocardium Provide Insight into the Pathobiology of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan K. Boutilier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The pulmonary myocardium is a muscular coat surrounding the pulmonary and caval veins. Although its definitive physiological function is unknown, it may have a pathological role as the source of ectopic beats initiating atrial fibrillation. How the pulmonary myocardium gains pacemaker function is not clearly defined, although recent evidence indicates that changed transcriptional gene expression networks are at fault. The gene expression profile of this distinct cell type in situ was examined to investigate underlying molecular events that might contribute to atrial fibrillation. Via systems genetics, a whole-lung transcriptome data set from the BXD recombinant inbred mouse resource was analyzed, uncovering a pulmonary cardiomyocyte gene network of 24 transcripts, coordinately regulated by chromosome 1 and 2 loci. Promoter enrichment analysis and interrogation of publicly available ChIP-seq data suggested that transcription of this gene network may be regulated by the concerted activity of NKX2-5, serum response factor, myocyte enhancer factor 2, and also, at a post-transcriptional level, by RNA binding protein motif 20. Gene ontology terms indicate that this gene network overlaps with molecular markers of the stressed heart. Therefore, we propose that perturbed regulation of this gene network might lead to altered calcium handling, myocyte growth, and contractile force contributing to the aberrant electrophysiological properties observed in atrial fibrillation. We reveal novel molecular interactions and pathways representing possible therapeutic targets for atrial fibrillation. In addition, we highlight the utility of recombinant inbred mouse resources in detecting and characterizing gene expression networks of relatively small populations of cells that have a pathological significance.

  6. Quantitative shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography for noncontact mechanical characterization of myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Lopez, Andrew L.; Morikawa, Yuka; Tao, Ge; Li, Jiasong; Larina, Irina V.; Martin, James F.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an emerging low-coherence imaging technique that provides noninvasive assessment of tissue biomechanics with high spatial resolution. Among various OCE methods, the capability of quantitative measurement of tissue elasticity is of great importance for tissue characterization and pathology detection across different samples. Here we report a quantitative OCE technique, termed quantitative shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography (Q-SWI-OCT), which enables noncontact measurement of tissue Young's modulus based on the ultra-fast imaging of the shear wave propagation inside the sample. A focused air-puff device is used to interrogate the tissue with a low-pressure short-duration air stream that stimulates a localized displacement with the scale at micron level. The propagation of this tissue deformation in the form of shear wave is captured by a phase-sensitive OCT system running with the scan of the M-mode imaging over the path of the wave propagation. The temporal characteristics of the shear wave is quantified based on the cross-correlation of the tissue deformation profiles at all the measurement locations, and linear regression is utilized to fit the data plotted in the domain of time delay versus wave propagation distance. The wave group velocity is thus calculated, which results in the quantitative measurement of the Young's modulus. As the feasibility demonstration, experiments are performed on tissuemimicking phantoms with different agar concentrations and the quantified elasticity values with Q-SWI-OCT agree well with the uniaxial compression tests. For functional characterization of myocardium with this OCE technique, we perform our pilot experiments on ex vivo mouse cardiac muscle tissues with two studies, including 1) elasticity difference of cardiac muscle under relaxation and contract conditions and 2) mechanical heterogeneity of the heart introduced by the muscle fiber orientation. Our results suggest the

  7. 14(R,S)-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid as a tracer of free fatty acid uptake and oxidation in myocardium and skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, Teemu O.; Nuutila, Pirjo [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Central Hospital, PO Box 52, 20521 Turku (Finland); Department of Medicine, University of Turku (Finland); Pulkki, Kari [Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Turku (Finland); Oikonen, Vesa; Groenroos, Tove; Bergman, Joergen; Forsback, Sarita; Knuuti, Juhani [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Central Hospital, PO Box 52, 20521 Turku (Finland); Savunen, Timo; Vaehaesilta, Tommi [Department of Surgery, University of Turku (Finland); Luotolahti, Matti [Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Turku (Finland); Kallajoki, Markku [Department of Pathology, University of Turku (Finland)

    2002-12-01

    14(R,S)-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid ([{sup 18}F]FTHA) is a long-chain fatty acid substrate for fatty acid metabolism. [{sup 18}F]FTHA has been used to study fatty acid metabolism in human heart and skeletal muscle. It has been suggested that the rate of radioactivity accumulation in the myocardium reflects the beta-oxidation rate of free fatty acids (FFAs). However, the net accumulation of FFAs in tissue always represents the sum of FFA oxidation and incorporation into triglycerides. The fraction of [{sup 18}F]FTHA entering directly into mitochondria for oxidation has not been previously measured. Eight anaesthetized pigs were studied with [{sup 18}F]FTHA and positron emission tomography (PET). Immediately after each PET experiment, tissue samples from myocardium and skeletal muscle were taken for the isolation of mitochondria and measurements of radioactivity accumulation, and for intracellular [{sup 18}F]FTHA metabolite analysis. Fractional [{sup 18}F]FTHA uptake rates were calculated both by graphical analysis of PET data and by measuring {sup 18}F in the tissue samples. Fractional [{sup 18}F]FTHA uptake rates based on the analysis of tissue samples were 0.56{+-}0.17 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1} and 0.037{+-}0.007 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1} for myocardium and skeletal muscle (mean {+-} SD), respectively. The myocardial results obtained from the PET data (0.50{+-}0.11 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) were similar to the values obtained from the tissue samples (r=0.94, P=0.002). We also found that 89%{+-}23% (mean{+-}SD, n=7) of the {sup 18}F entered mitochondria in myocardium, as compared with only 36%{+-}15% (mean{+-}SD, n=7) in skeletal muscle. Intracellular [{sup 18}F]FTHA metabolite analysis showed that a major part of [{sup 18}F]FTHA is metabolized in the mitochondria in the heart. Our data suggest that 89% of [{sup 18}F]FTHA taken up by the heart enters mitochondria. This supports the hypothesis that [{sup 18}F]FTHA traces FFA beta-oxidation in the heart

  8. THE EFFECT OF COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY ON THE BASIC PARAMETERS OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE MYOCARDIUM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN WOMEN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME AND HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Skibitskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of combined antihypertensive therapy on the basic parameters of the left ventricle (LV myocardium structure and function in women with arterial hypertension (HT, metabolic syndrome (MS and hypothyroidism. Material and methods. Women (n=196 with HT grade 2–3 and MS were included into the study. Standard clinical examination including an assessment of thyroid status, ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring and echocardiography was performed at baseline and after 6 months. The patients were split into 3 groups: control (without hypothyroidism with subclinical and manifested (symptomatic hypothyroidism (SH and MH. Depending on baseline heart rate (HR patients of each group received a combination of amlodipine+losartan (A+L in HR <85/min or a combination of amlodipine+moxonidine (A+M in in HR ≥85/min. Results. The significant antihypertensive effect was found in patients of the control group due to both A+L and A+M combination (target BP was reached in 85.7 and 88.2%, respectively. In patients with hypothyroidism significant antihypertensive effects was observed only during A+M therapy (target BP in SH and MH was achieved in 82.8 and 82.4%, respectively. In the control group A+L and A+M combinations increased a number of patients with normal LV geometry (85.7 and 86.7, respectively and diastolic function (78.6 and 80%, respectively. In hypothyroidism A+M therapy resulted in more prominent increase in a number of patients with normal LV geometry (75% in both SH and MH and diastolic function (in SH and MH 83.3 и 85.7%, respectively than these in A+L therapy (р<0.05. Conclusion. The combination of A+M has advantages over A+L combination in antihypertensive efficacy as well as in the effect on the structural and functional state of the LV myocardium in women with HT and MS associated with hypothyroidism.

  9. THE EFFECT OF COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY ON THE BASIC PARAMETERS OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE MYOCARDIUM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN WOMEN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME AND HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Skibitskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of combined antihypertensive therapy on the basic parameters of the left ventricle (LV myocardium structure and function in women with arterial hypertension (HT, metabolic syndrome (MS and hypothyroidism. Material and methods. Women (n=196 with HT grade 2–3 and MS were included into the study. Standard clinical examination including an assessment of thyroid status, ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring and echocardiography was performed at baseline and after 6 months. The patients were split into 3 groups: control (without hypothyroidism with subclinical and manifested (symptomatic hypothyroidism (SH and MH. Depending on baseline heart rate (HR patients of each group received a combination of amlodipine+losartan (A+L in HR <85/min or a combination of amlodipine+moxonidine (A+M in in HR ≥85/min. Results. The significant antihypertensive effect was found in patients of the control group due to both A+L and A+M combination (target BP was reached in 85.7 and 88.2%, respectively. In patients with hypothyroidism significant antihypertensive effects was observed only during A+M therapy (target BP in SH and MH was achieved in 82.8 and 82.4%, respectively. In the control group A+L and A+M combinations increased a number of patients with normal LV geometry (85.7 and 86.7, respectively and diastolic function (78.6 and 80%, respectively. In hypothyroidism A+M therapy resulted in more prominent increase in a number of patients with normal LV geometry (75% in both SH and MH and diastolic function (in SH and MH 83.3 и 85.7%, respectively than these in A+L therapy (р<0.05. Conclusion. The combination of A+M has advantages over A+L combination in antihypertensive efficacy as well as in the effect on the structural and functional state of the LV myocardium in women with HT and MS associated with hypothyroidism.

  10. [Differential gene expression profile in ischemic myocardium of Wistar rats with acute myocardial infarction: the study on gene construction, identification and function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chun Yu; Yin, Hui Jun; Jiang, Yue Rong; Xue, Mei; Zhang, Lu; Shi, Da Zhuo

    2008-06-18

    To construct the differential genes expressed profile in the ischemic myocardium tissue reduced from acute myocardial infarction(AMI), and determine the biological functions of target genes. AMI model was generated by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in Wistar rats. Total RNA was extracted from the normal and the ischemic heart tissues under the ligation point 7 days after the operation. Differential gene expression profiles of the two samples were constructed using Long Serial Analysis of Gene Expression(LongSAGE). Real time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to verify gene expression profile and to identify the expression of 2 functional genes. The activities of enzymes from functional genes were determined by histochemistry. A total of 15,966 tags were screened from the normal and the ischemic LongSAGE maps. The similarities of the sequences were compared using the BLAST algebra in NCBI and 7,665 novel tags were found. In the ischemic tissue 142 genes were significantly changed compared with those in the normal tissue (Ppathways of oxidation and phosphorylation, ATP synthesis and glycolysis. The partial genes identified by LongSAGE were confirmed using real time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Two genes related to energy metabolism, COX5a and ATP5e, were screened and quantified. Expression of two functional genes down-regulated at their mRNA levels and the activities of correlative functional enzymes decreased compared with those in the normal tissue. AMI causes a series of changes in gene expression, in which the abnormal expression of genes related to energy metabolism could be one of the molecular mechanisms of AMI. The intervention of the expressions of COX5a and ATP5e may be a new target for AMI therapy.

  11. In vitro cultured progenitors and precursors of cardiac cell lineages from human normal and post-ischemic hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Di Meglio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration of the presence of dividing primitive cells in damaged hearts has sparked increased interest about myocardium regenerative processes. We examined the rate and the differentiation of in vitro cultured resident cardiac primitive cells obtained from pathological and normal human hearts in order to evaluate the activation of progenitors and precursors of cardiac cell lineages in post-ischemic human hearts. The precursors and progenitors of cardiomyocyte, smooth muscle and endothelial lineage were identified by immunocytochemistry and the expression of characteristic markers was studied by western blot and RT-PCR. The amount of proteins characteristic for cardiac cells (a-SA and MHC, VEGFR-2 and FVIII, SMA for the precursors of cardiomyocytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells, respectively inclines toward an increase in both a-SA and MHC. The increased levels of FVIII and VEGFR2 are statistically significant, suggesting an important re-activation of neoangiogenesis. At the same time, the augmented expression of mRNA for Nkx 2.5, the trascriptional factor for cardiomyocyte differentiation, confirms the persistence of differentiative processes in terminally injured hearts. Our study would appear to confirm the activation of human heart regeneration potential in pathological conditions and the ability of its primitive cells to maintain their proliferative capability in vitro. The cardiac cell isolation method we used could be useful in the future for studying modifications to the microenvironment that positively influence cardiac primitive cell differentiation or inhibit, or retard, the pathological remodeling and functional degradation of the heart.

  12. AdVEGF-B186 and AdVEGF-DΔNΔC induce angiogenesis and increase perfusion in porcine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurro, Jussi; Halonen, Paavo J; Kuivanen, Antti; Tarkia, Miikka; Saraste, Antti; Honkonen, Krista; Lähteenvuo, Johanna; Rissanen, Tuomas T; Knuuti, Juhani; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2016-11-01

    Coronary heart disease remains a significant clinical problem, and new therapies are needed especially for patients with refractory angina for whom the current therapies do not provide sufficient relief. The aim of this study was to find out if angiogenic gene therapy using new members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, VEGF-B 186 and VEGF-D ΔNΔC , increase myocardial perfusion as measured by the positron emission tomography (PET) 15 O-imaging, and whether there would be coronary steal effect to the contralateral side. Furthermore, safety of intramyocardial angiogenic adenoviral gene transfer was evaluated. Intramyocardial adenoviral (Ad) VEGF-B 186 or AdVEGF-D ΔNΔC gene transfers were given endovascularly into the porcine posterolateral wall of the left ventricle (n=34). Six days later, PET 15 O-imaging for myocardial perfusion and coronary angiography were performed. AdVEGF-B 186 and AdVEGF-D ΔNΔC induced angiogenesis and increased total microvascular area 1.8-fold (95% CI 0.2 to 3.5) and 2.8-fold (95% CI 1.4 to 4.3), respectively. At rest, perfusion was maintained at normal levels, but at stress, relative perfusion was increased 1.4-fold (95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) for AdVEGF-B 186 and 1.3-fold (95% CI 1.0 to 1.7) for AdVEGF-D ΔNΔC , without causing coronary steal effect in the control area. The therapy was well tolerated and did not lead to any significant changes in laboratory safety parameters. Both AdVEGF-B 186 and AdVEGF-D ΔNΔC gene transfers induced efficient angiogenesis in the myocardium resulting in an increased myocardial perfusion measured by PET. Importantly, local perfusion increase did not induce any coronary steal effect. As such, both treatments seem suitable new candidates for the induction of therapeutic angiogenesis for the treatment of refractory angina. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Gender-specific changes in laboratory indexes and structural parameters of the left ventricle myocardium in chronic heart failure on the background of diabetes mellitus type 2 and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Bidzilya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern studies have shown that the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and chronic heart failure (CHF specifically, in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM is about 50%. Aim. To study gender-specific changes in laboratory indexes and structural myocardial parameters of left ventricle (LV in CHF on the background of diabetes mellitus (DM type 2. 111 patients with I–III functional class of disease with normal, overweight and abdominal obesity I–III degree were examined. Methods and results. Clinical and biochemical blood tests? glomerular filtration rate were used. Structural parameters of the myocardium were estimated with echocardiography. It is established that in CHF on the background of DM type 2 and obesity there is a tendency to develop anemia and renal dysfunction in women. Structural changes of the myocardium is more pronounced in men and presents the prevalence ofLV hypertrophy and dilatation of the heart cavities. Conclusion. This demonstrates different ways of negative impact of gender factor on the laboratory indexes and structural myocardial parameters in CHF on the background of DM type 2 and obesity.

  14. Study of rNIS as a reporter gene monitoring rBMSC transplanted to rat myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shou; Lan Xiaoli; Cao Wei; Cao Guoxiang; Zhang Guopeng; Zhang Binqing; Wu Tao; Chang Wei; Zhang Yongxue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of rat sodium/iodide symporter (rNIS) as a reporter gene monitoring rat bone marrow mesenchymal cells (rBMSC) transplanted to rat myocardium in vivo. Methods: Recombinated adenovirus vector was constructed by rNIS/enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) (Ad-rNIS/EGFP). rBMSC transfected by Ad-rNIS/EGFP were studied using fluorescence microscope. Fifteen rats were transplanted with rBMSC and randomly divided into three groups: rNIS group (with rNIS transfection), blocked group (with rNIS transfection) by oral intake of perchloric sodium before planar imaging (GE Millennium MPR SPECT), and control group (without rNIS transfection). All rats underwent 99 Tc m -pertechnetate planar imaging. The biological distribution of 99 Tc m -pertechnetate was studied. The expressions of rNIS gene and protein in myocardium were measured by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot, respectively. The expressions of CD 29 , CD 44 , CD 90 , CD 11 b, CD 34 and CD 45 were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results: rBMSC transfected by Ad-rNIS/EGFP showed EGFP expression under fluorescence microscope. The transplanted rat myocardium could be visualized on 99 Tc m -pertechnetate planar imaging in rNIS group. The relative uptake ratio (R heart /R hmb , RUR) was 6.7 ±0.4. RUR in control group (3.0 ±0.2) was lower than that in rNIS group (t =2.78, P=0.03). The percentage injection dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g) of the transplanted myocardium was 60.2 ± 20.8 in rNIS group, which was higher than that (2.5 ± 0.4) % ID/g of control group ( t = 7.13, P 29 , CD 44 and CD 90 were positive, CD 45 and CD 45 negative CD 11 b mildly positive in the myocardium transplanted with infective rBMSC. Conclusion: rNIS can efficiently monitor rBMSC transplanted to rat myocardium. (authors)

  15. A New Class III Antiarrhythmic Drug Niferidil Prolongs Action Potentials in Guinea Pig Atrial Myocardium via Inhibition of Rapid Delayed Rectifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramochkin, Denis V; Kuzmin, Vladislav S; Rosenshtraukh, Leonid V

    2017-12-01

    A new class III antiarrhythmic drug niferidil (RG-2) has been introduced as a highly effective therapy for cases of persistent atrial fibrillation, but ionic mechanisms of its action are poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of niferidil on action potential (AP) waveform and potassium currents responsible for AP repolarization were investigated in guinea pig atrial myocardium. APs were recorded with sharp glass microelectrodes in multicellular atrial preparations. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure K + currents in isolated myocytes. In multicellular atrial preparations, 10 -8  M niferidil effectively prolonged APs by 15.2 ± 2.8% at 90% repolarization level. However, even the highest tested concentrations, 10 -6  M and 10 -5  M failed to prolong APs more than 32.5% of control duration. The estimated concentration of niferedil for half-maximal AP prolongation was 1.13 × 10 -8  M. Among the potassium currents responsible for AP repolarization phase, I K1 was found to be almost insensitive to niferidil. However, another inward rectifier, I KACh , was effectively suppressed by micromolar concentrations of niferidil with IC 50  = 9.2 × 10 -6  M. I KATP was much less sensitive to the drug with IC 50  = 2.26 × 10 -4  M. The slow component of delayed rectifier, I Ks , also demonstrated low sensitivity to niferidil-the highest used concentration, 10 -4  M, decreased peak I Ks density to 46.2 ± 5.5% of control. Unlike I Ks , the rapid component of delayed rectifier, I Kr , appeared to be extremely sensitive to niferidil. The IC 50 was 1.26 × 10 -9  M. I Kr measured in ventricular myocytes was found to be less sensitive to niferidil with IC 50  = 3.82 × 10 -8  M. Niferidil prolongs APs in guinea pig atrial myocardium via inhibition of I Kr .

  16. The diagnostic value of Tc-99m PYP, Tl-201 dual isotope SPECT to predict the viability of damaged myocardium in the acute phase of myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Sachiro; Arai, Masazumi

    1991-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP), Tl-201 dual isotope SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial viability, segmental comparison between dual isotope SPECT and exercise, delayed, and reinjected Tl study were performed with 18 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Among 72 damaged myocardial segments, 48 segments (67%) were judged as viable by chronic phase Tl studies. The segments with severely reduced Tl uptake by dual SPECT showed significantly lower prevalence of viable myocardium than the segments with reduced and normal Tl uptake (p<0.001). The segments with PYP accumulation localized to the subendocardium represented the favorable outcome compared with the transmural accumulation (p<0.001). And overlap segments show better prognosis than the segments without overlap (p<0.05). Most importantly, we can get better predictive accuracy of myocardial scar by dual isotope SPECT than the judgement by Tl or PYP SPECT alone (83.3% vs 77.8%, 68.1%). Thus, we conclude that Tc-99m PYP, Tl-201 dual isotope SPECT is useful to assess the severity of myocardial damage in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. (author)

  17. Comparative study of 201Tl reinjection tomography and combined use of 13N-ammonia and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for detection of viable myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lijuan; Qi Guoxian; Hu Jian

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical value of 201 Tl reinjection tomography and combined use of 13 N-ammonia (NH 3 ) regional myocardial perfusion and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography transfer function and for the myocardium. Methods: The authors performed exercise 201 Tl SPECT (Tl SPECT) on 20 patients with myocardial infarction and obtained standard 201 Tl exercise-redistribution images. 201 Tl was reinjected immediately after redistribution study, and the images were then acquired as also. The 20 patients also underwent PET imaging with 13 N-NH 3 and 18 F-FDG (NH 3 -FDG PET) within one week of the above study. Vertical and horizontal long axis cuts were divided into nine segments, and uptakes of radioisotope were evaluated into four classes visually (Defect score, DS) (0:normal uptake, 3:severely reduced). Quantitative evaluation was performed on the vertical and horizontal long axis cuts of 201 Tl redistribution, reinjection and FDG PET images using regions of interest. The relative myocardial 201 Tl uptake and 18 F-FDG uptake (% ID) were expressed as the percentage of this reference region accounted for of the maximal counts. Results: In 48 segments identified as viable by the NH 3 -FDG PET images, 45 (93.8%) segments were also identified as viable by the 201 Tl redistribution imaging. Of 24 segments with severe irreversible defects on the 201 Tl redistribution imaging, 87.5% of the segments were concordantly confirmed by 201 Tl reinjection and NH 3 -FDG PET images with 37.5% identified as viable and 50% identified as scar. There was no significant difference in the average % ID, furthermore, regression analysis revealed a high positive correlation in the segmental % ID between 201 Tl reinjection and FDG PET images in the 61 segments with myocardial infarction (r = 0.722). Conclusions: The results show that 201 Tl reinjection tomography is of similar accuracy with NH 3 -FDG PET for detection of viable myocardium and possess important

  18. Infarct-remodeled myocardium is receptive to protection by isoflurane postconditioning: role of protein kinase B/Akt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianhua; Fischer, Gregor; Lucchinetti, Eliana; Zhu, Min; Bestmann, Lukas; Jegger, David; Arras, Margarete; Pasch, Thomas; Perriard, Jean-Claude; Schaub, Marcus C; Zaugg, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Postinfarct remodeled myocardium exhibits numerous structural and biochemical alterations. So far, it is unknown whether postconditioning elicited by volatile anesthetics can also provide protection in the remodeled myocardium. Myocardial infarct was induced in male Wistar rats by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Six weeks later, hearts were buffer-perfused and exposed to 40 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion. Anesthetic postconditioning was induced by 15 min of 2.1 vol% isoflurane. In some experiments, LY294002 (15 microM), a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, was coadministered with isoflurane. Masson's trichrome staining, immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction served to confirm remodeling. In buffer-perfused hearts, functional recovery was recorded, and acute infarct size was measured using 1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and lactate dehydrogenase release during reperfusion. Western blot analysis was used to determine phosphorylation of reperfusion injury salvage kinases including protein kinase B/Akt and its downstream targets after 15 min of reperfusion. Infarct hearts exhibited typical macroscopic and molecular changes of remodeling. Isoflurane postconditioning improved functional recovery and decreased acute infarct size, as determined by triphenyltetrazolium (35 +/- 5% in unprotected hearts vs. 8 +/- 3% in anesthetic postconditioning; P protection was abolished by LY294002, which inhibited phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt and its downstream targets glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and p70S6 kinase. Infarct-remodeled myocardium is receptive to protection by isoflurane postconditioning via protein kinase B/Akt signaling. This is the first time to demonstrate that anesthetic postconditioning retains its marked protection in diseased myocardium.

  19. Preclinical pharmacological study of 99mTcN(NOET)2 and comparison with 201Tl in redistribution of ischemia myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.C.; Zhang, J.B.; Wang, Q.; Mi, H.Z.; Wang, X.B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To study the biological properties of the myocardial imaging agent 99m TcN(NOET) 2 and compare with 201 Tl in redistribution of ischemia myocardium. Materials and Methods: To prepared the 99m TcN(NOET) 2 complex, the intermediate [ 99m TcN] 2+ and ligand NOET were synthesized. In the presence of reducer and the doner of N, the [ 99m Tc=N] 2+ could be synthesized at 100, then NOET was added, 99m TcN(NOET) 2 was formed at room temperature. 201 Tl was provided by the Department of Isotope, China Institute of Atomic Energy. Five dogs were from the Fu Wai experimental animal feeding center, two of them were made into ischemia myocardium models by ligating some coronary artery branches were demonstrated by X-ray coronary angiography, the extent of stenosis of those blood vessels was over 90%. Dynamic imaging of rest was performed respectively in three normal dogs after injecting a dose of 555MBq (15mCi) of 99m TcN(NOET) 2 complex up to two hours. The whole body imaging planar and tomography imaging was carried out respectively at fixed time intervals during two hours in order to obtain the time-activity curves of heart, lung and liver, in vivo biodistribution and quality analysis of myocardial images. Moreover, intravenous blood samples were collected at different times to gain the kinetics of blood clearance. Stress and redistribution imaging underwent in two dogs with ischemia myocardium. Dipyridamol was given intravenously at a dose of 0.6mg/Kg in 4 mins. Stress :9 9m TcN(NOET) 2 myocardial SPECT imaging was performed at 30, 70 and 110 min after injection of 99m TcN(NOET) 2 complex, stress 201 Tl myocardial SPECT imaging was carried out 10 min and redistribution imaging 4 hr after injection of 55.5MBq (1.5mCi) 201 Tl chloride. The tests of 99m TcN(NOET) 2 and 201 Tl were performed respectively in the same dog within 10 days, in order to obtain a comparison between two myocardial redistribution imaging. Results: Radiochemical purity of 99m TcN(NOET) 2 was 98.41%

  20. Structural alterations in rat myocardium induced by chronic l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation

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    Amal Abdussalam Ali A. Hmaid

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes affecting cardiomyocyte function may contribute to the pathophysiological remodeling underlying cardiac function impairment. Recent reports have shown that endogenous nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in this process. In order to examine the role of NO in cardiomyocyte remodeling, male rats were acclimated to room temperature (22 ± 1 °C or cold (4 ± 1 °C and treated with 2.25% l-arginine·HCl or 0.01% l-NAME (Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester·HCl for 45 days. Untreated groups served as controls. Right heart ventricles were routinely prepared for light microscopic examination. Stereological estimations of volume densities of cardiomyocytes, surrounding blood vessels and connective tissue, as well as the morphometric measurements of cardiomyocyte diameters were performed. Tissue sections were also analyzed for structural alterations. We observed that both l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, regardless of ambient temperature. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with fibrosis and extra collagen deposition only in the l-NAME treated group. Taken together, our results suggest that NO has a modulatory role in right heart ventricle remodeling by coordinating hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and fibrous tissue preventing cardiac fibrosis. Keywords: Cardiomyocyte, Cardiac hypertrophy, l-Arginine, l-NAME, Myocardium

  1. Ultrastructural alterations of atrial myocardium induced by adriamycin in chronically treated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertenghi-Deliliers, G; Zanon, P L; Pozzoli, E F; Bellini, O; Praga, C

    1978-02-28

    The clinical use of adriamycin (AM) is limited by a possible dose-dependent myocardiopathy. Severe lesions of ventricular myocardium widely described by electron microscopy have been correlated to irreversible congestive heart failure. On the other hand, the atrial contractile elements which differ from the ventricular ones because of the presence of the so-called specific granules have rarely been considered. In the work described in this paper, adriamycin was injected into rabbits and mice according to schedules of chronic toxicity. At the end of the treatment the atrial myocells presented diffuse ultrastructural lesions of mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrillar bundles. These alterations might be caused by the ribonucleoprotein synthesis inhibition, by a direct drug toxicity or by an energetic crisis due to early mitochondrial lesions. Besides, adriamycin produces a decrease of the specific atrial granules that play a hypothetic role in the metabolism of myocardial cells. However, lack of information about the contents and the exact function of atrial granules does not allow us to conclude that their decrease in treated animals has a pathogenetic significance in myocardiopathy induced by adriamycin.

  2. Association of Atrial Fibrillation with Morphological and Electrophysiological Changes of the Atrial Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matějková, Adéla; Šteiner, Ivo

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. For long time it was considered as pure functional disorder, but in recent years, there were identified atrial locations, which are involved in the initiation and maintenance of this arrhythmia. These structural changes, so called remodelation, start at electric level and later they affect contractility and morphology. In this study we attempted to find a possible relation between morphological (scarring, amyloidosis, left atrial (LA) enlargement) and electrophysiological (ECG features) changes in patients with AF. We examined grossly and histologically 100 hearts of necropsy patients - 54 with a history of AF and 46 without AF. Premortem ECGs were evaluated. The patients with AF had significantly heavier heart, larger LA, more severely scarred myocardium of the LA and atrial septum, and more severe amyloidosis in both atria. Severity of amyloidosis was higher in LAs vs. right atria (RAs). Distribution of both fibrosis and amyloidosis was irregular. The most affected area was in the LA anterior wall. Patients with a history of AF and with most severe amyloidosis have more often abnormally long P waves. Finding of long P wave may contribute to diagnosis of a hitherto undisclosed atrial fibrillation.

  3. Automatic segmentation of myocardium from black-blood MR images using entropy and local neighborhood information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zheng

    Full Text Available By using entropy and local neighborhood information, we present in this study a robust adaptive Gaussian regularizing Chan-Vese (CV model to segment the myocardium from magnetic resonance images with intensity inhomogeneity. By utilizing the circular Hough transformation (CHT our model is able to detect epicardial and endocardial contours of the left ventricle (LV as circles automatically, and the circles are used as the initialization. In the cost functional of our model, the interior and exterior energies are weighted by the entropy to improve the robustness of the evolving curve. Local neighborhood information is used to evolve the level set function to reduce the impact of the heterogeneity inside the regions and to improve the segmentation accuracy. An adaptive window is utilized to reduce the sensitivity to initialization. The Gaussian kernel is used to regularize the level set function, which can not only ensure the smoothness and stability of the level set function, but also eliminate the traditional Euclidean length term and re-initialization. Extensive validation of the proposed method on patient data demonstrates its superior performance over other state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Thallium 201 scintigraphy of the myocardium. A bibliographical survey for image optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, Luc.

