WorldWideScience

Sample records for normal hearing group

  1. Brainstem auditory evoked response characteristics in normal-hearing subjects with chronic tinnitus and in non-tinnitus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Nemati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: While most of the people with tinnitus have some degrees of hearing impairment, a small percent of patients admitted to ear, nose and throat clinics or hearing evaluation centers are those who complain of tinnitus despite having normal hearing thresholds. This study was performed to better understanding of the reasons of probable causes of tinnitus and to investigate possible changes in the auditory brainstem function in normal-hearing patients with chronic tinnitus.Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study, 52 ears (26 with and 26 without tinnitus were examined. Components of the auditory brainstem response (ABR including wave latencies and wave amplitudes were determined in the two groups and analyzed using appropriate statistical methods.Results: The mean differences between the absolute latencies of waves I, III and V was less than 0.1 ms between the two groups that was not statistically significant. Also, the interpeak latency values of waves I-III, III-V and I-V in both groups had no significant difference. Only, the V/I amplitude ratio in the tinnitus group was significantly higher (p=0.04.Conclusion: The changes observed in amplitude of waves, especially in the latter ones, can be considered as an indication of plastic changes in neuronal activity and its possible role in generation of tinnitus in normal-hearing patients.

  2. Low empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (preadolescents compared to normal hearing controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk P Netten

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (preadolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy.The study group (mean age 11.9 years consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children's level of empathy, their attendance to others' emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior.Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children.Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships.

  3. Low empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Anouk P; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Briaire, Jeroen J; Frijns, Johan H M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy. The study group (mean age 11.9 years) consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids) and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children's level of empathy, their attendance to others' emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior. Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported) language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children. Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships.

  4. Subjective Evaluation of Sound Quality for Normal-hearing and Hearing-i,paired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Bramsløw

    1992-01-01

    11 hearing-impaired (HI) and 12 normal-hearing (NH) subjects have performed sound quality ratings on 6 perceptual scales (Loudness, Clarity, Sharpness, Fullness, Spaciousness and Overall judgement). The signals for the rating experiment consisted of running speech and music with or without......, but the normal-hearing group was slightly more reliable. There were significant differences between stimuli and between subjects, with stimuli affecting the ratings the most. Normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects showed similar trends, but normal-hearing listeners were generally more sensitive, i...

  5. Low empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, A.P.; Rieffe, C.; Theunissen, S.C.P.M.; Soede, W.; Dirks, E.; Briaire, J.J.; Frijns, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy. Methods The study group (mean age

  6. Low Empathy in Deaf and Hard of Hearing (Pre)Adolescents Compared to Normal Hearing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Anouk P.; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy. Methods The study group (mean age 11.9 years) consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids) and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children’s level of empathy, their attendance to others’ emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior. Results Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported) language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children. Conclusions Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships. PMID:25906365

  7. Binaural pitch perception in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    The effects of hearing impairment on the perception of binaural-pitch stimuli were investigated. Several experiments were performed with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners, including detection and discrimination of binaural pitch, and melody recognition using different types of binaural...... pitches. For the normal-hearing listeners, all types of binaural pitches could be perceived immediately and were musical. The hearing-impaired listeners could be divided into three groups based on their results: (a) some perceived all types of binaural pitches, but with decreased salience or musicality...... compared to normal-hearing listeners; (b) some could only perceive the strongest pitch types; (c) some were unable to perceive any binaural pitch at all. The performance of the listeners was not correlated with audibility. Additional experiments investigated the correlation between performance in binaural...

  8. Comparison of reading comprehension and working memory in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading is the most important human need for learning. In normal-hearing people working memory is a predictor of reading comprehension. In this study the relationship between working memory and reading comprehension skills was studied in hearing-impaired children, and then compared with the normal-hearing group.Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. The working memory and reading comprehension skills of 18 (8 male, 10 female sever hearing-impaired children in year five of exceptional schools were compared by means of a reading test with 18 hearing children as control group. The subjects in the control group were of the same gender and educational level of the sample group.Results: The children with hearing loss performed similarly to the normal-hearing children in tasks related to auditory-verbal memory of sounds (reverse, visual-verbal memory of letters, and visual-verbal memory of pictures. However, they showed lower levels of performance in reading comprehension (p<0.001. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between working memory and reading comprehension skills.Conclusion: Findings indicated that children with hearing loss have a significant impairment in the reading comprehension skill. Impairment in language knowledge and vocabulary may be the main cause of poor reading comprehension in these children. In hearing-impaired children working memory is not a strong predictor of reading comprehension.

  9. Selective attention in normal and impaired hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Best, Virginia

    2008-12-01

    A common complaint among listeners with hearing loss (HL) is that they have difficulty communicating in common social settings. This article reviews how normal-hearing listeners cope in such settings, especially how they focus attention on a source of interest. Results of experiments with normal-hearing listeners suggest that the ability to selectively attend depends on the ability to analyze the acoustic scene and to form perceptual auditory objects properly. Unfortunately, sound features important for auditory object formation may not be robustly encoded in the auditory periphery of HL listeners. In turn, impaired auditory object formation may interfere with the ability to filter out competing sound sources. Peripheral degradations are also likely to reduce the salience of higher-order auditory cues such as location, pitch, and timbre, which enable normal-hearing listeners to select a desired sound source out of a sound mixture. Degraded peripheral processing is also likely to increase the time required to form auditory objects and focus selective attention so that listeners with HL lose the ability to switch attention rapidly (a skill that is particularly important when trying to participate in a lively conversation). Finally, peripheral deficits may interfere with strategies that normal-hearing listeners employ in complex acoustic settings, including the use of memory to fill in bits of the conversation that are missed. Thus, peripheral hearing deficits are likely to cause a number of interrelated problems that challenge the ability of HL listeners to communicate in social settings requiring selective attention.

  10. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  11. Postural control assessment in students with normal hearing and sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Lemos, Andrea; Macky, Carla Fabiana da Silva Toscano; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão; Ferraz, Karla Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Children with sensorineural hearing loss can present with instabilities in postural control, possibly as a consequence of hypoactivity of their vestibular system due to internal ear injury. To assess postural control stability in students with normal hearing (i.e., listeners) and with sensorineural hearing loss, and to compare data between groups, considering gender and age. This cross-sectional study evaluated the postural control of 96 students, 48 listeners and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, aged between 7 and 18 years, of both genders, through the Balance Error Scoring Systems scale. This tool assesses postural control in two sensory conditions: stable surface and unstable surface. For statistical data analysis between groups, the Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used. Students with hearing loss showed more instability in postural control than those with normal hearing, with significant differences between groups (stable surface, unstable surface) (ppostural control compared to normal hearing students of the same gender and age. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting consonant recognition and confusions in normal-hearing listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Johannes; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    , Kollmeier, and Kohlrausch [(1997). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892–2905]. The model was evaluated based on the extensive consonant perception data set provided by Zaar and Dau [(2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 1253–1267], which was obtained with normal-hearing listeners using 15 consonant-vowel combinations...... confusion groups. The large predictive power of the proposed model suggests that adaptive processes in the auditory preprocessing in combination with a cross-correlation based template-matching back end can account for some of the processes underlying consonant perception in normal-hearing listeners....... The proposed model may provide a valuable framework, e.g., for investigating the effects of hearing impairment and hearing-aid signal processing on phoneme recognition....

  13. Early Radiosurgery Improves Hearing Preservation in Vestibular Schwannoma Patients With Normal Hearing at the Time of Diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, Berkcan [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Mousavi, Seyed H., E-mail: mousavish@upmc.edu [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); McDowell, Michael M.; Niranjan, Ajay; Faraji, Amir H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Flickinger, John C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Lunsford, L. Dade [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are increasingly diagnosed in patients with normal hearing because of advances in magnetic resonance imaging. We sought to evaluate whether stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) performed earlier after diagnosis improved long-term hearing preservation in this population. Methods and Materials: We queried our quality assessment registry and found the records of 1134 acoustic neuroma patients who underwent SRS during a 15-year period (1997-2011). We identified 88 patients who had VS but normal hearing with no subjective hearing loss at the time of diagnosis. All patients were Gardner-Robertson (GR) class I at the time of SRS. Fifty-seven patients underwent early (≤2 years from diagnosis) SRS and 31 patients underwent late (>2 years after diagnosis) SRS. At a median follow-up time of 75 months, we evaluated patient outcomes. Results: Tumor control rates (decreased or stable in size) were similar in the early (95%) and late (90%) treatment groups (P=.73). Patients in the early treatment group retained serviceable (GR class I/II) hearing and normal (GR class I) hearing longer than did patients in the late treatment group (serviceable hearing, P=.006; normal hearing, P<.0001, respectively). At 5 years after SRS, an estimated 88% of the early treatment group retained serviceable hearing and 77% retained normal hearing, compared with 55% with serviceable hearing and 33% with normal hearing in the late treatment group. Conclusions: SRS within 2 years after diagnosis of VS in normal hearing patients resulted in improved retention of all hearing measures compared with later SRS.

  14. Early Radiosurgery Improves Hearing Preservation in Vestibular Schwannoma Patients With Normal Hearing at the Time of Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpinar, Berkcan; Mousavi, Seyed H.; McDowell, Michael M.; Niranjan, Ajay; Faraji, Amir H.; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are increasingly diagnosed in patients with normal hearing because of advances in magnetic resonance imaging. We sought to evaluate whether stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) performed earlier after diagnosis improved long-term hearing preservation in this population. Methods and Materials: We queried our quality assessment registry and found the records of 1134 acoustic neuroma patients who underwent SRS during a 15-year period (1997-2011). We identified 88 patients who had VS but normal hearing with no subjective hearing loss at the time of diagnosis. All patients were Gardner-Robertson (GR) class I at the time of SRS. Fifty-seven patients underwent early (≤2 years from diagnosis) SRS and 31 patients underwent late (>2 years after diagnosis) SRS. At a median follow-up time of 75 months, we evaluated patient outcomes. Results: Tumor control rates (decreased or stable in size) were similar in the early (95%) and late (90%) treatment groups (P=.73). Patients in the early treatment group retained serviceable (GR class I/II) hearing and normal (GR class I) hearing longer than did patients in the late treatment group (serviceable hearing, P=.006; normal hearing, P<.0001, respectively). At 5 years after SRS, an estimated 88% of the early treatment group retained serviceable hearing and 77% retained normal hearing, compared with 55% with serviceable hearing and 33% with normal hearing in the late treatment group. Conclusions: SRS within 2 years after diagnosis of VS in normal hearing patients resulted in improved retention of all hearing measures compared with later SRS.

  15. Motivation to Address Self-Reported Hearing Problems in Adults with Normal Hearing Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea, Carly C. M.; Doherty, Karen A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the motivation to change in relation to hearing problems in adults with normal hearing thresholds but who report hearing problems and that of adults with a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Factors related to their motivation were also assessed. Method: The motivation to change in…

  16. Narrative competence among hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children: analytical cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dezani Soares

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Oral narrative is a means of language development assessment. However, standardized data for deaf patients are scarce. The aim here was to compare the use of narrative competence between hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Twenty-one moderately to profoundly bilaterally hearing-impaired children (cases and 21 normal-hearing children without language abnormalities (controls, matched according to sex, age, schooling level and school type, were studied. A board showing pictures in a temporally logical sequence was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative, and the child's performance relating to narrative structure and cohesion was measured. The frequencies of variables, their associations (Mann-Whitney test and their 95% confidence intervals was analyzed. RESULTS: The deaf subjects showed poorer performance regarding narrative structure, use of connectives, cohesion measurements and general punctuation (P < 0.05. There were no differences in the number of propositions elaborated or in referent specification between the two groups. The deaf children produced a higher proportion of orientation-related propositions (P = 0.001 and lower proportions of propositions relating to complicating actions (P = 0.015 and character reactions (P = 0.005. CONCLUSION: Hearing-impaired children have abnormalities in different aspects of language, involving form, content and use, in relation to their normal-hearing peers. Narrative competence was also associated with the children's ages and the school type.

  17. Spectral Ripple Discrimination in Normal Hearing Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, David L.; Won, Jong Ho; Rubinstein, Jay T.; Werner, Lynne A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Spectral resolution is a correlate of open-set speech understanding in post-lingually deaf adults as well as pre-lingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). In order to apply measures of spectral resolution to assess device efficacy in younger CI users, it is necessary to understand how spectral resolution develops in NH children. In this study, spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) was used to measure listeners’ sensitivity to a shift in phase of the spectral envelope of a broadband noise. Both resolution of peak to peak location (frequency resolution) and peak to trough intensity (across-channel intensity resolution) are required for SRD. Design SRD was measured as the highest ripple density (in ripples per octave) for which a listener could discriminate a 90 degree shift in phase of the sinusoidally-modulated amplitude spectrum. A 2X3 between subjects design was used to assess the effects of age (7-month-old infants versus adults) and ripple peak/trough “depth” (10, 13, and 20 dB) on SRD in normal hearing listeners (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, SRD thresholds in the same age groups were compared using a task in which ripple starting phases were randomized across trials to obscure within-channel intensity cues. In Experiment 3, the randomized starting phase method was used to measure SRD as a function of age (3-month-old infants, 7-month-old infants, and young adults) and ripple depth (10 and 20 dB in repeated measures design). Results In Experiment 1, there was a significant interaction between age and ripple depth. The Infant SRDs were significantly poorer than the adult SRDs at 10 and 13 dB ripple depths but adult-like at 20 dB depth. This result is consistent with immature across-channel intensity resolution. In contrast, the trajectory of SRD as a function of depth was steeper for infants than adults suggesting that frequency resolution was better in infants than adults. However, in Experiment 2 infant performance was

  18. Comparison of Reading Literacy in Hearing Impaired and Normal Hearing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ali Asghar Kakojoibari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: listening, speaking, reading and writing are considered the lingual skills. These skills are in direct relation with each other. Listening is the first skill learnt by the individual through development. If damaged by hearing impairment, listening can cause serious defect to lingual skills. The goal of our research was to study the effect of hearing loss on reading literacy in hearing impairment students in comparison with normal hearing students.Methods: Study was performed using the examination booklets of Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS 2001. 119 hearing impairment students of 4th grade primary school, last year guidance school, and last year high school levels in schools providing exceptional student education were included. These individuals were compared to 46 normal hearing students of 4th grade primary school of ordinary schools. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using t-test.Results: Reading literacy and literal contents understanding was shown to have a significant difference between normal hearing and whole hearing impaired student (p<0.05, except the ones in high school level with moderate hearing loss. There was also seen a significant difference between normal hearing and hearing impairment students in understanding of information contents (p=0.03.Conclusion: Hearing loss has a negative effect on reading literacy. Consequently, curriculum change and evolution of educational programs in exceptional centers is needed, in order to promote reading literacy and to enhance rest hearing

  19. Comparison of Different Levels of Reading Comprehension between Hearing-Impaired Loss and Normal-Hearing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Sharifi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading skill is one of the most important necessities of students' learning in everyday life. This skill is referred to the ability of comprehension, comment and conclusion from texts and receiving the meaning of the massage which is composed. Educational development in any student has a direct relation with the ability of the comprehension. This study is designed to investigate the effects of hearing loss on reading comprehension in hearing-impaired students compared to normal-hearing ones.Methods: Seventeen hearing-impaired students in 4th year of primary exceptional schools in Karaj, Robatkarim and Shahriyar, Iran, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Seventeen normal-hearing students were randomly selected from ordinary schools next to exceptional ones as control group. They were compared for different levels of reading comprehension using the international standard booklet (PIRLS 2001. Results: There was a significant difference in performance between hearing-impaired and normal- hearing students in different levels of reading comprehension (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hearing loss has negative effects on different levels of reading comprehension, so in exceptional centers, reconsideration in educational planning in order to direct education from memorizing to comprehension and deeper layers of learning seems necessary.

  20. Factors associated with hearing loss in a normal-hearing guinea pig model of Hybrid cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Chiemi; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh; Loera, Katherine; Stark, Gemaine; Reiss, Lina

    2014-10-01

    The Hybrid cochlear implant (CI), also known as Electro-Acoustic Stimulation (EAS), is a new type of CI that preserves residual acoustic hearing and enables combined cochlear implant and hearing aid use in the same ear. However, 30-55% of patients experience acoustic hearing loss within days to months after activation, suggesting that both surgical trauma and electrical stimulation may cause hearing loss. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine the contributions of both implantation surgery and EAS to hearing loss in a normal-hearing guinea pig model; 2) determine which cochlear structural changes are associated with hearing loss after surgery and EAS. Two groups of animals were implanted (n = 6 per group), with one group receiving chronic acoustic and electric stimulation for 10 weeks, and the other group receiving no direct acoustic or electric stimulation during this time frame. A third group (n = 6) was not implanted, but received chronic acoustic stimulation. Auditory brainstem response thresholds were followed over time at 1, 2, 6, and 16 kHz. At the end of the study, the following cochlear measures were quantified: hair cells, spiral ganglion neuron density, fibrous tissue density, and stria vascularis blood vessel density; the presence or absence of ossification around the electrode entry was also noted. After surgery, implanted animals experienced a range of 0-55 dB of threshold shifts in the vicinity of the electrode at 6 and 16 kHz. The degree of hearing loss was significantly correlated with reduced stria vascularis vessel density and with the presence of ossification, but not with hair cell counts, spiral ganglion neuron density, or fibrosis area. After 10 weeks of stimulation, 67% of implanted, stimulated animals had more than 10 dB of additional threshold shift at 1 kHz, compared to 17% of implanted, non-stimulated animals and 0% of non-implanted animals. This 1-kHz hearing loss was not associated with changes in any of the cochlear measures

  1. Cognitive skills and the effect of noise on perceived effort in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Hua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the following study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC, executive functions (EFs and perceived effort (PE after completing a work-related task in quiet and in noise in employees with aided hearing impairment (HI and normal hearing. The study sample consisted of 20 hearing-impaired and 20 normally hearing participants. Measures of hearing ability, WMC and EFs were tested prior to performing a work-related task in quiet and in simulated traffic noise. PE of the work-related task was also measured. Analysis of variance was used to analyze within- and between-group differences in cognitive skills, performance on the work-related task and PE. The presence of noise yielded a significantly higher PE for both groups. However, no significant group differences were observed in WMC, EFs, PE and performance in the work-related task. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were only found between PE in the noise condition and the ability to update information for both groups. In summary, noise generates a significantly higher PE and brings explicit processing capacity into play, irrespective of hearing. This suggest that increased PE involves other factors such as type of task that is to be performed, performance in the cognitive skill required solving the task at hand and whether noise is present. We therefore suggest that special consideration in hearing care should be made to the individual′s prerequisites on these factors in the labor market.

  2. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mahmoud; Beer, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN), to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  3. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghandi

    Full Text Available Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN, to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  4. Temporal Fine-Structure Coding and Lateralized Speech Perception in Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locsei, Gusztav; Pedersen, Julie Hefting; Laugesen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between speech perception performance in spatially complex, lateralized listening scenarios and temporal fine-structure (TFS) coding at low frequencies. Young normal-hearing (NH) and two groups of elderly hearing-impaired (HI) listeners with mild or moderate...... hearing loss above 1.5 kHz participated in the study. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were estimated in the presence of either speech-shaped noise, two-, four-, or eight-talker babble played reversed, or a nonreversed two-talker masker. Target audibility was ensured by applying individualized linear...... threshold nor the interaural phase difference threshold tasks showed a correlation with the SRTs or with the amount of masking release due to binaural unmasking, respectively. The results suggest that, although HI listeners with normal hearing thresholds below 1.5 kHz experienced difficulties with speech...

  5. Factors Affecting Sentence-in-Noise Recognition for Normal Hearing Listeners and Listeners with Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jung Sun; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Jae Hee

    2017-07-01

    Despite amplified speech, listeners with hearing loss often report more difficulties understanding speech in background noise compared to normalhearing listeners. Various factors such as deteriorated hearing sensitivity, age, suprathreshold temporal resolution, and reduced capacity of working memory and attention can attribute to their sentence-in-noise problems. The present study aims to determine a primary explanatory factor for sentence-in-noise recognition difficulties in adults with or without hearing loss. Forty normal-hearing (NH) listeners (23-73 years) and thirty-four hearing-impaired (HI) listeners (24-80 years) participated for experimental testing. For both NH and HI group, the younger, middle-aged, older listeners were included. The sentence recognition score in noise was measured at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio. The ability of temporal resolution was evaluated by gap detection performance using the Gaps-In-Noise test. Listeners' short-term auditory working memory span was measured by forward and backward digit spans. Overall, the HI listeners' sentence-in-noise recognition, temporal resolution abilities, and digit forward and backward spans were poorer compared to the NH listeners. Both NH and HI listeners had a substantial variability in performance. For NH listeners, only the digit backward span explained a small proportion of the variance in their sentence-in-noise performance. For the HI listeners, all the performance was influenced by age, and their sentence-in-noise difficulties were associated with various factors such as high-frequency hearing sensitivity, suprathreshold temporal resolution abilities, and working memory span. For the HI listeners, the critical predictors of the sentence-in-noise performance were composite measures of peripheral hearing sensitivity and suprathreshold temporal resolution abilities. The primary explanatory factors for the sentence-in-noise recognition performance differ between NH and HI listeners. Factors

  6. Objective Scaling of Sound Quality for Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Bramsløw

    ) Subjective sound quality ratings of clean and distorted speech and music signals, by normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners, to provide reference data, 2) An auditory model of the ear, including the effects of hearing loss, based on existing psychoacoustic knowledge, coupled to 3) An artificial neural......A new method for the objective estimation of sound quality for both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners has been presented: OSSQAR (Objective Scaling of Sound Quality and Reproduction). OSSQAR is based on three main parts, which have been carried out and documented separately: 1...... network, which was trained to predict the sound quality ratings. OSSQAR predicts the perceived sound quality on two independent perceptual rating scales: Clearness and Sharpness. These two scales were shown to be the most relevant for assessment of sound quality, and they were interpreted the same way...

  7. Comparison of Reading Comprehension Skill of Students with Severe to Profound Hearing Impairment from Second up to Fifth Grade of Exceptional Schools with Normal Hearing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalalipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reading is known as one of the most important learning tools. Research results consistently have shown that even a mild hearing impairment could affect the reading skills. Due to the reported differences in reading comprehension skills between hearing impaired students and their normal hearing peers, this research was conducted to compare the differences between the two groups. The other aim was to find any changes in the reading ability of hearing impaired group during elementary school. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional (descriptive–analytic one in which reading comprehension ability of 91 students with severe and profound hearing impairment (33 girls and 58 boys from 2nd up to 5th grade of exceptional schools were compared with 50 2nd grade normal hearing students in Ahvaz, Iran. The first section of Diagnostic Reading Test (Shirazi – Nilipour, 2004 was used in this study. Then the mean reading scores of hearing impaired students in each grade was compared with control group using SPSS 13 with Mann Whitney test. Results: There was a significant difference between average scores of hearing impaired students (boys and girls in 2nd to 5th grade with normal hearing students of 2nd grade (P<0.001. Reading comprehension scores of students with hearing impairment in higher grades had improved slightly, but it was still lower than that of the normal hearing students in the 2nd grade. Conclusion: It appears that reading comprehension skill of students with significant hearing impairment near the end of elementary school years becomes weaker than normal hearing students in the second grade. Therefore, it is essential to find and resolve the underlying reasons of this condition by all professionals who work in the field of education and rehabilitation of these students.

  8. Imaging of Conductive Hearing Loss With a Normal Tympanic Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Hugh D

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an approach to imaging conductive hearing loss in patients with normal tympanic membranes and discusses entities that should be checked as the radiologist evaluates this potentially complicated issue. Conductive hearing loss in a patient with a normal tympanic membrane is a complicated condition that requires a careful imaging approach. Imaging should focus on otosclerosis, and possible mimics and potential surgical considerations should be evaluated. The radiologist should examine the ossicular chain and the round window and keep in mind that a defect in the superior semicircular canal can disturb the hydraulic integrity of the labyrinth.

  9. Communication between hearing impaired and normal hearing students: a facilitative proposal of learning in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysne Kelly de França Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There has been an increase in the number of hearing impaired people with access to higher education. Most of them are young people from a different culture who present difficulties in communication, inter-relationship, and learning in a culture of normal hearing people, because they use a different language, the Brazilian Sign Language - LIBRAS. Objective: The present study aimed to identify the forms of communication used between hearing impaired and normal hearing students, verifying how they can interfere with the learning process of the first. Methods: A qualitative study that used the space of a private university in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil, from February to April 2009. We carried out semi-structured interviews with three hearing impaired students, three teachers, three interpreters, and three normal hearing students. The content of the speeches was categorized and organized by the method of thematic analysis. Results: We verified that the forms of communication used ranged from mime and gestures to writing and drawing, but the most accepted by the hearing impaired students was LIBRAS. As a method of communication, it supports the learning of hearing impaired students, and with the mediation of interpreters, it gives them conditions to settle in their zones of development, according to the precepts of Vygotsky. Conclusion: Thus, we recognize the importance of LIBRAS as predominant language, essential to the full academic achievement of hearing impaired students; however, their efforts and dedication, as well as the interest of institutions and teachers on the deaf culture, are also important for preparing future professionals.

  10. Speech intelligibility of normal listeners and persons with impaired hearing in traffic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniansson, G.; Peterson, Y.

    1983-10-01

    Speech intelligibility (PB words) in traffic-like noise was investigated in a laboratory situation simulating three common listening situations, indoors at 1 and 4 m and outdoors at 1 m. The maximum noise levels still permitting 75% intelligibility of PB words in these three listening situations were also defined. A total of 269 persons were examined. Forty-six had normal hearing, 90 a presbycusis-type hearing loss, 95 a noise-induced hearing loss and 38 a conductive hearing loss. In the indoor situation the majority of the groups with impaired hearing retained good speech intelligibility in 40 dB(A) masking noise. Lowering the noise level to less than 40 dB(A) resulted in a minor, usually insignificant, improvement in speech intelligibility. Listeners with normal hearing maintained good speech intelligibility in the outdoor listening situation at noise levels up to 60 dB(A), without lip-reading (i.e., using non-auditory information). For groups with impaired hearing due to age and/or noise, representing 8% of the population in Sweden, the noise level outdoors had to be lowered to less than 50 dB(A), in order to achieve good speech intelligibility at 1 m without lip-reading.

  11. Operative findings of conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membrane and normal temporal bone computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Despite recent technological advances in diagnostic methods including imaging technology, it is often difficult to establish a preoperative diagnosis of conductive hearing loss (CHL) in patients with an intact tympanic membrane (TM). Especially, in patients with a normal temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT), preoperative diagnosis is more difficult. We investigated middle ear disorders encountered in patients with CHL involving an intact TM and normal TBCT. We also analyzed the surgical results with special reference to the pathology. We reviewed the medical records of 365 patients with intact TM, who underwent exploratory tympanotomy for CHL. Fifty nine patients (67 ears, eight bilateral surgeries) had a normal preoperative TBCT findings reported by neuro-radiologists. Demographic data, otologic history, TM findings, preoperative imaging findings, intraoperative findings, and pre- and postoperative audiologic data were obtained and analyzed. Exploration was performed most frequently in the second and fifth decades. The most common postoperative diagnosis was stapedial fixation with non-progressive hearing loss. The most commonly performed hearing-restoring procedure was stapedotomy with piston wire prosthesis insertion. Various types of hearing-restoring procedures during exploration resulted in effective hearing improvement, especially with better outcome in the ossicular chain fixation group. In patients with CHL who have intact TM and normal TBCT, we should consider an exploratory tympanotomy for exact diagnosis and hearing improvement. Information of the common operative findings from this study may help in preoperative counseling.

  12. The Phonemic Awareness Skills of Cochlear Implant Children and Children with Normal Hearing in Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Dashtelei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Phonemic awareness skills have a significant impact on children speech and language. The purpose of this study was investigating the phonemic awareness skills of children with cochlear implant and normal hearing peers in primary school. Methods: phonemic awareness subscales of phonological awareness test were administered to 30 children with cochlear implantation at the first to sixth grades of primary school and 30 children with normal hearing who were matched in age with cochlear implant group. All of children were between 6 to 11 years old. Children with cochlear implant had at least 1 to 2 years of implant experience and they were over 5 years when they receive implantation. Children with cochlear implant were selected from Special education centers in Tehran and children with normal hearing were recruited from primary schools in Tehran. The phonemic awareness skills were assessed in both groups. Results: The results showed that the Mean scores of phonemic awareness skills in cochlear implant children were significantly lower than children with normal hearing (P<.0001. Discussion: children with cochlear implant, despite Cochlear implantation prosthesis, had lower performance in phonemic awareness when compared with normal hearing children. Therefore, due to importance of phonemic awareness skills in learning of literacy skills, and defects of these skills in children with cochlear implant, these skills should be assessed carefully in children with cochlear implant and rehabilitative interventions should be considered.

  13. Four cases of acoustic neuromas with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, M; Peterein, J; Goebel, J; Neely, J G

    1995-05-01

    In 95 percent of the cases, patients with acoustic neuromas will have some magnitude of hearing loss in the affected ear. This paper reports on four patients who had acoustic neuromas and normal hearing. Results from the case history, audiometric evaluation, auditory brainstem response (ABR), electroneurography (ENOG), and vestibular evaluation are reported for each patient. For all patients, the presence of unilateral tinnitus was the most common complaint. Audiologically, elevated or absent acoustic reflex thresholds and abnormal ABR findings were the most powerful diagnostic tools.

  14. Working memory and referential communication – multimodal aspects of interaction between children with sensorineural hearing impairment and normal hearing peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof eSandgren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the language development of children with sensorineural hearing impairment (SNHI has repeatedly been shown to differ from that of peers with normal hearing (NH, few studies have used an experimental approach to investigate the consequences on everyday communicative interaction. This mini review gives an overview of a range of studies on children with SNHI and NH exploring intra- and inter-individual cognitive and linguistic systems during communication.Over the last decade, our research group has studied the conversational strategies of Swedish speaking children and adolescents with SNHI and NH using referential communication, an experimental analogue to problem-solving in the classroom. We have established verbal and nonverbal control and validation mechanisms, related to working memory capacity (WMC and phonological short term memory (PSTM. We present main findings and future directions relevant for the field of cognitive hearing science and for the clinical and school-based management of children and adolescents with SNHI.

  15. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context. PMID:27317667

  16. Spectral Ripple Discrimination in Normal-Hearing Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, David L; Won, Jong Ho; Rubinstein, Jay T; Werner, Lynne A

    Spectral resolution is a correlate of open-set speech understanding in postlingually deaf adults and prelingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). To apply measures of spectral resolution to assess device efficacy in younger CI users, it is necessary to understand how spectral resolution develops in normal-hearing children. In this study, spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) was used to measure listeners' sensitivity to a shift in phase of the spectral envelope of a broadband noise. Both resolution of peak to peak location (frequency resolution) and peak to trough intensity (across-channel intensity resolution) are required for SRD. SRD was measured as the highest ripple density (in ripples per octave) for which a listener could discriminate a 90° shift in phase of the sinusoidally-modulated amplitude spectrum. A 2 × 3 between-subjects design was used to assess the effects of age (7-month-old infants versus adults) and ripple peak/trough "depth" (10, 13, and 20 dB) on SRD in normal-hearing listeners (experiment 1). In experiment 2, SRD thresholds in the same age groups were compared using a task in which ripple starting phases were randomized across trials to obscure within-channel intensity cues. In experiment 3, the randomized starting phase method was used to measure SRD as a function of age (3-month-old infants, 7-month-old infants, and young adults) and ripple depth (10 and 20 dB in repeated measures design). In experiment 1, there was a significant interaction between age and ripple depth. The infant SRDs were significantly poorer than the adult SRDs at 10 and 13 dB ripple depths but adult-like at 20 dB depth. This result is consistent with immature across-channel intensity resolution. In contrast, the trajectory of SRD as a function of depth was steeper for infants than adults suggesting that frequency resolution was better in infants than adults. However, in experiment 2 infant performance was significantly poorer than adults at 20 d

  17. Relation of distortion product otoacoustic emission and tinnitus in normal hearing patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datt Modh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus, the perception of the sound in the absence of an external acoustic source, disrupts the daily life 1 out of every 200 adults, yet its physiological basis remains largely a mystery. The generation of tinnitus is commonly linked with the impaired functioning of the outer hair cells (OHC inside the cochlea. Otoacoustic emissions are the objective test used to assess their activity. Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the features of Distortion product OtoAcoustic emissions (DPOAE in a group of tinnitus patients with normal hearing and to find out whether there is any difference in DPOAE findings in the tinnitus patients with normal hearing and in persons with normal hearing with no complaint of tinnitus. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of two groups. The subject group consisted of 16 ears of patients, in which 6 subjects were having tinnitus in both ears while 4 subjects were having tinnitus only in one ear. All subjects were aged between 20 to 60 years with complaint of tinnitus with audiometrically normal hearing. Control group was comprised of 16 audiometrically normal hearing ears of persons who were age and gender matched with the subject groups and had no complaint of tinnitus. Both the subject group as well as control group was subjected for DPOAE test. Findings of both the groups were compared using the unpaired t test. Result and conclusion: It was observed that the amplitudes of DPOAE were significantly lower in tinnitus patients than that of persons without complaint of tinnitus, at a frequency of 1281-1560, 5120-6250, 7243-8837 Hz, which imply that decrease of DPOAEs amplitudes may be related to the presence of tinnitus. It can be concluded that there is association between tinnitus and reduced OHC activity which indicate the OHC of cochlea are involved in the generation of tinnitus.

  18. Self-esteem and social well-being of children with cochlear implant compared to normal-hearing children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, L.; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Gudman, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to make a quantitative comparison of parameters of self-esteem and social well-being between children with cochlear implants and normal-hearing children. Material and methods: Data were obtained from 164 children with cochlear implant (CI) and 2169 normal......-hearing children (NH). Parental questionnaires, used in a national survey assessing the self-esteem and well-being of normal-hearing children, were applied to the cochlear implanted group, in order to allow direct comparisons. Results: The children in the CI group rated significantly higher on questions about well...... overall self-esteem or number of friends. The two groups of children scored similarly on being confident, independent, social, not worried and happy. Conclusion: Children with cochlear implant score equal to or better than their normal-hearing peers on matters of self-esteem and social well-being. (C...

  19. Characteristics of the tinnitus and hyperacusis in normal hearing individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daila Urnau1,

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tinnitus has become a common otological complaint. Another complaint is found in bearers of the tinnitus is the hyperacusis. Objective: Analyze the characteristics of tinnitus and hyperacusis in normal hearing individuals with associated complaints of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Method: 25 normal hearing individuals who complained of hyperacusis and tinnitus were surveyed in this form of cross-sectional study. They were questioned about the location and type of the tinnitus. The evaluation of the tinnitus was made using the Brazilian Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and acuphenometry. A questionnaire was made about the hyperacusis covering aspects such as: sounds considered uncomfortable, sensations in the presence of such sounds, and difficulty understanding speech in noise. Results: Of the 25 individuals, 64% were women and 36% men. Regarding tinnitus, 84% referred to bilateral location and 80% high pitch. The most common degree found was light (44%. The women presented tinnitus degree statistically superior to those of men. The strong intensity sounds and the reactions of irritation, anxiety and the need to move away from the sound were the most mentioned. From the analyzed individuals, 68% referred to difficulty understanding speech in noise and 12% reported using hearing protection. The most found frequencies at the acuphenometry were 6 and 8 KHz. Conclusion: Normal hearing individuals who complain of tinnitus and hyperacusis present mainly high pitch tinnitus, located bilaterally and light degree. The sounds considered uncomfortable were the high intensity ones and the most cited reaction to sound was irritation. The difficulty to understand speech in noise was reported by most of the individuals.

  20. Reflectance Measures from Infant Ears With Normal Hearing and Transient Conductive Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Susan E; Herrmann, Barbara S; Horton, Nicholas J; Amadei, Elizabeth A; Kujawa, Sharon G

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to develop methods to utilize newborn reflectance measures for the identification of middle-ear transient conditions (e.g., middle-ear fluid) during the newborn period and ultimately during the first few months of life. Transient middle-ear conditions are a suspected source of failure to pass a newborn hearing screening. The ability to identify a conductive loss during the screening procedure could enable the referred ear to be either (1) cleared of a middle-ear condition and recommended for more extensive hearing assessment as soon as possible, or (2) suspected of a transient middle-ear condition, and if desired, be rescreened before more extensive hearing assessment. Reflectance measurements are reported from full-term, healthy, newborn babies in which one ear referred and one ear passed an initial auditory brainstem response newborn hearing screening and a subsequent distortion product otoacoustic emission screening on the same day. These same subjects returned for a detailed follow-up evaluation at age 1 month (range 14 to 35 days). In total, measurements were made on 30 subjects who had a unilateral refer near birth (during their first 2 days of life) and bilateral normal hearing at follow-up (about 1 month old). Three specific comparisons were made: (1) Association of ear's state with power reflectance near birth (referred versus passed ear), (2) Changes in power reflectance of normal ears between newborn and 1 month old (maturation effects), and (3) Association of ear's newborn state (referred versus passed) with ear's power reflectance at 1 month. In addition to these measurements, a set of preliminary data selection criteria were developed to ensure that analyzed data were not corrupted by acoustic leaks and other measurement problems. Within 2 days of birth, the power reflectance measured in newborn ears with transient middle-ear conditions (referred newborn hearing screening and passed hearing assessment at age 1 month) was significantly

  1. Effect of musical training on pitch discrimination performance in older normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Dau, Torsten; Santurette, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    -discrimination performance for NH listeners. It is unclear whether a comparable effect of musical training occurs for listeners whose sensory encoding of F0 is degraded. To address this question, F0 discrimination was investigated for three groups of listeners (14 young NH, 9 older NH and 10 HI listeners), each......Hearing-impaired (HI) listeners, as well as elderly listeners, typically have a reduced ability to discriminate the fundamental frequency (F0) of complex tones compared to young normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Several studies have shown that musical training, on the other hand, leads to improved F0...... including musicians and non-musicians, using complex tones that differed in harmonic content. Musical training significantly improved F0 discrimination for all groups of listeners, especially for complex tones containing low-numbered harmonics. In a second experiment, the sensitivity to temporal fine...

  2. Phonological processes in the speech of school-age children with hearing loss: Comparisons with children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Areej Nimer; Purdy, Suzanne C; Ballard, Elaine; Fairgray, Liz; Bowen, Caroline

    2018-04-27

    In this descriptive study, phonological processes were examined in the speech of children aged 5;0-7;6 (years; months) with mild to profound hearing loss using hearing aids (HAs) and cochlear implants (CIs), in comparison to their peers. A second aim was to compare phonological processes of HA and CI users. Children with hearing loss (CWHL, N = 25) were compared to children with normal hearing (CWNH, N = 30) with similar age, gender, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Speech samples obtained from a list of 88 words, derived from three standardized speech tests, were analyzed using the CASALA (Computer Aided Speech and Language Analysis) program to evaluate participants' phonological systems, based on lax (a process appeared at least twice in the speech of at least two children) and strict (a process appeared at least five times in the speech of at least two children) counting criteria. Developmental phonological processes were eliminated in the speech of younger and older CWNH while eleven developmental phonological processes persisted in the speech of both age groups of CWHL. CWHL showed a similar trend of age of elimination to CWNH, but at a slower rate. Children with HAs and CIs produced similar phonological processes. Final consonant deletion, weak syllable deletion, backing, and glottal replacement were present in the speech of HA users, affecting their overall speech intelligibility. Developmental and non-developmental phonological processes persist in the speech of children with mild to profound hearing loss compared to their peers with typical hearing. The findings indicate that it is important for clinicians to consider phonological assessment in pre-school CWHL and the use of evidence-based speech therapy in order to reduce non-developmental and non-age-appropriate developmental processes, thereby enhancing their speech intelligibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress in Mothers of Hearing Impaired Children Compared to Mothers of Normal and Other Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.

  4. Masker phase effects in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners: evidence for peripheral compression at low signal frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Dau, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    curvature. Results from 12 listeners with sensorineural hearing loss showed reduced masker phase effects, when compared with data from normal-hearing listeners, at both 250- and 1000-Hz signal frequencies. The effects of hearing impairment on phase-related masking differences were not well simulated...... are affected by a common underlying mechanism, presumably related to cochlear outer hair cell function. The results also suggest that normal peripheral compression remains strong even at 250 Hz....

  5. Speech intelligibility for normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners in simulated room acoustic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arweiler, Iris; Dau, Torsten; Poulsen, Torben

    Speech intelligibility depends on many factors such as room acoustics, the acoustical properties and location of the signal and the interferers, and the ability of the (normal and impaired) auditory system to process monaural and binaural sounds. In the present study, the effect of reverberation...... on spatial release from masking was investigated in normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners using three types of interferers: speech shaped noise, an interfering female talker and speech-modulated noise. Speech reception thresholds (SRT) were obtained in three simulated environments: a listening room......, a classroom and a church. The data from the study provide constraints for existing models of speech intelligibility prediction (based on the speech intelligibility index, SII, or the speech transmission index, STI) which have shortcomings when reverberation and/or fluctuating noise affect speech...

  6. Rapid word-learning in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children: effects of age, receptive vocabulary, and high-frequency amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, A L; Lewis, D E; Hoover, B M; Stelmachowicz, P G

    2005-12-01

    This study examined rapid word-learning in 5- to 14-year-old children with normal and impaired hearing. The effects of age and receptive vocabulary were examined as well as those of high-frequency amplification. Novel words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz (typical of current amplification devices) and at 9 kHz. It was hypothesized that (1) the children with normal hearing would learn more words than the children with hearing loss, (2) word-learning would increase with age and receptive vocabulary for both groups, and (3) both groups would benefit from a broader frequency bandwidth. Sixty children with normal hearing and 37 children with moderate sensorineural hearing losses participated in this study. Each child viewed a 4-minute animated slideshow containing 8 nonsense words created using the 24 English consonant phonemes (3 consonants per word). Each word was repeated 3 times. Half of the 8 words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz and half were filtered at 9 kHz. After viewing the story twice, each child was asked to identify the words from among pictures in the slide show. Before testing, a measure of current receptive vocabulary was obtained using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III). The PPVT-III scores of the hearing-impaired children were consistently poorer than those of the normal-hearing children across the age range tested. A similar pattern of results was observed for word-learning in that the performance of the hearing-impaired children was significantly poorer than that of the normal-hearing children. Further analysis of the PPVT and word-learning scores suggested that although word-learning was reduced in the hearing-impaired children, their performance was consistent with their receptive vocabularies. Additionally, no correlation was found between overall performance and the age of identification, age of amplification, or years of amplification in the children with hearing loss. Results also revealed a small increase in performance for both

  7. Binaural Hearing Ability With Bilateral Bone Conduction Stimulation in Subjects With Normal Hearing: Implications for Bone Conduction Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitooni, Mehrnaz; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Stenfelt, Stefan

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate binaural hearing ability in adults with normal hearing when bone conduction (BC) stimulation is bilaterally applied at the bone conduction hearing aid (BCHA) implant position as well as at the audiometric position on the mastoid. The results with BC stimulation are compared with bilateral air conduction (AC) stimulation through earphones. Binaural hearing ability is investigated with tests of spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference using sentence material, binaural masking level difference with tonal chirp stimulation, and precedence effect using noise stimulus. In all tests, results with bilateral BC stimulation at the BCHA position illustrate an ability to extract binaural cues similar to BC stimulation at the mastoid position. The binaural benefit is overall greater with AC stimulation than BC stimulation at both positions. The binaural benefit for BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position is approximately half in terms of decibels compared with AC stimulation in the speech based tests (spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference). For binaural masking level difference, the binaural benefit for the two BC positions with chirp signal phase inversion is approximately twice the benefit with inverted phase of the noise. The precedence effect results with BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position are similar for low frequency noise stimulation but differ with high-frequency noise stimulation. The results confirm that binaural hearing processing with bilateral BC stimulation at the mastoid position is also present at the BCHA implant position. This indicates the ability for binaural hearing in patients with good cochlear function when using bilateral BCHAs.

  8. An acoustic analysis of laughter produced by congenitally deaf and normally hearing college students1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makagon, Maja M.; Funayama, E. Sumie; Owren, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively few empirical data are available concerning the role of auditory experience in nonverbal human vocal behavior, such as laughter production. This study compared the acoustic properties of laughter in 19 congenitally, bilaterally, and profoundly deaf college students and in 23 normally hearing control participants. Analyses focused on degree of voicing, mouth position, air-flow direction, temporal features, relative amplitude, fundamental frequency, and formant frequencies. Results showed that laughter produced by the deaf participants was fundamentally similar to that produced by the normally hearing individuals, which in turn was consistent with previously reported findings. Finding comparable acoustic properties in the sounds produced by deaf and hearing vocalizers confirms the presumption that laughter is importantly grounded in human biology, and that auditory experience with this vocalization is not necessary for it to emerge in species-typical form. Some differences were found between the laughter of deaf and hearing groups; the most important being that the deaf participants produced lower-amplitude and longer-duration laughs. These discrepancies are likely due to a combination of the physiological and social factors that routinely affect profoundly deaf individuals, including low overall rates of vocal fold use and pressure from the hearing world to suppress spontaneous vocalizations. PMID:18646991

  9. Recognition of Speech of Normal-hearing Individuals with Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig, Tais Regina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus and hyperacusis are increasingly frequent audiological symptoms that may occur in the absence of the hearing involvement, but it does not offer a lower impact or bothering to the affected individuals. The Medial Olivocochlear System helps in the speech recognition in noise and may be connected to the presence of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Objective: To evaluate the speech recognition of normal-hearing individual with and without complaints of tinnitus and hyperacusis, and to compare their results. Method: Descriptive, prospective and cross-study in which 19 normal-hearing individuals were evaluated with complaint of tinnitus and hyperacusis of the Study Group (SG, and 23 normal-hearing individuals without audiological complaints of the Control Group (CG. The individuals of both groups were submitted to the test List of Sentences in Portuguese, prepared by Costa (1998 to determine the Sentences Recognition Threshold in Silence (LRSS and the signal to noise ratio (S/N. The SG also answered the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory for tinnitus analysis, and to characterize hyperacusis the discomfort thresholds were set. Results: The CG and SG presented with average LRSS and S/N ratio of 7.34 dB NA and -6.77 dB, and of 7.20 dB NA and -4.89 dB, respectively. Conclusion: The normal-hearing individuals with or without audiological complaints of tinnitus and hyperacusis had a similar performance in the speech recognition in silence, which was not the case when evaluated in the presence of competitive noise, since the SG had a lower performance in this communication scenario, with a statistically significant difference.

  10. Rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Leen; De Kegel, Alexandra; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Vertigo and imbalance are often underestimated in the pediatric population, due to limited communication abilities, atypical symptoms, and relatively quick adaptation and compensation in children. Moreover, examination and interpretation of vestibular tests are very challenging, because of difficulties with cooperation and maintenance of alertness, and because of the sometimes nauseatic reactions. Therefore, it is of great importance for each vestibular laboratory to implement a child-friendly test protocol with age-appropriate normative data. Because of the often masked appearance of vestibular problems in young children, the vestibular organ should be routinely examined in high-risk pediatric groups, such as children with a hearing impairment. Purposes of the present study were (1) to determine age-appropriate normative data for two child-friendly vestibular laboratory techniques (rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential [cVEMP] test) in a group of children without auditory or vestibular complaints, and (2) to examine vestibular function in a group of children presenting with bilateral hearing impairment. Forty-eight typically developing children (mean age 8 years 0 months; range: 4 years 1 month to 12 years 11 months) without any auditory or vestibular complaints as well as 39 children (mean age 7 years 8 months; range: 3 years 8 months to 12 years 10 months) with a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were included in this study. All children underwent three sinusoidal rotations (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 Hz at 50 degrees/s) and bilateral cVEMP testing. No significant age differences were found for the rotatory test, whereas a significant increase of N1 latency and a significant threshold decrease was noticeable for the cVEMP, resulting in age-appropriate normative data. Hearing-impaired children demonstrated significantly lower gain values at the 0.01 Hz rotation and a larger percentage of absent cVEMP responses compared with normal-hearing children

  11. 78 FR 68779 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples; Hearing Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-114122-12] RIN 1545-BK96 Controlled Group Regulation Examples; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... controlled group rules related to regulated investment companies. DATES: The public hearing originally...

  12. Chinese Writing of Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Normal-Hearing Peers from Complex Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huiyuan; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Deaf or hard-of-hearing individuals usually face a greater challenge to learn to write than their normal-hearing counterparts. Due to the limitations of traditional research methods focusing on microscopic linguistic features, a holistic characterization of the writing linguistic features of these language users is lacking. This study attempts to fill this gap by adopting the methodology of linguistic complex networks. Two syntactic dependency networks are built in order to compare the macroscopic linguistic features of deaf or hard-of-hearing students and those of their normal-hearing peers. One is transformed from a treebank of writing produced by Chinese deaf or hard-of-hearing students, and the other from a treebank of writing produced by their Chinese normal-hearing counterparts. Two major findings are obtained through comparison of the statistical features of the two networks. On the one hand, both linguistic networks display small-world and scale-free network structures, but the network of the normal-hearing students' exhibits a more power-law-like degree distribution. Relevant network measures show significant differences between the two linguistic networks. On the other hand, deaf or hard-of-hearing students tend to have a lower language proficiency level in both syntactic and lexical aspects. The rigid use of function words and a lower vocabulary richness of the deaf or hard-of-hearing students may partially account for the observed differences.

  13. Time course of auditory streaming: Do CI users differ from normal-hearing listeners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBöckmann-Barthel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a complex acoustical environment with multiple sound sources the auditory system uses streaming as a tool to organize the incoming sounds in one or more streams depending on the stimulus parameters. Streaming is commonly studied by alternating sequences of signals. These are often tones with different frequencies. The present study investigates stream segregation in cochlear implant (CI users, where hearing is restored by electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. CI users listened to 30-s long sequences of alternating A and B harmonic complexes at four different fundamental frequency separations, ranging from 2 to 14 semitones. They had to indicate as promptly as possible after sequence onset, if they perceived one stream or two streams and, in addition, any changes of the percept throughout the rest of the sequence. The conventional view is that the initial percept is always that of a single stream which may after some time change to a percept of two streams. This general build-up hypothesis has recently been challenged on the basis of a new analysis of data of normal-hearing listeners which showed a build-up response only for an intermediate frequency separation. Using the same experimental paradigm and analysis, the present study found that the results of CI users agree with those of the normal-hearing listeners: (i the probability of the first decision to be a one-stream percept decreased and that of a two-stream percept increased as Δf increased, and (ii a build-up was only found for 6 semitones. Only the time elapsed before the listeners made their first decision of the percept was prolonged as compared to normal-hearing listeners. The similarity in the data of the CI user and the normal-hearing listeners indicates that the quality of stream formation is similar in these groups of listeners.

  14. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perceptions of Emotions by Young Children with Hearing Loss versus Children with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Michaelis, Hilit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing loss (HL) on emotion-perception ability among young children with and without HL. Method: A total of 26 children 4.0-6.6 years of age with prelingual sensory-neural HL ranging from moderate to profound and 14 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. They were asked to identify…

  15. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perception of Emotions by Individuals with Cochlear Implants, Hearing Aids, and Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Aviner, Chen

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the benefits of cochlear implant (CI) with regard to emotion perception of participants differing in their age of implantation, in comparison to hearing aid users and adolescents with normal hearing (NH). Emotion perception was examined by having the participants identify happiness, anger, surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust.…

  16. Predicting social functioning in children with a cochlear implant and in normal-hearing children: the role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiefferink, Carin H; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; Frijns, Johan H M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare children with a cochlear implant and normal hearing children on aspects of emotion regulation (emotion expression and coping strategies) and social functioning (social competence and externalizing behaviors) and the relation between emotion regulation and social functioning. Participants were 69 children with cochlear implants (CI children) and 67 normal hearing children (NH children) aged 1.5-5 years. Parents answered questionnaires about their children's language skills, social functioning, and emotion regulation. Children also completed simple tasks to measure their emotion regulation abilities. Cochlear implant children had fewer adequate emotion regulation strategies and were less socially competent than normal hearing children. The parents of cochlear implant children did not report fewer externalizing behaviors than those of normal hearing children. While social competence in normal hearing children was strongly related to emotion regulation, cochlear implant children regulated their emotions in ways that were unrelated with social competence. On the other hand, emotion regulation explained externalizing behaviors better in cochlear implant children than in normal hearing children. While better language skills were related to higher social competence in both groups, they were related to fewer externalizing behaviors only in cochlear implant children. Our results indicate that cochlear implant children have less adequate emotion-regulation strategies and less social competence than normal hearing children. Since they received their implants relatively recently, they might eventually catch up with their hearing peers. Longitudinal studies should further explore the development of emotion regulation and social functioning in cochlear implant children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Auditory, visual, and auditory-visual perceptions of emotions by young children with hearing loss versus children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Michaelis, Hilit

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing loss (HL) on emotion-perception ability among young children with and without HL. A total of 26 children 4.0-6.6 years of age with prelingual sensory-neural HL ranging from moderate to profound and 14 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. They were asked to identify happiness, anger, sadness, and fear expressed by an actress when uttering the same neutral nonsense sentence. Their auditory, visual, and auditory-visual perceptions of the emotional content were assessed. The accuracy of emotion perception among children with HL was lower than that of the NH children in all 3 conditions: auditory, visual, and auditory-visual. Perception through the combined auditory-visual mode significantly surpassed the auditory or visual modes alone in both groups, indicating that children with HL utilized the auditory information for emotion perception. No significant differences in perception emerged according to degree of HL. In addition, children with profound HL and cochlear implants did not perform differently from children with less severe HL who used hearing aids. The relatively high accuracy of emotion perception by children with HL may be explained by their intensive rehabilitation, which emphasizes suprasegmental and paralinguistic aspects of verbal communication.

  18. Temporal and speech processing skills in normal hearing individuals exposed to occupational noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, U Ajith; Ameenudin, Syed; Sangamanatha, A V

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea and result in permanent noise-induced cochlear hearing loss. Consequences of cochlear hearing loss on speech perception and psychophysical abilities have been well documented. Primary goal of this research was to explore temporal processing and speech perception Skills in individuals who are exposed to occupational noise of more than 80 dBA and not yet incurred clinically significant threshold shifts. Contribution of temporal processing skills to speech perception in adverse listening situation was also evaluated. A total of 118 participants took part in this research. Participants comprised three groups of train drivers in the age range of 30-40 (n= 13), 41 50 ( = 13), 41-50 (n = 9), and 51-60 (n = 6) years and their non-noise-exposed counterparts (n = 30 in each age group). Participants of all the groups including the train drivers had hearing sensitivity within 25 dB HL in the octave frequencies between 250 and 8 kHz. Temporal processing was evaluated using gap detection, modulation detection, and duration pattern tests. Speech recognition was tested in presence multi-talker babble at -5dB SNR. Differences between experimental and control groups were analyzed using ANOVA and independent sample t-tests. Results showed a trend of reduced temporal processing skills in individuals with noise exposure. These deficits were observed despite normal peripheral hearing sensitivity. Speech recognition scores in the presence of noise were also significantly poor in noise-exposed group. Furthermore, poor temporal processing skills partially accounted for the speech recognition difficulties exhibited by the noise-exposed individuals. These results suggest that noise can cause significant distortions in the processing of suprathreshold temporal cues which may add to difficulties in hearing in adverse listening conditions.

  19. Temporal and speech processing skills in normal hearing individuals exposed to occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Ajith Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea and result in permanent noise-induced cochlear hearing loss. Consequences of cochlear hearing loss on speech perception and psychophysical abilities have been well documented. Primary goal of this research was to explore temporal processing and speech perception Skills in individuals who are exposed to occupational noise of more than 80 dBA and not yet incurred clinically significant threshold shifts. Contribution of temporal processing skills to speech perception in adverse listening situation was also evaluated. A total of 118 participants took part in this research. Participants comprised three groups of train drivers in the age range of 30-40 (n= 13, 41 50 ( = 13, 41-50 (n = 9, and 51-60 (n = 6 years and their non-noise-exposed counterparts (n = 30 in each age group. Participants of all the groups including the train drivers had hearing sensitivity within 25 dB HL in the octave frequencies between 250 and 8 kHz. Temporal processing was evaluated using gap detection, modulation detection, and duration pattern tests. Speech recognition was tested in presence multi-talker babble at -5dB SNR. Differences between experimental and control groups were analyzed using ANOVA and independent sample t-tests. Results showed a trend of reduced temporal processing skills in individuals with noise exposure. These deficits were observed despite normal peripheral hearing sensitivity. Speech recognition scores in the presence of noise were also significantly poor in noise-exposed group. Furthermore, poor temporal processing skills partially accounted for the speech recognition difficulties exhibited by the noise-exposed individuals. These results suggest that noise can cause significant distortions in the processing of suprathreshold temporal cues which may add to difficulties in hearing in adverse listening conditions.

  20. Chinese Writing of Deaf or Hard-of-hearing Students and Normal-hearing Peers from Complex Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Deaf or hard-of-hearing individuals usually face a greater challenge to learn to write than their normal-hearing counterparts, because sign language is the primary communicative skills for many deaf people. The current body of research only covers the detailed linguistic features of deaf or hard-of-hearing students. Due to the limitations of traditional research methods focusing on microscopic linguistic features, a holistic characterization of the writing linguistic features of these language users is lacking. This study attempts to fill this gap by adopting the methodology of linguistic complex networks. Two syntactic dependency networks in order to compare the macroscopic linguistic features of deaf or hard-of-hearing students and those of their normal-hearing peers. One is transformed from a treebank of writing produced by Chinese deaf or hard-of-hearing students, and the other from a treebank of writing produced by their Chinese normal-hearing counterparts. Two major findings are obtained through comparison of the statistical features of the two networks. On the one hand, both linguistic networks display small-world and scale-free network structures, but the network of the normal-hearing students’ exhibits a more power-law-like degree distribution. Relevant network measures show significant differences between the two linguistic networks. On the other hand, deaf or hard-of-hearing students tend to have a lower language proficiency level in both syntactic and lexical aspects. The rigid use of function words and a lower vocabulary richness of the deaf or hard-of-hearing students may partially account for the observed differences.

  1. Comparison of Social Interaction between Cochlear-Implanted Children with Normal Intelligence Undergoing Auditory Verbal Therapy and Normal-Hearing Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Yadegari, Fariba; Hashemi, Seyed Basir; Kirchem, Petra; Kasbi, Fatemeh

    2018-04-01

    A cochlear implant is a device that helps hearing-impaired children by transmitting sound signals to the brain and helping them improve their speech, language, and social interaction. Although various studies have investigated the different aspects of speech perception and language acquisition in cochlear-implanted children, little is known about their social skills, particularly Persian-speaking cochlear-implanted children. Considering the growing number of cochlear implants being performed in Iran and the increasing importance of developing near-normal social skills as one of the ultimate goals of cochlear implantation, this study was performed to compare the social interaction between Iranian cochlear-implanted children who have undergone rehabilitation (auditory verbal therapy) after surgery and normal-hearing children. This descriptive-analytical study compared the social interaction level of 30 children with normal hearing and 30 with cochlear implants who were conveniently selected. The Raven test was administered to the both groups to ensure normal intelligence quotient. The social interaction status of both groups was evaluated using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. After controlling age as a covariate variable, no significant difference was observed between the social interaction scores of both the groups (p > 0.05). In addition, social interaction had no correlation with sex in either group. Cochlear implantation followed by auditory verbal rehabilitation helps children with sensorineural hearing loss to have normal social interactions, regardless of their sex.

  2. Lateralized speech perception with small interaural time differences in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locsei, Gusztav; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    and two-talker babble in terms of SRTs, HI listeners could utilize ITDs to a similar degree as NH listeners to facilitate the binaural unmasking of speech. A slight difference was observed between the group means when target and maskers were separated from each other by large ITDs, but not when separated...... SRMs are elicited by small ITDs. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) and SRM due to ITDs were measured over headphones for 10 young NH and 10 older HI listeners, who had normal or close-to-normal hearing below 1.5 kHz. Diotic target sentences were presented in diotic or dichotic speech-shaped noise...... or two-talker babble maskers. In the dichotic conditions, maskers were lateralized by delaying the masker waveforms in the left headphone channel. Multiple magnitudes of masker ITDs were tested in both noise conditions. Although deficits were observed in speech perception abilities in speechshaped noise...

  3. Comparative multivariate analyses of transient otoacoustic emissions and distorsion products in normal and impaired hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamate, Mirela Cristina; Todor, Nicolae; Cosgarea, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    values of area under the curve, suggesting that implementing a multivariate approach to evaluate the performances of each otoacoustic emission test would serve to increase the accuracy in identifying the normal and impaired ears. We encountered the highest area under the curve value for the combined multivariate analysis suggesting that both otoacoustic emission tests should be used in assessing hearing status. Our multivariate analyses revealed that age is a constant predictor factor of the auditory status for both ears, but the presence of tinnitus was the most important predictor for the hearing level, only for the left ear. Age presented similar coefficients, but tinnitus coefficients, by their high value, produced the highest variations of the logistic scores, only for the left ear group, thus increasing the risk of hearing loss. We did not find gender differences between ears for any otoacoustic emission tests, but studies still debate this question as the results are contradictory. Neither gender, nor environment origin had any predictive value for the hearing status, according to the results of our study. Like any other audiological test, using otoacoustic emissions to identify hearing loss is not without error. Even when applying multivariate analysis, perfect test performance is never achieved. Although most studies demonstrated the benefit of using the multivariate analysis, it has not been incorporated into clinical decisions maybe because of the idiosyncratic nature of multivariate solutions or because of the lack of the validation studies.

  4. Fitting and verification of frequency modulation systems on children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Erin C; Bryant, Danielle; Sanders, Katie; Baldus, Nicole; Algier, Katherine; Lewis, Audrey; Traber, Jordan; Layden, Paige; Amin, Aneeqa

    2014-06-01

    Several recent investigations support the use of frequency modulation (FM) systems in children with normal hearing and auditory processing or listening disorders such as those diagnosed with auditory processing disorders, autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Friedreich ataxia, and dyslexia. The American Academy of Audiology (AAA) published suggested procedures, but these guidelines do not cite research evidence to support the validity of the recommended procedures for fitting and verifying nonoccluding open-ear FM systems on children with normal hearing. Documenting the validity of these fitting procedures is critical to maximize the potential FM-system benefit in the above-mentioned populations of children with normal hearing and those with auditory-listening problems. The primary goal of this investigation was to determine the validity of the AAA real-ear approach to fitting FM systems on children with normal hearing. The secondary goal of this study was to examine speech-recognition performance in noise and loudness ratings without and with FM systems in children with normal hearing sensitivity. A two-group, cross-sectional design was used in the present study. Twenty-six typically functioning children, ages 5-12 yr, with normal hearing sensitivity participated in the study. Participants used a nonoccluding open-ear FM receiver during laboratory-based testing. Participants completed three laboratory tests: (1) real-ear measures, (2) speech recognition performance in noise, and (3) loudness ratings. Four real-ear measures were conducted to (1) verify that measured output met prescribed-gain targets across the 1000-4000 Hz frequency range for speech stimuli, (2) confirm that the FM-receiver volume did not exceed predicted uncomfortable loudness levels, and (3 and 4) measure changes to the real-ear unaided response when placing the FM receiver in the child's ear. After completion of the fitting, speech recognition in noise at a -5

  5. Looking Behavior and Audiovisual Speech Understanding in Children With Normal Hearing and Children With Mild Bilateral or Unilateral Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dawna E; Smith, Nicholas A; Spalding, Jody L; Valente, Daniel L

    Visual information from talkers facilitates speech intelligibility for listeners when audibility is challenged by environmental noise and hearing loss. Less is known about how listeners actively process and attend to visual information from different talkers in complex multi-talker environments. This study tracked looking behavior in children with normal hearing (NH), mild bilateral hearing loss (MBHL), and unilateral hearing loss (UHL) in a complex multi-talker environment to examine the extent to which children look at talkers and whether looking patterns relate to performance on a speech-understanding task. It was hypothesized that performance would decrease as perceptual complexity increased and that children with hearing loss would perform more poorly than their peers with NH. Children with MBHL or UHL were expected to demonstrate greater attention to individual talkers during multi-talker exchanges, indicating that they were more likely to attempt to use visual information from talkers to assist in speech understanding in adverse acoustics. It also was of interest to examine whether MBHL, versus UHL, would differentially affect performance and looking behavior. Eighteen children with NH, eight children with MBHL, and 10 children with UHL participated (8-12 years). They followed audiovisual instructions for placing objects on a mat under three conditions: a single talker providing instructions via a video monitor, four possible talkers alternately providing instructions on separate monitors in front of the listener, and the same four talkers providing both target and nontarget information. Multi-talker background noise was presented at a 5 dB signal-to-noise ratio during testing. An eye tracker monitored looking behavior while children performed the experimental task. Behavioral task performance was higher for children with NH than for either group of children with hearing loss. There were no differences in performance between children with UHL and children

  6. Effects of Noise on Speech Recognition and Listening Effort in Children with Normal Hearing and Children with Mild Bilateral or Unilateral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dawna; Schmid, Kendra; O'Leary, Samantha; Spalding, Jody; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; High, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of stimulus type and hearing status on speech recognition and listening effort in children with normal hearing (NH) and children with mild bilateral hearing loss (MBHL) or unilateral hearing loss (UHL). Method Children (5-12 years of age) with NH (Experiment 1) and children (8-12 years of age) with MBHL,…

  7. Effects of Varying Reverberation on Music Perception for Young Normal-Hearing and Old Hearing-Impaired Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Paul N; Souza, Pamela E

    2018-01-01

    Reverberation enhances music perception and is one of the most important acoustic factors in auditorium design. However, previous research on reverberant music perception has focused on young normal-hearing (YNH) listeners. Old hearing-impaired (OHI) listeners have degraded spatial auditory processing; therefore, they may perceive reverberant music differently. Two experiments were conducted examining the effects of varying reverberation on music perception for YNH and OHI listeners. Experiment 1 examined whether YNH listeners and OHI listeners prefer different amounts of reverberation for classical music listening. Symphonic excerpts were processed at a range of reverberation times using a point-source simulation. Listeners performed a paired-comparisons task in which they heard two excerpts with different reverberation times, and they indicated which they preferred. The YNH group preferred a reverberation time of 2.5 s; however, the OHI group did not demonstrate any significant preference. Experiment 2 examined whether OHI listeners are less sensitive to (e, less able to discriminate) differences in reverberation time than YNH listeners. YNH and OHI participants listened to pairs of music excerpts and indicated whether they perceived the same or different amount of reverberation. Results indicated that the ability of both groups to detect differences in reverberation time improved with increasing reverberation time difference. However, discrimination was poorer for the OHI group than for the YNH group. This suggests that OHI listeners are less sensitive to differences in reverberation when listening to music than YNH listeners, which might explain the lack of group reverberation time preferences of the OHI group.

  8. Recognition of "real-world" musical excerpts by cochlear implant recipients and normal-hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Olszewski, Carol; Rychener, Marly; Sena, Kimberly; Knutson, John F; Witt, Shelley; Macpherson, Beth

    2005-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to compare recognition of "real-world" music excerpts by postlingually deafened adults using cochlear implants and normal-hearing adults; (b) to compare the performance of cochlear implant recipients using different devices and processing strategies; and (c) to examine the variability among implant recipients in recognition of musical selections in relation to performance on speech perception tests, performance on cognitive tests, and demographic variables. Seventy-nine cochlear implant users and 30 normal-hearing adults were tested on open-set recognition of systematically selected excerpts from musical recordings heard in real life. The recognition accuracy of the two groups was compared for three musical genre: classical, country, and pop. Recognition accuracy was correlated with speech recognition scores, cognitive measures, and demographic measures, including musical background. Cochlear implant recipients were significantly less accurate in recognition of previously familiar (known before hearing loss) musical excerpts than normal-hearing adults (p genre. Implant recipients were most accurate in the recognition of country items and least accurate in the recognition of classical items. There were no significant differences among implant recipients due to implant type (Nucleus, Clarion, or Ineraid), or programming strategy (SPEAK, CIS, or ACE). For cochlear implant recipients, correlations between melody recognition and other measures were moderate to weak in strength; those with statistically significant correlations included age at time of testing (negatively correlated), performance on selected speech perception tests, and the amount of focused music listening following implantation. Current-day cochlear implants are not effective in transmitting several key structural features (i.e., pitch, harmony, timbral blends) of music essential to open-set recognition of well-known musical selections. Consequently, implant

  9. How age affects memory task performance in clinically normal hearing persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercammen, Charlotte; Goossens, Tine; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate memory task performance in different age groups, irrespective of hearing status. Data are collected on a short-term memory task (WAIS-III Digit Span forward) and two working memory tasks (WAIS-III Digit Span backward and the Reading Span Test). The tasks are administered to young (20-30 years, n = 56), middle-aged (50-60 years, n = 47), and older participants (70-80 years, n = 16) with normal hearing thresholds. All participants have passed a cognitive screening task (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)). Young participants perform significantly better than middle-aged participants, while middle-aged and older participants perform similarly on the three memory tasks. Our data show that older clinically normal hearing persons perform equally well on the memory tasks as middle-aged persons. However, even under optimal conditions of preserved sensory processing, changes in memory performance occur. Based on our data, these changes set in before middle age.

  10. The effects of familiarity and complexity on appraisal of complex songs by cochlear implant recipients and normal hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Christ, Aaron; Knutson, John; Witt, Shelley; Mehr, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to develop a test of complex song appraisal that would be suitable for use with adults who use a cochlear implant (assistive hearing device) and (b) to compare the appraisal ratings (liking) of complex songs by adults who use cochlear implants (n = 66) with a comparison group of adults with normal hearing (n = 36). The article describes the development of a computerized test for appraisal, with emphasis on its theoretical basis and the process for item selection of naturalistic stimuli. The appraisal test was administered to the 2 groups to determine the effects of prior song familiarity and subjective complexity on complex song appraisal. Comparison of the 2 groups indicates that the implant users rate 2 of 3 musical genres (country western, pop) as significantly more complex than do normal hearing adults, and give significantly less positive ratings to classical music than do normal hearing adults. Appraisal responses of implant recipients were examined in relation to hearing history, age, performance on speech perception and cognitive tests, and musical background.

  11. Examination of the neighborhood activation theory in normal and hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, D D; Takayanagi, S; Moshfegh, A; Noffsinger, P D; Fausti, S A

    2001-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of lexical information on word recognition among normal hearing listeners and individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. The lexical factors of interest were incorporated in the Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM). Central to this model is the concept that words are recognized relationally in the context of other phonemically similar words. NAM suggests that words in the mental lexicon are organized into similarity neighborhoods and the listener is required to select the target word from competing lexical items. Two structural characteristics of similarity neighborhoods that influence word recognition have been identified; "neighborhood density" or the number of phonemically similar words (neighbors) for a particular target item and "neighborhood frequency" or the average frequency of occurrence of all the items within a neighborhood. A third lexical factor, "word frequency" or the frequency of occurrence of a target word in the language, is assumed to optimize the word recognition process by biasing the system toward choosing a high frequency over a low frequency word. Three experiments were performed. In the initial experiments, word recognition for consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) monosyllables was assessed in young normal hearing listeners by systematically partitioning the items into the eight possible lexical conditions that could be created by two levels of the three lexical factors, word frequency (high and low), neighborhood density (high and low), and average neighborhood frequency (high and low). Neighborhood structure and word frequency were estimated computationally using a large, on-line lexicon-based Webster's Pocket Dictionary. From this program 400 highly familiar, monosyllables were selected and partitioned into eight orthogonal lexical groups (50 words/group). The 400 words were presented randomly to normal hearing listeners in speech-shaped noise (Experiment 1) and "in quiet" (Experiment 2) as

  12. Relationship between spectrotemporal modulation detection and music perception in normal-hearing, hearing-impaired, and cochlear implant listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Eun; Won, Jong Ho; Kim, Cheol Hee; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa; Moon, Il Joon

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between spectrotemporal modulation (STM) sensitivity and the ability to perceive music. Ten normal-nearing (NH) listeners, ten hearing aid (HA) users with moderate hearing loss, and ten cochlear Implant (CI) users participated in this study. Three different types of psychoacoustic tests including spectral modulation detection (SMD), temporal modulation detection (TMD), and STM were administered. Performances on these psychoacoustic tests were compared to music perception abilities. In addition, psychoacoustic mechanisms involved in the improvement of music perception through HA were evaluated. Music perception abilities in unaided and aided conditions were measured for HA users. After that, HA benefit for music perception was correlated with aided psychoacoustic performance. STM detection study showed that a combination of spectral and temporal modulation cues were more strongly correlated with music perception abilities than spectral or temporal modulation cues measured separately. No correlation was found between music perception performance and SMD threshold or TMD threshold in each group. Also, HA benefits for melody and timbre identification were significantly correlated with a combination of spectral and temporal envelope cues though HA.

  13. Use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of individuals with hearing impairment and normal hearing between 5 and 11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Endo Amemiya

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nouns and verbs indicate actions in oral communication. However, hearing impairment can compromise the acquisition of oral language to such an extent that appropriate use of these can be challenging. The objective of this study was to compare the use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of hearing-impaired and hearing children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Twenty-one children with moderate to profound bilateral neurosensory hearing impairment and twenty-one with normal hearing (controls were matched according to sex, school year and school type. A board showing pictures was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative and measure their performance in producing nouns and verbs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (52.4% of the subjects were males. The mean age was 8 years (standard deviation, SD = 1.5. Comparing averages between the groups of boys and girls, we did not find any significant difference in their use of nouns, but among verbs, there was a significant difference regarding use of the imperative (P = 0.041: more frequent among boys (mean = 2.91. There was no significant difference in the use of nouns and verbs between deaf children and hearers, in relation to school type. Regarding use of the indicative, there was a nearly significant trend (P = 0.058. CONCLUSION: Among oralized hearing-impaired children who underwent speech therapy, their performance regarding verbs and noun use was similar to that of their hearing counterparts.

  14. 76 FR 31543 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-118761-09] RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... deferred losses on the sale or exchange of property between members of a controlled group. DATES: The...

  15. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-06-17

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sudipta; Kundu, Goutam; Maiti, Shyamal Kumar; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Bazmi, Badruddin Ahamed; Mukhopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST). In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired) and control group (normal children). In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  17. Hearing preservation cochlear implantation in children: The HEARRING Group consensus and practice guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Gunesh; Tavora-Vieira, Dayse; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Godey, Benoit; Müller, Joachim; O'Driscoll, Martin; Skarzynski, Henryk; Skarzynski, Piotr; Usami, Shin-Ichi; Adunka, Oliver; Agrawal, Sumit; Bruce, Iain; De Bodt, Marc; Caversaccio, Marco; Pilsbury, Harold; Gavilán, Javier; Hagen, Rudolf; Hagr, Abdulrahman; Kameswaran, Mohan; Karltorp, Eva; Kompis, Martin; Kuzovkov, Vlad; Lassaletta, Luis; Yongxin, Li; Lorens, Artur; Manoj, Manikoth; Martin, Jane; Mertens, Griet; Mlynski, Robert; Parnes, Lorne; Pulibalathingal, Sasidharan; Radeloff, Andreas; Raine, Christopher H; Rajeswaran, Ranjith; Schmutzhard, Joachim; Sprinzl, Georg; Staecker, Hinrich; Stephan, Kurt; Sugarova, Serafima; Zernotti, Mario; Zorowka, Patrick; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2018-01-01

    To provide multidisciplinary cochlear implant teams with a current consensus statement to support hearing preservation cochlear implantation (HPCI) in children, including those children with symptomatic partial deafness (PD) where the intention is to use electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS). The main objectives are to provide guidelines on who is a candidate, how to assess these children and when to implant if Med-El Flex electrode arrays are chosen for implantation. The HEARRING group reviewed the current evidence and practice regarding the management of children to be considered for HPCI surgery emphasizing the assessment needed prior to implantation in order to demonstrate the benefits in these children over time. The consensus statement addresses following three key questions: (1) Should these children be treated? (2) How to identify these children? (3) How to manage these children? The HEARRING group concludes that irrespective of the degree of residual hearing present, the concepts of hearing and structure preservation should be applied in every child undergoing cochlear implantation and that HPCI is a safe and reliable treatment option. Early detection and multidisciplinary assessment are key to the identification of children with symptomatic PD, these children should undergo HPCI as early as possible.

  18. Effect of Exogenous Cues on Covert Spatial Orienting in Deaf and Normal Hearing Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Seema Gorur; Patil, Gouri Shanker; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Deaf individuals have been known to process visual stimuli better at the periphery compared to the normal hearing population. However, very few studies have examined attention orienting in the oculomotor domain in the deaf, particularly when targets appear at variable eccentricity. In this study, we examined if the visual perceptual processing advantage reported in the deaf people also modulates spatial attentional orienting with eye movement responses. We used a spatial cueing task with cued and uncued targets that appeared at two different eccentricities and explored attentional facilitation and inhibition. We elicited both a saccadic and a manual response. The deaf showed a higher cueing effect for the ocular responses than the normal hearing participants. However, there was no group difference for the manual responses. There was also higher facilitation at the periphery for both saccadic and manual responses, irrespective of groups. These results suggest that, owing to their superior visual processing ability, the deaf may orient attention faster to targets. We discuss the results in terms of previous studies on cueing and attentional orienting in deaf.

  19. Speech recognition in normal hearing and sensorineural hearing loss as a function of the number of spectral channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskent, Deniz

    Speech recognition by normal-hearing listeners improves as a function of the number of spectral channels when tested with a noiseband vocoder simulating cochlear implant signal processing. Speech recognition by the best cochlear implant users, however, saturates around eight channels and does not

  20. Externalization versus Internalization of Sound in Normal-hearing and Hearing-impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohl, Björn; Laugesen, Søren; Buchholz, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    The externalization of sound, i. e. the perception of auditory events as being located outside of the head, is a natural phenomenon for normalhearing listeners, when perceiving sound coming from a distant physical sound source. It is potentially useful for hearing in background noise......, but the relevant cues might be distorted by a hearing impairment and also by the processing of the incoming sound through hearing aids. In this project, two intuitive tests in natural real-life surroundings were developed, which capture the limits of the perception of externalization. For this purpose...

  1. Perception of a Sung Vowel as a Function of Frequency-Modulation Rate and Excursion in Listeners with Normal Hearing and Hearing Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Dau, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Frequency fluctuations in human voices can usually be described as coherent frequency modulation (FM). As listeners with hearing impairment (HI listeners) are typically less sensitive to FM than listeners with normal hearing (NH listeners), this study investigated whether hearing loss affects the perception of a sung vowel based on FM…

  2. The approximate number system and domain-general abilities as predictors of math ability in children with normal hearing and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rebecca; Marschark, Marc; Nordmann, Emily; Sapere, Patricia; Skene, Wendy A

    2018-06-01

    Many children with hearing loss (CHL) show a delay in mathematical achievement compared to children with normal hearing (CNH). This study examined whether there are differences in acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) between CHL and CNH, and whether ANS acuity is related to math achievement. Working memory (WM), short-term memory (STM), and inhibition were considered as mediators of any relationship between ANS acuity and math achievement. Seventy-five CHL were compared with 75 age- and gender-matched CNH. ANS acuity, mathematical reasoning, WM, and STM of CHL were significantly poorer compared to CNH. Group differences in math ability were no longer significant when ANS acuity, WM, or STM was controlled. For CNH, WM and STM fully mediated the relationship of ANS acuity to math ability; for CHL, WM and STM only partially mediated this relationship. ANS acuity, WM, and STM are significant contributors to hearing status differences in math achievement, and to individual differences within the group of CHL. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children with hearing loss often perform poorly on measures of math achievement, although there have been few studies focusing on basic numerical cognition in these children. In typically developing children, the approximate number system predicts math skills concurrently and longitudinally, although there have been some contradictory findings. Recent studies suggest that domain-general skills, such as inhibition, may account for the relationship found between the approximate number system and math achievement. What does this study adds? This is the first robust examination of the approximate number system in children with hearing loss, and the findings suggest poorer acuity of the approximate number system in these children compared to hearing children. The study addresses recent issues regarding the contradictory findings of the relationship of the approximate number system to math ability

  3. Standard-Chinese Lexical Neighborhood Test in normal-hearing young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Sha; Zhang, Ning; Yang, Yilin; Kong, Ying; Zhang, Luo

    2011-06-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the Standard-Chinese version of Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) and to examine the lexical and age effects on spoken-word recognition in normal-hearing children. Six lists of monosyllabic and six lists of disyllabic words (20 words/list) were selected from the database of daily speech materials for normal-hearing (NH) children of ages 3-5 years. The lists were further divided into "easy" and "hard" halves according to the word frequency and neighborhood density in the database based on the theory of Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM). Ninety-six NH children (age ranged between 4.0 and 7.0 years) were divided into three different age groups of 1-year intervals. Speech-perception tests were conducted using the Standard-Chinese monosyllabic and disyllabic LNT. The inter-list performance was found to be equivalent and inter-rater reliability was high with 92.5-95% consistency. Results of word-recognition scores showed that the lexical effects were all significant. Children scored higher with disyllabic words than with monosyllabic words. "Easy" words scored higher than "hard" words. The word-recognition performance also increased with age in each lexical category. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that neighborhood density, age, and word frequency appeared to have increasingly more contributions to Chinese word recognition. The results of the present study indicated that performances of Chinese word recognition were influenced by word frequency, age, and neighborhood density, with word frequency playing a major role. These results were consistent with those in other languages, supporting the application of NAM in the Chinese language. The development of Standard-Chinese version of LNT and the establishment of a database of children of 4-6 years old can provide a reliable means for spoken-word recognition test in children with hearing impairment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experience Changes How Emotion in Music Is Judged: Evidence from Children Listening with Bilateral Cochlear Implants, Bimodal Devices, and Normal Hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Giannantonio

    Full Text Available Children using unilateral cochlear implants abnormally rely on tempo rather than mode cues to distinguish whether a musical piece is happy or sad. This led us to question how this judgment is affected by the type of experience in early auditory development. We hypothesized that judgments of the emotional content of music would vary by the type and duration of access to sound in early life due to deafness, altered perception of musical cues through new ways of using auditory prostheses bilaterally, and formal music training during childhood. Seventy-five participants completed the Montreal Emotion Identification Test. Thirty-three had normal hearing (aged 6.6 to 40.0 years and 42 children had hearing loss and used bilateral auditory prostheses (31 bilaterally implanted and 11 unilaterally implanted with contralateral hearing aid use. Reaction time and accuracy were measured. Accurate judgment of emotion in music was achieved across ages and musical experience. Musical training accentuated the reliance on mode cues which developed with age in the normal hearing group. Degrading pitch cues through cochlear implant-mediated hearing induced greater reliance on tempo cues, but mode cues grew in salience when at least partial acoustic information was available through some residual hearing in the contralateral ear. Finally, when pitch cues were experimentally distorted to represent cochlear implant hearing, individuals with normal hearing (including those with musical training switched to an abnormal dependence on tempo cues. The data indicate that, in a western culture, access to acoustic hearing in early life promotes a preference for mode rather than tempo cues which is enhanced by musical training. The challenge to these preferred strategies during cochlear implant hearing (simulated and real, regardless of musical training, suggests that access to pitch cues for children with hearing loss must be improved by preservation of residual hearing and

  5. Experience Changes How Emotion in Music Is Judged: Evidence from Children Listening with Bilateral Cochlear Implants, Bimodal Devices, and Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papsin, Blake C.; Paludetti, Gaetano; Gordon, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Children using unilateral cochlear implants abnormally rely on tempo rather than mode cues to distinguish whether a musical piece is happy or sad. This led us to question how this judgment is affected by the type of experience in early auditory development. We hypothesized that judgments of the emotional content of music would vary by the type and duration of access to sound in early life due to deafness, altered perception of musical cues through new ways of using auditory prostheses bilaterally, and formal music training during childhood. Seventy-five participants completed the Montreal Emotion Identification Test. Thirty-three had normal hearing (aged 6.6 to 40.0 years) and 42 children had hearing loss and used bilateral auditory prostheses (31 bilaterally implanted and 11 unilaterally implanted with contralateral hearing aid use). Reaction time and accuracy were measured. Accurate judgment of emotion in music was achieved across ages and musical experience. Musical training accentuated the reliance on mode cues which developed with age in the normal hearing group. Degrading pitch cues through cochlear implant-mediated hearing induced greater reliance on tempo cues, but mode cues grew in salience when at least partial acoustic information was available through some residual hearing in the contralateral ear. Finally, when pitch cues were experimentally distorted to represent cochlear implant hearing, individuals with normal hearing (including those with musical training) switched to an abnormal dependence on tempo cues. The data indicate that, in a western culture, access to acoustic hearing in early life promotes a preference for mode rather than tempo cues which is enhanced by musical training. The challenge to these preferred strategies during cochlear implant hearing (simulated and real), regardless of musical training, suggests that access to pitch cues for children with hearing loss must be improved by preservation of residual hearing and improvements in

  6. Acceptance of background noise, working memory capacity, and auditory evoked potentials in subjects with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Zunic, Edita; Borovac, Aida; Ibertsson, Tina

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test is a method for quantifying the amount of background noise that subjects accept when listening to speech. Large variations in ANL have been seen between normal-hearing subjects and between studies of normal-hearing subjects, but few explanatory variables have been identified. To explore a possible relationship between a Swedish version of the ANL test, working memory capacity (WMC), and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). ANL, WMC, and AEP were tested in a counterbalanced order across subjects. Twenty-one normal-hearing subjects participated in the study (14 females and 7 males; aged 20-39 yr with an average of 25.7 yr). Reported data consists of age, pure-tone average (PTA), most comfortable level (MCL), background noise level (BNL), ANL (i.e., MCL - BNL), AEP latencies, AEP amplitudes, and WMC. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated between the collected variables to investigate associations. A principal component analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation was conducted on the collected variables to explore underlying factors and estimate interactions between the tested variables. Subjects were also pooled into two groups depending on their results on the WMC test, one group with a score lower than the average and one with a score higher than the average. Comparisons between these two groups were made using the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A negative association was found between ANL and WMC but not between AEP and ANL or WMC. Furthermore, ANL is derived from MCL and BNL, and a significant positive association was found between BNL and WMC. However, no significant associations were seen between AEP latencies and amplitudes and the demographic variables, MCL, and BNL. The PCA identified two underlying factors: One that contained MCL, BNL, ANL, and WMC and another that contained latency for wave Na and amplitudes for waves V and Na-Pa. Using the variables in the first factor

  7. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. Aims: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Subjects and Methods: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out utilizing Z-test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Conclusions: Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  8. Effects of Age and Working Memory Capacity on Speech Recognition Performance in Noise Among Listeners With Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Cole, Stacey Samuels

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if younger and older listeners with normal hearing who differ on working memory span perform differently on speech recognition tests in noise. Older adults typically exhibit poorer speech recognition scores in noise than younger adults, which is attributed primarily to poorer hearing sensitivity and more limited working memory capacity in older than younger adults. Previous studies typically tested older listeners with poorer hearing sensitivity and shorter working memory spans than younger listeners, making it difficult to discern the importance of working memory capacity on speech recognition. This investigation controlled for hearing sensitivity and compared speech recognition performance in noise by younger and older listeners who were subdivided into high and low working memory groups. Performance patterns were compared for different speech materials to assess whether or not the effect of working memory capacity varies with the demands of the specific speech test. The authors hypothesized that (1) normal-hearing listeners with low working memory span would exhibit poorer speech recognition performance in noise than those with high working memory span; (2) older listeners with normal hearing would show poorer speech recognition scores than younger listeners with normal hearing, when the two age groups were matched for working memory span; and (3) an interaction between age and working memory would be observed for speech materials that provide contextual cues. Twenty-eight older (61 to 75 years) and 25 younger (18 to 25 years) normal-hearing listeners were assigned to groups based on age and working memory status. Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 words and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers sentences were presented in noise using an adaptive procedure to measure the signal-to-noise ratio corresponding to 50% correct performance. Cognitive ability was evaluated with two tests of working memory (Listening

  9. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  10. Modeling consonant perception in normal-hearing listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Johannes; Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Speech perception is often studied in terms of natural meaningful speech, i.e., by measuring the in- telligibility of a given set of single words or full sentences. However, when trying to understand how background noise, various sorts of transmission channels (e.g., mobile phones) or hearing...... perception data: (i) an audibility-based approach, which corresponds to the Articu- lation Index (AI), and (ii) a modulation-masking based approach, as reflected in the speech-based Envelope Power Spectrum Model (sEPSM). For both models, the internal representations of the same stimuli as used...

  11. Neural responses to silent lipreading in normal hearing male and female subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Albers, Frans; van Dijk, Pim; Wit, Hero; Willemsen, Antoon

    In the past, researchers investigated silent lipreading in normal hearing subjects with functional neuroimaging tools and showed how the brain processes visual stimuli that are normally accompanied by an auditory counterpart. Previously, we showed activation differences between males and females in

  12. Self-masking: Listening during vocalization. Normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Erik; Bergkvist, Christina; Gustafsson, Dan

    2009-06-01

    What underlying mechanisms are involved in the ability to talk and listen simultaneously and what role does self-masking play under conditions of hearing impairment? The purpose of the present series of studies is to describe a technique for assessment of masked thresholds during vocalization, to describe normative data for males and females, and to focus on hearing impairment. The masking effect of vocalized [a:] on narrow-band noise pulses (250-8000 Hz) was studied using the maximum vocalization method. An amplitude-modulated series of sound pulses, which sounded like a steam engine, was masked until the criterion of halving the perceived pulse rate was reached. For masking of continuous reading, a just-follow-conversation criterion was applied. Intra-session test-retest reproducibility and inter-session variability were calculated. The results showed that female voices were more efficient in masking high frequency noise bursts than male voices and more efficient in masking both a male and a female test reading. The male had to vocalize 4 dBA louder than the female to produce the same masking effect on the test reading. It is concluded that the method is relatively simple to apply and has small intra-session and fair inter-session variability. Interesting gender differences were observed.

  13. Loudness of brief tones in listeners with normal hearing and sensorineural hearing loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Florentine, Mary; Poulsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    To investigate how hearing loss affects the loudness of brief tones, loudness matches between 5- and 200-ms tones were obtained as a function of level. Loudness functions derived from these data indicated that the gain required to restore loudness usually is the same for short and long sounds....

  14. Differences in the perceived music pleasantness between monolateral cochlear implanted and normal hearing children assessed by EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, G; Maglione, A G; Scorpecci, A; Malerba, P; Graziani, I; Cherubino, P; Astolfi, L; Marsella, P; Colosimo, A; Babiloni, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The perception of the music in cochlear implanted (CI) patients is an important aspect of their quality of life. In fact, the pleasantness of the music perception by such CI patients can be analyzed through a particular analysis of EEG rhythms. Studies on healthy subjects show that exists a particular frontal asymmetry of the EEG alpha rhythm which can be correlated with pleasantness of the perceived stimuli (approach-withdrawal theory). In particular, here we describe differences between EEG activities estimated in the alpha frequency band for a monolateral CI group of children and a normal hearing one during the fruition of a musical cartoon. The results of the present analysis showed that the alpha EEG asymmetry patterns related to the normal hearing group refers to a higher pleasantness perception when compared to the cerebral activity of the monolateral CI patients. In fact, the present results support the statement that a monolateral CI group could perceive the music in a less pleasant way when compared to normal hearing children.

  15. [Relationship between the Mandarin acceptable noise level and the personality traits in normal hearing adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Chen, Jian-yong; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Man-hua; Chen, Jing; Li, Yu-ling; Zhang, Hua

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the Mandarin acceptable noise level (ANL) and the personality trait for normal-hearing adults. Eighty-five Mandarin speakers, aged from 21 to 27, participated in this study. ANL materials and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) questionnaire were used to test the acceptable noise level and the personality trait for normal-hearing subjects. SPSS 17.0 was used to analyze the results. ANL were (7.8 ± 2.9) dB in normal hearing participants. The P and N scores in EPQ were significantly correlated with ANL (r = 0.284 and 0.318, P 0.05). Listeners with higher ANL were more likely to be eccentric, hostile, aggressive, and instabe, no ANL differences were found in listeners who were different in introvert-extravert or lying.

  16. Detection threshold for sound distortion resulting from noise reduction in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brons, Inge; Dreschler, Wouter A; Houben, Rolph

    2014-09-01

    Hearing-aid noise reduction should reduce background noise, but not disturb the target speech. This objective is difficult because noise reduction suffers from a trade-off between the amount of noise removed and signal distortion. It is unknown if this important trade-off differs between normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. This study separated the negative effect of noise reduction (distortion) from the positive effect (reduction of noise) to allow the measurement of the detection threshold for noise-reduction (NR) distortion. Twelve NH subjects and 12 subjects with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in this study. The detection thresholds for distortion were determined using an adaptive procedure with a three-interval, two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Different levels of distortion were obtained by changing the maximum amount of noise reduction. Participants were also asked to indicate their preferred NR strength. The detection threshold for overall distortion was higher for HI subjects than for NH subjects, suggesting that stronger noise reduction can be applied for HI listeners without affecting the perceived sound quality. However, the preferred NR strength of HI listeners was closer to their individual detection threshold for distortion than in NH listeners. This implies that HI listeners tolerate fewer audible distortions than NH listeners.

  17. Comparison of self-esteem level of adolescents with cochlear implant and normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Sanem; Belgin, Erol

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the levels of self-esteem of adolescents with cochlear implants (before and after cochlear implantation) and the ones who have normal hearing. For this purpose, Rosenberg self-esteem scale is applied upon the study group which consists of 30 adolescents with cochlear implant between the ages of 12-19 and upon the control group which consists of 60 adolescents having the similar characteristics. The scale is used to evaluate the level of self-esteem of adolescents with cochlear implant and with normal hearing. At the end of the application, the scores of these two groups which they got according to their answers were compared statistically. When the results were examined, there seemed to be no significant difference statistically between the self-esteem values of the cochlear implant group and the control group. Apart from this, there seemed to be significant difference statistically between the self-esteem values of the before cochlear implantation and control group. In this study, we examined changes in the level of self-esteem according to different variables. As a result, it was found out that in both groups levels of self-esteem was higher for adolescents who had had preschool education, had brothers/sisters, high level of income, whose mother was working and whose father and mother had higher levels of education. On the other hand, the birth sequence and the child's father's profession did not seem to have any effect on the child's level of self-esteem. As a result of these findings, it was thought that cochlear implantation had a positive effect on life quality and it was suggested that the adolescents and their families should get assistance from experts about the characteristics and principles of approaching the child in this period. The adolescent should be directed towards social activities and courses, their positive sides should be supported and further studies should be carried out with different case groups on

  18. Sentence Writing and Perception of Written Sentences in Hearing-Impaired and Normal-Hearing Primary School Students in Hamadan, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Yaghobi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Learning language is acquired in early childhood and gradually developed by new words and new structures. Hearing sense is the most important acquisition for learning this skill. Hearing disorders are barriers for natural language learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between writing sentences and perception of written sentences in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among thirty hearing-impaired students with hearing loss of 70-90 dB and thirty normal hearing students. They were selected from 3rd grade primary school students in Hamadan, a large city in Western Iran. The language skills and non language information was assessed by questionnaire, Action Picture Test, and Sentence Perception Test.Results: Results showed that there was a significant relation between writing sentences and perception of written sentences in hearing impaired students (p<0.001, (r=0.8. This significant relation was seen in normal-hearing students as well (p<0.001, (r=0.7.Conclusion: Disability of hearing-impaired students in verbal communication is not only related to articulation and voice disorders but also is related to their disability to explore and use of language rules. They suffer lack of perception of written sentences, and they are not skilled to convey their feelings and thoughts in order to presenting themselves by using language structures.

  19. DESCRIPTION OF BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSES (AIR AND BONE CONDUCTION IN CHILDREN WITH NORMAL HEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pashkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hearing level in small children with conductive hearing loss associated with congenital craniofacial abnormalities, particularly with agenesis of external ear and external auditory meatus is a pressing issue. Conventional methods of assessing hearing in the first years of life, i. e. registration of brainstem auditory evoked responses to acoustic stimuli in the event of air conduction, does not give an indication of the auditory analyzer’s condition due to potential conductive hearing loss in these patients. This study was aimed at assessing potential of diagnosing the auditory analyzer’s function with registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs to acoustic stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator. The study involved 17 children aged 3–10 years with normal hearing. We compared parameters of registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (peak V depending on the type of stimulus transmission (air/bone in children with normal hearing. The data on thresholds of the BAERs registered to acoustic stimuli in the event of air and bone conduction obtained in this study are comparable; hearing thresholds in the event of acoustic stimulation by means of a bone vibrator correlates with the results of the BAERs registered to the stimuli transmitted by means of air conduction earphones (r = 0.9. High correlation of thresholds of BAERs to the stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator with thresholds of BAERs registered when air conduction earphones were used helps to assess auditory analyzer’s condition in patients with any form of conductive hearing loss.  

  20. A Comparison of Linguistic Skills between Persian Cochlear Implant and Normal Hearing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A large number of congenitally deaf children are born annually. If not treated, this will have destructive effects on their language and speech development, educational achievements and future occupation. In this study it has been tried to determine the level of language skills in children with Cochlear Implants (CI in comparison with Normal Hearing (NH age-mates. Methods: Test of Language Development was administered to 30 pre-lingual, severe-to-profound CI children between the ages of 5 to 8. The obtained scores were compared to a Persian database from scores of normally hearing children with the same age range. Results: Results indicated that in spite of great advancements in different areas of language after hearing gain, CI children still lag behind their hearing age-mates in almost all aspects of language skills. Discussion: Based on the results, it is suggested that children with average or above average cognitive skills who use CI have the potential to produce and understand language comparable to their normally hearing peers.

  1. Comparison of visual working memory in deaf and hearing-impaired students with normal counterparts: A research in people without sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Tangestani Zadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The hearing defects in deaf and hearing-impaired students also affect their cognitive skills such as memory in addition to communication skills. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare visual working memory in deaf and hearing-impaired students with that in normal counterparts.Method: In the present study, which was a causal-comparative study using the André Rey test, 30 deaf and 30 hearing-impaired students were compared with 30 students in a normal group, and they were matched based on gender, intelligence, educational grade, and socioeconomic status.Findings: Findings show that there is significant difference between the three groups’ subjects (p0.05.Conclusion: Function of deaf or hard-of-hearing students in the visual working memory task was weaker in comparison with the normal counterparts, while the two deaf and hard-of-hearing groups have similar functions. With a better identification and understanding of the factors that affect the development of this cognitive ability, we can offer new methods of teaching and reduce many of the disadvantages of this group of people in the different fields of cognitive science.

  2. Performance, fatigue and stress in open-plan offices: The effects of noise and restoration on hearing impaired and normal hearing individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Jahncke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing impaired and normal hearing individuals were compared in two within-participant office noise conditions (high noise: 60 L Aeq and low noise: 30 L Aeq . Performance, subjective fatigue, and physiological stress were tested during working on a simulated open-plan office. We also tested two between-participants restoration conditions following the work period with high noise (nature movie or continued office noise. Participants with a hearing impairment (N = 20 were matched with normal hearing participants (N = 18 and undertook one practice session and two counterbalanced experimental sessions. In each experimental session they worked for two hours with basic memory and attention tasks. We also measured physiological stress indicators (cortisol and catecholamines and self-reports of mood and fatigue. The hearing impaired participants were more affected by high noise than the normal hearing participants, as shown by impaired performance for tasks that involve recall of semantic information. The hearing impaired participants were also more fatigued by high noise exposure than participants with normal hearing, and they tended to have higher stress hormone levels during the high noise compared to the low noise condition. Restoration with a movie increased performance and motivation for the normal hearing participants, while rest with continued noise did not. For the hearing impaired participants, continued noise during rest increased motivation and performance, while the movie did not. In summary, the impact of noise and restorative conditions varied with the hearing characteristics of the participants. The small sample size does however encourage caution when interpreting the results.

  3. Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emission Measured Below 300 Hz in Normal-Hearing Human Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , a custom-built low-frequency acoustic probe was put to use in 21 normal-hearing human subjects (of 34 recruited). Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was measured in the enclosed ear canal volume as the response to two simultaneously presented tones with frequencies f1 and f2. The stimulus...

  4. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults with Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Method: Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13…

  5. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Perceived Sentence Clarity for Young Adults with Normal Hearing and Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus; Morgan, Shae D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine talker differences for subjectively rated speech clarity in clear versus conversational speech, to determine whether ratings differ for young adults with normal hearing (YNH listeners) and older adults with hearing impairment (OHI listeners), and to explore effects of certain talker characteristics…

  6. Investigation of in-vehicle speech intelligibility metrics for normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzic, Nikolina

    The effectiveness of in-vehicle speech communication can be a good indicator of the perception of the overall vehicle quality and customer satisfaction. Currently available speech intelligibility metrics do not account in their procedures for essential parameters needed for a complete and accurate evaluation of in-vehicle speech intelligibility. These include the directivity and the distance of the talker with respect to the listener, binaural listening, hearing profile of the listener, vocal effort, and multisensory hearing. In the first part of this research the effectiveness of in-vehicle application of these metrics is investigated in a series of studies to reveal their shortcomings, including a wide range of scores resulting from each of the metrics for a given measurement configuration and vehicle operating condition. In addition, the nature of a possible correlation between the scores obtained from each metric is unknown. The metrics and the subjective perception of speech intelligibility using, for example, the same speech material have not been compared in literature. As a result, in the second part of this research, an alternative method for speech intelligibility evaluation is proposed for use in the automotive industry by utilizing a virtual reality driving environment for ultimately setting targets, including the associated statistical variability, for future in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation. The Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) was evaluated at the sentence Speech Receptions Threshold (sSRT) for various listening situations and hearing profiles using acoustic perception jury testing and a variety of talker and listener configurations and background noise. In addition, the effect of individual sources and transfer paths of sound in an operating vehicle to the vehicle interior sound, specifically their effect on speech intelligibility was quantified, in the framework of the newly developed speech intelligibility evaluation method. Lastly

  7. GROUP OF HEARING MOTHERS OF DEAF CHILDREN: INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Fava de Quevedo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This experience report describes a group phenomenon, based upon a case study of a group of hearing mothers of deaf children. The weekly group, in operation for over three years, provides support for families with deaf children. At first, observations were made in the group for a subsequent analysis of the data and act on interventions. Categories containing the main features that emerged in the group were created in order to discuss the content found. The categories addressed by mothers included: independence/autonomy of the child; adolescence and sexuality; discovery of deafness and reorganization of family dynamics; and matters beyond the group goal. As for the categories related to the group process there are: resistance; containing function of the coordinator; transfer; interventions in the group field. The results lead to understanding the group as a facilitator and as a necessary support for the participants. Before that, interventions were carried out to expand the space for reflection offered by the group, which provides adaptations to the different situations experienced by the participants.

  8. Evidence for Website Claims about the Benefits of Teaching Sign Language to Infants and Toddlers with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri H.; White, Karl R.; Grewe, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The development of proficient communication skills in infants and toddlers is an important component to child development. A popular trend gaining national media attention is teaching sign language to babies with normal hearing whose parents also have normal hearing. Thirty-three websites were identified that advocate sign language for hearing…

  9. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults With Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-06-01

    Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13 two-digit numbers, with alternating male and female talkers. Lists were presented in quiet as well as in stationary and speech-like noise at a signal-to-noise ratio giving approximately 90% intelligibility. Amplification compensated for loss of audibility. Seeing the talker's face improved free recall performance for the younger but not the older group. Poorer performance in background noise was contingent on individual differences in working memory capacity. The effect of seeing the talker's face did not differ in quiet and noise. We have argued that the absence of an effect of seeing the talker's face for older adults with hearing loss may be due to modulation of audiovisual integration mechanisms caused by an interaction between task demands and participant characteristics. In particular, we suggest that executive task demands and interindividual executive skills may play a key role in determining the benefit of seeing the talker's face during a speech-based cognitive task.

  10. An Investigation of Spatial Hearing in Children with Normal Hearing and with Cochlear Implants and the Impact of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurelli, Sara M.

    The ability to analyze an "auditory scene"---that is, to selectively attend to a target source while simultaneously segregating and ignoring distracting information---is one of the most important and complex skills utilized by normal hearing (NH) adults. The NH adult auditory system and brain work rather well to segregate auditory sources in adverse environments. However, for some children and individuals with hearing loss, selectively attending to one source in noisy environments can be extremely challenging. In a normal auditory system, information arriving at each ear is integrated, and thus these binaural cues aid in speech understanding in noise. A growing number of individuals who are deaf now receive cochlear implants (CIs), which supply hearing through electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. In particular, bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs) are now becoming more prevalent, especially in children. However, because CI sound processing lacks both fine structure cues and coordination between stimulation at the two ears, binaural cues may either be absent or inconsistent. For children with NH and with BiCIs, this difficulty in segregating sources is of particular concern because their learning and development commonly occurs within the context of complex auditory environments. This dissertation intends to explore and understand the ability of children with NH and with BiCIs to function in everyday noisy environments. The goals of this work are to (1) Investigate source segregation abilities in children with NH and with BiCIs; (2) Examine the effect of target-interferer similarity and the benefits of source segregation for children with NH and with BiCIs; (3) Investigate measures of executive function that may predict performance in complex and realistic auditory tasks of source segregation for listeners with NH; and (4) Examine source segregation abilities in NH listeners, from school-age to adults.

  11. Investigating the Role of Working Memory in Speech-in-noise Identification for Listeners with Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Rosen, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of cognitive hearing science, increased attention has been given to individual differences in cognitive functioning and their explanatory power in accounting for inter-listener variability in understanding speech in noise (SiN). The psychological construct that has received most interest is working memory (WM), representing the ability to simultaneously store and process information. Common lore and theoretical models assume that WM-based processes subtend speech processing in adverse perceptual conditions, such as those associated with hearing loss or background noise. Empirical evidence confirms the association between WM capacity (WMC) and SiN identification in older hearing-impaired listeners. To assess whether WMC also plays a role when listeners without hearing loss process speech in acoustically adverse conditions, we surveyed published and unpublished studies in which the Reading-Span test (a widely used measure of WMC) was administered in conjunction with a measure of SiN identification. The survey revealed little or no evidence for an association between WMC and SiN performance. We also analysed new data from 132 normal-hearing participants sampled from across the adult lifespan (18-91 years), for a relationship between Reading-Span scores and identification of matrix sentences in noise. Performance on both tasks declined with age, and correlated weakly even after controlling for the effects of age and audibility (r = 0.39, p ≤ 0.001, one-tailed). However, separate analyses for different age groups revealed that the correlation was only significant for middle-aged and older groups but not for the young (< 40 years) participants.

  12. Safety of the HyperSound® Audio System in subjects with normal hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritvik P. Mehta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the safety of the HyperSound® Audio System (HSS, a novel audio system using ultrasound technology, in normal hearing subjects under normal use conditions; we considered preexposure and post-exposure test design. We investigated primary and secondary outcome measures: i temporary threshold shift (TTS, defined as >10 dB shift in pure tone air conduction thresholds and/or a decrement in distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs >10 dB at two or more frequencies; ii presence of new-onset otologic symptoms after exposure. Twenty adult subjects with normal hearing underwent a pre-exposure assessment (pure tone air conduction audiometry, tympanometry, DPOAEs and otologic symptoms questionnaire followed by exposure to a 2-h movie with sound delivered through the HSS emitter followed by a post-exposure assessment. No TTS or new-onset otological symptoms were identified. HSS demonstrates excellent safety in normal hearing subjects under normal use conditions.

  13. Safety of the HyperSound® Audio System in Subjects with Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ritvik P; Mattson, Sara L; Kappus, Brian A; Seitzman, Robin L

    2015-06-11

    The objective of the study was to assess the safety of the HyperSound® Audio System (HSS), a novel audio system using ultrasound technology, in normal hearing subjects under normal use conditions; we considered pre-exposure and post-exposure test design. We investigated primary and secondary outcome measures: i) temporary threshold shift (TTS), defined as >10 dB shift in pure tone air conduction thresholds and/or a decrement in distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) >10 dB at two or more frequencies; ii) presence of new-onset otologic symptoms after exposure. Twenty adult subjects with normal hearing underwent a pre-exposure assessment (pure tone air conduction audiometry, tympanometry, DPOAEs and otologic symptoms questionnaire) followed by exposure to a 2-h movie with sound delivered through the HSS emitter followed by a post-exposure assessment. No TTS or new-onset otological symptoms were identified. HSS demonstrates excellent safety in normal hearing subjects under normal use conditions.

  14. Sensory-motor relationships in speech production in post-lingually deaf cochlear-implanted adults and normal-hearing seniors: Evidence from phonetic convergence and speech imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarbel, Lucie; Beautemps, Denis; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Sato, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Speech communication can be viewed as an interactive process involving a functional coupling between sensory and motor systems. One striking example comes from phonetic convergence, when speakers automatically tend to mimic their interlocutor's speech during communicative interaction. The goal of this study was to investigate sensory-motor linkage in speech production in postlingually deaf cochlear implanted participants and normal hearing elderly adults through phonetic convergence and imitation. To this aim, two vowel production tasks, with or without instruction to imitate an acoustic vowel, were proposed to three groups of young adults with normal hearing, elderly adults with normal hearing and post-lingually deaf cochlear-implanted patients. Measure of the deviation of each participant's f 0 from their own mean f 0 was measured to evaluate the ability to converge to each acoustic target. showed that cochlear-implanted participants have the ability to converge to an acoustic target, both intentionally and unintentionally, albeit with a lower degree than young and elderly participants with normal hearing. By providing evidence for phonetic convergence and speech imitation, these results suggest that, as in young adults, perceptuo-motor relationships are efficient in elderly adults with normal hearing and that cochlear-implanted adults recovered significant perceptuo-motor abilities following cochlear implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel approach to select genes from RMA normalized microarray data using functional hearing tests in aging mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Mary; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Frisina, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Presbycusis – age-related hearing loss – is the number one communicative disorder and one of the top three chronic medical condition of our aged population. High-throughput technologies potentially can be used to identify differentially expressed genes that may be better diagnostic and therapeutic targets for sensory and neural disorders. Here we analyzed gene expression for a set of GABA receptors in the cochlea of aging CBA mice using the Affymetrix GeneChip MOE430A. Functional phenotypic hearing measures were made, including auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) amplitudes (four age groups). Four specific criteria were used to assess gene expression changes from RMA normalized microarray data (40 replicates). Linear regression models were used to fit the neurophysiological hearing measurements to probe-set expression profiles. These data were first subjected to one-way ANOVA, and then linear regression was performed. In addition, the log signal ratio was converted to fold change, and selected gene expression changes were confirmed by relative real-time PCR. Major findings: expression of GABA-A receptor subunit α6 was upregulated with age and hearing loss, whereas subunit α1 was repressed. In addition, GABA-A receptor associated protein like-1 and GABA-A receptor associated protein like-2 were strongly downregulated with age and hearing impairment. Lastly, gene expression measures were correlated with pathway/network relationships relevant to the inner ear using Pathway Architect, to identify key pathways consistent with the gene expression changes observed. PMID:18455804

  16. Categorization of common sounds by cochlear implanted and normal hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, E; Marx, M; Gaillard, P; Roby, B; Fraysse, B; Deguine, O; Barone, P

    2016-05-01

    Auditory categorization involves grouping of acoustic events along one or more shared perceptual dimensions which can relate to both semantic and physical attributes. This process involves both high level cognitive processes (categorization) and low-level perceptual encoding of the acoustic signal, both of which are affected by the use of a cochlear implant (CI) device. The goal of this study was twofold: I) compare the categorization strategies of CI users and normal hearing listeners (NHL) II) investigate if any characteristics of the raw acoustic signal could explain the results. 16 experienced CI users and 20 NHL were tested using a Free-Sorting Task of 16 common sounds divided into 3 predefined categories of environmental, musical and vocal sounds. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) and Hierarchical Clustering based on Principal Components (HCPC) show that CI users followed a similar categorization strategy to that of NHL and were able to discriminate between the three different types of sounds. However results for CI users were more varied and showed less inter-participant agreement. Acoustic analysis also highlighted the average pitch salience and average autocorrelation peak as being important for the perception and categorization of the sounds. The results therefore show that on a broad level of categorization CI users may not have as many difficulties as previously thought in discriminating certain kinds of sound; however the perception of individual sounds remains challenging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of Group Training of Assertiveness on Social Anxiety among Deaf and Hard of Hearing Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Daramadi, Parviz Sharifi; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Givtaj, Hamed; Sani, Mohammad Reza Mahmoudian

    2017-06-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of assertiveness group training on social anxiety (SAD) between deaf and hearing impaired adolescents. Forty eight (24 deaf and 24 hearing impaired) people participated in this study. First, participants with SAD, i.e. attaining the scores above 40 for Connor's Social Inventory Scale 2000 (SPIN), were selected according to convenience sampling and randomly assigned to two groups, i.e. intervention and control. Then, assertiveness group training was conducted for intervention group within 10 sessions, and immediately after completion of the training sessions, SPIN was re-administered to the two groups. ANCOVA showed that the effectiveness of assertiveness group training on SAD is different between deaf and hearing impaired participants, i.e. assertiveness group training was effective on improvement of SAD in hearing impaired participants but not deaf ones. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate assertiveness group training in the educational programs developed for adolescents with ear disorders especially hearing impairment.

  18. The comparison of stress and marital satisfaction status of parents of hearing-impaired and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Gharashi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is the source of many problems in human-kind lives and threatens people's life constantly. Having hearing-impaired child, not only causes stress in parents, but also affects their marital satisfaction. The purpose of this study was comparing the stress and marital satisfaction status between the normal and hearing-impaired children's parents.Methods: This was a causal-comparative study. Eighty parents of normal children and 80 parents of hearing-impaired children were chosen from rehabilitation centers and kindergartens in city of Tabriz, Iran by available and clustering sampling method. All parents were asked to complete the Friedrich's source of stress and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaires.Results: Parents of hearing-impaired children endure more stress than the normal hearing ones (p<0.001. The marital satisfaction of hearing-impaired children's parents was lower than the parents of normal hearing children, too (p<0.001.Conclusion: Having a hearing-impaired child causes stress and threatens the levels of marital satisfaction. This requires much more attention and a distinct planning for parents of handicap children to reduce their stress.