    1979-01-01

    At the request of a Nuclear Medicine Service we compiled a review of the literature on thallium 201 myocardium scintigraphy in order to define the optimum parameters for image acquisition; included also are the bibliograhical references of studies on the sensitivities, specificities and accuracies of this technique as compared with electrocardiography in the diagnosis and evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. This examination seems to have a part to play at all stages in the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases, whether for the detection (ischemia) emergency handling (thrombosis) or post-surgical checking (permeability of an aorto-coronary transplant) of these diseases, the great frequency and gravity of which have no longer to be proved. This study covers the whole period since thallium scintigraphy began (1970) until June 1978. Thallium seems to have a great future in cardiology and may be even in other fields since its use is quoted (in only a few publications as yet) for brain, kidney and pancreas scintigraphy [fr

  5. Discrepancy between microsphere and diffusible tracer estimates of perfusion to ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.; Akizuki, S.; Gowski, D.; Downey, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This study critically tests the ability of microspheres to accurately measure perfusion to ischemic myocardium. The left anterior descending coronary artery was cannulated and perfused with arterial blood. The perfusion line was clamped, and a sidearm between the clamp and the cannula was opened to the atmosphere, allowing blood to flow retrograde from the distal segment of the artery. Measurement of regional blood flow during retrograde flow diversion with 15-micron microspheres revealed essentially zero flow to the perfused segment (0.005 ml X min-1 X g-1). Measurements under the same conditions by either 86 Rb uptake or 133 Xe washout revealed that an appreciable perfusion of the tissue persisted during retrograde flow diversion (0.043 and 0.11 ml X min-1 X g-1, respectively, for the 2 methods). Thus, the authors have identified a condition during which microspheres indicate zero flow to the tissue but diffusible tracers can both be washed in and washed out at a brisk rate. They conclude that with simple occlusion there is a hidden component of perfusion to an ischemic zone that cannot be measured by microspheres, causing them to underestimate flow by about 25% in that condition

  6. [Effect of adaptation to hypoxia on expression of NO synthase isoforms in rat myocardium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryacheva, A V; Terekhina, O L; Abramochkin, D V; Budanova, O P; Belkina, L M; Smirin, B V; Downey, H F; Malyshev, I Yu; Manukhina, E B

    2015-01-01

    Previously we have shown that adaptation to hypoxia (AH) is cardio- and vasoprotective in myocardial ischemic and reperfusion injury and this protection is associated with restriction of nitrosative stress. The present study was focused on further elucidation of NO-dependent mechanisms of AH by identifying specific NO synthases (NOS) that could play the major role in AH protection. AH was performed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber by breathing hypoxic gas mixture (9.5-10% O2) for 5-10 min with intervening 4 min normoxia (5-8 cycles daily for 21 days). Expression of neuronal (nNOS), inducible (iNOS), and endothelial (eNOS) protein was measured in the left ventricular myocardium using Western blot analysis with respective antibodies. AH educed iNOS protein expression by 71% (p < 0.05) whereas eNOS protein expression tended to be reduced by 41% compared to control (p < 0.05). nNOS protein expression remained unchanged after AH. Selective iNOS inhibition can mimic the AH-induced protection. Therefore protective effects of AH could be at least partially due to restriction of iNOS and, probably, eNOS expression.

  7. Wearable Multi-Channel Microelectrode Membranes for Elucidating Electrophysiological Phenotypes of Injured Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hung; Yu, Fei; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Tai, Joyce; Lee, Juhyun; Darehzereshki, Ali; Bersohn, Malcolm; Lien, Ching-Ling; Chi, Neil C.; Tai, Yu-Chong; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the regenerative capacity of small vertebrate models has provided new insights into the plasticity of injured myocardium. Here, we demonstrated the application of flexible microelectrode arrays (MEAs) in elucidating electrophysiological phenotypes of zebrafish and neonatal mouse models of heart regeneration. The 4-electrode MEA membranes were designed to detect electrical signals in the aquatic environment. They were micro-fabricated to adhere to the non-planar body surface of zebrafish and neonatal mice. The acquired signals were processed to display electrocardiogram (ECG) with high signal-to-noise-ratios, and were validated via the use of conventional micro-needle electrodes. The 4-channel MEA provided signal stability and spatial resolution, revealing the site-specific electrical injury currents such as ST-depression in response to ventricular cryo-injury. Thus, our polymer-based and wearable MEA membranes provided electrophysiological insights in long-term conduction phenotypes for small vertebral models of heart injury and regeneration with a translational implication for monitoring cardiac patients. PMID:24945366

  8. Transmural Variation and Anisotropy of Microvascular Flow Conductivity in the Rat Myocardium

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Amy F.

    2014-05-28

    Transmural variations in the relationship between structural and fluid transport properties of myocardial capillary networks are determined via continuum modeling approaches using recent three-dimensional (3D) data on the microvascular structure. Specifically, the permeability tensor, which quantifies the inverse of the blood flow resistivity of the capillary network, is computed by volume-averaging flow solutions in synthetic networks with geometrical and topological properties derived from an anatomically-detailed microvascular data set extracted from the rat myocardium. Results show that the permeability is approximately ten times higher in the principal direction of capillary alignment (the "longitudinal" direction) than perpendicular to this direction, reflecting the strong anisotropy of the microvascular network. Additionally, a 30% increase in capillary diameter from subepicardium to subendocardium is shown to translate to a 130% transmural rise in permeability in the longitudinal capillary direction. This result supports the hypothesis that perfusion is preferentially facilitated during diastole in the subendocardial microvasculature to compensate for the severely-reduced systolic perfusion in the subendocardium.

  9. Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell

  10. Reduction in beta-myosin heavy chains in stunned myocardium as assessed by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S C; Pomblum, V J; Gams, E; Rupp, H; Schipke, J D

    2007-09-01

    Myosin plays a key role in the structure and function of cardiac muscle. Three myosin isoenzymes (V(1), V(2), and V(3)) with different ATPase activities have been identified in mammalian ventricles based on their heavy chain constituents. The relative amount of myosin isoenzymes changes under physiological and pathological conditions. Until now, myosin isoenzymes have frequently been determined using either tube gel (nondenaturing) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), or gradient or uniform sodium dodecyl sulfate (denaturing) PAGE. Both methods have disadvantages, e.g., a long running time. We developed, therefore, a uniform, nondenaturing PAGE with slab minigel format for analyzing the myosin isoenzymes in normoxic and stunned rabbit hearts. In normoxic hearts of adult rabbits, V(3) predominated over V(1) (46 vs 41%). In turn, in the stunned hearts, V(1) predominated over V(3) (70 vs 30%), and the heterodimeric V(2) was not anymore detectable. This alteration appears to result from a selective loss of myosin heavy chain (MHC)-beta. In parallel, the biochemical markers troponin I and creatine kinase were increased in the stunned hearts. We suggest that alterations of myosin isoenzymes in stunned myocardium can be monitored with native PAGE. The present analysis of myosin isoenzyme appears thus as a new tool for evaluating defects in MHC dimer formation in postischemic hearts.

  11. /sup 31/P-NMR studies of respiratory regulation in the intact myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    From, A H.L.; Petein, M A; Zimmer, S W; Michurski, S P; Ugurbil, K

    1986-10-06

    The mechanism by which mitochondrial respiration is coupled to ATP consumption in intact tissues is unclear. The authors determined the relationship between high-energy phosphate levels and oxygen consumption rate in rat hearts operating over a range of workloads and perfused with different substrates. With pyruvate + glucose perfusion, ADP levels were in general very low, and varied with MVO/sub 2/ yielding an apparent K/sub m/ of 25 +- 5 ..mu..M, suggesting regulation of oxidative phosphorylation through availability of ADP. In contrast, with glucose perfusion in the presence or absence of insulin, ADP levels, ADP/ATP ratio or the phosphate potential were relatively constant over the workload range examined and generally not correlated with alterations in MVO/sub 2/; it is suggested that under these conditions, carbon substrate delivery to the mitochondria may control mitochondrial respiration. The common feature of both of the suggested regulatory mechanisms is substrate limitation which, however, is exercised at different metabolic points depending on the carbon substrate available to the myocardium. 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 table.

  12. [Structural and functional changes of myocardium in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers with atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomaziuk, I M; Habulavichene, Zh M; Khomaziuk, V A

    2011-01-01

    Particularities and clinical importance of the structural and functional changes of myocardium were estimated in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers with atrial fibrillation (AF). We examined 122 men with AF, which was associated with ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension. Paroxysmal AF was diagnosed in 42 patients, 80 patients had permanent AE Control group comprised 80 men without AF. Echocardiography and Doppler studies were performed using ultrasound scanner Aloka SSD-630 (Japan). Significant structural and functional changes of the heart were revealed already in paroxysmal AF and became more pronounced in permanent AF. Increased left atrial size, its ratio to left ventricular end diastolic diameter, diastolic dysfunction were important echocardiographic predictors of AF. Heart walls thickening was accompanied by disorders of myocardial relaxation, increase in myocardial mass led to ischemia, and together they promoted overload, dysfunction of atrium and development of AF. Obligatory echocardiographic examination of the Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers with ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension is necessary for predicting AF early, ordering adequate therapy in proper time and improving prognosis.

  13. Appearance of high signal intensity and gadolinium-DTPA contrast enhancement in hypertrophied myocardium by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Yamada, Naoaki; Nagata, Seiki

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the potential role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating myocardial tissue characterization in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). ECG-gated MRI images were acquired in 32 HCM patients and 30 patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD), using a 1.5 T superconducting magnet system. The thickened areas were depicted as high signal intensities in the septum of 12 HCM patients (38%) and the endocardium of 5 HHD patients (17%). Echocardiography revealed that MRI appearance of high signal intensity was associated with more thickened myocardial wall. For evaluable 16 patients receiving i.v. injection of Gd-DTPA in a dose of 0.1 mM/kg, enhancement effects were observed in 10 patients (63%). High signal intensity appearing in the hypertrophied myocardium, as well as contrast enhancement, may not be characteristic of HCM, but reflect the likelihood of myocardial degeneration associated with the hypertrophied myocardium. Although MRI may not be capable of differentiating tissue characterization in HCM from that in HHD, it may provide different information about tissue characterization in the hypertrophied myocardium from that obtained by other techniques. (N.K.)

  14. Exercise Increases Cystathionine-γ-lyase Expression and Decreases the Status of Oxidative Stress in Myocardium of Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiping; Wang, Yujun; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Ni, Xin; Lu, Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    Exercise could be a therapeutic approach for cardiovascular dysfunction induced by estrogen deficiency. Our previous study has shown that estrogen maintains cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) expression and inhibits oxidative stress in the myocardium of female rats. In the present study, we investigated whether exercise improves CSE expression and oxidative stress status and ameliorates isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac damage in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The results showed that treadmill training restored the ovariectomy-induced reduction of CSE and estrogen receptor (ER)α and decrease of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and increase of malondialdehyde (MDA). The level of CSE was positively correlated to T-AOC and ERα while inversely correlated to MDA. OVX rats showed increases in the serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the percentage of TUNEL staining in myocardium upon ISO insult compared to sham rats. Exercise training significantly reduced the serum levels of LDH and CK and the percentage of TUNEL staining in myocardium upon ISO insult in OVX rats. In cultured cardiomyocytes, ISO treatment decreased cell viability and increased LDH release, while overexpression of CSE increased cell viability and decreased LDH release in the cells upon ISO insult. The results suggest that exercise training improves the oxidative stress status and ameliorates the cardiac damage induced by oxidative stress in OVX rats. The improvement of oxidative stress status by exercise might be at least partially due to upregulation of CSE/H2S signaling.

  15. Discovery of Radioiodinated Monomeric Anthraquinones as a Novel Class of Necrosis Avid Agents for Early Imaging of Necrotic Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Yang, Shengwei; Jiang, Cuihua; Li, Jindian; Wang, Cong; Chen, Linwei; Jin, Qiaomei; Song, Shaoli; Feng, Yuanbo; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi

    2016-02-16

    Assessment of myocardial viability is deemed necessary to aid in clinical decision making whether to recommend revascularization therapy for patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Dianthraquinones such as hypericin (Hyp) selectively accumulate in necrotic myocardium, but were unsuitable for early imaging after administration to assess myocardial viability. Since dianthraquinones can be composed by coupling two molecules of monomeric anthraquinone and the active center can be found by splitting chemical structure, we propose that monomeric anthraquinones may be effective functional groups for necrosis targetability. In this study, eight radioiodinated monomeric anthraquinones were evaluated as novel necrosis avid agents (NAAs) for imaging of necrotic myocardium. All (131)I-anthraquinones showed high affinity to necrotic tissues and (131)I-rhein emerged as the most promising compound. Infarcts were visualized on SPECT/CT images at 6 h after injection of (131)I-rhein, which was earlier than that with (131)I-Hyp. Moreover, (131)I-rhein showed satisfactory heart-to-blood, heart-to-liver and heart-to-lung ratios for obtaining images of good diagnostic quality. (131)I-rhein was a more promising "hot spot imaging" tracer for earlier visualization of necrotic myocardium than (131)I-Hyp, which supported further development of radiopharmaceuticals based on rhein for SPECT/CT ((123)I and (99m)Tc) or PET/CT imaging ((18)F and (124)I) of myocardial necrosis.

  16. Genetic modification of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing CCR1 increases cell viability, migration, engraftment, and capillary density in the injured myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Zhiping; Guo, Jian; Ni, Aiguo; Deb, Arjun; Zhang, Lunan; Mirotsou, Maria; Pratt, Richard E; Dzau, Victor J

    2010-06-11

    Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been shown to promote cardiac repair in acute myocardial injury in vivo, its overall restorative capacity appears to be restricted mainly because of poor cell viability and low engraftment in the ischemic myocardium. Specific chemokines are upregulated in the infarcted myocardium. However the expression levels of the corresponding chemokine receptors (eg, CCR1, CXCR2) in MSCs are very low. We hypothesized that this discordance may account for the poor MSC engraftment and survival. To determine whether overexpression of CCR1 or CXCR2 chemokine receptors in MSCs augments their cell survival, migration and engraftment after injection in the infarcted myocardium. Overexpression of CCR1, but not CXCR2, dramatically increased chemokine-induced murine MSC migration and protected MSC from apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, when MSCs were injected intramyocardially one hour after coronary artery ligation, CCR1-MSCs accumulated in the infarcted myocardium at significantly higher levels than control-MSCs or CXCR2-MSCs 3 days postmyocardial infarction (MI). CCR1-MSC-injected hearts exhibited a significant reduction in infarct size, reduced cardiomyocytes apoptosis and increased capillary density in injured myocardium 3 days after MI. Furthermore, intramyocardial injection of CCR1-MSCs prevented cardiac remodeling and restored cardiac function 4 weeks after MI. Our results demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo salutary effects of genetic modification of stem cells. Specifically, overexpression of chemokine receptor enhances the migration, survival and engraftment of MSCs, and may provide a new therapeutic strategy for the injured myocardium.

  17. DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF MYOCARDIUM DUE TO COMBINATION THERAPY WITH AMLODIPINE AND BISOPROLOL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Zapesochnaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of 6-month therapy with combination of amlodipine and bisoprolol on the structural and functional status of the myocardium in hypertensive patients who work in the Far North.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients who live in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District - Yugra were divided into two groups depending on arrangement of working time. The first group included 72 patients who work only day shift; the second group – 68 patients who work alternate (day/night shifts. Combination therapy with amlodipine and bisoprolol assigned to all patients. Echocardiography was performed at baseline, after 12 weeks, and after 6 months of therapy.Results. The target blood pressure (BP level in group 1 was achieved in 92.9%. A share of patients with normal left ventricular (LV geometry increased from 37.5 to 44.8%; a share of patients with concentric and eccentric LV hypertrophy (LVH decreased from 30.6 to 23.9% and 19.4 to 19.2%, respectively. Target BP level in group 2 was achieved in 87.9%. A share of patients with normal LV geometry increased from 23.5 to 33.3%; while share of patients with concentric and eccentric LVH decreased from 45.6 to 38.1% and from 19.1 to 17.4%, respectively. A positive correlation between LV myocardial index and average daily systolic and diastolic BP was found.Conclusion. Revealed changes in BP and in LV structure and function due to treatment with amlodipine and bisoprolol can be considered as cardioprotective effect of this combination in hypertensive patients who work in the Far North. This effect was more pronounced in hypertensive patients working alternate (day/night shifts.

  18. DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF MYOCARDIUM DUE TO COMBINATION THERAPY WITH AMLODIPINE AND BISOPROLOL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Zapesochnaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of 6-month therapy with combination of amlodipine and bisoprolol on the structural and functional status of the myocardium in hypertensive patients who work in the Far North.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients who live in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District - Yugra were divided into two groups depending on arrangement of working time. The first group included 72 patients who work only day shift; the second group – 68 patients who work alternate (day/night shifts. Combination therapy with amlodipine and bisoprolol assigned to all patients. Echocardiography was performed at baseline, after 12 weeks, and after 6 months of therapy.Results. The target blood pressure (BP level in group 1 was achieved in 92.9%. A share of patients with normal left ventricular (LV geometry increased from 37.5 to 44.8%; a share of patients with concentric and eccentric LV hypertrophy (LVH decreased from 30.6 to 23.9% and 19.4 to 19.2%, respectively. Target BP level in group 2 was achieved in 87.9%. A share of patients with normal LV geometry increased from 23.5 to 33.3%; while share of patients with concentric and eccentric LVH decreased from 45.6 to 38.1% and from 19.1 to 17.4%, respectively. A positive correlation between LV myocardial index and average daily systolic and diastolic BP was found.Conclusion. Revealed changes in BP and in LV structure and function due to treatment with amlodipine and bisoprolol can be considered as cardioprotective effect of this combination in hypertensive patients who work in the Far North. This effect was more pronounced in hypertensive patients working alternate (day/night shifts.

  19. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  20. Localization of viable, ischemic myocardium by positron-emission tomography with 11C-palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.A.; Ambos, H.D.; Bergmann, S.R.; Welch, M.J.; Ter-Pogossian, M.M.; Sobel, B.E.

    1981-01-01

    A study was performed to determine whether viable, but ischemic, tissue could be detected and localized in vivo based on external detection of impaired fatty acid metabolism. Accordingly, regional clearance of 11 C-palmitate was assessed by sequential PET in 15 anesthetized dogs. Clearance was consistently monoexponential from 5-15 minutes after administration of the tracer. In the absence of coronary stenosis (n = 7), clearance was homogeneous throughout the heart, with an average rate constant (k) of -0.060 +/- 0.005 min -1 (+/- SEM) and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 11.1 +/- 2.1% in each heart. Homogeneity persisted when the heart rate was increased from 84.4 +/- 6.0 to 202.7 +/- 11.5 beats/min with atropine (CV 13.2 +/- 3.5%). With left circumflex coronary stenosis (less than or equal to70% reduction in vessel diameter), homogeneity of 11 C-clearance under control conditions and with tachycardia did not differ from clearance in hearts without coronary stenosis. However, with stenosis >70% sufficient to induce ischemia without gross infarction, regional clearance of 11 C became markedly heterogeneous under control conditions (CV 28.1 +/- 5.5%, p 11 C in regions supplied by the stenotic vessel (k = -0.044 +/- 0.011 min -1 ) compared with clearance in well perfused regions (k = -0.064 +/- 0.011 min -1 , p 11 C-palmitate delineates zones of viable, ischemic myocardium that characteristically exhibit impaired oxidation of extracted fatty acid

  1. Variability and reproducibility of rubidium-82 kinetic parameters in the myocardium of the anesthetized canine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coxson, P.G.; Brennan, K.M.; Huesman, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic analysis of 82 Rb (I) dynamic PET data produces quantitative measures which could be used to evaluate ischemic heart disease. These measures have the potential to generate objective comparisons of different patients or the same patient at different times. To achieve this potential, it is essential to determine the variability and reproducibility of the kinetic parameters. A total of 48 I dynamic PET datasets were acquired from two pure bred beagles. Each animal underwent eight I PET studies with essentially the same protocol for three successive weeks. Data were acquired with the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph (PET600). In each week, single-slice dynamic I PET datasets were collected with the animal at rest at three different gantry positions separated by 5 mm. Additional dataset were collected after dipyridamole infusion and after administration of aminophylline to induce a return to rest. A two-compartment kinetic model with correction for myocardial vasculature and spillover from the left ventricular blood pool was used to analyze the dynamic datasets. Model parameters for uptake (k 1 ), washout (k 2 ) and vascular fraction (f v ) were estimated in 11-14 myocardial regions of interest (ROIs) using a weighted least-squares criterion. Statistical fluctuation due to the PET acquisition process was minimized by using a relatively high I dose (about 30 mCi) to take advantage of the high count rate capacity of the PET600. The variation in mean k 1 , where the mean is taken over the myocardial ROIs was 10%-20% (Dog 1) and 15%-50% (Dog 2) among the rest studies conducted on the same data. Similar variation was evident in comparing studies in the same animal for different weeks. Spatial and temporal variation in estimates of the uptake rate (k 1 ) of I in the resting myocardium of the anesthetized canine are small in relation to the functional increase in k 1 , following dipyridamole stress. 17 refs., 14 figs

  2. Bile acids induce arrhythmias in human atrial myocardium--implications for altered serum bile acid composition in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, Peter P; Primessnig, Uwe; Harenkamp, Sandra; Doleschal, Bernhard; Wallner, Markus; Fauler, Guenter; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Wachter, Rolf; Yates, Ameli; Groschner, Klaus; Trauner, Michael; Pieske, Burkert M; von Lewinski, Dirk

    2013-11-01

    High bile acid serum concentrations have been implicated in cardiac disease, particularly in arrhythmias. Most data originate from in vitro studies and animal models. We tested the hypotheses that (1) high bile acid concentrations are arrhythmogenic in adult human myocardium, (2) serum bile acid concentrations and composition are altered in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and (3) the therapeutically used ursodeoxycholic acid has different effects than other potentially toxic bile acids. Multicellular human atrial preparations ('trabeculae') were exposed to primary bile acids and the incidence of arrhythmic events was assessed. Bile acid concentrations were measured in serum samples from 250 patients and their association with AF and ECG parameters analysed. Additionally, we conducted electrophysiological studies in murine myocytes. Taurocholic acid (TCA) concentration-dependently induced arrhythmias in atrial trabeculae (14/28 at 300 µM TCA, pursodeoxycholic acid did not. Patients with AF had significantly decreased serum levels of ursodeoxycholic acid conjugates and increased levels of non-ursodeoxycholic bile acids. In isolated myocytes, TCA depolarised the resting membrane potential, enhanced Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) tail current density and induced afterdepolarisations. Inhibition of NCX prevented arrhythmias in atrial trabeculae. High TCA concentrations induce arrhythmias in adult human atria while ursodeoxycholic acid does not. AF is associated with higher serum levels of non-ursodeoxycholic bile acid conjugates and low levels of ursodeoxycholic acid conjugates. These data suggest that higher levels of toxic (arrhythmogenic) and low levels of protective bile acids create a milieu with a decreased arrhythmic threshold and thus may facilitate arrhythmic events.

  3. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  4. Early assessment of tissue viability with radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid in reperfused canine myocardium: Comparison with thallium-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappuis, F.; Meier, B.; Belenger, J.; Blaeuenstein, P.L.; Lerch, R.

    1990-01-01

    Myocardial scintigraphy with heptadecanoic acid labeled with iodine-123 (123I-HDA) may allow early noninvasive delineation of viable myocardium after reperfusion. In this study myocardial uptake of 123I-HDA was compared with that of thallium-201 in six closed-chest dogs after 5 hours of occlusion followed by 1 hour of reperfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial blood flow was measured with microspheres, and myocardial viability was assessed by means of triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. In viable areas of the reperfused region, 123I-HDA uptake, thallium-201 uptake, and myocardial blood flow were similar to those measured in the control circumflex region. However, in infarcted areas they were reduced to 48 +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM; p less than 0.001), 59 +/- 3% (p less than 0.001), and 74 +/- 5% (p less than 0.001) of control values, respectively. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that thallium-201 uptake primarily reflected the level of flow during reperfusion, whereas 123I-HDA uptake was dependent on both myocardial blood flow and viability. At each level of flow, 123I-HDA uptake was significantly lower in infarcted than in viable myocardium. By means of discriminant analysis, 123I-HDA uptake was found to be the single most important predictor of viability, whereas thallium-201 was only of limited importance. Myocardial 123I-HDA uptake greater than or equal to 71% or myocardial thallium-201 uptake greater than or equal to 73% best differentiated viable from infarcted myocardium. According to these criteria, 123I-HDA predicted myocardial viability with a sensitivity of 77%, a specificity of 84% and a predictive accuracy of 81%

  5. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  6. 99mTcO(BAT-NI), a novel nitroimidazole tracer: in vivo uptake studies in ischaemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffend, J.; Linke, G.; Mohammed, A.; Haberkorn, U.; Tiefenbacher, C.P.; Eisenhut, M.

    2003-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) performed with cationic technetium-99m complexes indicates ischaemic areas as cold lesions. By contrast, nitroimidazole derivatives labelled with fluorine-18 or 99m Tc have recently shown promising results for hot spot imaging of ischaemic myocardium. This study evaluates 99m TcO(BAT-NI), a new 99m Tc complex comprising the nitroimidazole ligand, 2,10-dimercapto-2, 10-dimethyl-4, 8-diaza-6-[4-(2-nitroimidazolyl)butyl]undecane, in a low-flow in vivo model of myocardial ischaemia in thoracotomised rats. To elucidate the influence of the 2-nitroimidazole group on ischaemia-induced uptake, comparisons with ligand derivatives were performed where (a) the 2-nitro group was deleted [ 99m TcO(BAT-I)], (b) the 2-nitroimidazole functionality was replaced by a Br atom [ 99m TcO(BAT-Br)] and (c) the 99m TcO(BAT) moiety was replaced by an iodine-125 iodophenoxybutyl ligand ( 125 IP-NI). The radiolabelled compounds were i.v. injected 15 min after reducing resting myocardial blood flow by 50-60% and the uptake of radioactivity was assessed 90 min post injection. Autoradiography of left ventricular short-axis slices showed median uptake ratios of ischaemic/non-ischaemic myocardium (I/N) of 3.4, 4.5 and 3.4 for 99m TcO(BAT-NI), 99m TcO(BAT-I) and 99m TcO(BAT-Br), respectively. In contrast, 125 IP-NI was not preferentially taken up by ischaemic myocardium. Accumulation of 99m TcO(BAT-NI) in ischaemic heart regions was comparable to that in the liver. Biodistribution studies showed a median uptake of 0.65% ID/g of 99m TcO(BAT-NI) in ischaemic tissue and an I/N of 3.3. On planar images of the thorax and upper abdomen the ischaemic hearts were visualised faintly; the median heart to lung count ratio for 99m TcO(BAT-NI) was 1.7, and the median heart to liver count ratio was 1.0. We conclude that uptake of 99m TcO(BAT-NI) in ischaemic myocardium does not depend on the nitroimidazole moiety but is intrinsic to the BAT complex

  7. Correlation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelium growth factor in rat myocardium during aerobic and anaerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostika Flora

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise increases the need for oxygen to generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. If the high energy demand during exercise is not balanced by sufficient oxygen supply, hypoxia occurs in skeletal muscle tissue leading to upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α. The activity of HIF-1α increases the expression of various genes in order to reduce the metabolic dependence on oxygen and to increase oxygen supply to the tissue, e.g., VEGF which plays a role in angiogenesis. In myocardium, it is unclear whether exercise leads to hypoxia and whether HIF-1α and VEGF play a role in the mechanism of hypoxic adaptation. This study aimed to investigate the correlation of HIF-1α and VEGF in heart muscle tissue of rats during aerobic and anaerobic exercise.Methods: A rat treadmill was used with a specific exercise program for 1, 3, 7 and 10 days. The concentrations of HIF-1α and VEGF were measured the myocardium.Results: Both, HIF-1α protein and VEGF were increased (p < 0.05 in the groups with aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Concentrations of HIF-1α were highest on the first day of activity, being higher in the anaerobic than in the aerobic group (156.8 ± 33.1 vs. 116.03 ± 5.66. Likewise, the highest concentration of VEGF in the group with anaerobic exercise occurred on the first day (36.37 ± 2:35, while in the aerobic group, VEGF concentration was highest on day 3 (40.66 ± 1.73. The correlation between the myocardial tissue consentrations of HIF-1α and VEGF is moderate (r = 0.59 in the aerobic group and strong in the anaerobic group (r = 0.69.Conclusion: Aerobic and anaerobic exercise increase HIF-1α and VEGF concentrations in rat myocardium in specific patterns. The anaerobic condition triggers vascularization stronger and obviously earlier than aerobic exercise. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:133-40Keywords: Exercise, HIF-1α, myocardium, VEGF

  8. Selective Retrograde Venous Revascularization of the Myocardium when PCI or CABG Is Impossible: Investigation in a Porcine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Nørgaard, Martin A; Gøtze, Jens P

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of nourishing the myocardium through selective retrograde coronary venous bypass grafting (CVBG) with an off-pump technique and evaluated various methods of monitoring the physiological effects of this procedure. In a porcine model, the left internal mammary artery...... tension decreased, but with time some recovery was seen. Cardiac troponin T was elevated. Histological analysis showed ischemic changes. In control pigs, microdialysis was performed for 1.5 hours up to LAD artery ligation, after which all pigs died in ventricular fibrillation arrest. No increase...