  19. Effects of dynamic range compression on spatial selective auditory attention in normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew H; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2013-04-01

    Many hearing aids introduce compressive gain to accommodate the reduced dynamic range that often accompanies hearing loss. However, natural sounds produce complicated temporal dynamics in hearing aid compression, as gain is driven by whichever source dominates at a given moment. Moreover, independent compression at the two ears can introduce fluctuations in interaural level differences (ILDs) important for spatial perception. While independent compression can interfere with spatial perception of sound, it does not always interfere with localization accuracy or speech identification. Here, normal-hearing listeners reported a target message played simultaneously with two spatially separated masker messages. We measured the amount of spatial separation required between the target and maskers for subjects to perform at threshold in this task. Fast, syllabic compression that was independent at the two ears increased the required spatial separation, but linking the compressors to provide identical gain to both ears (preserving ILDs) restored much of the deficit caused by fast, independent compression. Effects were less clear for slower compression. Percent-correct performance was lower with independent compression, but only for small spatial separations. These results may help explain differences in previous reports of the effect of compression on spatial perception of sound.

  20. Open-type congenital cholesteatoma: differential diagnosis for conductive hearing loss with a normal tympanic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Chu, Ho-Suk; Jang, Jeon-Yeob; Chung, Won-Ho; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2012-06-01

    In patients with progressive conductive hearing loss and a normal tympanic membrane (TM), and with soft tissue density in the middle ear cavity (MEC) on temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT) scan, open-type congenital cholesteatoma (OCC) should be highly suspected and a proper surgical plan that includes mastoid exploration and second-stage operation is required. The clinical presentation of OCC is very similar to congenital ossicular anomaly (COA) presenting with a conductive hearing loss with intact TM. Therefore, it is challenging to make a correct preoperative diagnosis in patients with OCC. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of OCC compared with those of COA to find diagnostic clues useful in diagnosis of OCC. The medical records of 12 patients with surgically proven OCC and 14 patients with surgically proven COA were reviewed for demographic data, otologic history, preoperative TBCT findings, intraoperative findings, and pre- and postoperative audiologic data. There was no difference between OCC and COA based on demographic data, preoperative hearing, and ossicular status on TBCT. However, the presence of progressive hearing loss, soft tissue density in the MEC on TBCT scan, and the need for mastoid surgery and second-stage operation were significantly more frequent in OCC patients.

  1. Improving Mobile Phone Speech Recognition by Personalized Amplification: Application in People with Normal Hearing and Mild-to-Moderate Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Anna Chi Shan; Sung, John Ka Keung; Lee, Tan; Wong, Terence Ka Cheong; van Hasselt, Andrew

    In this study, the authors evaluated the effect of personalized amplification on mobile phone speech recognition in people with and without hearing loss. This prospective study used double-blind, within-subjects, repeated measures, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of applying personalized amplification based on the hearing level captured on the mobile device. The personalized amplification settings were created using modified one-third gain targets. The participants in this study included 100 adults of age between 20 and 78 years (60 with age-adjusted normal hearing and 40 with hearing loss). The performance of the participants with personalized amplification and standard settings was compared using both subjective and speech-perception measures. Speech recognition was measured in quiet and in noise using Cantonese disyllabic words. Subjective ratings on the quality, clarity, and comfortableness of the mobile signals were measured with an 11-point visual analog scale. Subjective preferences of the settings were also obtained by a paired-comparison procedure. The personalized amplification application provided better speech recognition via the mobile phone both in quiet and in noise for people with hearing impairment (improved 8 to 10%) and people with normal hearing (improved 1 to 4%). The improvement in speech recognition was significantly better for people with hearing impairment. When the average device output level was matched, more participants preferred to have the individualized gain than not to have it. The personalized amplification application has the potential to improve speech recognition for people with mild-to-moderate hearing loss, as well as people with normal hearing, in particular when listening in noisy environments.

  2. Right-Ear Advantage for Speech-in-Noise Recognition in Patients with Nonlateralized Tinnitus and Normal Hearing Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yihsin; Husain, Fatima T

    2018-04-01

    Despite having normal hearing sensitivity, patients with chronic tinnitus may experience more difficulty recognizing speech in adverse listening conditions as compared to controls. However, the association between the characteristics of tinnitus (severity and loudness) and speech recognition remains unclear. In this study, the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN) was conducted monaurally on 14 patients with bilateral tinnitus and 14 age- and hearing-matched adults to determine the relation between tinnitus characteristics and speech understanding. Further, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), tinnitus loudness magnitude estimation, and loudness matching were obtained to better characterize the perceptual and psychological aspects of tinnitus. The patients reported low THI scores, with most participants in the slight handicap category. Significant between-group differences in speech-in-noise performance were only found at the 5-dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition. The tinnitus group performed significantly worse in the left ear than in the right ear, even though bilateral tinnitus percept and symmetrical thresholds were reported in all patients. This between-ear difference is likely influenced by a right-ear advantage for speech sounds, as factors related to testing order and fatigue were ruled out. Additionally, significant correlations found between SNR loss in the left ear and tinnitus loudness matching suggest that perceptual factors related to tinnitus had an effect on speech-in-noise performance, pointing to a possible interaction between peripheral and cognitive factors in chronic tinnitus. Further studies, that take into account both hearing and cognitive abilities of patients, are needed to better parse out the effect of tinnitus in the absence of hearing impairment.

  3. Comparison of psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normally-hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasempour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Families who have a child with hearing deficiency deal with different challenges, and mothers have a greater responsibility towards these children because of their traditional role of caregiver; so, they deal with more psychological problems. The aim of this study was to compare the psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional and post event study (causal-comparative method, 30 mothers of deaf students and 30 mothers of normal students from elementary schools of Ardabil, Iran, were selected using available sampling. The Ryff psychological well-being (1989 and Billings and Moos coping styles (1981 questionnaires were used in this study. The data were analyzed using MANOVA test.Results: We found that in mother's of deaf children, psychological well-being and its components was significantly lower than mothers of normal children (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups in terms of cognitive coping style, too (p<0.01. However, mothers of deaf children used less cognitive coping style.Conclusions: It seems that child's hearing loss affects on mothers psychological well-being and coping styles; this effect can be visible as psychological problems and lower use of adaptive coping styles.

  4. About normal distribution on SO(3) group in texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savyolova, T. I.; Filatov, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    This article studies and compares different normal distributions (NDs) on SO(3) group, which are used in texture analysis. Those NDs are: Fisher normal distribution (FND), Bunge normal distribution (BND), central normal distribution (CND) and wrapped normal distribution (WND). All of the previously mentioned NDs are central functions on SO(3) group. CND is a subcase for normal CLT-motivated distributions on SO(3) (CLT here is Parthasarathy’s central limit theorem). WND is motivated by CLT in R 3 and mapped to SO(3) group. A Monte Carlo method for modeling normally distributed values was studied for both CND and WND. All of the NDs mentioned above are used for modeling different components of crystallites orientation distribution function in texture analysis.

  5. Preliminary findings on associations between moral emotions and social behavior in young children with normal hearing and with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Lizet; Wiefferink, Carin H; Frijns, Johan H M; Broekhof, Evelien; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-11-01

    Moral emotions such as shame, guilt and pride are the result of an evaluation of the own behavior as (morally) right or wrong. The capacity to experience moral emotions is thought to be an important driving force behind socially appropriate behavior. The relationship between moral emotions and social behavior in young children has not been studied extensively in normally hearing (NH) children, let alone in those with a hearing impairment. This study compared young children with hearing impairments who have a cochlear implant (CI) to NH peers regarding the extent to which they display moral emotions, and how this relates to their social functioning and language skills. Responses of 184 NH children and 60 children with CI (14-61 months old) to shame-/guilt- and pride-inducing events were observed. Parents reported on their children's social competence and externalizing behavior, and experimenters observed children's cooperative behavior. To examine the role of communication in the development of moral emotions and social behavior, children's language skills were assessed. Results show that children with CI displayed moral emotions to a lesser degree than NH children. An association between moral emotions and social functioning was found in the NH group, but not in the CI group. General language skills were unrelated to moral emotions in the CI group, yet emotion vocabulary was related to social functioning in both groups of children. We conclude that facilitating emotion language skills has the potential to promote children's social functioning, and could contribute to a decrease in behavioral problems in children with CI specifically. Future studies should examine in greater detail which factors are associated with the development of moral emotions, particularly in children with CI. Some possible directions for future research are discussed.

  6. The cochlear implant and possibilities for narrowing the remaining gaps between prosthetic and normal hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake S. Wilson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cochlear implant has become the standard of care for severe or worse losses in hearing and indeed has produced the first substantial restoration of a lost or absent human sense using a medical intervention. However, the devices are not perfect and many efforts to narrow the remaining gaps between prosthetic and normal hearing are underway. Objective: To assess the present status of cochlear implants and to describe possibilities for improving them. Results: The present-day devices work well in quiet conditions for the great majority of users. However, not all users have high levels of speech reception in quiet and nearly all users struggle with speech reception in typically noisy acoustic environments. In addition, perception of sounds more complex than speech, such as most music, is generally poor unless residual hearing at low frequencies can be stimulated acoustically in conjunction with the electrical stimuli provided by the implant. Possibilities for improving the present devices include increasing the spatial specificity of neural excitation by reducing masking effects or with new stimulus modes; prudent pruning of interfering or otherwise detrimental electrodes from the stimulation map; a further relaxation in the criteria for implant candidacy, based on recent evidence from persons with high levels of residual hearing and to allow many more people to benefit from cochlear implants; and “top down” or “brain centric” approaches to implant designs and applications. Conclusions: Progress in the development of the cochlear implant and related treatments has been remarkable but room remains for improvements. The future looks bright as there are multiple promising possibilities for improvements and many talented teams are pursuing them. Keywords: Auditory prosthesis, Cochlear implant, Cochlear prosthesis, Deafness, Neural prosthesis

  7. Signal-to-background-ratio preferences of normal-hearing listeners as a function of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jillian G.

    2005-04-01

    The primary purpose of speech is to convey a message. Many factors affect the listener's overall reception, several of which have little to do with the linguistic content itself, but rather with the delivery (e.g., prosody, intonation patterns, pragmatics, paralinguistic cues). Music, however, may convey a message either with or without linguistic content. In instances in which music has lyrics, one cannot assume verbal content will take precedence over sonic properties. Lyric emphasis over other aspects of music cannot be assumed. Singing introduces distortion of the vowel-consonant temporal ratio of speech, emphasizing vowels and de-emphasizing consonants. The phonemic production alterations of singing make it difficult for even those with normal hearing to understand the singer. This investigation was designed to identify singer-to-background-ratio (SBR) prefer- ences for normal hearing adult listeners (as opposed to SBR levels maxi-mizing speech discrimination ability). Stimuli were derived from three different original songs, each produced in two different genres and sung by six different singers. Singer and genre were the two primary contributors to significant differences in SBR preferences, though results clearly indicate genre, style and singer interact in different combinations for each song, each singer, and for each subject in an unpredictable manner.

  8. Temporal and spatio-temporal vibrotactile displays for voice fundamental frequency: an initial evaluation of a new vibrotactile speech perception aid with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, E T; Bernstein, L E; Coulter, D C

    1998-10-01

    Four experiments were performed to evaluate a new wearable vibrotactile speech perception aid that extracts fundamental frequency (F0) and displays the extracted F0 as a single-channel temporal or an eight-channel spatio-temporal stimulus. Specifically, we investigated the perception of intonation (i.e., question versus statement) and emphatic stress (i.e., stress on the first, second, or third word) under Visual-Alone (VA), Visual-Tactile (VT), and Tactile-Alone (TA) conditions and compared performance using the temporal and spatio-temporal vibrotactile display. Subjects were adults with normal hearing in experiments I-III and adults with severe to profound hearing impairments in experiment IV. Both versions of the vibrotactile speech perception aid successfully conveyed intonation. Vibrotactile stress information was successfully conveyed, but vibrotactile stress information did not enhance performance in VT conditions beyond performance in VA conditions. In experiment III, which involved only intonation identification, a reliable advantage for the spatio-temporal display was obtained. Differences between subject groups were obtained for intonation identification, with more accurate VT performance by those with normal hearing. Possible effects of long-term hearing status are discussed.

  9. Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Lund, Emily; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Measures of print knowledge were compared across preschoolers with hearing loss and normal hearing. Alphabet knowledge did not differ between groups, but preschoolers with hearing loss performed lower on measures of print concepts and concepts of written words than preschoolers with normal hearing. Further study is needed in this area.

  10. The Comparison Study of Contralateral Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission (TEOAE Suppression in Normal Hearing Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Mohamadkhani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: A common auditory complaint of multiple sclerosis patients, is misunderstanding speech in the presence of background noise. Evidence from animal and human studies has suggested that the medial olivocochlear bundle may play an important role in hearing noise. The medial olivocochlear bundle function can be evaluated by the suppression effect of transient otoacoustic emission in response to contralateral acoustic stimulation. The present study was conducted to investigate the suppression effect of transient otoacoustic emission in multiple sclerosis patients. Materials & Methods: This analytical case-control study was conducted on 34 multiple sclerosis patients (24 female, 10 male, aged 20-50 years and 34 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2006. All cases were selected in simple random manner. The suppression effect of transient otoacoustic emission was evaluated by comparing the transient otoacoustic emission levels with and without contralateral acoustic stimulation. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and independent T- test. Results:There was no significant difference in transient otoacoustic emission levels of two groups, but a significantly reduced suppression effect of transient otoacoustic emission was found in multiple sclerosis patients, in compare with the controls. Conclusion: Outer hair cells activity in multiple sclerosis patients was normal but these patients presented low activity of the medial olivocochlear bundle system which could affect their ability to hear in the presence of background noise.

  11. Masking release with changing fundamental frequency: Electric acoustic stimulation resembles normal hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auinger, Alice Barbara; Riss, Dominik; Liepins, Rudolfs; Rader, Tobias; Keck, Tilman; Keintzel, Thomas; Kaider, Alexandra; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Arnoldner, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    It has been shown that patients with electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) perform better in noisy environments than patients with a cochlear implant (CI). One reason for this could be the preserved access to acoustic low-frequency cues including the fundamental frequency (F0). Therefore, our primary aim was to investigate whether users of EAS experience a release from masking with increasing F0 difference between target talker and masking talker. The study comprised 29 patients and consisted of three groups of subjects: EAS users, CI users and normal-hearing listeners (NH). All CI and EAS users were implanted with a MED-EL cochlear implant and had at least 12 months of experience with the implant. Speech perception was assessed with the Oldenburg sentence test (OlSa) using one sentence from the test corpus as speech masker. The F0 in this masking sentence was shifted upwards by 4, 8, or 12 semitones. For each of these masker conditions the speech reception threshold (SRT) was assessed by adaptively varying the masker level while presenting the target sentences at a fixed level. A statistically significant improvement in speech perception was found for increasing difference in F0 between target sentence and masker sentence in EAS users (p = 0.038) and in NH listeners (p = 0.003). In CI users (classic CI or EAS users with electrical stimulation only) speech perception was independent from differences in F0 between target and masker. A release from masking with increasing difference in F0 between target and masking speech was only observed in listeners and configurations in which the low-frequency region was presented acoustically. Thus, the speech information contained in the low frequencies seems to be crucial for allowing listeners to separate multiple sources. By combining acoustic and electric information, EAS users even manage tasks as complicated as segregating the audio streams from multiple talkers. Preserving the natural code, like fine-structure cues in

  12. Perception of a Sung Vowel as a Function of Frequency-Modulation Rate and Excursionin Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels henrik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Frequency fluctuations in human voices can usually be described as coherent frequency modulation (FM). As listeners with hearing impairment (HI listeners) are typically less sensitive to FM than listeners with normal hearing (NH listeners), this study investigated whether hearing loss...... affects the perception of a sung vowel based on FM cues. Method: Vibrato maps were obtained in 14 NH and 12 HI listeners with different degrees of musical experience. The FM rate and FM excursion of a synthesized vowel, to which coherent FM was applied, were adjusted until a singing voice emerged. Results......: In NH listeners, adding FM to the steady vowel components produced perception of a singing voice for FM rates between 4.1 and 7.5 Hz and FM excursions between 17 and 83 cents on average. In contrast, HI listeners showed substantially broader vibrato maps. Individual differences in map boundaries were...

  13. Data-driven intensity normalization of PET group comparison studies is superior to global mean normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Aanerud, Joel; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global mean (GM) normalization is one of the most commonly used methods of normalization in PET and SPECT group comparison studies of neurodegenerative disorders. It requires that no between-group GM difference is present, which may be strongly violated in neurodegenerative disorders....... Importantly, such GM differences often elude detection due to the large intrinsic variance in absolute values of cerebral blood flow or glucose consumption. Alternative methods of normalization are needed for this type of data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two types of simulation were performed using CBF images...

  14. Farm and rural adolescents′ perspective on hearing conservation: Reports from a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne S Rosemberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of rural and farm adolescents regarding hearing conservation strategies. This qualitative study took place at two high schools in rural Michigan. Twenty-five adolescents living and working on farms or living in rural areas participated in one of two focus groups. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two researchers and checked by an additional researcher to ensure reliability. Noise exposure was ubiquitous among participants, both in farm-related (e.g., equipment, livestock and non-farm-related (e.g., music, firearms activities. Perceived barriers to use of hearing protection devices outweighed perceived benefits, resulting in uncommon use of protection. When hearing protection was used, it was usually earmuffs or earplugs. Participants indicated a lack of training in noise hazards and protective strategies. Despite their acknowledged risk of hearing loss, participants did not associate their use of hearing protection today with their hearing ability later in life. Categories emerging that relate to hearing protector use included: Barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, situational influences, impersonal influences, cues to action, susceptibility, and severity. Farm and rural adolescents are at risk for noise exposure and hearing loss. The findings stress the significance of work environment and adult modeling in facilitating hearing conservation behaviors. As indicated by the youths′ recommendations, school-based interventions may be an effective approach to address this health concern. Intervention studies are needed to test various approaches that can effectively promote use of hearing conservation strategies among rural and farm adolescents.

  15. Abnormal Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR Findings in a Near-Normal Hearing Child with Noonan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jalaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noonan syndrome (NS is a heterogeneous genetic disease that affects many parts of the body. It was named after Dr. Jacqueline Anne Noonan, a paediatric cardiologist.Case Report: We report audiological tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR findings in a 5-year old Malay boy with NS. Despite showing the marked signs of NS, the child could only produce a few meaningful words. Audiological tests found him to have bilateral mild conductive hearing loss at low frequencies. In ABR testing, despite having good waveform morphology, the results were atypical. Absolute latency of wave V was normal but interpeak latencies of wave’s I-V, I-II, II-III were prolonged. Interestingly, interpeak latency of waves III-V was abnormally shorter.Conclusion:Abnormal ABR results are possibly due to abnormal anatomical condition of brainstem and might contribute to speech delay.

  16. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift in normal-hearing human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, Colleen G; Dell, Shawna; Hensley, Brittany; Hall, James W; Campbell, Kathleen C M; Antonelli, Patrick J; Green, Glenn E; Miller, James M; Guire, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is the availability of an established clinical paradigm with real-world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal-hearing human subjects. Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93 to 95 (n = 10), 98 to 100 (n = 11), or 100 to 102 (n = 12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of 4 hr. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured before and after music exposure. Postmusic tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and 1 week later. Changes in thresholds after the lowest-level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a "notch" configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean = 6.3 ± 3.9 dB; range = 0-14 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hr postexposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1 week postexposure. These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music-player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function after digital music-player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be taken to fully inform potential subjects in

  17. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, C. G.; Dell, S.; Hensley, B.; Hall, J. W.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Antonelli, P. J.; Green, G. E.; Miller, J. M.; Guire, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is availability of an established clinical paradigm with real world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects. Design Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93–95 (n=10), 98–100 (n=11), or 100–102 (n=12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of four hours. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured prior to and after music exposure. Post-music tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and one week later. Results Changes in thresholds after the lowest level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a “notch” configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean=6.3±3.9dB; range=0–13 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hours post-exposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1-week post-exposure. Conclusions These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function following digital music player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be

  18. Detection threshold for sound distortion resulting from noise reduction in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, Inge; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Houben, Rolph

    2014-01-01

    Hearing-aid noise reduction should reduce background noise, but not disturb the target speech. This objective is difficult because noise reduction suffers from a trade-off between the amount of noise removed and signal distortion. It is unknown if this important trade-off differs between

  19. Cortical and Sensory Causes of Individual Differences in Selective Attention Ability among Listeners with Normal Hearing Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This review provides clinicians with an overview of recent findings relevant to understanding why listeners with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) sometimes suffer from communication difficulties in noisy settings. Method: The results from neuroscience and psychoacoustics are reviewed. Results: In noisy settings, listeners focus their…

  20. The use of auditory and visual context in speech perception by listeners with normal hearing and listeners with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eWinn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of acoustic and visual variability across different talkers and different speaking contexts. Listeners with normal hearing accommodate that variability in ways that facilitate efficient perception, but it is not known whether listeners with cochlear implants can do the same. In this study, listeners with normal hearing (NH and listeners with cochlear implants (CIs were tested for accommodation to auditory and visual phonetic contexts created by gender-driven speech differences as well as vowel coarticulation and lip rounding in both consonants and vowels. Accommodation was measured as the shifting of perceptual boundaries between /s/ and /ʃ/ sounds in various contexts, as modeled by mixed-effects logistic regression. Owing to the spectral contrasts thought to underlie these context effects, CI listeners were predicted to perform poorly, but showed considerable success. Listeners with cochlear implants not only showed sensitivity to auditory cues to gender, they were also able to use visual cues to gender (i.e. faces as a supplement or proxy for information in the acoustic domain, in a pattern that was not observed for listeners with normal hearing. Spectrally-degraded stimuli heard by listeners with normal hearing generally did not elicit strong context effects, underscoring the limitations of noise vocoders and/or the importance of experience with electric hearing. Visual cues for consonant lip rounding and vowel lip rounding were perceived in a manner consistent with coarticulation and were generally used more heavily by listeners with CIs. Results suggest that listeners with cochlear implants are able to accommodate various sources of acoustic variability either by attending to appropriate acoustic cues or by inferring them via the visual signal.

  1. Gender Difference in TEOAEs and Contralateral Suppression of TEOAEs in Normal Hearing Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Zamiri Abdollahi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs are sounds that originate in cochlea and are measured in external auditory canal and provide a simple, efficient and non-invasive objective indicator of healthy cochlear function. Olivo cochlear bundle (OCB or auditory efferent system is a neural feedback pathway which originated from brain stem and terminated in the inner ear and can be evaluated non-invasively by applying a contralateral acoustic stimulus and simultaneously measuring reduction of OAEs amplitude. In this study gender differences in TEOAE amplitude and suppression of TEOAE were investigated. Methods: This study was performed at Akhavan rehabilitation centre belonging to the University of Social welfare and rehabilitation sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2011. 60 young adults (30 female and 30 male between 21 and 27 years old (mean=24 years old, SD=1.661 with normal hearing criteria were selected. Right ear of all cases were tested to neutralize side effect if there is any. Results: According to Independent t-test, TEOAE amplitude was significantly greater in females with mean value of 24.98 dB (P<0.001 and TEOAE suppression was significantly greater in males with mean value of 2.07 dB (P<0.001. Discussion: This study shows that there is a significant gender difference in adult’s TEOAE (cochlear mechanisms and TEOAE suppression (auditory efferent system. The exact reason for these results is not clear. According to this study different norms for males and females might be necessary.

  2. [The discrimination of mono-syllable words in noise in listeners with normal hearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Sagara, T; Nagano, M; Korenaga, K; Makishima, K

    1992-02-01

    The discrimination of mono-syllable words (67S word-list) pronounced by a male and a female speaker was investigated in noise in 39 normal hearing subjects. The subjects listened to the test words at a constant level of 62 dB together with white or weighted noise in four S/N conditions. By processing the data with logit transformation, S/N-discrimination curves were presumed for each combination of a speech material and a noise. Regardless of the type of noise, the discrimination scores for the female voice started to decrease gradually at a S/N ratio of +10 dB, and reached 10 to 20% at-10 dB. For the male voice in white noise, the discrimination curve was similar to those for the female voice. On the contrary, the discrimination score for the male voice in weighted noise declined rapidly from a S/N ratio of +5 dB, and went below 10% at -5 dB. The discrimination curves seem to be shaped by the interrelations between the spectrum of the speech material and that of the noise.

  3. Searching for sources of variance in speech recognition: Young adults with normal hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles S.; Kidd, Gary R.

    2005-04-01

    In the present investigation, sensory-perceptual abilities of one thousand young adults with normal hearing are being evaluated with a range of auditory, visual, and cognitive measures. Four auditory measures were derived from factor-analytic analyses of previous studies with 18-20 speech and non-speech variables [G. R. Kidd et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2641 (2000)]. Two measures of visual acuity are obtained to determine whether variation in sensory skills tends to exist primarily within or across sensory modalities. A working memory test, grade point average, and Scholastic Aptitude Test scores (Verbal and Quantitative) are also included. Preliminary multivariate analyses support previous studies of individual differences in auditory abilities (e.g., A. M. Surprenant and C. S. Watson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2085-2095 (2001)] which found that spectral and temporal resolving power obtained with pure tones and more complex unfamiliar stimuli have little or no correlation with measures of speech recognition under difficult listening conditions. The current findings show that visual acuity, working memory, and intellectual measures are also very poor predictors of speech recognition ability, supporting the independence of this processing skill. Remarkable performance by some exceptional listeners will be described. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research, Award No. N000140310644.

  4. Signal-to-background ratio preferences of normal-hearing listeners as a function of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jillian Gallant

    The purpose of this study was to identify listeners' signal-to-background-ratio (SBR) preference levels for vocal music and to investigate whether or not SBR differences existed for different music genres. The ``signal'' was the singer's voice, and the ``background'' was the accompanying music. Three songs were each produced in two different genres (total of 6 genres represented). Each song was performed by three male and three female singers. Analyses addressed influences of musical genre, singing style, and singer timbre on listener's SBR choices. Fifty-three normal-hearing California State University of Northridge students ranging in age from 20-52 years participated as subjects. Subjects adjusted the overall music loudness to a comfortable listening level, and manipulated a second gain control which affected only the singer's voice. Subjects listened to 72 stimuli and adjusted the singer's voice to the level they felt sounded appropriate in comparison to the background music. Singer and Genre were the two primary contributors to significant differences in subject's SBR preferences, although the results clearly indicate Genre, Style and Singer interact in different combinations under different conditions. SBR differences for each song, each singer, and each subject did not occur in a predictable manner, and support the hypothesis that SBR preferences are neither fixed nor dependent merely upon music application or setting. Further investigations regarding psychoacoustical bases responsible for differences in SBR preferences are warranted.

  5. Microscopic prediction of speech recognition for listeners with normal hearing in noise using an auditory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Tim; Brand, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    This study compares the phoneme recognition performance in speech-shaped noise of a microscopic model for speech recognition with the performance of normal-hearing listeners. "Microscopic" is defined in terms of this model twofold. First, the speech recognition rate is predicted on a phoneme-by-phoneme basis. Second, microscopic modeling means that the signal waveforms to be recognized are processed by mimicking elementary parts of human's auditory processing. The model is based on an approach by Holube and Kollmeier [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 1703-1716 (1996)] and consists of a psychoacoustically and physiologically motivated preprocessing and a simple dynamic-time-warp speech recognizer. The model is evaluated while presenting nonsense speech in a closed-set paradigm. Averaged phoneme recognition rates, specific phoneme recognition rates, and phoneme confusions are analyzed. The influence of different perceptual distance measures and of the model's a-priori knowledge is investigated. The results show that human performance can be predicted by this model using an optimal detector, i.e., identical speech waveforms for both training of the recognizer and testing. The best model performance is yielded by distance measures which focus mainly on small perceptual distances and neglect outliers.

  6. Effectiveness of communication strategies for deaf or hard of hearing workers in group settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Scott

    2014-01-01

    In group settings, background noise and an obstructed view of the speaker are just a few of the issues that can make workplace communication difficult for an individual who is deaf or hard of hearing. Accommodation strategies such as amplification of the speaker's voice or the use of text-based alternatives exist to address these issues. However, recent studies have shown that there are still unmet needs related to workplace communication in group settings for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. Identify the most common strategies used by individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing to improve communication in group settings and gauge the perceived effectiveness of those strategies. An online survey was conducted with individuals who self-identified as deaf or hard of hearing. The survey presented specific communication strategies based on three functional approaches (aural/oral, text, visual). The strategies applied to both receptive and expressive communication in five different meeting types ranging in size and purpose. 161 adults (age 22-90 yrs.) with limited hearing ability completed the survey. Text-based strategies were typically the least frequently used strategies in group settings, yet they ranked high in perceived effectiveness for receptive and expressive communication. Those who used an interpreter demonstrated a strong preference for having a qualified interpreter present in the meeting rather than an interpreter acting remotely. For expressive communication, participants in general preferred to use their own voice or signing abilities and ranked those strategies as highly effective. A more accessible workplace for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing would incorporate more ubiquitous text-based strategy options. Also, qualified interpreters, when used, should be present in the meeting for maximum effectiveness.

  7. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: Part 2 - Demonstration projects using individualized and group training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Stephenson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two demonstration projects were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive training program for carpenters. This training was paired with audiometry and counseling and a survey of attitudes and beliefs in hearing loss prevention. All participants received hearing tests, multimedia instruction on occupational noise exposure/hearing loss, and instruction and practice in using a diverse selection of hearing protection devices (HPDs. A total of 103 apprentice carpenters participated in the Year 1 training, were given a large supply of these HPDs, and instructions on how to get additional free supplies if they ran out during the 1-year interval between initial and follow-up training. Forty-two participants responded to the survey a second time a year later and completed the Year 2 training. Significant test-retest differences were found between the pre-training and the post-training survey scores. Both forms of instruction (individual versus group produced equivalent outcomes. The results indicated that training was able to bring all apprentice participants up to the same desired level with regard to attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions to use hearing protection properly. It was concluded that the health communication models used to develop the educational and training materials for this effort were extremely effective.

  8. Speech Recognition in Real-Life Background Noise by Young and Middle-Aged Adults with Normal Hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Jin Tae; Heo, Hye Jeong; Choi, Chul-Hee; Choi, Seong Hee; Lee, Kyungjae

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives People usually converse in real-life background noise. They experience more difficulty understanding speech in noise than in a quiet environment. The present study investigated how speech recognition in real-life background noise is affected by the type of noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and age. Subjects and Methods Eighteen young adults and fifteen middle-aged adults with normal hearing participated in the present study. Three types of noise [subway noise, vacu...

  9. The role of spectral and temporal cues in voice gender discrimination by normal-hearing listeners and cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qian-Jie; Chinchilla, Sherol; Galvin, John J

    2004-09-01

    The present study investigated the relative importance of temporal and spectral cues in voice gender discrimination and vowel recognition by normal-hearing subjects listening to an acoustic simulation of cochlear implant speech processing and by cochlear implant users. In the simulation, the number of speech processing channels ranged from 4 to 32, thereby varying the spectral resolution; the cutoff frequencies of the channels' envelope filters ranged from 20 to 320 Hz, thereby manipulating the available temporal cues. For normal-hearing subjects, results showed that both voice gender discrimination and vowel recognition scores improved as the number of spectral channels was increased. When only 4 spectral channels were available, voice gender discrimination significantly improved as the envelope filter cutoff frequency was increased from 20 to 320 Hz. For all spectral conditions, increasing the amount of temporal information had no significant effect on vowel recognition. Both voice gender discrimination and vowel recognition scores were highly variable among implant users. The performance of cochlear implant listeners was similar to that of normal-hearing subjects listening to comparable speech processing (4-8 spectral channels). The results suggest that both spectral and temporal cues contribute to voice gender discrimination and that temporal cues are especially important for cochlear implant users to identify the voice gender when there is reduced spectral resolution.

  10. Lexical and age effects on word recognition in noise in normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cuncun; Liu, Sha; Liu, Haihong; Kong, Ying; Liu, Xin; Li, Shujing

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of the present study were (1) to examine the lexical and age effects on word recognition of normal-hearing (NH) children in noise, and (2) to compare the word-recognition performance in noise to that in quiet listening conditions. Participants were 213 NH children (age ranged between 3 and 6 years old). Eighty-nine and 124 of the participants were tested in noise and quiet listening conditions, respectively. The Standard-Chinese Lexical Neighborhood Test, which contains lists of words in four lexical categories (i.e., dissyllablic easy (DE), dissyllablic hard (DH), monosyllable easy (ME), and monosyllable hard (MH)) was used to evaluate the Mandarin Chinese word recognition in speech spectrum-shaped noise (SSN) with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 0dB. A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine the lexical effects with syllable length and difficulty level as the main factors on word recognition in the quiet and noise listening conditions. The effects of age on word-recognition performance were examined using a regression model. The word-recognition performance in noise was significantly poorer than that in quiet and the individual variations in performance in noise were much greater than those in quiet. Word recognition scores showed that the lexical effects were significant in the SSN. Children scored higher with dissyllabic words than with monosyllabic words; "easy" words scored higher than "hard" words in the noise condition. The scores of the NH children in the SSN (SNR=0dB) for the DE, DH, ME, and MH words were 85.4, 65.9, 71.7, and 46.2% correct, respectively. The word-recognition performance also increased with age in each lexical category for the NH children tested in noise. Both age and lexical characteristics of words had significant influences on the performance of Mandarin-Chinese word recognition in noise. The lexical effects were more obvious under noise listening conditions than in quiet. The word

  11. Group Communication Training for Young People with Combined Visual and Hearing Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokhlova A. Yu.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of the communication training for young people with visual and hearing impairments. Boys and girls aged 16–25 with simultaneous hearing and visual impairments of varying severity took part in the group trainings. The variety of means of communication used by them described, conditions of effective training work outlined. The results showed that young people with visual and hearing impairments demonstrate a fairly high level of possession of various means of communication without pronounced additional violations. Communicative needs and preferences in young people with visual and hearing impairments are age-appropriate. Communication training allows the following: to eliminate some of the objective communicative difficulties which are exists in deaf-blind people, to motivate participants to show initiative in communication, to learn new about each other. Also communicative training creates a positive experience of communication with a wider range of people. The most important result is the opportunity to talk about ones feelings in a supportive atmosphere.

  12. The Effectiveness of a Group Counseling Program on the Mental Health of Parents of Hearing Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mahshid Foroughan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Most of the studies indicates that the parents of the hearing impaired children show many mental health problems after the diagnosis of their children's hearing impairment. Counselling with the parents of the hearing impaired children is one of the most important goals of any early intervention program. This paper describes a study to determine the effectiveness of a group counselling programme for parents of hearing impaired children. Materials and Method: It was a semi-experimental study with a single group pretest-post test design. The participants were all the parents of hearing impaired children attending in an early intervention center. First the parents' mental health were assessed.Then the group counselling program was implemented. Program has involved six weekly 1.5 hour sessions. The format of each session included both lecture presentation and group discussion using cognitive behavioral procedure. Subjects were assessed before and immediately after group therapy by means of General Health Questionnaire(GHQ and Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90 questionnaires. Resuts: The first part of the project had shown that over the half of the parents had considerable psychosocial morbidity. Comparisons showed a significant reduction from pretreatment to posttreatment in depression, anxiety and most of other psychological problems. Conclusion: The study supports the effectiveness of group therapy programs in the treatment of parents of hearing impaired children. Concerning the progress of early detection programs for the children's hearing impairment more studies should be done in the field of counseling with their parents.

  13. The Effect of Learning Modality and Auditory Feedback on Word Memory: Cochlear-Implanted versus Normal-Hearing Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taitelbaum-Swead, Riki; Icht, Michal; Mama, Yaniv

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, the effect of cognitive abilities on the achievements of cochlear implant (CI) users has been evaluated. Some studies have suggested that gaps between CI users and normal-hearing (NH) peers in cognitive tasks are modality specific, and occur only in auditory tasks. The present study focused on the effect of learning modality (auditory, visual) and auditory feedback on word memory in young adults who were prelingually deafened and received CIs before the age of 5 yr, and their NH peers. A production effect (PE) paradigm was used, in which participants learned familiar study words by vocal production (saying aloud) or by no-production (silent reading or listening). Words were presented (1) in the visual modality (written) and (2) in the auditory modality (heard). CI users performed the visual condition twice-once with the implant ON and once with it OFF. All conditions were followed by free recall tests. Twelve young adults, long-term CI users, implanted between ages 1.7 and 4.5 yr, and who showed ≥50% in monosyllabic consonant-vowel-consonant open-set test with their implants were enrolled. A group of 14 age-matched NH young adults served as the comparison group. For each condition, we calculated the proportion of study words recalled. Mixed-measures analysis of variances were carried out with group (NH, CI) as a between-subjects variable, and learning condition (aloud or silent reading) as a within-subject variable. Following this, paired sample t tests were used to evaluate the PE size (differences between aloud and silent words) and overall recall ratios (aloud and silent words combined) in each of the learning conditions. With visual word presentation, young adults with CIs (regardless of implant status CI-ON or CI-OFF), showed comparable memory performance (and a similar PE) to NH peers. However, with auditory presentation, young adults with CIs showed poorer memory for nonproduced words (hence a larger PE) relative to their NH peers. The

  14. Prediction of consonant recognition in quiet for listeners with normal and impaired hearing using an auditory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Tim; Ewert, Stephan D; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Consonant recognition was assessed in normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners in quiet as a function of speech level using a nonsense logatome test. Average recognition scores were analyzed and compared to recognition scores of a speech recognition model. In contrast to commonly used spectral speech recognition models operating on long-term spectra, a "microscopic" model operating in the time domain was used. Variations of the model (accounting for hearing impairment) and different model parameters (reflecting cochlear compression) were tested. Using these model variations this study examined whether speech recognition performance in quiet is affected by changes in cochlear compression, namely, a linearization, which is often observed in HI listeners. Consonant recognition scores for HI listeners were poorer than for NH listeners. The model accurately predicted the speech reception thresholds of the NH and most HI listeners. A partial linearization of the cochlear compression in the auditory model, while keeping audibility constant, produced higher recognition scores and improved the prediction accuracy. However, including listener-specific information about the exact form of the cochlear compression did not improve the prediction further.

  15. Comparing auditory filter bandwidths, spectral ripple modulation detection, spectral ripple discrimination, and speech recognition: Normal and impaired hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Venn, Evelyn; Nelson, Peggy; Souza, Pamela

    2015-07-01

    Some listeners with hearing loss show poor speech recognition scores in spite of using amplification that optimizes audibility. Beyond audibility, studies have suggested that suprathreshold abilities such as spectral and temporal processing may explain differences in amplified speech recognition scores. A variety of different methods has been used to measure spectral processing. However, the relationship between spectral processing and speech recognition is still inconclusive. This study evaluated the relationship between spectral processing and speech recognition in listeners with normal hearing and with hearing loss. Narrowband spectral resolution was assessed using auditory filter bandwidths estimated from simultaneous notched-noise masking. Broadband spectral processing was measured using the spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) task and the spectral ripple depth detection (SMD) task. Three different measures were used to assess unamplified and amplified speech recognition in quiet and noise. Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that SMD at 2.0 cycles per octave (cpo) significantly predicted speech scores for amplified and unamplified speech in quiet and noise. Commonality analyses revealed that SMD at 2.0 cpo combined with SRD and equivalent rectangular bandwidth measures to explain most of the variance captured by the regression model. Results suggest that SMD and SRD may be promising clinical tools for diagnostic evaluation and predicting amplification outcomes.

  16. Objective Prediction of Hearing Aid Benefit Across Listener Groups Using Machine Learning: Speech Recognition Performance With Binaural Noise-Reduction Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc R.; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger

    2018-01-01

    The simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments (FADE) was adopted and validated to predict the individual speech-in-noise recognition performance of listeners with normal and impaired hearing with and without a given hearing-aid algorithm. FADE uses a simple automatic speech recognizer (ASR) to estimate the lowest achievable speech reception thresholds (SRTs) from simulated speech recognition experiments in an objective way, independent from any empirical reference data. Empirical data from the literature were used to evaluate the model in terms of predicted SRTs and benefits in SRT with the German matrix sentence recognition test when using eight single- and multichannel binaural noise-reduction algorithms. To allow individual predictions of SRTs in binaural conditions, the model was extended with a simple better ear approach and individualized by taking audiograms into account. In a realistic binaural cafeteria condition, FADE explained about 90% of the variance of the empirical SRTs for a group of normal-hearing listeners and predicted the corresponding benefits with a root-mean-square prediction error of 0.6 dB. This highlights the potential of the approach for the objective assessment of benefits in SRT without prior knowledge about the empirical data. The predictions for the group of listeners with impaired hearing explained 75% of the empirical variance, while the individual predictions explained less than 25%. Possibly, additional individual factors should be considered for more accurate predictions with impaired hearing. A competing talker condition clearly showed one limitation of current ASR technology, as the empirical performance with SRTs lower than −20 dB could not be predicted. PMID:29692200

  17. Objective Prediction of Hearing Aid Benefit Across Listener Groups Using Machine Learning: Speech Recognition Performance With Binaural Noise-Reduction Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc R; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger

    2018-01-01

    The simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments (FADE) was adopted and validated to predict the individual speech-in-noise recognition performance of listeners with normal and impaired hearing with and without a given hearing-aid algorithm. FADE uses a simple automatic speech recognizer (ASR) to estimate the lowest achievable speech reception thresholds (SRTs) from simulated speech recognition experiments in an objective way, independent from any empirical reference data. Empirical data from the literature were used to evaluate the model in terms of predicted SRTs and benefits in SRT with the German matrix sentence recognition test when using eight single- and multichannel binaural noise-reduction algorithms. To allow individual predictions of SRTs in binaural conditions, the model was extended with a simple better ear approach and individualized by taking audiograms into account. In a realistic binaural cafeteria condition, FADE explained about 90% of the variance of the empirical SRTs for a group of normal-hearing listeners and predicted the corresponding benefits with a root-mean-square prediction error of 0.6 dB. This highlights the potential of the approach for the objective assessment of benefits in SRT without prior knowledge about the empirical data. The predictions for the group of listeners with impaired hearing explained 75% of the empirical variance, while the individual predictions explained less than 25%. Possibly, additional individual factors should be considered for more accurate predictions with impaired hearing. A competing talker condition clearly showed one limitation of current ASR technology, as the empirical performance with SRTs lower than -20 dB could not be predicted.

  18. Listening effort and perceived clarity for normal-hearing children with the use of digital noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Samantha; McCreery, Ryan; Hoover, Brenda; Kopun, Judy G; Stelmachowicz, Pat

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate how digital noise reduction (DNR) impacts listening effort and judgment of sound clarity in children with normal hearing. It was hypothesized that when two DNR algorithms differing in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) output are compared, the algorithm that provides the greatest improvement in overall output SNR will reduce listening effort and receive a better clarity rating from child listeners. A secondary goal was to evaluate the relation between the inversion method measurements and listening effort with DNR processing. Twenty-four children with normal hearing (ages 7 to 12 years) participated in a speech recognition task in which consonant-vowel-consonant nonwords were presented in broadband background noise. Test stimuli were recorded through two hearing aids with DNR off and DNR on at 0 dB and +5 dB input SNR. Stimuli were presented to listeners and verbal response time (VRT) and phoneme recognition scores were measured. The underlying assumption was that an increase in VRT reflects an increase in listening effort. Children rated the sound clarity for each condition. The two commercially available HAs were chosen based on: (1) an inversion technique, which was used to quantify the magnitude of change in SNR with the activation of DNR, and (2) a measure of magnitude-squared coherence, which was used to ensure that DNR in both devices preserved the spectrum. One device provided a greater improvement in overall output SNR than the other. Both DNR algorithms resulted in minimal spectral distortion as measured using coherence. For both devices, VRT decreased for the DNR-on condition, suggesting that listening effort decreased with DNR in both devices. Clarity ratings were also better in the DNR-on condition for both devices. The device showing the greatest improvement in output SNR with DNR engaged improved phoneme recognition scores. The magnitude of this improved phoneme recognition was not accurately predicted with

  19. Cortical and Sensory Causes of Individual Differences in Selective Attention Ability Among Listeners With Normal Hearing Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2017-10-17

    This review provides clinicians with an overview of recent findings relevant to understanding why listeners with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) sometimes suffer from communication difficulties in noisy settings. The results from neuroscience and psychoacoustics are reviewed. In noisy settings, listeners focus their attention by engaging cortical brain networks to suppress unimportant sounds; they then can analyze and understand an important sound, such as speech, amidst competing sounds. Differences in the efficacy of top-down control of attention can affect communication abilities. In addition, subclinical deficits in sensory fidelity can disrupt the ability to perceptually segregate sound sources, interfering with selective attention, even in listeners with NHTs. Studies of variability in control of attention and in sensory coding fidelity may help to isolate and identify some of the causes of communication disorders in individuals presenting at the clinic with "normal hearing." How well an individual with NHTs can understand speech amidst competing sounds depends not only on the sound being audible but also on the integrity of cortical control networks and the fidelity of the representation of suprathreshold sound. Understanding the root cause of difficulties experienced by listeners with NHTs ultimately can lead to new, targeted interventions that address specific deficits affecting communication in noise. http://cred.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=2601617.

  20. Gaps-in-Noise test: gap detection thresholds in 9-year-old normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculino, Carolina Finetti; Rabelo, Camila Maia; Schochat, Eliane

    2011-12-01

    To establish the standard criteria for the Gaps-in-Noise (GIN) test in 9-year-old normal-hearing children; to obtain the mean gap detection thresholds; and to verify the influence of the variables gender and ear on the gap detection thresholds. Forty normal-hearing individuals, 20 male and 20 female, with ages ranging from 9 years to 9 years and 11 months, were evaluated. The procedures performed were: anamnesis, audiological evaluation, acoustic immittance measures (tympanometry and acoustic reflex), Dichotic Digits Test, and GIN test. The results obtained were statistically analyzed. The results revealed similar performance of right and left ears in the population studied. There was also no difference regarding the variable gender. In the subjects evaluated, the mean gap detection thresholds were 4.4 ms for the right ear, and 4.2 ms for the left ear. The values obtained for right and left ear, as well as their standard deviations, can be used as standard criteria for 9-year-old children, regardless of ear or gender.

  1. Auditory Discrimination of Lexical Stress Patterns in Hearing-Impaired Infants with Cochlear Implants Compared with Normal Hearing: Influence of Acoustic Cues and Listening Experience to the Ambient Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Osnat; Houston, Derek; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2016-01-01

    To assess discrimination of lexical stress pattern in infants with cochlear implant (CI) compared with infants with normal hearing (NH). While criteria for cochlear implantation have expanded to infants as young as 6 months, little is known regarding infants' processing of suprasegmental-prosodic cues which are known to be important for the first stages of language acquisition. Lexical stress is an example of such a cue, which, in hearing infants, has been shown to assist in segmenting words from fluent speech and in distinguishing between words that differ only the stress pattern. To date, however, there are no data on the ability of infants with CIs to perceive lexical stress. Such information will provide insight to the speech characteristics that are available to these infants in their first steps of language acquisition. This is of particular interest given the known limitations that the CI device has in transmitting speech information that is mediated by changes in fundamental frequency. Two groups of infants participated in this study. The first group included 20 profoundly hearing-impaired infants with CI, 12 to 33 months old, implanted under the age of 2.5 years (median age of implantation = 14.5 months), with 1 to 6 months of CI use (mean = 2.7 months) and no known additional problems. The second group of infants included 48 NH infants, 11 to 14 months old with normal development and no known risk factors for developmental delays. Infants were tested on their ability to discriminate between nonsense words that differed on their stress pattern only (/dóti/ versus /dotí/ and /dotí/ versus /dóti/) using the visual habituation procedure. The measure for discrimination was the change in looking time between the last habituation trial (e.g., /dóti/) and the novel trial (e.g., /dotí/). (1) Infants with CI showed discrimination between lexical stress pattern with only limited auditory experience with their implant device, (2) discrimination of stress

  2. The Efficacy of Group Play Therapy on the Social Skills of Pre-School Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Movallali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate of the efficacy of group play therapy on the social skills of pre-school hearing-impaired children. Materials & Methods: The present research was a semi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test design and control group. The participants were 30 male hearing-impaired children from pre-schools centers in Varamin and Gharchak provinces using an available method. Subjects were randomly divided into experimental and control groups, each group consisting of 15 children. The experimental group received 12 sessions of group play therapy and the control group did not. The instruments were done using the Raven coloure progressive matrices test and social skills rating scale. The data were recorded and statistically analyzed using MANCOVA. Results: The results of MANCOVA showed that group play therapy had a significant effect on the social skills of hearing-impaired children (P<0.001. The results also revealed that group play therapy had a positive and significant effect on all subscales of social skills in these children: cooperation, self-assertiveness and self-control (P<0.001. Conclusion: Group play therapy can improve the social skills of hearing-impaired children. It is recommended that planning play therapy for hearing-impaired children receives serious attention .

  3. Some Neurocognitive Correlates of Noise-Vocoded Speech Perception in Children With Normal Hearing: A Replication and Extension of ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Adrienne S; Pisoni, David B; Kronenberger, William G; Faulkner, Kathleen F

    Noise-vocoded speech is a valuable research tool for testing experimental hypotheses about the effects of spectral degradation on speech recognition in adults with normal hearing (NH). However, very little research has utilized noise-vocoded speech with children with NH. Earlier studies with children with NH focused primarily on the amount of spectral information needed for speech recognition without assessing the contribution of neurocognitive processes to speech perception and spoken word recognition. In this study, we first replicated the seminal findings reported by ) who investigated effects of lexical density and word frequency on noise-vocoded speech perception in a small group of children with NH. We then extended the research to investigate relations between noise-vocoded speech recognition abilities and five neurocognitive measures: auditory attention (AA) and response set, talker discrimination, and verbal and nonverbal short-term working memory. Thirty-one children with NH between 5 and 13 years of age were assessed on their ability to perceive lexically controlled words in isolation and in sentences that were noise-vocoded to four spectral channels. Children were also administered vocabulary assessments (Peabody Picture Vocabulary test-4th Edition and Expressive Vocabulary test-2nd Edition) and measures of AA (NEPSY AA and response set and a talker discrimination task) and short-term memory (visual digit and symbol spans). Consistent with the findings reported in the original ) study, we found that children perceived noise-vocoded lexically easy words better than lexically hard words. Words in sentences were also recognized better than the same words presented in isolation. No significant correlations were observed between noise-vocoded speech recognition scores and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test-4th Edition using language quotients to control for age effects. However, children who scored higher on the Expressive Vocabulary test-2nd Edition

  4. Conductive Hearing Loss in Autistic, Learning-Disabled, and Normal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald E. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Repeated impedance measures were given over five weeks to 11 autistic, 20 learning-disabled, and 20 normal children. A repeated measures analysis of variance led to the conclusion that fluctuating, negative middle ear pressure greater than normal characterizes both autistic and learning-disabled children with the more abnormal pressures typical in…

  5. The effects of limited bandwidth and noise on verbal processing time and word recall in normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Ryan W; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G

    2013-09-01

    Understanding speech in acoustically degraded environments can place significant cognitive demands on school-age children who are developing the cognitive and linguistic skills needed to support this process. Previous studies suggest the speech understanding, word learning, and academic performance can be negatively impacted by background noise, but the effect of limited audibility on cognitive processes in children has not been directly studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of limited audibility on speech understanding and working memory tasks in school-age children with normal hearing. Seventeen children with normal hearing between 6 and 12 years of age participated in the present study. Repetition of nonword consonant-vowel-consonant stimuli was measured under conditions with combinations of two different signal to noise ratios (SNRs; 3 and 9 dB) and two low-pass filter settings (3.2 and 5.6 kHz). Verbal processing time was calculated based on the time from the onset of the stimulus to the onset of the child's response. Monosyllabic word repetition and recall were also measured in conditions with a full bandwidth and 5.6 kHz low-pass cutoff. Nonword repetition scores decreased as audibility decreased. Verbal processing time increased as audibility decreased, consistent with predictions based on increased listening effort. Although monosyllabic word repetition did not vary between the full bandwidth and 5.6 kHz low-pass filter condition, recall was significantly poorer in the condition with limited bandwidth (low pass at 5.6 kHz). Age and expressive language scores predicted performance on word recall tasks, but did not predict nonword repetition accuracy or verbal processing time. Decreased audibility was associated with reduced accuracy for nonword repetition and increased verbal processing time in children with normal hearing. Deficits in free recall were observed even under conditions where word repetition was not affected

  6. Predicting word-recognition performance in noise by young listeners with normal hearing using acoustic, phonetic, and lexical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Rachel; Wilson, Richard H

    2008-06-01

    To analyze the 50% correct recognition data that were from the Wilson et al (this issue) study and that were obtained from 24 listeners with normal hearing; also to examine whether acoustic, phonetic, or lexical variables can predict recognition performance for monosyllabic words presented in speech-spectrum noise. The specific variables are as follows: (a) acoustic variables (i.e., effective root-mean-square sound pressure level, duration), (b) phonetic variables (i.e., consonant features such as manner, place, and voicing for initial and final phonemes; vowel phonemes), and (c) lexical variables (i.e., word frequency, word familiarity, neighborhood density, neighborhood frequency). The descriptive, correlational study will examine the influence of acoustic, phonetic, and lexical variables on speech recognition in noise performance. Regression analysis demonstrated that 45% of the variance in the 50% point was accounted for by acoustic and phonetic variables whereas only 3% of the variance was accounted for by lexical variables. These findings suggest that monosyllabic word-recognition-in-noise is more dependent on bottom-up processing than on top-down processing. The results suggest that when speech-in-noise testing is used in a pre- and post-hearing-aid-fitting format, the use of monosyllabic words may be sensitive to changes in audibility resulting from amplification.

  7. Microscopic prediction of speech intelligibility in spatially distributed speech-shaped noise for normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geravanchizadeh, Masoud; Fallah, Ali

    2015-12-01

    A binaural and psychoacoustically motivated intelligibility model, based on a well-known monaural microscopic model is proposed. This model simulates a phoneme recognition task in the presence of spatially distributed speech-shaped noise in anechoic scenarios. In the proposed model, binaural advantage effects are considered by generating a feature vector for a dynamic-time-warping speech recognizer. This vector consists of three subvectors incorporating two monaural subvectors to model the better-ear hearing, and a binaural subvector to simulate the binaural unmasking effect. The binaural unit of the model is based on equalization-cancellation theory. This model operates blindly, which means separate recordings of speech and noise are not required for the predictions. Speech intelligibility tests were conducted with 12 normal hearing listeners by collecting speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in the presence of single and multiple sources of speech-shaped noise. The comparison of the model predictions with the measured binaural SRTs, and with the predictions of a macroscopic binaural model called extended equalization-cancellation, shows that this approach predicts the intelligibility in anechoic scenarios with good precision. The square of the correlation coefficient (r(2)) and the mean-absolute error between the model predictions and the measurements are 0.98 and 0.62 dB, respectively.

  8. Auditory Verbal Working Memory as a Predictor of Speech Perception in Modulated Maskers in Listeners With Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Rebecca E; Mattys, Sven L

    2017-05-24

    Background noise can interfere with our ability to understand speech. Working memory capacity (WMC) has been shown to contribute to the perception of speech in modulated noise maskers. WMC has been assessed with a variety of auditory and visual tests, often pertaining to different components of working memory. This study assessed the relationship between speech perception in modulated maskers and components of auditory verbal working memory (AVWM) over a range of signal-to-noise ratios. Speech perception in noise and AVWM were measured in 30 listeners (age range 31-67 years) with normal hearing. AVWM was estimated using forward digit recall, backward digit recall, and nonword repetition. After controlling for the effects of age and average pure-tone hearing threshold, speech perception in modulated maskers was related to individual differences in the phonological component of working memory (as assessed by nonword repetition) but only in the least favorable signal-to-noise ratio. The executive component of working memory (as assessed by backward digit) was not predictive of speech perception in any conditions. AVWM is predictive of the ability to benefit from temporal dips in modulated maskers: Listeners with greater phonological WMC are better able to correctly identify sentences in modulated noise backgrounds.

  9. Speech Perception in Noise in Normally Hearing Children: Does Binaural Frequency Modulated Fitting Provide More Benefit than Monaural Frequency Modulated Fitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah; Umat, Cila; Razak, Ummu Athiyah Abdul

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the benefit of monaural versus binaural ear-level frequency modulated (FM) fitting on speech perception in noise in children with normal hearing. Reception threshold for sentences (RTS) was measured in no-FM, monaural FM, and binaural FM conditions in 22 normally developing children with bilateral normal hearing, aged 8 to 9 years old. Data were gathered using the Pediatric Malay Hearing in Noise Test (P-MyHINT) with speech presented from front and multi-talker babble presented from 90°, 180°, 270° azimuths in a sound treated booth. The results revealed that the use of either monaural or binaural ear level FM receivers provided significantly better mean RTSs than the no-FM condition (Pbinaural FM did not produce a significantly greater benefit in mean RTS than monaural fitting. The benefit of binaural over monaural FM varies across individuals; while binaural fitting provided better RTSs in about 50% of study subjects, there were those in whom binaural fitting resulted in either deterioration or no additional improvement compared to monaural FM fitting. The present study suggests that the use of monaural ear-level FM receivers in children with normal hearing might provide similar benefit as binaural use. Individual subjects' variations of binaural FM benefit over monaural FM suggests that the decision to employ monaural or binaural fitting should be individualized. It should be noted however, that the current study recruits typically developing normal hearing children. Future studies involving normal hearing children with high risk of having difficulty listening in noise is indicated to see if similar findings are obtained.

  10. Filtered Music: A Hearing Test for Young Children | Waldman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of 127 nursery school children were hearing-tested by means of filtered music audiometry; 18 failed to respond satisfactorily, and of these 11 were found to have previously unsuspected conductive hearing loss. Of the remaining 7 with normal hearing, 4 were subjected to language tests, and all 4 scored poorly.

  11. Role of short-time acoustic temporal fine structure cues in sentence recognition for normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Limin; Xu, Li

    2018-02-01

    Short-time processing was employed to manipulate the amplitude, bandwidth, and temporal fine structure (TFS) in sentences. Fifty-two native-English-speaking, normal-hearing listeners participated in four sentence-recognition experiments. Results showed that recovered envelope (E) played an important role in speech recognition when the bandwidth was > 1 equivalent rectangular bandwidth. Removing TFS drastically reduced sentence recognition. Preserving TFS greatly improved sentence recognition when amplitude information was available at a rate ≥ 10 Hz (i.e., time segment ≤ 100 ms). Therefore, the short-time TFS facilitates speech perception together with the recovered E and works with the coarse amplitude cues to provide useful information for speech recognition.

  12. Spatial selective auditory attention in the presence of reverberant energy: individual differences in normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Dorea; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    Listeners can selectively attend to a desired target by directing attention to known target source features, such as location or pitch. Reverberation, however, reduces the reliability of the cues that allow a target source to be segregated and selected from a sound mixture. Given this, it is likely that reverberant energy interferes with selective auditory attention. Anecdotal reports suggest that the ability to focus spatial auditory attention degrades even with early aging, yet there is little evidence that middle-aged listeners have behavioral deficits on tasks requiring selective auditory attention. The current study was designed to look for individual differences in selective attention ability and to see if any such differences correlate with age. Normal-hearing adults, ranging in age from 18 to 55 years, were asked to report a stream of digits located directly ahead in a simulated rectangular room. Simultaneous, competing masker digit streams were simulated at locations 15° left and right of center. The level of reverberation was varied to alter task difficulty by interfering with localization cues (increasing localization blur). Overall, performance was best in the anechoic condition and worst in the high-reverberation condition. Listeners nearly always reported a digit from one of the three competing streams, showing that reverberation did not render the digits unintelligible. Importantly, inter-subject differences were extremely large. These differences, however, were not significantly correlated with age, memory span, or hearing status. These results show that listeners with audiometrically normal pure tone thresholds differ in their ability to selectively attend to a desired source, a task important in everyday communication. Further work is necessary to determine if these differences arise from differences in peripheral auditory function or in more central function.

  13. Comprehension of Written Grammar Test: Reliability and Known-Groups Validity Study With Hearing and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Joanna E; Hubley, Anita M; Millhoff, Courtney; Mazlouman, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to gather validation evidence for the Comprehension of Written Grammar (CWG; Easterbrooks, 2010) receptive test of 26 grammatical structures of English print for use with children who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH). Reliability and validity data were collected for 98 participants (49 DHH and 49 hearing) in Grades 2-6. The objectives were to: (a) examine 4-week test-retest reliability data; and (b) provide evidence of known-groups validity by examining expected differences between the groups on the CWG vocabulary pretest and main test, as well as selected structures. Results indicated excellent test-retest reliability estimates for CWG test scores. DHH participants performed statistically significantly lower on the CWG vocabulary pretest and main test than the hearing participants. Significantly lower performance by DHH participants on most expected grammatical structures (e.g., basic sentence patterns, auxiliary "be" singular/plural forms, tense, comparatives, and complementation) also provided known groups evidence. Overall, the findings of this study showed strong evidence of the reliability of scores and known group-based validity of inferences made from the CWG. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Evaluation of cochlear function in normal-hearing young adults exposed to MP3 player noise by analyzing transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaolalla Montoya, Francisco; Ibargüen, Agustín Martinez; Vences, Ana Rodriguez; del Rey, Ana Sanchez; Fernandez, Jose Maria Sanchez

    2008-10-01

    Exposure to recreational noise may cause injuries to the inner ear, and transient evoked (TEOAEs) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) may identify these cochlear alterations. The goal of this study was to evaluate TEOAEs and DPOAEs as a method to diagnose early cochlear alterations in young adults exposed to MP3 player noise. We performed a prospective study of the cochlear function in normal-hearing MP3 player users by analyzing TEOAE and DPOAE incidence, amplitude, and spectral content. We gathered a sample of 40 ears from patients between 19 and 29 years old (mean age 24.09 years, SD 3.9 years). We compared the results with those of a control group of 232 ears not exposed to MP3 noise from patients aged 18 to 32 years (mean age 23.35 years, SD 2.7 years). Fifty percent of ears were from females and 50% were from males. Subjects who had used MP3 players for most years and for more hours each week exhibited a reduction in TEOAE and DPOAE incidence and amplitudes and an increase in DPOAE thresholds. TEOAEs showed a statistically significant lower incidence and amplitudes for normal-hearing subjects using MP3 players at frequencies of 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz. DPOAE incidence was lower at 700, 1000, 1500, and 2000 Hz; the amplitudes were lower at frequencies between 1500 and 6000 Hz; and the thresholds were higher for all frequency bands, statistically significant at frequencies from 1500 to 6000 Hz, p MP3 player noise exposure may be detectable by analyzing TEOAEs and DPOAEs before the impairment becomes clinically apparent.

  15. Auditory Memory deficit in Elderly People with Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahidipour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most common problems in elderly people. Functional side effects of hearing loss are various. Due to the fact that hearing loss is the common impairment in elderly people; the importance of its possible effects on auditory memory is undeniable. This study aims to focus on the hearing loss effects on auditory memory.   Materials and Methods: Dichotic Auditory Memory Test (DVMT was performed on 47 elderly people, aged 60 to 80; that were divided in two groups, the first group consisted of elderly people with hearing range of 24 normal and the second one consisted of 23 elderly people with bilateral symmetrical ranged from mild to moderate Sensorineural hearing loss in the high frequency due to aging in both genders.   Results: Significant difference was observed in DVMT between elderly people with normal hearing and those with hearing loss (P

  16. Does hearing aid use affect audiovisual integration in mild hearing impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseler, Anja; Tahden, Maike A S; Thiel, Christiane M; Colonius, Hans

    2018-04-01

    There is converging evidence for altered audiovisual integration abilities in hearing-impaired individuals and those with profound hearing loss who are provided with cochlear implants, compared to normal-hearing adults. Still, little is known on the effects of hearing aid use on audiovisual integration in mild hearing loss, although this constitutes one of the most prevalent conditions in the elderly and, yet, often remains untreated in its early stages. This study investigated differences in the strength of audiovisual integration between elderly hearing aid users and those with the same degree of mild hearing loss who were not using hearing aids, the non-users, by measuring their susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion. We also explored the corresponding window of integration by varying the stimulus onset asynchronies. To examine general group differences that are not attributable to specific hearing aid settings but rather reflect overall changes associated with habitual hearing aid use, the group of hearing aid users was tested unaided while individually controlling for audibility. We found greater audiovisual integration together with a wider window of integration in hearing aid users compared to their age-matched untreated peers. Signal detection analyses indicate that a change in perceptual sensitivity as well as in bias may underlie the observed effects. Our results and comparisons with other studies in normal-hearing older adults suggest that both mild hearing impairment and hearing aid use seem to affect audiovisual integration, possibly in the sense that hearing aid use may reverse the effects of hearing loss on audiovisual integration. We suggest that these findings may be particularly important for auditory rehabilitation and call for a longitudinal study.

  17. WAIS Performance in Unincarcerated Groups of MMPI-Defined Sociopaths and Normal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Albert N.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation examines WAIS performance in groups of 32 sociopaths and 33 normal controls defined by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory criteria. Sociopaths and normal controls show no differences in overall level of intellectual functioning. (Author)

  18. Cataracts, radiculomegaly, septal heart defects and hearing loss in two unrelated adult females with normal intelligence and similar facial appearance : Confirmation of a syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalfs, CM; Oosterwijk, JC; VanSchooneveld, MJ; Begeman, CJ; Wabeke, KB; Hennekam, RCM

    Two unrelated, adult females with normal intelligence are described. They show a similar clinical picture with a long and narrow face, congenital cataract, microphthalmia, microcornea, a high nasal bridge, a short nose, a broad nasal tip, a long philtrum, bilateral hearing loss, persistent primary

  19. How Children with Normal Hearing and Children with a Cochlear Implant Use Mentalizing Vocabulary and Other Evaluative Expressions in Their Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Kerttu; Ryder, Nuala

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of mental state and emotion terms and other evaluative expressions in the story generation of 65 children (aged 2-8 years) with normal hearing (NH) and 11 children (aged 3-7 years) using a cochlear implant (CI). Children generated stories on the basis of sets of sequential pictures. The stories of the children with CI…

  20. Hear, Hear!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin

    2000-01-01

    Examines the problem of acoustics in school classrooms; the problems it creates for student learning, particularly for students with hearing problems; and the impediments to achieving acceptable acoustical levels for school classrooms. Acoustic guidelines are explored and some remedies for fixing sound problems are highlighted. (GR)

  1. Validating a Method to Assess Lipreading, Audiovisual Gain, and Integration During Speech Reception With Cochlear-Implanted and Normal-Hearing Subjects Using a Talking Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreitmüller, Stefan; Frenken, Miriam; Bentz, Lüder; Ortmann, Magdalene; Walger, Martin; Meister, Hartmut

    Watching a talker's mouth is beneficial for speech reception (SR) in many communication settings, especially in noise and when hearing is impaired. Measures for audiovisual (AV) SR can be valuable in the framework of diagnosing or treating hearing disorders. This study addresses the lack of standardized methods in many languages for assessing lipreading, AV gain, and integration. A new method is validated that supplements a German speech audiometric test with visualizations of the synthetic articulation of an avatar that was used, for it is feasible to lip-sync auditory speech in a highly standardized way. Three hypotheses were formed according to the literature on AV SR that used live or filmed talkers. It was tested whether respective effects could be reproduced with synthetic articulation: (1) cochlear implant (CI) users have a higher visual-only SR than normal-hearing (NH) individuals, and younger individuals obtain higher lipreading scores than older persons. (2) Both CI and NH gain from presenting AV over unimodal (auditory or visual) sentences in noise. (3) Both CI and NH listeners efficiently integrate complementary auditory and visual speech features. In a controlled, cross-sectional study with 14 experienced CI users (mean age 47.4) and 14 NH individuals (mean age 46.3, similar broad age distribution), lipreading, AV gain, and integration of a German matrix sentence test were assessed. Visual speech stimuli were synthesized by the articulation of the Talking Head system "MASSY" (Modular Audiovisual Speech Synthesizer), which displayed standardized articulation with respect to the visibility of German phones. In line with the hypotheses and previous literature, CI users had a higher mean visual-only SR than NH individuals (CI, 38%; NH, 12%; p < 0.001). Age was correlated with lipreading such that within each group, younger individuals obtained higher visual-only scores than older persons (rCI = -0.54; p = 0.046; rNH = -0.78; p < 0.001). Both CI and NH

  2. Estabilidade dos potenciais evocados auditivos em indivíduos adultos com audição normal Stability of auditory evoked potentials in adults with normal hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gentile Matas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a estabilidade dos parâmetros dos potenciais evocados auditivos em adultos normais. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos à avaliação audiológica e eletrofisiológica (potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico - PEATE, potencial evocado auditivo de média latência - PEAML e potencial cognitivo - P300 49 indivíduos normais, de 18 a 40 anos (25 do gênero feminino e 24 do gênero masculino. Realizou-se reavaliação três meses após a avaliação. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas diferenças entre os gêneros na avaliação para as latências das ondas III e V e interpicos I-III e I-V do PEATE e amplitude N2-P3 do P300. Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas para os parâmetros do PEATE, PEAML (latência das ondas Na, Pa e amplitude Na - Pa e P300 (latência da onda P300 entre os resultados obtidos na avaliação e reavaliação. CONCLUSÃO: Exceção feita à amplitude N2-P3, observou-se estabilidade dos parâmetros de PEATE, PEAML e P300 em adultos normais após período de três meses.PURPOSE: To evaluate the stability of parameters of auditory evoked potentials in normal adults. METHODS: Forty-nine normal subjects with ages from 18 to 40 years (25 females and 24 males were submitted to audiological and electrophysiological hearing evaluation (auditory brainstem response - ABR, middle latency response - MLR, and cognitive potential - P300. Subjects were reassessed three months after the initial evaluation. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between genders regarding the wave latencies III and V and the interpeaks I-III and I-IV of ABR, and the amplitude N2-P3 of the P300. No differences were found between the results of initial and final assessments for the parameters of the ABR, MLR (Na, Pa latencies and Na-Pa amplitude and P300 (P300 latency. CONCLUSION: Except for the N2-P3 amplitude, it was observed stability of the parameters of ABR, MLR and P300 in normal adults after a period of three months.

  3. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential Produced by Bone-Conducted Stimuli: A Study on its Basics and Clinical Applications in Patients with Conductive and Sensorineural Hearing Loss and a Group with Vestibular Schawannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Parvane; Amali, Amin; Pourbakht, Akram; Karimi Yazdi, Alireza; Bassam, Ali

    2013-06-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) has recently been broadly studied in vestibular disorders. As it is evoked by loud sound stimulation, even mild conductive hearing loss may affect VEMP results. Bone-conducted (BC) stimulus is an alternative stimulation for evoking this response. This study aims to assess the characteristics of BC-VEMP in different groups of patients. We performed a cross sectional analysis on 20 healthy volunteers with normal pure-tone audiometry as a control group; and on a group of patients consisted of 20 participants with conductive hearing loss, five with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and four with vestibular schawannoma. AC and BC-VEMP were performed in all participants. In control group the VEMP responses to both kinds of stimuli had an acceptable morphology and consisted of p13 and n23 waves. Latency value of these main components in each type of stimulus was not significantly different (P>0.05). However, the mean amplitude was larger in BC modality than AC stimulation (P=0.025). In the group with conductive hearing loss, the VEMP response was absent in fifteen (46.87%) of the 32 ears using the AC method, whereas all (100%) displayed positive elicitability of VEMP by BC method. Normal VEMP responses in both stimuli were evoked in all patients with sensorineural hearing loss. In patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS), 2 (50.00%) had neither AC-VEMP nor BC-VEMP. Auditory stimuli delivered by bone conduction can evoke VEMP response. These responses are of vestibular origin and can be used in vestibular evaluation of patients with conductive hearing loss.

  4. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential Produced by Bone-Conducted Stimuli: A Study on its Basics and Clinical Applications in Patients With Conductive and Sensorineural Hearing Loss and a Group With Vestibular Schawannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvane Mahdi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP has recently been broadly studied in vestibular disorders. As it is evoked by loud sound stimulation, even mild conductive hearing loss may affect VEMP results. Bone-conducted (BC stimulus is an alternative stimulation for evoking this response. This study aims to assess the characteristics of BC-VEMP in different groups of patients.   Materials and Methods: We performed a cross sectional analysis on 20 healthy volunteers with normal pure-tone audiometry as a control group; and on a group of patients consisted of 20 participants with conductive hearing loss, five with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and four with vestibular schawannoma. AC and BC-VEMP were performed in all participants.   Results: In control group the VEMP responses to both kinds of stimuli had an acceptable morphology and consisted of p13 and n23 waves. Latency value of these main components in each type of stimulus was not significantly different (P>0.05. However, the mean amplitude was larger in BC modality than AC stimulation (P=0.025. In the group with conductive hearing loss, the VEMP response was absent in fifteen (46.87% of the 32 ears using the AC method, whereas all (100% displayed positive elicitability of VEMP by BC method. Normal VEMP responses in both stimuli were evoked in all patients with sensorineural hearing loss. In patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS, 2 (50.00% had neither AC-VEMP nor BC-VEMP. Conclusion:  Auditory stimuli delivered by bone conduction can evoke VEMP response. These responses are of vestibular origin and can be used in vestibular evaluation of patients with conductive hearing loss.

  5. Speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses in children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Al Osman, Rida; Rivest, Véronique; Poulin, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate subcortical auditory processing in children with sensorineural hearing loss. Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABRs) were recorded using click and speech/da/stimuli. Twenty-five children, aged 6-14 years old, participated in the study: 13 with normal hearing acuity and 12 with sensorineural hearing loss. No significant differences were observed for the click-evoked ABRs between normal hearing and hearing-impaired groups. For the speech-evoked ABRs, no significant differences were found for the latencies of the following responses between the two groups: onset (V and A), transition (C), one of the steady-state wave (F), and offset (O). However, the latency of the steady-state waves (D and E) was significantly longer for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Furthermore, the amplitude of the offset wave O and of the envelope frequency response (EFR) of the speech-evoked ABRs was significantly larger for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Results obtained from the speech-evoked ABRs suggest that children with a mild to moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss have a specific pattern of subcortical auditory processing. Our results show differences for the speech-evoked ABRs in normal hearing children compared to hearing-impaired children. These results add to the body of the literature on how children with hearing loss process speech at the brainstem level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dificuldades na comunicação em normo-ouvintes: estudo comportamental e eletrofisiológico Communication disorders in subjects with normal hearing: a behavioral and electrophysiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regueira Dias Prestes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Olimiar auditivo nem sempre prediz o desempenho em ambientes com redundância extrínseca reduzida. OBJETIVO: Investigar o relato de dificuldades de comunicação de adultos com audiograma normal e verificar o quadro subjacente por meio de avaliações comportamental e eletrofisiológica. MÉTODO: Estudo caso-controle de indivíduos com limiares normais, distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo estudo, 10 adultos com queixas auditivas de comunicação e grupo controle, 10 adultos, sem queixas. Foi medida a frequência em que os participantes apresentam dificuldades de comunicação e realizados testes de fala no silêncio e no ruído, audiometria e potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: O grupo estudo se diferenciou estatisticamente do grupo controle apenas nos escores de dificuldades de comunicação. Foi constatada uma correlação positiva entre os limiares tonais e os escores no autorrelato de dificuldade. CONCLUSÃO: A presença de queixa auditiva na ausência de alterações no audiograma não esteve associada a diferença no desempenho no reconhecimento de fala no ruído, nem nas demais avaliações. Com base na análise de correlação, observou-se que, quanto mais elevados os limiares auditivos, maiores os escores no relato de dificuldades auditivas relacionadas às situações de comunicação, mesmo os limiares variando de 0 a 25 dB.Hearing thresholds are not always predictive of performance in environments with reduced extrinsic redundancy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the communication disorders reported by adults with normal hearing, and to assess their underlying conditions through behavioral and electrophysiological testing. METHOD: This case control study enrolled 20 adults with normal hearing thresholds and divided them into two groups: a case group with 10 adults with hearing impairment-related communication disorders and a control group with 10 adults with normal hearing. The frequency of occurrence of

  7. Lexical tone recognition in noise in normal-hearing children and prelingually deafened children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yitao; Xu, Li

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Mandarin tone recognition in background noise in children with cochlear implants (CIs), and to examine the potential factors contributing to their performance. Tone recognition was tested using a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm in various signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions (i.e. quiet, +12, +6, 0, and -6 dB). Linear correlation analysis was performed to examine possible relationships between the tone-recognition performance of the CI children and the demographic factors. Sixty-six prelingually deafened children with CIs and 52 normal-hearing (NH) children as controls participated in the study. Children with CIs showed an overall poorer tone-recognition performance and were more susceptible to noise than their NH peers. Tone confusions between Mandarin tone 2 and tone 3 were most prominent in both CI and NH children except for in the poorest SNR conditions. Age at implantation was significantly correlated with tone-recognition performance of the CI children in noise. There is a marked deficit in tone recognition in prelingually deafened children with CIs, particularly in noise listening conditions. While factors that contribute to the large individual differences are still elusive, early implantation could be beneficial to tone development in pediatric CI users.

  8. Speech perception in older listeners with normal hearing:conditions of time alteration, selective word stress, and length of sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soojin; Yu, Jyaehyoung; Chun, Hyungi; Seo, Hyekyung; Han, Woojae

    2014-04-01

    Deficits of the aging auditory system negatively affect older listeners in terms of speech communication, resulting in limitations to their social lives. To improve their perceptual skills, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of time alteration, selective word stress, and varying sentence lengths on the speech perception of older listeners. Seventeen older people with normal hearing were tested for seven conditions of different time-altered sentences (i.e., ±60%, ±40%, ±20%, 0%), two conditions of selective word stress (i.e., no-stress and stress), and three different lengths of sentences (i.e., short, medium, and long) at the most comfortable level for individuals in quiet circumstances. As time compression increased, sentence perception scores decreased statistically. Compared to a natural (or no stress) condition, the selectively stressed words significantly improved the perceptual scores of these older listeners. Long sentences yielded the worst scores under all time-altered conditions. Interestingly, there was a noticeable positive effect for the selective word stress at the 20% time compression. This pattern of results suggests that a combination of time compression and selective word stress is more effective for understanding speech in older listeners than using the time-expanded condition only.

  9. A Study of Relationship between the Acoustic Sensitivity of Vestibular System and the Ability to Trigger Sound-Evoked Muscle Reflex of the Middle Ear in Adults with Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Emami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The vestibular system is sound sensitive and the sensitivity is related to the saccule. The vestibular afferents are projected to the middle ear muscles (such as the stapedius. The goal of this research was studying the relationship between the vestibular hearing and the sound-evoked muscle reflex of the middle ear to 500 HZ. Materials & Methods: This study was a cross sectional-comparison done in audiology department of Sheikholreis C‍‍linic (Hamadan, Iran. The study groups consisted of thirty healthy people and thirty patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Inclusion criteria of the present study were to have normal hearing on pure tone audiometry, acoustic reflex, and speech discrimination scores. Based on ipsilateral acoustic reflex test at 500HZ, they were divided to normal and abnormal groups. Then they were evaluated by cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs and finally classified in three groups (N Normal ear , (CVUA Contra lateral vertiginous ear with unaffected saccular sensitivity to sound,(IVA Ipsilateral vertiginous ear with affected saccular sensitivity to sound. Results: Thirty affected ears (IVA with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by ab-normal cVEMPs, revealed abnormal findings of acoustic reflex at 500HZ. Whereas, both un-affected (CVUA and normal ears (N had normal results. Multiple comparisons of mean values of cVEMPs (p13,n23 and acoustic reflex at500HZ among the three groups were sig-nificant. The correlation between acoustic reflex at 500HZ and p13 latencies was significant. The n23 latencies showed significant correlation with acoustic reflex at 500HZ. Conclusion: The vestibular sensitivity to sound retains the ability to trigger sound-evoked re-flex of the middle ear at 500 HZ. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:99-104

  10. Relationship between Otolaryngologic Complaints and Systemic Comorbidities Observed in a Group of Hearing Aid Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Optimization of the selection, adaptation, and benefit of hearing aids is necessary to characterize and manage hearing loss, user expectations, otolaryngologic symptoms, and systemic comorbidities. Objective To compare the occurrence of otologic complaints, systemic diseases, and effective use of hearing aids in men and women with deafness. Methods Patients from a Unified Health System–accredited hearing health service, who reported problems in adapting to their hearing aids, were evaluated by a physician and audiologist. An anamnesis, ENT evaluation, and audiological evaluation were performed. Results During the data collection period, 278 subjects came in for follow-up visits; of these, 61 (21% reported otologic or operational problems with their equipment. The most prevalent type of hearing loss was basocochlear, a characteristic of presbycusis, in both men and women; the most frequently reported comorbidities were hypercholesterolemia (more significant in women and hypertension (more significant in men. Fourteen subjects reported using their device discontinuously, with no significant difference between genders; the reasons for discontinuation of use were itching and ringing, with more complaints from women. Conclusion The incidence of systemic and audiological complaints is high in this population. These patients should be evaluated thoroughly, as resolutions of these complaints can contribute to improving the quality of life and assist in the process of hearing aid fitting.

  11. Validation of the second version of the LittlEARS® Early Speech Production Questionnaire (LEESPQ) in German-speaking children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilmann, Annerose; Friese, Barbara; Lässig, Anne; Hoffmann, Vanessa

    2018-04-01

    The introduction of neonatal hearing screening and the increasingly early age at which children can receive a cochlear implant has intensified the need for a validated questionnaire to assess the speech production of children aged 0‒18. Such a questionnaire has been created, the LittlEARS ® Early Speech Production Questionnaire (LEESPQ). This study aimed to validate a second, revised edition of the LEESPQ. Questionnaires were returned for 362 children with normal hearing. Completed questionnaires were analysed to determine if the LEESPQ is reliable, prognostically accurate, internally consistent, and if gender or multilingualism affects total scores. Total scores correlated positively with age. The LEESPQ is reliable, accurate, and consistent, and independent of gender or lingual status. A norm curve was created. This second version of the LEESPQ is a valid tool to assess the speech production development of children with normal hearing, aged 0‒18, regardless of their gender. As such, the LEESPQ may be a useful tool to monitor the development of paediatric hearing device users. The second version of the LEESPQ is a valid instrument for assessing early speech production of children aged 0‒18 months.

  12. Expansion of Prosodic Abilities at the Transition From Babble to Words: A Comparison Between Children With Cochlear Implants and Normally Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinato, Michèle; Clerck, Ilke De; Verhoeven, Jo; Gillis, Steven

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of emerging vocabulary production on the ability to produce the phonetic cues to prosodic prominence in babbled and lexical disyllables of infants with cochlear implants (CI) and normally hearing (NH) infants. Current research on typical language acquisition emphasizes the importance of vocabulary development for phonological and phonetic acquisition. Children with CI experience significant difficulties with the perception and production of prosody, and the role of possible top-down effects is, therefore, particularly relevant for this population. Isolated disyllabic babble and first words were identified and segmented in longitudinal audio-video recordings and transcriptions for nine NH infants and nine infants with CI interacting with their parents. Monthly recordings were included from the onset of babbling until children had reached a cumulative vocabulary of 200 words. Three cues to prosodic prominence, fundamental frequency (f0), intensity, and duration, were measured in the vocalic portions of stand-alone disyllables. To represent the degree of prosodic differentiation between two syllables in an utterance, the raw values for intensity and duration were transformed to ratios, and for f0, a measure of the perceptual distance in semitones was derived. The degree of prosodic differentiation for disyllabic babble and words for each cue was compared between groups. In addition, group and individual tendencies on the types of stress patterns for babble and words were also examined. The CI group had overall smaller pitch and intensity distances than the NH group. For the NH group, words had greater pitch and intensity distances than babbled disyllables. Especially for pitch distance, this was accompanied by a shift toward a more clearly expressed stress pattern that reflected the influence of the ambient language. For the CI group, the same expansion in words did not take place for pitch. For intensity, the CI group gave

  13. Sensitivity to Angular and Radial Source Movements as a Function of Acoustic Complexity in Normal and Impaired Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbeck, Micha; Grimm, Giso; Hohmann, Volker

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to static sounds, spatially dynamic sounds have received little attention in psychoacoustic research so far. This holds true especially for acoustically complex (reverberant, multisource) conditions and impaired hearing. The current study therefore investigated the influence of reverb...

  14. A group of facial normal descriptors for recognizing 3D identical twins

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, to characterize and distinguish identical twins, three popular texture descriptors: i.e. local binary patterns (LBPs), gabor filters (GFs) and local gabor binary patterns (LGBPs) are employed to encode the normal components (x, y and z) of the 3D facial surfaces of identical twins respectively. A group of facial normal descriptors are thus achieved, including Normal Local Binary Patterns descriptor (N-LBPs), Normal Gabor Filters descriptor (N-GFs) and Normal Local Gabor Binary Patterns descriptor (N-LGBPs). All these normal encoding based descriptors are further fed into sparse representation classifier (SRC) for identification. Experimental results on the 3D TEC database demonstrate that these proposed normal encoding based descriptors are very discriminative and efficient, achieving comparable performance to the best of state-of-the-art algorithms. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. OI Issues: Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signals normally to the brain. In addition, hearing losses are classified according to the degree of severity: • Mild, • Moderate, • Severe, • Profound. Hearing losses are also classified according to the sound frequency ...

  16. Music Perception by Cochlear Implant and Normal Hearing Listeners as Measured by the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William B.; Tobey, Emily; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the utility/possibility of using the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) test (Peretz, Champod, & Hyde, 2003) to assess the music perception abilities of cochlear implant (CI) users. Design The MBEA was used to measure six different aspects of music perception (Scale, Contour, Interval, Rhythm, Meter, and Melody Memory) by CI users and normal hearing (NH) listeners presented with stimuli processed via CI simulations. The spectral resolution (number of channels) was varied in the CI simulations to determine: (a) the number of channels (4, 6, 8, 12, 16) needed to achieve the highest levels of music perception and (b) the number of channels needed to produce levels of music perception performance comparable to that of CI users. Results CI users and NH listeners performed higher on temporal-based tests (Rhythm and Meter) than on pitch-based tests (Scale, Contour, and Interval) – a finding that is consistent with previous research studies. The CI users' scores on pitch-based tests were near chance. The CI users' (but not NH listeners') scores for the Memory test, a test that incorporates an integration of both temporal-based and pitch-based aspects of music, were significantly higher than the scores obtained for the pitch-based Scale test and significantly lower than the temporal-based Rhythm and Meter tests. The data from NH listeners indicated that 16 channels of stimulation did not provide the highest music perception scores and performance was as good as that obtained with 12 channels. This outcome is consistent with other studies showing that NH listeners listening to vocoded speech are not able to utilize effectively F0 cues present in the envelopes, even when the stimuli are processed with a large number (16) of channels. The CI user data appear to most closely match with the 4- and 6- channel NH listener conditions for the pitch-based tasks. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, both CI

  17. Music perception by cochlear implant and normal hearing listeners as measured by the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William B; Tobey, Emily; Loizou, Philipos C

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the utility/possibility of using the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) test (Peretz, et al., Ann N Y Acad Sci, 999, 58-75) to assess the music perception abilities of cochlear implant (CI) users. The MBEA was used to measure six different aspects of music perception (Scale, Contour, Interval, Rhythm, Meter, and Melody Memory) by CI users and normal-hearing (NH) listeners presented with stimuli processed via CI simulations. The spectral resolution (number of channels) was varied in the CI simulations to determine: (a) the number of channels (4, 6, 8, 12, and 16) needed to achieve the highest levels of music perception and (b) the number of channels needed to produce levels of music perception performance comparable with that of CI users. CI users and NH listeners performed higher on temporal-based tests (Rhythm and Meter) than on pitch-based tests (Scale, Contour, and Interval)--a finding that is consistent with previous research studies. The CI users' scores on pitch-based tests were near chance. The CI users' (but not NH listeners') scores for the Memory test, a test that incorporates an integration of both temporal-based and pitch-based aspects of music, were significantly higher than the scores obtained for the pitch-based Scale test and significantly lower than the temporal-based Rhythm and Meter tests. The data from NH listeners indicated that 16 channels of stimulation did not provide the highest music perception scores and performance was as good as that obtained with 12 channels. This outcome is consistent with other studies showing that NH listeners listening to vocoded speech are not able to use effectively F0 cues present in the envelopes, even when the stimuli are processed with a large number (16) of channels. The CI user data seem to most closely match with the 4- and 6-channel NH listener conditions for the pitch-based tasks. Consistent with previous studies, both CI users and NH listeners

  18. Story retelling skills in Persian speaking hearing-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarollahi, Farnoush; Mohamadi, Reyhane; Modarresi, Yahya; Agharasouli, Zahra; Rahimzadeh, Shadi; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Keyhani, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-05-01

    Since the pragmatic skills of hearing-impaired Persian-speaking children have not yet been investigated particularly through story retelling, this study aimed to evaluate some pragmatic abilities of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children using a story retelling test. 15 normal-hearing and 15 profound hearing-impaired 7-year-old children were evaluated using the story retelling test with the content validity of 89%, construct validity of 85%, and reliability of 83%. Three macro structure criteria including topic maintenance, event sequencing, explicitness, and four macro structure criteria including referencing, conjunctive cohesion, syntax complexity, and utterance length were assessed. The test was performed with live voice in a quiet room where children were then asked to retell the story. The tasks of the children were recorded on a tape, transcribed, scored and analyzed. In the macro structure criteria, utterances of hearing-impaired students were less consistent, enough information was not given to listeners to have a full understanding of the subject, and the story events were less frequently expressed in a rational order than those of normal-hearing group (P hearing students who obtained high scores, hearing-impaired students failed to gain any scores on the items of this section. These results suggest that Hearing-impaired children were not able to use language as effectively as their hearing peers, and they utilized quite different pragmatic functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-related changes in auditory and cognitive abilities in elderly persons with hearing aids fitted at the initial stages of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Obuchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relation between the use of hearing aids at the initial stages of hearing loss and age-related changes in the auditory and cognitive abilities of elderly persons. 12 healthy elderly persons participated in an annual auditory and cognitive longitudinal examination for three years. According to their hearing level, they were divided into 3 subgroups - the normal hearing group, the hearing loss without hearing aids group, and the hearing loss with hearing aids group. All the subjects underwent 4 tests: pure-tone audiometry, syllable intelligibility test, dichotic listening test (DLT, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R Short Forms. Comparison between the 3 groups revealed that the hearing loss without hearing aids group showed the lowest scores for the performance tasks, in contrast to the hearing level and intelligibility results. The other groups showed no significant difference in the WAIS-R subtests. This result indicates that prescription of a hearing aid during the early stages of hearing loss is related to the retention of cognitive abilities in such elderly people. However, there were no statistical significant correlations between the auditory and cognitive tasks.

  20. Neonatal Hearing screening in tafila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashed, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    To measure the true prevalence of hearing impairment in neonates in Tafila, Jordan. This retrospective study was carried out at Prince Zeid Hospital, Taflia, Jordan through analysis of data of all births from January 2005 and January 2006. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) were measured via the application of echoprobe to both ears. There were two groups of births that were analysed statistically. Hearing impaired neonates were those with two fails or more in each ear. Normal ones were those with 3 pass or more. Of the 1788 babies in the study group, 1622 (90.7%) were enrolled in the study with 9.3% loss rate. 1512 babies were examined on the 2 day of birth, 2 of them had hearing impairment with a rate of 1.2/1000. 110 babies were screened on the day of discharge from the nursery, one of them with hearing defect with a rate of 5.9/1000. Thus, true prevalence of hearing impaiment or failure was 1.7/1000. We conclude that screening for hearing impairment in the neonatal period is easy, informative and the true prevalence of hearing impairment in Tafila is similar to that in different parts of the world. (author)

  1. Comparing Executive Function and Behavioral Inhibition in Schizophrenia, Bipolar Mood Disorder Type I and Normal Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziye Khodaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and Bipolar I disorder seems to be different from the normal individuals, that these defects affect their treatment results. Therefore, this study aimed to compare executive function and behavioral inhibition within patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar type I as well as a normal group. Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, out of all patients hospitalized in daily psychiatric clinic in Najafabad in 2014 due to these disorders, 20 schizophrenia and 20 bipolar type I as well as 20 normal individuals were selected via the convinience sampling. All the study participants completed the computerizing tests including Tower of London and Go-No Go. The study data were analyzed utilizing SPSS software (ver 22 via MANOVA. Results: The study findings revealed a significant difference between the two patient groups and the normal group in regard with executive function and behavioral inhibition (p<0.05, whereas no differences were detected between schizophrenics and bipolar patient groups. Furthermore, patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar I mood disorder demonstrated significantly poor performance in cognitive function and behavioral inhibition compared to the normal group. Conclusion: The present study results can be significantly applied in pathology and therapy of these disorders, so as recognizing the inability of such patients can be effective in developing cognitive rehabilitation programs in these patients.

  2. The effect of music on auditory perception in cochlear-implant users and normal-hearing listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Christina Diechina

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are auditory prostheses for severely deaf people that do not benefit from conventional hearing aids. Speech perception is reasonably good with CIs; other signals such as music perception are challenging. First, the perception of music and music related perception in CI users

  3. Lungfish Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    Recent research has shown that tympanic middle ears evolved independently in the major vertebrate groups and represent independent experiments in terrestrial hearing. Furthermore, the tympanic ear emerged quite late – ap - proximately 120 mya after the origin of the tetrapods and approximately 70...... my after the first truly terrestrial tetrapods emerged. One of the major challenges is to understand the transitional stages from tetrapod ancestors to the tympanic tetrapod ear, for example how a non-tympanic ear functions in terrestrial hearing. Lungfish are the closest living relatives...... and urodeles. Based on ABR and vibration measurements also on amphib - ians, lizards, snakes and alligators we can outline scenarios for the initial adaptations of the middle ear to non-tympanic hearing and assess the selection pressures later adapting the middle ear for tympanic hearing. Hearing by bone...

  4. Attitudes of a group of primary school teachers towards the educational inclusion of hearing-impaired learners in regular classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, K; Ross, E

    1998-01-01

    Research has clearly demonstrated a link between the attitudes of regular education teachers and the success of inclusion of learners with special educational needs. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the attitudes of a group of junior primary school teachers from the Gauteng area towards the inclusion of hearing-impaired children into regular classes. A survey research design was employed which utilized a questionnaire as the research tool. Analysis of results indicated that the teachers surveyed were relatively positive in their attitudes towards inclusion. Greater exposure to disability in terms of training and experience was related to more positive attitudes. Similarly, more positive attitudes were related to greater perceived competence in teaching hearing-impaired pupils. All of the teachers surveyed felt that speech-language pathologists and audiologists (SLPs & As) should be involved in facilitating inclusion of hearing-impaired children. Many of the respondents expressed concern regarding their lack of training, knowledge and skills. The findings from the research project highlight the need for an adequate training and support system for teachers prior to the implementation of an inclusive educational policy, and the potential role of SLPs & As in this regard.

  5. Small-Group Phonological Awareness Training for Pre-Kindergarten Children with Hearing Loss Who Wear Cochlear Implants and/or Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Douglas, Michael; Ackal, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    This case report details a year-long phonological awareness (PA) intervention for pre-kindergarten children with hearing loss (CHL) who use listening and spoken language. All children wore cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. Intervention occurred for 15 min/day, 4 days per week across the pre-kindergarten school year and was delivered by…

  6. Subcortical amplitude modulation encoding deficits suggest evidence of cochlear synaptopathy in normal-hearing 18-19 year olds with higher lifetime noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Brandon T; Waheed, Sajal; Bruce, Ian C; Roberts, Larry E

    2017-11-01

    Noise exposure and aging can damage cochlear synapses required for suprathreshold listening, even when cochlear structures needed for hearing at threshold remain unaffected. To control for effects of aging, behavioral amplitude modulation (AM) detection and subcortical envelope following responses (EFRs) to AM tones in 25 age-restricted (18-19 years) participants with normal thresholds, but different self-reported noise exposure histories were studied. Participants with more noise exposure had smaller EFRs and tended to have poorer AM detection than less-exposed individuals. Simulations of the EFR using a well-established cochlear model were consistent with more synaptopathy in participants reporting greater noise exposure.

  7. On finite groups whose every proper normal subgroup is a union of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ... and |N|(|N| − 1) divides |G| and in particular, |G| is even. Shi [14] proved some deep results about finite group G of order paqb containing a 2- decomposable normal subgroup N. He proved that for such a group |N| = 2, 3, 2 b1 or. 2 a1 +1, where 2b1 −1 is a Mersenne prime and 2a1 +1 is a Fermat prime. Moreover, we have.

  8. Quality of Life and Hearing Eight Years After Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Kati; Kivekäs, Ilkka; Rautiainen, Markus; Kotti, Voitto; Vasama, Juha-Pekka

    2017-04-01

    To explore long-term hearing results, quality of life (QoL), quality of hearing (QoH), work-related stress, tinnitus, and balance problems after idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). Cross-sectional study. We reviewed the audiograms of 680 patients with unilateral ISSNHL on average 8 years after the hearing impairment, and then divided the patients into two study groups based on whether their ISSNHL had recovered to normal (pure tone average [PTA] ≤ 30 dB) or not (PTA > 30 dB). The inclusion criteria were a hearing threshold decrease of 30 dB or more in at least three contiguous frequencies occurring within 72 hours in the affected ear and normal hearing in the contralateral ear. Audiograms of 217 patients fulfilled the criteria. We reviewed their medical records; measured present QoL, QoH, and work-related stress with specific questionnaires; and updated the hearing status. Poor hearing outcome after ISSNHL was correlated with age, severity of hearing loss, and vertigo together with ISSNHL. Quality of life and QoH were statistically significantly better in patients with recovered hearing, and the patients had statistically significantly less tinnitus and balance problems. During the 8-year follow-up, the PTA of the affected ear deteriorated on average 7 dB, and healthy ear deteriorated 6 dB. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss that failed to recover had a negative impact on long-term QoL and QoH. The hearing deteriorated as a function of age similarly both in the affected and the healthy ear, and there were no differences between the groups. The cumulative recurrence rate for ISSNHL was 3.5%. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:927-931, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Ophthalmic, Hearing, Speaking and School Readiness Outcomes in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight Primary School Children in Mashhad-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Birth weight infants are at risk of many problems. Therefore their outcome must evaluate in different ages especially in school age. In this study we determined prevalence of ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems in children who were born low birth weight and compared them with normal birth weight children. In a cross-sectional and retrospective study, all Primary School children referred to special educational organization center for screening before entrance to school were elected in Mashhad, Iran. In this study 2400 children enrolled to study and were checked for ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems by valid instrument. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. This study showed that 8.3% of our population had birth weight less than 2500 gram. Visual impairment in LBW (Low Birth Weight and NBW (Normal Birth Weight was 8.29% vs. 5.74% and there was statistically significant difference between them (P=0.015. Hearing problem in LBW and NBW was 2.1% vs. 1.3 and it was not statistically significant. Speaking problem in LBW and NBW was 2.6% vs. 2.2% and it was not statistically significant. School readiness problem in LBW and NBW was 12.4% vs. 5.8% and it was statistically significant (P<0.001. According to the results, neurological problems in our society is more than other society and pay attention to this problem is critical. We believe that in our country, it is necessary to provide a program to routinely evaluate LBW children.

  10. Pelvic Normal Tissue Contouring Guidelines for Radiation Therapy: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, Hiram A., E-mail: hgay@radonc.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Barthold, H. Joseph [Commonwealth Hematology and Oncology, Weymouth, MA (United States); Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel); O' Meara, Elizabeth [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Al-Lozi, Rawan [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lawton, Colleen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zietman, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Myerson, Robert [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Willett, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Jhingran, Anuja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Ryu, Janice [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To define a male and female pelvic normal tissue contouring atlas for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Methods and Materials: One male pelvis computed tomography (CT) data set and one female pelvis CT data set were shared via the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center. A total of 16 radiation oncologists participated. The following organs at risk were contoured in both CT sets: anus, anorectum, rectum (gastrointestinal and genitourinary definitions), bowel NOS (not otherwise specified), small bowel, large bowel, and proximal femurs. The following were contoured in the male set only: bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb. The following were contoured in the female set only: uterus, cervix, and ovaries. A computer program used the binomial distribution to generate 95% group consensus contours. These contours and definitions were then reviewed by the group and modified. Results: The panel achieved consensus definitions for pelvic normal tissue contouring in RTOG trials with these standardized names: Rectum, AnoRectum, SmallBowel, Colon, BowelBag, Bladder, UteroCervix, Adnexa{sub R}, Adnexa{sub L}, Prostate, SeminalVesc, PenileBulb, Femur{sub R}, and Femur{sub L}. Two additional normal structures whose purpose is to serve as targets in anal and rectal cancer were defined: AnoRectumSig and Mesorectum. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusions: Consensus guidelines for pelvic normal tissue contouring were reached and are available as a CT image atlas on the RTOG Web site. This will allow uniformity in defining normal tissues for clinical trials delivering pelvic radiation and will facilitate future normal tissue complication research.

  11. Normal ventricular size and changes with age in pediatric groups on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Yoshitaka; Nose, Tadao; Enomoto, Takao; Maki, Yutaka

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine the normal value of the ventricular size on CT, snd analyze its changes with age in normal pediatric group. Materials and Methods: We searched through our 240 normal pediatric CT film files, aged 4 months to 14 years. Scans were performed on Hitachi CT-II scanner, using 10 mm collimation. Results: 1. The width of the third ventricle showed the same value in all pediatric groups, the mean value of its being 4.8 mm (SD 1.3 mm). 2. Bicaudate cerebroventricular indexes of the anterior horns of lateral ventricles (interecarlate distance/transverse diameter of the brain x100) were 15.3 in infants under one year, 13.8 in the age of one year and 12.7 in the children over two years. The indexes were almost the same in old age group over the age of three years. 3. The upper limit of the normal inverse cella media index (minium width of cella media/transverse diameter of the brain x100) was 31. Therefore the cases with the index above this range can be diagnosed as hydrocephalic. 4. The shape of the anterior horns of lateral ventricles was Y-shaped in infants under one year. II-shaped (paralied shaped) in the age of 1 - 12 years, and again it was Y-shaped in the group over 12 years. 5. In the age group under one year, the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles were visualized in about 60% cases, while the figure decreased to 20% in the older group. (author)

  12. Hearing Loss in HIV-Infected Children in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrapcak, Susan; Kuper, Hannah; Bartlett, Peter; Devendra, Akash; Makawa, Atupele; Kim, Maria; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4-14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014. Data was collected through pediatric quality of life and sociodemographic questionnaires, electronic medical record review, and detailed audiologic testing. Hearing loss was defined as >20 decibels hearing level (dBHL) in either ear. Predictors of hearing loss were explored by regression analysis generating age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Children with significant hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids. Of 380 patients, 24% had hearing loss: 82% conductive, 14% sensorineural, and 4% mixed. Twenty-one patients (23% of those with hearing loss) were referred for hearing aid fitting. There was a higher prevalence of hearing loss in children with history of frequent ear infections (OR 7.4, 4.2-13.0) and ear drainage (OR 6.4, 3.6-11.6). Hearing loss was linked to history of WHO Stage 3 (OR 2.4, 1.2-4.5) or Stage 4 (OR 6.4, 2.7-15.2) and history of malnutrition (OR 2.1, 1.3-3.5), but not to duration of ART or CD4. Only 40% of caregivers accurately perceived their child's hearing loss. Children with hearing impairment were less likely to attend school and had poorer emotional (p = 0.02) and school functioning (p = 0.04). There is an urgent need for improved screening tools, identification and treatment of hearing problems in HIV-infected children, as hearing loss was common in this group and affected school functioning and quality of life. Clear strategies were identified for prevention and treatment, since most hearing loss was conductive in nature, likely due to

  13. Hearing Loss in HIV-Infected Children in Lilongwe, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrapcak, Susan; Kuper, Hannah; Bartlett, Peter; Devendra, Akash; Makawa, Atupele; Kim, Maria; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4–14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014. Data was collected through pediatric quality of life and sociodemographic questionnaires, electronic medical record review, and detailed audiologic testing. Hearing loss was defined as >20 decibels hearing level (dBHL) in either ear. Predictors of hearing loss were explored by regression analysis generating age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Children with significant hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids. Results Of 380 patients, 24% had hearing loss: 82% conductive, 14% sensorineural, and 4% mixed. Twenty-one patients (23% of those with hearing loss) were referred for hearing aid fitting. There was a higher prevalence of hearing loss in children with history of frequent ear infections (OR 7.4, 4.2–13.0) and ear drainage (OR 6.4, 3.6–11.6). Hearing loss was linked to history of WHO Stage 3 (OR 2.4, 1.2–4.5) or Stage 4 (OR 6.4, 2.7–15.2) and history of malnutrition (OR 2.1, 1.3–3.5), but not to duration of ART or CD4. Only 40% of caregivers accurately perceived their child’s hearing loss. Children with hearing impairment were less likely to attend school and had poorer emotional (p = 0.02) and school functioning (p = 0.04). Conclusions There is an urgent need for improved screening tools, identification and treatment of hearing problems in HIV-infected children, as hearing loss was common in this group and affected school functioning and quality of life. Clear strategies were identified for prevention and treatment, since most

  14. Some Neurocognitive Correlates of Noise-Vocoded Speech Perception in Children with Normal Hearing: A Replication and Extension of Eisenberg et al., 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Adrienne S.; Pisoni, David B.; Kronenberger, William G.; Faulkner, Kathleen F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Noise-vocoded speech is a valuable research tool for testing experimental hypotheses about the effects of spectral-degradation on speech recognition in adults with normal hearing (NH). However, very little research has utilized noise-vocoded speech with children with NH. Earlier studies with children with NH focused primarily on the amount of spectral information needed for speech recognition without assessing the contribution of neurocognitive processes to speech perception and spoken word recognition. In this study, we first replicated the seminal findings reported by Eisenberg et al. (2002) who investigated effects of lexical density and word frequency on noise-vocoded speech perception in a small group of children with NH. We then extended the research to investigate relations between noise-vocoded speech recognition abilities and five neurocognitive measures: auditory attention and response set, talker discrimination and verbal and nonverbal short-term working memory. Design Thirty-one children with NH between 5 and 13 years of age were assessed on their ability to perceive lexically controlled words in isolation and in sentences that were noise-vocoded to four spectral channels. Children were also administered vocabulary assessments (PPVT-4 and EVT-2) and measures of auditory attention (NEPSY Auditory Attention (AA) and Response Set (RS) and a talker discrimination task (TD)) and short-term memory (visual digit and symbol spans). Results Consistent with the findings reported in the original Eisenberg et al. (2002) study, we found that children perceived noise-vocoded lexically easy words better than lexically hard words. Words in sentences were also recognized better than the same words presented in isolation. No significant correlations were observed between noise-vocoded speech recognition scores and the PPVT-4 using language quotients to control for age effects. However, children who scored higher on the EVT-2 recognized lexically easy words

  15. A guinea pig strain with recessive heredity of deafness, producing normal-hearing heterozygotes with resistance to noise trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjönsberg, Asa; Herrlin, Petra; Duan, Maoli; Johnson, Ann-Christin; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2005-01-01

    A new strain of waltzing guinea pigs arose spontaneously in a guinea pig breeding facility in Germany in 1996. In addition to obvious vestibular dysfunction, the waltzing animals appear deaf already at birth. Histological analysis revealed that the waltzers lack an open scala media due to the collapse of Reissner's membrane onto the surface of the hearing organ. Subsequent breeding has shown that this strain has a recessive mode of inheritance. The homozygotes are deaf and display a waltzing behaviour throughout their lives while the heterozygotes show no significant signs of inner ear injury despite being carriers of this specific mutated gene of hearing impairment. However, the heterozygous animals offer the opportunity to study how hereditary factors interact with auditory stress. In the present study, the susceptibility of the carriers to noise was investigated. Auditory brainstem responses were obtained prior to and after noise exposure (4 kHz, 110 dB, 6 h). The carriers were significantly less affected by the noise as compared to control animals. This difference was still significant at 4 weeks following noise exposure. It is suggested that the heterozygous animals have an endogenous resistance to auditory stress. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Radioimmunoassay of serum group I and group II pepsinogens in normal controls and patients with various disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, M.; Miki, K.; Hayashi, R.; Niwa, H.; Oka, H.; Furihata, C.; Matsushima, T.; Kageyama, T.; Takahashi, K.

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human group I pepsinogens (PgI) in serum was developed, using PgI purified from gastric mucosa. The sensitivity (0.7 μg/l) and reproducibility of the assay were satisfactory for clinical use. In normal controls total serum pepsinogen (T-Pg) level was 58.9 +- 31.7 μg/l (mean +- SD) (PgI, 43.6 +- 25.0 μg/l; PgII, 15.3 +- 11.1 μg/l). Peptic ulcer cases had elevated T-Pg levels (gastric ulcer, gastroduodenal ulcer and duodenal ulcer, in increasing order of magnitude). T-Pg levels were not useful for diagnosis of peptic ulcer because of a large overlap with normal controls. T-Pg levels were low in patients with gastric polyp and in aged subjects. In these groups, the decrease of PgI was more marked than that of PgII. (Auth.)

  17. Radioimmunoassay of serum group I and group II pepsinogens in normal controls and patients with various disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinose, M.; Miki, K.; Hayashi, R.; Niwa, H.; Oka, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Furihata, C.; Matsushima, T. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Medical Science); Kageyama, T.; Takahashi, K. (Kyoto Univ., Inuyama (Japan). Primate Research Inst.)

    1982-12-09

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human group I pepsinogens (PgI) in serum was developed, using PgI purified from gastric mucosa. The sensitivity (0.7 ..mu..g/l) and reproducibility of the assay were satisfactory for clinical use. In normal controls total serum pepsinogen (T-Pg) level was 58.9 +- 31.7 ..mu..g/l (mean +- SD) (PgI, 43.6 +- 25.0 ..mu..g/l; PgII, 15.3 +- 11.1 ..mu..g/l). Peptic ulcer cases had elevated T-Pg levels (gastric ulcer, gastroduodenal ulcer and duodenal ulcer, in increasing order of magnitude). T-Pg levels were not useful for diagnosis of peptic ulcer because of a large overlap with normal controls. T-Pg levels were low in patients with gastric polyp and in aged subjects. In these groups, the decrease of PgI was more marked than that of PgII.

  18. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  19. About Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Info to Go » Hearing-Related » About Hearing About Hearing Each child who is deaf or hard of ... the ear to the brain. Implications: When the hearing mechanism is not functioning Hearing may be impacted ...

  20. Hearing impairment, cognition and speech understanding: exploratory factor analyses of a comprehensive test battery for a group of hearing aid users, the n200 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Lidestam, Björn; Zekveld, Adriana Agatha; Sörqvist, Patrik; Lyxell, Björn; Träff, Ulf; Yumba, Wycliffe; Classon, Elisabet; Hällgren, Mathias; Larsby, Birgitta; Signoret, Carine; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Rudner, Mary; Danielsson, Henrik; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the current n200 study were to assess the structural relations between three classes of test variables (i.e. HEARING, COGNITION and aided speech-in-noise OUTCOMES) and to describe the theoretical implications of these relations for the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model. Participants were 200 hard-of-hearing hearing-aid users, with a mean age of 60.8 years. Forty-three percent were females and the mean hearing threshold in the better ear was 37.4 dB HL. LEVEL1 factor analyses extracted one factor per test and/or cognitive function based on a priori conceptualizations. The more abstract LEVEL 2 factor analyses were performed separately for the three classes of test variables. The HEARING test variables resulted in two LEVEL 2 factors, which we labelled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE; the COGNITIVE variables in one COGNITION factor only, and OUTCOMES in two factors, NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT. COGNITION predicted the NO CONTEXT factor to a stronger extent than the CONTEXT outcome factor. TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and SENSITIVITY were associated with COGNITION and all three contributed significantly and independently to especially the NO CONTEXT outcome scores (R(2) = 0.40). All LEVEL 2 factors are important theoretically as well as for clinical assessment.

  1. Hearing impairment, cognition and speech understanding: exploratory factor analyses of a comprehensive test battery for a group of hearing aid users, the n200 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Lidestam, Björn; Zekveld, Adriana Agatha; Sörqvist, Patrik; Lyxell, Björn; Träff, Ulf; Yumba, Wycliffe; Classon, Elisabet; Hällgren, Mathias; Larsby, Birgitta; Signoret, Carine; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Rudner, Mary; Danielsson, Henrik; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aims of the current n200 study were to assess the structural relations between three classes of test variables (i.e. HEARING, COGNITION and aided speech-in-noise OUTCOMES) and to describe the theoretical implications of these relations for the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model. Study sample: Participants were 200 hard-of-hearing hearing-aid users, with a mean age of 60.8 years. Forty-three percent were females and the mean hearing threshold in the better ear was 37.4 dB HL. Design: LEVEL1 factor analyses extracted one factor per test and/or cognitive function based on a priori conceptualizations. The more abstract LEVEL 2 factor analyses were performed separately for the three classes of test variables. Results: The HEARING test variables resulted in two LEVEL 2 factors, which we labelled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE; the COGNITIVE variables in one COGNITION factor only, and OUTCOMES in two factors, NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT. COGNITION predicted the NO CONTEXT factor to a stronger extent than the CONTEXT outcome factor. TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and SENSITIVITY were associated with COGNITION and all three contributed significantly and independently to especially the NO CONTEXT outcome scores (R2 = 0.40). Conclusions: All LEVEL 2 factors are important theoretically as well as for clinical assessment. PMID:27589015

  2. Auditory brainstem response latency in forward masking, a marker of sensory deficits in listeners with normal hearing thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehraei, Golbarg; Paredes Gallardo, Andreu; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2017-01-01

    In rodent models, acoustic exposure too modest to elevate hearing thresholds can nonetheless cause auditory nerve fiber deafferentation, interfering with the coding of supra-threshold sound. Low-spontaneous rate nerve fibers, important for encoding acoustic information at supra-threshold levels...... and in noise, are more susceptible to degeneration than high-spontaneous rate fibers. The change in auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave-V latency with noise level has been shown to be associated with auditory nerve deafferentation. Here, we measured ABR in a forward masking paradigm and evaluated wave......-V latency changes with increasing masker-to-probe intervals. In the same listeners, behavioral forward masking detection thresholds were measured. We hypothesized that 1) auditory nerve fiber deafferentation increases forward masking thresholds and increases wave-V latency and 2) a preferential loss of low...

  3. Modeling auditory perception of individual hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten

    showed that, in most cases, the reduced or absent cochlear compression, associated with outer hair-cell loss, quantitatively accounts for broadened auditory filters, while a combination of reduced compression and reduced inner hair-cell function accounts for decreased sensitivity and slower recovery from...... selectivity. Three groups of listeners were considered: (a) normal hearing listeners; (b) listeners with a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss; and (c) listeners with a severe sensorineural hearing loss. A fixed set of model parameters were derived for each hearing-impaired listener. The simulations...