  9. Remote Ischaemic PrEconditioning of Human Myocardium (RIPE): study protocol for a double-blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deja, Marek A; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard; Czekaj, Piotr; Czech, Ewa; Malinowski, Marcin; Machej, Leszek; Węglarzy, Andrzej; Kowalówka, Adam; Piekarska, Magda; Szurlej, Bartosz; Latusek, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Remote preconditioning has been shown to be a potent protective phenomenon in many animals. Several studies aimed to demonstrate it was feasible in humans by trying to show its protective effect during cardiac surgery. Of these, some small studies and one larger trial were positive while two other bigger studies showed no effectiveness of remote preconditioning as assessed by levels of postoperatively released cardiac markers. Recently, two large clinical trials also failed to prove the benefit of remote preconditioning in cardiac surgery. No study showed that remote preconditioning actually increases resistance of human myocardium to standardised ischaemic and reperfusion stimulus in experimental settings. In animal studies, remote preconditioning was shown to improve mitochondrial function and structure, but such data on human myocardium are scarce. The aim of the study is to determine whether remote preconditioning protects human myocardium against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in both in vivo and in vitro conditions. The trial is designed as a single-centre, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial of 120 patients. We randomise (1:1) patients referred for coronary artery bypass grafting for stable coronary artery disease to remote preconditioning or "sham" intervention. The remote preconditioning is obtained by three cycles of 5 min inflation and 5 min deflation of a blood pressure cuff on the right arm. Postoperative course including myocardial enzymes profile will be analysed. Moreover, in the in-vitro arm the clinically preconditioned myocardium will be assessed for function, mitochondria structure, and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. The informed consent of all patients is obtained before enrolment into the study by the investigator. The study conforms to the spirit and the letter of the declaration of Helsinki. In case the effect of remote preconditioning is not measurable in ex-vivo assessment, any future attempt at implementing this phenomenon in clinical

  10. Unique Transcriptional Profile of Sustained Ligand-Activated Preconditioning in Pre- and Post-Ischemic Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Kevin J.; Tupicoff, Amanda; Williams-Pritchard, Grant; Kiessling, Can J.; See Hoe, Louise E.; Headrick, John P.; Peart, Jason N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Opioidergic SLP (sustained ligand-activated preconditioning) induced by 3–5 days of opioid receptor (OR) agonism induces persistent protection against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury in young and aged hearts, and is mechanistically distinct from conventional preconditioning responses. We thus applied unbiased gene-array interrogation to identify molecular effects of SLP in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium. Methodology/Principal Findings Male C57Bl/6 mice were implanted with 75 mg morphine or placebo pellets for 5 days. Resultant SLP did not modify cardiac function, and markedly reduced dysfunction and injury in perfused hearts subjected to 25 min ischemia/45 min reperfusion. Microarray analysis identified 14 up- and 86 down-regulated genes in normoxic hearts from SLP mice (≥1.3-fold change, FDR≤5%). Induced genes encoded sarcomeric/contractile proteins (Myh7, Mybpc3,Myom2,Des), natriuretic peptides (Nppa,Nppb) and stress-signaling elements (Csda,Ptgds). Highly repressed genes primarily encoded chemokines (Ccl2,Ccl4,Ccl7,Ccl9,Ccl13,Ccl3l3,Cxcl3), cytokines (Il1b,Il6,Tnf) and other proteins involved in inflammation/immunity (C3,Cd74,Cd83, Cd86,Hla-dbq1,Hla-drb1,Saa1,Selp,Serpina3), together with endoplasmic stress proteins (known: Dnajb1,Herpud1,Socs3; putative: Il6, Gadd45g,Rcan1) and transcriptional controllers (Egr2,Egr3, Fos,Hmox1,Nfkbid). Biological themes modified thus related to inflammation/immunity, together with cellular/cardiovascular movement and development. SLP also modified the transcriptional response to I-R (46 genes uniquely altered post-ischemia), which may influence later infarction/remodeling. This included up-regulated determinants of cellular resistance to oxidant (Mgst3,Gstm1,Gstm2) and other forms of stress (Xirp1,Ankrd1,Clu), and repression of stress-response genes (Hspa1a,Hspd1,Hsp90aa,Hsph1,Serpinh1) and Txnip. Conclusions Protection via SLP is associated with transcriptional repression of inflammation/immunity, up

  11. Unique transcriptional profile of sustained ligand-activated preconditioning in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Ashton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Opioidergic SLP (sustained ligand-activated preconditioning induced by 3-5 days of opioid receptor (OR agonism induces persistent protection against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R injury in young and aged hearts, and is mechanistically distinct from conventional preconditioning responses. We thus applied unbiased gene-array interrogation to identify molecular effects of SLP in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male C57Bl/6 mice were implanted with 75 mg morphine or placebo pellets for 5 days. Resultant SLP did not modify cardiac function, and markedly reduced dysfunction and injury in perfused hearts subjected to 25 min ischemia/45 min reperfusion. Microarray analysis identified 14 up- and 86 down-regulated genes in normoxic hearts from SLP mice (≥1.3-fold change, FDR≤5%. Induced genes encoded sarcomeric/contractile proteins (Myh7, Mybpc3,Myom2,Des, natriuretic peptides (Nppa,Nppb and stress-signaling elements (Csda,Ptgds. Highly repressed genes primarily encoded chemokines (Ccl2,Ccl4,Ccl7,Ccl9,Ccl13,Ccl3l3,Cxcl3, cytokines (Il1b,Il6,Tnf and other proteins involved in inflammation/immunity (C3,Cd74,Cd83, Cd86,Hla-dbq1,Hla-drb1,Saa1,Selp,Serpina3, together with endoplasmic stress proteins (known: Dnajb1,Herpud1,Socs3; putative: Il6, Gadd45g,Rcan1 and transcriptional controllers (Egr2,Egr3, Fos,Hmox1,Nfkbid. Biological themes modified thus related to inflammation/immunity, together with cellular/cardiovascular movement and development. SLP also modified the transcriptional response to I-R (46 genes uniquely altered post-ischemia, which may influence later infarction/remodeling. This included up-regulated determinants of cellular resistance to oxidant (Mgst3,Gstm1,Gstm2 and other forms of stress (Xirp1,Ankrd1,Clu, and repression of stress-response genes (Hspa1a,Hspd1,Hsp90aa,Hsph1,Serpinh1 and Txnip. CONCLUSIONS: Protection via SLP is associated with transcriptional repression of inflammation/immunity, up

  12. Factors of Formation of Various Types of Left Ventricular Diastolic Filling in Adolescents with Myocardium Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Bogmat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the main components of the formation of impaired left ventricular diastolic filling in adolescents with myocardial pathology. Materials and methods. The study involved 110 adolescents with myocardial pathology aged 13–18 years, of which 40 — with heart rhythm disorder, 40 — with dysplastic cardiomyopathy, 30 — with primary hypertension. Morphological and functional parameters of the heart were studied using ultrasound according to standard procedure. Left ventricular diastolic function has been studied in the pulsed wave Doppler mode with transmitral flow mapping from the apical access of four-chambered heart. For an adequate assessment of left ventricular diastolic function and detection of its earliest disorders, adolescents underwent tests with isometric exercise. Based on these results, adolescents were divided in terms of the E/A ratio. In order to identify common latent factors that explain the correlation between indicators, we have used the factor analysis, namely, the principal component analysis. All statistical procedures were performed using application packages Statgraphics Centurion. Results. On the initial stages of formation of diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricular myocardium in adolescents, a significant role is played by a number of factors, which can be conditionally defined as the geometric, functional and neurohumoral factors consistently included in the pathological process. Thus, during the formation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction type 1, the number one is neurohumoral factor, namely, the activation of the sympathoadrenal system, then peripheral vascular tone is being involved in the pathological process, and, consequently, a geometric factor — changing the sizes of the left atrium. In the formation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction type 2, the process consistently involves the renin-angiotensin system, namely, renin, a functional factor is presented by the indices

  13. Diagnostic efficacy of optimised evaluation of planar MIBI myocardium perfusion scintigraphy: a probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusmierek, J.; Plachcinska, A.

    1999-01-01

    Background: The Bayesian (probabilistic) approach to the results of a diagnostic test appears to be more informative than an interpretation of results in binary terms (having disease or not). The aim of our study was the analysis of the effect of an optimised evaluation of myocardium perfusion scintigrams on the probability of CAD in individual patients. Methods: 197 patients (132 males and 65 females) suspected of CAD, with no history of myocardial infarction were examined. Scintigraphic images were evaluated applying two methods of analysis: visual (semiquantitative) and quantitative, and the combination of both. The sensitivity and specificity of both methods (and their combination) in the detection of CAD were determined and optimal methods of scintigram evaluation, separately for males and females, were selected. All patients were subjected to coronary angiography. The pre-test probability of CAD was assessed according to Diamond (1) and the post-test probability was evaluated in accordance with Bayes's theorem. Patients were divided, according to a pre-test probability of CAD, into 3 groups: with low, medium and high probability of the disease. The same subdivision was made in relation to post-test probability of CAD. The numbers of patients in respective subgroups, before and after the test, were compared. Moreover, in order to test the reliability of post-test probability, its values were compared with real percentages of CAD occurrence among the patients under study, as demonstrated by the angiography. Results: The combination of visual and quantitative methods was accepted as the optimal method of male scintigram evaluation (with sensitivity and specificity equalling 95% and 82%, respectively) and a sole quantitative analysis as the optimal method of female scintigram evaluation (sensitivity and specificity amounted to 81% and 84%, respectively). In the subgroup of males the percentage of individuals with medium pre-test CAD probability equalled 52 and

  14. Ultrasound elastic tensor imaging: comparison with MR diffusion tensor imaging in the myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Ning; Larrat, Benoît; Pernot, Mathieu; Tanter, Mickaël

    2012-08-01

    conclusion, we have demonstrated that the fiber orientation estimated by ETI, which assesses the shear wave speed (and thus the stiffness), was comparable to that measured by DTI, which evaluates the preferred direction of water diffusion, and have validated this concept within the myocardium. Moreover, ETI was shown capable of mapping the transmural fiber angles with as few as seven shear wave propagation directions.

  15. Coupling of the Functional Stability of Rat Myocardium and Activity of Lipid Peroxidation in Combined Development of Postinfarction Remodeling and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Afanasiev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupling of the functional stability of rat myocardium and activity of lipid peroxidation processes in combined development of postinfarction remodeling and diabetes mellitus has been studied. The functional stability of myocardium was studied by means of the analysis of inotropic reaction on extrasystolic stimulus, the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy, and the size of scar zone. It was shown that in combined development of postinfarction cardiac remodeling of heart (PICR with diabetes mellitus (DM animal body weight decreased in less degree than in diabetic rats. Animals with combined pathology had no heart hypertrophy. The amplitude of extrasystolic contractions in rats with PICR combined with DM had no differences compared to the control group. In myocardium of rats with PICR combined with DM postextrasystolic potentiation was observed in contrast with the rats with PICR alone. The rats with combined pathology had the decreased value of TBA-active products. Thus, the results of study showed that induction of DM on the stage of the development of postinfarction remodeling increases adaptive ability of myocardium. It is manifested in inhibition of increase of LPO processes activity and maintaining of force-interval reactions of myocardium connected with calcium transport systems of sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiomyocytes.

  16. Ultrastructural analysis of the structure and distribution of the adherens junctions in the rats’ ventricular myocardium during postnatal stages of ontogeny after the infl uence of chronic prenatal hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Petruk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antenatal and prenatal hypoxia causes changes in all the organs of fetuses and newborns and in the heart, particularly. Hypoxic damage of the cardiovascular system occurs in 40-70% of newborns. Currently we observe the increase of meaning of the morphological studies for the prenatal diagnosis of human’s heart diseases. It’s known that in adaptive remodeling of cardiomyocytes in the postnatal cardiogenesis of rat redistribution of diffusely located intercellular junctions from the periphery to the terminal areas of the cell occurs. The formation of a definitive pattern of intercellular junctions is completed at the puberty. But how chronic prenatal hypoxia influences the specialized adherens junctions in the rats’ ventricular myocardium is completely unknown and this requires further study. Objective. To provide complex qualitative and quantitative comparative ultrastructural analysis of the intercellular connection changes in rat ventricular myocardium on the stages of postnatal ontogenesis in the norm and under the chronic fetal hypoxia. Materials and methods. We have conducted ultrastructural analysis and distribution of the adherens junctions in the rats’ ventricles on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th, 30th days during postnatal ontogeny and among mature animals in the normal development and under the chronic fetal hypoxia. Experimental chronic hypoxia was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of 1% aqueous solution of the NaNO2 in a daily dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight in the term from 10th to 21st days of pregnancy. Transmission electron microscopy, morphometric and statistical methods were applied. Pairwise comparisons between means of different groups were performed using a Student t-test where, for each couple of normally distributed populations, the null hypothesis that the means are equal was verified. Results. Pronounced increase (80,6%; p <0,05 of the content of desmosomes in the intercalated disk in the period from 7th

  17. The evaluation of viability in infarcted myocardium using gated blood pool scintigraphy during combined infusion of isosorbide dinitrate and dobutamine infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Yasushi; Sugihara, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Tatsuya (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-02-01

    Nineteen patients with acute or old myocardial infarction underwent ECG-gated blood pool scintigraphy after iv injection of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and combined ISDN and dobutamine (D) (ISDN+D), with the purpose of evaluating wall motion abnormality, as well as hemodynamic parameters. Heart rate increased after iv injection of both ISDN and ISDN+D. Although diastolic and systolic blood pressures decreased with ISDN, they increased with ISDN+D. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) increased by iv injection of ISDN+D. Both end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes decreased with ISDN and ISDN+D. A decreased stroke volume was also associated with iv injection of ISDN. Wall motion abnormality in the infarcted myocardium was graded on a 1-5 score: 1-dyskinesis, 2-akinesis, 3-severe hypokinesis, 4-mild hypokinesis, and 5-normal. Improvement was observed in 43% for dyskinesis after iv injection of both ISDN and ISDN+D; in 54% and 65%, with ISDN and ISDN+D respectively, for akinesis and 53% and 77% for severe hypokinesis. In comparing wall motion score with relative Tl uptake (RTU) on exercise Tl-201 scintigraphy, the correlation between wall motion score and RTU on the 3-hr image was higher after iv injection of ISDN+D (r=0.66) than after iv injection of ISDN (r=0.57). Although a significantly improved regional EF after iv injection of ISDN+D was associated with redistributed segments on the 3-hr image, regional EF was sometimes improved even in the non-redistributed segments on the 3-hr image. (N.K.).

  18. Normative values of 99mTc-MIBI distribution in myocardium in males and females, as a basis for quantitative planar scintigraphic method for detection of coronary artery disease in patients of both sexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusmierek, J.; Plachcinska, A.

    2001-01-01

    Radionuclide perfusion studies of myocardium are being performed using planar and tomographic (SPECT) procedures. The latter method enables better detection as well as assessment of localisation and severity of scintigraphically visualised perfusion defects. On the other hand, lower cost of planar procedures using 99m Tc-MIBI as the tracer and their much wider availability in countries of Central and Eastern Europe could significantly increase the diagnostic potential of nuclear cardiology in this region.The aim of the study was an assessment of normal distribution of 99m Tc-MIBI in the myocardium and generation of normative basis for quantitative planar scintigraphic procedure, aiming at detection of CAD in patients of both sexes.The study was based on 250 patients. The reference (control) group consisted of 53 individuals (29 men, 24 women) with the low ( 0 and LAO 70 0 ). These mean curves differed significantly between both sexes. In LAO 45 0 projection the differences affected mostly the region of the septum and postero-lateral wall of the left ventricle (LV). In LAO 70 0 projection differences were most pronounced in the antero-septal wall of the LV. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CAD detection using the elaborated method, taking into account inter-sex differences, amounted to 86, 87 and 86% respectively in males, and correspondingly 81, 84 and 83% in females. The differences between corresponding indices for two sexes were statistically insignificant. For the whole group of patients the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy was 85, 86 and 85%, respectively. (author)

  19. Effect of vanadate and of removal of extracellular Ca2+ and Na+ on tension development and 45Ca efflux in rat and frog myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesser, H; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    1983-01-01

    Vanadate in the range 0-5 mM has positive inotropic effects on myocardial strips of frog and to a lesser extent on those of rat. Inhibiting the sarcolemmal Na+, Ca2+ exchange by a solution free of Ca2+ and Na+ caused a drop in 45Ca efflux and a transient increase in resting tension. These effects...... were more expressed for the frog than for the rat myocardium, which suggests that the Na+ for Ca2+ exchange across the cell membrane is more important in the frog than in the rat myocardium. A subsequent addition of vanadate at 2 or 5 mM had no effect on 45Ca efflux, while it increased the resting...... tension. This increase was higher for the frog than for the rat myocardium. These results suggest that the inotropic effects of vanadate may be due to an effect on membrane-bound Ca2+-ATPase....

  20. Pathological prolongation of action potential duration as a cause of the reduced alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated negative inotropy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanae, Haruna; Hamaguchi, Shogo; Wakasugi, Yumi; Kusakabe, Taichi; Kato, Keisuke; Namekata, Iyuki; Tanaka, Hikaru

    2017-11-01

    Effect of pathological prolongation of action potential duration on the α-adrenoceptor-mediated negative inotropy was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice myocardium. In streptozotocin-treated mouse ventricular myocardium, which had longer duration of action potential than that in control mice, the negative inotropic response induced by phenylephrine was smaller than that in control mice. 4-Aminopyridine prolonged the action potential duration and decreased the negative inotropy in control mice. Cromakalim shortened the action potential duration and increased the negative inotropy in streptozotocin-treated mice. These results suggest that the reduced α-adrenoceptor-mediated inotropy in the diabetic mouse myocardium is partly due to its prolonged action potential. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of amiodarone on the conversion of thyroxine to triiodotironine in rat myocardium in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceppi, J.A.; Gonzalez, M.R.; Zaninovich, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    It was studied the effect of the antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone, on the conversion of T 4 to T 3 by rat myocardium and liver. Wistar rats were injected with amiodarone (AM) or iopanoic acid (IOP), afterwards the liver and the heart were homogenized in krebs-ringer phosphate. Aliquots of 400μl of the homogenized were separated and DTT 8mM and 10 -2 μCi 125 I-T 4 or 125 I-T 3 were added (either the conversion of T 4 to T 3 or degradation of T 3 are measured). In vitro: were added AM 0,1 mM or IOP 10mM. Incubation proceeded for 2 hours at 37 deg C and aliquots were chromatographied. The conversion of T 4 to T 3 in the myocardium and liver in vivo decreased, but in vitro did not have any deiodination of T 4 and the IOP reduced the production of T 3 by heart. Neither drug altered the deiodination of T 3 by heart or liver homogenates. Serum TSH and T 3 were decreased by AM and serum T 4 increased. IOP caused similar variations in T 4 and T 3 , but serum TSH was increased. It is concluded that blocking the T 3 miocardial production by AM may not be the cause of the antiarrhythmic effect of the drug. (M.E.L.) [es

  2. Experimental Model of Gene Transfection in Healthy Canine Myocardium: Perspectives of Gene Therapy for Ischemic Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A. K. Kalil

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the transfection of the gene that encodes green fluorescent protein (GFP through direct intramyocardial injection. METHODS: The pREGFP plasmid vector was used. The EGFP gene was inserted downstream from the constitutive promoter of the Rous sarcoma virus. Five male dogs were used (mean weight 13.5 kg, in which 0.5 mL of saline solution (n=1 or 0.5 mL of plasmid solution containing 0.5 µg of pREGFP/dog (n=4 were injected into the myocardium of the left ventricular lateral wall. The dogs were euthanized 1 week later, and cardiac biopsies were obtained. RESULTS: Fluorescence microscopy showed differences between the cells transfected and not transfected with pREGFP plasmid. Mild fluorescence was observed in the cardiac fibers that received saline solution; however, the myocardial cells transfected with pREGFP had overt EGFP expression. CONCLUSION: Transfection with the EGFP gene in healthy canine myocardium was effective. The reproduction of this efficacy using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF instead of EGFP aims at developing gene therapy for ischemic heart disease.

  3. Angiographically demonstrated coronary collaterals predict residual viable myocardium in patients with chronic myocardial infarction. A regional metabolic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Masumi; Ii, Masaaki; Nakakoji, Takahiro

    2000-01-01

    Angiographical demonstration of coronary collateral circulation may suggest the presence of residual viable myocardium. The development of coronary collaterals was judged according to Rentrop's classification in 37 patients with old anteroseptal myocardial infarction and 13 control patients with chest pain syndrome. The subjects with myocardial infarction were divided into 2 groups: 17 patients with the main branch of the left coronary artery clearly identified by collateral blood flow from the contralateral coronary artery [Coll (+) group, male/female 10/7, mean age 56.6 years] and 20 patients with obscure coronary trunk [Coll (-) group, male/female 16/4, mean age 54.9 years]. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and examination of local myocardial metabolism were carried out by measuring the flux of lactic acid under dipyridamole infusion load. Coronary stenosis of 99% or total occlusion was found in only 5 of 20 patients (25%) in the Coll (-) group but in 16 of 17 patients (94%) in the Coll (+) group (p<0.001). Redistribution of myocardial scintigraphy was found in 11 of 15 patients (73%) in the Coll (+) group, but only 3 of 18 patients (17%) in the Coll (-) group (p<0.01). The myocardial lactic acid extraction rate was -13.2±17.0% in the Coll (+) group, but 9.1±13.2% in the Coll (-) group (p<0.001). These results suggest that coronary collateral may contribute to minimizing the infarct area and to prediction of the presence of viable myocardium. (author)

  4. Deterministic Encapsulation of Human Cardiac Stem Cells in Variable Composition Nanoporous Gel Cocoons To Enhance Therapeutic Repair of Injured Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Pushpinder; Alarcon, Emilio I; Yeuchyk, Tanya; Parent, Sandrine; de Kemp, Robert A; Variola, Fabio; Courtman, David; Stewart, Duncan J; Davis, Darryl R

    2018-04-20

    Although cocooning explant-derived cardiac stem cells (EDCs) in protective nanoporous gels (NPGs) prior to intramyocardial injection boosts long-term cell retention, the number of EDCs that finally engraft is trivial and unlikely to account for salutary effects on myocardial function and scar size. As such, we investigated the effect of varying the NPG content within capsules to alter the physical properties of cocoons without influencing cocoon dimensions. Increasing NPG concentration enhanced cell migration and viability while improving cell-mediated repair of injured myocardium. Given that the latter occurred with NPG content having no detectable effect on the long-term engraftment of transplanted cells, we found that changing the physical properties of cocoons prompted explant-derived cardiac stem cells to produce greater amounts of cytokines, nanovesicles, and microRNAs that boosted the generation of new blood vessels and new cardiomyocytes. Thus, by altering the physical properties of cocoons by varying NPG content, the paracrine signature of encapsulated cells can be enhanced to promote greater endogenous repair of injured myocardium.

  5. Cardiac lymphoscintigraphy following closed-chest catheter injection of radiolabeled colloid into the myocardium of dogs: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbakken, M.D.; Kopiwoda, S.Y.; Swan, A.; Castronovo, F.P.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    A catheter technique for injection of radiolabeled colloids into the myocardium was developed and tested in a series of 15 dogs. A multipurpose angiographic catheter was modified to permit an inner core of PE-50 polyethylene tubing, tipped with a 23-gage needle, to pass through the lumen for intra-myocardial injection of radiocolloids. For injection of the left ventricle, the catheter is introduced through the femoral artery: for the right ventricle, the femoral vein. The catheter advanced under fluoroscopy until the desired surface for injection is reached. The inner core is then extended to lodge the needle in the endocardium. A mixture of Renografin (to confirm the endocardial injection site) and radiolabeled colloid was injected in 13 animals. Ten minutes after injection, scintigraphy was begun and continued for up to 6 hr. In three dogs the procedure was repeated 3 or 4 times. From two to five nodes were visible in all animals, irrespective of whether the right or left ventricular myocardium was injected. In two animals the injection was given intravenously, and no nodes were seen. These data suggest that cardiac lymphatic drainage can be studied with a catheter injection method

  6. Cardiac lymphoscintigraphy following closed-chest catheter injection of radiolabeled colloid into the myocardium of dogs: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbakken, M.D.; Kopiwoda, S.Y.; Swan, A.; Castronovo, F.P.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    A catheter technique for injection of radiolabeled colloids into the myocardium was developed and tested in a series of 15 dogs. A multipurpose angiographic catheter was modified to permit an inner core of PE-50 polyethylene tubing, tipped with a 23-gage needle, to pass through the lumen for intra-myocardial injection of the femoral artery: for the right ventricle, the femoral vein. The catheter advanced under fluoroscopy until the desired surface for injection is reached. The inner core is then extended to lodge the needle in the endocardium. A mixture of Renogratin (to confirm the endocardial injection site) and radiolabeled colloid was injected in up to 6 hr. In three dogs the procedure was repeated 3 or 4 times. From two to five nodes were visible in all animals, irrespective of whether the right or left ventricular myocardium was injected. In two animals the injection was given intravenously, and no nodes were seen. These data suggest that cardiac lymphatic drainage can be studied with a catheter injection method

  7. A coupled 3D-1D numerical monodomain solver for cardiac electrical activation in the myocardium with detailed Purkinje network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Palamara, Simone; Lassila, Toni; Frangi, Alejandro F.; Quarteroni, Alfio

    2016-03-01

    We present a model for the electrophysiology in the heart to handle the electrical propagation through the Purkinje system and in the myocardium, with two-way coupling at the Purkinje-muscle junctions. In both the subproblems the monodomain model is considered, whereas at the junctions a resistor element is included that induces an orthodromic propagation delay from the Purkinje network towards the heart muscle. We prove a sufficient condition for convergence of a fixed-point iterative algorithm to the numerical solution of the coupled problem. Numerical comparison of activation patterns is made with two different combinations of models for the coupled Purkinje network/myocardium system, the eikonal/eikonal and the monodomain/monodomain models. Test cases are investigated for both physiological and pathological activation of a model left ventricle. Finally, we prove the reliability of the monodomain/monodomain coupling on a realistic scenario. Our results underlie the importance of using physiologically realistic Purkinje-trees with propagation solved using the monodomain model for simulating cardiac activation.

  8. Expression of TGF-beta superfamily growth factors, their receptors, the associated SMADs and antagonists in five isolated size-matched populations of pre-antral follicles from normal human ovaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Andersen, Kasper; Clement, Christian Alexandro

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily are known to have key roles in the regulation of follicular growth and development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of TGF-β superfamily growth factors, their receptors, downstream SMAD signalling m...... growth. Moreover, the presence of multiple TGF-β/BMP antagonists imply that certain growth factors are subjected to local regulation on different levels which address another important level of intraovarian regulation of follicle development in humans.......In mammals, members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily are known to have key roles in the regulation of follicular growth and development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of TGF-β superfamily growth factors, their receptors, downstream SMAD signalling...... molecules and TGF- β/BMP antagonists during early human folliculogenesis.Human preantral follicles were enzymatically isolated from surplus ovarian tissue obtained from women having ovarian cortical tissue frozen for fertility preservation. A total of 348 human preantral follicles, ranging from 40 to 200 µm...

  9. Effect of acidity and chemical composition of sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals on sup(99m)Tc accumulation in necrotic tissue of rat myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilcek, S; Machan, V; Kalincak, M [Ustav Radioekologie a Vyuzitia Jadrovej Techniky, Kosice (Czechoslovakia); Nicak, A [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta

    1981-04-30

    Experiments showed that the cumulation of technetium-99m following the administration of /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate and s/sup 99m/Tc-Sn-oxytetracycline in the necrotic tissue of rat myocardium damaged by cauterization depended on the end pH value. The maximum /sup 99m/Tc cumulation in the myocardial lesion was noted when the end pH value ranged in 5.5 to 6.0. It appeared that pyrophosphate concentration decrease below the critical limit not only affected the cumulation of /sup 99m/Tc in the particular organs but also in the necrotic tissue of the myocardium.

  10. Effect of acidity and chemical composition of sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals on sup(99m)Tc accumulation in necrotic tissue of rat myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilcek, S.; Machan, V.; Kalincak, M.; Nicak, A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments showed that the cumulation of technetium-99m following the administration of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate and sup(99m)Tc-Sn-oxytetracycline in the necrotic tissue of rat myocardium damaged by cauterization depended on the end pH value. The maximum sup(99m)Tc cumulation in the myocardial lesion was noted when the end pH value ranged in 5.5 to 6.0. It appeared that pyrophosphate concentration decrease below the critical limit not only affected the cumulation of sup(99m)Tc in the particular organs but also in the necrotic tissue of the myocardium. (author)

  11. High spatial resolution and temporally resolved T2* mapping of normal human myocardium at 7.0 Tesla: an ultrahigh field magnetic resonance feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Hezel

    Full Text Available Myocardial tissue characterization using T(2(* relaxation mapping techniques is an emerging application of (preclinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. The increase in microscopic susceptibility at higher magnetic field strengths renders myocardial T(2(* mapping at ultrahigh magnetic fields conceptually appealing. This work demonstrates the feasibility of myocardial T(2(* imaging at 7.0 T and examines the applicability of temporally-resolved and high spatial resolution myocardial T(2(* mapping. In phantom experiments single cardiac phase and dynamic (CINE gradient echo imaging techniques provided similar T(2(* maps. In vivo studies showed that the peak-to-peak B(0 difference following volume selective shimming was reduced to approximately 80 Hz for the four chamber view and mid-ventricular short axis view of the heart and to 65 Hz for the left ventricle. No severe susceptibility artifacts were detected in the septum and in the lateral wall for T(2(* weighting ranging from TE = 2.04 ms to TE = 10.2 ms. For TE >7 ms, a susceptibility weighting induced signal void was observed within the anterior and inferior myocardial segments. The longest T(2(* values were found for anterior (T(2(* = 14.0 ms, anteroseptal (T(2(* = 17.2 ms and inferoseptal (T(2(* = 16.5 ms myocardial segments. Shorter T(2(* values were observed for inferior (T(2(* = 10.6 ms and inferolateral (T(2(* = 11.4 ms segments. A significant difference (p = 0.002 in T(2(* values was observed between end-diastole and end-systole with T(2(* changes of up to approximately 27% over the cardiac cycle which were pronounced in the septum. To conclude, these results underscore the challenges of myocardial T(2(* mapping at 7.0 T but demonstrate that these issues can be offset by using tailored shimming techniques and dedicated acquisition schemes.

  12. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  13. Prognostic Significance of Remote Myocardium Alterations Assessed by Quantitative Noncontrast T1 Mapping in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstadler, Sebastian J; Stiermaier, Thomas; Liebetrau, Johanna; Fuernau, Georg; Eitel, Charlotte; de Waha, Suzanne; Desch, Steffen; Reil, Jan-Christian; Pöss, Janine; Metzler, Bernhard; Lücke, Christian; Gutberlet, Matthias; Schuler, Gerhard; Thiele, Holger; Eitel, Ingo

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the prognostic significance of remote zone native T1 alterations for the prediction of clinical events in a population with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who were treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and compared it with conventional markers of infarct severity. The exact role and incremental prognostic relevance of remote myocardium native T1 mapping alterations assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) after STEMI remains unclear. We included 255 consecutive patients with STEMI who were reperfused within 12 h after symptom onset. CMR core laboratory analysis was performed to assess left ventricular (LV) function, standard infarct characteristics, and native T1 values of the remote, noninfarcted myocardium. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, reinfarction, and new congestive heart failure within 6 months (major adverse cardiac events [MACE]). Patients with increased remote zone native T1 values (>1,129 ms) had significantly larger infarcts (p = 0.012), less myocardial salvage (p = 0.002), and more pronounced LV dysfunction (p = 0.011). In multivariable analysis, remote zone native T1 was independently associated with MACE after adjusting for clinical risk factors (p = 0.001) or other CMR variables (p = 0.007). In C-statistics, native T1 of remote myocardium provided incremental prognostic information beyond clinical risk factors, LV ejection fraction, and other markers of infarct severity (all p remote zone native T1 to a model of prognostic CMR parameters (ejection fraction, infarct size, and myocardial salvage index) led to net reclassification improvement of 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.46 to 1.17; p remote zone alterations by quantitative noncontrast T1 mapping provided independent and incremental prognostic information in addition to clinical risk factors and traditional CMR outcome markers. Remote zone alterations may thus represent a novel therapeutic target and a

  14. Neglected isolated scaphoid dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryoon Baek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of isolated scaphoid dislocation in a 40-year-old male that was undiagnosed for 2 months. The patient was treated by open reduction, Kirschner wire fixation, interosseous ligament repair using a suture anchor and Blatt's dorsal capsulodesis. At 6 years followup, his radiographs of wrist showed a normal carpal alignment with a scapholunate gap of 3 mm and no evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN of the scaphoid.

  15. Membrane-bound and cytosolic forms of heterotrimeric G proteins in young and adult rat myocardium: influence of neonatal hypo- and hyperthyroidism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Jiří; Bouřová, Lenka; Kolář, František; Svoboda, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2001), s. 215-224 ISSN 0730-2312 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1660; GA MŠk VS97099 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : development * G proteins * young and adult rat myocardium Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2001

  16. Application of a New Robust ECG T-Wave Delineation Algorithm for the Evaluation of the Autonomic Innervation of the Myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cesari, Matteo; Mehlsen, Jesper; Mehlsen, Anne-Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    T-wave amplitude (TWA) is a well know index of the autonomic innervation of the myocardium. However, until now it has been evaluated only manually or with simple and inefficient algorithms. In this paper, we developed a new robust single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) T-wave delineation algorithm...