  4. Validating the UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module for Fijian schools to identify seeing, hearing and walking difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Beth; Hoq, Monsurul; Sharma, Umesh; Marella, Manjula

    2017-09-20

    This study investigated the seeing, hearing and walking questions of the UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module and the inter-rater reliability between teachers and parents as proxy respondents. Cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study, two-gate design with representative sampling, comparing Module responses to reference standard assessments for 472 primary aged students in Fiji. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the area under the curve and optimal cut-off points. Areas under the curves ranged from 0.823 to 0.889 indicating "good" diagnostic accuracy. Inter-rater reliability between parent and teacher responses was "good" to "excellent". The optimal cut-off determined by the Youden Index was "some difficulty" however a wide spread of impairment levels were found in this category with most children either having none or substantial impairments. The diagnostic accuracy of the Module seeing, hearing and walking questions appears acceptable with either parents or teachers as proxy respondents. For education systems, use of the cut-off "some difficulty" with accompanying clinical assessment may be important to capture children who require services and learning supports and avoid potentially misleading categorization. Given the high proportion of the sample from special schools research is required to further test the Module in mainstream schools. Implications for rehabilitation Identification of children who are at risk of disability in Fiji is important to enable planning, monitoring and evaluating access to quality inclusive education. The UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module appears to be a practical and effective tool that can be used by teachers to identify children at risk of disability. Children identified on the UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module as having "some difficulty" or higher levels of difficulty in relation to vision, hearing or walking should be referred for further assessment

  5. [Examination of relationship between level of hearing and written language skills in 10-14-year-old hearing impaired children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turğut, Nedim; Karlıdağ, Turgut; Başar, Figen; Yalçın, Şinasi; Kaygusuz, İrfan; Keleş, Erol; Birkent, Ömer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to review the relationship between written language skills and factors which are thought to affect this skill such as mean hearing loss, duration of auditory deprivation, speech discrimination score, and pre-school education attendance and socioeconomic status of hearing impaired children who attend 4th-7th grades in primary school in inclusive environment. The study included 25 hearing impaired children (14 males, 11 females; mean age 11.4±1.4 years; range 10 to 14 years) (study group) and 20 children (9 males, 11 females; mean age 11.5±1.3 years; range 10 to 14 years) (control group) with normal hearing in the same age group and studying in the same class. Study group was separated into two subgroups as group 1a and group 1b since some of the children with hearing disability used hearing aid while some used cochlear implant. Intragroup comparisons and relational screening were performed for those who use hearing aids and cochlear implants. Intergroup comparisons were performed to evaluate the effect of the parameters on written language skills. Written expression skill level of children with hearing disability was significantly lower than their normal hearing peers (p=0.001). A significant relationship was detected between written language skills and mean hearing loss (p=0.048), duration of auditory deprivation (p=0.021), speech discrimination score (p=0.014), and preschool attendance (p=0.005), when it comes to socioeconomic status we were not able to find any significant relationship (p=0.636). It can be said that hearing loss affects written language skills negatively and hearing impaired individuals develop low-level written language skills compared to their normal hearing peers.

  6. Hearing loss - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can allow many infants to develop normal language skills without delay. In infants born with hearing loss, ... therapy allow many children to develop normal language skills at the same age as their peers with ...

  7. Decline of Low-Frequency Hearing in People With Ski-Slope Hearing Loss; Implications for Electrode Array Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurbiers, Jasper; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Metselaar, Mick

    2017-12-01

    The decline of low-frequency hearing in people with ski-slope hearing loss varies and might depend on etiology. People with ski-sloping hearing loss might benefit from cochlear implantation with preservation of residual hearing. To reduce the risk of losing low-frequency hearing after implantation, the electrode-array can be inserted partially up to the desired frequency. That, however, obstructs electrical stimulation of lower frequencies. To decide between complete or partial insertion, knowledge regarding the natural decline of low-frequency hearing is helpful. Patients with at least two ski-slope audiograms over time were selected. We calculated progression at lower frequencies for 320 patients. Etiologies for hearing loss were retrieved from medical records. Progression of hearing loss was analyzed separately for patients with uni- and bilateral hearing losses. Relative progression of hearing loss was obtained by comparing progression to a reference group. Average progression of PTA was 1.73 dB/yr and was not significantly different in the bilateral and unilateral group. Etiologies that did not show significantly more progression compared with the reference group could be identified as single or short-lasting pathologic events, whereas long-lasting conditions had significant more progression of PTA. Patients with a ski-slope hearing loss that was caused by a single or short-lasting event have low progression rate and are viable for partial insertion to minimize the risk of damaging residual low-frequency hearing. In the absence of such an event, complete insertion should be considered because faster than normal deterioration of low-frequency hearing over time will probably limit the advantage of preservation of residual hearing.

  8. Bifactor model of WISC-IV: Applicability and measurement invariance in low and normal IQ groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair; Watson, Shaun

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the applicability and measurement invariance of the bifactor model of the 10 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) core subtests in groups of children and adolescents (age range from 6 to 16 years) with low (IQ ≤79; N = 229; % male = 75.9) and normal (IQ ≥80; N = 816; % male = 75.0) IQ scores. Results supported this model in both groups, and there was good support for measurement invariance for this model across these groups. For all participants together, the omega hierarchical and explained common variance (ECV) values were high for the general factor and low to negligible for the specific factors. Together, the findings favor the use of the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores of the WISC-IV, but not the subscale index scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Effect of non-normality on test statistics for one-way independent groups designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbie, Robert A; Fiksenbaum, Lisa; Keselman, H J; Wilcox, Rand R

    2012-02-01

    The data obtained from one-way independent groups designs is typically non-normal in form and rarely equally variable across treatment populations (i.e., population variances are heterogeneous). Consequently, the classical test statistic that is used to assess statistical significance (i.e., the analysis of variance F test) typically provides invalid results (e.g., too many Type I errors, reduced power). For this reason, there has been considerable interest in finding a test statistic that is appropriate under conditions of non-normality and variance heterogeneity. Previously recommended procedures for analysing such data include the James test, the Welch test applied either to the usual least squares estimators of central tendency and variability, or the Welch test with robust estimators (i.e., trimmed means and Winsorized variances). A new statistic proposed by Krishnamoorthy, Lu, and Mathew, intended to deal with heterogeneous variances, though not non-normality, uses a parametric bootstrap procedure. In their investigation of the parametric bootstrap test, the authors examined its operating characteristics under limited conditions and did not compare it to the Welch test based on robust estimators. Thus, we investigated how the parametric bootstrap procedure and a modified parametric bootstrap procedure based on trimmed means perform relative to previously recommended procedures when data are non-normal and heterogeneous. The results indicated that the tests based on trimmed means offer the best Type I error control and power when variances are unequal and at least some of the distribution shapes are non-normal. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Vowel production of Mandarin-speaking hearing aid users with different types of hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Hung

    Full Text Available In contrast with previous research focusing on cochlear implants, this study examined the speech performance of hearing aid users with conductive (n = 11, mixed (n = 10, and sensorineural hearing loss (n = 7 and compared it with the speech of hearing control. Speech intelligibility was evaluated by computing the vowel space area defined by the Mandarin Chinese corner vowels /a, u, i/. The acoustic differences between the vowels were assessed using the Euclidean distance. The results revealed that both the conductive and mixed hearing loss groups exhibited a reduced vowel working space, but no significant difference was found between the sensorineural hearing loss and normal hearing groups. An analysis using the Euclidean distance further showed that the compression of vowel space area in conductive hearing loss can be attributed to the substantial lowering of the second formant of /i/. The differences in vowel production between groups are discussed in terms of the occlusion effect and the signal transmission media of various hearing devices.

  11. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Niklas; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC) and updating ability (UA). The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing memory load level. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  12. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas eRönnberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC and updating ability (UA. The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing MLL. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech-fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  13. Comprehension of Written Grammar Test: Reliability and Known-Groups Validity Study with Hearing and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Joanna E.; Hubley, Anita M.; Millhoff, Courtney; Mazlouman, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to gather validation evidence for the "Comprehension of Written Grammar" (CWG; Easterbrooks, 2010) receptive test of 26 grammatical structures of English print for use with children who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH). Reliability and validity data were collected for 98 participants (49 DHH and 49…

  14. Nystagmus responses in a group of normal humans during earth-horizontal axis rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal eye movement responses to earth-horizontal yaw axis rotation were evaluated in 50 normal human subjects who were uniformly distributed in age (20-69 years) and each age group was then divided by gender. Subjects were rotated with eyes open in the dark, using clockwise and counter-clockwise 60 deg velocity trapezoids. The nystagmus slow component velocity is analyzed. It is shown that, despite large intersubject variability, parameters which describe earth-horizontal yaw axis responses are loosely interrelated, and some of them vary significantly with gender and age.

  15. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics...

  16. Risk factors for hearing loss in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment was defined according to average threshold greater than 35dBNA, in the frequencies of 1,000; 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, in the best ear. Results: Statistically significant odds ratios were: a to audiological history: noise exposure and family history of deafness; b to situations involving hearing difficulty: television, church, telephone, silent environment, spatial location of sound, difficulty with voices and noisy environment; c to otologic history: tinnitus, otorrhea and nausea; and d to medical history: visual problems, smoke, alcohol, thyroid problems and kidney disease. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlighted, for sensorineural hearing loss, risk factors related to audiologic, otologic and medical history, and to situations involving hearing difficulty.

  17. Negotiating hearing disability and hearing disabled identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Hindhede, Anette

    2012-01-01

        Using disability theory as a framework and social science theories of identity to strengthen the arguments, this paper explores empirically how working-age adults confront the medical diagnosis of hearing impairment. For most participants hearing impairment threatens the stability of social...... interaction and the construction of hearing disabled identities is seen as shaped in the interaction with the hearing impaired person‟s surroundings. In order to overcome the potential stigmatisation the „passing‟ as normal becomes predominant. For many the diagnosis provokes radical redefinitions of the self....... The discursively produced categorisation and subjectivity of senescence mean that rehabilitation technologies such as hearing aids identify a particular life-style (disabled) which determines their social significance. Thus wearing a hearing aid works against the contemporary attempt to create socially ideal...

  18. Analysis of a renormalization group method and normal form theory for perturbed ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVille, R. E. Lee; Harkin, Anthony; Holzer, Matt; Josić, Krešimir; Kaper, Tasso J.

    2008-06-01

    For singular perturbation problems, the renormalization group (RG) method of Chen, Goldenfeld, and Oono [Phys. Rev. E. 49 (1994) 4502-4511] has been shown to be an effective general approach for deriving reduced or amplitude equations that govern the long time dynamics of the system. It has been applied to a variety of problems traditionally analyzed using disparate methods, including the method of multiple scales, boundary layer theory, the WKBJ method, the Poincaré-Lindstedt method, the method of averaging, and others. In this article, we show how the RG method may be used to generate normal forms for large classes of ordinary differential equations. First, we apply the RG method to systems with autonomous perturbations, and we show that the reduced or amplitude equations generated by the RG method are equivalent to the classical Poincaré-Birkhoff normal forms for these systems up to and including terms of O(ɛ2), where ɛ is the perturbation parameter. This analysis establishes our approach and generalizes to higher order. Second, we apply the RG method to systems with nonautonomous perturbations, and we show that the reduced or amplitude equations so generated constitute time-asymptotic normal forms, which are based on KBM averages. Moreover, for both classes of problems, we show that the main coordinate changes are equivalent, up to translations between the spaces in which they are defined. In this manner, our results show that the RG method offers a new approach for deriving normal forms for nonautonomous systems, and it offers advantages since one can typically more readily identify resonant terms from naive perturbation expansions than from the nonautonomous vector fields themselves. Finally, we establish how well the solution to the RG equations approximates the solution of the original equations on time scales of O(1/ɛ).

  19. The Study of Personality in Addicts and Normal Group with Due Attention to Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Mirfakhraei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the comparison of personality traits in addicts and normal group whit due attention to gender. Materials & Methods: The design of the present study was a causal comparative that has been done on the 90 people (60 men and 30 women addicts with the range of age=20-40 of the referrers to the welfare centers and outpatient addiction treatment centers in different parts of Tabriz and Marand in1388. They were selected through the accessible sampling method. This group suffered the substance abuse or dependence on Amphetamine substance on basic of the diagnosis criterions DSM-IV-TR. The other group, 60 men and 30 women with non-addicted who were among the relatives, neighbors and friends. The number of all members was 180 people. An assembling instrument was questionnaire of NEO-FFI. Analysis of the data was based on the multiple-analysis of variance (MANOVA and LSD post-hock test. Results: The results revealed that there was significant difference between addicts and normal group in personality traits. Addicted scores were high neuroticism (P<0.001, less openness to experiences (P<0.001, less agreeableness (P<0.001, less conscientiousness (P0.05. Also, the results revealed that women scores were higher in neuroticism (P<0.05, agreeableness (P<0.05, and conscientiousness (P<0.001, than men and men score was higher in openness to experiences.  Conclusion: Addiction as a social pathology will not be eradicate completely, but it can be controlled through thinking, devotedly attempts. An assessment of personality traits in addicts contributes important information for a better definition and recognition of addicts and has implications for their treatment.

  20. Communal normalization in an online self-help group for adolescents with a mentally ill parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trondsen, Marianne V; Tjora, Aksel

    2014-10-01

    Although implications of parental mental illness are well documented, most children of mentally ill parents are left to manage their family situation with limited information and support. We explored the role of a Norwegian online self-help group for adolescents (aged 15 to 18) with a mentally ill parent. Through in-depth interviews with 13 participants, we found that the online self-help group provided "communal normalization" by which participants, through communication in the forum, made sense of everyday experiences and emotions arising from having a mentally ill parent. We identified three main aspects of this process-recognizability, openness, and agency-all of which were important for the adolescents' efforts to obtain support, to be supportive, and to handle everyday life situations better. Communal normalization might provide resources for significantly improving the participants' life situations, and could demonstrate similar potential for users in other situations characterized by stigma, loneliness, silence, and health worries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Thresholds of Tone Burst Auditory Brainstem Responses for Infants and Young Children with Normal Hearing in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi Lee

    2007-10-01

    Conclusion: Based on the published research and our study, we suggest setting the normal criterion levels for infants and young children in Taiwan of the tone burst auditory brainstem response to air-conducted tones as 30 dB nHL for 500 and 1000 Hz, and 25 dB nHL for 2000 and 4000 Hz.

  2. Ampleness of head movements of children and adolescents with sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Melo, Renato

    2017-02-01

    Head movements are controlled by the vestibular system. Children with sensorineural hearing loss can present restrictions in ampleness of head movements due to damage in the vestibule-cochlear systems, resulting from injury in the inner ear. To evaluate the ampleness of head movements of children with normal hearing and children with sensorineural hearing loss and compare data between groups. Cross-sectional study that evaluated the ampleness of head movements of 96 students, being 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, of both sexes, with aged between 7 and 18 years old. The performance of ampleness of head movements was analyzed by a manual goniometric evaluation, according the references proposed by Marques. To the statistical analysis we used the t-Student test in case of normality of the data or the Mann-Whitney test when did not applied the suppositions of normality. Hearing loss children showed less mean in ampleness of all movements of head compared to normal hearing children, pointing difference to movements of flexion (p = 0,001), lateral inclination to the right (p = 0,025) and lateral rotation to the left (p = 0,021). Hearing loss children showed reduction in the ampleness of these head movements: flexion, lateral inclination to the right and lateral rotation to the left compared to normal hearing children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Musical and Linguistic Components in Recognition of Real-World Musical Excerpts by Cochlear Implant Recipients and Normal-Hearing Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Jiang, Dingfeng; Oleson, Jacob; Driscoll, Virginia; Olszewski, Carol; Knutson, John F.; Turner, Christopher; Gantz, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Background Cochlear implants (CI) are effective in transmitting salient features of speech, especially in quiet, but current CI technology is not well suited in transmission of key musical structures (e.g., melody, timbre). It is possible, however, that sung lyrics, which are commonly heard in real-world music may provide acoustical cues that support better music perception. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine how accurately adults who use CIs (n=87) and those with normal hearing (NH) (n=17) are able to recognize real-world music excerpts based upon musical and linguistic (lyrics) cues. Results CI recipients were significantly less accurate than NH listeners on recognition of real-world music with or, in particular, without lyrics; however, CI recipients whose devices transmitted acoustic plus electric stimulation were more accurate than CI recipients reliant upon electric stimulation alone (particularly items without linguistic cues). Recognition by CI recipients improved as a function of linguistic cues. Methods Participants were tested on melody recognition of complex melodies (pop, country, classical styles). Results were analyzed as a function of: hearing status and history, device type (electric only or acoustic plus electric stimulation), musical style, linguistic and musical cues, speech perception scores, cognitive processing, music background, age, and in relation to self-report on listening acuity and enjoyment. Age at time of testing was negatively correlated with recognition performance. Conclusions These results have practical implications regarding successful participation of CI users in music-based activities that include recognition and accurate perception of real-world songs (e.g., reminiscence, lyric analysis, listening for enjoyment). PMID:22803258

  4. The effects of musical and linguistic components in recognition of real-world musical excerpts by cochlear implant recipients and normal-hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Jiang, Dingfeng; Oleson, Jacob J; Driscoll, Virginia; Olszewski, Carol; Knutson, John F; Turner, Christopher; Gantz, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) are effective in transmitting salient features of speech, especially in quiet, but current CI technology is not well suited in transmission of key musical structures (e.g., melody, timbre). It is possible, however, that sung lyrics, which are commonly heard in real-world music may provide acoustical cues that support better music perception. The purpose of this study was to examine how accurately adults who use CIs (n = 87) and those with normal hearing (NH) (n = 17) are able to recognize real-world music excerpts based upon musical and linguistic (lyrics) cues. CI recipients were significantly less accurate than NH listeners on recognition of real-world music with or, in particular, without lyrics; however, CI recipients whose devices transmitted acoustic plus electric stimulation were more accurate than CI recipients reliant upon electric stimulation alone (particularly items without linguistic cues). Recognition by CI recipients improved as a function of linguistic cues. Participants were tested on melody recognition of complex melodies (pop, country, & classical styles). Results were analyzed as a function of: hearing status and history, device type (electric only or acoustic plus electric stimulation), musical style, linguistic and musical cues, speech perception scores, cognitive processing, music background, age, and in relation to self-report on listening acuity and enjoyment. Age at time of testing was negatively correlated with recognition performance. These results have practical implications regarding successful participation of CI users in music-based activities that include recognition and accurate perception of real-world songs (e.g., reminiscence, lyric analysis, & listening for enjoyment).

  5. Comparative study of patellar subluxation syndrome and normal group using axial radiography and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, Mamoru; Tomonaga, Kunio; Egawa, Tadashi; Nakamura, Yasushi; Gotoh, Shoji; Mihara, Shigeru (Nagasaki Municipal Hospital (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the 20 knees of 10 females with normal knee joints (age, 22-35 years) and on 7 knees of 7 patients with subluxation syndrome (age, 15-24 years), using axial radiography and CT. In axial radiography where the angle of knee flexion was 30 deg or 60 deg, no significant difference was recognized between the two groups with respect to tilting angle, patellofemoral angle, congruence angle and lateral shift. However, a significant difference was found using CT. Thus, CT was considered useful for diagnosis. Because of these results, all 7 cases underwent surgery for detachment of the lateral side and tightening of the medial side. Three cases underwent shifting of the tibial tuberosity to the anteromedial side, resulting in a favourable outcome. Here, we report the study. (author).

  6. Comparative study of patellar subluxation syndrome and normal group using axial radiography and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Mamoru; Tomonaga, Kunio; Egawa, Tadashi; Nakamura, Yasushi; Gotoh, Shoji; Mihara, Shigeru

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the 20 knees of 10 females with normal knee joints (age, 22-35 years) and on 7 knees of 7 patients with subluxation syndrome (age, 15-24 years), using axial radiography and CT. In axial radiography where the angle of knee flexion was 30 deg or 60 deg, no significant difference was recognized between the two groups with respect to tilting angle, patellofemoral angle, congruence angle and lateral shift. However, a significant difference was found using CT. Thus, CT was considered useful for diagnosis. Because of these results, all 7 cases underwent surgery for detachment of the lateral side and tightening of the medial side. Three cases underwent shifting of the tibial tuberosity to the anteromedial side, resulting in a favourable outcome. Here, we report the study. (author)

  7. Auditory brainstem response latency in forward masking, a marker of sensory deficits in listeners with normal hearing thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehraei, Golbarg; Paredes Gallardo, Andreu; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2017-01-01

    -spontaneous rate fibers results in a faster recovery of wave-V latency as the slow contribution of these fibers is reduced. Results showed that in young audiometrically normal listeners, a larger change in wave-V latency with increasing masker-to-probe interval was related to a greater effect of a preceding masker......-V latency changes with increasing masker-to-probe intervals. In the same listeners, behavioral forward masking detection thresholds were measured. We hypothesized that 1) auditory nerve fiber deafferentation increases forward masking thresholds and increases wave-V latency and 2) a preferential loss of low...

  8. Crossing the Communication Barrier: Facilitating Communication in Mixed Groups of Deaf and Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Carol; Foster, Susan; Long, Gary; Stinson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Teachers of introductory technical courses such as statistics face numerous challenges in the classroom, including student motivation and mathematical background, and difficulties in interpreting numerical results in context. Cooperative learning through small groups addresses many such challenges, but students for whom spoken English is not their…

  9. Development of a music perception test for adult hearing-aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Uys

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was two-fold. Firstly to develop a music perception test for hearing aid users and secondly to evaluate the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC on music perception with the use of the self-compiled test. This article focuses on the description of the development and validation of a music perception test. To date, the main direction in frequency lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users’ quality of life grew. The Music Perception Test (MPT was designed to evaluate different aspects of rhythm, timbre, pitch and melody. The development of the MPT could be described as design based. Phase 1 of the study included test development and recording while Phase 2 entailed presentation of stimuli to normal hearing listeners (n=15 and hearing aid users (n=4. Based on the findings of Phase 2, item analysis was performed to eliminate or change stimuli that resulted in high error rates. During Phase 3 the adapted version of the test was performed on a smaller group of normal hearing listeners (n=4 and twenty hearing aid users. Results proved that normal hearing adults as well as adults using hearing aids were able to complete all the sub-tests of the MPT although hearing aid users scored less on the various sub-tests than normal hearing listeners. For the rhythm section of the MPT normal hearing listeners scored on average 93.8% versus 75.5% of hearing aid users and 83% for the timbre section compared to 62.3% by hearing aid users. Normal hearing listeners obtained an average score of 86.3% for the pitch section and 88.2% for the melody section compared to the 70.8% and 61.9% respectively obtained by hearing aid users. This implicates that the MPT can be used successfully for assessment of music perception in hearing aid users within the South African

  10. Audiovisual spoken word training can promote or impede auditory-only perceptual learning: prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants versus normal hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Lynne E; Eberhardt, Silvio P; Auer, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    Training with audiovisual (AV) speech has been shown to promote auditory perceptual learning of vocoded acoustic speech by adults with normal hearing. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether AV speech promotes auditory-only (AO) perceptual learning in prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants. Participants were assigned to learn associations between spoken disyllabic C(=consonant)V(=vowel)CVC non-sense words and non-sense pictures (fribbles), under AV and then AO (AV-AO; or counter-balanced AO then AV, AO-AV, during Periods 1 then 2) training conditions. After training on each list of paired-associates (PA), testing was carried out AO. Across all training, AO PA test scores improved (7.2 percentage points) as did identification of consonants in new untrained CVCVC stimuli (3.5 percentage points). However, there was evidence that AV training impeded immediate AO perceptual learning: During Period-1, training scores across AV and AO conditions were not different, but AO test scores were dramatically lower in the AV-trained participants. During Period-2 AO training, the AV-AO participants obtained significantly higher AO test scores, demonstrating their ability to learn the auditory speech. Across both orders of training, whenever training was AV, AO test scores were significantly lower than training scores. Experiment 2 repeated the procedures with vocoded speech and 43 normal-hearing adults. Following AV training, their AO test scores were as high as or higher than following AO training. Also, their CVCVC identification scores patterned differently than those of the cochlear implant users. In Experiment 1, initial consonants were most accurate, and in Experiment 2, medial consonants were most accurate. We suggest that our results are consistent with a multisensory reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that, whenever possible, perceivers carry out perceptual tasks immediately based on the experience and biases they bring to the task. We

  11. Could Neonatal Hypernatremia Dehydration Influence Hearing Status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal hypernatremia dehydration (NHD is a dangerous condition in neonates, which is accompanied by acute complications (renal failure, cerebral edema, and cerebral hemorrhage and chronic complications (developmental delay. Children begin learning language from birth, and hearing impairment interferes with this process. We assessed the hearing status of infants with hypernatremia dehydration.   Materials and Methods: In a case-control study in 110 infants presenting at the Ghaem Hospital (Mashhad, Iran between 2007 and 2011, we examined the incidence of hearing impairment in infants suffering from hypernatremia dehydration (serum sodium >150 mEq/L in comparison with infants with normal sodium level (serum sodium ≤150 mEq/L.   Results: Three of 110 cases examined in the study group showed a transient hearing impairment. A mean serum sodium level of 173mg/dl was reported among hearing-impaired infants.   Conclusion:  Transient hearing impairment was higher in infants with hypernatremia; although this difference was not significant (P>0.05. Hearing impairment was observed in cases of severe hypernatremia.  

  12. Influence of hearing loss on children’s identification of spondee words in a speech-shaped noise or a two-talker masker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibold, Lori J.; Hillock-Dunn, Andrea; Duncan, Nicole; Roush, Patricia A.; Buss, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This study compared spondee identification performance in presence of speech-shaped noise or two competing talkers across children with hearing loss and age-matched children with normal hearing. The results showed a greater masking effect for children with hearing loss compared to children with normal hearing for both masker conditions. However, the magnitude of this group difference was significantly larger for the two-talker compared to the speech-shaped noise masker. These results support the hypothesis that hearing loss influences children’s perceptual processing abilities. PMID:23492919

  13. Parental Support for Language Development during Joint Book Reading for Young Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…

  14. Bullying and Cyberbullying among Deaf Students and Their Hearing Peers: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Sheri; Pero, Heather

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire on bullying and cyberbullying was administered to 30 secondary students (Grades 7-12) in a charter school for the Deaf and hard of hearing and a matched group of 22 hearing students in a charter secondary school on the same campus. Because the sample size was small and distributions non-normal, results are primarily descriptive and…

  15. Auditory and language outcomes in children with unilateral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Gaboury, Isabelle; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Coyle, Doug; Whittingham, JoAnne; Nassrallah, Flora

    2018-03-13

    Children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) are being diagnosed at younger ages because of newborn hearing screening. Historically, they have been considered at risk for difficulties in listening and language development. Little information is available on contemporary cohorts of children identified in the early months of life. We examined auditory and language acquisition outcomes in a contemporary cohort of early-identified children with UHL and compared their outcomes at preschool age with peers with mild bilateral loss and with normal hearing. As part of the Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss in Children Study, we collected auditory and spoken language outcomes on children with unilateral, bilateral hearing loss and with normal hearing over a four-year period. This report provides a cross-sectional analysis of results at age 48 months. A total of 120 children (38 unilateral and 31 bilateral mild, 51 normal hearing) were enrolled in the study from 2010 to 2015. Children started the study at varying ages between 12 and 36 months of age and were followed until age 36-48 months. The median age of identification of hearing loss was 3.4 months (IQR: 2.0, 5.5) for unilateral and 3.6 months (IQR: 2.7, 5.9) for the mild bilateral group. Families completed an intake form at enrolment to provide baseline child and family-related characteristics. Data on amplification fitting and use were collected via parent questionnaires at each annual assessment interval. This study involved a range of auditory development and language measures. For this report, we focus on the end of follow-up results from two auditory development questionnaires and three standardized speech-language assessments. Assessments included in this report were completed at a median age of 47.8 months (IQR: 38.8, 48.5). Using ANOVA, we examined auditory and language outcomes in children with UHL and compared their scores to children with mild bilateral hearing loss and those with normal hearing. On most

  16. Hearing assessment in pre-school children with speech delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psillas, George; Psifidis, Anestis; Antoniadou-Hitoglou, Magda; Kouloulas, Athanasios

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect any underlying hearing loss among the healthy pre-school children with speech delay. 76 children, aged from 1 to 5 years, underwent a thorough audiological examination consisting of tympanometry, free field testing, otoacoustic emission recordings and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). If hearing was normal, then they were evaluated by a child neurologist-psychiatrist. According to our findings, the children were classified into 3 groups; those with normal hearing levels (group I, 52 children, 68.4%), sensorineural hearing loss (group II, 22 children, 28.9%) and conductive hearing loss (group III, 2 children, 2.6%). In group I, speech delay was attributed to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), which represents high-functioning autistic children (37 cases). Other causes were specific language impairment (SLI)-expressive (3 cases), bilingualism (2 cases), and unknown etiology (10 cases). More than half (59%) of the children diagnosed with PDD evidenced significant language impairment limited to more than two words. Children with SLI-expressive and bilingualism used a maximum of two words. In group II, 13 children suffered from profound hearing loss in both ears, 3 from severe, 3 had profound hearing loss in one ear and severe in the other, 2 from moderate, and 1 had moderate in one ear and severe in the other. No child had mild sensorineural hearing loss. The children with profound hearing loss in at least one ear had total language impairment using no word at all (10 cases), or a maximum of two words (6 cases). When hearing loss was moderate to severe, then the speech vocabulary was confined to several words (more than two words-6 cases). Only two children suffering from conductive hearing loss both presented with complete lack of speech. A great number of healthy pre-school children with speech delay were found to have normal hearing. In this case, the otolaryngologist should be aware of the possible underlying clinical

  17. Group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization of organic compounds at the normal boiling point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenying, Wei; Jinyu, Han; Wen, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The specific position of a group in the molecule has been considered, and a group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point of organic compounds has been developed. Expression for enthalpy of vaporization Delta(vap)H(T(b)) has been established and numerical values of relative group parameters obtained. The average percent deviation of estimation of Delta(vap)H(T(b)) is 1.16, which show that the present method demonstrates significant improvement in applicability to predict the enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, compared the conventional group methods.

  18. Auditory brainstem responses of CBA/J mice with neonatal conductive hearing losses and treatment with GM1 ganglioside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, M K; Pippin, G W; Weaver, K E; Kirsch, J P; Webster, D B

    1995-07-01

    Exogenous administration of GM1 ganglioside to CBA/J mice with a neonatal conductive hearing loss ameliorates the atrophy of spiral ganglion neurons, ventral cochlear nucleus neurons, and ventral cochlear nucleus volume. The present investigation demonstrates the extent of a conductive loss caused by atresia and tests the hypothesis that GM1 ganglioside treatment will ameliorate the conductive hearing loss. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded from four groups of seven mice each: two groups received daily subcutaneous injections of saline (one group had normal hearing; the other had a conductive hearing loss); the other two groups received daily subcutaneous injections of GM1 ganglioside (one group had normal hearing; the other had a conductive hearing loss). In mice with a conductive loss, decreases in hearing sensitivity were greatest at high frequencies. The decreases were determined by comparing mean ABR thresholds of the conductive loss mice with those of normal hearing mice. The conductive hearing loss induced in the mice in this study was similar to that seen in humans with congenital aural atresias. GM1 ganglioside treatment had no significant effect on ABR wave I thresholds or latencies in either group.

  19. Normal forms of invariant vector fields under a finite group action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Bringas, F.

    1992-07-01

    Let Γ be a finite subgroup of GL(n,C). This subgroup acts on the space of germs of holomorphic vector fields vanishing at the origin in C n . We prove a theorem of invariant conjugation to a normal form and linearization for the subspace of invariant elements and we give a description of these normal forms in dimension n=2. (author)

  20. Influence of hearing age and understanding verbal instructions in children with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đoković Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing age is defined as a period of using any amplification. Most researches indicate that hearing age influences the developmental rate of auditory and speech-language abilities in deaf children, especially when cochlear implantation was performed before the age of three. This research is aimed at analyzing the influence of hearing age on understanding verbal instructions in children with cochlear implants. The sample consists of 23 children with cochlear implants and 21 children with normal hearing, aged between 4 and 10. Hearing age of children with cochlear implants was between 2 and 7 years. Token Test with toys, adapted for children with hearing impairments, was used to analyze understanding verbal instructions. The results indicate that there are statistically significant differences between children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing, aged between 4 and 7, on all subtests and the total score regardless of the hearing age (sub1 p<0.001, sub2 p<0.000, sub3 p<0.001, total score p<0.000. No statistically significant differences were determined on any of the subtests in children aged between 7.1 and 10, regardless of the hearing age. Comparative results analysis within the experimental group of children with different hearing age indicates that the difference in understanding verbal instructions between these two groups is not statistically significant.

  1. Human studies of prepulse inhibition of startle: normal subjects, patient groups, and pharmacological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, D L; Geyer, M A; Swerdlow, N R

    2001-07-01

    Since the mid-1970s, cross-species translational studies of prepulse inhibition (PPI) have increased at an astounding pace as the value of this neurobiologically informative measure has been optimized. PPI occurs when a relatively weak sensory event (the prepulse) is presented 30-500 ms before a strong startle-inducing stimulus, and reduces the magnitude of the startle response. In humans, PPI occurs in a robust, predictable manner when the prepulse and startling stimuli occur in either the same or different modalities (acoustic, visual, or cutaneous). This review covers three areas of interest in human PPI studies. First, we review the normal influences on PPI related to the underlying construct of sensori- (prepulse) motor (startle reflex) gating. Second, we review PPI studies in psychopathological disorders that form a family of gating disorders. Third, we review the relatively limited but interesting and rapidly expanding literature on pharmacological influences on PPI in humans. All studies identified by a computerized literature search that addressed the three topics of this review were compiled and evaluated. The principal studies were summarized in appropriate tables. The major influences on PPI as a measure of sensorimotor gating can be grouped into 11 domains. Most of these domains are similar across species, supporting the value of PPI studies in translational comparisons across species. The most prominent literature describing deficits in PPI in psychiatrically defined groups features schizophrenia-spectrum patients and their clinically unaffected relatives. These findings support the use of PPI as an endophenotype in genetic studies. Additional groups of psychopathologically disordered patients with neuropathology involving cortico-striato-pallido-pontine circuits exhibit poor gating of motor, sensory, or cognitive information and corresponding PPI deficits. These groups include patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, Tourette's syndrome

  2. Formal auditory training in adult hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss are often able to regain some lost auditory function with the help of hearing aids. However, hearing aids are not able to overcome auditory distortions such as impaired frequency resolution and speech understanding in noisy environments. The coexistence of peripheral hearing loss and a central auditory deficit may contribute to patient dissatisfaction with amplification, even when audiological tests indicate nearly normal hearing thresholds. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to validate the effects of a formal auditory training program in adult hearing aid users with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: Fourteen bilateral hearing aid users were divided into two groups: seven who received auditory training and seven who did not. The training program was designed to improve auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal and nonverbal sounds and temporal processing (frequency and duration of sounds. Pre- and post-training evaluations included measuring electrophysiological and behavioral auditory processing and administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB self-report scale. RESULTS: The post-training evaluation of the experimental group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in P3 latency, improved performance in some of the behavioral auditory processing tests and higher hearing aid benefit in noisy situations (p-value < 0,05. No changes were noted for the control group (p-value <0,05. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that auditory training in adult hearing aid users can lead to a reduction in P3 latency, improvements in sound localization, memory for nonverbal sounds in sequence, auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal sounds and greater benefits in reverberant and noisy environments.

  3. Control-group feature normalization for multivariate pattern analysis of structural MRI data using the support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Kristin A; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Doshi, Jimit; Davatzikos, Christos; Shinohara, Russell T

    2016-05-15

    Normalization of feature vector values is a common practice in machine learning. Generally, each feature value is standardized to the unit hypercube or by normalizing to zero mean and unit variance. Classification decisions based on support vector machines (SVMs) or by other methods are sensitive to the specific normalization used on the features. In the context of multivariate pattern analysis using neuroimaging data, standardization effectively up- and down-weights features based on their individual variability. Since the standard approach uses the entire data set to guide the normalization, it utilizes the total variability of these features. This total variation is inevitably dependent on the amount of marginal separation between groups. Thus, such a normalization may attenuate the separability of the data in high dimensional space. In this work we propose an alternate approach that uses an estimate of the control-group standard deviation to normalize features before training. We study our proposed approach in the context of group classification using structural MRI data. We show that control-based normalization leads to better reproducibility of estimated multivariate disease patterns and improves the classifier performance in many cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cockayne syndrome group B (Csb) and group a (Csa) deficiencies predispose to hearing loss and cochlear hair cell degeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagtegaal, A Paul; Rainey, Robert N; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Brandt, Renata M C; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Borst, J Gerard G; Segil, Neil

    2015-03-11

    Sensory hair cells in the cochlea, like most neuronal populations that are postmitotic, terminally differentiated, and non-regenerating, depend on robust mechanisms of self-renewal for lifelong survival. We report that hair cell homeostasis requires a specific sub-branch of the DNA damage nucleotide excision repair pathway, termed transcription-coupled repair (TCR). Cockayne syndrome (CS), caused by defects in TCR, is a rare DNA repair disorder with a broad clinical spectrum that includes sensorineural hearing loss. We tested hearing and analyzed the cellular integrity of the organ of Corti in two mouse models of this disease with mutations in the Csb gene (CSB(m/m) mice) and Csa gene (Csa(-/-) mice), respectively. Csb(m/m) and Csa(-/-) mice manifested progressive hearing loss, as measured by an increase in auditory brainstem response thresholds. In contrast to wild-type mice, mutant mice showed reduced or absent otoacoustic emissions, suggesting cochlear outer hair cell impairment. Hearing loss in Csb(m/m) and Csa(-/-) mice correlated with progressive hair cell loss in the base of the organ of Corti, starting between 6 and 13 weeks of age, which increased by 16 weeks of age in a basal-to-apical gradient, with outer hair cells more severely affected than inner hair cells. Our data indicate that the hearing loss observed in CS patients is reproduced in mouse models of this disease. We hypothesize that accumulating DNA damage, secondary to the loss of TCR, contributes to susceptibility to hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354280-07$15.00/0.

  5. A group of facial normal descriptors for recognizing 3D identical twins

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin; Huang, Di; Chen, Liming; Wang, Yunhong; Morvan, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, to characterize and distinguish identical twins, three popular texture descriptors: i.e. local binary patterns (LBPs), gabor filters (GFs) and local gabor binary patterns (LGBPs) are employed to encode the normal components (x, y

  6. Study the Age of Hearing Loss Diagnosis and the Related Factors in a Group of School-Age Children in Baghch-e-Ban School of Hard of Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ahmadi

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimation of the age of hearing loss diagnosis in every society is recommended to be compared with standard criteria to establish common dirth in management and rehabilitation. This study was conducted in order to determine the age of hearing loss diagnosis with respect to common criteria in Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing children in Tehran.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 445 children in stages 2, 6 and 10 of Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing participated. the research was performed by means of the three-stages questionaires that children filled with help of their parents.Results: The mean age of detection of hearing loss in both acquired and congenital hearing loss in children was 3.5 year-old. while the age in which hearing loss was doubted was 1.8 year-old. In another word the mean age of hearing loss detection decreased as the hearing loss increases(in moderate- profound hearing loss(P<0.01. Conclusion: among the refrence sources for refering children with hearing loss the least refering was related to physicians. Adversly the mean age of doubting and detection of hearing loss increased in children with family history of hearing loss.(P<0.01. Meanwhile no relationship was detected between the age of diagnosis of hearing loss and the number of deaf members in the family(P<0.02.

  7. Predicting hearing thresholds and occupational hearing loss with multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ruey-Fen; Ho, Chi-Kung; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Chen, Shun-Sheng

    2010-10-01

    An objective investigation is needed to verify the existence and severity of hearing impairments resulting from work-related, noise-induced hearing loss in arbitration of medicolegal aspects. We investigated the accuracy of multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses (Mf-ASSRs) between subjects with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) with and without occupational noise exposure. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary referral medical centre. Pure-tone audiometry and Mf-ASSRs were recorded in 88 subjects (34 patients had occupational noise-induced hearing loss [NIHL], 36 patients had SNHL without noise exposure, and 18 volunteers were normal controls). Inter- and intragroup comparisons were made. A predicting equation was derived using multiple linear regression analysis. ASSRs and pure-tone thresholds (PTTs) showed a strong correlation for all subjects (r = .77 ≈ .94). The relationship is demonstrated by the equationThe differences between the ASSR and PTT were significantly higher for the NIHL group than for the subjects with non-noise-induced SNHL (p tool for objectively evaluating hearing thresholds. Predictive value may be lower in subjects with occupational hearing loss. Regardless of carrier frequencies, the severity of hearing loss affects the steady-state response. Moreover, the ASSR may assist in detecting noise-induced injury of the auditory pathway. A multiple linear regression equation to accurately predict thresholds was shown that takes into consideration all effect factors.

  8. Effects of hearing loss on speech recognition under distracting conditions and working memory in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Wondo; Kim, Gibbeum; Kim, Gungu; Han, Woojae; Kim, Jinsook

    2017-01-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate hearing-related changes in terms of speech-in-noise processing, fast-rate speech processing, and working memory; and to identify which of these three factors is significantly affected by age-related hearing loss. One hundred subjects aged 65-84 years participated in the study. They were classified into four groups ranging from normal hearing to moderate-to-severe hearing loss. All the participants were tested for speech perception in quiet and noisy conditions and for speech perception with time alteration in quiet conditions. Forward- and backward-digit span tests were also conducted to measure the participants' working memory. 1) As the level of background noise increased, speech perception scores systematically decreased in all the groups. This pattern was more noticeable in the three hearing-impaired groups than in the normal hearing group. 2) As the speech rate increased faster, speech perception scores decreased. A significant interaction was found between speed of speech and hearing loss. In particular, 30% of compressed sentences revealed a clear differentiation between moderate hearing loss and moderate-to-severe hearing loss. 3) Although all the groups showed a longer span on the forward-digit span test than the backward-digit span test, there was no significant difference as a function of hearing loss. The degree of hearing loss strongly affects the speech recognition of babble-masked and time-compressed speech in the elderly but does not affect the working memory. We expect these results to be applied to appropriate rehabilitation strategies for hearing-impaired elderly who experience difficulty in communication.

  9. Discrimination task reveals differences in neural bases of tinnitus and hearing impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima T Husain

    Full Text Available We investigated auditory perception and cognitive processing in individuals with chronic tinnitus or hearing loss using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our participants belonged to one of three groups: bilateral hearing loss and tinnitus (TIN, bilateral hearing loss without tinnitus (HL, and normal hearing without tinnitus (NH. We employed pure tones and frequency-modulated sweeps as stimuli in two tasks: passive listening and active discrimination. All subjects had normal hearing through 2 kHz and all stimuli were low-pass filtered at 2 kHz so that all participants could hear them equally well. Performance was similar among all three groups for the discrimination task. In all participants, a distributed set of brain regions including the primary and non-primary auditory cortices showed greater response for both tasks compared to rest. Comparing the groups directly, we found decreased activation in the parietal and frontal lobes in the participants with tinnitus compared to the HL group and decreased response in the frontal lobes relative to the NH group. Additionally, the HL subjects exhibited increased response in the anterior cingulate relative to the NH group. Our results suggest that a differential engagement of a putative auditory attention and short-term memory network, comprising regions in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices and the anterior cingulate, may represent a key difference in the neural bases of chronic tinnitus accompanied by hearing loss relative to hearing loss alone.

  10. Investigation And Comparison of Fifth Grade Elementary Student’s Reading Skills with Severe Hearing Loss and Hearing in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Razaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since the written language is based on spoken language, hearing impairments may cause delays and defects in reading skills. This study is aimed to investigate reading problems in children with hearing loss and comparison of reading skills of fifth-grade elementary students’ reading skills suffering severe hearing loss. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional comparative study, 16 children with hearing loss were selected based on inclusion criteria from the whole fifth-grade elementary students with severe hearing loss in the Baghcheban schools and compared with 16 normal children matched upon the grade with sample group. To gather the data, Reading Test in elementary students was used as well as SPSS for data analysis. Results: Results showed children with hearing loss performed similarly as the control group on some skills, including naming speed skills (P=0.385, auditory-verbal sounds (reverse memory (P=0.345, visual-verbal pictures memory (P=1, phonological deletion (P=0.817 and nonword reading accuracy (P=0.633, however, they had poorer functions in the other domains. Conclusion: According to the result, it is concluded that auditory processing plays the key role in all prerequisite reading skills and children with hearing loss performed poorly on tasks based on auditory and language processing, whereas, the same perform on visual-processing-base tasks to normal children.

  11. Normalization in PET group comparison studies - The importance of a valid reference region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Jonsdottir, Kristjana Yr; Cumming, Paul

    2008-01-01

    : In healthy aging, CBF was shown to be unchanged in WM and central regions. In contrast, with normalization to the GM mean, CBF displayed positive correlation with age in the central regions. Very similar artifactual increases were seen in the HE comparison and also in the simulation experiment. CONCLUSION...

  12. An asymptotic expression for the eigenvalues of the normalization kernel of the resonating group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomnitz-Adler, J.; Brink, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A generating function for the eigenvalues of the RGM Normalization Kernel is expressed in terms of the diagonal matrix elements of thw GCM Overlap Kernel. An asymptotic expression for the eigenvalues is obtained by using the Method of Steepest Descent. (Auth.)

  13. How to quantify binaural hearing in patients with unilateral hearing using hearing implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snik, Ad; Agterberg, Martijn; Bosman, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Application of bilateral hearing devices in bilateral hearing loss and unilateral application in unilateral hearing loss (second ear with normal hearing) does not a priori lead to binaural hearing. An overview is presented on several measures of binaural benefits that have been used in patients with unilateral or bilateral deafness using one or two cochlear implants, respectively, and in patients with unilateral or bilateral conductive/mixed hearing loss using one or two percutaneous bone conduction implants (BCDs), respectively. Overall, according to this overview, the most significant and sensitive measure is the benefit in directional hearing. Measures using speech (viz. binaural summation, binaural squelch or use of the head shadow effect) showed minor benefits, except for patients with bilateral conductive/mixed hearing loss using two BCDs. Although less feasible in daily practise, the binaural masking level difference test seems to be a promising option in the assessment of binaural function. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Hearing Loss in Children With Otitis Media With Effusion: Actual and Simulated Effects on Speech Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ting; McPherson, Bradley; Li, Caiwei; Yang, Feng

    2017-11-14

    Conductive hearing loss simulations have attempted to estimate the speech-understanding difficulties of children with otitis media with effusion (OME). However, the validity of this approach has not been evaluated. The research aim of the present study was to investigate whether a simple, frequency-specific, attenuation-based simulation of OME-related hearing loss was able to reflect the actual effects of conductive hearing loss on speech perception. Forty-one school-age children with OME-related hearing loss were recruited. Each child with OME was matched with a same sex and age counterpart with normal hearing to make a participant pair. Pure-tone threshold differences at octave frequencies from 125 to 8000 Hz for every participant pair were used as the simulation attenuation levels for the normal-hearing children. Another group of 41 school-age otologically normal children were recruited as a control group without actual or simulated hearing loss. The Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test was utilized, and sentence recall accuracy at four signal to noise ratios (SNR) considered representative of classroom-listening conditions were derived, as well as reception thresholds for sentences (RTS) in quiet and in noise using adaptive protocols. The speech perception in quiet and in noise of children with simulated OME-related hearing loss was significantly poorer than that of otologically normal children. Analysis showed that RTS in quiet of children with OME-related hearing loss and of children with simulated OME-related hearing loss was significantly correlated and comparable. A repeated-measures analysis suggested that sentence recall accuracy obtained at 5-dB SNR, 0-dB SNR, and -5-dB SNR was similar between children with actual and simulated OME-related hearing loss. However, RTS in noise in children with OME was significantly better than that for children with simulated OME-related hearing loss. The present frequency-specific, attenuation-based simulation method reflected

  15. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  16. 音乐训练对健听青年噪声间隙阈值影响的研究%Study on the Noise Gap Threshold of Music Training for Normal Hearing Young People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晨晨; 胡旭君

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨音乐训练对健听青年噪声间隙阈值的影响.方法 选择健听青年并根据音乐学习背景,将受试者分为音乐组(32例)和非音乐组(25例),对其进行气骨导测试、声导抗测试,以及噪声间隙测试并统计.结果 音乐组的噪声间隙阈值与非音乐组存在统计学差异(P<0.05);音乐组中学习不同乐器与间隙阈值无统计学差异(P>0.05);学习音乐时间长短与间隙阂值无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 音乐组的噪声间隙阈值与非音乐组相比更低;与音乐训练类型及学习音乐时间长短无关.%Objective To investigate the influence of music training on noise gap threshold in normal hearing youths.Methods The subjects from Zhejiang Conservatory of music and Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University,were divided into a music group (32 cases) and a non music group (25 cases).The pneumatic bone conduction test,acoustic impedance test and noise gap test were carried out and recorded.Results There was a significant difference between the noise gap threshold of the music group and non music group (P<0.05);there was no statistical difference (P>0.05) within music group in learning different instruments;no statistical difference (P>0.05) between music learning time and gap threshold.Conclusion The noise gap threshold of the music group is lower than that of the non music group;it has nothing to do with the type of music training and learning time.

  17. Finding Your New Normal: Outcomes of a Wellness-Oriented Psychoeducational Support Group for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Myers, Jane; Barden, Sejal; Clarke, Philip; Weimann, Rochelle; Forti, Allison; Moore-Painter, Terry; Knutson, Tami; Porter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Group interventions have been useful for survivors to overcome the challenges of cancer. This study employed a pre/post, mixed-methods design to explore the influence of an 8-week support group on the holistic wellness of 14 breast cancer survivors. Pairing experiential activities with wellness-centered psychoeducation was viewed positively by…

  18. Static and dynamic balance of children and adolescents with sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Marinho, Sônia Elvira Dos Santos; Freire, Maryelly Evelly Araújo; Souza, Robson Arruda; Damasceno, Hélio Anderson Melo; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão

    2017-01-01

    To assess the static and dynamic balance performance of students with normal hearing and with sensorineural hearing loss. A cross-sectional study assessing 96 students, 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss of both sexes, aged 7 and 18 years. To evaluate static balance, Romberg, Romberg-Barré and Fournier tests were used; and for the dynamic balance, we applied the Unterberger test. Hearing loss students showed more changes in static and dynamic balance as compared to normal hearing, in all tests used (pRomberg, Romberg-Barré, Fournier and Unterberger test p values were, respectively, p=0.004, pRomberg, Romberg-Barré and Fournier tests were, respectively, p=0.007, pRomberg, Romberg-Barré, Fournier and Unterberger tests were p=0.002, pRomberg-Barré, Fournier and Unterberger tests were, respectively, p=0.037, p<0.001 and p=0.037. Hearing-loss students showed more changes in static and dynamic balance comparing to normal hearing of same sex and age groups.

  19. Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschool Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language: Initial Findings From the Early Language and Literacy Acquisition (ELLA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L

    2017-10-05

    The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed measures of oral language, phonological processing, and print knowledge twice at a 6-month interval. A series of repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to compare change across groups. Main effects of time were observed for all variables except phonological recoding. Main effects of group were observed for vocabulary, morphosyntax, phonological memory, and concepts of print. Interaction effects were observed for phonological awareness and concepts of print. Children with hearing loss performed more poorly than children with normal hearing on measures of oral language, phonological memory, and conceptual print knowledge. Two interaction effects were present. For phonological awareness and concepts of print, children with hearing loss demonstrated less positive change than children with normal hearing. Although children with hearing loss generally demonstrated a positive growth in emergent literacy skills, their initial performance was lower than that of children with normal hearing, and rates of change were not sufficient to catch up to the peers over time.

  20. Relation between Glaucoma and Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mollasadeghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness throughout the world. Some studies have suggested a relationship between glaucoma and sensorineural hearing loss, while others have found no evidence of an association. We performed a study to determine whether there is a significant difference in hearing of patients with glaucoma and a match control population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, from February, 2005 till April, 2006, 44 patients with glaucoma were studied. The age range was between 15 to 60 years. After taking a complete medical history, those suffering from presbycusis, history of exposure to ototoxic drugs and substances and history of ear surgery were excluded from the study. All of the patients were cases of open-angle glaucoma, and were surveyed separately for normal-pressure glaucoma. Then complete audiometric tests (PTA, SDS, SRT, Impedance were conducted for all of them, and the results compared with a control group. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the case group and control group in PTA, SDS, and SRT, except for Normal Tension Glaucoma (NTG. There wasn't any statistically significant difference between two groups with respect to age, gender, and history of diseases. In the NTG group, significant difference was seen only in high frequencies. Conclusion: As mentioned, there was a statistically significant difference between NTG group and control group. It is therefore recommended to conduct complete audiometric tests and histopathologic examinations in this group for early detection of hearing loss and application of rehabilitative measures.

  1. Language Characteristics of Preschool Children with Hearing Loss in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Younes Lotfi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing impairment affects all aspect of individual life, specially language and communication skills. When hearing impairment is congenital or occurs early in life, the child’s ability to learn optimally through audition, will be affected. The aim of this study was to evaluate linguistic skills of preschool hearing impaired children and compare these skills with normal peers.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 38 preschool hearing impaired children that the main handicap was severe to profound hearing loss with ability to communicate orally and 28 normal children with the same cultural and social context. Twenty four non linguistic variables including age, gender, the age of entrance of preschool center, number of hearing aids, etc. were obtained by filling a questionnaire and fifteen linguistics variables including number of utterance, morphemes, correct utterance, noun phrase, ambiguous utterance, correct sentences, compound sentences, etc. were collected by some part of TOLD-P-3 test and three complementary questions. Then we compared the data from two groups.Results: There were significant differences between number of utterance, number of correct mean length utterance, number of well-formed sentences in normal and hearing impaired group (p0.05.Conclusion: This study showed a severe deficit in linguistic skills in preschool hearing impaired children.

  2. Binaural Interference and the Effects of Age and Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussoi, Bruna S S; Bentler, Ruth A

    2017-01-01

    The existence of binaural interference, defined here as poorer speech recognition with both ears than with the better ear alone, is well documented. Studies have suggested that its prevalence may be higher in the elderly population. However, no study to date has explored binaural interference in groups of younger and older adults in conditions that favor binaural processing (i.e., in spatially separated noise). Also, the effects of hearing loss have not been studied. To examine binaural interference through speech perception tests, in groups of younger adults with normal hearing, older adults with normal hearing for their age, and older adults with hearing loss. A cross-sectional study. Thirty-three participants with symmetric thresholds were recruited from the University of Iowa community. Participants were grouped as follows: younger with normal hearing (18-28 yr, n = 12), older with normal hearing for their age (73-87 yr, n = 9), and older with hearing loss (78-94 yr, n = 12). Prior noise exposure was ruled out. The Connected Speech Test (CST) and Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) were administered to all participants bilaterally, and to each ear separately. Test materials were presented in the sound field with speech at 0° azimuth and the noise at 180°. The Dichotic Digits Test (DDT) was administered to all participants through earphones. Hearing aids were not used during testing. Group results were compared with repeated measures and one-way analysis of variances, as appropriate. Within-subject analyses using pre-established critical differences for each test were also performed. The HINT revealed no effect of condition (individual ear versus bilateral presentation) using group analysis, although within-subject analysis showed that 27% of the participants had binaural interference (18% had binaural advantage). On the CST, there was significant binaural advantage across all groups with group data analysis, as well as for 12% of the participants at each of the two

  3. Is All Human Hearing Cochlear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Faranak Emami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the possibility that the saccule may contribute to human hearing. The forty participants included twenty healthy people and twenty other subjects selected from patients who presented with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo to Audiology Department of Hazrat Rasoul Akram hospital (Tehran, Iran. Assessments comprised of audiological evaluations, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs, recognition of spoken phonemes in white noise (Rsp in wn, and auditory brainstem response to 500 Hz tone burst (ABR500 HZ. Twenty affected ears with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by abnormal cVEMPs revealed decreased scores of Rsp in wn and abnormal findings of ABR500 HZ. Both unaffected and normal ears had normal results. Multiple comparisons of mean values of cVEMPs and ABR500 HZ between three groups were significant (P<0.05, ANOVA. The correlation between RSP in wn and p13 latencies was significant. The peak-to-peak amplitudes showed significant correlation to RSP in wn. The correlation between RSP in wn and the latencies of n23 was significant. In high-level of noisy competing situations, healthy human saccular sensation can mediate the detection of low frequencies and possibly help in cochlear hearing for frequency and intensity discrimination. So, all human hearing is not cochlear.

  4. Slight conductive hearing loss in children with narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiki, A; Kiliç, N; Oktay, H

    2015-01-01

    PROBLEM/OBJECTIVES: Maxillary constriction and high palatal arch are associated with increased risk of chronic eustachian tube dysfunction and conductive hearing loss (CHL) due to chronic effusion. However, this relationship has not been clearly demonstrated. This study assessed CHL in school children with a narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault. Thirty-two children with maxillary constriction were randomly selected for the study group and 28 children with normal transverse maxillary development were selected for the control group. Pure-tone audiograms were obtained for all children, and hearing levels and air-bone gaps were measured. Air-bone gap measurements in the control group ranged from 5.50 to 14.50 decibels (dB), and in the study group they were between 5.00 and 24.00 dB. In the study group, 14 (43.8%) children had slight CHL, and the remaining 18 (56.2%) children had normal hearing levels. In the control group, all of the children had normal hearing levels. Hearing levels and air-bone gaps were greater in the study group than the control group. This study showed that children with a narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault may have slight CHL. Therefore, the onset of CHL should be followed with hearing screening programs.

  5. Hearing in nonprofessional pop/rock musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuziger, Nicolas; Patscheke, Jochen; Probst, Rudolf

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hearing and subjective auditory symptoms in a group of nonprofessional pop/rock musicians who had experienced repeated exposures to intense sound levels during at least 5 yr of musical activity. An evaluation of both ears in 42 nonprofessional pop/rock musicians included pure-tone audiometry in the conventional and extended high-frequency range, the measurement of uncomfortable loudness levels, and an assessment of tinnitus and hypersensitivity to sound. Exclusion criteria were (a) the occurrence of acoustic trauma, (b) excessive noise exposure during occupational activities, (c) a history of recurrent otitis media, (d) previous ear surgery, (e) a fracture of the cranium, (f) ingestion of potentially ototoxic drugs, and (g) reported hearing difficulties within the immediate family. These audiometric results were then compared with a control group of 20 otologically normal young adults with no history of long-term noise exposure. After adjusting for age and gender, relative to ISO 7029, the mean hearing threshold in the frequency range of 3 to 8 kHz was 6 dB in the musicians and 1.5 dB in the control group. This difference was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney rank sum test, p rock musicians who had experienced repeated exposure to intense sound levels over at least 5 yr but with minimal impact on their lives. Moreover, hearing loss was minimal in the subjects who always used ear protection, being only 0.9 dB higher than the control group. In contrast, hearing loss was significantly more pronounced, at 6.7 dB higher than the control group, in those musicians who never used ear protection. Continued education about the risk to hearing and the benefits of the persistent use of ear protection is warranted for musicians who are exposed frequently to intense sound levels.

  6. Comparing sports vision among three groups of soft tennis adolescent athletes: Normal vision, refractive errors with and without correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Tsun Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of correcting static vision on sports vision is still not clear. Aim: To examine whether sports vision (depth perception [DP], dynamic visual acuity [DVA], eye movement [EM], peripheral vision [PV], and momentary vision [MV], were different among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision (Group A, with refractive error and corrected with (Group B and without eyeglasses (Group C. Setting and Design: A cross-section study was conducted. Soft tennis athletes aged 10–13 who played softball tennis for 2–5 years, and who were without any ocular diseases and without visual training for the past 3 months were recruited. Materials and Methods: DPs were measured in an absolute deviation (mm between a moving rod and fixing rod (approaching at 25 mm/s, receding at 25 mm/s, approaching at 50 mm/s, receding at 50 mm/s using electric DP tester. A smaller deviation represented better DP. DVA, EM, PV, and MV were measured on a scale from 1 (worse to 10 (best using ATHLEVISION software. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the data among the three study groups. Results: A total of 73 athletes (37 in Group A, 8 in Group B, 28 in Group C were enrolled in this study. All four items of DP showed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0051, 0.0004, 0.0095, 0.0021. PV displayed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0044. There was no significant difference in DVA, EM, and MV among the three study groups. Conclusions: Significant better DP and PV were seen among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision than those with refractive error regardless whether they had eyeglasses corrected. On the other hand, DVA, EM, and MV were similar among the three study groups.

  7. Allocation algorithm for athletes group to form tactical tasks in game team sports using the methods of multivariate analysis (illustrated women Ukrainian team basketball with hearing impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally allocation algorithm athletes in groups to form a tactical tasks in team sports game using methods of multivariate analysis. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Analyzed the results of testing and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : An algorithm for distribution by groups of athletes for the formation of tactical tasks. The algorithm consists of the following steps: 1 - testing of athletes; 2 - A hierarchical cluster analysis performance testing; 3 - Distribution of sportsmen groups, analysis of the characteristics of athletes, the formation of tactical tasks. Found higher rates of reaction rate at the offensive players. We pivot revealed a higher level of absolute strength. The defenders found a higher frequency of movement and jumping. Conclusions : The algorithm is the basis for determining the best options mutual combination players in the development and implementation of tactical combinations, the selection of partners when working in pairs and triples in training.

  8. Immunoconglutinin levels in normal and diseased population groups in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, K. C.

    1971-01-01

    Immunoconglutinin (I-K) levels were measured in adult blood donors of European and African origin and in patients with the following diseases: acute typhoid fever, amoebic liver abscess, chronic liver disease and primary hepatoma. The lowest levels were found in the white donor group and the highest in those with chronic liver disease and those with primary hepatoma. African donors had levels higher than white donors which may relate to chronic infection and particularly chronic parasitic infestation. There was poor correlation between `O' and `H' antibodies and I-K levels in the typhoid group. In those with chronic liver disease there was some correlation between I-K levels and total γ-globulin and also with raised IgM and IgA levels but not with raised IgG. PMID:4103887

  9. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Narrative Abilities in a Group of Italian Normally Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzanica, Francesco; Ambrogi, Federico; Salvadorini, Renata; Sai, Elena; Pozzoli, Raffaella; Barillari, Maria Rosaria; Scarponi, Letizia; Schindler, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Only limited and conflicting information is available regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and narrative abilities. Besides, the role fathers' SES plays in the development of their children's narrative abilities has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between fathers' and mothers' SES and narrative abilities of their children assessed with the Italian version of the Bus Story Test (I-BST). A total of 505 normally developing Italian children were enrolled in the study. Information regarding parents' educational level and employment was collected for each child. Narrative abilities were evaluated using the I-BST. The relationships between parents' employment, educational level, and I-BST scores were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In univariate analysis, both fathers' and mothers' education and employment were associated with most I-BST subscale scores, especially when higher educational and employment levels were contrasted with the lowest educational and employment levels. In multiple regression analysis, significant associations were found only between the fathers' working status and educational level and I-BST subscale scores. Parental education and employment might impact narrative abilities of children. When both fathers' and mothers' SES variables are considered together, only fathers' education and working status seemed to be associated with I-BST scores. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Consequences of Early Conductive Hearing Loss on Long-Term Binaural Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Kelley; Rance, Gary; Dowell, Richard; Van Dun, Bram

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of early conductive hearing loss on binaural processing in school-age children. One hundred and eighteen children participated in the study, 82 children with a documented history of conductive hearing loss associated with otitis media and 36 controls who had documented histories showing no evidence of otitis media or conductive hearing loss. All children were demonstrated to have normal-hearing acuity and middle ear function at the time of assessment. The Listening in Spatialized Noise Sentence (LiSN-S) task and the masking level difference (MLD) task were used as the two different measures of binaural interaction ability. Children with a history of conductive hearing loss performed significantly poorer than controls on all LiSN-S conditions relying on binaural cues (DV90, p = binaural cues. Fifteen children with a conductive hearing loss history (18%) showed results consistent with a spatial processing disorder. No significant difference was observed between the conductive hearing loss group and the controls on the MLD task. Furthermore, no correlations were found between LiSN-S and MLD. Results show a relationship between early conductive hearing loss and listening deficits that persist once hearing has returned to normal. Results also suggest that the two binaural interaction tasks (LiSN-S and MLD) may be measuring binaural processing at different levels. Findings highlight the need for a screening measure of functional listening ability in children with a history of early otitis media.

  11. The impact of hearing aids and age-related hearing loss on auditory plasticity across three months - An electrical neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Nathalie; Lemke, Ulrike; Reich, Philip; Matthes, Katarina L; Meyer, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigates behavioral and electrophysiological auditory and cognitive-related plasticity in three groups of healthy older adults (60-77 years). Group 1 was moderately hearing-impaired, experienced hearing aid users, and fitted with new hearing aids using non-linear frequency compression (NLFC on); Group 2, also moderately hearing-impaired, used the same type of hearing aids but NLFC was switched off during the entire period of study duration (NLFC off); Group 3 represented individuals with age-appropriate hearing (NHO) as controls, who were not different in IQ, gender, or age from Group 1 and 2. At five measurement time points (M1-M5) across three months, a series of active oddball tasks were administered while EEG was recorded. The stimuli comprised syllables consisting of naturally high-pitched fricatives (/sh/, /s/, and /f/), which are hard to distinguish for individuals with presbycusis. By applying a data-driven microstate approach to obtain global field power (GFP) as a measure of processing effort, the modulations of perceptual (P50, N1, P2) and cognitive-related (N2b, P3b) auditory evoked potentials were calculated and subsequently related to behavioral changes (accuracy and reaction time) across time. All groups improved their performance across time, but NHO showed consistently higher accuracy and faster reaction times than the hearing-impaired groups, especially under difficult conditions. Electrophysiological results complemented this finding by demonstrating longer latencies in the P50 and the N1 peak in hearing aid users. Furthermore, the GFP of cognitive-related evoked potentials decreased from M1 to M2 in the NHO group, while a comparable decrease in the hearing-impaired group was only evident at M5. After twelve weeks of hearing aid use of eight hours each day, we found a significantly lower GFP in the P3b of the group with NLFC on as compared to the group with NLFC off. These findings suggest higher processing effort, as

  12. Everyday trajectories of hearing correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Hindhede, Anette

    2010-01-01

    wearers in order to rehabilitate them back to ‘normal'. However, within audiological research, noncompliance has attracted much attention as investigations have shown that more than 20 percent of hearing aids are very seldom, if ever, in use and 19 percent are used only occasionally. As shown in the paper...... are complex and epistemologically contested and can help explain why noncompliance is dominant when it comes to hearing rehabilitation for hearing impaired adults....

  13. Radioimmunoassays for lg classes G, A, M, D, and E in spinal fluids: normal values of different age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerenberg, S.T.; Prasad, R.

    1975-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay procedures of sufficient sensitivity (lgG, 0.5 μg per 100 μl; lgA, 25.0 ng. per 100 μl; lgM, 10.0 ng. per 100 μl; lgD, 0.5 U.* per 100 μl; and lgE, 1.0 U.* per 100 μl) were developed to detect and quantitate all 5 immunoglobulin classes in the cerebrospinal fluid on small aliquots (1 ml.) of unconcentrated cerebrospinal fluid. All 5 immunoglobulin classes were routinely detected in normal individuals for the first time, the levels varying with different age groups for lgG and A but not for the remaining immunoglobulin classes. Race and sex had no effect. Standardization of techniques and establishment of normal values for different age groups sets the stage for determination of immunoglobulin changes related to central nervous system disease

  14. Reading vocabulary in children with and without hearing loss: the roles of task and word type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Karien M; Tellings, Agnes; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

    2013-04-01

    To address the problem of low reading comprehension scores among children with hearing impairment, it is necessary to have a better understanding of their reading vocabulary. In this study, the authors investigated whether task and word type differentiate the reading vocabulary knowledge of children with and without severe hearing loss. Seventy-two children with hearing loss and 72 children with normal hearing performed a lexical and a use decision task. Both tasks contained the same 180 words divided over 7 clusters, each cluster containing words with a similar pattern of scores on 8 word properties (word class, frequency, morphological family size, length, age of acquisition, mode of acquisition, imageability, and familiarity). Whereas the children with normal hearing scored better on the 2 tasks than the children with hearing loss, the size of the difference varied depending on the type of task and word. Performance differences between the 2 groups increased as words and tasks became more complex. Despite delays, children with hearing loss showed a similar pattern of vocabulary acquisition as their peers with normal hearing. For the most precise assessment of reading vocabulary possible, a range of tasks and word types should be used.

  15. The effects of listening environment and earphone style on preferred listening levels of normal hearing adults using an MP3 player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, William E; Rieger, Jana M; Szarko, Ryan A

    2007-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of listening environment and earphone style on the preferred-listening levels (PLLs) measured in users' ear canals with a commercially-available MP3 player. It was hypothesized that listeners would prefer higher levels with earbud headphones as opposed to over-the-ear headphones, and that the effects would depend on the environment in which the user was listening. A secondary objective was to use the measured PLLs to determine the permissible listening duration to reach 100% daily noise dose. There were two independent variables in this study. The first, headphone style, had three levels: earbud, over-the-ear, and over-the-ear with noise reduction (the same headphones with a noise reduction circuit). The second, environment, also had 3 levels: quiet, street noise and multi-talker babble. The dependent variable was ear canal A-weighted sound pressure level. A 3 x 3 within-subjects repeated-measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Thirty-eight normal hearing adults were recruited from the Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine at the University of Alberta. Each subject listened to the same song and adjusted the level until it "sounded best" to them in each of the 9 conditions. Significant main effects were found for both the headphone style and environment factors. On average, listeners had higher preferred listening levels with the earbud headphones, than with the over-the-ear headphones. When the noise reduction circuit was used with the over-the-ear headphones, the average PLL was even lower. On average, listeners had higher PLLs in street noise than in multi-talker babble and both of these were higher than the PLL for the quiet condition. The interaction between headphone style and environment was also significant. Details of individual contrasts are explored. Overall, PLLs were quite conservative, which would theoretically allow for extended permissible listening durations. Finally, we investigated

  16. Conjectures on the normal covering number of finite symmetric and alternating groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bubboloni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Let gamma(Sn be the minimum number of proper subgroups Hi, i = 1,...,ell, of the symmetric group Sn such that each element in Sn lies in some conjugate of one of the Hi. In this paper we conjecture that gamma(Sn =(n/2(1-1/p_1 (1-1/p_2 + 2, where p1, p2 are the two smallest primes in the factorization of n and n is neither a prime power nor a product of two primes. Support for the conjecture is given by a previous result for the case where n has at most two distinct prime divisors. We give further evidence by confirming the conjecture for certain integers of the form n = 15q, for an infinite set of primes q, and by reporting on a Magma computation. We make a similar conjecture for gamma(An, when n is even, and provide a similar amount of evidence.

  17. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primarily useful in improving the hearing and speech comprehension of people who have hearing loss that results ... and you can change the program for different listening environments—from a small, quiet room to a ...

  18. Hear, hear, what, what

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    Noise is now the most serious health hazard in industry. People risk suffering severe damage to their hearing and health generally through exposure to noise levels which exceed the risk limit of 95-90 dB(A). Stress related problems are often directly the result of exposure to noise. Furthermore, noise leads to reduced productivity, increased absenteeism and compensation claims. In a series of eight reports, Bilson technologists detail the specific noise problems commonly encountered in each of the major areas of industry. These range from the concrete and construction industry through sawmilling, wood working, mining and mechanical engineering, to textile and food manufacture. This report discusses the noise in mining, considering drills, load haul dump machines, surface mines, earth moving equipment, treatment plants, frequency spectra of noise, and finally, choice of hearing protection.

  19. Hearing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Hearing ProblemsLoss in the ability to hear or discriminate ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a ...

  20. Evaluation of the Central Hearing Process in Parkinson Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Rosane Sampaio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parkinson disease (PD is a degenerating disease with a deceitful character, impairing the central nervous system and causing biological, psychological and social changes. It shows motor signs and symptoms characterized by trembling, postural instability, rigidity and bradykinesia. Objective: To evaluate the central hearing function in PD patients. Method: A descriptive, prospect and transversal study, in which 10 individuals diagnosed of PD named study group (SG and 10 normally hearing individuals named control group (CG were evaluated, age average of 63.8 and (SD 5.96. Both groups went through otorhinolaryngological and ordinary audiological evaluations, and dichotic test of alternate disyllables (SSW. Results: In the quantitative analysis, CG showed 80% normality on competitive right-ear hearing (RC and 60% on the competitive left-ear hearing (LC in comparison with the SG that presented 70% on RC and 40% on LC. In the qualitative analysis, the biggest percentage of errors was evident in the SG in the order effect. The results showed a difficulty in identifying a sound when there is another competitive sound and in the memory ability. Conclusion: A qualitative and quantitative difference was observed in the SSW test between the evaluated groups, although statistical data does not show significant differences. The importance to evaluate the central hearing process is emphasized when contributing to the procedures to be taken at the therapeutic follow-up.

  1. The risk ratio for development of hereditary sensorineural hearing loss in consanguineous marriage offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Kabel, Abdelmagied; Abo El-Naga, Heba Abd El-Rehem; Sanyelbhaa, Ahmed; Salem, Hatem

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to define the relative risk of development of hearing loss in offspring of consanguineous marriages. This is a retrospective case-control study conducted in a tertiary referral center in Jeddah, KSA. The study group included 1600 probands (848 males, 752 females), with age range 0.5-12 years (6.6 ± 3.6). The study group comprised of two equal, age and sex matched subgroups; Hearing Loss (HL) group and Normal Hearing (NH) group. The children included in the HL group should have idiopathic or non syndromic genetic sensorineural hearing loss. The HL Group comprised 800 children with variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss. Profound and severe degrees of hearing loss were the most prevalent degrees (P marriage offspring in the NH group was 42.5%, while in the HL group it was 68.9% (P  0.05). The relative risk and 95% confidence interval (RR, 95% CI) for development of hearing loss in offspring of consanguineous marriage was 1.76 (95% CI 1.57-1.97, P marriage progeny to develop SNHL when compared to non consanguineous progeny. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The Danish hearing in noise test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Objective : A Danish version of the hearing in noise test (HINT) has been developed and evaluated in normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. The speech material originated from Nielsen & Dau (2009) where a sentence-based intelligibility equalization method was presented. Design...

  3. Near Point of Convergence Break for Different Age Groups in Turkish Population with Normal Binocular Vision: Normative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Sayın

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near point of convergence break in Turkish population with normal binocular vision and to obtain the normative data for the near point of convergence break in different age groups. Such database has not been previously reported. Material and Method: In this prospective study, 329 subjects with normal binocular vision (age range, 3-72 years were evaluated. The near point of convergence break was measured 4 times repeatedly with an accommodative target. Mean values of near point of convergence break were provided for these age groups (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60 years old. A statistical comparison (one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test of these values between age groups was performed. A correlation between the near point of convergence break and age was evaluated by Pearson’s correlation test. Results: The mean value for near point of convergence break was 2.46±1.88 (0.5-14 cm. Specifically, 95% of measurements in all subjects were 60 year-old age groups in the near point of convergence break values (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.006, p=0.001, p= 0.004. A mild positive correlation was observed between the increase in near point of convergence break and increase of age (r=0.355 (p<0.001. Discussion: The values derived from a relatively large study population to establish a normative database for the near point of convergence break in the Turkish population with normal binocular vision are in relevance with age. This database has not been previously reported. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 402-6

  4. Rhyme and Syllable Recognition in Severe to Profound Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza Keihani

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A research was conducted to assess the phonological awareness in hearing-impaired children in comparison to normal children. In this context, we discussed about the ability of these children in identification of rhyme and word segmentation to syllables. Method and Material: The sample of this study is composed of 320 children, 160 normal & 160 hearing-impaired with a hearing-loss. Of over 70 dB, studying in the 1st t 4th grade of the primary schools in Tehran. They are divided into two groups at each level (20 girls & 20 boys. Results: 1 Hearing-impaired children's scores on test related to rhyme and syllable is lower as compared with normal children. 2 Hearing-impaired children are more potent on test of word segmentation to syllables in comparison to that related to rhyme, while normal children are more successful on test of word segmentation to syllables as compared with that related to rhyme. Discussion: Hearing is an important factor in phonological awareness. Formal education at special schools doesn't compensate for the hearing impairment as to development of the phonological awareness.

  5. Relationship between conductive hearing loss and maxillary constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, A A; Jamilian, A; Moradi, E

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship between conductive hearing loss and maxillary constriction. A total of 120 people, aged from 7 to 40 years, who were referred to an audiologist when taking out health insurance or for school pre-registration check-up, were selected for this study. A total of 60 participants who had hearing threshold levels greater than 15 dB in both ears were chosen as the conductive hearing loss group. The remaining 60, with normal hearing thresholds of less than 15 dB, were used as the control group. All participants were referred to an orthodontic clinic. Participants who had a posterior crossbite and high palatal vault were considered to suffer from maxillary constriction. There were no significant differences between the sex ratios and mean ages of the groups. However, participants with conductive hearing loss were 3.5 times more likely than controls to suffer from maxillary constriction. Patients who suffer from conductive hearing loss are likely to show a maxillary abnormality when examined by an orthodontist.

  6. Hearing speech in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth-Reino Ekström

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA. The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (P<.01. Low octave and fast tempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (P<.01 and SPN (P<.05. Subjects with hearing loss had higher masked thresholds than the normal-hearing subjects (P<.01, but there were smaller differences between masking conditions (P<.01. It is pointed out that music offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  7. Reexamining the validity and reliability of the clinical version of the Iowa gambling task: Evidence from a normal subject group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung eLin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Over past decade, the Iowa gambling task (IGT has been utilized to test various decision deficits induced by neurological damage or psychiatric disorders. The IGT has recently been standardized for identifying 13 different neuropsychological disorders. Neuropsychological patients choose bad decks frequently, and normal subjects prefer good EV decks. However, the IGT has several validity and reliability problems. Some research groups have pointed out that the validity of IGT is influenced by the personality and emotional state of subjects. Additionally, several other studies have proposed that the prominent deck B phenomenon (PDB phenomenon – that is, normal subjects preferring bad deck B – may be the most serious problem confronting IGT validity. Specifically, deck B offers a high frequency of gains but negative EV. In the standard IGT administration, choice behavior can be understood with reference to gain-loss frequency (GLF rather than inferred future consequences (EV, the basic assumption of IGT. Furthermore, using two different criteria (basic assumption vs. professional norm results in significantly different classification results. Therefore, we recruited 72 normal subjects to test the validity and reliability of IGT. Each subject performed three runs of the computer-based clinical IGT version. The PDB phenomenon has been observed to a significant degree in the first and second stages of the clinical IGT version. Obviously, validity, reliability and the practice effect were unstable between two given stages. The present form of the clinical IGT version has only one stage, so its use should be reconsidered for examining normal decision makers; results from patient groups must also be interpreted with great care. GLF could be the main factor to be considered in establishing the constructional validity and reliability of the clinical IGT version.

  8. Title: The Comparison of Anxiety Sensitivity and Happiness in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients with Normal Matched Group in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The purpose of this study was the comparison of anxiety sensitivity and happiness between patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS and normal matched group. Materials & Methods: The Subjects were 35 (21 females and 14 male IBS patients diagnosed by gastroenterologist and 35 (25 female and 10 males normal matched group all in 14– 63 old age. Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-R, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ, and a checklist applied as measures of anxiety sensitivity, happiness and demographic information. Results: Data analysis indicates that IBS patients significantly are higher than matched group in fear of publicly observable symptoms (P= 0.032, fear of cardiovascular symptoms (P= 0.01, fear of gastrointestinal symptoms (P= 0.001, fear of dissociative and neurological symptoms (P= 0.018, & general anxiety sensitivity (P= 0.003, and lower in joy (P= 0.005, control (P= 0.008, self- esteem (P= 0.001 calm (P= 0.006 and general happiness (P= 0.001. Although no significant differences were found in life satisfaction (P= 0.083 & efficacy (P= 0.09, fear of respiratory symptoms (P= 0.067, and fear of cognitive control deficiency (p= 0.097. Conclusion: As a psychological variable anxiety sensitivity can predict treatment seeking of IBS patient, and happiness negatively influenced by both anxiety sensitivity and IBS.

  9. Comparing Facial Emotional Recognition in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Patients with Schizotypal Personality Disorder with a Normal Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Farsham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: No research has been conducted on facial emotional recognition on patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD. The present study aimed at comparing facial emotion recognition in these patients with the general population. The neurocognitive processing of emotions can show the pathologic style of these 2 disorders. Method:  Twenty BPD patients, 16 SPD patients, and 20 healthy individuals were selected by available sampling method. Structural Clinical Interview for Axis II, Millon Personality Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Facial Emotional Recognition Test was were conducted for all participants.Discussion: The results of one way ANOVA and Scheffe’s post hoc test analysis revealed significant differences in neuropsychology assessment of  facial emotional recognition between BPD and  SPD patients with normal group (p = 0/001. A significant difference was found in emotion recognition of fear between the 2 groups of BPD and normal population (p = 0/008. A significant difference was observed between SPD patients and control group in emotion recognition of wonder (p = 0/04(.The obtained results indicated a deficit in negative emotion recognition, especially disgust emotion, thus, it can be concluded that these patients have the same neurocognitive profile in the emotion domain.

  10. Comparing Facial Emotional Recognition in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Patients with Schizotypal Personality Disorder with a Normal Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsham, Aida; Abbaslou, Tahereh; Bidaki, Reza; Bozorg, Bonnie

    2017-04-01

    Objective: No research has been conducted on facial emotional recognition on patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). The present study aimed at comparing facial emotion recognition in these patients with the general population. The neurocognitive processing of emotions can show the pathologic style of these 2 disorders. Method: Twenty BPD patients, 16 SPD patients, and 20 healthy individuals were selected by available sampling method. Structural Clinical Interview for Axis II, Millon Personality Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Facial Emotional Recognition Test was were conducted for all participants. Discussion: The results of one way ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test analysis revealed significant differences in neuropsychology assessment of facial emotional recognition between BPD and SPD patients with normal group (p = 0/001). A significant difference was found in emotion recognition of fear between the 2 groups of BPD and normal population (p = 0/008). A significant difference was observed between SPD patients and control group in emotion recognition of wonder (p = 0/04(. The obtained results indicated a deficit in negative emotion recognition, especially disgust emotion, thus, it can be concluded that these patients have the same neurocognitive profile in the emotion domain.

  11. Noise induced hearing loss and other hearing complaints among musicians of symphony orchestras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E. J. M.; Helleman, H. W.; Dreschler, W. A.; de Laat, J. A. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An investigation of the hearing status of musicians of professional symphony orchestras. Main questions are: (1) Should musicians be treated as a special group with regard to hearing, noise, and noise related hearing problems (2) Do patterns of hearing damage differ for different

  12. Music students: conventional hearing thresholds and at high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüders, Débora; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lacerda, Adriana Bender de Moreira; Ribas, Ângela; Conto, Juliana de

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that hearing loss in musicians may cause difficulty in timbre recognition and tuning of instruments. To analyze the hearing thresholds from 250 Hz to 16,000 Hz in a group of music students and compare them to a non-musician group in order to determine whether high-frequency audiometry is a useful tool in the early detection of hearing impairment. Study design was a retrospective observational cohort. Conventional and high-frequency audiometry was performed in 42 music students (Madsen Itera II audiometer and TDH39P headphones for conventional audiometry, and HDA 200 headphones for high-frequency audiometry). Of the 42 students, 38.1% were female students and 61.9% were male students, with a mean age of 26 years. At conventional audiometry, 92.85% had hearing thresholds within normal limits; but even within the normal limits, the worst results were observed in the left ear for all frequencies, except for 4000 Hz; compared to the non-musician group, the worst results occurred at 500 Hz in the left ear, and at 250 Hz, 6000 Hz, 9000 Hz, 10,000 Hz, and 11,200 Hz in both the ears. The periodic evaluation of high-frequency thresholds may be useful in the early detection of hearing loss in musicians. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Music students: conventional hearing thresholds and at high frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Lüders

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that hearing loss in musicians may cause difficulty in timbre recognition and tuning of instruments. AIM: To analyze the hearing thresholds from 250 Hz to 16,000 Hz in a group of music students and compare them to a non-musician group in order to determine whether high-frequency audiometry is a useful tool in the early detection of hearing impairment. METHODS: Study design was a retrospective observational cohort. Conventional and high-frequency audiometry was performed in 42 music students (Madsen Itera II audiometer and TDH39P headphones for conventional audiometry, and HDA 200 headphones for high-frequency audiometry. RESULTS: Of the 42 students, 38.1% were female students and 61.9% were male students, with a mean age of 26 years. At conventional audiometry, 92.85% had hearing thresholds within normal limits; but even within the normal limits, the worst results were observed in the left ear for all frequencies, except for 4000 Hz; compared to the non-musician group, the worst results occurred at 500 Hz in the left ear, and at 250 Hz, 6000 Hz, 9000 Hz, 10,000 Hz, and 11,200 Hz in both the ears. CONCLUSION: The periodic evaluation of high-frequency thresholds may be useful in the early detection of hearing loss in musicians.

  14. Gait performance of children and adolescents with sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Renato de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) may exhibit balance disorders, which can compromise the gait performance of this population. Compare the gait performance of normal hearing (NH) children and those with SNHL, considering the sex and age range of the sample, and analyze gait performance according to degrees of hearing loss and etiological factors in the latter group. This is a cross-sectional study that assessed 96 students, 48 NH and 48 with SNHL, aged between 7 and 18 years. The Brazilian version of the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) was used to analyze gait and the Mann-Whitney test for statistical analysis. The group with SNHL obtained lower average gait performance compared to NH subjects (p=0.000). This was also observed when the children were grouped by sex female and male (p=0.000). The same difference occurred when the children were stratified by age group: 7-18 years (p=0.000). The group with severe and profound hearing loss exhibited worse gait performance than those with mild and moderate loss (p=0.048) and children with prematurity as an etiological factor demonstrated the worst gait performance. The children with SNHL showed worse gait performance compared to NH of the same sex and age group. Those with severe and profound hearing loss and prematurity as an etiological factor demonstrated the worst gait performances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceived competence and school adjustment of hearing impaired children in mainstream primary school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamizadeh, N; Ghasemi, M; Saeedi, A; Kazemnejad, A

    2008-11-01

    Although educational main streaming of children with special needs formally began in Iran since 1992 there is little information whether hearing impaired children feel competent in regular schools. To determine the perceived competence and school adjustment of hearing impaired children in mainstream primary school settings, the self-perception profile was administered to 60 mainstreamed hard of hearing children and 60 classmates with normal hearing matched for gender by a single interviewer. The instrument comprised 28 items, 23 of which were similar to those of 'adapted test Image for children with cochlear implants' asking children about their feelings about their own cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and communication competence and school adjustment. The Cronbach alpha coefficient for the instrument was 0.93. Hard of hearing children rated their competence significantly poorer than their hearing classmates for all domains. Mean differences for the five domains ranged from 0.48 (for physical competence) to 0.90 (for school adjustment) on a scale of 1-4. There were no significant differences between girls' and boys' competence, in either the hearing or the hearing impaired groups. Classifying overall scores for perceived competence into four groups ('poor competence', 'low competence', 'moderate competence' and 'high competence'), 23.4% of hearing impaired children but none of the hearing classmates rated themselves as having low or poor competence. On the other hand 85% of hearing children and only 18.3% of hearing impaired children rated themselves as highly competent. We suggest that periodical assessments of mainstreamed children might help to identify those children who are having difficulty adapting to their environment.

  16. Comparing Analog and Digital Hearing Aids in Reducing Hearing Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassem Mohammad Khani

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comparing analog and digital hearing aids reducing disability caused by hearing deficiency among moderate to severe sensorineural hearing-impaired persons. Method and Material: This descriptive-analytic study was carried out on two groups of subjects participated in this study in some audiology clinics of hearing aid since May 2002 to October 2003. Twenty subjects wore analog hearing aids and twenty one subjects wore digital hearing aids. In this study , no subject had previous middle ear or psychological problems. APHAB questionnaire was completed before using hearing aid and 2 months after to determine benefit of hearing aid use. Results: Total score mean of APHAB inventory before and after use of analoge hearing aids were 52.215+6.420 and 32.300+3.443 respectively. Also total score mean of APHAB inventory before and after use of digital hearing aids were 54.9252+9.028 and 26.321+10.916 respectively. There was no significant difference between total mean score of APHAB inventory before and after using analog and digital hearing aids (P=0.058.While there was significant difference between total mean score of APHAB questionnaire before and after use of analog hearing aids (P<0.001 and also before and after use of digital hearing aids (P<0.001. Moreover age, gender , litracy level , occupation , degree of hearing loss and manner of hearing aid usage did not have significant effect on APHAB results. Configuration of loss had siginficant effect on aversiveness subscale before and after use of analog hearing aids (P=0.008. Previous experience and duration of hearing aid usage had significant effect on aversiveness subscale before and after use of digital hearing aids (P=0.043 and (P=0.024, respectively , while all of these three items did not have significant effect on total mean score of APHAB inventory and also total mean scores of three subscales of ease of communication , reverberation and background noise. Conclusion: Comparing to

  17. Hearing Status in Pediatric Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulleroglu, Kaan; Baskin, Esra; Aydin, Erdinc; Ozluoglu, Levent; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-08-01

    Renal transplant provides a long-term survival. Hearing impairment is a major factor in subjective health status. Status of hearing and the cause of hearing impairment in the pediatric renal transplant group have not been evaluated. Here, we studied to evaluate hearing status in pediatric renal transplant patients and to determine the factors that cause hearing impairment. Twenty-seven pediatric renal transplant recipients were investigated. All patients underwent audiologic assessment by means of pure-tone audiometry. The factors on hearing impairment were performed. Sensorineural hearing impairment was found in 17 patients. There was marked hearing impairment for the higher frequencies between 4000 and 8000 Hz. Sudden hearing loss developed in 2 patients, 1 of them had tinnitus. Decrease of speech understanding was found in 8 patients. The cyclosporine level was significantly high in patients with hearing impairment compared with group without hearing impairment. Cyclosporine levels also were found to be statistically significantly high when compared with the group with decrease of speech understanding and the group without decrease of speech understanding. Similar relations cannot be found between tacrolimus levels and hearing impairment and speech understanding. Sensorineural hearing impairment prevalence was high in pediatric renal transplant recipients when compared with the general population of children. Cyclosporine may be responsible for causing hearing impairment after renal transplant. We suggest that this effect is a dose-dependent toxicity.

  18. Perception Development of Complex Syntactic Construction in Children with Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Teymouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Auditory perception or hearing ability is critical for children in acquisition of language and speech hence hearing loss has different effects on individuals’ linguistic perception, and also on their functions. It seems that deaf people suffer from language and speech impairments such as in perception of complex linguistic constructions. This research was aimed to study the perception of complex syntactic constructions in children with hearing-impairment. Methods: The study design was case-control. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, twenty children with severe to profound hearing impairment, aged 8-12 years and twenty normal-hearing children, aged 6-7 years were selected in a simple random sampling from exceptional schools for deaf people and from normal kindergartens and schools for normal cases. The perception of sentences was tested by using a researcher-made task called sentence-picture matching task. At first the content validity was determined and then the reliability was confirmed with Cronbach Alpha Test. Data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Independent Samples T-Test and Mann-Whitney U Test using SPSS. Results: Perception of the group with hearing-impairment was significantly lower than the normal control group. The hearing-impaired children failed to perceive complex syntactic structures. Linguistic function of the group with hearing-impairment on perception of sentences with simple word order was better than on complex sentences. Discussion: If rich linguistic inputs are not available for children during the critical period of the first language acquisition, the syntactic skill, especially in complex syntactic constructions, will not normally develop. In order to establish a foundation for a healthy perfect development of syntax, at the early years of life, children should be exposed to a natural language.

  19. Increased intensity discrimination thresholds in tinnitus subjects with a normal audiogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Hots, J.; Verhey, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent auditory brain stem response measurements in tinnitus subjects with normal audiograms indicate the presence of hidden hearing loss that manifests as reduced neural output from the cochlea at high sound intensities, and results from mice suggest a link to deafferentation of auditory nerve...... fibers. As deafferentation would lead to deficits in hearing performance, the present study investigates whether tinnitus patients with normal hearing thresholds show impairment in intensity discrimination compared to an audiometrically matched control group. Intensity discrimination thresholds were...... significantly increased in the tinnitus frequency range, consistent with the hypothesis that auditory nerve fiber deafferentation is associated with tinnitus....

  20. Post-UV colony-forming ability of normal fibroblast strains and of the xeroderma pigmentosum group G strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, S.F.; Tarone, R.E.; Moshell, A.N.; Ganges, M.B.; Robbins, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In xeroderma pigmentosum, an inherited disorder of defective DNA repair, post-uv colony-forming ability of fibroblasts from patients in complementation groups A through F correlates with the patients' neurological status. The first xeroderma pigmentosum patient assigned to the recently discovered group G had the neurological abnormalities of XP. Researchers have determined the post-uv colony-forming ability of cultured fibroblasts from this patient and from 5 more control donors. Log-phase fibroblasts were irradiated with 254 nm uv light from a germicidal lamp, trypsinized, and replated at known densities. After 2 to 4 weeks' incubation the cells were fixed, stained and scored for colony formation. The strains' post-uv colony-forming ability curves were obtained by plotting the log of the percent remaining post-uv colony-forming ability as a function of the uv dose. The post-uv colony-forming ability of 2 of the 5 new normal strains was in the previously defined control donor zone, but that of the other 3 extended down to the level of the most resistant xeroderma pigmentosum strain. The post-uv colony-forming ability curve of the group G fibroblasts was not significantly different from the curves of the group D fibroblast strains from patients with clinical histories similar to that of the group G patient

  1. Effects of sensorineural hearing loss on visually guided attention in a multitalker environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Virginia; Marrone, Nicole; Mason, Christine R; Kidd, Gerald; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2009-03-01

    This study asked whether or not listeners with sensorineural hearing loss have an impaired ability to use top-down attention to enhance speech intelligibility in the presence of interfering talkers. Listeners were presented with a target string of spoken digits embedded in a mixture of five spatially separated speech streams. The benefit of providing simple visual cues indicating when and/or where the target would occur was measured in listeners with hearing loss, listeners with normal hearing, and a control group of listeners with normal hearing who were tested at a lower target-to-masker ratio to equate their baseline (no cue) performance with the hearing-loss group. All groups received robust benefits from the visual cues. The magnitude of the spatial-cue benefit, however, was significantly smaller in listeners with hearing loss. Results suggest that reduced utility of selective attention for resolving competition between simultaneous sounds contributes to the communication difficulties experienced by listeners with hearing loss in everyday listening situations.

  2. Limiares de reconhecimento de sentenças no ruído, em campo livre: valores de referência para adultos normo-ouvintes Speech recognition thresholds in noisy areas: reference values for normal hearing adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Oliveira Henriques

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas clínicas de audiologia, as queixas de dificuldade de compreensão da fala em ambientes ruidosos são freqüentes, mesmo para indivíduos normo-ouvintes. Assim, o audiologista deve não só identificar uma perda auditiva, mas também analisar a compreensão da fala, em condições de comunicação próximas às encontradas no cotidiano. OBJETIVO: Determinar o valor de referência para os limiares de reconhecimento de sentenças no ruído, em campo livre, para indivíduos adultos normo-ouvintes. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O experimento foi realizado nos anos de 2005 e 2006. Participaram da pesquisa 150 indivíduos adultos normo-ouvintes, com idade entre 18 e 64 anos, avaliados em cabine acusticamente tratada. Realizou-se a avaliação a partir da aplicação do teste Listas de Sentenças em Português. As listas de sentenças foram apresentadas em campo livre, na presença de um ruído competitivo, na intensidade fixa de 65 dB A. O ângulo de incidência de ambos os estímulos foi de 0º- 0º azimute. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Os limiares de reconhecimento de sentenças em campo-livre foram obtidos na relação sinal-ruído de -8,14 dB A, sendo este o valor de referência para indivíduos normo-ouvintes.In audiology clinics, complaints about difficulties in speech recognition in noise environments are frequent, even for normal-hearing individuals. Thus, the audiologist must not only identify a hearing loss, but also analyze speech recognition, under noisy conditions similar to those found in our daily lives. AIM: Determine the reference value for the recognition of phrases under noisy conditions, in the free field, for adult normal hearing patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out in 2005 and 2006. We had 150 adult normal hearing individuals participating, with ages between 18 and 64 years, assessed in a sound-proof booth. We evaluation was based on lists of phrases in Portuguese. The phrases lists were presented in the free field

  3. Grupo terapêutico em fonoaudiologia: revisão de literatura Therapeutic Group in Speech Language and Hearing Sciences: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Veis Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: grupo terapêutico fonoaudiológico. OBJETIVO: revisar, de maneira sistemática, pesquisas advindas de todas as áreas da Fonoaudiologia que envolveram abordagens grupais, na realidade brasileira. Foi realizada busca nos bancos de dados das bases SciELO e LILACS no período de 2005 a 2010. Foram selecionados os estudos cujos conteúdos dos resumos relacionavam-se com o objetivo da presente pesquisa. Como forma de categorização dos dados, optou-se pela análise dos seguintes aspectos: público-alvo, ano de publicação e área da Fonoaudiologia envolvida. CONCLUSÃO: observa-se um número restrito de publicações referentes ao tema (28 artigos. A maior parte dos trabalhos foi realizada com público adulto, seguido de grupos de crianças, adolescentes e idosos, respectivamente. Foi baixo o índice de artigos envolvendo grupos de familiares. Dentre as áreas da Fonoaudiologia, a de Linguagem tem o maior número de publicações envolvendo grupos, seguida pelas áreas de Voz e Audiologia. Em relação ao ano de publicação, observou-se que, de maneira geral, tem havido decréscimo do número de publicações sobre o assunto desde o ano de 2007. Concluiu-se que é restrito o número de publicações sobre grupo terapêutico na área de Fonoaudiologia. Considera-se que além de novos estudos sobre a prática grupal, outros trabalhos de revisão devam assumir a análise de categorias como aspectos metodológicos, estratégias de atuação e resultados obtidos nos processos terapêuticos grupais.BACKGROUND: therapeutic Group in Speech Language and Hearing Sciences. PURPOSE: to review, systematically, researches stemming from all areas of speech therapy that involved group approaches, in Brazil. We conducted a search in LILACS and SciELO databases in the period from 2005 to 2010. We selected studies where the contents of the abstracts were related to the objective of this research. As a way of categorizing such data, we chose to analyze the

  4. Effects of hearing loss and cognitive load on speech recognition with competing talkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut eMeister

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Everyday communication frequently comprises situations with more than one talker speaking at a time. These situations are challenging since they pose high attentional and memory demands placing cognitive load on the listener. Hearing impairment additionally exacerbates communication problems under these circumstances. We examined the effects of hearing loss and attention tasks on speech recognition with competing talkers in older adults with and without hearing impairment. We hypothesized that hearing loss would affect word identification, talker separation and word recall and that the difficulties experienced by the hearing impaired listeners would be especially pronounced in a task with high attentional and memory demands. Two listener groups closely matched regarding their age and neuropsychological profile but differing in hearing acuity were examined regarding their speech recognition with competing talkers in two different tasks. One task required repeating back words from one target talker (1TT while ignoring the competing talker whereas the other required repeating back words from both talkers (2TT. The competing talkers differed with respect to their voice characteristics. Moreover, sentences either with low or high context were used in order to consider linguistic properties. Compared to their normal hearing peers, listeners with hearing loss revealed limited speech recognition in both tasks. Their difficulties were especially pronounced in the more demanding 2TT task. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanisms, different error sources, namely having misunderstood, confused, or omitted words were investigated. Misunderstanding and omitting words were more frequently observed in the hearing impaired than in the normal hearing listeners. In line with common speech perception models it is suggested that these effects are related to impaired object formation and taxed working memory capacity (WMC. In a post hoc analysis the

  5. The development and standardization of Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo; Kim, Gungu; Han, Woojae; Kim, Jinsook

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to develop and standardize a screening tool for elderly people who wish to check for themselves their level of hearing loss. The Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly (SHSE) consisted of 20 questions based on the characteristics of presbycusis using a five-point scale: seven questions covered general issues related to sensorineural hearing loss, seven covered hearing difficulty under distracting listening conditions, two covered hearing difficulty with fast-rated speech, and four covered the working memory function during communication. To standardize SHSE, 83 elderly participants took part in the study: 25 with normal hearing, and 22, 23, and 13 with mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, respectively, according to their hearing sensitivity. All were retested 3 weeks later using the same questionnaire to confirm its reliability. In addition, validity was assessed using various hearing tests such as a sentence test with background noise, a time-compressed speech test, and a digit span test. SHSE and its subcategories showed good internal consistency. SHSE and its subcategories demonstrated high test-retest reliability. A high correlation was observed between the total scores and pure-tone thresholds, which indicated gradually increased SHSE scores of 42.24%, 55.27%, 66.61%, and 78.15% for normal hearing, mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe groups, respectively. With regard to construct validity, SHSE showed a high negative correlation with speech perception scores in noise and a moderate negative correlation with scores of time-compressed speech perception. However, there was no statistical correlation between digit span results and either the SHSE total or its subcategories. A confirmatory factor analysis supported three factors in SHSE. We found that the developed SHSE had valuable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and construct validity. These results suggest that

  6. Sensorineural hearing loss degrades behavioral and physiological measures of human spatial selective auditory attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lengshi; Best, Virginia; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2018-01-01

    Listeners with sensorineural hearing loss often have trouble understanding speech amid other voices. While poor spatial hearing is often implicated, direct evidence is weak; moreover, studies suggest that reduced audibility and degraded spectrotemporal coding may explain such problems. We hypothesized that poor spatial acuity leads to difficulty deploying selective attention, which normally filters out distracting sounds. In listeners with normal hearing, selective attention causes changes in the neural responses evoked by competing sounds, which can be used to quantify the effectiveness of attentional control. Here, we used behavior and electroencephalography to explore whether control of selective auditory attention is degraded in hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. Normal-hearing (NH) and HI listeners identified a simple melody presented simultaneously with two competing melodies, each simulated from different lateral angles. We quantified performance and attentional modulation of cortical responses evoked by these competing streams. Compared with NH listeners, HI listeners had poorer sensitivity to spatial cues, performed more poorly on the selective attention task, and showed less robust attentional modulation of cortical responses. Moreover, across NH and HI individuals, these measures were correlated. While both groups showed cortical suppression of distracting streams, this modulation was weaker in HI listeners, especially when attending to a target at midline, surrounded by competing streams. These findings suggest that hearing loss interferes with the ability to filter out sound sources based on location, contributing to communication difficulties in social situations. These findings also have implications for technologies aiming to use neural signals to guide hearing aid processing. PMID:29555752

  7. Factors contributing to hearing impairment in patients with cleft lip/palate in Malaysia: A prospective study of 346 ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jack Pein; Soo, Siew Shuin; Manuel, Anura Michelle

    2016-09-01

    To determine the factors contributing towards hearing impairment in patients with cleft lip/palate. A prospective analysis was conducted on 173 patients (346 ears) with cleft lip and palate (CL/P) who presented to the combined cleft clinic at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) over 12 months. The patients' hearing status was determined using otoacoustic emission (OAE), pure tone audiometry (PTA) and auditory brainstem response (ABR). These results were analysed against several parameters, which included age, gender, race, types of cleft pathology, impact and timing of repair surgery. The patients' age ranged from 1-26 years old. They comprised 30% with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 28% with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), 28% with isolated cleft palate (ICP) and 14% with isolated cleft lip (ICL). Majority of the patients (68.2%) had normal otoscopic findings. Out of the 346 ears, 241 ears (70%) ears had passed the hearing tests. There was no significant relationship between patients' gender and ethnicity with their hearing status. The types of cleft pathology significantly influenced the outcome of PTA and ABR screening results (p cleft groups and the outcome of hearing tests. However, hearing improvement occurred when palatal repair was performed at the age of cleft patients had normal hearing (70%). Hearing threshold varied significantly between the different types of cleft pathology. Surgery conferred no significant impact on the hearing outcome unless surgery was performed at the age of <1 year old. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Attitudes hearing impaired children face from hearing people : a case study from Wollega, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Olika, Ruth Erin Liselott

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out what kind of attitudes that hearing impaired children face from hearing people, and how these attitudes influence the hearing impaired child’s life. This is a qualitative research project with interview as the instrument of collecting data. The interviews were conducted in Wollega, Ethiopia with four different informant groups: Children with hearing impairment (CWHI), their parents (Parents CWHI), Children with hearing (CWH), and their parents (Parents ...

  9. Sunspot number recalibration: The ~1840–1920 anomaly in the observer normalization factors of the group sunspot number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliver Edward W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the normalization factors (k′-factors used to scale secondary observers to the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO reference series of the Hoyt & Schatten (1998a, 1998b group sunspot number (GSN. A time series of these k′-factors exhibits an anomaly from 1841 to 1920, viz., the average k′-factor for all observers who began reporting groups from 1841 to 1883 is 1.075 vs. 1.431 for those who began from 1884 to 1920, with a progressive rise, on average, during the latter period. The 1883–1884 break between the two subintervals occurs precisely at the point where Hoyt and Schatten began to use a complex daisy-chaining method to scale observers to RGO. The 1841–1920 anomaly implies, implausibly, that the average sunspot observer who began from 1841 to 1883 was nearly as proficient at counting groups as mid-20th century RGO (for which k′ = 1.0 by definition while observers beginning during the 1884–1920 period regressed in group counting capability relative to those from the earlier interval. Instead, as shown elsewhere and substantiated here, RGO group counts increased relative to those of other long-term observers from 1874 to ~1915. This apparent inhomogeneity in the RGO group count series is primarily responsible for the increase in k′-factors from 1884 to 1920 and the suppression, by 44% on average, of the Hoyt and Schatten GSN relative to the original Wolf sunspot number (WSN before ~1885. Correcting for the early “learning curve” in the RGO reference series and minimizing the use of daisy-chaining rectifies the anomalous behavior of the k′-factor series. The resultant GSN time series (designated GSN* is in reasonable agreement with the revised WSN (SN*; Clette & Lefèvre 2016 and the backbone-based group sunspot number (RGS; Svalgaard & Schatten 2016 but significantly higher than other recent reconstructions (Friedli, personal communication, 2016; Lockwood et al. 2014a, 2014b; Usoskin et al. 2016a. This result

  10. Bullying and cyberbullying among deaf students and their hearing peers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Sheri; Pero, Heather

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire on bullying and cyberbullying was administered to 30 secondary students (Grades 7-12) in a charter school for the Deaf and hard of hearing and a matched group of 22 hearing students in a charter secondary school on the same campus. Because the sample size was small and distributions non-normal, results are primarily descriptive and correlational. No significant differences by hearing status were detected in rates of conventional or cyberbullying or both forms of victimization. Cyberbullying and cybervictimization were strongly correlated, as were conventional bullying and victimization. Moral disengagement was positively correlated only with conventional bullying. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  11. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, A; Skogstad, M; Johnsen, T S; Engdahl, B; Tambs, K

    2013-12-01

    There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups.

  12. Do Hearing Protectors Protect Hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, Matthew R.; Masterson, Elizabeth A.; Themann, Christa L.; Davis, Rickie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the association between self-reported hearing protection use at work and incidence of hearing shifts over a 5-year period. Methods Audiometric data from 19,911 workers were analyzed. Two hearing shift measures—OSHA standard threshold shift (OSTS) and high-frequency threshold shift (HFTS)—were used to identify incident shifts in hearing between workers’ 2005 and 2009 audiograms. Adjusted odds ratios were generated using multivariable logistic regression with multi-level modeling. Results The odds ratio for hearing shift for workers who reported never versus always wearing hearing protection was nonsignificant for OSTS (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.92–1.64) and marginally significant for HFTS (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00–1.59). A significant linear trend towards increased risk of HFTS with decreased use of hearing protection was observed (P = 0.02). Conclusion The study raises concern about the effectiveness of hearing protection as a substitute for noise control to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in the workplace. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:1001–1010, 2014. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24700499

  13. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-01-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone. (author)

  14. Sudden bilateral hearing loss after organophosphate inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Dundar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudden bilateral hearing loss are seen rarely and the toxic substance exposure constitutes a small part of etiology. A Fifty-eight-year-old woman admitted to our clinic with sudden bilateral hearing loss shortly after chlorpyrifos-ethyl exposure. Otolaryngologic examination findings were normal. The patient had 40 dB sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL on the right ear and 48 dB SNHL on the left ear. Additional diagnostic tests were normal. The conventional treatment for sudden hearing loss was performed. On the second week following organophosphate (OP exposure the patient's hearing loss almost completely resolved. OP's are heavily used in agriculture and should be taken into consideration as an etiologic factor in sudden hearing loss. Keywords: Organophosphates, Hearing loss, Sudden

  15. Development and analysis of a low-cost screening tool to identify and classify hearing loss in children: a proposal for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Giannella Samelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A lack of attention has been given to hearing health in primary care in developing countries. A strategy involving low-cost screening tools may fill the current gap in hearing health care provided to children. Therefore, it is necessary to establish and adopt lower-cost procedures that are accessible to underserved areas that lack other physical or human resources that would enable the identification of groups at risk for hearing loss. The aim of this study was to develop and analyze the efficacy of a low-cost screening tool to identify and classify hearing loss in children. METHODS: A total of 214 2-to-10 year-old children participated in this study. The study was conducted by providing a questionnaire to the parents and comparing the answers with the results of a complete audiological assessment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were constructed, and discriminant analysis techniques were used to classify each child based on the total score. RESULTS: We found conductive hearing loss in 39.3% of children, sensorineural hearing loss in 7.4% and normal hearing in 53.3%. The discriminant analysis technique provided the following classification rule for the total score on the questionnaire: 0 to 4 points - normal hearing; 5 to 7 points - conductive hearing loss; over 7 points - sensorineural hearing loss. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the questionnaire could be used as a screening tool to classify children with normal hearing or hearing loss and according to the type of hearing loss based on the total questionnaire score

  16. Hearing Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ear Hears Think about how you can feel speakers vibrate on your sound system or feel your throat vibrate when you speak. Sound, which is made up of invisible waves of energy, causes these vibrations. Hearing begins when sound waves that travel through ...

  17. Effects of hearing loss on speech recognition under distracting conditions and working memory in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na W

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wondo Na,1 Gibbeum Kim,1 Gungu Kim,1 Woojae Han,2 Jinsook Kim2 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Graduate School, 2Division of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Research Institute of Audiology and Speech Pathology, College of Natural Sciences, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea Purpose: The current study aimed to evaluate hearing-related changes in terms of speech-in-noise processing, fast-rate speech processing, and working memory; and to identify which of these three factors is significantly affected by age-related hearing loss.Methods: One hundred subjects aged 65–84 years participated in the study. They were classified into four groups ranging from normal hearing to moderate-to-severe hearing loss. All the participants were tested for speech perception in quiet and noisy conditions and for speech perception with time alteration in quiet conditions. Forward- and backward-digit span tests were also conducted to measure the participants’ working memory.Results: 1 As the level of background noise increased, speech perception scores systematically decreased in all the groups. This pattern was more noticeable in the three hearing-impaired groups than in the normal hearing group. 2 As the speech rate increased faster, speech perception scores decreased. A significant interaction was found between speed of speech and hearing loss. In particular, 30% of compressed sentences revealed a clear differentiation between moderate hearing loss and moderate-to-severe hearing loss. 3 Although all the groups showed a longer span on the forward-digit span test than the backward-digit span test, there was no significant difference as a function of hearing loss.Conclusion: The degree of hearing loss strongly affects the speech recognition of babble-masked and time-compressed speech in the elderly but does not affect the working memory. We expect these results to be applied to appropriate rehabilitation strategies for hearing

  18. Assessment of hearing threshold in adults with hearing loss using an automated system of cortical auditory evoked potential detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Spada Durante

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The use of hearing aids by individuals with hearing loss brings a better quality of life. Access to and benefit from these devices may be compromised in patients who present difficulties or limitations in traditional behavioral audiological evaluation, such as newborns and small children, individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum, autism, and intellectual deficits, and in adults and the elderly with dementia. These populations (or individuals are unable to undergo a behavioral assessment, and generate a growing demand for objective methods to assess hearing. Cortical auditory evoked potentials have been used for decades to estimate hearing thresholds. Current technological advances have lead to the development of equipment that allows their clinical use, with features that enable greater accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, and the possibility of automated detection, analysis, and recording of cortical responses. Objective: To determine and correlate behavioral auditory thresholds with cortical auditory thresholds obtained from an automated response analysis technique. Methods: The study included 52 adults, divided into two groups: 21 adults with moderate to severe hearing loss (study group; and 31 adults with normal hearing (control group. An automated system of detection, analysis, and recording of cortical responses (HEARLab® was used to record the behavioral and cortical thresholds. The subjects remained awake in an acoustically treated environment. Altogether, 150 tone bursts at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz were presented through insert earphones in descending-ascending intensity. The lowest level at which the subject detected the sound stimulus was defined as the behavioral (hearing threshold (BT. The lowest level at which a cortical response was observed was defined as the cortical electrophysiological threshold. These two responses were correlated using linear regression. Results: The cortical

  19. Assessment of hearing threshold in adults with hearing loss using an automated system of cortical auditory evoked potential detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Alessandra Spada; Wieselberg, Margarita Bernal; Roque, Nayara; Carvalho, Sheila; Pucci, Beatriz; Gudayol, Nicolly; de Almeida, Kátia

    The use of hearing aids by individuals with hearing loss brings a better quality of life. Access to and benefit from these devices may be compromised in patients who present difficulties or limitations in traditional behavioral audiological evaluation, such as newborns and small children, individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum, autism, and intellectual deficits, and in adults and the elderly with dementia. These populations (or individuals) are unable to undergo a behavioral assessment, and generate a growing demand for objective methods to assess hearing. Cortical auditory evoked potentials have been used for decades to estimate hearing thresholds. Current technological advances have lead to the development of equipment that allows their clinical use, with features that enable greater accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, and the possibility of automated detection, analysis, and recording of cortical responses. To determine and correlate behavioral auditory thresholds with cortical auditory thresholds obtained from an automated response analysis technique. The study included 52 adults, divided into two groups: 21 adults with moderate to severe hearing loss (study group); and 31 adults with normal hearing (control group). An automated system of detection, analysis, and recording of cortical responses (HEARLab ® ) was used to record the behavioral and cortical thresholds. The subjects remained awake in an acoustically treated environment. Altogether, 150 tone bursts at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000Hz were presented through insert earphones in descending-ascending intensity. The lowest level at which the subject detected the sound stimulus was defined as the behavioral (hearing) threshold (BT). The lowest level at which a cortical response was observed was defined as the cortical electrophysiological threshold. These two responses were correlated using linear regression. The cortical electrophysiological threshold was, on average, 7.8dB higher than the

  20. Speech perception in noise in unilateral hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; dos Santos, Marina de Marchi; José, Maria Renata

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Unilateral hearing loss is characterized by a decrease of hearing in one ear only. In the presence of ambient noise, individuals with unilateral hearing loss are faced with greater difficulties understanding speech than normal listeners. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the speech perception of individuals with unilateral hearing loss in speech perception with and without competitive noise, before and after the hearing aid fitting process. METHODS: The study included 30 adu...