  17. Detection of hibernating myocardium in patients with myocardial infarction by low-dose dobutamine echocardiography. Comparison with thallium-201 scintigraphy with reinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Akasaka, Takashi; Honda, Yasuhiro; Yonezawa, Yoshihiro; Shakudo, Masahiro

    1995-01-01

    The identification of hibernating myocardium is important for selecting patients who will benefit from coronary revascularization. The relationship between echocardiographic and radioisotopic markers of hibernating myocardium and postrevascularization recovery of myocardial function was investigated in 21 patients who underwent successful revascularization. Each patient underwent low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography and thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) scintigraphy with reinjection before revascularization. The presence of contractile reserve in dobutamine stress echocardiography and Tl uptake in 201 Tl scintigraphy with reinjection were defined as markers of hibernating myocardium. Follow-up echocardiograms were evaluated for improved regional wall motion in all patients at a mean of 8.6 months after revascularization. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography for indicating recovery of function after revascularization were 75.0%, 77.8%, 81.8%, and 70.0%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 201 Tl scintigraphy with reinjection for indicating recovery of function after revascularization were 91.7%, 55.6%, 73.3%, and 83.3%, respectively. There were no statistical differences between low-dose dobutamine echocardiography and 201 Tl scintigraphy in predicting postrevascularization recovery of function in patients with hibernating myocardium. (author)

  18. RhNRG-1β Protects the Myocardium against Irradiation-Induced Damage via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxin Gu

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD, which is a serious side effect of the radiotherapy applied for various tumors due to the inevitable irradiation of the heart, cannot be treated effectively using current clinical therapies. Here, we demonstrated that rhNRG-1β, an epidermal growth factor (EGF-like protein, protects myocardium tissue against irradiation-induced damage and preserves cardiac function. rhNRG-1β effectively ameliorated irradiation-induced myocardial nuclear damage in both cultured adult rat-derived cardiomyocytes and rat myocardium tissue via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. By activating ErbB2, rhNRG-1β maintained mitochondrial integrity, ATP production, respiratory chain function and the Krebs cycle status in irradiated cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the protection of irradiated cardiomyocytes and myocardium tissue by rhNRG-1β was at least partly mediated by the activation of the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway. Long-term observations further showed that rhNRG-1β administered in the peri-irradiation period exerts continuous protective effects on cardiac pump function, the myocardial energy metabolism, cardiomyocyte volume and interstitial fibrosis in the rats receiving radiation via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. Our findings indicate that rhNRG-1β can protect the myocardium against irradiation-induced damage and preserve cardiac function via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway.

  19. [Influence of pacing site on myocardial transmural dispersion of repolarization in intact normal and dilated cardiomyopathy dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Rong; Pu, Jun; Liu, Nian; Lu, Jia-Gao; Zhou, Qiang; Ruan, Yan-Fei; Niu, Hui-Yan; Wang, Lin

    2003-12-25

    In order to verify the hypothesis that left ventricular epicardial (LV-Epi) pacing and biventricular (BiV) pacing unavoidably influence the myocardial electrophysiological characters and may result in high risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmia, we calculated, in both normal mongrel dogs and dog models with rapid-right-ventricular-pacing induced dilated cardiomyopathy congestive heart failure (DCM-CHF), the monophasic action potential duration (MAPD) and the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in intracardiac electrogram together with the QT interval and T(peak)-T(end) (T(p(-T(e)) interval in surface electrocardiogram (ECG) during LV-Epi and BiV pacing, compared with those during right ventricular endocardial (RV-Endo) pacing. To prepare the DCM-CHF dog model, rapid right ventricular pacing (250 bpm) was performed for 23.6+/-2.57 days to the dog. All the normal and DCM-CHF dogs were given radio frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) to His bundle with the guide of X-ray fluoroscopy. After the RFCA procedures, the animals were under the situation of complete atrioventricular block so that the canine heart rates could be voluntarily controlled in the following experiments. After a thoracotomy, ECG and monophasic action potentials (MAP) of subendocardial, subepicardial and mid-layer myocardium were recorded synchronously in 8 normal and 5 DCM-CHF dogs during pacing from endocardium of RV apex (RV-Endo), epicardium of LV anterior wall (LV-Epi) and simultaneously both of the above (biventricular, BiV), the later was similar to the ventricular resynchronization therapy to congestive heart failure patients in clinic. The Tp-Te) meant the interval from the peak to the end of T wave, which was a representative index of TDR in surface ECG. The TDR was defined as the difference between the longest and the shortest MAPD of subendocardial, subepicardial and mid-layer myocardium. Our results showed that in normal dogs, pacing participating of LV (LV-Epi, BiV) prolonged

  20. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  1. Repetitive stimulation of autophagy-lysosome machinery by intermittent fasting preconditions the myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Rebecca J; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Murphy, John T; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Crosby, Seth D; Saftig, Paul; Diwan, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent fasting protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via transcriptional stimulation of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Adult C57BL/6 mice subjected to 24-h periods of fasting, every other day, for 6 wk were protected from in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury on a fed day, with marked reduction in infarct size in both sexes as compared with nonfasted controls. This protection was lost in mice heterozygous null for Lamp2 (coding for lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2), which demonstrate impaired autophagy in response to fasting with accumulation of autophagosomes and SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, in the heart. In lamp2 null mice, intermittent fasting provoked progressive left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction and hypertrophy; worsening cardiomyocyte autophagosome accumulation and lack of protection to ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting that intact autophagy-lysosome machinery is essential for myocardial homeostasis during intermittent fasting and consequent ischemic cardioprotection. Fasting and refeeding cycles resulted in transcriptional induction followed by downregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes in the myocardium. This was coupled with fasting-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome machinery; followed by rapid decline in nuclear TFEB levels with refeeding. Endogenous TFEB was essential for attenuation of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death by repetitive starvation, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, in-vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TFEB-mediated transcriptional priming of the autophagy-lysosome machinery mediates the beneficial effects of fasting-induced autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  2. Repetitive stimulation of autophagy-lysosome machinery by intermittent fasting preconditions the myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Rebecca J; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Murphy, John T; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Crosby, Seth D; Saftig, Paul; Diwan, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent fasting protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via transcriptional stimulation of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Adult C57BL/6 mice subjected to 24-h periods of fasting, every other day, for 6 wk were protected from in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury on a fed day, with marked reduction in infarct size in both sexes as compared with nonfasted controls. This protection was lost in mice heterozygous null for Lamp2 (coding for lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2), which demonstrate impaired autophagy in response to fasting with accumulation of autophagosomes and SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, in the heart. In lamp2 null mice, intermittent fasting provoked progressive left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction and hypertrophy; worsening cardiomyocyte autophagosome accumulation and lack of protection to ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting that intact autophagy-lysosome machinery is essential for myocardial homeostasis during intermittent fasting and consequent ischemic cardioprotection. Fasting and refeeding cycles resulted in transcriptional induction followed by downregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes in the myocardium. This was coupled with fasting-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome machinery; followed by rapid decline in nuclear TFEB levels with refeeding. Endogenous TFEB was essential for attenuation of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death by repetitive starvation, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, in-vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TFEB-mediated transcriptional priming of the autophagy-lysosome machinery mediates the beneficial effects of fasting-induced autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26103523

  3. Mr 40,000 and Mr 39,000 pertussis toxin substrates are increased in surgically denervated dog ventricular myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershberger, R.E.; Feldman, A.M.; Anderson, F.L.; Kimball, J.A.; Wynn, J.R.; Bristow, M.R. (Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City (USA))

    1991-04-01

    To test the general hypothesis that cardiac innervation may participate in myocardial G protein regulation, we examined the effects of complete intrapericardial surgical denervation or sham operation in dogs. In particulate fractions of dog left ventricular (LV) myocardium harvested 28-33 days after denervation or sham operation, Mr 40,000 and Mr 39,000 pertussis toxin-sensitive substrates (G proteins) were increased by 31% (1.31 +/- 0.084 vs 1.00 +/- 0.058 OD, arbitrary units, p less than 0.01) and 40% (1.40 +/- 0.117 vs. 1.000 +/- 0.084 OD, arbitrary units, p less than 0.02), respectively, as compared with sham-operated controls. The Mr 40,000 pertussis toxin-sensitive band comigrated with a pertussis toxin-sensitive substrate in human erythrocyte membranes known to contain an alpha Gi species. In these same preparations basal, GTP and GppNHp stimulated adenylate cyclase activities were decreased in denervated heart by 20, 26, and 19%, respectively, consistent with increased activity of an inhibitory G protein. In contrast, Gs function was not altered, because cyc(-) membranes reconstituted with membrane extracts and fluoride and beta-receptor-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity were not different between groups. Furthermore, adenylate cyclase catalytic subunit function as assessed with forskolin and manganese stimulation was not different between preparations of control and denervated heart. We conclude that in preparations of surgically denervated dog myocardium Mr 40,000 and Mr 39,000 pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins are increased by 31 and 40%, respectively, and that functional alterations in adenylate cyclase activity exist, consistent with increased inhibitory G-protein function.

  4. Mr 40,000 and Mr 39,000 pertussis toxin substrates are increased in surgically denervated dog ventricular myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, R.E.; Feldman, A.M.; Anderson, F.L.; Kimball, J.A.; Wynn, J.R.; Bristow, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    To test the general hypothesis that cardiac innervation may participate in myocardial G protein regulation, we examined the effects of complete intrapericardial surgical denervation or sham operation in dogs. In particulate fractions of dog left ventricular (LV) myocardium harvested 28-33 days after denervation or sham operation, Mr 40,000 and Mr 39,000 pertussis toxin-sensitive substrates (G proteins) were increased by 31% (1.31 +/- 0.084 vs 1.00 +/- 0.058 OD, arbitrary units, p less than 0.01) and 40% (1.40 +/- 0.117 vs. 1.000 +/- 0.084 OD, arbitrary units, p less than 0.02), respectively, as compared with sham-operated controls. The Mr 40,000 pertussis toxin-sensitive band comigrated with a pertussis toxin-sensitive substrate in human erythrocyte membranes known to contain an alpha Gi species. In these same preparations basal, GTP and GppNHp stimulated adenylate cyclase activities were decreased in denervated heart by 20, 26, and 19%, respectively, consistent with increased activity of an inhibitory G protein. In contrast, Gs function was not altered, because cyc(-) membranes reconstituted with membrane extracts and fluoride and beta-receptor-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity were not different between groups. Furthermore, adenylate cyclase catalytic subunit function as assessed with forskolin and manganese stimulation was not different between preparations of control and denervated heart. We conclude that in preparations of surgically denervated dog myocardium Mr 40,000 and Mr 39,000 pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins are increased by 31 and 40%, respectively, and that functional alterations in adenylate cyclase activity exist, consistent with increased inhibitory G-protein function

  5. Activation patterns of Purkinje fibers during long-duration ventricular fibrillation in an isolated canine heart model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabereaux, Paul B; Walcott, Greg P; Rogers, Jack M; Kim, Jong; Dosdall, Derek J; Robertson, Peter G; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E

    2007-09-04

    The roles of Purkinje fibers (PFs) and focal wave fronts, if any, in the maintenance of ventricular fibrillation (VF) are unknown. If PFs are involved in VF maintenance, it should be possible to map wave fronts propagating from PFs into the working ventricular myocardium during VF. If wave fronts ever arise focally during VF, it should be possible to map them appearing de novo. Six canine hearts were isolated, and the left main coronary artery was cannulated and perfused. The left ventricular cavity was exposed, which allowed direct endocardial mapping of the anterior papillary muscle insertion. Nonperfused VF was induced, and 6 segments of data, each 5 seconds long, were analyzed during 10 minutes of VF. During 36 segments of data that were analyzed, 1018 PF or focal wave fronts of activation were identified. In 534 wave fronts, activation was mapped propagating from working ventricular myocardium to PF. In 142 wave fronts, activation was mapped propagating from PF to working ventricular myocardium. In 342 wave fronts, activation was mapped arising focally. More than 1 of these 3 patterns could occur in the same wave front. PFs are highly active throughout the first 10 minutes of VF. In addition to retrograde propagation from the working ventricular myocardium to PFs, antegrade propagation occurs from PFs to working ventricular myocardium, which suggests PFs are important in VF maintenance. Prior plunge needle recordings in dogs indicate activation propagates from the endocardium toward the epicardium after 1 minute of VF, which suggests that focal sites on the endocardium may represent foci and not breakthrough. If so, in addition to reentry, abnormal automaticity or triggered activity may also occur during VF.

  6. Quantitative Differentiation of LV Myocardium with and without Layer-Specific Fibrosis Using MRI in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Layer-Specific Strain TTE Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Nobusada; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Koya; Kamata, Tomoko; Uehara, Masae; Komuro, Issei; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2018-05-30

    To achieve further risk stratification in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients, we localized and quantified layer-specific LVM fibrosis on MRI in HCM patients using regional layer-specific peak longitudinal strain (PLS) and peak circumferential strain (PCS) in LV myocardium (LVM) on speckle tracking transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). A total of 18 HCM patients (14 males; 58 ± 17 years) underwent 1.5T-MRI and TTE. PLS and PCS in each layer of the LVM (endocardium, epicardium, and whole-layer myocardium) were calculated for 17 AHA-defined lesions. MRI assessment showed that fibrosis was classified as endocardial, epicardial, or whole-layer (= either or both of these). Regional PLS was smaller in fibrotic endocardial lesions than in non-fibrotic endocardial lesions (P = 0.004). To detect LV endocardial lesions with fibrosis, ROC curves of regional PLS revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.609 and a best cut-off point of 13.5%, with sensitivity of 65.3% and specificity of 54.3%. Regional PLS was also smaller in fibrotic epicardial lesions than in non-fibrotic epicardial lesions (P layer myocardium analysis, PLS was smaller in fibrotic lesions than in non-fibrotic lesions (P layer LV lesions with fibrosis, ROC curves of regional PLS revealed an AUC of 0.674 and a best cut-off point of 12.5%, with sensitivity of 79.0% and specificity of 50.7%. There were no significant differences in PCS of LV myocardium (endocardium, epicardium, and whole-layer) between fibrotic and non-fibrotic lesions. Quantitative regional PLS but not PCS in LV endocardium, epicardium, and whole-layer myocardium provides useful non-invasive information for layer-specific localization of fibrosis in HCM patients.

  7. Prevalence and pattern of abnormal myocardial perfusion in patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia: study by 99mTc-sestamibi radionuclide scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed M; Rayan, Mona; Adel, Amr; Demerdash, Salah; Atef, Mohamed; Abdallah, Mohamed; Nammas, Wail

    2014-02-01

    We explored the prevalence and pattern of abnormal myocardial perfusion in patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia (CAE), as demonstrated by (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy. Prospectively, we enrolled 35 patients with angiographically documented CAE and no significant coronary obstruction, who underwent elective coronary angiography. Patients underwent Stress-rest (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy within 4 days of coronary angiography. They were divided into 2 groups: group I: with normal perfusion scan; and group II: with reversible perfusion defects. The mean age was 49.6 ± 6.9 years; 34 (97.1 %) were males. Seventy-nine (75.2 %) arteries were affected by CAE. Among 79 arteries affected by CAE, affection was diffuse in 37 (46.8 %). Thirteen (37.1 %) patients had normal perfusion scan (group I), whereas 22 (62.9 %) had reversible perfusion defects (group II). Among 22 patients with reversible perfusion defects, 20 (90.9 %) had mild and 2 (9.1 %) had moderate ischemia. Among 49 myocardial segments with reversible perfusion defects, 22 (44.9 %) were basal, 18 (36.7 %) mid-, and 9 (18.4 %) apical segments. Diffuse CAE was significantly more prevalent in group II versus group I, in all 3 major coronary arteries (p < 0.05 for all). In patients with isolated CAE who underwent elective coronary angiography, reversible perfusion defects demonstrated by (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy were rather prevalent, mostly mild, more likely to affect the basal and mid-segments of the myocardium, and more frequently associated with diffuse ectasia.

  8. Influence of drugs on myocardial iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake in rabbit myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S.; Karanikas, G.; Rodrigues, M.; Sinzinger, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2000-03-01

    About 15 years ago, iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging was introduced for the evaluation of myocardial sympathetic nerve function. Two uptake mechanisms for MIBG have so far been identified: uptake type I, a saturable, energy-dependent mechanism, and uptake type II, a non-saturable, energy-independent mechanism. We incubated isolated rabbit myocardial tissue samples with{sup 123}I-MIBG in order to assess the uptake characteristics and the influence of varying incubation conditions. Furthermore, we examined the effects of several drugs and uptake inhibitors on the myocardial uptake of MIBG. The in vitro myocardial uptake of MIBG reached a steady plateau at 23.87%{+-}3.63% after 1 h, i.e. a concentration gradient of 10, in a thermo-independent manner within a concentration range from 1.5 to 1500 {mu}M. This indicates an unsaturable uptake process in the tested concentrations. Pre-incubation with the following drugs caused a significant inhibitory effect on myocardial MIBG uptake: haloperidol, levomepromazine, metoprolol, labetalol and clomipramine. According to our findings, the uptake mechanism seems to be an unspecific process, but the concentration gradient of 10 makes passive diffusion unlikely. Further studies with uptake-II-blocking substances as well as with isolated myocardial cells will be needed to clarify the nature of the myocardial MIBG uptake mechanism. (orig.)

  9. Effects of neuropeptide Y on regulation of blood flow rate in canine myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Sheikh, S P; Jørgensen, J

    1990-01-01

    The effect of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on tension development was examined in isolated canine coronary arteries, and the effects on local myocardial blood flow rate were studied in open-chest anesthetized dogs by the local 133Xe washout technique. By immunohistochemistry, numerous NPY-like immunoreac......The effect of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on tension development was examined in isolated canine coronary arteries, and the effects on local myocardial blood flow rate were studied in open-chest anesthetized dogs by the local 133Xe washout technique. By immunohistochemistry, numerous NPY......+. In contrast, intracoronary NPY (0.01-10 micrograms) induced a considerable degree of vasoconstriction; the reduction of blood flow rate was dose related, with a maximum reduction to 52% of control values. The effect of intracoronary NPY (1 microgram) on maximally relaxed arterioles elicited by 30 s...... of ischemia was studied in separate experiments during reactive hyperemia. NPY induced a decrease in maximum blood flow during reactive hyperemia (166.6 vs. 214.6% of preocclusive blood flow rate, mean values; P = 0.05), an increase in the cumulative excess blood flow (61.0 vs. 35.3 ml/100 g; P = 0...

  10. Release of atrial natriuretic peptide from rat myocardium in vitro: effect of minoxidil-induced hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, P.; Taskinen, T.; Leppäluoto, J.; Ruskoaho, H.

    1990-01-01

    1. Ventricular hypertrophy is characterized by stimulation of ventricular synthesis of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). To examine the role of ventricular ANP levels in the secretion of ANP into the circulation, atrial and ventricular levels of immunoreactive-ANP (IR-ANP) as well as ANP messenger RNA (mRNA), and the release of IR-ANP from isolated perfused hearts, both before and after atrialectomy, were measured simultaneously in control and minoxidil-treated Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. 2. IR-ANP levels in the ventricles of untreated, 12 month-old SHR with severe ventricular hypertrophy were increased when compared to age-matched WKY rats. Minoxidil treatment for 8 weeks in both strains resulted in a decrease in mean arterial pressure and increases in ventricular weight to body weight ratios, plasma IR-ANP concentrations (in WKY from 133 +/- 20 to 281 +/- 34 pg ml-1, P less than 0.01; in SHR from 184 +/- 38 to 339 +/- 61 pg ml-1, P less than 0.05), and in ventricular IR-ANP contents (in WKY: 53%; in SHR: 41%). A highly significant correlation was found between ventricular IR-ANP content and ventricular weight to body weight ratio (r = 0.59, P less than 0.001, n = 26). 3. When studied in vitro, in isolated perfused heart preparations, the hypertrophied ventricular tissue after atrialectomy secreted more ANP into the perfusate than ventricles of the control hearts; ventricles contributed 28%, 22%, 18% and 15% of the total ANP release to perfusate in the minoxidil-treated SHR, control SHR, minoxidil-treated WKY and control WKY, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2141796

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with unstable angina: comparison with acute myocardial infarction and normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Johnson, R.F. Jr.; Fawcett, H.D.; Schreiber, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The role of magnetic resonance imaging in characterizing normal, ischemic and infarcted segments of myocardium was examined in 8 patients with unstable angina, 11 patients with acute myocardial infarction, and 7 patients with stable angina. Eleven normal volunteers were imaged for comparison. Myocardial segments in short axis magnetic resonance images were classified as normal or abnormal on the basis of perfusion changes observed in thallium-201 images in 22 patients and according to the electrocariographic localization of infarction in 4 patients. T2 relaxation time was measured in 57 myocardial segments with abnormal perfusion (24 with reversible and 33 with irreversible perfusion changes) and in 25 normally perfused segments. T2 measurements in normally perfused segments of patients with acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina and stable angina were within normal range derived from T2 measurements in 48 myocardial segments of 11 normal volunteers (42 +/- 10 ms). T2 in abnormal myocardial segments of patients with stable angina also was not significantly different from normal. T2 of abnormal segments in patients with unstable angina (64 +/- 14 in reversibly ischemic and 67 +/- 21 in the irreversibly ischemic segments) was prolonged when compared to normal (p less than 0.0001) and was not significantly different from T2 in abnormal segments of patients with acute myocardial infarction (62 +/- 18 for reversibly and 66 +/- 11 for irreversibly ischemic segments). The data indicate that T2 prolongation is not specific for acute myocardial infarction and may be observed in abnormally perfused segments of patients with unstable angina

  12. Muerte súbita por conmoción cardíaca (Commotio cordis asociada a miocardio no compactado Sudden death due to commotio cordis associated to non compacted myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Aquieri

    2011-12-01

    his chest (commotio cordis during a sports competition that produced a cardiac arrest. The electrocardiogram showed ventricular flutter that required electrical defibrillation. A DE obtained initially, did not show any significant abnormality, but another DE, a MSCT and a RMN obtained after discharge, certified isolated non-compacted myocardium, ruling out coronary artery disease. He received beta blocker and antiplatelet therapy and the placement of an automatic cardioverter defibrillator was considered. The pathophysiology of the association of these two infrequent and potentially lethal conditions is discussed.

  13. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  14. Myocardium protection of cardiomyopeptide for injection against ischemia-reperfusion injury during open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Min; Zhang Baimin; Zhang Xiuhe; Jiang Yizhong; Li Huijun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the myocardium protection of cardiomyopeptide for injection against ischemia-reperfusion injury during open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods: Thirty patients scheduled for elective cardiac valvular replacement were divided into two groups. In treatment group (n=15), cardiomyopeptide for injection was used during CPB; but in control group (n=15), no cardiomyopeptide for injection was used. Blood samples were drawn from the radial artery at the following time points: before CPB (T0); at release of aortic declamping (T1); 30 min after aortic declamping (T2); 12 h after aortic declamping(T3); 24 h after aortic declamping (T4). The levels of creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in plasma were measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) was used to measure the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) in plasma. Ejection fraction (EF) was measured at the 7th day after operation. Results: The levels of CK-MB, cTnI, and TNF-α in plasma in two groups showed no difference before CPB (P>0.05). The levels of CK-MB and TNF-α in two groups were significantly increased 30 min after aortic declamping than release of aortic declamping (P<0.05). The levels of CK-MB and TNF-α in plasma in treatment group were significantly lower than those in control group 30 min, 12 h and 24 h after aortic declamping (P<0.05). The plasma concentrations of cTnI in two groups were significantly increased at release of aortic declamping (P<0.05). The concentrations of cTnI in treatment group were significantly lower than those in control group at T1, T2, T3, T4 (P<0.05). EF in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group at the 7th day after operation (P<0.05). Conclusion: Cardiomyopeptide for injection can protect myocardium and reduce the acute inflammatory response during CPB and improve heart function after operation. (authors)

  15. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  16. Three dimensional endo-cardiovascular volume-rendered cine computed tomography of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia; A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Kim, Yang Min; Lee, Hyun Jong [Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We report multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings of a 34-year-old female with isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. The MDCT and CMR scans displayed a spherical left ventricle (LV) with extensive fatty infiltration within the myocardium at the apex, interventricular septum and inferior wall, anteroapical origin of the papillary muscle, right ventricle wrapping around the deficient LV apex, and impaired systolic function. MDCT visualized morphologic and also functional findings of this unique cardiomyopathy.

  17. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  18. Calcium depletion in rabbit myocardium. Calcium paradox protection by hypothermia and cation substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, T L; Langer, G A

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to define further the basis of control of myocardial membrane permeability by further examination of the "calcium paradox." To this end, the protective effect of hypothermia and addition of micromolar amounts of divalent cations during the Ca-free perfusion period were studied. Damage during Ca++ repletion to the isolated arterially perfused, interventricular rabbit septum was assessed by contracture development, loss of developed tension, and loss of 42K and creatine kinase. Progressive hypothermia prolongs the time of Ca-free perfusion needed to cause similar 42K, creatine kinase and developed tension losses upon Ca++ repletion. Complete protection against the Ca-paradox after 30-60 minutes Ca-free perfusion is seen at 18 degree C. The inclusion of 50 microM Ca++ during 30 minutes "Ca-free" perfusion also provides complete protection during Ca++ repletion i.e., there was full mechanical recovery with no 42K or creatine kinase loss. Other divalent cations perfused in 50 microM concentrations during the Ca-free period exhibited variable ability to protect when Ca++ was reperfused. The order of effectiveness (Ca++ greater than Cd++ greater than Mn++ greater than Co++ greater than Mg++) was related to the crystal ionic radius, with those cations whose radii are closest to that of Ca++ (0.99 A) exerting the greatest protective effect. The cation sequence for effectiveness in Ca-paradox protection is the same sequence for potency of excitation-contraction uncoupling. The mechanism of hypothermic protection is likely a phase transition in the membrane lipids (from a more liquid to a less liquid state) which stabilizes membrane structure and preserves Ca++ permeability characteristics during the Ca-free period. The mechanism of protection via cation addition is perhaps a cation's ability to substitute for Ca++ (dependent on unhydrated crystal ionic radius) at critical sarcolemmal binding sites to preserve control of Ca++ permability during

  19. Do iodinated fatty acids undergo a nonspecific deiodination in the myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuchet, P.; Demaison, L.; Bontemps, L.; Keriel, C.; Mathieu, J.P.; Pernin, C.; Batille, D.M.; Riche, F.; Vidal, M.; Oomet, M.; Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 - La Tronche; Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 - Saint-Martin-d'Heres

    1985-01-01

    The intracellular and subcellular distribution of 16-( 123 I)-iodo-9-hexadecenoic acid were studied in isolated rat hearts, perfused with or without glucose. At various time intervals after injection, cardiac lipids were extracted and the activity was determined for all fractions and all lipid classes. The total cardiac activity was maximal within 1 min postinjection and most of the activity was in the aqueous phase. The presence of glucose in the perfusion medium induced an increase of total cardiac and organic fraction activities. In the latter fraction, activity was very low for FFA, but high for triglycerides (TG), and especially polar lipids. The presence of an exogenous substrate, led to a more active esterification of fatty acids. Coronary effluent analysis showed, in the hydrophilic phase, a lower activity spike in the presence than in the absence of glucose. In the mitochondrial fraction most activity occurred in the organic phase, especially as polar lipids. In the nonmitochondrial fraction, activity was much higher in the aqueous phase. A 90 s postinjection of 1- 14 C-palmitic acid, over 80% of the myocardial activity was found in the hydrophilic fraction, which indicates, as for the iodo-fatty acid (IFA), an immediate and important oxidation, especially without glucose. These data seem to prove that IFA is taken up by the myocardial cell, subsequently enters the mitochondria and, without an early deiodination, is oxidized with iodide release. Changes in IFA metabolism, consecutive to modifications of glucose concentration in the perfusion medium can be observed by external detection of the myocardial activity curve. ω-Iodinated fatty acids do not undergo a nonspecific deiodination and are therefore well suited for an external study of myocardial metabolism. (orig.)

  20. Modification of the β-Adrenoceptor Stimulation Pathway in Zucker Obese and Obese Diabetic Rat Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng; Carillion, Aude; Na, Na; De Jong, Audrey; Feldman, Sarah; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Riou, Bruno; Amour, Julien

    2015-07-01

    Although metabolic syndrome is associated with increased sympathetic activity that chronically stimulates β-adrenoceptors, the β-adrenoceptor signaling pathway has been poorly studied in this situation. We studied the β-adrenoceptor signaling pathway in Zucker lean, obese, and obese diabetic rats. Experimental, prospective study. University medical research laboratory. Adult male Zucker lean (control), obese, and obese diabetic rats. The effects of β-adrenoceptor stimulation were investigated in vitro in isolated left ventricular papillary muscles in control, obese, and obese diabetic rats. β1-, β2-, and β3-adrenoceptors and multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 were quantified by Western Blotting. Triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin, and C-peptide plasma concentrations were measured. Data are mean ± SD. Hyperlipidemia, high leptin, and C-peptide concentrations were observed in obese and obese diabetic strains, whereas hyperglycemia occurred only in the diabetic strain. The positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol was slightly reduced in obese rats (183% ± 11% of baseline; p = 0.003; n = 7) and markedly reduced in obese diabetic rats (137% ± 18% of baseline; p < 0.001; n = 10) when compared with control rats (210% ± 17% of baseline; n = 9). β1-adrenoceptors were down-regulated in obese (-41%; p = 0.02) and diabetic (-54%; p = 0.003) when compared with control rats, whereas β3-adrenoceptors and multidrug resistance-associated protein expression remained unchanged. Direct stimulation of adenylate cyclase with forskolin or administration of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate suggests that subtle impairments also occurred beside the down-regulation of β1-adrenoceptor. The positive inotropic effect of β-adrenoceptor stimulation is slightly decreased in Zucker obese rats and was more markedly decreased in Zucker diabetic rats. These decreases are mainly related to β1-adrenoceptor down-regulation.

  1. Detection of homing-in of stem cells labeled with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in infarcted myocardium after intracoronary injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Chetan D; Agarwal, Snehlata; Seth, Sandeep; Mohanty, Sujata; Aggarwal, Himesh; Gupta, Namit

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow stem cells having myogenic potential are promising candidates for various cell-based therapies for myocardial disease. We present here images showing homing of technetium-99m (Tc-99m) hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) labeled stem cells in the infarcted myocardium from a pilot study conducted to radio-label part of the stem cells in patients enrolled in a stem cell clinical trial for recent myocardial infarction

  2. [Effect of medicines for activating blood and reinforcing Qi on angiogenesis in infarcted myocardium edge area of acute myocardial infarction model in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Wen-Hua; Yin, Shen-Hua; Tang, De-Cai; Li, Bing-Bing

    2014-03-01

    To study the effect of medicines for activating blood and reinforcing Qi on the number of new micro-vessels and the protein expressions of VEGF and bFGF in the infarcted myocardium edge area of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model in rats. The AMI model of rats was established. After the successful model establishment, rats were randomly divided into the sham-operated group, the model group, the Danshen-Huangqi (1 : 2) group, the Danshen-Huangqi (1 : 1) group, the Chuanxiong-Huangqi (1 : 2) group, the Danshen group, the Chuanxiong group, the Chishao group and the Shexiang Baoxin pill group, with five rats in each group. Rats in each medicated group were orally administered with drugs as per 13.5 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) once everyday for three weeks. The immunohistochemical SP method was adopted to detect the expression of vWF in myocardial tissues, and count the number of micro-vessels (MVC). The protein expression of VEGF and bFGF in myocardial tissues were determined by Western blot. The new micro-vessels stained by vWF factor could be found in the infarcted myocardium edge area of the sham-operated group, the model group and all of medicated groups. The sham-operated group show unobvious new micro-vessels in myocardial tissues. A small amount of new micro-vessels could be seen in the infarcted myocardium edge area of the model group. Whereas a larger number of micro-vessels could be seen in the infarcted myocardium edge area of all of medicated groups. The differences between the sham-operated group and the model group had statistical significance (P effect in promoting angiogenesis. Their mechanism for promoting angiogenesis may be related to the improvement of the protein expressions of VEGF and bFGF, so as to increase the contents of VEGF and bFGF and promote the angiogenesis of new vessels.