  1. Hearing Loss in Cryptococcal Meningitis Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Lofgren, Sarah; Montgomery, Martha; Yueh, Nathan; Namudde, Alice; Rhein, Joshua; Abassi, Mahsa; Musubire, Abdu; Meya, David; Boulware, David

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Hearing loss is a known complication cryptococcal meningitis (CM); however, there is a paucity of data. We aimed to describe hearing loss in CM survivors. Methods We assessed hearing via audiometry 8 and 18 weeks after diagnosis of CM in Kampala, Uganda from 2015-2016. We measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 Hz. Normal hearing was defined as minimum hearing level at 25 cm H2O 113 24 (71%) 28 (45%) 0.017 Average Opening Pressure >20 cm H20 96 34 (81%) 43 (61%) 0.025 Quantitative Cultur...

  2. Prevalence of hearing impairment in a rural midwestern cohort: estimates from the Keokuk county rural health study, 1994 to 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, Gregory A; Mudipalli, V Ranjit; Reynolds, Stephen J; Kelly, Kevin M; Stromquist, Ann M; Zwerling, Craig; Burmeister, Leon F; Peng, Shu-Chen; Merchant, James A

    2005-06-01

    The current paper estimates the prevalence of hearing problems in a rural population, analyzes the prevalence of hearing problems across age groups, and compares the prevalence of hearing problems in this population with results obtained in other populations. Data were obtained from a random sample of the residents of a rural county, stratified by farm, rural non-farm, and town residence. Hearing test results were obtained from participants between the ages of 8 and 92 years (N = 1972; 47% male). Pure-tone thresholds were classified as normal or impaired using a number of metrics, including speech intelligibility index values. Selected comparisons of crude rates were made with previous population-based studies of hearing loss prevalence. Nearly all (99%) of the participants in this study had significant hearing impairment. Atypical hearing impairment is most prevalent at 6 kHz. In males, this excess impairment shifts to lower frequencies with age but monotonically decreases in females. Notched configurations were most common among those between 30 and 59 years old. In females, the prevalence of hearing impairments sufficient to interfere with speech understanding begins to rapidly increase in the 6th decade (4th decade in males). Comparisons with prior population-based studies in the United States and Great Britain identified few significant differences. Significant hearing impairment is common in rural populations. The high prevalence in this population is similar to that found in other population-based studies. Future studies are needed to examine (1) the risk factors for hearing impairment, (2) the natural course of hearing problems across the life span, and (3) the effect of programs for the prevention of hearing impairment and rehabilitation for persons with existing hearing impairments.

  3. Finite Verb Morphology in the Spontaneous Speech of Dutch-Speaking Children With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Annemiek; Coene, Martine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the acquisition of Dutch finite verb morphology is investigated in children with cochlear implants (CIs) with profound hearing loss and in children with hearing aids (HAs) with moderate to severe hearing loss. Comparing these two groups of children increases our insight into how hearing experience and audibility affect the acquisition of morphosyntax. Spontaneous speech samples were analyzed of 48 children with CIs and 29 children with HAs, ages 4 to 7 years. These language samples were analyzed by means of standardized language analysis involving mean length of utterance, the number of finite verbs produced, and target-like subject-verb agreement. The outcomes were interpreted relative to expectations based on the performance of typically developing peers with normal hearing. Outcomes of all measures were correlated with hearing level in the group of HA users and age at implantation in the group of CI users. For both groups, the number of finite verbs that were produced in 50-utterance sample was on par with mean length of utterance and at the lower bound of the normal distribution. No significant differences were found between children with CIs and HAs on any of the measures under investigation. Yet, both groups produced more subject-verb agreement errors than are to be expected for typically developing hearing peers. No significant correlation was found between the hearing level of the children and the relevant measures of verb morphology, both with respect to the overall number of verbs that were used and the number of errors that children made. Within the group of CI users, the outcomes were significantly correlated with age at implantation. When producing finite verb morphology, profoundly deaf children wearing CIs perform similarly to their peers with moderate-to-severe hearing loss wearing HAs. Hearing loss negatively affects the acquisition of subject-verb agreement regardless of the hearing device (CI or HA) that the child is wearing. The

  4. Does hearing in response to soft-tissue stimulation involve skull vibrations? A within-subject comparison between skull vibration magnitudes and hearing thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordekar, Shai; Perez, Ronen; Adelman, Cahtia; Sohmer, Haim; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2018-04-03

    Hearing can be elicited in response to bone as well as soft-tissue stimulation. However, the underlying mechanism of soft-tissue stimulation is under debate. It has been hypothesized that if skull vibrations were the underlying mechanism of hearing in response to soft-tissue stimulation, then skull vibrations would be associated with hearing thresholds. However, if skull vibrations were not associated with hearing thresholds, an alternative mechanism is involved. In the present study, both skull vibrations and hearing thresholds were assessed in the same participants in response to bone (mastoid) and soft-tissue (neck) stimulation. The experimental group included five hearing-impaired adults in whom a bone-anchored hearing aid was implanted due to conductive or mixed hearing loss. Because the implant is exposed above the skin and has become an integral part of the temporal bone, vibration of the implant represented skull vibrations. To ensure that middle-ear pathologies of the experimental group did not affect overall results, hearing thresholds were also obtained in 10 participants with normal hearing in response to stimulation at the same sites. We found that the magnitude of the bone vibrations initiated by the stimulation at the two sites (neck and mastoid) detected by the laser Doppler vibrometer on the bone-anchored implant were linearly related to stimulus intensity. It was therefore possible to extrapolate the vibration magnitudes at low-intensity stimulation, where poor signal-to-noise ratio limited actual recordings. It was found that the vibration magnitude differences (between soft-tissue and bone stimulation) were not different than the hearing threshold differences at the tested frequencies. Results of the present study suggest that bone vibration magnitude differences can adequately explain hearing threshold differences and are likely to be responsible for the hearing sensation. Thus, the present results support the idea that bone and soft

  5. Predicting hearing thresholds in occupational noise-induced hearing loss by auditory steady state responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, Joseph; Karawani, Hanin; Shemesh, Rafi; Nageris, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Currently available behavioral tools for the assessment of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) depend on the reliable cooperation of the subject. Furthermore, in workers' compensation cases, there is considerable financial gain to be had from exaggerating symptoms, such that accurate assessment of true hearing threshold levels is essential. An alternative objective physiologic tool for assessing NIHL is the auditory steady state response (ASSR) test, which combines frequency specificity with a high level of auditory stimulation, making it applicable for the evaluation of subjects with a moderate to severe deficit. The primary aim of the study was to assess the value of the multifrequency ASSR test in predicting the behavioral warble-tone audiogram in a large sample of young subjects with NIHL of varying severity or with normal hearing. The secondary goal was to assess suprathreshold ASSR growth functions in these two groups. The study group included 157 subjects regularly exposed to high levels of occupational noise, who attended a university-associated audiological clinic for evaluation of NIHL from 2009 through 2011. All underwent a behavioral audiogram, and on the basis of the findings, were divided into those with NIHL (108 subjects, 216 ears) or normal hearing (49 subjects, 98 ears). The accuracy of the ASSR threshold estimations for frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz was compared between groups, and the specificity and sensitivity of the ASSR test in differentiating ears with or without NIHL was calculated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to formulate an equation to predict the behavioral warble-tone audiogram at each test frequency using ASSR thresholds. Multifrequency ASSR amplitude growth as a function of stimulus intensity was compared between the NIHL and normal-hearing groups for 1000 Hz and 4000 Hz carrier frequencies. In the subjects with NIHL, ASSR thresholds to various frequencies were

  6. Hearing improvement with softband and implanted bone-anchored hearing devices and modified implantation surgery in patients with bilateral microtia-atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibei; Fan, Xinmiao; Wang, Pu; Fan, Yue; Chen, Xiaowei

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate auditory development and hearing improvement in patients with bilateral microtia-atresia using softband and implanted bone-anchored hearing devices and to modify the implantation surgery. The subjects were divided into two groups: the softband group (40 infants, 3 months to 2 years old, Ponto softband) and the implanted group (6 patients, 6-28 years old, Ponto). The Infant-Toddler Meaning Auditory Integration Scale was used conducted to evaluate auditory development at baseline and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, and visual reinforcement audiometry was used to assess the auditory threshold in the softband group. In the implanted group, bone-anchored hearing devices were implanted combined with the auricular reconstruction surgery, and high-resolution CT was used to assess the deformity preoperatively. Auditory threshold and speech discrimination scores of the patients with implants were measured under the unaided, softband, and implanted conditions. Total Infant-Toddler Meaning Auditory Integration Scale scores in the softband group improved significantly and approached normal levels. The average visual reinforcement audiometry values under the unaided and softband conditions were 76.75 ± 6.05 dB HL and 32.25 ± 6.20 dB HL (P hearing devices is effective for auditory development and hearing improvement in infants with bilateral microtia-atresia. Wearing softband bone-anchored hearing devices before auricle reconstruction and combining bone-anchored hearing device implantation with auricular reconstruction surgery may bethe optimal clinical choice for these patients, and results in more significant hearing improvement and minimal surgical and anesthetic injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Hearing Loss and Fast-Acting Compression on Amplitude Modulation Perception and Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiinberg, Alan; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Epp, Bastian

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The purpose was to investigate the effects of hearing-loss and fast-acting compression on speech intelligibility and two measures of temporal modulation sensitivity. Design: Twelve adults with normal hearing (NH) and 16 adults with mild to moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss......, the MDD thresholds were higher for the group with hearing loss than for the group with NH. Fast-acting compression increased the modulation detection thresholds, while no effect of compression on the MDD thresholds was observed. The speech reception thresholds obtained in stationary noise were slightly...... of the modulation detection thresholds, compression does not seem to provide a benefit for speech intelligibility. Furthermore, fast-acting compression may not be able to restore MDD thresholds to the values observed for listeners with NH, suggesting that the two measures of amplitude modulation sensitivity...

  8. Can parenting practices predict externalizing behavior problems among children with hearing impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, María J; Castillo, Rosa A; Raya, Antonio; Herruzo, Javier

    2017-11-09

    To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices. The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls. Significant between-group differences were found in hyperactivity, behavioral problems, and externalizing problems, but not in aggression. Significant differences were also found in various aspects of parenting styles. A model for predicting externalizing behavior problems was constructed, achieving a predicted explained variance of 50%. Significant differences do exist between adaptation levels in children with and without hearing impairment. Parenting style also plays an important role.

  9. Can parenting practices predict externalizing behavior problems among children with hearing impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Pino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices. Methods: The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls. Results: Significant between-group differences were found in hyperactivity, behavioral problems, and externalizing problems, but not in aggression. Significant differences were also found in various aspects of parenting styles. A model for predicting externalizing behavior problems was constructed, achieving a predicted explained variance of 50%. Conclusion: Significant differences do exist between adaptation levels in children with and without hearing impairment. Parenting style also plays an important role.

  10. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... listen to TV or your music player, play videogames, or use your phone. Talk to your audiologist ... your audiologist several times, but it's worth the benefit of being able to hear your friends and ...

  11. Quantity processing in deaf and hard of hearing children: evidence from symbolic and nonsymbolic comparison tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Santos, José Miguel; Calleja, Marina; García-Orza, Javier; Iza, Mauricio; Damas, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children usually achieve lower scores on numerical tasks than normally hearing peers. Explanations for mathematical disabilities in hearing children are based on quantity representation deficits (Geary, 1994) or on deficits in accessing these representations (Rousselle & Noël, 2008). The present study aimed to verify, by means of symbolic (Arabic digits) and nonsymbolic (dot constellations and hands) magnitude comparison tasks, whether deaf children show deficits in representations or in accessing numerical representations. The study participants were 10 prelocutive deaf children and 10 normally hearing children. Numerical distance and magnitude were manipulated. Response time (RT) analysis showed similar magnitude and distance effects in both groups on the 3 tasks. However, slower RTs were observed among the deaf participants on the symbolic task alone. These results suggest that although both groups' quantity representations were similar, the deaf group experienced a delay in accessing representations from symbolic codes.

  12. Newborn Hearing Screening and Early Diagnostic in the NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Colella-Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to describe the outcome of neonatal hearing screening (NHS and audiological diagnosis in neonates in the NICU. The sample was divided into Group I: neonates who underwent NHS in one step and Group II: neonates who underwent a test and retest NHS. NHS procedure was automated auditory brainstem response. NHS was performed in 82.1% of surviving neonates. For GI, referral rate was 18.6% and false-positive was 62.2% (normal hearing in the diagnostic stage. In GII, with retest, referral rate dropped to 4.1% and false-positive to 12.5%. Sensorineural hearing loss was found in 13.2% of infants and conductive in 26.4% of cases. There was one case of auditory neuropathy spectrum (1.9%. Dropout rate in whole process was 21.7% for GI and 24.03% for GII. We concluded that it was not possible to perform universal NHS in the studied sample or, in many cases, to apply it within the first month of life. Retest reduced failure and false-positive rate and did not increase evasion, indicating that it is a recommendable step in NHS programs in the NICU. The incidence of hearing loss was 2.9%, considering sensorineural hearing loss (0.91%, conductive (1.83% and auditory neuropathy spectrum (0.19%.

  13. Discrepancy between self-assessed hearing status and measured audiometric evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between self-reported hearing status and hearing impairment assessed using conventional audiometry. The associated factors were examined when a concordance between self-reported hearing and audiometric measures was lacking.In total, 19,642 individuals ≥20 years of age who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 2009 through 2012 were enrolled. Pure-tone hearing threshold audiometry (PTA was measured and classified into three levels: <25 dB (normal hearing; ≥25 dB <40 dB (mild hearing impairment; and ≥40 dB (moderate-to-severe hearing impairment. The self-reported hearing loss was categorized into 3 categories. The participants were categorized into three groups: the concordance (matched between self-reported hearing loss and audiometric PTA, overestimation (higher self-reported hearing loss compared to audiometric PTA, and underestimation groups (lower self-reported hearing loss compared to audiometric PTA. The associations of age, sex, education level, stress level, anxiety/depression, tympanic membrane (TM status, hearing aid use, and tinnitus with the discrepancy between the hearing self-reported hearing loss and audiometric pure tone threshold results were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analysis with complex sampling.Overall, 80.1%, 7.1%, and 12.8% of the participants were assigned to the concordance, overestimation, and underestimation groups, respectively. Older age (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] = 1.28 [95% confidence interval = 1.19-1.37] and 2.80 [2.62-2.99] for the overestimation and the underestimation groups, respectively, abnormal TM (2.17 [1.46-3.23] and 1.59 [1.17-2.15], and tinnitus (2.44 [2.10-2.83] and 1.61 [1.38-1.87] were positively correlated with both the overestimation and underestimation groups. Compared with specialized workers, service workers, manual workers, and the unemployed were more likely

  14. The effect of sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus on speech recognition over air and bone conduction military communications headsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Candice; Mermagen, Timothy; Scharine, Angelique

    2017-06-01

    Military personnel are at risk for hearing loss due to noise exposure during deployment (USACHPPM, 2008). Despite mandated use of hearing protection, hearing loss and tinnitus are prevalent due to reluctance to use hearing protection. Bone conduction headsets can offer good speech intelligibility for normal hearing (NH) listeners while allowing the ears to remain open in quiet environments and the use of hearing protection when needed. Those who suffer from tinnitus, the experience of perceiving a sound not produced by an external source, often show degraded speech recognition; however, it is unclear whether this is a result of decreased hearing sensitivity or increased distractibility (Moon et al., 2015). It has been suggested that the vibratory stimulation of a bone conduction headset might ameliorate the effects of tinnitus on speech perception; however, there is currently no research to support or refute this claim (Hoare et al., 2014). Speech recognition of words presented over air conduction and bone conduction headsets was measured for three groups of listeners: NH, sensorineural hearing impaired, and/or tinnitus sufferers. Three levels of speech-to-noise (SNR = 0, -6, -12 dB) were created by embedding speech items in pink noise. Better speech recognition performance was observed with the bone conduction headset regardless of hearing profile, and speech intelligibility was a function of SNR. Discussion will include study limitations and the implications of these findings for those serving in the military. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Static and Dynamic Balance in Congenital Severe to Profound Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh HajiHeydari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research conducted since the early 1900s has consistently identified differences between deaf and hearing children on performance of a wide variety of motor tasks, most notably balance. Our study was performed to test static and dynamic balance skills in congenital severe to profound hearing impaired children in comparison with normal age-matched children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 severe to profound hearing impaired and 40 normal children with age 6 to 10 years old. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency 2, balance subset with 9 parts was used for evaluation of balance skills.Results: Hearing-impaired children showed 16.7 to 100% fail results in 7 parts of the balance subset. In normal children fail result was revealed just in 3 parts of the balance subset from 2.5 to 57.5%, and differences between two groups were significant (p<0.0001. There was a significant difference between two groups in two static balance skills of standing on one leg on a line and standing on one leg on a balance beam with eyes closed (p<0.0001.conclusion: It seems that development of static balance skills are longer than dynamic ones. Because severe to profound hearing-impaired children showed more weakness than normal children in both static and dynamic balance abilities, functional tests of balance proficiency can help to identify balance disorders in these children.

  16. Effects of Hearing Impairment and Hearing Aid Amplification on Listening Effort: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlenforst, Barbara; Zekveld, Adriana A; Jansma, Elise P; Wang, Yang; Naylor, Graham; Lorens, Artur; Lunner, Thomas; Kramer, Sophia E

    Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group guidelines. We tested the statistical evidence across studies with nonparametric tests. The testing revealed only one consistent effect across studies, namely that listening effort was higher for hearing-impaired listeners compared with normal-hearing listeners (Q1) as measured by electroencephalographic measures. For all other studies, the evidence across studies failed to reveal consistent effects on listening effort. In summary, we could only identify scientific evidence from physiological measurement methods, suggesting that hearing impairment increases listening effort during speech perception (Q1). There was no scientific, finding across studies indicating that hearing aid amplification decreases listening effort (Q2). In general, there were large differences in the study population, the control groups and conditions, and the outcome measures applied between the studies included in this review. The results of this review indicate that published listening effort studies lack consistency, lack standardization across studies, and have insufficient statistical power. The findings underline the need for a common conceptual framework for listening effort to address the current shortcomings.

  17. Effect of Exposure to a Mixture of Organic Solvents on Hearing Thresholds in Petrochemical Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Loukzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise.  In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise.   Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups.   Results: The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB. We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss.   Conclusion:  This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers’ hearing threshold in audiometry tests.

  18. Effect of exposure to a mixture of organic solvents on hearing thresholds in petrochemical industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukzadeh, Ziba; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Yazdi, Zohreh; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2014-10-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise. In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups. The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB). We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss. This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years) to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers' hearing threshold in audiometry tests.

  19. Risk factors for hearing loss in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Maharani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 6 of 1,000 children with live births suffer from permanent hearing loss at birth or the neonatal period. At least 90% of cases occur in developing countries. Hearing loss should be diagnosed as early as possible so that intervention can be done before the age of 6 months. Objective To determine risk factors for hearing loss in neonates. Methods We performed a case-control study involving 100 neonates with and without hearing loss who were born at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar from November 2012 to February 2013. Subjects were consisted of 2 groups, those with hearing loss (case group of 50 subjects and without hearing loss (control group of 50 subjects. The groups were matched for gender and birth weight. We assessed the following risk factors for hearing loss: severe neonatal asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, history of aminoglycoside therapy, and mechanical ventilation by Chi-square analysis. The results were presented as odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results Seventy percent of neonates with hearing loss had history of aminoglycoside therapy. Multivariable analysis revealed that aminoglycoside therapy of 14 days or more was a significant risk factor for hearing loss (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.1 to 6.8; P=0.040. There were no statistically significant associations between hearing loss and severe asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, or mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Aminoglycoside therapy for >=14 days was identified as a risk factor for hearing loss in neonates.

  20. Speak on time! Effects of a musical rhythmic training on children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Céline; Falk, Simone; Schön, Daniele

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates temporal adaptation in speech interaction in children with normal hearing and in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and/or hearing aids (HAs). We also address the question of whether musical rhythmic training can improve these skills in children with hearing loss (HL). Children named pictures presented on the screen in alternation with a virtual partner. Alternation rate (fast or slow) and the temporal predictability (match vs mismatch of stress occurrences) were manipulated. One group of children with normal hearing (NH) and one with HL were tested. The latter group was tested twice: once after 30 min of speech therapy and once after 30 min of musical rhythmic training. Both groups of children (NH and with HL) can adjust their speech production to the rate of alternation of the virtual partner. Moreover, while children with normal hearing benefit from the temporal regularity of stress occurrences, children with HL become sensitive to this manipulation only after rhythmic training. Rhythmic training may help children with HL to structure the temporal flow of their verbal interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Children with minimal sensorineural hearing loss: prevalence, educational performance, and functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, F H; Dodd-Murphy, J; Parker, R A

    1998-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of minimal sensorineural hearing loss (MSHL) in school-age children and to assess the relationship of MSHL to educational performance and functional status. To determine prevalence, a single-staged sampling frame of all schools in the district was created for 3rd, 6th, and 9th grades. Schools were selected with probability proportional to size in each grade group. The final study sample was 1218 children. To assess the association of MSHL with educational performance, children identified with MSHL were assigned as cases into a subsequent case-control study. Scores of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (4th Edition) (CTBS/4) then were compared between children with MSHL and children with normal hearing. School teachers completed the Screening Instrument for Targeting Education Risk (SIFTER) and the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist for a subsample of children with MSHL and their normally hearing counterparts. Finally, data on grade retention for a sample of children with MSHL were obtained from school records and compared with school district norm data. To assess the relationship between MSHL and functional status, test scores of all children with MSHL and all children with normal hearing in grades 6 and 9 were compared on the COOP Adolescent Chart Method (COOP), a screening tool for functional status. MSHL was exhibited by 5.4% of the study sample. The prevalence of all types of hearing impairment was 11.3%. Third grade children with MSHL exhibited significantly lower scores than normally hearing controls on a series of subtests of the CTBS/4; however, no differences were noted at the 6th and 9th grade levels. The SIFTER results revealed that children with MSHL scored poorer on the communication subtest than normal-hearing controls. Thirty-seven percent of the children with MSHL failed at least one grade. Finally, children with MSHL exhibited significantly greater dysfunction than children with normal hearing

  2. Geological disposal concept hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The article outlines the progress to date on AECL spent-nuclear fuel geological disposal concept. Hearings for discussion, organised by the federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, of issues related to this type of disposal method occur in three phases, phase I focuses on broad societal issues related to long term management of nuclear fuel waste; phase II will focus on the technical aspects of this method of disposal; and phase III will consist of community visits in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This article provides the events surrounding the first two weeks of phase I hearings (extracted from UNECAN NEWS). In the first week of hearings, where submissions on general societal issues was the focus, there were 50 presentations including those by Natural Resources Canada, Energy Probe, Ontario Hydro, AECL, Canadian Nuclear Society, Aboriginal groups, environmental activist organizations (Northwatch, Saskatchewan Environmental Society, the Inter-Church Uranium Committee, and the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear responsibility). In the second week of hearings there was 33 presentations in which issues related to siting and implementation of a disposal facility was the focus. Phase II hearings dates are June 10-14, 17-21 and 27-28 in Toronto

  3. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Pillion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  4. Hearing aid patients in private practice and public health (Veterans Affairs) clinics: are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robyn M; Alexander, Genevieve C; Gray, Ginger A

    2005-12-01

    In hearing aid research, it is commonplace to combine data across subjects whose hearing aids were provided in different service delivery models. There is reason to question whether these types of patients are always similar enough to justify this practice. To explore this matter, this investigation evaluated similarities and differences in self-report data obtained from hearing aid patients derived from public health (Veterans Affairs, VA) and private practice (PP) settings. The study was a multisite, cross-sectional survey in which 230 hearing aid patients from VA and PP audiology clinic settings provided self-report data on a collection of questionnaires both before and after the hearing aid fitting. Subjects were all older adults with mild to moderately severe hearing loss. About half of them had previous experience wearing hearing aids. All subjects were fitted with wide-dynamic-range-compression instruments and received similar treatment protocols. Numerous statistically significant differences were observed between the VA and PP subject groups. Before the fitting, VA patients reported higher expectations from the hearing aids and more severe unaided problems compared with PP patients with similar audiograms. Three wks after the fitting, VA patients reported more satisfaction with their hearing aids. On some measures VA patients reported more benefit, but different measures of benefit did not give completely consistent results. Both groups reported using the hearing aids an average of approximately 8 hrs per day. VA patients reported age-normal physical and mental health, but PP patients tended to report better than typical health for their age group. These data indicate that hearing aid patients seen in the VA public health hearing services are systematically different in self-report domains from those seen in private practice services. It is therefore risky to casually combine data from these two types of subjects or to generalize research results from one

  5. Desempenho nas habilidades auditivas de atenção seletiva e memória auditiva em um grupo de idosos protetizados: influência de perda auditiva, idade e gênero Performance in the auditory abilities of selective attention and hearing memory in a group of elderly with hearing aids: Influence of hearing loss, age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Henrique Buss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar o desempenho nas habilidades auditivas de atenção seletiva e memória auditiva de idosos protetizados e relacioná-lo com o grau e configuração de perda auditiva, o gênero e a idade. MÉTODO: foram avaliados 29 idosos de 60 a 84 anos, sendo 17 (58,62% do gênero feminino e 12 (41,38% do gênero masculino. As avaliações realizadas incluíram meatoscopia, audiometria tonal liminar e aplicação do teste SSW em português. RESULTADOS: a análise dos dados permitiu verificar que, neste grupo de indivíduos, a idade e o grau de perda auditiva influenciaram significantemente nos escores obtidos na avaliação do processamento auditivo, diferentemente das demais variáveis. Os idosos que apresentaram perda auditiva de grau leve com configuração horizontal obtiveram escores significantemente superiores na avaliação do processamento auditivo comparados com os portadores de perda auditiva de grau moderado com configuração horizontal ou grau moderado com configuração descendente. Idosos pertencentes a faixa etária de 60-69 obtiveram desempenho superiormente significante comparado com idosos na faixa etária de 80-89 CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que o grau de perda auditiva e a idade influenciam nos resultados da avaliação do processamento auditivo. O gênero e a configuração de perda auditiva não foram fatores determinantes na avaliação do processamento auditivo.PURPOSE: to verify the performance in the auditory abilities of selective attention and hearing memory of elderly with prosthesis and relate it to the degree and the configuration of hearing loss, the gender and the age. METHOD: 29 elderly people from 60 to 84 years old were evaluated, 17 of them (58,62% females and 12 (41,38% males. The evaluations carried out included meatoscopy, audiometry evaluation and the use of the SSW test in Portuguese. RESULTS: the analysis of the data showed that, in this group of individuals, the age and the degree of auditory loss

  6. Screening an elderly hearing impaired population for mild cognitive impairment using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Magdalene Yeok Leng; Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin

    2018-07-01

    To determine if there is an association between hearing loss and poorer cognitive scores on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and to determine if poor hearing acuity affects scoring on the cognitive screening tests of MMSE and MoCA. One hundred fourteen elderly patients (Singapore residents) aged between 55 and 86 years were sampled. Participants completed a brief history questionnaire, pure tone audiometry, and 2 cognitive screening tests-the MMSE and MoCA. Average hearing thresholds of the better ear in the frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were used for data analysis. Hearing loss was significantly associated with poorer cognitive scores in Poisson regression models adjusted for age. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were shown to decrease by 2.8% (P = .029), and MoCA scores by 3.5% (P = .013) for every 10 dB of hearing loss. Analysis of hearing-sensitive components of "Registration" and "Recall" in MMSE and MoCA using chi-square tests showed significantly poorer performance in the hearing loss group as compared to the normal hearing group. Phonetic analysis of target words with high error rates shows that the poor performance was likely contributed by decreased hearing acuity, on top of a possible true deficit in cognition in the hearing impaired. Hearing loss is associated with poorer cognitive scores on MMSE and MoCA, and cognitive scoring is likely confounded by poor hearing ability. This highlights an important, often overlooked aspect of sensory impairment during cognitive screening. Provisions should be made when testing for cognition in the hearing-impaired population to avoid over-referral and subsequent misdiagnoses of cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Social inequalities in pure-tone hearing assessed using occupational stratification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gablenz, Petra; Holube, Inga

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse the performance of two occupational stratification approaches and the impact of social position on adult hearing. The prevalence of hearing impairment, pure-tone averages (PTA) and prevalence ratios (PR) for relative hearing loss, which focuses on the position of one's PTA in the age- and gender-specific distribution, were compared in groups defined by ISCO Skill Level and the International Socio-Economic Index (ISEI). About 1571 subjects aged 30-89, including 677 highly screened adults, from the cross-sectional study HÖRSTAT. ISCO Skill Level and ISEI yielded qualitatively the same results. The prevalence difference between the socially least and most advantaged group ranges between 10 and 16%, varying with the scheme applied. Low- and high-frequency PTA and PR for relative hearing loss confirm the gradient. Screening reduced, but did not negate the social differences. The prevalence difference dropped to 6-7% in the otologically normal subsample. Social groups defined by hierarchical, occupational measures differ in their pure-tone hearing, even if the main risk factors are controlled for. This underlines the need for population-based sampling, the relevance of reporting the study group's social composition and the importance of advancing the discussion on appropriate social measures in hearing research.

  8. Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Yazdani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine hearing thresholds at sound frequencies important for speech comprehension in subjects with ocular pseudoexfoliation (PXF and to compare them with that of controls without PXF. METHODS: Eighty-three subjects with ocular PXF and 83 age and sex matched controls without PXF were enrolled in this case-control study. Pure tone audiometry (bone conduction was performed at 1, 2 and 3 kilohertz (KHz in all subjects. Thresholds were compared to an age and sex stratified standard (ISO7029 and between study groups. Hearing loss was defined as sum of tested hearing thresholds (HTL-1,2,3 lower than the ISO7029 standard median. RESULTS: The study included 60 male and 23 female subjects in each group. Hearing loss was present in 147 of 166 (88.6% of examined ears in the case group vs 89 of 166 (53.6% in the control group (P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 6.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.49-11.79. Overall 78 subjects (94.0% in the case group vs 58 subjects (69.9% in the control group had hearing loss in one or both ears (P < 0.001; OR=6.72; 95%CI, 2.42-18.62. Hearing thresholds at each of the examined frequencies and the HTL-1,2,3 were also significantly higher in individuals with PXF. Although glaucoma was significantly more common in subjects with PXF (51.8% vs 22.9%, P < 0.001, it was not associated with hearing

  9. Toward a Differential Diagnosis of Hidden Hearing Loss in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Charles Liberman

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that hair cells are not the most vulnerable elements in the inner ear; rather, it is the synapses between hair cells and cochlear nerve terminals that degenerate first in the aging or noise-exposed ear. This primary neural degeneration does not affect hearing thresholds, but likely contributes to problems understanding speech in difficult listening environments, and may be important in the generation of tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. To look for signs of cochlear synaptopathy in humans, we recruited college students and divided them into low-risk and high-risk groups based on self-report of noise exposure and use of hearing protection. Cochlear function was assessed by otoacoustic emissions and click-evoked electrocochleography; hearing was assessed by behavioral audiometry and word recognition with or without noise or time compression and reverberation. Both groups had normal thresholds at standard audiometric frequencies, however, the high-risk group showed significant threshold elevation at high frequencies (10-16 kHz, consistent with early stages of noise damage. Electrocochleography showed a significant difference in the ratio between the waveform peaks generated by hair cells (Summating Potential; SP vs. cochlear neurons (Action Potential; AP, i.e. the SP/AP ratio, consistent with selective neural loss. The high-risk group also showed significantly poorer performance on word recognition in noise or with time compression and reverberation, and reported heightened reactions to sound consistent with hyperacusis. These results suggest that the SP/AP ratio may be useful in the diagnosis of "hidden hearing loss" and that, as suggested by animal models, the noise-induced loss of cochlear nerve synapses leads to deficits in hearing abilities in difficult listening situations, despite the presence of normal thresholds at standard audiometric frequencies.

  10. Classification of Hearing Loss Disorders Using Teoae-Based Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzopoulos, Stavros Dimitris

    Transiently Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (TEOAE) are signals produced by the cochlea upon stimulation by an acoustic click. Within the context of this dissertation, it was hypothesized that the relationship between the TEOAEs and the functional status of the OHCs provided an opportunity for designing a TEOAE-based clinical procedure that could be used to assess cochlear function. To understand the nature of the TEOAE signals in the time and the frequency domain several different analyses were performed. Using normative Input-Output (IO) curves, short-time FFT analyses and cochlear computer simulations, it was found that for optimization of the hearing loss classification it is necessary to use a complete 20 ms TEOAE segment. It was also determined that various 2-D filtering methods (median and averaging filtering masks, LP-FFT) used to enhance of the TEOAE S/N offered minimal improvement (less than 6 dB per stimulus level). Higher S/N improvements resulted in TEOAE sequences that were over-smoothed. The final classification algorithm was based on a statistical analysis of raw FFT data and when applied to a sample set of clinically obtained TEOAE recordings (from 56 normal and 66 hearing-loss subjects) correctly identified 94.3% of the normal and 90% of the hearing loss subjects, at the 80 dB SPL stimulus level. To enhance the discrimination between the conductive and the sensorineural populations, data from the 68 dB SPL stimulus level were used, which yielded a normal classification of 90.2%, a hearing loss classification of 87.5% and a conductive-sensorineural classification of 87%. Among the hearing-loss populations the best discrimination was obtained in the group of otosclerosis and the worst in the group of acute acoustic trauma.

  11. The comparison of attentional control deficits in the three group of normal, with social anxiety disorder and with comorbidity (social anxiety disorder and depression) students of Lorestan University

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadampour E; Rezaei F; Hosseini Ramaghani NA; Moradi M

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: One of the mechanisms that thought to underlie social anxiety disorder is dysfunction in attentional control. The current study was designed to compare attentional control deficits in the three group: normal, with social anxiety disorder and with comorbidity (social anxiety disorder and depression) students. Methods: The design of present study was causal-comparative. Statistical population of this study contained all normal female students, with social anxiety disorde...

  12. [Subclinical sensorineural hearing loss in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-González, José Luis; Villegas-González, Mario Jesús; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique; Montero-Cantu, Carlos Alberto; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo Hernán; Garza-Elizondo, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The rheumatoid arthritis is a clinical entity capable to cause hearing impairment that can be diagnosed promptly with high frequencies audiometry. To detect subclinical sensorineural hearing loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Cross-sectional study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis performing high frequency audiometry 125Hz to 16,000Hz and tympanometry. The results were correlated with markers of disease activity and response to therapy. High frequency audiometry was performed in 117 female patients aged from 19 to 65 years. Sensorineural hearing loss was observed at a sensitivity of pure tones from 125 to 8,000 Hz in 43.59%, a tone threshold of 10,000 to 16,000Hz in 94.02% patients in the right ear and in 95.73% in the left ear. Hearing was normal in 8 (6.84%) patients. Hearing loss was observed in 109 (93.16%), and was asymmetric in 36 (30.77%), symmetric in 73 (62.37%), bilateral in 107 (91.45%), unilateral in 2 (1.71%), and no conduction and/or mixed hearing loss was encountered. Eight (6.83%) patients presented vertigo, 24 (20.51%) tinnitus. Tympanogram type A presented in 88.90% in the right ear and 91.46% in the left ear, with 5.98 to 10.25% type As. Stapedius reflex was present in 75.3 to 85.2%. Speech discrimination in the left ear was significantly different (p = 0.02)in the group older than 50 years. No association was found regarding markers of disease activity, but there was an association with the onset of rheumatoid arthritis disease. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had a high prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss for high and very high frequencies. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of noise-induced hearing loss in the Canadian military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelausa, E O; Abel, S M; Simard, J; Dempsey, I

    1995-10-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to investigate the development of noise-induced hearing loss in Canadian military recruits, and to assess the effectiveness of the hearing conservation program currently in place. The participants were 134 men and women, 20 to 30 years of age, employed in four trades, three of these (infantry, artillery, and armour) associated with high noise levels. The data comprised audiometric measurements made at the time of entry and after 3 years of employment, and responses to a questionnaire mainly relating to noise exposure in the workplace and during leisure activities, and the utilization of personal hearing protective devices. The findings showed that group audiograms at entry and at the 3-year recall were characterized by a 6-kHz notch that was indicative of noise-induced hearing loss, although mean threshold values were within normal limits. By the 3-year recall, 11% of the infantry had sustained a mild-to-moderate hearing loss in the left ear, greater than 25-dB HL, that was consistent with the use of small-calibre weapons. Responses to the questionnaire indicated that, while subjects appreciated the potential benefit of wearing hearing protectors, instructions in their proper use and education on the hazards of noise exposure were poor. The results suggested methods to strengthen the existing scheme for hearing conservation to further minimize risk.

  14. Hearing speech in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Seth-Reino; Borg, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC) testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA) noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN)]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA). The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (Ptempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (Pmusic offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  15. Static and dynamic balance of children and adolescents with sensorineural hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Marinho, Sônia Elvira dos Santos; Freire, Maryelly Evelly Araújo; Souza, Robson Arruda; Damasceno, Hélio Anderson Melo; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess the static and dynamic balance performance of students with normal hearing and with sensorineural hearing loss. Methods A cross-sectional study assessing 96 students, 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss of both sexes, aged 7 and 18 years. To evaluate static balance, Romberg, Romberg-Barré and Fournier tests were used; and for the dynamic balance, we applied the Unterberger test. Results Hearing loss students showed more changes in static ...

  16. Static and dynamic balance of children and adolescents with sensorineural hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Marinho, Sônia Elvira dos Santos; Freire, Maryelly Evelly Araújo; Souza, Robson Arruda; Damasceno, Hélio Anderson Melo; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess the static and dynamic balance performance of students with normal hearing and with sensorineural hearing loss. Methods A cross-sectional study assessing 96 students, 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss of both sexes, aged 7 and 18 years. To evaluate static balance, Romberg, Romberg-Barré and Fournier tests were used; and for the dynamic balance, we applied the Unterberger test. Results Hearing loss students showed more changes in s...

  17. The role of social frailty in explaining the association between hearing problems and mild cognitive impairment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seongryu; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Jung, Songee; Makino, Keitaro; Park, Hyuntae; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-01

    We examined the role of social frailty in the association between hearing problems and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and investigated which cognitive impairment domains are most strongly involved. Participants were 4251 older adults (mean age 72.5 ± 5.2 years, 46.1% male) who met the study inclusion criteria. Hearing problems were measured using the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly. Social frailty was identified using responses to five questions. Participants were divided into four groups depending on the presence of social frailty and hearing problems: control, social frailty, hearing problem, and co-occurrence. We assessed memory, attention, executive function, and processing speed using the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Functional Assessment Tool. Participants were categorized into normal cognition, single- and multiple-domain MCI, depending on the number of impaired cognitive domains. Participants with multiple-domain MCI exhibited the highest odds ratios (OR) of the co-occurrence group (OR: 3.89, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.96-7.72), followed by the social frailty (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.49-4.67), and hearing problem (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.08-3.34) groups, compared with the control group. However, single-domain MCI was not significantly associated with any group. Cognitive domain analysis revealed that impaired executive function and processing speed were associated with the co-occurrence, hearing problem, and social frailty groups, respectively. Social frailty and hearing problems were independently associated with multiple-domain MCI. Comorbid conditions were more strongly associated with multiple-domain MCI. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the causal role of social frailty in the association between hearing impairment and MCI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphological correlates of hearing loss after cochlear implantation and electro-acoustic stimulation in a hearing-impaired Guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Lina A J; Stark, Gemaine; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh T; Spear, Kayce A; Zhang, Hongzheng; Tanaka, Chiemi; Li, Hongzhe

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid or electro-acoustic stimulation (EAS) cochlear implants (CIs) are designed to provide high-frequency electric hearing together with residual low-frequency acoustic hearing. However, 30-50% of EAS CI recipients lose residual hearing after implantation. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of EAS-induced hearing loss in an animal model with high-frequency hearing loss. Guinea pigs were exposed to 24 h of noise (12-24 kHz at 116 dB) to induce a high-frequency hearing loss. After recovery, two groups of animals were implanted (n = 6 per group), with one group receiving chronic acoustic and electric stimulation for 10 weeks, and the other group receiving no stimulation during this time frame. A third group (n = 6) was not implanted, but received chronic acoustic stimulation. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded biweekly to monitor changes in hearing. The organ of Corti was immunolabeled with phalloidin, anti-CtBP2, and anti-GluR2 to quantify hair cells, ribbons and post-synaptic receptors. The lateral wall was immunolabeled with phalloidin and lectin to quantify stria vascularis capillary diameters. Bimodal or trimodal diameter distributions were observed; the number and location of peaks were objectively determined using the Aikake Information Criterion and Expectation Maximization algorithm. Noise exposure led to immediate hearing loss at 16-32 kHz for all groups. Cochlear implantation led to additional hearing loss at 4-8 kHz; this hearing loss was negatively and positively correlated with minimum and maximum peaks of the bimodal or trimodal distributions of stria vascularis capillary diameters, respectively. After chronic stimulation, no significant group changes in thresholds were seen; however, elevated thresholds at 1 kHz in implanted, stimulated animals were significantly correlated with decreased presynaptic ribbon and postsynaptic receptor counts. Inner and outer hair cell counts did not differ between groups and

  19. Interactions between amplitude modulation and frequency modulation processing: Effects of age and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraouty, Nihaad; Ewert, Stephan D; Wallaert, Nicolas; Lorenzi, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Frequency modulation (FM) and amplitude modulation (AM) detection thresholds were measured for a 500-Hz carrier frequency and a 5-Hz modulation rate. For AM detection, FM at the same rate as the AM was superimposed with varying FM depth. For FM detection, AM at the same rate was superimposed with varying AM depth. The target stimuli always contained both amplitude and frequency modulations, while the standard stimuli only contained the interfering modulation. Young and older normal-hearing listeners, as well as older listeners with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss were tested. For all groups, AM and FM detection thresholds were degraded in the presence of the interfering modulation. AM detection with and without interfering FM was hardly affected by either age or hearing loss. While aging had an overall detrimental effect on FM detection with and without interfering AM, there was a trend that hearing loss further impaired FM detection in the presence of AM. Several models using optimal combination of temporal-envelope cues at the outputs of off-frequency filters were tested. The interfering effects could only be predicted for hearing-impaired listeners. This indirectly supports the idea that, in addition to envelope cues resulting from FM-to-AM conversion, normal-hearing listeners use temporal fine-structure cues for FM detection.

  20. Assistive Technologies for Improving Communication of Hearing Impairment in the Higher Education in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineth Alain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to communicate, specifically the gift of hearing, is a necessity often taken for granted. A lack of sense of hearing affects the intellectual and emotional development of the human being who suffers from it. It prevents the fluid exchange of knowledge, thoughts and ideas that allow personal growth and development. This article emerges due to an interest in providing assistive technologies that can be considered to improve communication among hearing impaired and normal hearing listeners in the class-room of a higher education level in the Republic of Panama. Information has been compiled from various primary and secondary sources highlighting the communication problem facing this group of disabled people. Information about the situation of hearing impairment, laws, organizations, the reality with the higher education system, and finally, we will talk about Information and Communication Technologies (TICs that will work as technology support in order to improve communication in the classroom in higher education among normal-hearing and deaf people.

  1. Abnormal neural activities of directional brain networks in patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long-Chun; Zhang, Gang; Zou, Yue; Zhang, Min-Feng; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Ma, Hua; Zhao, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Guang-Yu

    2017-10-13

    The objective of the study is to provide some implications for rehabilitation of hearing impairment by investigating changes of neural activities of directional brain networks in patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss. Firstly, we implemented neuropsychological tests of 21 subjects (11 patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss, and 10 subjects with normal hearing), and these tests revealed significant differences between the deaf group and the controls. Then we constructed the individual specific virtual brain based on functional magnetic resonance data of participants by utilizing effective connectivity and multivariate regression methods. We exerted the stimulating signal to the primary auditory cortices of the virtual brain and observed the brain region activations. We found that patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss presented weaker brain region activations in the auditory and language networks, but enhanced neural activities in the default mode network as compared with normally hearing subjects. Especially, the right cerebral hemisphere presented more changes than the left. Additionally, weaker neural activities in the primary auditor cortices were also strongly associated with poorer cognitive performance. Finally, causal analysis revealed several interactional circuits among activated brain regions, and these interregional causal interactions implied that abnormal neural activities of the directional brain networks in the deaf patients impacted cognitive function.

  2. Does extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy cause hearing impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Murat; Erdogan, Banu A; Yazici, Ozgur; Sahin, Cahit; Altin, Gokhan; Faydaci, Gokhan; Eryildirim, Bilal; Sarica, Kemal

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the possible effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on the hearing status of the patients in this prospective controlled study. A total of 40 patients with normal hearing function were included to the study. We had 20 patients each in the study group and control group. The treatment parameters were standardized in all 3 sessions in which a total of 3000 shock waves with a rate of 90/min along with a total energy value of 126 J at the fourth energy level have been applied (Dornier Compact Sigma, Medtech, Germany). In addition to the testing of hearing functions and possible cochlear impairment by Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions test at 1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.8, and 4.0 kHz frequencies, complications such as ear pain, tinnitus, and hearing loss have been well evaluated in each patient before the procedure and 2 hours and 1 month after the completion of the third session of ESWL in the study group. The same evaluation procedures were performed before the study and after 7-weeks in the control group. Regarding Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions data obtained in study group and control group patients, there was no significant alteration in values obtained after ESWL when compared with the values before the procedure. A well-planned ESWL procedure is a safe and effective treatment in urinary stones and causes no detectable harmful effect on the hearing function of treated patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acoustics and sociolinguistics: Patterns of communication in hearing impairing classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellin, William; Shahin, Kimary; Jamieson, Janet; Hodgson, Murray; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen

    2005-04-01

    In elementary school classes, noise during student led activities is often taken as evidence of successful interaction and learning. In this complex social environment of elementary school classrooms, acquisition of complex language and social skills-the focus of activities in early education-is expected to take place in hearing-hostile environments. Communication and language processing in these contexts requires interactive strategies, discourse forms, and syntactic structures different from the educationally desired forms used in acoustically advantageous environments. Recordings were made of the interaction of groups of students in grades 1-3, 5, and 7 during collaborative group work in their regular classrooms. Each student wore microphones at the ear level and head-mounted video cameras. Each group as a whole was also audio- and videotaped and noise level readings were recorded. Analysis of the acoustical and phonological properties of language heard by each student has demonstrated that the language variety used in these noisy and reverberant settings is similar to that of individuals with hearing impairments. This paper reports similarities between the syntactic structures and pragmatic strategies used by hearing impaired children and normally hearing children in noisy contexts. [Work supported by Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, University of British Columbia.

  4. Assessment of hearing and hearing disorders in rock/jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähärit, Kim; Zachau, Gunilla; Eklöf, Mats; Sandsjö, Leif; Möller, Claes

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess hearing and hearing disorders among rock/jazz musicians. One hundred and thirty-nine (43 women and 96 men) musicians participated. The results are based on pure-tone audiometry and questionnaire responses. According to our definition of hearing loss, tinnitus, hyperacusis, distortion and/or diplacusis as hearing disorders, we found disorders in 74%, of the rock/jazz musicians studied. Hearing loss, tinnitus and hyperacusis were most common, and the latter two were found significantly more frequently than in different reference populations. The women showed bilateral, significantly better hearing thresholds at 3-6 kHz than the men. Hyperacusis, and the combination of both hyperacusis and tinnitus, were found to be significantly more frequent among women than among men. Hearing loss and tinnitus were significantly more common among men than among women. It is important to evaluate all kinds of hearing problems (other than hearing loss) in musicians, since they represent an occupational group especially dependent on optimal, functional hearing. On the basis of our results, we suggest that hearing problems such as tinnitus, hyperacusis, distortion and/or diplacusis should, in addition to hearing loss, be defined as hearing disorders.

  5. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Keppler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults′ hearing status. A questionnaire and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years. The questionnaire contained the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS and Beliefs about Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss (BAHPHL. A more positive attitude or belief represented an attitude where noise or hearing loss is seen as unproblematic and attitudes and beliefs regarding HPDs is worse. Hearing was evaluated using (high frequency pure tone audiometry (PTA, transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. First, mean differences in hearing between the groups with different attitudes and beliefs were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Second, a χ2 test was used to examine the usage of HPDs by the different groups with different attitudes and beliefs. Young adults with a positive attitude had significantly more deteriorated hearing and used HPDs less than the other subjects. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs for young adults should provide information and knowledge regarding noise, hearing loss, and HPDs. Barriers wearing HPDs should especially be discussed. Further, those campaigns should focus on self-experienced hearing related symptoms that might serve as triggers for attitudinal and behavioral changes.

  6. Audiovisual sentence repetition as a clinical criterion for auditory development in Persian-language children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryadi-Zanjani, Mohammad Majid; Vahab, Maryam; Rahimi, Zahra; Mayahi, Anis

    2017-02-01

    It is important for clinician such as speech-language pathologists and audiologists to develop more efficient procedures to assess the development of auditory, speech and language skills in children using hearing aid and/or cochlear implant compared to their peers with normal hearing. So, the aim of study was the comparison of the performance of 5-to-7-year-old Persian-language children with and without hearing loss in visual-only, auditory-only, and audiovisual presentation of sentence repetition task. The research was administered as a cross-sectional study. The sample size was 92 Persian 5-7 year old children including: 60 with normal hearing and 32 with hearing loss. The children with hearing loss were recruited from Soroush rehabilitation center for Persian-language children with hearing loss in Shiraz, Iran, through consecutive sampling method. All the children had unilateral cochlear implant or bilateral hearing aid. The assessment tool was the Sentence Repetition Test. The study included three computer-based experiments including visual-only, auditory-only, and audiovisual. The scores were compared within and among the three groups through statistical tests in α = 0.05. The score of sentence repetition task between V-only, A-only, and AV presentation was significantly different in the three groups; in other words, the highest to lowest scores belonged respectively to audiovisual, auditory-only, and visual-only format in the children with normal hearing (P audiovisual sentence repetition scores in all the 5-to-7-year-old children (r = 0.179, n = 92, P = 0.088), but audiovisual sentence repetition scores were found to be strongly correlated with auditory-only scores in all the 5-to-7-year-old children (r = 0.943, n = 92, P = 0.000). According to the study's findings, audiovisual integration occurs in the 5-to-7-year-old Persian children using hearing aid or cochlear implant during sentence repetition similar to their peers with normal hearing

  7. Relationship between hearing complaint and hearing loss among older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presbycusis is a public health problem. Despite its high prevalence, many elders do not have their hearing ability investigated periodically, because they do not have a specific complaint. Objective: To check whether there is a relationship between the complaint and the presence of hearing loss in elder people. Method: Transversal study in elders from a neighborhood in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul. After the definition of the neighborhood's geographic boundaries, all houses were visited, the older people's addresses were ascertained and the invitations to take part in the research were provided. A questionnaire survey was applied which had a question about hearing loss complaint and air-conducted hearing thresholds were obtained and studied. Out of the 72 identified elders 50 elders agreed to participate, 35 (70% women, and 15 (30% men. Results: It was confirmed that only 12 (24% elders showed a specific complaint of hearing loss, although 33 (66% elders showed slight, moderate, severe and profound hearing losses. Conclusion: Data analysis confirmed there was no relationship between the complaint and the presence of hearing loss in the assessed group, and demonstrated the need to forward the elders for audiological evaluation even without any specific complaint.

  8. Identifying hearing loss by means of iridology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearn, Natalie; Swanepoel, De Wet

    2006-11-13

    Isolated reports of hearing loss presenting as markings on the iris exist, but to date the effectiveness of iridology to identify hearing loss has not been investigated. This study therefore aimed to determine the efficacy of iridological analysis in the identification of moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss in adolescents. A controlled trial was conducted with an iridologist, blind to the actual hearing status of participants, analyzing the irises of participants with and without hearing loss. Fifty hearing impaired and fifty normal hearing subjects, between the ages of 15 and 19 years, controlled for gender, participated in the study. An experienced iridologist analyzed the randomised set of participants' irises. A 70% correct identification of hearing status was obtained by iridological analyses with a false negative rate of 41% compared to a 19% false positive rate. The respective sensitivity and specificity rates therefore came to 59% and 81%. Iridological analysis of hearing status indicated a statistically significant relationship to actual hearing status (P iridology were not comparable to those of traditional audiological screening procedures.

  9. Elderly With Different Types of Hearing Loss and Comorbidities: Satisfaction With Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Hearing loss is developing when age is rising. Initiation and progression rates of hearing loss vary among different individuals and groups. Objectives The current study aimed to determine satisfaction of the elderly with their hearing aids in different types of hearing loss and comorbidities. Patients and Methods The study was conducted on 40 elderly subjects suffering from hearing loss and using hearing aids. The data collection method included assessment of hearing loss in addition to using a questionnaire to estimate respondents' satisfaction with their hearing aids in daily life. The Persian version of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL questionnaire was administered. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS software version19. Results The mean satisfaction scores of the elderly were 4.83 ± 0.51 and 5.36 ± 0.30 in the sensorineural loss groups. There was no significant difference between different comorbidities. There was a significant difference between satisfaction level of cost and services subscales in the symmetrical styles of hearing loss (P value = 0.04. Conclusions The findings of the study indicated a high satisfaction of the elderly with their hearing aids, considering the type of hearing loss. Despite all the efforts to improve the audiologic services during verification process, the elderly should be consulted specifically in order to fit their hearing aid as well as their expectations from aid.

  10. Hearing aid-related satisfaction based on type and degree of hearing loss in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad FarajiKhiavi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the elderly; using a hearing aid to alleviate auditory impairment can positively affect their quality of life. This research aimed to determine the level of satisfaction concerning hearing aids in elderly people with hearing impairment based on the type and degree of hearing loss.Methods: An analytic cross-sectional research design was used ; the sample included 40 elderly people who used hearing aids. According to the World Health Organization (WHO age classification, participants were divided into two age groups: 65-74 years (n=20 and 75-90 years (n=20. Satisfaction levels were assessed using a standard satisfaction with amplification in daily life (SADL questionnaire.Results: Satisfaction levels in the 65-74 age group were significantly higher than that in the 75-90 age group (p=0.02. Participants with mixed hearing loss revealed higher satisfaction levels than participants with sensorineural hearing loss (p=0.02. On the negative effects dimension, participants with severe hearing loss exhibited significantly higher satisfaction levels than participants with moderate or moderate to severe hearing loss (p=0.01.Conclusion: Total satisfaction mean scores were relatively high in the elderly participants . Negative features could be reduced via careful consultation regarding the aids’ amplifying capabilities and limitations in groups with moderate or moderate to severe hearing loss.

  11. Occupational hearing loss in farmers.

    OpenAIRE

    Plakke, B L; Dare, E

    1992-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a great deal of high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss among farmers. The studies have failed, however, to differentiate farmers who have occupational noise exposure only from other potential hearing loss etiologies. This study, through extensive case history information, has isolated a farm noise-exposure group and matched its members by age with persons with no significant noise exposure. Results indicate that farmers exposed only to noise from farming ha...

  12. The development and standardization of Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gibbeum Kim,1 Wondo Na,1 Gungu Kim,1 Woojae Han,2 Jinsook Kim2 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Hallym University Graduate School, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea; 2Division of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Research Institute of Audiology and Speech Pathology, College of Natural Sciences, Hallym Universtiy, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea Purpose: The present study aimed to develop and standardize a screening tool for elderly people who wish to check for themselves their level of hearing loss. Methods: The Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly (SHSE consisted of 20 questions based on the characteristics of presbycusis using a five-point scale: seven questions covered general issues related to sensorineural hearing loss, seven covered hearing difficulty under distracting listening conditions, two covered hearing difficulty with fast-rated speech, and four covered the working memory function during communication. To standardize SHSE, 83 elderly participants took part in the study: 25 with normal hearing, and 22, 23, and 13 with mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, respectively, according to their hearing sensitivity. All were retested 3 weeks later using the same questionnaire to confirm its reliability. In addition, validity was assessed using various hearing tests such as a sentence test with background noise, a time-compressed speech test, and a digit span test. Results: SHSE and its subcategories showed good internal consistency. SHSE and its subcategories demonstrated high test–retest reliability. A high correlation was observed between the total scores and pure-tone thresholds, which indicated gradually increased SHSE scores of 42.24%, 55.27%, 66.61%, and 78.15% for normal hearing, mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe groups, respectively. With regard to construct validity, SHSE showed a high negative correlation with speech perception scores in noise and a moderate negative

  13. Masking Release in Children and Adults with Hearing Loss When Using Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Marc; McCreery, Ryan; Kopun, Judy; Lewis, Dawna; Alexander, Joshua; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared masking release for adults and children with normal hearing and hearing loss. For the participants with hearing loss, masking release using simulated hearing aid amplification with 2 different compression speeds (slow, fast) was compared. Method: Sentence recognition in unmodulated noise was compared with recognition…

  14. Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill B Firszt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monaural hearing induces auditory system reorganization. Imbalanced input also degrades time-intensity cues for sound localization and signal segregation for listening in noise. While there have been studies of bilateral auditory deprivation and later hearing restoration (e.g. cochlear implants, less is known about unilateral auditory deprivation and subsequent hearing improvement. We investigated effects of long-term congenital unilateral hearing loss on localization, speech understanding, and cortical organization following hearing recovery. Hearing in the congenitally affected ear of a 41 year old female improved significantly after stapedotomy and reconstruction. Pre-operative hearing threshold levels showed unilateral, mixed, moderately-severe to profound hearing loss. The contralateral ear had hearing threshold levels within normal limits. Testing was completed prior to, and three and nine months after surgery. Measurements were of sound localization with intensity-roved stimuli and speech recognition in various noise conditions. We also evoked magnetic resonance signals with monaural stimulation to the unaffected ear. Activation magnitudes were determined in core, belt, and parabelt auditory cortex regions via an interrupted single event design. Hearing improvement following 40 years of congenital unilateral hearing loss resulted in substantially improved sound localization and speech recognition in noise. Auditory cortex also reorganized. Contralateral auditory cortex responses were increased after hearing recovery and the extent of activated cortex was bilateral, including a greater portion of the posterior superior temporal plane. Thus, prolonged predominant monaural stimulation did not prevent auditory system changes consequent to restored binaural hearing. Results support future research of unilateral auditory deprivation effects and plasticity, with consideration for length of deprivation, age at hearing correction, degree and type

  15. Speech Perception Benefits of Internet Versus Conventional Telephony for Hearing-Impaired Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubach, Patrick; Pfiffner, Flurin; Kompis, Martin; Caversaccio, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Background Telephone communication is a challenge for many hearing-impaired individuals. One important technical reason for this difficulty is the restricted frequency range (0.3–3.4 kHz) of conventional landline telephones. Internet telephony (voice over Internet protocol [VoIP]) is transmitted with a larger frequency range (0.1–8 kHz) and therefore includes more frequencies relevant to speech perception. According to a recently published, laboratory-based study, the theoretical advantage of ideal VoIP conditions over conventional telephone quality has translated into improved speech perception by hearing-impaired individuals. However, the speech perception benefits of nonideal VoIP network conditions, which may occur in daily life, have not been explored. VoIP use cannot be recommended to hearing-impaired individuals before its potential under more realistic conditions has been examined. Objective To compare realistic VoIP network conditions, under which digital data packets may be lost, with ideal conventional telephone quality with respect to their impact on speech perception by hearing-impaired individuals. Methods We assessed speech perception using standardized test material presented under simulated VoIP conditions with increasing digital data packet loss (from 0% to 20%) and compared with simulated ideal conventional telephone quality. We monaurally tested 10 adult users of cochlear implants, 10 adult users of hearing aids, and 10 normal-hearing adults in the free sound field, both in quiet and with background noise. Results Across all participant groups, mean speech perception scores using VoIP with 0%, 5%, and 10% packet loss were 15.2% (range 0%–53%), 10.6% (4%–46%), and 8.8% (7%–33%) higher, respectively, than with ideal conventional telephone quality. Speech perception did not differ between VoIP with 20% packet loss and conventional telephone quality. The maximum benefits were observed under ideal VoIP conditions without packet loss and

  16. Speech perception benefits of internet versus conventional telephony for hearing-impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantokoudis, Georgios; Dubach, Patrick; Pfiffner, Flurin; Kompis, Martin; Caversaccio, Marco; Senn, Pascal

    2012-07-16

    Telephone communication is a challenge for many hearing-impaired individuals. One important technical reason for this difficulty is the restricted frequency range (0.3-3.4 kHz) of conventional landline telephones. Internet telephony (voice over Internet protocol [VoIP]) is transmitted with a larger frequency range (0.1-8 kHz) and therefore includes more frequencies relevant to speech perception. According to a recently published, laboratory-based study, the theoretical advantage of ideal VoIP conditions over conventional telephone quality has translated into improved speech perception by hearing-impaired individuals. However, the speech perception benefits of nonideal VoIP network conditions, which may occur in daily life, have not been explored. VoIP use cannot be recommended to hearing-impaired individuals before its potential under more realistic conditions has been examined. To compare realistic VoIP network conditions, under which digital data packets may be lost, with ideal conventional telephone quality with respect to their impact on speech perception by hearing-impaired individuals. We assessed speech perception using standardized test material presented under simulated VoIP conditions with increasing digital data packet loss (from 0% to 20%) and compared with simulated ideal conventional telephone quality. We monaurally tested 10 adult users of cochlear implants, 10 adult users of hearing aids, and 10 normal-hearing adults in the free sound field, both in quiet and with background noise. Across all participant groups, mean speech perception scores using VoIP with 0%, 5%, and 10% packet loss were 15.2% (range 0%-53%), 10.6% (4%-46%), and 8.8% (7%-33%) higher, respectively, than with ideal conventional telephone quality. Speech perception did not differ between VoIP with 20% packet loss and conventional telephone quality. The maximum benefits were observed under ideal VoIP conditions without packet loss and were 36% (P = .001) for cochlear implant users, 18

  17. Differences in interregional brain connectivity in children with unilateral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Matthew E; Colletta, Miranda; Coalson, Rebecca; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Lieu, Judith E C

    2017-11-01

    To identify functional network architecture differences in the brains of children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) using resting-state functional-connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI). Prospective observational study. Children (7 to 17 years of age) with severe to profound hearing loss in one ear, along with their normal hearing (NH) siblings, were recruited and imaged using rs-fcMRI. Eleven children had right UHL; nine had left UHL; and 13 had normal hearing. Forty-one brain regions of interest culled from established brain networks such as the default mode (DMN); cingulo-opercular (CON); and frontoparietal networks (FPN); as well as regions for language, phonological, and visual processing, were analyzed using regionwise correlations and conjunction analysis to determine differences in functional connectivity between the UHL and normal hearing children. When compared to the NH group, children with UHL showed increased connectivity patterns between multiple networks, such as between the CON and visual processing centers. However, there were decreased, as well as aberrant connectivity patterns with the coactivation of the DMN and FPN, a relationship that usually is negatively correlated. Children with UHL demonstrate multiple functional connectivity differences between brain networks involved with executive function, cognition, and language comprehension that may represent adaptive as well as maladaptive changes. These findings suggest that possible interventions or habilitation, beyond amplification, might be able to affect some children's requirement for additional help at school. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:2636-2645, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Analysis of the relationship between cognitive skills and unilateral sensory hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Leyva, I; Díaz-Leines, S; Arch-Tirado, E; Lino-González, A L

    2016-07-21

    To analyse cognitive skills in patients with severe unilateral hearing loss versus those in subjects with normal hearing. 40 adults participated: 20 patients (10 women and 10 men) with severe unilateral hearing loss and 20 healthy subjects matched to the study group. Cognitive abilities were measured with the Spanish version of the Woodcock Johnson Battery-Revised; central auditory processing was assessed with monaural psychoacoustic tests. Box plots were drawn and t tests were performed for samples with a significance of P≤.05. A comparison of performances on the filtered word testing and time-compressed disyllabic word tests between patients and controls revealed a statistically significant difference (P≤.05) with greater variability among responses by hearing impaired subjects. This same group also showed a better cognitive performance on the numbers reversed, visual auditory learning, analysis synthesis, concept formation, and incomplete words tests. Patients with hearing loss performed more poorly than controls on the filtered word and time-compressed disyllabic word tests, but more competently on memory, reasoning, and auditory processing tasks. Complementary tests, such as those assessing central auditory processes and cognitive ability tests, are important and helpful for designing habilitation/rehabilitation and therapeutic strategies intended to optimise and stimulate cognitive skills in subjects with unilateral hearing impairment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss: Data Collection and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J Bruce; Walker, Elizabeth A; McCreery, Ryan W; Arenas, Richard M; Harrison, Melody; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this article was to describe recruitment, data collection, and methods for a longitudinal, multicenter study involving children with bilateral mild to severe hearing loss. The goals of this research program were to characterize the developmental outcomes of children with mild to severe bilateral hearing loss during infancy and the preschool years. Furthermore, the researchers examined how these outcomes were associated with the child's hearing loss and how home background and clinical interventions mediated and moderated these outcomes. The participants in this study were children who are hard of hearing (CHH) and children with normal hearing (CNH) who provided comparison data. CHH were eligible for participation if (1) their chronological age was between 6 months and 7 years of age at the time of recruitment, (2) they had a better-ear pure-tone average of 25 to 75 dB HL, (3) they had not received a cochlear implant, (4) they were from homes where English was the primary language, and (5) they did not demonstrate significant cognitive or motor delays. Across the time span of recruitment, 430 parents of potential children with hearing loss made contact with the research group. This resulted in 317 CHH who qualified for enrollment. In addition, 117 CNH qualified for enrollment. An accelerated longitudinal design was used, in which multiple age cohorts were followed long enough to provide overlap. Specifically, children were recruited and enrolled continuously across an age span of 6.5 years and were followed for at least 3 years. This design allowed for tests of time (period) versus cohort age effects that could arise by changes in services and technology over time, yet still allowed for examination of important developmental relationships. The distribution of degree of hearing loss for the CHH showed that the majority of CHH had moderate or moderate-to-severe hearing losses, indicating that the sample undersampled children with mild HL. For

  20. Effect of hearing aids use on speech stimulus decoding through speech-evoked ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida Leite

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The electrophysiological responses obtained with the complex auditory brainstem response (cABR provide objective measures of subcortical processing of speech and other complex stimuli. The cABR has also been used to verify the plasticity in the auditory pathway in the subcortical regions. Objective To compare the results of cABR obtained in children using hearing aids before and after 9 months of adaptation, as well as to compare the results of these children with those obtained in children with normal hearing. Methods Fourteen children with normal hearing (Control Group - CG and 18 children with mild to moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (Study Group - SG, aged 7-12 years, were evaluated. The children were submitted to pure tone and vocal audiometry, acoustic immittance measurements and ABR with speech stimulus, being submitted to the evaluations at three different moments: initial evaluation (M0, 3 months after the initial evaluation (M3 and 9 months after the evaluation (M9; at M0, the children assessed in the study group did not use hearing aids yet. Results When comparing the CG and the SG, it was observed that the SG had a lower median for the V-A amplitude at M0 and M3, lower median for the latency of the component V at M9 and a higher median for the latency of component O at M3 and M9. A reduction in the latency of component A at M9 was observed in the SG. Conclusion Children with mild to moderate hearing loss showed speech stimulus processing deficits and the main impairment is related to the decoding of the transient portion of this stimulus spectrum. It was demonstrated that the use of hearing aids promoted neuronal plasticity of the Central Auditory Nervous System after an extended time of sensory stimulation.

  1. Normal Aspects of Speech, Hearing, and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minifie, Fred. D., Ed.; And Others

    This book is written as a guide to the understanding of the processes involved in human speech communication. Ten authorities contributed material to provide an introduction to the physiological aspects of speech production and reception, the acoustical aspects of speech production and transmission, the psychophysics of sound reception, the nature…

  2. The comparison of Updating function of Working Memory in Three Groups of Substance Abusers (Heroin, Opium, Those Treated with Methadone and normal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamrezayee S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic use of opiates is associated with a wide range of neuropsychological deficits. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate one of the neuropsychological functions, updating function of working memory, in three groups, including substance abusers (heroin and opium, those under treatment with methadone, and normal controls. Methods:The method of this study was causal-comparative. Ninty individuals in three groups, including substance abusers (n = 30, those under treatment with methadone (n = 30, and normal controls (n = 30 were selected from people referred to the addiction treatment Clinics in Shiraz (2015 with the purposeful sampling method. All subjects were evaluated regarding working memory updating and self-reported mental effort scale and the results were analyzed by Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA test and Tukey post hoc test with SPSS software (version 23. Results:The results showed a significant difference between the three groups in the updating function of working memory; so that effectiveness and efficiency of processing in the normal group was better than the other two groups and the performance effectiveness and efficiency of processing in the group under methadone treatment was better than substance abusers group. conclusions:substance abuse has a negative effect on neurological function. Given that the group of methadone treatment had better performance in the updating function of working memory than the group of substance abusers, these results provide hope that the effects of examined drugs on working memory is not permanent and we can look for psychological interventions to treat these patients and prevent problems recurrence.

  3. A descriptive analysis of language and speech skills in 4- to 5-yr-old children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Crawford, Leah; Ni, Andy; Durieux-Smith, Andrée

    2011-01-01

    Early intervention through hearing aids (HAs) and cochlear implants (CIs) aims to reduce the negative effects of childhood hearing loss and to promote optimal communication development over time. The primary goal of this study was to examine the communication outcomes of children with CIs and children with HAs at age 4 to 5 yrs and to consider their spoken language skills relative to a group of typically developing hearing peers. In this multicenter observational study, communication results were obtained for a total of 88 children at age 4 to 5 yrs. Participants were recruited from three clinical programs in two cities in the province of Ontario, Canada. This study was undertaken shortly after the introduction of a new provincial population screening initiative and included both children who were screened and not screened for hearing loss. The study sample comprised 51 children with sensorineural hearing loss and 37 children with normal hearing. Of the 51 children with hearing loss, 26 used CIs and 25 used HAs. The degree of hearing loss ranged from mild to profound. All children were enrolled in rehabilitation programs focused on oral language development. Children's language skills were assessed with an extensive battery of child- and parent-administered speech and language measures. Assessment of language skills showed no significant differences between the children with severe to profound hearing loss using CIs and children with varying degrees of hearing loss using HAs. However, children with HAs showed better articulation skills. Overall, both groups of children obtained scores on communication measures that were lower than their hearing peers. The number of children with hearing loss who obtained spoken speech-language scores within 1 SD of normative populations ranged from 65 to 86% depending on the test measure. Children with average hearing loss of 70 dB HL or better generally obtained scores on all measures in line with those of age-matched norms while

  4. Comparison of Reversal Test Pictures among Three Groups of Students: Normal, Education Mental Retarded and Students with Learning Disabilities in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Koushesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Riversal visual perception discrimination test is one of the dyslexia diagnostic tests in children which can be performed in the group (group-based and it is reliable to detect these disorders in students of the primary schools especially those who spend their first educational weeks or months. The aim of this survey is comparison of Riversal test pictures among three groups of students: normal, educable mental retarded students and students with learning disabilities, aged 8-12 years old that were under coverage of Tehran Welfare Department. Materials & Methods: This Comparative cross – sectional study has performed on 150 girls and boys of mentioned groups that were selected by simple randomize selection. Results: The findings suggested that there was significant difference between surveyed groups (P=0.001. The highest scores were related to normal students and the lowest scores to educable mental retarded. The interval of negative scores of educable mental retarded from normal students was more than that of between educable mental retarded and learning disabilities. Conclusion: This survey indicates that students with learning disabilities (dyslexia have problems in their visual perception and this test can help to diagnose and determine abnormal children as soon as possible in order to better treatment.

  5. Exposure to loud noise, bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Moline, Jacqueline; Kim, Hyun; Mannino, David M

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral high-frequency hearing loss is an indicator for chronic exposure to loud noise. This study aimed to examine the association between bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study included 5223 participants aged 20-69 years who participated in the audiometry examination of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Bilateral high-frequency hearing loss was defined as the average high-frequency (3, 4 and 6 kHz) hearing threshold ≥25 dB in both ears. CHD was defined as self-reported diagnoses by doctors or other health professionals. Compared with those with normal high-frequency hearing, participants with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss were more likely to have CHD (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.28 to 2.85) after adjustment for various covariates. This association was particularly strong for currently employed workers who were exposed to loud occupational noise (OR 4.23; 95% CI 1.32 to 13.55). For this subgroup, there was no significant association of CHD with unilateral high-frequency hearing loss, and unilateral or bilateral low-frequency hearing loss. Furthermore, there was no significant association of CHD with any types of hearing loss for participants who were not exposed to loud noise. Stratified analyses for participants exposed to loud noise showed that the observed association was particularly strong for those who were less than 50 years of age, less educated and current smokers. On the basis of an objective indicator for personal chronic exposure to loud noise, this study confirmed that exposure to loud occupational noise is associated with the presence of CHD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Effect of conductive hearing loss on central auditory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Arash; Farhadi, Mohammad; Emamdjomeh, Hesam; Saki, Nader; Mirmomeni, Golshan; Rahim, Fakher

    It has been demonstrated that long-term Conductive Hearing Loss (CHL) may influence the precise detection of the temporal features of acoustic signals or Auditory Temporal Processing (ATP). It can be argued that ATP may be the underlying component of many central auditory processing capabilities such as speech comprehension or sound localization. Little is known about the consequences of CHL on temporal aspects of central auditory processing. This study was designed to assess auditory temporal processing ability in individuals with chronic CHL. During this analytical cross-sectional study, 52 patients with mild to moderate chronic CHL and 52 normal-hearing listeners (control), aged between 18 and 45 year-old, were recruited. In order to evaluate auditory temporal processing, the Gaps-in-Noise (GIN) test was used. The results obtained for each ear were analyzed based on the gap perception threshold and the percentage of correct responses. The average of GIN thresholds was significantly smaller for the control group than for the CHL group for both ears (right: p=0.004; left: phearing for both sides (phearing loss in either group (p>0.05). The results suggest reduced auditory temporal processing ability in adults with CHL compared to normal hearing subjects. Therefore, developing a clinical protocol to evaluate auditory temporal processing in this population is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Hearing status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, A; Daraei, M; Jalessi, M; Peyvandi, A A; Amini, E; Ranjbar, L A; Daneshi, A

    2017-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is thought to induce conductive hearing loss and/or sensorineural hearing loss. This study evaluated the function of the middle ear and cochlea, and the related factors. Pure tone audiometry, speech reception thresholds, speech discrimination scores, tympanometry, acoustic reflexes, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were assessed in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy volunteers. Pure tone audiometry results revealed a higher bone conduction threshold in the rheumatoid arthritis group, but there was no significant difference when evaluated according to the sensorineural hearing loss definition. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions related prevalence of conductive or mixed hearing loss, tympanometry values, acoustic reflexes, and speech discrimination scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Sensorineural hearing loss was significantly more prevalent in patients who used azathioprine, cyclosporine and etanercept. Higher bone conduction thresholds in some frequencies were detected in rheumatoid arthritis patients that were not clinically significant. Sensorineural hearing loss is significantly more prevalent in refractory rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  8. Adaptive psychological structure in childhood hearing impairment: audiological correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, A; Spinato, G; Cocuzza, S; Licciardello, L; Pavone, P; Maiolino, L

    2017-06-01

    The present research deals with the clinical and social problems present during linguistic and cognitive development of deaf children. Currently, the development of Theory of Mind represents an important research field in deafness studies. These international studies highlighted a significant alteration in the development of Theory of Mind in deaf children compared to normal hearing children, especially in cases of congenital or preverbal hearing loss. In particular, the research focuses on the skills of deaf children in recognising emotions and desires, through both perceptive and cognitive methods, by evaluation of psycho-cognitive skills of children with severe hearing loss using a set of questions to be administered to hearing loss patients. The experiment was performed on a group composed of 10 children (5 males and 5 females) aged 4 to 9 years and 54 to 108 months, affected by bilateral congenital hearing loss (severe to total), or hearing loss that developed in preverbal children the year before entering elementary school, or during the fourth year of elementary school. The selection criteria were based on: audiologic evaluation, neuro-psychological tests administered to assess general, cognitive as well as praxis and perceptive abilities, and clinical observations performed to assess psychopathology using tests that assess development of both visual perceptive (Coloured Progressive Matrices) and graphic representational abilities (Test of Human Figure Drawings and the Family Drawing Test). The instrument "cognitive" was the "Deaf Children Series", arranged by us, that consists of a mental status examination (MSE) that evaluates: level of cognitive (knowledge-related) ability, emotional mood, and speech and thought patterns at the time of evaluation. Deaf children show a reduced responsiveness to the expressions of sadness on the perceptive side. Through the test, we observed a psychodynamic defense mechanism considering perceptive understanding performance

  9. Relations Between Self-Reported Daily-Life Fatigue, Hearing Status, and Pupil Dilation During a Speech Perception in Noise Task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E

    2017-01-01

    during the speech processing, and we used peak pupil dilation (PPD) as the main outcome measure of the pupillometry. No correlation was found between subjectively measured fatigue and hearing acuity, nor was a group difference found between the normally hearing and the hearing-impaired participants...... on the fatigue scores. A significant negative correlation was found between self-reported fatigue and PPD. A similar correlation was also found between Speech Intelligibility Index required for 50% correct and PPD. Multiple regression analysis showed that factors representing "hearing acuity" and "self......-reported fatigue" had equal and independent associations with the PPD during the speech in noise test. Less fatigue and better hearing acuity were associated with a larger pupil dilation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the relationship between a subjective measure of daily...

  10. Improving hearing health for farming families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Tony; Fragar, Lyn; Depcynzksi, Julie; Challinor, Kathy; Mills, Jan; Williams, Warwick

    2010-01-01

    Occupational noise injury and hearing loss are common features of agricultural workforces internationally. Farmsafe Australia has identified hearing health as one of its 4 key priority goals and targets. Currently, approximately 60-70% of Australian farmers have measurable hearing loss, compared with 27% of those in the general Australian community. This article describes the findings of a community based demonstration project to address hearing health issues conducted in the Australian state of New South Wales. This program sought to implement local demonstration projects in 3 communities to identify what works well in hearing health promotion with farmers and what could be applied more broadly throughout Australia. Local advisory groups were established in each community to guide project development and implementation. Project implementation focused on 3 major aspects: (1) increasing awareness of priority noise injury prevention and hearing health practices; (2) improving access to hearing health services; and (3) networking services in local communities. Area-specific training was undertaken for stakeholders to maximize local information links. Service utilization data were monitored and analysed. There was variability among sites; however in general there was an increased awareness of hearing health issues by farming families and expanded opportunities for farmers to access screening services. Utilization rates of hearing services also increased markedly in one community. Local hearing health networks were strengthened by linkages to key stakeholders outside the health sector. Previously unidentified methods of promoting hearing health (eg using agricultural retail outlets that supply hearing protection equipment and are accepted by farmers as an information source) were identified and utilized. Hearing health promotion with farmers in local communities can be enhanced through utilization and strengthening of local networks. Integration of hearing health

  11. Measurements on Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    Background material for measurements of hearing for grammar school pupils. The note gives the necessary background for the exercise 'Measurement on Hearing'. The topics comprise sound and decibel, the ear, basic psychoacoustics, hearing threshold, audiometric measurement methods, speech and speech...

  12. Hearing Disorders and Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to enjoy talking with friends or family. Hearing disorders make it hard, but not impossible, to ... often be helped. Deafness can keep you from hearing sound at all. What causes hearing loss? Some ...

  13. Saliva composition in three selected groups with normal stimulated salivary flow rates, but yet major differences in caries experience and dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardow, Allan; Lykkeaa, Joan; Qvist, Vibeke; Ekstrand, Kim; Twetman, Svante; Fiehn, Niels-Erik

    2014-08-01

    It was hypothesized that, by comparing matched subjects with major differences in these dental diseases, but yet normal saliva flow rates, it would be possible to obtain data on the effect of saliva composition on dental disease isolated from the effect of the flow rate. Thus, the aim of the study was to compare the major physicochemical characteristics of stimulated whole saliva in three groups of 85 subjects, each with normal saliva flow rates and at least 24 remaining teeth. A group with very little dental disease (healthy), a group with dental erosion (erosion) and a group with very high caries experience (caries) were chosen. Furthermore, the aim was to determine whether differences among groups could also be found on an individual level. Although it was not possible to retrieve three groups whose members were completely identical, the present study points in the direction that, on a group level, subjects with very little dental disease seemed to have a more favorable physicochemical saliva composition with respect to higher calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate, pH, degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite and a lower critical pH (p dental erosion (p dental caries and erosion in single individuals.

  14. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in a group of normal and Down Syndrome children in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Targa Ferreira

    Full Text Available The high incidence of Hepatitis A and B in institutionalized patients with Down Syndrome (DS is not fully understood. Under poor hygienic conditions, immunological alterations might predispose individuals to these infections. Sixty three DS children between 1 and 12 years old living at home with their families were examined for anti-HAV and compared to age-matched controls (64 healthy children. This cross-sectional study was carried out from May, 1999, to April, 2000, at the Hospital de Clínicas of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Groups were compared in terms of age, sex, skin color, and family income (> R$ 500 and < R$ 500/ month by the chi-square test, with Yates' correction and for the prevalence of anti-HAV (Fisher's exact test. In the DS group (n=63, the mean age was 4.4 ± 3.3 years, 94% of the patients were white and 51% were female. Family income was <= R$ 500/month in 40 cases (63%. In the control group (n=64, the mean age was 4.8 ± 2.7 years, 81% of the patients were white and 56% were female. Family income was <= R$ 500 in 20 patients (31%. DS children's families had a significantly lower income (P<0.0005. In the DS group there were 6 positive (9.5% anti-HAV cases, and all came from low-income families (less than R$ 500/ month. In the control group, 3 cases (4.7% were positive for anti-HAV (two were from a low-income family and one was from a higher income family. These differences were not significant. Our data indicate that Hepatitis A is not a special risk for mentally retarded DS outpatients, even in a developing country like Brazil.

  15. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in a group of normal and Down Syndrome children in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Cristina Targa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of Hepatitis A and B in institutionalized patients with Down Syndrome (DS is not fully understood. Under poor hygienic conditions, immunological alterations might predispose individuals to these infections. Sixty three DS children between 1 and 12 years old living at home with their families were examined for anti-HAV and compared to age-matched controls (64 healthy children. This cross-sectional study was carried out from May, 1999, to April, 2000, at the Hospital de Clínicas of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Groups were compared in terms of age, sex, skin color, and family income (> R$ 500 and < R$ 500/ month by the chi-square test, with Yates' correction and for the prevalence of anti-HAV (Fisher's exact test. In the DS group (n=63, the mean age was 4.4 ± 3.3 years, 94% of the patients were white and 51% were female. Family income was <= R$ 500/month in 40 cases (63%. In the control group (n=64, the mean age was 4.8 ± 2.7 years, 81% of the patients were white and 56% were female. Family income was <= R$ 500 in 20 patients (31%. DS children's families had a significantly lower income (P<0.0005. In the DS group there were 6 positive (9.5% anti-HAV cases, and all came from low-income families (less than R$ 500/ month. In the control group, 3 cases (4.7% were positive for anti-HAV (two were from a low-income family and one was from a higher income family. These differences were not significant. Our data indicate that Hepatitis A is not a special risk for mentally retarded DS outpatients, even in a developing country like Brazil.

  16. Informational Masking and Spatial Hearing in Listeners with and without Unilateral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothpletz, Ann M.; Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed selective listening for speech in individuals with and without unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and the potential relationship between spatial release from informational masking and localization ability in listeners with UHL. Method: Twelve adults with UHL and 12 normal-hearing controls completed a series of monaural and…

  17. Processing of Binaural Pitch Stimuli in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Binaural pitch is a tonal sensation produced by introducing a frequency-dependent interaural phase shift in binaurally presented white noise. As no spectral cues are present in the physical stimulus, binaural pitch perception is assumed to rely on accurate temporal fine structure coding and intact...... binaural integration mechanisms. This study investigated to what extent basic auditory measures of binaural processing as well as cognitive abilities are correlated with the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to perceive binaural pitch. Subjects from three groups (1: normal-hearing; 2: cochlear...... hearingloss; 3: retro-cochlear impairment) were asked to identify the pitch contour of series of five notes of equal duration, ranging from 523 to 784 Hz, played either with Huggins’ binaural pitch stimuli (BP) or perceptually similar, but monaurally detectable, pitches (MP). All subjects from groups 1 and 2...

  18. Sound localization in noise in hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, C; Gatehouse, S; Lever, C

    1999-06-01

    The present study assesses the ability of four listeners with high-frequency, bilateral symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss to localize and detect a broadband click train in the frontal-horizontal plane, in quiet and in the presence of a white noise. The speaker array and stimuli are identical to those described by Lorenzi et al. (in press). The results show that: (1) localization performance is only slightly poorer in hearing-impaired listeners than in normal-hearing listeners when noise is at 0 deg azimuth, (2) localization performance begins to decrease at higher signal-to-noise ratios for hearing-impaired listeners than for normal-hearing listeners when noise is at +/- 90 deg azimuth, and (3) the performance of hearing-impaired listeners is less consistent when noise is at +/- 90 deg azimuth than at 0 deg azimuth. The effects of a high-frequency hearing loss were also studied by measuring the ability of normal-hearing listeners to localize the low-pass filtered version of the clicks. The data reproduce the effects of noise on three out of the four hearing-impaired listeners when noise is at 0 deg azimuth. They reproduce the effects of noise on only two out of the four hearing-impaired listeners when noise is at +/- 90 deg azimuth. The additional effects of a low-frequency hearing loss were investigated by attenuating the low-pass filtered clicks and the noise by 20 dB. The results show that attenuation does not strongly affect localization accuracy for normal-hearing listeners. Measurements of the clicks' detectability indicate that the hearing-impaired listeners who show the poorest localization accuracy also show the poorest ability to detect the clicks. The inaudibility of high frequencies, "distortions," and reduced detectability of the signal are assumed to have caused the poorer-than-normal localization accuracy for hearing-impaired listeners.

  19. Functional changes in people with different hearing status and experiences of using Chinese sign language: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Xia, Shuang; Zhao, Fei; Qi, Ji

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess functional changes in the cerebral cortex in people with different sign language experience and hearing status whilst observing and imitating Chinese Sign Language (CSL) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 50 participants took part in the study, and were divided into four groups according to their hearing status and experience of using sign language: prelingual deafness signer group (PDS), normal hearing non-signer group (HnS), native signer group with normal hearing (HNS), and acquired signer group with normal hearing (HLS). fMRI images were scanned from all subjects when they performed block-designed tasks that involved observing and imitating sign language stimuli. Nine activation areas were found in response to undertaking either observation or imitation CSL tasks and three activated areas were found only when undertaking the imitation task. Of those, the PDS group had significantly greater activation areas in terms of the cluster size of the activated voxels in the bilateral superior parietal lobule, cuneate lobe and lingual gyrus in response to undertaking either the observation or the imitation CSL task than the HnS, HNS and HLS groups. The PDS group also showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus which was also found in the HNS or the HLS groups but not in the HnS group. This indicates that deaf signers have better sign language proficiency, because they engage more actively with the phonetic and semantic elements. In addition, the activations of the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule were only found in the PDS group and HNS group, and not in the other two groups, which indicates that the area for sign language processing appears to be sensitive to the age of language acquisition. After reading this article, readers will be able to: discuss the relationship between sign language and its neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  20. Auditory perceptual learning in adults with and without age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanin eKarawani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Speech recognition in adverse listening conditions becomes more difficult as we age, particularly for individuals with age-related hearing loss (ARHL. Whether these difficulties can be eased with training remains debated, because it is not clear whether the outcomes are sufficiently general to be of use outside of the training context. The aim of the current study was to compare training-induced learning and generalization between normal-hearing older adults and those with ARHL.Methods: 56 listeners (60-72 y/o, 35 participants with ARHL and 21 normal hearing adults participated in the study. The study design was a cross over design with three groups (immediate-training, delayed-training and no-training group. Trained participants received 13 sessions of home-based auditory training over the course of 4 weeks. Three adverse listening conditions were targeted: (1 Speech-in-noise (2 time compressed speech and (3 competing speakers, and the outcomes of training were compared between normal and ARHL groups. Pre- and post-test sessions were completed by all participants. Outcome measures included tests on all of the trained conditions as well as on a series of untrained conditions designed to assess the transfer of learning to other speech and non-speech conditions. Results: Significant improvements on all trained conditions were observed in both ARHL and normal-hearing groups over the course of training. Normal hearing participants learned more than participants with ARHL in the speech-in-noise condition, but showed similar patterns of learning in the other conditions. Greater pre- to post-test changes were observed in trained than in untrained listeners on all trained conditions. In addition, the ability of trained listeners from the ARHL group to discriminate minimally different pseudowords in noise also improved with training. Conclusions: ARHL did not preclude auditory perceptual learning but there was little generalization to

  1. Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce your exposure to noise by choosing quiet leisure activities rather than noisy ones. Develop the habit ... the degree of your hearing loss, you may benefit from using a hearing aid (a device you ...

  2. Reference hearing threshold levels for chirp signals delivered by an ER-3A insert earphone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtsche-Rasmussen, Kristian; Poulsen, Torben; Elberling, Claus

    2012-01-01

    back from a Tucker Davies Technologies System II, and a Matlab program controlled the test setup. The results are specified in dB peak-to-peak equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (dB peETSPL). Study sample: The test group consisted of 25 otologically-normal young adults (age 18–25 years......Objective: To establish reference hearing threshold levels for chirps and frequency-specific chirps. Design: Hearing thresholds were determined monaurally for broad-band chirps and octave-band chirps using the Etymotic Research, ER-3A insert earphone. The chirps were presented using two repetition...

  3. Comparison of general health status in mothers of hearing and hearing-impaired children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movallali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The birth of a hearing-impaired child and raising him/her often brings special psychological feelings for parents, especially mothers who spend more time with the child. This study aimed to compare the general health status in mothers of hearing-impaired and hearing children. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. General Health Questionnaire was used to identify general health status; and data were analyzed with independent-t test. Results: The general health level of mothers of hearing-impaired children was lower than mothers of normal hearing children (p=0.01 . The average scores of anxiety (p=0.01, depression (p= 0.01 and physical (p=0.02 symptoms and social function (p=0.01 of mothers of hearing-impaired children was higher than mothers of normal hearing ones (p=0.01. Conclusion: Having a child with hearing impairment affects mothers’ general health status. Our findings show that it’s necessary to provide psychological and social support for mothers of hearing-impaired children.

  4. Chronic suppurative otitis media, middle ear pathology and corresponding hearing loss in a cohort of Greenlandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus Balslev; Homøe, Preben; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) has been observed at elevated prevalence rates in Greenlandic children. OM associated hearing loss (HL) may compromise the children's linguistic skills, social development and educational achievements. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the prevalence of chronic suppurative...... otitis media (CSOM), otitis media with effusion (OME) and tympanic membrane sequelae of OM, and compared the corresponding hearing thresholds. METHODS: In 2010 we examined a cohort of 223 Greenlandic children aged 4-10 years by video otoscopy, tympanometry and tested hearing thresholds for the low......-frequencies: 500, 1000 and 2000Hz and the high-frequencies: 4000 and 6000Hz. HL was categorized according to the worst hearing ear and was compared within the groups: CSOM, OME, tympanic membrane sequelae of OM and normal. RESULTS: Of 207 children, 5.8% had CSOM, 13.9% had OME and 55.6% had tympanic membrane...

  5. [Hearing capacity and speech production in 417 children with facial cleft abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönweiler, R; Schönweiler, B; Schmelzeisen, R

    1994-11-01

    Children with cleft palates often suffer from chronic conductive hearing losses, delayed language acquisition and speech disorders. This study presents results of speech and language outcomes in relation to hearing function and types of palatal malformations found. 417 children with cleft palates were examined during followup evaluations that extended over several years. Disorders were studied as they affected the ears, nose and throat, audiometry and speech and language pathology. Children with isolated cleft lips were excluded. Among the total group, 8% had normal speech and language development while 92% had speech or language disorders. 80% of these latter children had hearing problems that predominantly consisted of fluctuating conductive hearing losses caused by otitis media with effusion. 5% had sensorineural hearing losses. Fifty-eight children (14%) with rhinolalia aperta were not improved by speech therapy and required velopharyngoplasties, using a cranial-based pharyngeal flap. Language skills did not depend on the type of cleft palate presents but on the frequency and amount of hearing loss found. Otomicroscopy and audiometric follow-ups with insertions of ventilation tubes were considered to be most important for language development in those children with repeated middle ear infections. Speech or language therapy was necessary in 49% of the children.

  6. Online Personalization of Hearing Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert de Vries

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Online personalization of hearing instruments refers to learning preferred tuning parameter values from user feedback through a control wheel (or remote control, during normal operation of the hearing aid. We perform hearing aid parameter steering by applying a linear map from acoustic features to tuning parameters. We formulate personalization of the steering parameters as the maximization of an expected utility function. A sparse Bayesian approach is then investigated for its suitability to find efficient feature representations. The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated in an application to online personalization of a noise reduction algorithm. A patient trial indicates that the acoustic features chosen for learning noise control are meaningful, that environmental steering of noise reduction makes sense, and that our personalization algorithm learns proper values for tuning parameters.

  7. Epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badry, Mohamed Mohamed; Hamdy, Nermin Aly; Sobhy, Sayed; Gamal, Reham

    2014-04-01

    This work was designed to study electroencephalogram findings in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss and correlate these findings with the SNHL parameters as duration, etiology, severity, and type. Ninety children with bilateral congenital sensorineural hearing loss served as the study group. They were free from any neurological disorders or symptoms that are commonly associated with abnormal electroencephalogram as convulsions or loss of consciousness. Twenty children having normal hearing with no history of otological or neurological disorders served as the control group. All children participating in the study were subjected to full medical and audiological history, otological examination, neurological examination, audiological evaluation and electroencephalogram recording. Mean age of the children in the control group was 3.56 ± 2.1 years and mean age of the children in the study group was 3.8 ± 2.2 years. While none of the control children had abnormal electroencephalogram, 38 (42.2%) of children with congenital SNHL had epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality. The epileptiform abnormality was generalized in 14 children (36.8%), focal temporal in 17 children (44.7%) and focal other than temporal in 7 children (18.4%). According to the hemispheric side affected, the abnormality was right in 14 children (36.8%), left in 10 children (26.3%) and bilateral in 14 children (36.8%). No statistically significant predominance of specific site or side of the epileptiform abnormality was found. Similarly, no statistical significant prevalent of the epileptiform abnormality was found in relation to the age or sex of children, duration of hearing loss or etiology of hearing loss (i.e., genetic vs. neonatal insults). On the other hand, the epileptiform abnormality was statistically prevalent in children with moderate degree of hearing loss, and in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality is

  8. Correlation between Serum Aldosterone Level and Hearing Condition of Elderly Patients Referred to Otolaryngology Services of Hamadan, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Farhad Farahani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, more attention was paid to the direct protective effect of aldosterone against hearing impairment in elderly patients. The aim of this study was determination of possible correlation between serum aldosterone level and hearing condition of elderly patients that referred to the Otolaryngology services of Hamadan in 2005-2006.Methods: In this case control study 54 (27 males,27 females persons above 60 years old were evaluated. They contained twenty eight cases with normal hearing and 26 cases with presbycusis. Persons with any abnormal biochemical finding or history of conditions that predispose them to the sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL were excluded. In both groups serum level of sodium, potassium and aldosterone were measured and hearing condition evaluated by puretone, speech and immitance audiometry.Results: Statistical relationship between serum aldostrone level and hearing condition, sex, configuration of audiogram and speech discrimination score (SDS were not significant. In addition, no significant relationship between sodium and potassium levels with hearing condition was found (p>0.05.Conclusion: This study could not confirm protective effect of aldostrone against presbycusis. This discrepancy may originate from epidemiologic differences, laboratory errors or small sample size.

  9. Recent concepts and challenges in hearing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten

    In everyday life, the speech we listen to is often mixed with many other sound sources as well as reverberation. In such a situation, normal-hearing listeners are able to effortlessly segregate a single voice out of the background, which is commonly known as the 'cocktail party effect'. Conversely......, hearing-impaired people have great difficulty understanding speech when more than one person is talking, even when reduced audibility has been fully compensated for by a hearing aid. As with the hearing impaired, the performance of automatic speech recognition systems deteriorates dramatically...... with additional sound sources. The reasons for these difficulties are not well understood. Only by obtaining a clearer understanding of the auditory system’s coding strategies will it be possible to design intelligent compensation algorithms for hearing devices. This presentation highlights recent concepts...

  10. Acquisition of who-question comprehension in German children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Eva; Rothweiler, Monika; Penke, Martina

    2017-05-01

    For children with sensorineural hearing loss the ability to understand wh-questions might be particularly challenging because they often have only restricted access to spoken language input during optimal periods of language acquisition. In previous research it has been suggested that this restricted input during critical stages in language acquisition might lead to syntactic deficits that persist into adolescence. In this study we want to pursue this issue by investigating the comprehension of wh-questions in German children with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. We report results of a who-question comprehension task in a group of 21 3- to 4-year-old German hard-of-hearing children compared to a group of age-matched children with normal hearing. The group data and individual performance patterns suggest that the syntactic comprehension difficulties observed in some, but not all, of the children with hearing loss reflect a delay in the acquisition of who-question comprehension rather than a persistent syntactic deficit. Follow-up data elicited from a subgroup of children confirm this supposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario R Serra

    2014-01-01

    The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs were classified as: normal (Group 1, slightly shifted (Group 2, and significantly shifted (Group 3. The musical general exposure (MGE, from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01, in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05 only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01. Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05 and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05. A significant difference (P < 0.05 was found in Group 1′s HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2 dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6 dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents.

  12. Vestibular hearing and neural synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seyede Faranak; Daneshi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Vestibular hearing as an auditory sensitivity of the saccule in the human ear is revealed by cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs). The range of the vestibular hearing lies in the low frequency. Also, the amplitude of an auditory brainstem response component depends on the amount of synchronized neural activity, and the auditory nerve fibers' responses have the best synchronization with the low frequency. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate correlation between vestibular hearing using cVEMPs and neural synchronization via slow wave Auditory Brainstem Responses (sABR). Study Design. This case-control survey was consisted of twenty-two dizzy patients, compared to twenty healthy controls. Methods. Intervention comprised of Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA), Impedance acoustic metry (IA), Videonystagmography (VNG), fast wave ABR (fABR), sABR, and cVEMPs. Results. The affected ears of the dizzy patients had the abnormal findings of cVEMPs (insecure vestibular hearing) and the abnormal findings of sABR (decreased neural synchronization). Comparison of the cVEMPs at affected ears versus unaffected ears and the normal persons revealed significant differences (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Safe vestibular hearing was effective in the improvement of the neural synchronization.

  13. Energy transmittance predicts conductive hearing loss in older children and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Simmons, Jeffrey L.

    2003-12-01

    The test performance of a wideband acoustic transfer function (ATF) test and 226-Hz tympanometry was assessed in predicting the presence of conductive hearing loss, based on an air-bone gap of 20 dB or more. Two ATF tests were designed using an improved calibration method over a frequency range (0.25-8 kHz): an ambient-pressure test and a tympanometric test using an excess static pressure in the ear canal. Wideband responses were objectively classified using moment analyses of energy transmittance, which was a more appropriate test variable than energy reflectance. Subjects included adults and children of age 10 years and up, with 42 normal-functioning ears and 18 ears with a conductive hearing loss. Predictors were based on the magnitudes of the moment deviations from the 10th to 90th percentiles of the normal group. Comparing tests at a fixed specificity of 0.90, the sensitivities were 0.28 for peak-compensated static acoustic admittance at 226 Hz, 0.72 for ambient-pressure ATF, and 0.94 for pressurized ATF. Pressurized ATF was accurate at predicting conductive hearing loss with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.95. Ambient-pressure ATF may have sufficient accuracy to use in some hearing-screening applications, whereas pressurized ATF has additional accuracy that may be appropriate for hearing-diagnostic applications.

  14. New ISO standards for hearing protectors (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    Working Group 17 under ISO/TC43/SC1 deals with measurement of hearing protector attenuation. WG17 is presently involved in revision of the present 4869-1 standard (especially sound field requirements and reproducibility estimations) and formulation of a new standard where inexperienced hearing...

  15. Can Baby Hear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... born in the United States are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Research shows that early intervention with hearing devices and educational services can help children with hearing loss to develop language skills at the same rate as their hearing peers. ...

  16. Hard of Hearing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T Christensen, Vibeke

    This summary presents the results of a study of the impact of reduced hearing in relation to labour-market attachment and working life. Reduced hearing contributes to early retirement. Many people with impaired hearing are not aware of the impact of their hearing problems on their working life an...

  17. CERN hearing day

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss - do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on the CERN site to participate in the NATIONAL HEARING DAY on: Thursday 10th March 2005 From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Ground Floor We will be offering hearing tests (audiograms), as well as information and advice on hearing loss, tinnitus, etc. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% of the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing problems but PREVENTION IS POSSIBLE. For example, hearing protection devices can prevent 80% of tinnitus cases.

  18. CERN hearing day

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss - do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on CERN premises to participate in the National Hearing Day on: Thursday 10th March From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Gr.Fl. We will be offering hearing tests (audiogram); information, advice on hearing loss, tinnitus and more. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing loss. But PREVENTION IS POSSIBLE AND EFFECTIVE: for example, Hearing protection devices could reduce tinnitus cases by 80%.

  19. CERN hearing day

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss - do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on CERN premises to participate in the National Hearing Day on: Thursday 10th March From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Gr.Fl. We will be offering hearing tests (audiogram); information, advice on hearing loss, tinnitus and more. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing loss. But prevention is possible and effective: for example, Hearing protection devices could reduce tinnitus cases by 80%.

  20. CERN hearing day

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss ? do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on the CERN site to participate in the NATIONAL HEARING DAY on: Thursday 10th March 2005 From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Ground Floor We will be offering hearing tests (audiograms), as well as information and advice on hearing loss, tinnitus, etc. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% of the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing problems but prevention is possible. For example, hearing protection devices can prevent 80% of tinnitus cases.

  1. Attitude and help-seeking for hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenBrink, RHS; Wit, HP; Kempen, GIJM; vanHeuvelen, MJG

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate help-seeking for hearing impairment in the elderly, and to compare groups showing dissimilar help-seeking on their attitude toward hearing loss and hearing aids. Attitude factors were based on a revised version of the Health Belief Model, and included

  2. The Master Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  3. The benefit of gestures during communication: evidence from hearing and hearing-impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Christian; Dolk, Thomas; Gunter, Thomas C

    2012-07-01

    There is no doubt that gestures are communicative and can be integrated online with speech. Little is known, however, about the nature of this process, for example, its automaticity and how our own communicative abilities and also our environment influence the integration of gesture and speech. In two Event Related Potential (ERP) experiments, the effects of gestures during speech comprehension were explored. In both experiments, participants performed a shallow task thereby avoiding explicit gesture-speech integration. In the first experiment, participants with normal hearing viewed videos in which a gesturing actress uttered sentences which were either embedded in multi-speaker babble noise or not. The sentences contained a homonym which was disambiguated by the information in a gesture, which was presented asynchronous to speech (1000 msec earlier). Downstream, the sentence contained a target word that was either related to the dominant or subordinate meaning of the homonym and was used to indicate the success of the disambiguation. Both the homonym and the target word position showed clear ERP evidence of gesture-speech integration and disambiguation only under babble noise. Thus, during noise, gestures were taken into account as an important communicative cue. In Experiment 2, the same asynchronous stimuli were presented to a group of hearing-impaired students and age-matched controls. Only the hearing-impaired individuals showed significant speech-gesture integration and successful disambiguation at the target word. The age-matched controls did not show any effect. Thus, individuals who chronically experience suboptimal communicative situations in daily life automatically take gestures into account. The data from both experiments indicate that gestures are beneficial in countering difficult communication conditions independent of whether the difficulties are due to external (babble noise) or internal (hearing impairment) factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  4. The Emotional Communication in Hearing Questionnaire (EMO-CHeQ): Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurjit; Liskovoi, Lisa; Launer, Stefan; Russo, Frank

    2018-06-11

    The objectives of this research were to develop and evaluate a self-report questionnaire (the Emotional Communication in Hearing Questionnaire or EMO-CHeQ) designed to assess experiences of hearing and handicap when listening to signals that contain vocal emotion information. Study 1 involved internet-based administration of a 42-item version of the EMO-CHeQ to 586 adult participants (243 with self-reported normal hearing [NH], 193 with self-reported hearing impairment but no reported use of hearing aids [HI], and 150 with self-reported hearing impairment and use of hearing aids [HA]). To better understand the factor structure of the EMO-CHeQ and eliminate redundant items, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Study 2 involved laboratory-based administration of a 16-item version of the EMO-CHeQ to 32 adult participants (12 normal hearing/near normal hearing (NH/nNH), 10 HI, and 10 HA). In addition, participants completed an emotion-identification task under audio and audiovisual conditions. In study 1, the exploratory factor analysis yielded an interpretable solution with four factors emerging that explained a total of 66.3% of the variance in performance the EMO-CHeQ. Item deletion resulted in construction of the 16-item EMO-CHeQ. In study 1, both the HI and HA group reported greater vocal emotion communication handicap on the EMO-CHeQ than on the NH group, but differences in handicap were not observed between the HI and HA group. In study 2, the same pattern of reported handicap was observed in individuals with audiometrically verified hearing as was found in study 1. On the emotion-identification task, no group differences in performance were observed in the audiovisual condition, but group differences were observed in the audio alone condition. Although the HI and HA group exhibited similar emotion-identification performance, both groups performed worse than the NH/nNH group, thus suggesting the presence of behavioral deficits that parallel self

  5. A mismatch negativity study in Mandarin-speaking children with sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingfu; Wang, Liyan; Zhang, Mengchao; Yang, Ying; Sun, Xibin

    2016-12-01

    a) To examine the effects of sensorineural hearing loss on the discriminability of linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli at the cortical level, and b) to examine whether the cortical responses differ based on the chronological age at intervention, the degree of hearing loss, or the acoustic stimulation mode in children with severe and profound hearing loss. Mismatch negativity (MMN) responses were collected from 43 children with severe and profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, and 20 children with normal hearing (age: 3-6 years). In the non-verbal stimulation condition, pure tones with frequencies of 1 kHz and 1.1 kHz were used as the standard and the deviant respectively. In the verbal stimulation condition, the Chinese mandarin tokens/ba2/and/ba4/were used as the standard and the deviant respectively. Latency and amplitude of the MMN responses were collected and analyzed. Overall, children with hearing loss showed longer latencies and lower amplitudes of the MMN responses to both non-verbal and verbal stimulations. The latency of the verbal/ba2/-/ba4/pair was longer than that of the nonverbal 1 kHz-1.1 kHz pair in both groups of children. Children with hearing loss, especially those who received intervention after 2 years of age, showed substantial weakness in the neural responses to lexical tones and pure tones. Thus, the chronological age when the children receive hearing intervention may have an impact on the effectiveness of discriminating between verbal and non-verbal signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anatomy and physiology of binaural hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D R

    1991-01-01

    Binaural hearing improves performance in most auditory tasks and is essential for some. This paper introduces the brain stem pathways and nuclei involved in binaural interaction and outlines some recent approaches to understanding binaural mechanisms. It also provides examples of basic science approaches to the effects of infant hearing loss on those pathways and mechanisms. Binaural interaction occurs primarily and almost simultaneously at three levels of the brain: the superior olivary complex (SOC), the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus (NLL) and the inferior colliculus (IC). The SOC derives its input from the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus (CN) through branching axons that innervate several SOC subdivisions on both sides of the brain. At least some of these anteroventral CN axons project on up to the contralateral NLL and IC. The IC and NLL also receive direct, major projections from the contralateral CN, via the dorsal and intermediate acoustic striae, and from the SOC bilaterally. The IC receives additional input from the NLL bilaterally, and is thus innervated by every nuclear group within the auditory brain stem. There is little evidence for strict, functional segregation in these binaural pathways, although subdivisions of the SOC appear to be predominantly involved in analysing either interaural time or level differences (ITD, ILD). ITD- and ILD-sensitive neurones are also found in abundance in the central IC. There is emerging evidence that binaural information is coupled with spectral cues derived from the outer ear in several auditory mid-brain regions [the NLL, the external IC and the superior colliculus (SC)] to produce topographic representations of auditory space. Throughout the higher auditory system the response of neurones to stimulation of each ear is either excitatory or inhibitory, and there is a spatial segregation of neurones receiving predominantly excitatory or inhibitory input from the ipsilateral ear in both the medial geniculate body

  7. Multiple Criteria Group Decision-Making Considering Symmetry with Regards to the Positive and Negative Ideal Solutions via the Pythagorean Normal Cloud Model for Application to Economic Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pythagorean fuzzy sets are highly appealing in dealing with uncertainty as they allow for greater flexibility in regards to the membership and non-membership degrees by extending the set of possible values. In this paper, we propose a multi-criteria group decision-making approach based on the Pythagorean normal cloud. Some cloud aggregation operators are presented in this paper to facilitate the appraisal of the underlying utilities of the alternatives under consideration. The concept and properties of the Pythagorean normal cloud and its backward generation algorithm, aggregation operators and distance measurement are outlined. The proposed approach resembles the TOPSIS technique, which, indeed, considers the symmetry of the distances to the positive and negative ideal solutions. Furthermore, an example from e-commerce is presented to demonstrate and validate the proposed decision-making approach. Finally, the comparative analysis is implemented to check the robustness of the results when the aggregation rules are changed.

  8. An Auditory Model with Hearing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Bramsløw

    An auditory model based on the psychophysics of hearing has been developed and tested. The model simulates the normal ear or an impaired ear with a given hearing loss. Based on reviews of the current literature, the frequency selectivity and loudness growth as functions of threshold and stimulus...... level have been found and implemented in the model. The auditory model was verified against selected results from the literature, and it was confirmed that the normal spread of masking and loudness growth could be simulated in the model. The effects of hearing loss on these parameters was also...... in qualitative agreement with recent findings. The temporal properties of the ear have currently not been included in the model. As an example of a real-world application of the model, loudness spectrograms for a speech utterance were presented. By introducing hearing loss, the speech sounds became less audible...

  9. Characteristics of children with unilateral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Al-Essa, Rakan S; Whittingham, JoAnne; Fitzpatrick, Jessica

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL), examine deterioration in hearing, and explore amplification decisions. Population-based data were collected prospectively from time of diagnosis. Serial audiograms and amplification details were retrospectively extracted from clinical charts to document the trajectory and management of hearing loss. The study included all children identified with UHL in one region of Canada over a 13-year period (2003-2015) after implementation of universal newborn hearing screening. Of 537 children with permanent hearing loss, 20.1% (108) presented with UHL at diagnosis. They were identified at a median age of 13.9 months (IQR: 2.8, 49.0). Children with congenital loss were identified at 2.8 months (IQR: 2.0, 3.6) and made up 47.2% (n = 51), reflecting that a substantial portion had late-onset, acquired or late-identified loss. A total of 42.4% (n = 39) showed deterioration in hearing, including 16 (17.4%) who developed bilateral loss. By study end, 73.1% (79/108) of children had received amplification recommendations. Up to 20% of children with permanent HL are first diagnosed with UHL. About 40% are at risk for deterioration in hearing either in the impaired ear and/or in the normal hearing ear.

  10. Quality of life in individuals with tinnitus with and without hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorina Silva Ribeiro Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to evaluate the perception of the level of quality of life in subjects with tinnitus, with and without hearing loss. Methods: a cross-sectional quantitative study. A total of 189 subjects (mean age 53.06 years divided into four groups. Group 1: subjects with normal auditory thresholds without tinnitus complaint; Group 2: subjects with normal auditory thresholds and tinnitus complaint; Group 3: subjects with sensorineural hearing loss without tinnitus complaint; Group 4: subjects with sensorineural hearing loss and with tinnitus complaint. Levels of quality of life were investigated through the World Health Organization Quality Of Life (WHOQOL website - brief and psycho-emotional and functional aspects of patients with tinnitus through the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI. Statistical analyzes, comparisons among groups and descriptive analysis were performed, considering a significance level of 5%. Results: the overall mean scores of quality of life in group 4 (56.07 were smaller than those of group 1 (64.67 (p<0.05. The subjects with tinnitus complaint presented a moderate level of disturbance of the symptom. Conclusion: tinnitus interferes in the quality of life of individuals who had preserved or altered auditory thresholds. Therefore, means to reduce the discomfort caused by tinnitus symptom should be developed, in order to improve patients' quality of life.

  11. Normal edge-transitive and $ frac{1}{2}$-arc-transitive Cayley graphs on non-abelian groups of order $2pq$ , $p > q$ are primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ashrafi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Darafsheh and Assari in [Normal edge-transitive Cayley graphs onnon-abelian groups of order 4p, where p is a prime number,Sci. China Math. {bf 56} (1 (2013 213$-$219.] classified the connected normal edge transitive and$frac{1}{2}-$arc-transitive Cayley graph of groups of order$4p$. In this paper we continue this work by classifying theconnected Cayley graph of groups of order $2pq$, $p > q$ areprimes. As a consequence it is proved that $Cay(G,S$ is a$frac{1}{2}-$edge-transitive Cayley graph of order $2pq$, $p> q$ if and only if $|S|$ is an even integer greater than 2, $S =T cup T^{-1}$ and $T subseteq { cba^{i} | 0 leq i leq p- 1}$ such that $T$ and $T^{-1}$ are orbits of $Aut(G,S$ andbegin{eqnarray*}G &=& langle a, b, c | a^p = b^q = c^2 = e, ac = ca, bc = cb, b^{-1}ab = a^r rangle,G &=& langle a, b, c | a^p = b^q = c^2 = e, c ac = a^{-1}, bc = cb, b^{-1}ab = a^r rangle,end{eqnarray*}where $r^q equiv 1 (mod p$.

  12. Phrasing in the speech and reading of the hearing impaired.