  3. Metabolic consequences of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for the acutely ischemic dog myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westera, G.; Hollander, W. den; Wall, E.E. van der; Eenige, M.J. van; Scholtalbers, S.; Visser, F.C.; Roos, J.P.

    1984-02-01

    In an experimental study in 50 dogs the myocardial uptake of free fatty acids (FFAs) after beta-blockade was determined using radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid as a metabolic tracer. All 4 beta-blockers used (metoprolol, timolol, propranolol and pindolol) lowered the uptake of FFAs in the normal canine heart. Uptake of FFAs was also diminished after coronary artery occlusion per se, but administration of beta-blockers exerted little additional influence on the uptake of FFAs. This observation was qualitatively parallelled by the uptake of /sup 201/Tl in concomitant experiments. Plasma FFA levels were increased by pindolol (non-selective with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity), not changed by metoprolol (a cardioselective betablocking agent) and lowered by timolol and propranolol (both non-selective compounds). The extent of ischemic tissue, as reflected by uptake of iodoheptadecanoic acid and /sup 201/Tl, was diminished by metoprolol but not by other beta-blockers. Regional distribution of both tracers, as shown in the endo-epicardial uptake ratios, was hardly influenced by beta-blockade, except for a small increase of /sup 201/Tl uptake in non-occluded endocardium. Uptake of /sup 201/Tl as well as of iodoheptadecanoic acid in the ischemic area was increased by metoprolol, timolol and propranolol and decreased by pindolol. We conclude that beta-blocking agents confer different effects on myocardial uptake and metabolism of FFAs which might possibly be related to their different inherent properties.

  4. Metabolic consequences of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade for the acutely ischemic dog myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westera, G.; Hollander, W. den; Wall, E.E. van der; Eenige, M.J. van; Scholtalbers, S.; Visser, F.C.; Roos, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    In an experimental study in 50 dogs the myocardial uptake of free fatty acids (FFAs) after beta-blockade was determined using radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid as a metabolic tracer. All 4 beta-blockers used (metoprolol, timolol, propranolol and pindolol) lowered the uptake of FFAs in the normal canine heart. Uptake of FFAs was also diminished after coronary artery occlusion per se, but administration of beta-blockers exerted little additional influence on the uptake of FFAs. This observation was qualitatively parallelled by the uptake of 201 Tl in concomitant experiments. Plasma FFA levels were increased by pindolol (non-selective with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity), not changed by metoprolol (a cardioselective betablocking agent) and lowered by timolol and propranolol (both non-selective compounds). The extent of ischemic tissue, as reflected by uptake of iodoheptadecanoic acid and 201 Tl, was diminished by metoprolol but not by other beta-blockers. Regional distribution of both tracers, as shown in the endo-epicardial uptake ratios, was hardly influenced by beta-blockade, except for a small increase of 201 Tl uptake in non-occluded endocardium. Uptake of 201 Tl as well as of iodoheptadecanoic acid in the ischemic area was increased by metoprolol, timolol and propranolol and decreased by pindolol. We conclude that beta-blocking agents confer different effects on myocardial uptake and metabolism of FFAs which might possibly be related to their different inherent properties. (orig.) [de

  5. Thallium-201 single photon emission tomography of myocardium. Additional information in reinjection studies is dependent on collateral circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartenstein, P.; Schober, O.; Schaefers, M.; Matheja, P.; Hasfeld, M.; Breithardt, G.

    1992-01-01

    A second thallium-201 injection under resting conditions is able to improve the differentiation between myocardial scar and ischaemia when compared with simple redistribution imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dependence of this improvement on the degree of stenosis and the presence of collaterals. Single photon emission tomography (SPET) studies under exercise, redistribution and reinjection conditions were performed on 84 patients with 181 stenotic vessels (70 left anterior descending, 47 left circumflex, 64 right coronary artery) and compared with angiography. An improvement of the 201 Tl uptake in the reinjection image was observed in 53% of the myocardial areas served by a coronary artery with a stenosis of over 90%. This is compared with 13% of the areas served by a vessel with a stenosis between 50% and 90%. Some 90% of the collateralized areas showed a fill-in effect, but only 7 of the 118 without angiographically visible collateralization (6%). The dependence of the fill-in effect, collateralization and >90% stenosis was highly significant (χ 2 test, P 90% narrowing. The fill-in effect was closely correlated to the presence of collaterals. In these cases, the fill-in may be an indication for hibernating myocardium. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of viability of infarcted myocardium by low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography. Comparison with exercise stress 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahara, Toshihiro; Sakamoto, Kazunori; Sofue, Akira; Horiuchi, Toshimitsu; Yamazaki, Shigeki; Kuwako, Kenji

    1999-01-01

    Exercise stress 201 Tl myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized to be a excellent method for identifying viability after myocardial infarction, but it is expensive and needs a longer time for data acquisition than echocardiography. We therefore performed this study to evaluate the effectiveness of low dose (5-10 μg/kg/min) dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in 30 patients (61±8 years old: 24 men and 6 women) within 4 weeks after myocardial infarction in identifying viable myocardium, compared to results obtained by SPECT. Defining an akinetic or dyskinetic segment obtained by rest echocardiography as a definite infarct area, altogether 96 segments out of 716 segments were shown to be infarct areas. Of these, 75 (78%) segments were identified as viable by DSE, and 77 (80%) by SPECT. Only 2 segments were shown to be discrepant on DSE and SPECT. Subsequently, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rates for DSE were 96%, 100% and 96%, respectively. In conclusion, DSE is as effective and useful as SPECT in the evaluation of viability after myocardial infarction. (author)

  7. Diffusional transport of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in the interstitium of the globally ischaemic cat myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Sejrsen, P; Jensen, L T

    1996-01-01

    , no attention has yet been paid to the resistance to diffusion offered by the myocardial interstitium. We determined the diffusion coefficient of PIIINP in the interstitium of the globally ischaemic interstitium of the cat (D'37) by means of a "true transient diffusion' method, and compared with the free...... diffusion in water (D37). D'37 (in cm2 s-1.10(-5) was 0.0157 +/- 0.0005 (mean +/- SEM) (n = 13), and D37 was 0.0624 +/- 0.0024 (n = 12). The mean diffusive progression during 20 min of the concentration profile of [125I]PIIINP into the tissue was calculated to be 0.19 mm. The D'37 of albumin is practically...... identical to the D'37 of PIIINP, and the myocardium offers a similar resistance to diffusion of PIIINP and albumin, as expressed from the ratio D37/D'37 of approximately 4 for both molecules. PIIINP has a molecular weight of 42,000 Da, is rod shaped and has an overall negative charge. These characteristics...

  8. Modulation of ephrinB2 leads to increased angiogenesis in ischemic myocardium and endothelial cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansson-Broberg, Agneta; Siddiqui, Anwar J.; Genander, Maria; Grinnemo, Karl-Henrik; Hao Xiaojin; Andersson, Agneta B.; Waerdell, Eva; Sylven, Christer; Corbascio, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Eph/ephrin signaling is pivotal in prenatal angiogenesis while its potential role in postnatal angiogenesis largely remains to be explored. Therefore its putative angiogenic and therapeutic effects were explored in endothelium and in myocardial ischemia. In culture of human aortic endothelial cells the fusion protein ephrinB2-Fc induced cell proliferation (p < 0.0005) and in the murine aortic ring model ephrinB2-Fc induced increased sprouting (p < 0.05). Myocardial infarction was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending artery in mouse. During the following 2 weeks mRNA of the receptor/ligand pair EphB4/ephrinB2 was expressed dichotomously (p < 0.05) and other Eph/ephrin pairs were expressed to a lesser degree. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal administration of ephrinB2-Fc it was detected in abundance throughout the myocardium along capillaries, showing signs of increased mitosis. After 4 weeks the capillary density was increased 28% in the periinfarcted area (p < 0.05) to a level not different from healthy regions of the heart where no change was observed. These results implicate that EphB4/ephrinB2 is an important signaling pathway in ischemic heart disease and its modulation may induce therapeutic angiogenesis

  9. Polymerase chain reaction analysis for viruses in paraffin-embedded myocardium from dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy or myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, T R; Meurs, K M; Lehmkuhl, L B; Magnon, A L; Weisbrode, S E; Atkins, C E

    2001-01-01

    To perform polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis on paraffin-embedded myocardium from dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and dogs with myocarditis to screen for canine parvovirus, adenovirus types 1 and 2, and herpesvirus. Myocardial specimens from 18 dogs with an antemortem diagnosis of DCM and 9 dogs with a histopathologic diagnosis of myocarditis were evaluated. Paraffin-embedded myocardial specimens were screened for viral genome by PCR analysis. Positive-control specimens were developed from cell cultures as well as paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from dogs with clinical and histopathologic diagnoses of viral infection with canine parvovirus, adenovirus types 1 and 2, and herpesvirus. The histologic characteristics of all myocardial specimens were classified regarding extent, location, and type of inflammation and fibrosis. Canine adenovirus type 1 was amplified from 1 specimen from a dog with DCM. Canine parvovirus, adenovirus type 2, and herpesvirus were not amplified from any myocardial specimens. Histologic analysis of specimens from dogs with DCM revealed variable amounts of fibrosis; myocardial inflammation was observed in 1 affected dog. Histopathologic analysis of specimens from dogs with myocarditis disclosed variable degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. Viral agents canine parvovirus, adenovirus types 1 and 2, and herpesvirus are not commonly associated with DCM or active myocarditis in dogs. Additional studies evaluating for nucleic acid from viruses that less commonly affect dogs or different types of infectious agents may be warranted to gain insight into the cause of DCM and myocarditis in dogs.

  10. Studies concerning the effect of X-rays on electrolytic shifts and on the metabolism of the myocardium. Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prignitz, R.; Froehlich, D.; Hoffmeister, G.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of a Mg 2+ -dependent microsomal ATPase, which may be activated by Na + and K + , was investigated in the myocardium of Guinea pigs after local irradiation. The part which can be activated by Na + and K + (transport-ATPase) is already slightly inhibited thirty minutes after a dose of 250 R; the inhibition rate with 1,500 R amounts to about 60%, the maximal inhibition effect with a dose of 3,000 R was about 70%. Four hours after a local irradiation with 1,500 R, a restitution of the inhibition effect occurs with overshoot reaction; 15 and 24 hours following irradiation, a significant inhibition of the transport-ATPase activity can again be verified. The k-strophanthidine and digitoxin are inhibiting the concentration ranges analyzed (2 x 10 -5 , 2.5 x 10 -7 M) the activity of the transport-ATPase. The above-mentioned radiation-induced inhribition effect upon the ATPase activated by Na + and K + is additively increased by adding k-strophanthidine (2 x 10 -5 M) and digitoxin (2.5 x 10 -7 M). (orig.) [de

  11. Quantification of pulmonary thallium-201 activity after upright exercise in normal persons: importance of peak heart rate and propranolol usage in defining normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-nine normal patients (34 angiographically normal and 25 clinically normal by Bayesian analysis) underwent thallium-201 imaging after maximal upright exercise. Lung activity was quantitated relative to myocardial activity and a lung/myocardial activity ratio was determined for each patient. Stepwise regression analysis was then used to examine the influence of patient clinical characteristics and exercise variables on the lung/myocardium ratio. Peak heart rate during exercise and propranolol usage both showed significant negative regression coefficients (p less than 0.001). No other patient data showed a significant relation. Using the regression equation and the estimated variance, a 95% confidence level upper limit of normal could be determined for a give peak heart rate and propranolol status. Sixty-one other patients were studied to validate the predicted upper limits of normal based on this model. None of the 27 patients without coronary artery disease had an elevated lung/myocardial ratio, compared with 1 of 8 with 1-vessel disease (difference not significant), 6 of 14 with 2-vessel disease (p less than 0.005), and 6 of 12 with 3-vessel disease (p less than 0.0001). Thus, lung activity on upright exercise thallium-201 studies can be quantitated relative to myocardial activity, and is inversely related to peak heart rate and propranolol use. Use of a regression analysis allows determination of a 95% confidence upper limit of normal to be anticipated in an individual patient

  12. Microcapsules engineered to support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) survival and proliferation enable long-term retention of MSCs in infarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocki, Anna; Beyer, Sebastian; Dewavrin, Jean-Yves; Goralczyk, Anna; Wang, Yingting; Peh, Priscilla; Ng, Michael; Moonshi, Shehzahdi S; Vuddagiri, Susmitha; Raghunath, Michael; Martinez, Eliana C; Bhakoo, Kishore K

    2015-06-01

    The limited efficacy of cardiac cell-based therapy is thought to be due to poor cell retention within the myocardium. Hence, there is an urgent need for biomaterials that aid in long-term cell retention. This study describes the development of injectable microcapsules for the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the infarcted cardiac wall. These microcapsules comprise of low concentrations of agarose supplemented with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins collagen and fibrin. Dextran sulfate, a negatively charged polycarbohydrate, was added to mimic glycosaminoglycans in the ECM. Cell viability assays showed that a combination of all components is necessary to support long-term survival and proliferation of MSCs within microcapsules. Following intramyocardial transplantation, microcapsules degraded slowly in vivo and did not induce a fibrotic foreign body response. Pre-labeling of encapsulated MSCs with iron oxide nanoparticles allowed continued cell-tracking by MRI over several weeks following transplantation into infarcted myocardium. In contrast, MSCs injected as cell suspension were only detectable for two days post transplantation by MRI. Histological analysis confirmed integration of transplanted cells at the infarct site. Therefore, microcapsules proved to be suitable for stem cell delivery into the infarcted myocardium and can overcome current limitations of poor cell retention in cardiac cell-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined evaluation of rest-redistribution thallium-201 tomography and low-dose dobutamine echocardiography enhances the identification of viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, L.; Cuocolo, A.; Salvatore, M.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Prastaro, M.; Vezzuto, P.; Crisci, T.; Dellegrottaglie, S.; Piscione, F.; Chiariello, M.; Mainenti, P.P.; Varrone, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether combined evaluation by discriminant analysis of rest-redistribution thallium-201 tomography and low-dose dobutamine echocardiography enhances the accuracy in identifying viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease. Rest-redistribution 201 Tl has high sensitivity but low specificity in identifying viable myocardium, while the opposite is true for low-dose dobutamine echocardiography. Forty-six patients underwent low-dose dobutamine echocardiography and rest-redistribution 201 Tl tomography on the same day. Rest echocardiography was repeated at least 30 days (mean 40±20) after myocardial revascularization. Discriminant analysis was applied to the results of 201 Tl tomography and dobutamine echocardiography to classify a/dyskinetic segments as viable or non-viable. In 92 a/dyskinetic segments that were revascularized, rest-redistribution 201 Tl tomography yielded an accuracy of 75%, while the accuracy of dobutamine echocardiography was 70% (P 201 Tl imaging are useful and complementary techniques for identifying viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease. Combined evaluation by discriminant analysis significantly improves accuracy, although the cost-effectiveness of such an approach remains to be determined. (orig.)

  14. [The effect of prolonged treatment of hypertensive rats with antihypertensive drugs of various actions on the arterial tension and noradrenaline level in the myocardium, brain and aortal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakov, A; Khlebarova, M; Staneva-stoicheva, D; Panova, I

    1975-01-01

    The authors examined the changes in arterial blood pressure and the content of Noradrenaline in the myocardium, brain and aorta of rats with hypertension due to nephrectomy and treatment with desoxycorticosterone and NaCl, and after a chronic 6-month treatment of hypertension with various antihypertensive means. The most significant reduction of noradrenaline in the three of the examined tissues was found in rats, which received dic. sulfyram (100 mg/kg per os). Clondine (10 mkg/kg, per os) manifested the strongest hypotensive effect and lowered the level of noradrenaline in the myocardium, while it was raised in the aorta. Reserpine (10 mkg/kg, s. c) induced a clear reduction of Noradrenaline content in the brain, but an increase in the other two tissues. Insignificant hypotensive effect was observed in animals, treated with guanetidine (0.5 mg/kg, per os), which did not affect substantially noradrenaline in the examined organs. The increase of noradrenaline level was established in the three of the organs of animals, treated with alpha-methyl-DOFA (25 mg/kg, per os). Furosemide (1 mg/kg, s.c.) induced a statistically significant elevation of noradrenaline in the aorta, but was noneffective to noradrenaline in the myocardium and brain.

  15. 99Tcm-MIBI imaging with liposomal prostaglandin E1 infusion to detect viable myocardium in post-myocardial infarction patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yong; Cai Hongbin; Miao Weibing; Lin Jun; Pan Runyang; Lin Haoxue

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The pharmacological efficiencies of liposomal prostaglandin E 1 (Lipo-PGE 1 ) infusion and nitrate infusion on 99 Tc m -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) imaging detection of viable myocardium in post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients were compared in the current study. Methods: Thirty-two patients with MI underwent 99 Tc m -MIBI imaging at rest, nitrate infusion and Lipo-PGE 1 infusion respectively. The semi-quantitative analysis of 99 Tc m -MIBI imaging was carried out in 16 segments over each left ventricle. Results: Abnormal 99 Tc m -MIBI distribution in 216 segments (42.2%) at rest, 178 segments (34.8%) at nitrate infusion, and 184 segments (35.9%) at Lipo-PGE 1 infusion were identified. Among the 216 abnormal segments at rest, 89 (41.2%) and 81 (37.5%) were found improved after nitrate infusion and Lipo-PGE 1 infusion respectively. Detecting viable myocardium with Lipo-PGE 1 infusion imaging was accordant with that of nitrate infusion imaging in 89.8% of the cases. The mean uptake scores of abnormal segments at rest, nitrate infusion, and Lipo-PGE 1 infusion were 15.3 ± 3.3, 10.5 ± 1.4 (P 1 infusion imaging can be used for detection of viable myocardium in patients with MI. (authors)

  16. Quantitative analysis of normal thallium-201 tomographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, R.L.; Gober, A.; Cerqueira, M.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the normal (nl) distribution of Tl-201 uptake post exercise (EX) and at redistribution (RD) and nl washout, Tl-201 rotational tomographic (tomo) studies were performed in 40 subjects: 16 angiographic (angio) nls and 24 nl volunteers (12 from Emory and 12 from Yale). Oblique angle short axis slices were subjected to maximal count circumferential profile analysis. Data were displayed as a ''bullseye'' functional map with the apex at the center and base at the periphery. The bullseye was not uniform in all regions because of the variable effects of attenuation and resolution at different view angles. In all studies, the septum: lateral wall ratio was 1.0 in males and approximately equal to 1.0 in females. This occurred predominantly because of anterior defects due to breast soft tissue attenuation. EX and RD bullseyes were similar. Using a bi-exponential model for Tl kinetics, 4 hour normalized washout ranged 49-54% in each group and showed minimal variation between walls throughout the bullseye. Thus, there are well defined variations in Tl-201 uptake in the nl myocardium which must be taken into consideration when analyzing pt data. Because of these defects and the lack of adequate methods for attenuation correction, quantitative analysis of Tl-201 studies must include direct comparison with gender-matched nl data sets

  17. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  18. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  19. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  20. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  1. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  2. Isolation World

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Martín, Eugeni

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo de fin de grado tiene como nombre “Isolation World”, que en su traducción literal significa “Aislamiento del mundo”, un videojuego diseñado y creado desde cero en su totalidad, utilizando herramientas y conocimiento de lógica en programación que se han ido aprendiendo y desarrollando a lo largo de la carrera.

  3. Metabolic fate of radiolabeled palmitate in ischemic canine myocardium: implications for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosamond, T.L.; Abendschein, D.R.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.; Fox, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Interpretation of dynamic and integrated myocardial tomograms requires elucidation of the biochemical fate of the tracer and characterization of its tissue distribution and rate of efflux. The fate of [1- 11 C] and [1- 14 C]palmitate was studied in 13 open-chest dogs during control or ischemic extracorporeal perfusion of the left circumflex coronary artery. Residue detection of myocardial radioactivity, and radio-biochemical analyses of sequential transmural biopsies and arterial and coronary venous effluent were performed for 30 min after intracoronary bolus administration of tracer. In control hearts, 10.3% of initially extracted tracer was retained in tissue (2.9% in triglyceride, 3.5% in phospholipid, and 3.9% in other lipid and aqueous fractions), 73.7% was oxidized, and 16.1% back-diffused unaltered. With ischemia (pump flow 10% of normal), 28.1% was retained (18% in triglyceride, 6.0% in phospholipid, and 4.1% in other lipid and aqueous fractions), 27.2% was oxidized, and 44.4% back diffused (p less than 0.05 compared to control). Throughout the 30-min study interval, triglyceride, diglyceride, and nonesterified fatty acid comprised a significantly greater fraction of initially extracted radioactivity in ischemic than in control hearts. Thus, during ischemia externally detected clearance rates cannot be used as a direct measure of fatty acid metabolism because of marked influences on efflux of nonmetabolized radiolabeled palmitate and the distribution of tracer retained in tissue. Quantitative measurements of specific metabolic processes by tomography will require development and validation of tracers confined to individual metabolic pathways or pools

  4. [Isolated mitral valve insufficiency in comparison with mitral-tricuspid insufficiency: various mechanisms of compensating for the defect and functional status of the myocardium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskiĭ, P F; Torbina, A M; Klemborskiĭ, A A

    1988-09-01

    A combined analysis of ventricular contractility and intracardiac hemodynamic compensatory mechanisms was carried out, on the basis of angiocardiographic findings, in 37 patients with rheumatic mitral incompetence. Atrial fibrillation aggravates essentially the defect's hemodynamics, while added tricuspid incompetence is accompanied by a certain off-loading in the lesser circulation network. A grossly perversed phasic structure of intramyocardial stress was noted, apparently being a compensatory mechanism. Reduced specific coronary flow and diastolic perfusion gradient in intact coronary arteries are shown to be causes of clinical angina.

  5. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  6. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  7. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  8. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  9. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  10. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate imaging for the early detection of infarct in partially reperfused canine myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gerald; Okada, Christine C.; Hocherman, Sonia D. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Tulsa, OK (United States); Liu, Zhonglin [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hart, Curtis [University of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Khaw, Ban-An [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States); Okada, Robert D. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Tulsa, OK (United States); University of Tulsa, Department of Biology, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2006-03-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate is an imaging agent developed for the detection of acutely infarcted myocardium. The purposes of the current study were to (1) determine whether {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate can detect acute infarct in the setting of only partial minimal reperfusion, (2) study the persistence and time course of scan positivity following coronary occlusion and intravenous tracer injection, (3) assess the ability of {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate to determine infarct size, and (4) compare these data with previous results obtained using a 100% reperfusion model. Six dogs underwent left circumflex (LCx) coronary occlusion for 90 min, followed by 10% epicardial blood flow reperfusion. Fifteen mCi (555 MBq) {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate was injected intravenously 30 min later. Serial gamma camera images were acquired over 240 min. Microsphere blood flow determinations were performed at baseline, during occlusion, during tracer administration, and just before euthanasia. Ex vivo gamma camera images were obtained. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was performed to assess infarct size. Qualitatively, {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate images showed a well-defined ''hot spot'' in all six dogs by 30 min after tracer injection (150 min following coronary occlusion), which persisted for 240 min following tracer administration. Quantitatively, there was a significant increase in the LCx/LAD (left anterior descending) counts ratio beginning 10 min after tracer administration (130 min after occlusion), and continuing to 240 min after tracer administration. Tracer retention was 12.0{+-}0.9% for the LAD and 39.0{+-}4.1% for the LCx hot spot zone (p<0.05) at 240 min after {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate injection. The correlation coefficient was 0.90 for infarct size by TTC versus {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate. (orig.)

  11. 99mTc-glucarate imaging for the early detection of infarct in partially reperfused canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Gerald; Okada, Christine C.; Hocherman, Sonia D.; Liu, Zhonglin; Hart, Curtis; Khaw, Ban-An; Okada, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    99m Tc-glucarate is an imaging agent developed for the detection of acutely infarcted myocardium. The purposes of the current study were to (1) determine whether 99m Tc-glucarate can detect acute infarct in the setting of only partial minimal reperfusion, (2) study the persistence and time course of scan positivity following coronary occlusion and intravenous tracer injection, (3) assess the ability of 99m Tc-glucarate to determine infarct size, and (4) compare these data with previous results obtained using a 100% reperfusion model. Six dogs underwent left circumflex (LCx) coronary occlusion for 90 min, followed by 10% epicardial blood flow reperfusion. Fifteen mCi (555 MBq) 99m Tc-glucarate was injected intravenously 30 min later. Serial gamma camera images were acquired over 240 min. Microsphere blood flow determinations were performed at baseline, during occlusion, during tracer administration, and just before euthanasia. Ex vivo gamma camera images were obtained. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was performed to assess infarct size. Qualitatively, 99m Tc-glucarate images showed a well-defined ''hot spot'' in all six dogs by 30 min after tracer injection (150 min following coronary occlusion), which persisted for 240 min following tracer administration. Quantitatively, there was a significant increase in the LCx/LAD (left anterior descending) counts ratio beginning 10 min after tracer administration (130 min after occlusion), and continuing to 240 min after tracer administration. Tracer retention was 12.0±0.9% for the LAD and 39.0±4.1% for the LCx hot spot zone (p 99m Tc-glucarate injection. The correlation coefficient was 0.90 for infarct size by TTC versus 99m Tc-glucarate. (orig.)

  12. Molecular mechanisms of the antiglycative and cardioprotective activities of Psidium guajava leaves in the rat diabetic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Sowmya; Rajamanickam, Chellam; Rauf, Arun A; Madambath, Indira

    2016-12-01

    Antiglycative potential of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) leaves has been established. However, the molecular basis of its antiglycative potential remains unknown. The ethyl acetate fraction of P. guajava leaves (PGEt) was evaluated to determine the cardioprotective effect and its mechanism of action compared to quercetin. After the induction of diabetes by streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight), PGEt and quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight) was administered for 60 days. Rats were grouped as follows: Group C: Control, Group D: Diabetic, Group D + E: Diabetic rats treated with PGEt, Group D + Q: Diabetic rats treated with quercetin. The antiglycative potential was evaluated by assaying glycosylated haemoglobin, serum fructosamine and advanced glycation end product levels. The differential receptor for advanced glycation end products and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein levels was determined by western blot and the transcript level changes of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and TGF-β1 in heart tissue were assessed by RT-PCR analysis. Glycated haemoglobin and serum fructosamine levels were found to be enhanced in diabetic rats when compared with control. Administration of PGEt significantly reduced the glycated haemoglobin and fructosamine levels to a larger extent than quercetin treated diabetic rats. PGEt reduced the translocation of NFκB from cytosol to nucleus when compared with diabetic rats. Expression of TGF-β1, CTGF and BNP was downregulated in PGEt treated groups compared with diabetic controls. Administration of PGEt ameliorated diabetes associated changes in the myocardium to a greater extent than quercetin.

  13. Effects of calcium antagonist and free radical scavengers on ischemic and reperfused myocardium due to acute occlusion of coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Sakata, Nobuhiro; Yanagida, Shigeki

    1988-01-01

    The Langendorff perfused rat heart was used to investigate whether ischemic and reperfused injury could be protected by anti-free radical intervention alone or combined treatment with calcium antagonist. Hearts were subjected to 10 min. of aerobic perfusion with Krebs-Henseleit solution (K-H) and then randomized into three groups (GP): Control group received only K-H, FRS group K-H with superoxide dismutase (24 IU/ml) and catalase (22 IU/ml) and Combined group the same solution of FRS group with verapamil (10'-'7M) for 10 min; and three groups were subjected to 20 min. of global ischemia; and each group was reperfused by the prior perfusate for 20 min. LV developed pressure (DP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by an intraventricular baloon. Phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy allowed continuous monitoring of myocardial phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and β-ATP content. Each group consisted of 5 experiments. PCr in Combined group was significantly higher than that of Control group with significantly higher values of DP and DPxHR compared to Combined group in the early phase of ischemia. By the middle phase of reperfusion, significant reduction in Pi was found only in Combined group with the reduction of HR. However, no significant difference of β-ATP was found between Control group and Combined group through ischemia and reperfusion. These results suggest that free radical scavengers alone could not protect ischemic and reperfused myocardium from injury, but that the reduction of oxygen consumption by verapamil might be predominantly effective in preventing myocardial damage partially from ischemia and reperfusion. (author)

  14. A patient with type I CD36 deficiency whose myocardium accumulated 123I-BMIPP after 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K; Sugihara, H; Tanabe, T; Zen, K; Hikosaka, T; Adachi, Y; Katoh, S; Azuma, A; Nakagawa, M

    2001-06-01

    A 73-year-old man with aortic regurgitation was examined by 123I-alpha-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 1995. Myocardial accumulation was not evident on either the early or the delayed image obtained 15 minutes and 3 hours, respectively, after injecting 123I-BMIPP. Flow cytometric analysis of CD36 expression in monocytes and platelets identified a type I CD36 deficiency. The patient was hospitalized for severe heart failure in 1999. Upon admission, the cardiothoracic ratio on chest X-rays was 73%, and the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter on echocardiograms was enlarged to 77 mm. On the second day, we performed 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT. Myocardial accumulation was evident in the delayed, but not in the early image. We repeated 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT on the 10th day after admission. Myocardial accumulation was evident on both early and delayed images. 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPECT was immediately performed after 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT to distinguish myocardial from pooling images in the left ventricle, but, because the images from both 99Tc-tetrofosmin and 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT were idential, we considered that the 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT images reflected the actual myocardial condition. The CD36 molecule transports long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) on the myocardial membrane, but 123I-BMIPP scintigraphy does not show any myocardial accumulation in patients with type I CD36 deficiency, indicating that myocardial LCFA uptake occurs through CD36 on the human myocardial membrane. Even though our patient had type I CD36 deficiency, BMIPP was uptaken by the myocardium during heart failure, suggesting a variant pathway on the human myocardial membrane for LCFA uptake.

  15. Plasma Amino Acid Abnormalities in Chronic Heart Failure. Mechanisms, Potential Risks and Targets in Human Myocardium Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Aquilani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure arterial amino acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF, and relate them to left ventricular function and disease severity. Amino acids (AAs play a crucial role for heart protein-energy metabolism. In heart failure, arterial AAs, which are the major determinant of AA uptake by the myocardium, are rarely measured. Forty-one subjects with clinically stable CHF (New York Heart Association (NYHA class II to IV were analyzed. After overnight fasting, blood samples from the radial artery were taken to measure AA concentrations. Calorie (KcalI, protein-, fat-, carbohydrate-intake, resting energy expenditure (REE, total daily energy expenditure (REE × 1.3, and cardiac right catheterization variables were all measured. Eight matched controls were compared for all measurements, with the exception of cardiac catheterization. Compared with controls, CHF patients had reduced arterial AA levels, of which both their number and reduced rates are related to Heart Failure (HF severity. Arterial aspartic acid correlated with stroke volume index (r = 0.6263; p < 0.0001 and cardiac index (r = 0.4243; p = 0.0028. The value of arterial aspartic acid (µmol/L multiplied by the cardiac index was associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (r = 0.3765; p = 0.0076. All NYHA groups had adequate protein intake (≥1.1 g/kg/day and inadequate calorie intake (KcalI < REE × 1.3 was found only in class IV patients. This study showed that CHF patients had reduced arterial AA levels directly related to clinical disease severity and left ventricular dysfunction.

  16. Pathophysiology and diagnosis of hibernating myocardium in patients with post-ischemic heart failure. The contribution of PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camici, P.G.; Rimoldi, O.E.

    2003-01-01

    Identification and treatment of hibernating myocardium (HM) lead to improvement in left ventricular (LV) function and prognosis in patients with post-ischemic heart failure. Different techniques are used to diagnose HM: echocardiography, MRI, SPECT and PET and, in patients with moderate LV impairment, their predictive values are similar. There are few data on patients with severe LV dysfunction and heart failure in whom the greatest benefits are apparent after revascularization. Quantification of FDG uptake with PET during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp is accurate in these patients with the greatest mortality risk in whom other techniques may give high false negative rates. The debate on whether resting myocardial blood flow to HM is reduced or not has stimulated new research on heart failure in patients with coronary artery disease. PET with H 2 15 O or 13 NH 3 has been used for the absolute quantification of regional blood flow in human HM. When HM is properly identified, resting blood flow is not different from that in healthy volunteers although a reduction of ∼20% can be demonstrated in a minority of cases. PET studies have shown that the main feature of HM is a severe impairment of coronary vasodilator reserve that improves after revascularization in parallel with LV function. Thus, the pathophysiology of HM is more complex than initially postulated. The recent evidence that repetitive ischemia in patients can be cumulative and lead to more severe and prolonged stunning, lends further support to the hypothesis that, at least initially, stunning and HM are two facets of the same coin. (author)

  17. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  18. Medically-enhanced normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To consider public perspectives on the use of medicines for non-medical purposes, a usage called medically-enhanced normality (MEN). Method: Examples from the literature were combined with empirical data derived from two Danish research projects: a Delphi internet study and a Telebus...

  19. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. Masturbation, sexuality, and adaptation: normalization in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Theodore

    2008-03-01

    During adolescence the central masturbation fantasy that is formulated during childhood takes its final form and paradoxically must now be directed outward for appropriate object finding and pair matching in the service of procreative aims. This is a step in adaptation that requires a further developmental landmark that I have called normalization. The path toward airing these private fantasies is facilitated by chumship relationships as a step toward further exposure to the social surround. Hartmann's structuring application of adaptation within psychoanalysis is used as a framework for understanding the process that simultaneously serves intrapsychic and social demands and permits goals that follow evolutionary principles. Variations in the normalization process from masturbatory isolation to a variety of forms of sexual socialization are examined in sociological data concerning current adolescent sexual behavior and in case examples that indicate some routes to normalized experience and practice.

  1. Influências de dietas ricas em ácidos graxos saturados e insaturados sobre o miocárdio de ratos Influences of rich in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids diets in rat myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Fécchio Pinotti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O estudo avaliou a influência de dietas ricas em ácidos graxos saturados (AGS e ácidos graxos insaturados (AGI sobre a função mecânica, a morfologia e o estresse oxidativo do miocárdio de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar com 60 dias de idade foram alimentados com dieta padrão (n = 8 ou dietas ricas em AGS (n = 8 ou AGI (n = 8 durante 60 dias. A função mecânica foi avaliada em músculo papilar isolado do ventrículo esquerdo (VE por meio de contrações isométrica e isotônica, em condição basal (1,25 mM de cálcio, após elevação da concentração extracelular de cálcio para 5,2 mM e estimulação beta-adrenérgica com isoproterenol 1,0 µM. Fragmentos do VE foram usados para estudo de estresse oxidativo e microscopias óptica e eletrônica. RESULTADOS: As dietas suplementadas com AGS e AGI não alteraram a função mecânica do músculo cardíaco. Entretanto, ambas provocaram estresse oxidativo, com aumento do hidroperóxido de lipídio e redução da concentração de superóxido dismutase. A dieta AGI diminuiu a expressão da catalase e a AGS reduziu a quantidade de glutationa peroxidase miocárdica. Ambas as dietas promoveram discretas alterações morfológicas visualizadas ultra-estruturalmente, como depósitos lipídicos e lesões das membranas celulares. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que dietas enriquecidas com AGS e AGI não acarretam alteração da função mecânica do músculo cardíaco isolado, mas causam discretas lesões estruturais e estresse oxidativo no miocárdio.OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of saturated (SFA and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA rich diets on mechanical function, morphology and oxidative stress in rat myocardium. METHODS: Male, 60-day-old Wistar rats were fed a control (n=8, a SFA (n=8, or a UFA-rich diet (n=8 for sixty days. Mechanical function was studied in isolated left ventricle papillary muscle under isometric and isotonic contractions, in basal conditions (1.25mM calcium

  2. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  3. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  4. Effective stimulation of cardiac contractility and myocardial metabolism by impromidine and dimaprit--two new H2-agonistic compounds--in the surviving, catecholamine-insensitive myocardium after coronary occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, G.; Felix, S.B.; Riess, G.; Loher, U.; Ludwig, L.; Bloemer, H.

    1982-01-01

    Left ventricular infarctions were produced in guinea pigs, and the contractile response to beta-adrenergic and H2-histaminergic stimulation was tested in isolated perfused heart preparations. Adenylate cyclase activity and binding characteristics of sarcolemmal beta 1-, H2-, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors were determined in sarcolemmal membrane preparations of the uninvolved right ventricle of the same hearts. Three days after infarction, the positive inotropic effects of isoproterenol (2.8 X 10(-9) mol/L) and tyramine (5.5 X 10(-5) mol/L) were nearly abolished, while the inotropic effects of impromidine (4.6 X 10(-7) mol/L) and dimaprit (8.5 X 10(-6) mol/L) were not impaired. Stimulation rates of cardiac adenylate cyclase activity by isoproterenol were markedly reduced (-90%) whereas impromidine, dimaprit, and NaF revealed stimulation rates equivalent to the sham-operated control group. beta-Receptor binding studies with [ 3 H]dihydroalprenol revealed 90% loss and nearly 10 times lowered affinity (KD) of the remaining receptors, while specific binding of [ 3 H]tiotidine and [ 3 H]quinuclidinyl-benzylate was unchanged in the same preparations. All of the above alterations could be prevented to a similar extent by treatment with different beta-blocking agents, but differences between the drugs were seen with respect to survival rates and reduction of infarct size. In agreement with previous findings, we conclude that the observed alterations in the nonischemic surviving myocardium are the result of specific damage of sarcolemmal beta-receptors due to excessive exposure to increased catecholamines after infarction. The stimulation of the uninvolved H2-receptors may be of therapeutic value

  5. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The research on biodistribution of 131I-iodosennoside A in normal mice and to evaluate myocardial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junhu; Yin Zhiqi; Jiang Cuihua; Jiang Xiao; Li Yue; Zhang Jian; Sun Ziping; Ni Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this project is to evaluate biodistribution of [ 131 I]-Iodosennoside A in normal mice and explore the feasibility on the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Methods: Iodogen method was used to radioiodinate sennoside A with 131 I. [ 131 I] Iodosennoside A was intravenously injected into mice. Three groups of mice were killed at 4 h, 24 h and 48 h post injection respectively and the radioactive uptake in major organs were calculated. Rats were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation to induce acute myocardial infarction. Rat models of myocardial infarction were intravenously injected [ 131 I] iodosennoside A. 24 h after injection of [ 131 I] iodosennoside A, the regional distribution of radioiodinated sennoside A was determined by radioactivity counting technique. 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and autoradiography were per- formed with 2 mm thick sections of hearts for postmortem verifications. Results: The study showed high uptake of [ 131 I] iodosennoside A in kidneys and fast blood clearance. At 24 h post injection, radioactivity concentration in infarcted myocardium was over 11.9 times higher than in normal myocardium. Preferential uptake of the [ 131 I] iodosennoside A in necrotic tissue was confirmed by perfect match of images from TTC staining and autoradiography. Conclusion: The result proved that [ 131 I] iodosennoside A has myocardial necrosis affinity and may serve as a marker on the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. (authors)

  7. Nanotized PPARα Overexpression Targeted to Hypertrophied Myocardium Improves Cardiac Function by Attenuating the p53-GSK3β-Mediated Mitochondrial Death Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Santanu; Datta, Ritwik; Chaudhuri, Ratul Datta; Chatterjee, Emeli; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2018-05-09

    Metabolic remodeling of cardiac muscles during pathological hypertrophy is characterized by downregulation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) regulator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Thereby, we hypothesized that a cardiac-specific induction of PPARα might restore the FAO-related protein expression and resultant energy deficit. In the present study, consequences of PPARα augmentation were evaluated for amelioration of chronic oxidative stress, myocyte apoptosis, and cardiac function during pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Nanotized PPARα overexpression targeted to myocardium was done by a stearic acid-modified carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC) conjugated to a 20-mer myocyte-targeted peptide (CMCP). Overexpression of PPARα ameliorated pathological hypertrophy and improved cardiac function. Augmented PPARα in hypertrophied myocytes revealed downregulated p53 acetylation (lys 382), leading to reduced apoptosis. Such cells showed increased binding of PPARα with p53 that in turn reduced interaction of p53 with glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), which upregulated inactive phospho-GSK3β (serine [Ser]9) expression within mitochondrial protein fraction. Altogether, the altered molecular milieu in PPARα-overexpressed hypertrophy groups restored mitochondrial structure and function both in vitro and in vivo. Cardiomyocyte-targeted overexpression of a protein of interest (PPARα) by nanotized plasmid has been described for the first time in this study. Our data provide a novel insight towards regression of pathological hypertrophy by ameliorating mitochondrial oxidative stress in targeted PPARα-overexpressed myocardium. PPARα-overexpression during pathological hypertrophy showed substantial betterment of mitochondrial structure and function, along with downregulated apoptosis. Myocardium-targeted overexpression of PPARα during pathological cardiac hypertrophy led to an overall improvement of cardiac energy deficit and subsequent cardiac

  8. T1 mapping of the myocardium: Intra-individual assessment of the effect of field strength, cardiac cycle and variation by myocardial region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawel Nadine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial T1 relaxation time (T1 time and extracellular volume fraction (ECV are altered in the presence of myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate acquisition factors that may result in variation of measured T1 time and ECV including magnetic field strength, cardiac phase and myocardial region. Methods 31 study subjects were enrolled and underwent one cardiovascular MR exam at 1.5 T and two exams at 3 T, each on separate days. A Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI sequence was acquired before and 5, 10, 12, 20, 25 and 30 min after administration of 0.15 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA; Magnevist at 1.5 T (exam 1. For exam 2, MOLLI sequences were acquired at 3 T both during diastole and systole, before and after administration of Gd-DTPA (0.15 mmol/kg Magnevist.Exam 3 was identical to exam 2 except gadobenate dimeglumine was administered (Gd-BOPTA; 0.1 mmol/kg Multihance. T1 times were measured in myocardium and blood. ECV was calculated by (ΔR1myocardium/ΔR1blood*(1-hematocrit. Results Before gadolinium, T1 times of myocardium and blood were significantly greater at 3 T versus 1.5 T (28% and 31% greater, respectively, p  Conclusion ECV is similar at field strengths of 1.5 T and 3 T. Due to minor variations in T1 time and ECV during the cardiac cycle and in different myocardial regions, T1 measurements should be obtained at the same cardiac phase and myocardial region in order to obtain consistent results.

  9. The influence of psycho-emotional stress in children of primary school age on the incidence of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and the functional state of the myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Ovcharenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Scientific and technical progress, intensification of educational process and information overload have a negative effect on unformed central nervous system of primary schoolchildren, causing stress, which affects the increase in the incidence of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (URTI and the functional state of the myocardium. In view of this, we analyzed a functional state of myocardium in children with recurrent URTI. The critical duration of the work of primary school child with electronic means of communication, which affects the quality of nighttime sleep and the nature of awakening in the morning, was established. We have studied the relationship of the above mentioned with the incidence of URTI, the level of school anxiety and functional reserve of the myocardium. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the functional reserve of the myocardium in children of primary school age, depending on the incidence of URTI and the level of psycho-emotional activity. Materials and me­thods. 239 children aged 6 to 9 years were examined. The analysis of the functional reserve of the myocardium was carried out in pupils with different incidence of the URTI, depending on the age. The influence of electronic communications on the quality of nighttime sleep and morning awakening was stu­died, and the level of school anxiety was evaluated. During the study, children were divided into two groups. Group 1 — children with recurrent acute respiratory diseases (n = 143. Group 2 — children who occasionally have URTI (n = 96. Results. Out of 239 children with recurrent acute respiratory infections, we have identified 173 children with reduced functional reserve of the myocardium (72.4 %. Among children with recurrent URTI, the incidence of reduced functional reserve of the myocardium was 76.2 %, and in occasionally ill children — 66.7 %. Children with recurrent URTI use electronic means of communication more often than

  10. Recommendations to realise and interpret the scintigraphy of myocardium perfusion; Recommandations pour la realisation et l'interpretation de la tomoscintigraphie de perfusion myocardique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A.; Marie, P.Y

    2003-06-15

    The purpose of these recommendations is to help the physicians in the realization and the interpretation of the tomo-scintigraphies of myocardium perfusion, when this examination is made at the patients having a known or suspected coronary incapacity. These recommendations aim to encourage the practitioners (of nuclear medicine) to reflect and to discuss the procedures applied in their services. These procedures must be also adapted, in every service, to the peculiarities of the environment and to the experiment of each one. (N.C.)

  11. Interrelationships between the changes in the myocardium of the experimental animals and the amount of the accumulated zinc during chronic zinc intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlateva, M; Galabova, V

    1974-01-01

    White rats, aged 45 days, and another group, aged 3 months, were poisoned with 1/100 of LD/sub 50/ of water extract of zinc acetate for a period of 6 months. There was a considerable increase of the zinc content in the myocardial tissue. This increase depended on the age at which the intoxication began: it was larger in animals which were immature at the onset of the experiments. It was established that the increased amount of zinc caused distrophyci and sclerotic changes in the myocardium and coronary blood vessels. 10 references, 1 figure.

  12. Low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET for identification of viable myocardium: comparison with stress-rest perfusion SPET and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara; Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Satoshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Kohya, Tetsuro; Kitabatake, Akira; Kawai, Yuko

    2002-01-01

    The detection of viable myocardium is important for the prediction of functional recovery after revascularisation. However, a fixed perfusion defect often includes viable myocardium, and perfusion imaging then underestimates myocardial viability. We previously reported that low-dose dobutamine stress gated single-photon emission tomography (SPET) provides similar findings to dobutamine stress echocardiography in the assessment of myocardial viability. The present study investigated whether low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET is of additional value as compared with stress-rest technetium-99m tetrofosmin SPET for the detection of myocardial viability. Standard stress-rest perfusion SPET, low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) were studied in 23 patients (mean age 67±7.6 years) with previous myocardial infarction. Twenty-one of them were successfully studied with each technique. FDG PET viability (FDG uptake ≥50%) was employed as the gold standard. One-day stress-rest 99m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPET was performed. After the resting study, gated SPET was acquired following infusion of 7.5 μg kg -1 min -1 of dobutamine. Left ventricular wall motion in 16 segments was assessed by cine mode display using a four-point scale. Myocardial viability was considered present when there was improvement by one point. Of a total of 336 segments analysed, 53 had persistent defects on stress-rest perfusion SPET. FDG viability was seen in 16 of 17 dobutamine-responsive segments, but in only 11 of 36 dobutamine non-responsive segments (P<0.01). Thus, in the segments with persistent defects, viability findings on low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET were concordant with those on FDG PET in 77% of segments (kappa value =0.55). For the detection of FDG-viable myocardium, the combination of stress-rest perfusion SPET and low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET achieved a better sensitivity than stress

  13. Automatic segmentation of myocardium at risk from contrast enhanced SSFP CMR: validation against expert readers and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufvesson, Jane; Carlsson, Marcus; Aletras, Anthony H.; Engblom, Henrik; Deux, Jean-François; Koul, Sasha; Sörensson, Peder; Pernow, John; Atar, Dan; Erlinge, David; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy of reperfusion therapy can be assessed as myocardial salvage index (MSI) by determining the size of myocardium at risk (MaR) and myocardial infarction (MI), (MSI = 1-MI/MaR). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can be used to assess MI by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and MaR by either T2-weighted imaging or contrast enhanced SSFP (CE-SSFP). Automatic segmentation algorithms have been developed and validated for MI by LGE as well as for MaR by T2-weighted imaging. There are, however, no algorithms available for CE-SSFP. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate automatic segmentation of MaR in CE-SSFP. The automatic algorithm applies surface coil intensity correction and classifies myocardial intensities by Expectation Maximization to define a MaR region based on a priori regional criteria, and infarct region from LGE. Automatic segmentation was validated against manual delineation by expert readers in 183 patients with reperfused acute MI from two multi-center randomized clinical trials (RCT) (CHILL-MI and MITOCARE) and against myocardial perfusion SPECT in an additional set (n = 16). Endocardial and epicardial borders were manually delineated at end-diastole and end-systole. Manual delineation of MaR was used as reference and inter-observer variability was assessed for both manual delineation and automatic segmentation of MaR in a subset of patients (n = 15). MaR was expressed as percent of left ventricular mass (%LVM) and analyzed by bias (mean ± standard deviation). Regional agreement was analyzed by Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) (mean ± standard deviation). MaR assessed by manual and automatic segmentation were 36 ± 10 % and 37 ± 11 %LVM respectively with bias 1 ± 6 %LVM and regional agreement DSC 0.85 ± 0.08 (n = 183). MaR assessed by SPECT and CE-SSFP automatic segmentation were 27 ± 10 %LVM and 29 ± 7 %LVM respectively with bias 2 ± 7 %LVM. Inter-observer variability was 0 ± 3 %LVM for manual delineation and

  14. Ischaemic tolerance in aged mouse myocardium: the role of adenosine and effects of A1 adenosine receptor overexpression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, John P; Willems, Laura; Ashton, Kevin J; Holmgren, Kirsten; Peart, Jason; Matherne, G Paul

    2003-01-01

    The genesis of the ischaemia intolerant phenotype in aged myocardium is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that impaired adenosine-mediated protection contributes to ischaemic intolerance, and examined whether this is countered by A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) overexpression. Responses to 20 min ischaemia and 45 min reperfusion were assessed in perfused hearts from young (2–4 months) and moderately aged (16–18 months) mice. Post-ischaemic contractility was impaired by ageing with elevated ventricular diastolic (32 ± 2 vs. 18 ± 2 mmHg in young) and reduced developed (37 ± 3 vs. 83 ± 6 mmHg in young) pressures. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) loss was exaggerated (27 ± 2 vs. 16 ± 2 IU g−1in young) whereas the incidence of tachyarrhythmias was similar in young (15 ± 1 %) and aged hearts (16 ± 1 %). Functional analysis confirmed equipotent effects of 50 μm adenosine at A1 and A2 receptors in young and aged hearts. Nonetheless, while 50 μm adenosine improved diastolic (5 ± 1 mmHg) and developed pressures (134 ± 7 mmHg) and LDH loss (6 ± 2 IU g−1) in young hearts, it did not alter these variables in the aged group. Adenosine did attenuate arrhythmogenesis for both ages (to ∼10 %). In contrast to adenosine, 50 μm diazoxide reduced ischaemic damage and arrhythmogenesis for both ages. Contractile and anti-necrotic effects of adenosine were limited by 100 μm 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) and 3 μm chelerythrine. Anti-arrhythmic effects were limited by 5-HD but not chelerythrine. Non-selective (100 μm 8-sulfophenyltheophylline) and A1-selective (150 nm 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine) adenosine receptor antagonism impaired ischaemic tolerance in young but not aged hearts. Quantitative real-time PCR and radioligand analysis indicated that impaired protection is unrelated to changes in A1AR mRNA transcription, or receptor density (∼8 fmol mg−1 protein in both age groups). However, A1AR overexpression improved tolerance for both ages, restoring

  15. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and histological damage in the myocardium. Effects of a soy-based diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferramola, Mariana L.; Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F. [Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacy, National University of San Luis, IMIBIO-SL, CONICET, San Luis (Argentina); Honoré, Stella M.; Sánchez, Sara S. [Department of Development Biology, INSIBIO, National University of Tucumán, CONICET-UNT, Tucumán (Argentina); Antón, Rosa I. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacy, National University of San Luis, INQUISAL, CONICET, San Luis (Argentina); Anzulovich, Ana C. [Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacy, National University of San Luis, IMIBIO-SL, CONICET, San Luis (Argentina); Giménez, María S., E-mail: mgimenez@unsl.edu.ar [Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacy, National University of San Luis, IMIBIO-SL, CONICET, San Luis (Argentina)

    2012-12-15

    Cd exposure has been associated to an augmented risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of 15 and 100 ppm of Cd on redox status as well as histological changes in the rat heart and the putative protective effect of a soy-based diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups and treated during 60 days as follows: groups (1), (2) and (3) were fed a casein-based diet; groups (4), (5) and (6), a soy-based diet; (1) and (4) were given tap water; (2) and (5) tap water containing 15 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}; and (3) and (6) tap water containing 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}. Serum lipid peroxides increased and PON-1 activity decreased in group (3). Lipoperoxidation also increased in the heart of all intoxicated groups; however protein oxidation only augmented in (3) and reduced glutathione levels diminished in (2) and (3). Catalase activity increased in groups (3) and (6) while superoxide dismutase activity increased only in (6). Glutathione peroxidase activity decreased in groups (3) and (6). Nrf2 expression was higher in groups (3) and (6), and MTI expression augmented in (3). Histological examination of the heart tissue showed the development of hypertrophic and fusion of cardiomyocytes along with foci of myocardial fiber necrosis. The transmission electron microscopy analysis showed profound ultra-structural damages. No protection against tissue degeneration was observed in animals fed the soy-based diet. Our findings indicate that even though the intake of a soy-based diet is capable of ameliorating Cd induced oxidative stress, it failed in preventing cardiac damage. -- Highlights: ► Cd intoxication produces extracellular and ultrastructural damage in the myocardium. ► The intake of a soy-based diet ameliorated Cd-induced oxidative stress. ► Cd-induced myocardial damage wasn't prevented by the intake of a soy-based diet. ► Cd-induced myocardial degeneration may not be caused by oxidative stress generation. ► Histology evaluation is needed to

  16. Quantification of heart, pericardium, and left ventricular myocardium movements during the cardiac cycle for thoracic tumor radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Y

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ying Tong,1,2 Yong Yin,1 Jie Lu,1 Tonghai Liu,1 Jinhu Chen,1 Pinjing Cheng,2 Guanzhong Gong1 1Department of Radiation Physics, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, 2School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify variations in the heart, pericardium, and left ventricular myocardium (LVM caused by cardiac movement using the breath-hold technique. Patients and methods: In this study, the electrocardiography-gated four-dimensional computed tomography (CT images of 22 patients were analyzed, which were sorted into 20 phases (0–95% according to the cardiac cycle. The heart, pericardium, and LVM were contoured on each phase of the CT images. The positions, volume, dice similarity coefficient (DSC in reference to 0% phase, and morphological parameters (max 3D diameter, roundness, spherical disproportion, sphericity, and surface area in different phases of the heart, pericardium, and LVM were analyzed, which were presented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The mean values of displacements along the X, Y, and Z axes respectively were as follows: 1.2 mm, 0.6 mm, and 0.6 mm for the heart; 0.5 mm, 0.4 mm, and 0.8 mm for the pericardium; and 1.0 mm, 4.1 mm, and 1.9 mm for the LVM. The maximum variations in volume and DSC respectively were 16.49%±3.85% and 10.08%±2.14% for the heart, 12.62%±3.94% and 5.20%±1.54% for the pericardium, and 24.23%±11.35% and 184.33%±128.61% for the LVM. The differences in the morphological parameters between the maximum and minimum DSC phases for the heart and pericardium were not significantly different (p>0.05 but were significantly different for the LVM (p<0.05. Conclusion: The volumetric and morphological variations of the heart were similar to those of pericardium, and all were significantly smaller than those of the LVM. This inconsistency in the volumetric and

  17. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and histological damage in the myocardium. Effects of a soy-based diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferramola, Mariana L.; Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Honoré, Stella M.; Sánchez, Sara S.; Antón, Rosa I.; Anzulovich, Ana C.; Giménez, María S.

    2012-01-01

    Cd exposure has been associated to an augmented risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of 15 and 100 ppm of Cd on redox status as well as histological changes in the rat heart and the putative protective effect of a soy-based diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups and treated during 60 days as follows: groups (1), (2) and (3) were fed a casein-based diet; groups (4), (5) and (6), a soy-based diet; (1) and (4) were given tap water; (2) and (5) tap water containing 15 ppm of Cd 2+ ; and (3) and (6) tap water containing 100 ppm of Cd 2+ . Serum lipid peroxides increased and PON-1 activity decreased in group (3). Lipoperoxidation also increased in the heart of all intoxicated groups; however protein oxidation only augmented in (3) and reduced glutathione levels diminished in (2) and (3). Catalase activity increased in groups (3) and (6) while superoxide dismutase activity increased only in (6). Glutathione peroxidase activity decreased in groups (3) and (6). Nrf2 expression was higher in groups (3) and (6), and MTI expression augmented in (3). Histological examination of the heart tissue showed the development of hypertrophic and fusion of cardiomyocytes along with foci of myocardial fiber necrosis. The transmission electron microscopy analysis showed profound ultra-structural damages. No protection against tissue degeneration was observed in animals fed the soy-based diet. Our findings indicate that even though the intake of a soy-based diet is capable of ameliorating Cd induced oxidative stress, it failed in preventing cardiac damage. -- Highlights: ► Cd intoxication produces extracellular and ultrastructural damage in the myocardium. ► The intake of a soy-based diet ameliorated Cd-induced oxidative stress. ► Cd-induced myocardial damage wasn't prevented by the intake of a soy-based diet. ► Cd-induced myocardial degeneration may not be caused by oxidative stress generation. ► Histology evaluation is needed to establish the

  18. Effects of Using Tricaine Methanesulfonate and Metomidate before Euthanasia on the Contractile Properties of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jordan C; Syme, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Because many anesthetics work through depressing cell excitability, unanesthetized euthanasia has become common for research involving excitable tissues (for example muscle and nerve) to avoid these depressive effects. However, anesthetic use during euthanasia may be indicated for studies involving isolated tissues if the potential depressive effects of brief anesthetic exposure dissipate after subsequent tissue isolation, washout, and saline perfusion. We explore this here by measuring wheth...

  19. [Effects of genistein on contractility of isolated right ventricular muscles in guinea pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-xia; Li, Hong-fang; Liu, Chong-bin; Tian, Zhi-feng

    2008-11-01

    To study the effect of genistein (GEN) on contractility of isolated right ventricular muscles in guinea pig and its mechanisms. Isolated guinea pig ventricular muscles were suspended in organ baths containing K-H solution.After an equilibration period, the effect of GEN on contraction of myocardium was observed. GEN and isoprenaline hydrochloride had the positive inotropic effects on contractity of myocardium. Meanwhile, the effect of GEN (1-100 micromol x L(-1)) was in dose-dependent manner. Propranolol (1 micromol x L(-1)) and verapamil hydrochloride (0.5 micromol x L(-1)) attenuated the positive inotropic effect of isoprenaline hydrochloride (1 micromol x L(-1)), but did not change the effect of GEN (50 micromol x L(-1)). Further more, the enhancement of the contraction induced by elevation of extracellular Ca2+ concentration in ventricular muscles had no change after pretreatment with GEN (1.10 micromol x L(-1)). In addition,the positive inotropic effect of GEN was inhibited partially by tamoxifen (1 micromol x L(-1)) and SQ22536 (1 micromol x L(-1)), also, could be attenuated by bpV (1 micromol x L(-1)). GEN has the positive inotropic effect on guinea pig ventricular muscles, which is not related to the activation of beta adrenoceptor, Ca2+ channel on cell membrane,but may involve in cAMP of intracellular signal transduction and tyrosine kinase pathway.

  20. Identification of viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Comparison of thallium scintigraphy with reinjection and PET imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonow, R.O.; Dilsizian, V.; Cuocolo, A.; Bacharach, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    In patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction, the distinction between ventricular dysfunction arising from myocardial fibrosis and ischemic, but viable, myocardium has important clinical implications. By positron emission tomography (PET), enhanced fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in myocardial segments with impaired function and reduced blood flow is evidence of myocardial viability. Reinjection of thallium-201 at rest immediately after stress-redistribution imaging may also provide evidence of myocardial viability by demonstrating thallium uptake in regions with apparently irreversible defects. To compare these two methods, we studied 16 patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction, all of whom had irreversible defects on standard exercise-redistribution thallium single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Thallium was reinjected immediately after the redistribution study, and SPECT images were reacquired. The patients also underwent PET imaging with FDG and oxygen-15-labeled water. A total of 432 myocardial segments were analyzed from comparable transaxial tomograms, of which 166 (38%) had irreversible thallium defects on redistribution images before reinjection. FDG uptake was demonstrated in 121 (73%) of these irreversible defects. Irreversible defects were then subgrouped according to the degree of thallium activity, relative to peak activity in normal regions. Irreversible defects with only mild (60-85% of peak activity) or moderate (50-59% of peak) reduction in thallium activity were considered viable on the basis of FDG uptake in 91% and 84% of these segments, respectively. In contrast, in irreversible defects with severe reduction in thallium activity (less than 50% of peak), FDG uptake was present in 51% of segments

  1. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupar, C A; Gillett, J; Gordon, B A; Ramsay, D A; Johnson, J L; Garrett, R M; Rajagopalan, K V; Jung, J H; Bacheyie, G S; Sellers, A R

    1996-12-01

    Isolated sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of sulfur metabolism. In this report of a ninth patient the clinical history, laboratory results, neuropathological findings and a mutation in the sulfite oxidase gene are described. The data from this patient and previously published patients with isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency and molybdenum cofactor deficiency are summarized to characterize this rare disorder. The patient presented neonatally with intractable seizures and did not progress developmentally beyond the neonatal stage. Dislocated lenses were apparent at 2 months. There was increased urine excretion of sulfite and S-sulfocysteine and a decreased concentration of plasma cystine. A lactic acidemia was present for 6 months. Liver sulfite oxidase activity was not detectable but xanthine dehydrogenase activity was normal. The boy died of respiratory failure at 32 months. Neuropathological findings of cortical necrosis and extensive cavitating leukoencephalopathy were reminiscent of those seen in severe perinatal asphyxia suggesting an etiology of energy deficiency. A point mutation that resulted in a truncated protein missing the molybdenum-binding site has been identified.

  2. Expression of Flk-1 and Cyclin D2 mRNA in the Myocardium of Rats with Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy and after Treatment with Betulonic Acid Amide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzhelskaya, M M; Klinnikova, M G; Koldysheva, E V; Lushnikova, E L

    2017-10-01

    The expression of VEGFR2 (Flk-1, according to immunohistochemistry) and of cyclin D2 mRNA (according to real-time PCR) in the myocardium of rats is studied in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy and in response to betulonic acid amide. Doxorubicin alone and in combination with betulonic acid amide causes after 3 days a manifest reduction of cyclin D2 mRNA expression (by 38 and 63%, respectively), while injection of betulonic acid amide alone causes a 23-fold increase of cyclin D2 mRNA expression. An increase of cyclin D2 mRNA expression has been detected in all experimental groups after 14 days of experiment, the most pronounced in response to betulonic acid amide (63 times). The expression of Flk-1 in cardiomyocytes increases significantly in response to both chemical agents starting from day 3 of experiment. These results indicate that doxorubicin and betulonic acid amide induce cytoprotective reactions in the myocardium, first at the intracellular, then at the cellular levels.

  3. Are microbubbles free flowing tracers through the Myocardium? Comparison of indicator-dilution curves obtained from dye dilution and echo contrast using harmonic power Doppler imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, K; Schlosser, T; Pohl, C; Bimmel, D; Wietasch, G; Hoeft, A; Likungu, J; Vahlhaus, C; Kuntz, S; Nanda, N C; Becher, H; Lüderitz, B

    2000-01-01

    Harmonic power Doppler imaging (H-PDI) has been introduced into the field of contrast echocardiography as a contrast-specific imaging modality. However, there has been considerable skepticism as to whether H-PDI would be quantifiable, because it depends on the destruction of microbubbles and has more complex signal processing than gray scale imaging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the concentration of microbubbles and the resulting H-PDI signals even under conditions where bubble destruction is most likely. Furthermore, we evaluated whether microbubbles of Levovist freely pass the microcirculation, which is a prerequisite for the assessment of myocardial blood flow. A strong positive correlation was found between the H-PDI signals and the amount of microbubbles up to the onset of acoustic shadowing (r = 0. 968, Pgreen (ICG) in both a flow phantom and a working heart setup. The mean transit times (MTTs) through the myocardium of both agents were compared after a bolus injection into the left coronary artery. A close correlation was observed between 1/MTT and flow in both setups (r>0.98, Pgreen. We conclude that microbubbles fulfill the prerequisites of free flowing tracers through the myocardium. Furthermore, H-PDI technology allows a reliable assessment of time-concentration curves of air-filled microbubbles up to the onset of acoustic shadowing.

  4. 16-Cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl 99mTc 16-oxo-hexadecanoic acid: synthesis and evaluation of fatty acid metabolism in mouse myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Iljung; Choe, Yearn Seong; Chi, Dae Yoon; Lee, Kyung-Han; Choi, Yong; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2008-06-26

    We synthesized 16-cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl 99mTc 16-oxo-hexadecanoic acid (99mTc-CpTT-16-oxo-HDA, 1) and investigated its potential as a radiotracer for evaluating fatty acid metabolism in myocardium. Radiotracer 1 was synthesized in 22.6 +/- 6.3% decay-corrected yield by a double ligand transfer reaction between the ferrocene adduct of methyl hexadecanoate ( 2) and Na99mTcO 4 in the presence of Cr(CO)6 and CrCl3, followed by hydrolysis of the methyl ester group. Radiotracer 1 was found to be chemically stable (99% at 6 h) when incubated in human serum. A tissue distribution study in mice showed that high radioactivity accumulated in heart (9.03%ID/g at 1 min and 5.41%ID/g at 5 min postinjection) with rapid clearance and that heart to blood uptake ratios increased with time (2.13 at 5 min and 3.76 at 30 min postinjection). Metabolite analysis of the heart tissues using a simple extraction method showed that 99mTc-CpTT-4-oxo-butyric acid was detected as the major radioactive metabolite by HPLC, suggesting that 1 is metabolized to 99mTc-CpTT-4-oxo-butyric acid via beta-oxidation in myocardium.

  5. Theory of normal metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The organizers requested that I give eight lectures on the theory of normal metals, ''with an eye on superconductivity.'' My job was to cover the general properties of metals. The topics were selected according to what the students would need to known for the following lectures on superconductivity. My role was to prepare the ground work for the later lectures. The problem is that there is not yet a widely accepted theory for the mechanism which pairs the electrons. Many mechanisms have been proposed, with those of phonons and spin fluctuations having the most followers. So I tried to discuss both topics. I also introduced the tight-binding model for metals, which forms the basis for most of the work on the cuprate superconductors

  6. In vitro assessment of cardiac performance after irradiation using an isolated working rat heart preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, J.; Laarse, A. van der; Ravels, F.J.M. van; Wermeskerken, A.-M. van; Verhoeve, H.R.; Graaf, B.W. de; Leer, J.W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on cardiac function was assessed using an isolated working rat heart preparation. The animals were given single doses of X-rays in the range 15-30 Gy to their hearts. Cardiac output (CO = aortic flow + coronary flow), heart weight and body weight were followed for a period of 10 months after treatment. Irradiation led to a decrease in cardiac function. This reduction was dose-dependent and progressive with time after treatment. The shape of the Frank-Starling curves constructed for irradiated hearts suggests a loss of contractile function of the myocardium. Coronary flow rates measured in 'working' hearts and in 'Langendorff' hearts were not significantly changed by the irradiation treatment. The isolated working rat heart preparation proved to be a simple and suitable animal model for the investigation of irradiation-induced cardiotoxicity. (author)

  7. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  8. Proximal 21q deletion as a result of a de novo unbalanced t(12;21) translocation in a patient with dysmorphic features, hepatomegaly, thick myocardium and delayed psychomotor development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Damgaard, Ida N; Cornelius, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    of the region from 32.3 Mb to 37.1 Mb was more crucial than the deletion of other regions. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study we describe a female patient with dysmorphic features, hepatomegaly, thick myocardium and psychomotor delay. Conventional karyotyping was initially interpreted as full monosomy 21...

  9. Miniature silicon diode matrix-detector for in vivo measurement of 133xenon disappearance in the canine myocardium following local tissue injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Rasmussen, H B; Damgaard, Y

    1992-01-01

    recording appearing from the gamma-energy of the photopeak. The detector matrix concept allows elimination of motion artefacts and indicator distribution in the myocardial tissue. Due to the uniformity and low cost of Si-diodes the perspective may be the introduction as a disposable transducer useful during......After local tissue depositioning of 133Xenon (133Xe) the regional washout is usually registered by a NaI(Tl) detector. The residual radioactivity of 133Xe is usually measured at its 81 keV photopeak. However, using small Silicon (Si) photodiodes it is feasible to measure only the low-energy...... activity in the X-ray energy range. In the myocardium of open chest dogs 133Xe washout measurements by a matrix of Si diodes composed in a 4 x 4 array and a conventional NaI(Tl) detector were carried out simultaneously. Fourteen separate pairs of measurements were performed in 3 dogs. When the Si...

  10. Hypoglycemic Activity Of Polygala arvensis In Normal And Alloxan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood glucose was estimated by the glucose oxidase method in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats before and 2h after the administration of drugs. The glycogen content of the liver, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm were estimated. It showed significant reduction ...

  11. No evidence for activated autophagy in left ventricular myocardium at early reperfusion with protection by remote ischemic preconditioning in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Gedik

    Full Text Available Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC by repeated brief limb ischemia/reperfusion reduces myocardial injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5 in left ventricular (LV myocardium at early reperfusion is associated with such protection. Autophagy, i.e., removal of dysfunctional cellular components through lysosomes, has been proposed as one mechanism of cardioprotection. Therefore, we analyzed whether or not the protection by RIPC is associated with activated autophagy.CABG patients were randomized to undergo RIPC (3×5 min blood pressure cuff inflation/5 min deflation or placebo (cuff deflated before skin incision (n = 10/10. Transmural myocardial biopsies were taken from the LV before cardioplegia (baseline and at early (5-10 min reperfusion. RIPC-induced protection was reflected by decreased serum troponin I concentration area under the curve (194±17 versus 709±129 ng/ml × 72 h, p = 0.002. Western blotting for beclin-1-phosphorylation and protein expression of autophagy-related gene 5-12 (ATG5-12 complex, light chain 3 (LC3, parkin, and p62 was performed. STAT3-, STAT5- and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2-phosphorylation was used as positive control to confirm signal activation by ischemia/reperfusion.Signals of all analyzed autophagy proteins did not differ between baseline and early reperfusion and not between RIPC and placebo. STAT5-phosphorylation was greater at early reperfusion only with RIPC (2.2-fold, p = 0.02. STAT3- and ERK1/2-phosphorylation were greater at early reperfusion with placebo and RIPC (≥2.7-fold versus baseline, p≤0.05.Protection through RIPC in patients undergoing CABG surgery does not appear to be associated with enhanced autophagy in LV myocardium at early reperfusion.

  12. Segmentation of left ventricle myocardium in porcine cardiac cine MR images using a hybrid of fully convolutional neural networks and convolutional LSTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Icke, Ilknur; Dogdas, Belma; Parimal, Sarayu; Sampath, Smita; Forbes, Joseph; Bagchi, Ansuman; Chin, Chih-Liang; Chen, Antong

    2018-03-01

    In the development of treatments for cardiovascular diseases, short axis cardiac cine MRI is important for the assessment of various structural and functional properties of the heart. In short axis cardiac cine MRI, Cardiac properties including the ventricle dimensions, stroke volume, and ejection fraction can be extracted based on accurate segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) myocardium. One of the most advanced segmentation methods is based on fully convolutional neural networks (FCN) and can be successfully used to do segmentation in cardiac cine MRI slices. However, the temporal dependency between slices acquired at neighboring time points is not used. Here, based on our previously proposed FCN structure, we proposed a new algorithm to segment LV myocardium in porcine short axis cardiac cine MRI by incorporating convolutional long short-term memory (Conv-LSTM) to leverage the temporal dependency. In this approach, instead of processing each slice independently in a conventional CNN-based approach, the Conv-LSTM architecture captures the dynamics of cardiac motion over time. In a leave-one-out experiment on 8 porcine specimens (3,600 slices), the proposed approach was shown to be promising by achieving average mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.84, Hausdorff distance (HD) of 6.35 mm, and average perpendicular distance (APD) of 1.09 mm when compared with manual segmentations, which improved the performance of our previous FCN-based approach (average mean DSC=0.84, HD=6.78 mm, and APD=1.11 mm). Qualitatively, our model showed robustness against low image quality and complications in the surrounding anatomy due to its ability to capture the dynamics of cardiac motion.

  13. Determination of Bupivacaine in Rat Myocardium by LC-MS/MS%大鼠心肌组织中布比卡因的LC-MS/MS测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贤亲; 刘乐; 陈莺; 陈丽梅; 林丹

    2009-01-01

    A LC-MS/MS method was established for the determination of bupivacaine in rat myocardium. A C18colunm was used with the mobile phase of methanol-0.1% formic acid solution (55 : 45) and lidocaine as the internal standard. Electrospray ionization (ESI) source was operated in positive ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The detected ions were m/z 289→140 for bupivacaine and m/z 285→86 for the internal standard. The calibration curve for bupivacaine was linear in the range of 0.01-20.0μg/g in myocardium. The recovery was 66.45%-74.47 % with the intra- and inter-day RSDs less than 7 %.%建立了液相色谱-串联质谱法测定大鼠心肌组织中的布比卡因.采用C18色谱柱,甲醇-0.1%甲酸溶液(55:45)为流动相,利多卡因为内标.采用正离子电喷雾离子源,多离子反应监测(MRM)方式,监测质核比m/z 289 →140(布比卡因)和m/z 285→86(内标).布比卡因在0.01~20μg/g浓度范围内线性关系良好,萃取回收率为66.4%~74.57%,日内和日间RSD均小于7%.

  14. Phenotypically heterogeneous podoplanin-expressing cell populations are associated with the lymphatic vessel growth and fibrogenic responses in the acutely and chronically infarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Maria; Cannatá, Antonio; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Rota, Marcello; Goichberg, Polina

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac lymphatic vasculature undergoes substantial expansion in response to myocardial infarction (MI). However, there is limited information on the cellular mechanisms mediating post-MI lymphangiogenesis and accompanying fibrosis in the infarcted adult heart. Using a mouse model of permanent coronary artery ligation, we examined spatiotemporal changes in the expression of lymphendothelial and mesenchymal markers in the acutely and chronically infarcted myocardium. We found that at the time of wound granulation, a three-fold increase in the frequency of podoplanin-labeled cells occurred in the infarcted hearts compared to non-operated and sham-operated counterparts. Podoplanin immunoreactivity detected LYVE-1-positive lymphatic vessels, as well as masses of LYVE-1-negative cells dispersed between myocytes, predominantly in the vicinity of the infarcted region. Podoplanin-carrying populations displayed a mesenchymal progenitor marker PDGFRα, and intermittently expressed Prox-1, a master regulator of the lymphatic endothelial fate. At the stages of scar formation and maturation, concomitantly with the enlargement of lymphatic network in the injured myocardium, the podoplanin-rich LYVE-1-negative multicellular assemblies were apparent in the fibrotic area, aligned with extracellular matrix deposits, or located in immediate proximity to activated blood vessels with high VEGFR-2 content. Of note, these podoplanin-containing cells acquired the expression of PDGFRβ or a hematoendothelial epitope CD34. Although Prox-1 labeling was abundant in the area affected by MI, the podoplanin-presenting cells were not consistently Prox-1-positive. The concordance of podoplanin with VEGFR-3 similarly varied. Thus, our data reveal previously unknown phenotypic and structural heterogeneity within the podoplanin-positive cell compartment in the infarcted heart, and suggest an alternate ability of podoplanin-presenting cardiac cells to generate lymphatic endothelium and pro

  15. Phenotypically heterogeneous podoplanin-expressing cell populations are associated with the lymphatic vessel growth and fibrogenic responses in the acutely and chronically infarcted myocardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cimini

    Full Text Available Cardiac lymphatic vasculature undergoes substantial expansion in response to myocardial infarction (MI. However, there is limited information on the cellular mechanisms mediating post-MI lymphangiogenesis and accompanying fibrosis in the infarcted adult heart. Using a mouse model of permanent coronary artery ligation, we examined spatiotemporal changes in the expression of lymphendothelial and mesenchymal markers in the acutely and chronically infarcted myocardium. We found that at the time of wound granulation, a three-fold increase in the frequency of podoplanin-labeled cells occurred in the infarcted hearts compared to non-operated and sham-operated counterparts. Podoplanin immunoreactivity detected LYVE-1-positive lymphatic vessels, as well as masses of LYVE-1-negative cells dispersed between myocytes, predominantly in the vicinity of the infarcted region. Podoplanin-carrying populations displayed a mesenchymal progenitor marker PDGFRα, and intermittently expressed Prox-1, a master regulator of the lymphatic endothelial fate. At the stages of scar formation and maturation, concomitantly with the enlargement of lymphatic network in the injured myocardium, the podoplanin-rich LYVE-1-negative multicellular assemblies were apparent in the fibrotic area, aligned with extracellular matrix deposits, or located in immediate proximity to activated blood vessels with high VEGFR-2 content. Of note, these podoplanin-containing cells acquired the expression of PDGFRβ or a hematoendothelial epitope CD34. Although Prox-1 labeling was abundant in the area affected by MI, the podoplanin-presenting cells were not consistently Prox-1-positive. The concordance of podoplanin with VEGFR-3 similarly varied. Thus, our data reveal previously unknown phenotypic and structural heterogeneity within the podoplanin-positive cell compartment in the infarcted heart, and suggest an alternate ability of podoplanin-presenting cardiac cells to generate lymphatic endothelium

  16. The structure of the conus arteriosus of the sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) heart: II. The myocardium, the subepicardium, and the conus-aorta transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icardo, José M; Colvee, Elvira; Cerra, Maria C; Tota, Bruno

    2002-12-01

    Sturgeons constitute a family of living "fossil" fish whose heart is related to that of other ancient fish and the elasmobranches. We have undertaken a systematic study of the structure of the sturgeon heart aimed at unraveling the relationship between the heart structure and the adaptive evolutionary changes. In a related paper, data were presented on the conus valves and the subendocardium. Here, the structure of the conus myocardium, the subepicardial tissue, and the conus-aorta transition were studied by conventional light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, actin localization by fluorescent phalloidin was used. The conus myocardium is organized into bundles whose spatial organization changes along the conus length. The variable orientation of the myocardial cell bundles may be effective in emptying the conus lumen during contraction and in preventing reflux of blood. Myocardial cell bundles are separated by loose connective tissue that contains collagen and elastin fibers, vessels, and extremely flat cells separating the cell bundles and enclosing blood vessels and collagen fibers. The ultrastructure of the myocardial cells was found to be very similar to that of other fish groups, suggesting that it is largely conservative. The subepicardium is characterized by the presence of nodular structures that contain lympho-hemopoietic (thymus-like) tissue in the young sturgeons and a large number of lymphocytes after the sturgeons reach sexual maturity. This tissue is likely implicated in the establishment and maintenance of the immune responses. The intrapericardial ventral aorta shows a middle layer of circumferentially oriented cells and internal and external layers with cells oriented longitudinally. Elastin fibers completely surround each smooth muscle cell, and the spaces between the different layers are occupied by randomly arranged collagen bundles. The intrapericardial segment of the ventral aorta is a true transitional segment

  17. Demonstration of disturbed free fatty acid metabolism of myocardium in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as measured with iodine-123-heptadecanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.T.; Mustonen, J.N.; Uusitupa, M.I.J.; Rautio, P.; Vanninen, E.; Laakso, M.; Laensimies, E.; Kuopio Central Hospital

    1991-01-01

    Myocardial free fatty acid metabolism and left ventricular function were evaluated in 15 middle-aged patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and in 8 healthy control subjects. The study subjects had no evidence of coronary heart disease on the basis of clinical history, exercise ECG or myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. During peak exercise, iodine-123 hepatadecanoic acid (HDA) was intravenously injected. Myocardial activity distribution of 123 I-HDA was measured 10, 30, and 50 min after exercise using single-photon emission tomography (SPET); and then further corrected by free 123 I-iodine. Venous blood samples were drawn for detecting the plasma activity of 123 I. The net extraction of 123 I-HDA into the myocardium was obtained by dividing the corrected tissue 123 I concentration by the integral of the plasma time activity curve. The net extraction was 0.40±0.06 min -1 (mean±SD) patients with NIDDM and 0.38±0.006 min -1 in control subjects (P>0.1), respectively. The faster elimination rate of 123 I-HDA was found in patients with NIDDM (0.029±0.008 min -1 ) than in control subjects (0.022±0.004 min - 1); P 123 I-HDA and the change of LVEF, as well as with exercise load (r=0.68; P<0.01). In conclusion, evidence of an increased fatty acid utilization and triglyceride synthesis rate was observed in the diabetic myocardium. (orig.)

  18. Amelioration of cardiac function and activation of anti-inflammatory vasoactive peptides expression in the rat myocardium by low level laser therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Trindade Manchini

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has been used as an anti-inflammatory treatment in several disease conditions, even when inflammation is a secondary consequence, such as in myocardial infarction (MI. However, the mechanism by which LLLT is able to protect the remaining myocardium remains unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that LLLT reduces inflammation after acute MI in female rats and ameliorates cardiac function. The potential participation of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS and Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS vasoactive peptides was also evaluated. LLLT treatment effectively reduced MI size, attenuated the systolic dysfunction after MI, and decreased the myocardial mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 in comparison to the non-irradiated rat tissue. In addition, LLLT treatment increased protein and mRNA levels of the Mas receptor, the mRNA expression of kinin B2 receptors and the circulating levels of plasma kallikrein compared to non-treated post-MI rats. On the other hand, the kinin B1 receptor mRNA expression decreased after LLLT. No significant changes were found in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the myocardial remote area between laser-irradiated and non-irradiated post-MI rats. Capillaries density also remained similar between these two experimental groups. The mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS was increased three days after MI, however, this effect was blunted by LLLT. Moreover, endothelial NOS mRNA content increased after LLLT. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx concentration was increased three days after MI in non-treated rats and increased even further by LLLT treatment. Our data suggest that LLLT diminishes the acute inflammation in the myocardium, reduces infarct size and attenuates left ventricle dysfunction post-MI and increases vasoactive peptides expression and nitric oxide (NO generation.

  19. Amelioration of Cardiac Function and Activation of Anti-Inflammatory Vasoactive Peptides Expression in the Rat Myocardium by Low Level Laser Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchini, Martha Trindade; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Feliciano, Regiane dos Santos; Santana, Eduardo Tadeu; Antônio, Ednei Luis; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo; Montemor, Jairo; Crajoinas, Renato Oliveira; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Silva, José Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used as an anti-inflammatory treatment in several disease conditions, even when inflammation is a secondary consequence, such as in myocardial infarction (MI). However, the mechanism by which LLLT is able to protect the remaining myocardium remains unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that LLLT reduces inflammation after acute MI in female rats and ameliorates cardiac function. The potential participation of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) and Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS) vasoactive peptides was also evaluated. LLLT treatment effectively reduced MI size, attenuated the systolic dysfunction after MI, and decreased the myocardial mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 in comparison to the non-irradiated rat tissue. In addition, LLLT treatment increased protein and mRNA levels of the Mas receptor, the mRNA expression of kinin B2 receptors and the circulating levels of plasma kallikrein compared to non-treated post-MI rats. On the other hand, the kinin B1 receptor mRNA expression decreased after LLLT. No significant changes were found in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the myocardial remote area between laser-irradiated and non-irradiated post-MI rats. Capillaries density also remained similar between these two experimental groups. The mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was increased three days after MI, however, this effect was blunted by LLLT. Moreover, endothelial NOS mRNA content increased after LLLT. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) concentration was increased three days after MI in non-treated rats and increased even further by LLLT treatment. Our data suggest that LLLT diminishes the acute inflammation in the myocardium, reduces infarct size and attenuates left ventricle dysfunction post-MI and increases vasoactive peptides expression and nitric oxide (NO) generation. PMID:24991808

  20. The amount of viable and dyssynchronous myocardium is associated with response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: initial clinical results using multiparametric ECG-gated [{sup 18}F]FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Sebastian; Uebleis, Christopher; Haug, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Schuessler, Franziska; Kaeaeb, Stefan; Estner, Heidi [University of Munich, Medical Department I, Munich (Germany); Van Kriekinge, Serge D.; Germano, Guido [UCLA, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles and David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hacker, Marcus [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Theraphy, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-15

    There is still a significant amount of patients who do not sufficiently respond to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Previous studies demonstrated that the amount of dyssynchronous myocardium was predictive of response to CRT. Otherwise, non-response is frequently associated with high amounts of scar tissue. The combination of these parameters might yield a more accurate prediction of response. We hypothesized that the probability of a CRT response increases with the presence of high amounts of ''viable and dyssynchronous'' myocardium. A total of 19 patients (17 male, 61 {+-} 10 years) underwent ECG-gated [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) myocardial positron emission tomography (PET) before CRT device implantation and were followed for 6 months. Response to CRT was defined as clinical improvement of at least one New York Heart Association (NYHA) class in combination with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) improvement of >5 %. Twelve responders (71 %) and seven non-responders (29 %) were identified. For each patient bullseye maps of FDG uptake and phase analysis were calculated (QPS/QGS 2012, Cedars-Sinai, Los Angeles, CA, USA) and fused. Amounts of myocardium representing ''viable and synchronous'', ''scar and synchronous'', viable and dyssynchronous or ''scar and dyssynchronous'' myocardium were quantified by planimetric measurements of the fused bullseye maps. Responders by definition showed significant decrease in NYHA class and significant increase of LVEF. Furthermore, a significantly higher amount of viable and dyssynchronous myocardium was found as compared to non-responders (21 {+-} 13 % vs 6 {+-} 5 %; p < 0.05). Combined assessment of myocardial viability and LV dyssynchrony is feasible using multiparametric [{sup 18}F]FDG PET and could improve conventional response prediction criteria for CRT. (orig.)

  1. Normal results of post-race thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in marathon runners with elevated serum MB creatine kinase levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, A.J.; Silverman, L.M.; Holman, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Elevated cardiac enzyme values in asymptomatic marathon runners after competition can arise from skeletal muscle through exertional rhabdomyolysis, silent injury to the myocardium, or a combined tissue source. Peak post-race levels of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase are similar to values in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Previously reported normal results of infarct-avid myocardial scintigraphy with technetium 99m pyrophosphate in runners after competition suggest a non-cardiac source but cannot exclude silent injury to the myocardium. Therefore, thallium 201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in runners immediately after competition together with determination of sequential cardiac enzyme levels. Among 15 runners tested, the average peak in serum MB creatine kinase 24 hours after the race was 128 IU/liter with a cumulative MB creatine kinase release of 117 IU/liter; these values are comparable to those in patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction. Thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphic results were normal in five runners randomly selected from those who volunteered for determination of sequential blood levels. It is concluded that elevations of serum MB creatine kinase in marathon runners arise from a skeletal muscle source and that thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy is useful to assess runners for myocardial injury when clinical questions arise

  2. Thallium-201 for myocardial imaging: appearance of the normal heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.J.; Bailey, I.; Strauss, H.W.; Rouleau, J.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Pitt, B.

    1976-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion images were obtained from 13 healthy adults after tracer administration both at rest and at maximal stress. On the rest-injected scan, tracer was seen in left ventricular myocardium, liver, and spleen. In two subjects with resting tachycardia, the right ventricular myocardium was slightly visualized after tracer injection at rest. When tracer was administered at stress, the left ventricular activity was more nearly homogeneous and the left ventricle was better defined on the scan. The left-ventricle-to-lung-background activity ratio increased from 2.4 at rest to 3.4 at stress. The right ventricular myocardium was seen on the stress-injected scan. Phantom studies, performed to define the optimum position for visualization of lesions, showed that small lesions were best defined when seen either en face or in tangent. Scans should be performed at stress whenever possible and multiple views are essential

  3. Bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina | Okeke | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior‑posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events ...

  4. Decoherence in Nearly-Isolated Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folk, J.; M. Marcus, C.; Harris jr, J.

    2000-01-01

    Decoherence in nearly-isolated GaAs quantum dots is investigated using the change in average Coulomb blockade peak height upon breaking time-reversal symmetry. The normalized change in average peak height approaches the predicted universal value of 1/4 at temperatures well below the single...

  5. Enumeration, Isolation and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For each mobile phone, two sterile swabs moistened with normal saline were ... antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS ... 28 isolates comprising of four genera of E. coli. 7(25.0%), S. ... personal mobile phones in some locations within Kano ... clothing, food and/or hands of the users (Uabol- .... Journal of Food Protection,.

  6. Total excitation of the isolated human heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durrer, D.; Dam, R.Th. van; Freud, G.E.; Janse, M.J.; Meijler, F.L.; Arzbaecher, R.C.

    To obtain information conceming the time course and instantaneous distribution of the excitatory process of the normal human healt, studies were made on isolated human hearts from seven individuals who died from various cerebral conditions, but who had no history of cardiac disease. Measurements

  7. Characterization of Proteus mirabilis isolates from broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Proteus mirabilis is ubiquitous in the environment and is regarded as a part of the normal flora in human gastrointestinal tract. However, this bacterium is also an opportunistic human pathogen that causes urinary tract infections. Recently, this microorganism has been isolated from m...

  8. Dimethoxyflavone isolated from the stem bark of Stereospermum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trihydroxy-3/-(8//-acetoxy-7//-methyloctyl)-5, 6-dimethoxyflavone, a flavonoid isolated from the stem bark of Stereospermum kunthianum. The antidiarrhoeal activity was evaluated using rodent models with diarrhoea. The normal intestinal transit, ...

  9. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mahmoud; Beer, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN), to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  10. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghandi

    Full Text Available Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN, to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  11. How do normal faults grow?

    OpenAIRE

    Blækkan, Ingvild; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher; Tvedt, Anette

    2018-01-01

    Faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length (isolated fault model), or by rapid length establishment and subsequent displacement accrual (constant-length fault model). To test the significance and applicability of these two models, we use time-series displacement (D) and length (L) data extracted for faults from nature and experiments. We document a range of fault behaviours, from sympathetic D-L fault growth (isolated growth) to sub-vertical D-L growth trajectorie...

  12. Cataplexy with Normal Sleep Studies and Normal CSF Hypocretin: An Explanation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakatos, Panagis; Leschziner, Guy

    2016-03-01

    Patients with narcolepsy usually develop excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) before or coincide with the occurrence of cataplexy, with the latter most commonly associated with low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 levels. Cataplexy preceding the development of other features of narcolepsy is a rare phenomenon. We describe a case of isolated cataplexy in the context of two non-diagnostic multiple sleep latency tests and normal CSF-hypocretin-1 levels (217 pg/mL) who gradually developed EDS and low CSF-hypocretin-1 (< 110 pg/mL). © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  13. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; univariate study; normalization models; stainless steel; standard error of prediction. Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their ...

  14. Optimum Shock Isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolotnik, Nikolai

    2001-01-01

    .... Several types of performance criteria for isolation are considered, the most important of which are the peak force transmitted to the body to be isolated and the maximum displacement of the body relative to the base...

  15. Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, J.P.W. van; Poolman, R.W.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based

  16. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  17. The N'ormal Distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An optimal way of choosing sample size in an opinion poll is indicated using the normal distribution. Introduction. In this article, the ubiquitous normal distribution is intro- duced as a convenient approximation for computing bino- mial probabilities for large values of n. Stirling's formula. • and DeMoivre-Laplace theorem ...

  18. Normal Science Education and Its Dangers: The Case of School Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Berry; De Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.; Pilot, Albert

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to solve the problem of hidden structure in school chemistry. Argues that normal chemistry education is isolated from common sense, everyday life and society, the history and philosophy of science, technology, school physics, and chemical research. (Author/CCM)

  19. Sensor fusion for active vibration isolation in precision equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjepkema, D.; van Dijk, Johannes; Soemers, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Sensor fusion is a promising control strategy to improve the performance of active vibration isolation systems that are used in precision equipment. Normally, those vibration isolation systems are only capable of realizing a low transmissibility. Additional objectives are to increase the damping

  20. Control of pre-isolators for gravitational wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C Y; Zhao, C; Chin, E J; Jacob, J; Li, D; Blair, D G

    2004-01-01

    An ultra-low frequency pre-isolator (PI) has been built by ACIGA for micro-seismic noise isolation and reduction of suspension chain resonant mode amplitudes. A multidimensional control system, based on digital signal processing, has been developed for position control and normal mode damping of the PI. In this paper, we demonstrate the successful control of the suspension system

  1. Functional response of white rats isolated heart to the stimulation of adrenergic receptors after gamma-irradiation in low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonenko, A.N.; Lobanok, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    It was investigated the effects of acute gamma-irradiation on bio mechanical activity of rats heart isolated by Langendorf's method in early and delayed terms after exposure to gamma-rays. Intra ventricle pressure and the rate of its growth, volumetric rate of coronal flow, frequency of heart contraction were registered. Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors was conducted by means of specific agonist mesatone and stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors was made by means of isoprenaline. The study has shown that acute irradiation of rats caused the decrease of both contractile ability and relaxation of myocardium in a 10 days after exposure. In delayed period bio mechanical activity of isolated heart was restored. Functional response of heart to the stimulation of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors was decreased in all terms of investigation

  2. Myocardial damage in successful vessel coronary angioplasty as assessed by creatinine kinase and its myocardium band isoenzyme levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.; Samor, N.A.; Kayani, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of myocardial damage in elective, successful, single vessel percutaneous coronary angioplasty by assessing myocardial band (MB), creatinine kinase levels and to find out the association of common modifiable risk factors with myocardial damage in patients undergoing single vessel coronary angioplasty. Fifty patients undergoing elective and successful single vessel percutaneous coronary angioplasty were evaluated with creatinine kinase and creatinine kinase MB levels before and after 8 hours and 1st day following coronary angioplasty. Studied variables included the length of stent deployed, maximum deployment pressure and total balloon inflation time, apart from hypertension, cholesterol level, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Out of 50 patients, 9 had raised creatinine kinase at 8 hours (18%) and 10 had raised creatinine kinase (20%) on 1st day following coronary angioplasty, 7 (14%) patients and 8 (16%) patients had raised creatinine kinase MB levels at 8 hours and 1st day following coronary angioplasty respectively. The rise of either was equal to or more than 3 times the normal limits. Modifiable risk factors, significantly associated with myocardial damage, were diabetes mellitus (p=0.006) and LDL levels (p=0.009) in patients undergoing single vessel coronary angioplasty. Successful elective, uncomplicated, single vessel coronary angioplasty resulted in some myocardial damage evident by mild rise in cardiac enzymes but rise of creatinine kinase MB above 3 times of normal, which signifies percutaneous coronary angioplasty-related myocardial infarction, was not seen. There was a significant association between diabetes mellitus, LDL levels and myocardial damage in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty but no significant association was found between hypertension, smoking and myocardial damage. (author)

  3. Fetal stem cells in combined treatment of chronic heart failure and their effect on morphofunctional parameters of the left ventricle myocardium and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klunnyk MO

    2014-08-01

    group. In both groups, reactive anxiety levels dropped after month 3 upon FSCT. FSCT resulted in statistically significant improvements in the contractile activity of the left ventricular myocardium, in cognitive functions, and in the emotional state of CHF patients. Conclusion: The evidence for significant improvements in the contractile function of the left ventricle myocardium, as well as in patients' cognitive and emotional states, was observed in CHF patients after combined treatment with FSC. Keywords: heart failure, cognitive, emotional impairment, fetal stem cells, left ventricle remodeling

  4. Assessment of 123I-β-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial scintigraphy in patients of chronic right ventricular overload. Fatty acid metabolism in right ventricular myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutoh, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    An investigation on the right ventricular pressure level and the abnormalities in the fatty acid metabolism of myocardium was made using 123 I-βmethyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial SPECT in patients with chronic right ventricular overloading. Twenty patients who presented with right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) of 35 mmHg or more were used as the subjects. Dual myocardial SPECT with 201 TlCl (Tl) and BMIPP was carried out for the subjects and RVc/LVc, a ratio of radioactivity count incorporated in the right ventricular free wall to the left one was determined for Tl and BMIPP. And the correlations between RVc/LVc and RVSP, and RVc/LVc and RVSP/LVSP were examined. The subjects were classified into 3 groups based on the RVSP levels and the count ratio, BMIPP/Tl was compared among the three groups. With respect of Tl uptake, there were significant, positive correlations between RVc/LVc and RVSP (correlation coefficient r=0.51, p<0.05) and between RVc/LVc and RVSP/LVSP (correlation coefficient r=0.59, p<0.01). On the other hand, no significant correlation was found between them with respect of the uptake of BMIPP. The BMIPP/Tl ratio in the group with higher than 80 mmHg of RVSP was 0.82±0.06, which was significantly lower than the ratio's for two groups of less than 80 mmHg; 0.91±0.07 and 0.98±0.04 in the group with 35-49 and 50-79 mmHg of RVSP, respectively. These results show that when compared with BMIPP, Tl is superior for the estimation of right ventricular pressure. For the patients with right ventricular overloading, it was suggested that when RVSP reaches 80 mmHg or more, there appear some disorders in the fatty acid metabolism in the right ventricular myocardium. (author)

  5. Ultrasound-targeted transfection of tissue-type plasminogen activator gene carried by albumin nanoparticles to dog myocardium to prevent thrombosis after heart mechanical valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ji Jun, Ji Shang-Yi, Yang Jian-An, He Xia, Yang Xiao-Han, Ling Wen-Ping, Chen Xiao-LingDepartment of Pathology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Shenzhen Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: There are more than 300,000 prosthetic heart valve replacements each year worldwide. These patients are faced with a higher risk of thromboembolic events after heart valve surgery and long-term or even life-long anticoagulative and antiplatelet therapies are necessary. Some severe complications such as hemorrhaging or rebound thrombosis can occur when the therapy ceases. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA is a thrombolytic agent. One of the best strategies is gene therapy, which offers a local high expression of t-PA over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhaging and local rebound thrombosis. There are some issues with t-PA that need to be addressed: currently, there is no up-to-date report on how the t-PA gene targets the heart in vivo and the gene vector for t-PA needs to be determined.Aims: To fabricate an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent and investigate its targeting effect on prevention of thrombosis after heart mechanic valve replacement under therapeutic ultrasound.Methods: A dog model of mechanical tricuspid valve replacement was constructed. A highly expressive t-PA gene plasmid was constructed and packaged by nanoparticles prepared with bovine serum albumin. This nanopackaged t-PA gene plasmid was further cross-linked to ultrasonic microbubbles prepared with sucrose and bovine serum albumin to form the ultrasonic-targeted agent for t-PA gene transfection. The agent was given intravenously followed by a therapeutic ultrasound treatment (1 MHz, 1.5 w/cm2, 10 minutes of the heart soon after valve replacement had been performed. The expression of t-PA in myocardium was detected with multiclonal antibodies to t-PA by the indirect immunohistochemical method

  6. Evaluation of adenosine preconditioning with 99mTc-His10-annexin V in a porcine model of myocardium ischemia and reperfusion injury: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Fei; Fang Wei; Wang Feng; Hua Zichun; Wang Zizheng; Yang Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin V for the detection of acute myocardial cell death and to assess the effect of adenosine preconditioning in a porcine model of myocardium ischemia and reperfusion injury (RI). Materials and Methods: 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin V was prepared by one-step direct labeling, and RCP and radiostability were tested. The binding of 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin V to apoptosis was validated in vitro using camptothecin-induced Jurkat cells. In vivo biodistribution was determined in mice by the dissection method. Ischemia of 20-30 min was induced by balloon occlusion of the epicardial coronary artery of the porcine model (n=14). Adenosine was infused intravenously in six pigs before coronary occlusion. 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin V (n=12) was injected intravenously at 1 h after reperfusion. SPECT/CT was acquired at 3 h postinjection. Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with 99m Tc-MIBI was also performed 1 day after His 10 -annexin V imaging. Cardiac tissues were analyzed postmortem using hematoxylin-and-eosin and TUNEL staining. Caspase-3 activity was measured to confirm the presence of apoptosis. Results: 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin V had a RCP >98% and high stability 2 h after radiolabeling; it could bind to apoptotic cells with high affinity. Biodistribution of 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin V showed a predominant uptake in the kidney and relatively low uptake in the myocardium, liver and gastrointestinal tract; rapid clearance from blood and kidney was observed. In the untreated group, intense uptake of His 10 -annexin V was visualized in the defect which was shown in MPI, whereas in the adenosine group a mild uptake of 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin was found in the risk area which showed no defects in the 99m Tc-MIBI image. TUNEL staining and activated caspase-3 confirmed the ongoing apoptosis in RI. Adenosine preconditioning significantly diminished the level of apoptosis. Uptake of His 10 -annexin V in RI correlated

  7. Effects of high-intensity interval versus continuous moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on apoptosis, oxidative stress and metabolism of the infarcted myocardium in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Wang, Li; Wang, Changying; Yang, Yuan; Hu, Dayi; Ding, Rongjing

    2015-08-01

    The optimal aerobic exercise training (AET) protocol for patients following myocardial infarction (MI) has remained under debate. The present study therefore aimed to compare the effects of continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) and high-intensity interval training (HIT) on cardiac functional recovery, and to investigate the potential associated mechanisms in a post-MI rat model. Female Sprague Dawley rats (8-10 weeks old) undergoing MI or sham surgery were subsequently submitted to CMT or HIT, or kept sedentary for eight weeks. Prior to and following AET, echocardiographic parameters and exercise capacity of the rats were measured. Western blotting was used to evaluate the levels of apoptosis and associated signaling pathway protein expression. The concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress were also determined by ELISA assay. Messenger (m)RNA levels and activity of the key enzymes for glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, as well as the rate of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, were also measured. Compared with the MI group, exercise capacity and cardiac function were significantly improved following AET, particularly following HIT. Left ventricular ejection fraction and fraction shortening were further improved in the MI-HIT group in comparison to that of the MI-CMT group. The two forms of AET almost equally attenuated apoptosis of the post-infarction myocardium. CMT and HIT also alleviated oxidative stress by decreasing the concentration of malondialdehyde and increasing the concentration of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In particular, HIT induced a greater increase in the concentration of GPx than that of CMT. AET, and HIT in particular, significantly increased the levels of mRNA and the maximal activity of phosphofructokinase-1 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, as well as the maximal ratio of ATP synthesis. In addition, compared with the MI group, the expression of signaling proteins PI3K, Akt, p38mapk and AMPK

  8. The influence of the hypoxia on bio electric activity of myocardium cells after acute gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malykhina, A.P.; Lobanok, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate bio electric activity of the heart after acute gamma-irradiation and the hypoxia. Female rats (5 - 6 month old) was acute irradiated at 0,5 Gy dose (dose rate 0,1 mGy/sec) and was examined in a 10, 30, 90 and 180 days later. Electrophysiological study of the isolated right rat auricle was conducted by means of microelectrode registration of intracellular bio electric activity. It was shown that gamma-irradiation at 0,5 Gy resulted in decrease of amplitude and duration of action potentials of right auricle cells, attenuation of the dependence of the electrophysiological characteristics upon the stimulation frequency. Exposure of the rats to acute gamma-irradiation leaded to the depression of the interval of the cardio myocyte reaction on the hypoxia. The revealed post-radiation changes determined the reduction in function resistance of heart cells bio electric activity and can promote the initiation of arrhythmias

  9. Action of iloprost and PGE1 on global ischemic and reperfused myocardium: a 31P-NMR-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissarek, M; Gründer, W; Keller, T; Goos, H; Mest, H J; Krause, E G

    1988-01-01

    The influence of iloprost, PGE1 and of the combined application of iloprost and PGE1 on high energy phosphate contents was investigated in isolated rat hearts perfused aerob at 37 degrees C in Langendorff mode. Changes in creatine phosphate, ATP and inorganic phosphate were registered during 20 minutes of global ischemia and 56 minutes of reperfusion with 31P-NMR-spectroscopic methods starting drug application prior to ischemia simultaneously with onset of heart perfusion. Most effective in preservation of high energy phosphates was the combined application of PGE1 and iloprost resulting in a creatine phosphate/inorganic phosphate ratio of 103.2 +/- 30.9% of pre-ischemia values compared to 52.5 +/- 6.1% in control group without drug application 0-5 minutes after onset of reperfusion, 148.8 +/- 24.8% vs 78.8 +/- 15.2% at 6-11 minutes of reperfusion and 116.6 +/- 16% vs 68.9 +/- 12.7% at 12-17 minutes of reperfusion. The same trend was observed employing ATP/inorganic phosphate ratio. The improved energy state in reperfused hearts following application of PGE1 and iloprost in combination is presumed to be supported by a reduction of the loss of high energy phosphates (HEP) during global ischemia and by a cytoprotective effect of iloprost immediately after starting reperfusion.

  10. Evaluation of myocardial distribution of iodine-123 labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Tamaki, Nagara; Shirakawa, Seishi; Fujita, Toru; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Junji; Nohara, Ryuji; Sasayama, Shigetake; Nishioka, Kenya

    1994-01-01

    The normal pattern of the myocardial sympathetic innervation was studied in 15 subjects using gamma camera scintigraphy with iodine-123 labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG). Seven younger subjects (mean age 24.6±3.6) and eight older patients (mean age 60.9±8.4) with normal cardiac function were studied. Planar imaging was obtained at 15 minutes and 3 hours, and SPECT was also performed 3 hours after injection of 111 MBq (3 mCi) of MIBG. The younger subjects showed higher the heart to mediastinum count ratio (2.91±0.25 vs. 2.67±0.34; p<0.05) and higher inferior to anterior count ratio (1.19±0.15 vs. 0.97±0.13; p<0.05) on the late scan. The bull's-eye polar map also differences in counts in the mid-inferior (p<0.005), basal-inferior (p<0.005) and mid-lateral sectors (p<0.01). But there was no significant difference in MIBG washout rate from myocardium between two groups. These data suggest that there is a difference of the cardiac sympathetic innervation, with older subjects having fewer sympathetic nerve terminals, especially in inferior than younger subjects. We conclude that the age difference in sympathetic nerve function should be considered in the interpretation of MIBG scan. (author)

  11. Revascularização total do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea: cinco anos de experiência Total myocardium revascularization without extracorporeal circulation: five-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Milani

    2005-03-01

    sugerem que a operação para revascularização do miocárdio é segura e eficaz, podendo ser aplicada em todos os pacientes que necessitem de cirurgia coronariana com baixos índices de complicações e mortalidade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immediate postoperative results of off-pump myocardium revascularization surgery by analyzing complications and mortality. METHOD: A total of 1440 patients were submitted to off-pump myocardium revascularization. The surgical technique is consisted in proximal occlusion of the approached artery, the application of the LIMA graft in the posterior pericardial deflection and stabilization of the target artery with a suction stabilizer. The distal anastomoses were performed first. RESULTS: Among the patients evaluated, 924 were male and 516 were female,with a mean age of 63.12 ± 8.76 years. The ejection fraction was normal in 749 patients, 740 (51.4% patients had suffered previous myocardial infarction and 687 (47.6% patients were in functional class III or IV. The mean EuroSCORE was 4.93 ± 3.32. The mean number of dial anastomoses was 3.12 ± 1.23 per patient. A total of 1173 (81.5% patients remained less than 12 hours on mechanical ventilation and among them, 888 (61.7% remained for less than six hours. The stay in the ICU was of one night for 330 (22.8% patients, for two nights for 930 (64.6% patients and 182 (12.4% patients remained three or more nights. In regards to complications, three (0.2% patients presented with renal insufficiency, six (0.4% patients suffered stroke, 19 (1.3% patients were reoperated for bleeding, 19 (1.3% patients had mediastinitis, 18 (1.25% patients suffered severe myocardial infarction and 212 (14.7% presented atrial fibrillation. There were 50 (3.5% deaths, 29 (2.5% of them being among the 1148 operated electively, nine (4.7% among 190 patients submitted to coronary re-operation and 12 (11.7% among 102 patients undergoing emergency operations. CONCLUSION: With the evolution of biomedical technological

  12. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  13. The normal and pathological language

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Luis D.

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary development of normal and pathological psychology has achieved in recent decades, thanks to the dual method of objective observation and oral survey enabled the researcher spirit of neuro-psychiatrist penetrate the intimate mechanism of the nervous system whose supreme manifestation is thought. It is normal psychology explaining the complicated game of perceptions: their methods of transmission, their centers of projection, its transformations and its synthesis to construct ...

  14. Is normal science good science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Kępińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Normal science” is a concept introduced by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962. In Kuhn’s view, normal science means “puzzle solving”, solving problems within the paradigm—framework most successful in solving current major scientific problems—rather than producing major novelties. This paper examines Kuhnian and Popperian accounts of normal science and their criticisms to assess if normal science is good. The advantage of normal science according to Kuhn was “psychological”: subjective satisfaction from successful “puzzle solving”. Popper argues for an “intellectual” science, one that consistently refutes conjectures (hypotheses and offers new ideas rather than focus on personal advantages. His account is criticized as too impersonal and idealistic. Feyerabend’s perspective seems more balanced; he argues for a community that would introduce new ideas, defend old ones, and enable scientists to develop in line with their subjective preferences. The paper concludes that normal science has no one clear-cut set of criteria encompassing its meaning and enabling clear assessment.

  15. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  16. Isolation and screening phosphate solubilizers from composts as biofertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Latiffah Norddin; Abdul Razak Ruslan

    2006-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizers are miroorganisms that able to solubilize insoluble inorganic phosphate compounds or hydrolyze organic phosphate to inorganic P. Therefore make the P to be available for plant and consequently enhance plant growth and yield. Recently, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms has been shown to play an important role in the biofertilizer industry. Fifty-one bacterial were isolated from eleven composts. Most of the phosphate solubilizers were isolated from natural farming composted compost and normal composting compost. This shows that both of these composts are more suitable to use for phosphate solubilizer isolation compare commercial composts. Fourteen of the isolates were found to be phosphate solubilizers. These isolates produced a clear zone on the phosphate agar plates, showing their potential as biofertilizer. AP3 was significantly produced the largest clear zone compared with other isolates. This indicates that isolate AP 3 could be a good phosphate solubilizer. Thus, their effectiveness in the greenhouse and field should be evaluated. (Author)

  17. Robust assessment of the transmural extent of myocardial infarction in late gadolinium-enhanced MRI studies using appropriate angular and circumferential subdivision of the myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachenoura, Nadjia; Herment, Alain; Frouin, Frederique; Redheuil, Alban; Mousseaux, Elie

    2008-01-01

    A computer-assisted method is proposed to estimate transmural extent of myocardial infarction. In 40 patients with chronic myocardial infarction and 3 control subjects, late gadolinium enhancement images were acquired with magnetic resonance imaging. Segmental infarct transmural extent was visually assessed by two experts on a 5-point scale. A fuzzy c-means algorithm was applied on both the cavity and myocardium to estimate an enhancement index for 12 sub-regions of each segment. A threshold was defined on a training database (n=29) to establish the transmurality extent of each sub-segment and was applied to the validation database (n=14). Inter-observer reproducibility reached an absolute agreement (Aa) of 85% and a kappa value (κ) of 0.83 when considering the whole training database; Aa decreased to 62% and κ to 0.68 when excluding homogeneous segments. On the validation database, segments were subdivided into three angular sub-segments. Then, inter-observer visual reproducibility reached Aa of 93% and κ of 0.92. Moreover, the absolute comparison of each expert with the computer-assisted method yielded Aa higher than 88% and κ higher than 0.86. The computer-assisted method quantifies infarct transmurality without defining remote and infarcted regions, and the transmural extent is accurately characterized when dividing each segment into three angular sub-segments. (orig.)

  18. Impact of low signal intensity assessed by cine magnetic resonance imaging on detection of poorly viable myocardium in patients with prior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Shingo; Tanimoto, Takashi; Orii, Makoto; Hirata, Kumiko; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Yamano, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Kitabata, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Takashi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-05-13

    Late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI) has been established as a modality to detect myocardial infarction (MI). However, the use of gadolinium contrast is limited in patients with advanced renal dysfunction. Although the signal intensity (SI) of infarct area assessed by cine MRI is low in some patients with prior MI, the prevalence and clinical significance of low SI has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate how low SI assessed by cine MRI may relate to the myocardial viability in patients with prior MI. Fifty patients with prior MI underwent both cine MRI and LGE-MRI. The left ventricle was divided into 17 segments. The presence of low SI and the wall motion score (WMS) of each segment were assessed by cine MRI. The transmural extent of infarction was evaluated by LGE-MRI. LGE was detected in 329 of all 850 segments (39%). The low SI assessed by cine MRI was detected in 105 of 329 segments with LGE (32%). All segments with low SI had LGE. Of all 329 segments with LGE, the segments with low SI showed greater transmural extent of infarction (78 [72 - 84] % versus 53 [38 - 72] %, P cine MRI may be effective for detecting poorly viable myocardium in patients with prior MI.

  19. Effect of decimeter waves on functional state of cardiovascular system, some biochemical and immunological indices of myocardium infarction patients during convalescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokina, E.I.; Poshkus, N.B.; Tupitsina, Yu.Yu.; Volkova, L.P.; Shubina, A.V.; Krasnikov, V.E.

    An attempt was made to determine optimal localization for the action of decimeter waves (DMW) and its intensity, and to evaluate the action of DMW on the functions of the cardiovascular system. Clinical biochemical and immunological indices were determined in myocardium infarction patients during the early convalescent period. The study was carried out on 186 male patients 47.5 years old on the average, 4 to 10 weeks after infarction. When applied at the same location, no significant differences could be observed in reflex reactions or in therapeutic effect when a 20 or 40 Vt intensity was applied. Considerable differences were seen in relationship to the location of applied DMW. Optimal results were obtained with 40 Vt intensity and D/sub I/-D/sub IV/ localization. The effect of DMW through segmental-vegetative apparatus gave more pronounced results than through the endocrine system or through peripheral vessels. DMW applied under such conditions optimized reparatory processes in cardiac muscle and improved immunological reactivity of the organism. 9 references.

  20. Capillary permeability of 99mTc-DTPA and blood flow rate in the human myocardium determined by intracoronary bolus injection and residue detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Efsen, F; Haunsø, S

    1992-01-01

    .7 ml.(100 g.min)-1 (SD 13.0). Similar values of blood flow rate, capillary extraction fraction and the PS product were determined in 6 patients with localized coronary atheroma without hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis (25-50% luminal narrowing). The values for the regional......The aims of the present study were to quantitate blood flow rate and capillary permeability of 99mTc-DTPA in the human myocardium and to assess whether capillary permeability is influenced by the presence of small degree atherosclerotic lesions. Myocardial blood flow rate and capillary permeability......, a mean value of the capillary permeability-surface area (PS) product of 54.0 ml.(100 g.min)-1 (SD 13.0) was determined from a capillary extraction of 55.0% (SD 9.4%) and a regional myocardial plasma flow rate of 74.6 ml.(100 g.min)-1 (SD 6.3) equivalent with a regional myocardial blood flow rate of 121...

  1. Left Ventricle: Fully Automated Segmentation Based on Spatiotemporal Continuity and Myocardium Information in Cine Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (LV-FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CMR quantification of LV chamber volumes typically and manually defines the basal-most LV, which adds processing time and user-dependence. This study developed an LV segmentation method that is fully automated based on the spatiotemporal continuity of the LV (LV-FAST. An iteratively decreasing threshold region growing approach was used first from the midventricle to the apex, until the LV area and shape discontinued, and then from midventricle to the base, until less than 50% of the myocardium circumference was observable. Region growth was constrained by LV spatiotemporal continuity to improve robustness of apical and basal segmentations. The LV-FAST method was compared with manual tracing on cardiac cine MRI data of 45 consecutive patients. Of the 45 patients, LV-FAST and manual selection identified the same apical slices at both ED and ES and the same basal slices at both ED and ES in 38, 38, 38, and 41 cases, respectively, and their measurements agreed within -1.6±8.7 mL, -1.4±7.8 mL, and 1.0±5.8% for EDV, ESV, and EF, respectively. LV-FAST allowed LV volume-time course quantitatively measured within 3 seconds on a standard desktop computer, which is fast and accurate for processing the cine volumetric cardiac MRI data, and enables LV filling course quantification over the cardiac cycle.

  2. [BETA-ADRENERGIC REGULATION OF THE ADENYLYL CYCLASE SIGNALING SYSTEM IN MYOCARDIUM AND BRAIN OF RATS WITH OBESITY AND TYPES 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND THE EFFECT OF LONG-TERM INTRANASAL INSULIN TREATMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, L A; Sharova, T S; Pertseva, M N; Shpakov, A O

    2015-01-01

    The stimulating effect of norepinephrine, isoproterenol and selective β-adrenoceptor (β3-AR) agonists BRL 37344 and CL 316.243 on the adenylyl cyclase signaling system (ACSS) in the brain and myocardium of young and mature rats (disease induction at 2 and 4 months, respectively) with experimental obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and the influence of long-term treatment of animals with intranasal insulin (I-I) were studied. The AC stimulatory effects of β-agonist isoproterenol in animals with obesity and DM2 was shown to be practically unchanged. The respective effects of norepinephrine on the AC activity were attenuated in the brain of young and mature rats and in the myocardium if mature rats, and the I-I treatment led to their partial recovery. In the brain and myocardium of mature rats with obesity and DM2, the enhancement of the AC stimulatory effects of β3-AR agonists was observed, white in young rats the influence of the same pathological conditions was lacking. The I-I treatment decreased the AC stimulatory effects of β3-agonists to their levels in the control. Since functional disruption of the adrenergic agonist-sensitive ACSS can lead to metabolic syndrome and DM2, the recovery of this system by the I-I treatment offers one of the ways to correct these diseases and their complications in the nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  3. Mutation and premating isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  4. Physics in isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    In late May, about 330 physicists made their way up to isolated and beautiful Lake Louise high in the Canadian Rockies about 100 miles west of Calgary in a second effort to increase interactions between particle and nuclear physicists. The conference series aims to foster exciting and diverse physics by bringing the different physicists together somewhere which is so isolated that they must interact with each other. The formula worked very well and isolated Lake Louise was a huge success

  5. Physics in isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-09-15

    In late May, about 330 physicists made their way up to isolated and beautiful Lake Louise high in the Canadian Rockies about 100 miles west of Calgary in a second effort to increase interactions between particle and nuclear physicists. The conference series aims to foster exciting and diverse physics by bringing the different physicists together somewhere which is so isolated that they must interact with each other. The formula worked very well and isolated Lake Louise was a huge success.

  6. Positive inotropic effects of RP 62719, a new pure class III antiarrhythmic agent, on guinea pig myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beregi, J P; Escande, D; Coudray, N; Mery, P; Mestre, M; Chemla, D; Lecarpentier, Y

    1992-12-01

    The mechanical effects of RP 62719 [(-)1-[-2-(3,4-dihydro-2H-1- benzopyran-4-yl)ethyl]-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-piperidine] were tested in vitro on guinea pig left ventricular papillary muscle. RP 62719 is a novel pure class III antiarrhythmic agent known to prolong the cardiac action potential duration by selectively blocking the inward rectifying K+ current. Mechanical parameters were determined from contraction and relaxation phases under isotonic and isometric conditions. At a concentration of 0.02 microM, RP 62719 did not produce significant effects on inotropy or lusitropy. At 0.2 and 2 microM, the drug improved contraction under both heavy and low loading conditions, as evidenced by a 30% increase in maximum unloaded shortening velocity (Vmax, P delta L, P force normalized per cross-sectional area (AF/s, P force derivative per mm2 (+dF/s, P force derivative per mm2 (-dF/s, P < .001). At a higher concentration (20 microM), effects of RP 62719 on inotropy and lusitropy were less marked, thus accounting for the bell-shaped form of the dose-response curve. An increase in the extracellular Ca++ concentration from 2.5 to 3.75 mM improved inotropy to a similar extent (+30-50%) as did 2 microM RP 62719. However, lusitropy and mechanical coupling between contraction and relaxation were not modified in the same proportion under RP 62719 and under 3.75 mM Ca++.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Precaval retropancreatic space: Normal anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Myung Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    The authors defined precaval retropancreatic space as the space between pancreatic head with portal vein and IVC and analyzed the CT findings of this space to know the normal structures and size in this space. We evaluated 100 cases of normal abdominal CT scan to find out normal anatomic structures of precaval retropancreatic space retrospectively. We also measured the distance between these structures and calculated the minimum, maximum and mean values. At the splenoportal confluence level, normal structures between portal vein and IVC were vessel (21%), lymph node (19%), and caudate lobe of liver (2%) in order of frequency. The maximum AP diameter of portocaval lymph node was 4 mm. Common bile duct (CBD) was seen in 44% and the diameter was mean 3 mm and maximum 11 mm. CBD was located in extrapancreatic (75%) and lateral (60.6%) to pancreatic head. At IVC-left renal vein level, the maximum distance between CBD and IVC was 5 mm and the structure between posterior pancreatic surface and IVC was only fat tissue. Knowledge of these normal structures and measurement will be helpful in differentiating pancreatic mass with retropancreatic mass such as lymphadenopathy.

  8. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Profile of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease, Normal and Impaired Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.V. Cherniavska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to conduct the comparative analysis of the profile of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and normal either impaired carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and methods. One hundred and forty two patients were observed. In order to estimate the rate of different forms of CHD depending on the state of carbohydrate metabolism such groups were formed: the first group consisted of 83 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, the second group involved 34 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, the third group consisted of 25 patients with normal carbohydrate metabolism. The ischemic changes of myocardium were detected by ambulatory ECG monitoring with the obligatory achievement of submaximal heart rate during the research. Results. Silent myocardial ischemia was educed in 19 (22.9 % patients with type 2 DM, in 3 (8.8 % persons with IGT and in 2 (8.0 % patients with normal carbohydrate metabolism. Smoking, burdened heredity, violation in the haemostatic system more often occurred in the group of patients with type 2 DM and silent myocardial ischemia in comparison with the patients with type 2 DM without CHD. The profile of general population cardiovascular risk factors in patients with CHD and type 2 DM belongs to the most unfavorable. At the same time for patients with early violations of carbohydrate metabolism and normal carbohydrate metabolism such profile statistically does not differentiate meaningfully. Conclusions. Patients with type 2 DM and silent myocardial ischemia as compared to patients with type 2 DM without CHD have more expressed violations of indexes of general population cardiovascular risk factors for certain.

  10. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  11. CT and MRI normal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.

    1998-01-01

    This book gives answers to questions frequently heard especially from trainees and doctors not specialising in the field of radiology: Is that a normal finding? How do I decide? What are the objective criteria? The information presented is three-fold. The normal findings of the usual CT and MRI examinations are shown with high-quality pictures serving as a reference, with inscribed important additional information on measures, angles and other criteria describing the normal conditions. These criteria are further explained and evaluated in accompanying texts which also teach the systematic approach for individual picture analysis, and include a check list of major aspects, as a didactic guide for learning. The book is primarily intended for students, radiographers, radiology trainees and doctors from other medical fields, but radiology specialists will also find useful details of help in special cases. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Marrow transfusions into normal recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.

    1983-01-01

    During the past several years we have explored the transfusion of bone marrow into normal nonirradiated mice. While transfused marrow proliferates readily in irradiated animals, only minimal proliferation takes place in nonirradiated recipients. It has generally been assumed that this was due to the lack of available proliferative sites in recipients with normal marrow. Last year we were able to report that the transfusion of 200 million bone marrow cells (about 2/3 of the total complement of marrow cells of a normal mouse) resulted in 20% to 25% of the recipient's marrow being replaced by donor marrow. Thus we can now study the behavior of animals that have been transfused (donor) and endogenous (recipient) marrow cells, although none of the tissues of either donor or recipient have been irradiated. With these animals we hope to investigate the nature of the peculiar phenomenon of serial exhaustion of marrow, also referred to as the limited self-replicability of stem cells

  13. The construction of normal expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    The gradual upward changes of standards in normal everyday life have significant environmental implications, and it is therefore important to study how these changes come about. The intention of the article is to analyze the social construction of normal expectations through a case study. The case...... concerns the present boom in bathroom renovations in Denmark, which offers an excellent opportunity to study the interplay between a wide variety of consumption drivers and social changes pointing toward long-term changes of normal expectations regarding bathroom standards. The study is problemoriented...... and transdisciplinary and draws on a wide range of sociological, anthropological, and economic theories. The empirical basis comprises a combination of statistics, a review of magazine and media coverage, visits to exhibitions, and qualitative interviews. A variety of consumption drivers are identified. Among...

  14. Normalized cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  15. Random Generators and Normal Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David H.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to the authors' previous chaotic-dynamical model for random digits of fundamental constants, we investigate a complementary, statistical picture in which pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) are central. Some rigorous results are achieved: We establish b-normality for constants of the form $\\sum_i 1/(b^{m_i} c^{n_i})$ for certain sequences $(m_i), (n_i)$ of integers. This work unifies and extends previously known classes of explicit normals. We prove that for coprime $b,c>1$ the...