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Sample records for normal healthy plants

  1. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used in child......Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used...

  2. Metabolite characterization in serum samples from normal healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolite characterization in serum samples from normal healthy human subjects by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. D Misra, U Bajpai. Abstract. One and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy has been employed to characterize the various metabolites of serum control healthy samples. Two dimensional heteronuclear ...

  3. Normal range values for thromboelastography in healthy adult volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scarpelini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Thromboelastography (TEG® provides a functional evaluation of coagulation. It has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for trauma, but is not frequently used, partially due to lack of both standardized techniques and normal values. We determined normal values for our population, compared them to those of the manufacturer and evaluated the effect of gender, age, blood type, and ethnicity. The technique was standardized using citrated blood, kaolin and was performed on a Haemoscope 5000 device. Volunteers were interviewed and excluded if pregnant, on anticoagulants or having a bleeding disorder. The TEG® parameters analyzed were R, K, α, MA, LY30, and coagulation index. All volunteers outside the manufacturer’s normal range underwent extensive coagulation investigations. Reference ranges for 95% for 118 healthy volunteers were R: 3.8-9.8 min, K: 0.7-3.4 min, α: 47.8-77.7 degrees, MA: 49.7-72.7 mm, LY30: -2.3-5.77%, coagulation index: -5.1-3.6. Most values were significantly different from those of the manufacturer, which would have diagnosed coagulopathy in 10 volunteers, for whom additional investigation revealed no disease (81% specificity. Healthy women were significantly more hypercoagulable than men. Aging was not associated with hypercoagulability and East Asian ethnicity was not with hypocoagulability. In our population, the manufacturer’s normal values for citrated blood-kaolin had a specificity of 81% and would incorrectly identify 8.5% of the healthy volunteers as coagulopathic. This study supports the manufacturer’s recommendation that each institution should determine its own normal values before adopting TEG®, a procedure which may be impractical. Consideration should be given to a multi-institutional study to establish wide standard values for TEG®.

  4. Defining normal liver stiffness range in a normal healthy Chinese population without liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For patients with chronic liver disease, different optimal liver stiffness cut-off values correspond to different stages of fibrosis, which are specific for the underlying liver disease and population. AIMS: To establish the normal ranges of liver stiffness in the healthy Chinese population without underlying liver disease. METHODS: This is a prospective cross sectional study of 2,528 healthy volunteers recruited from the general population and the Red Cross Transfusion Center in Hong Kong. All participants underwent a comprehensive questionnaire survey, measurement of weight, height, and blood pressure. Fasting liver function tests, glucose and cholesterol was performed. Abdominal ultrasound and transient elastography were performed on all participants. RESULTS: Of the 2,528 subjects, 1,998 were excluded with either abnormal liver parenchyma on ultrasound, chronic medical condition, abnormal blood tests including liver enzymes, fasting glucose, fasting cholesterol, high body mass index, high blood pressure, or invalid liver stiffness scan. The reference range for the 530 subjects without known liver disease was 2.3 to 5.9 kPa (mean 4.1, SD 0.89. The median liver stiffness was higher in males compared with females (4.3 vs 4.0 kPa respectively, p55 years (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The healthy reference range for liver stiffness in the Chinese population is 2.3 to 5.9 kPa. Female gender and older age group was associated with a lower median liver stiffness.

  5. Are normal narcissists psychologically healthy?: self-esteem matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedikides, Constantine; Rudich, Eric A; Gregg, Aiden P; Kumashiro, Madoka; Rusbult, Caryl

    2004-09-01

    Five studies established that normal narcissism is correlated with good psychological health. Specifically, narcissism is (a) inversely related to daily sadness and dispositional depression, (b) inversely related to daily and dispositional loneliness, (c) positively related to daily and dispositional subjective well-being as well as couple well-being, (d) inversely related to daily anxiety, and (e) inversely related to dispositional neuroticism. More important, self-esteem fully accounted for the relation between narcissism and psychological health. Thus, narcissism is beneficial for psychological health only insofar as it is associated with high self-esteem. Explanations of the main and mediational findings in terms of response or social desirability biases (e.g., defensiveness, repression, impression management) were ruled out. Supplementary analysis showed that the links among narcissism, self-esteem, and psychological health were preponderantly linear. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  6. A study of several normal values of Korean healthy adults on chest roentgenograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Byung Chull [Choong Nam University College of Medicine, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    Determination of several normal values were carried out healthy 1805 cases of Korean adults, 1436 cases of male and 369 cases of female, by the drawing and calculation on chest roentgenograms. In many instances, the change of normal values provides an important clinical values, and often is decisive to evaluate the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pulmonary, cardiac and mediastinal disease.

  7. An echocardiographic study of healthy Border Collies with normal reference ranges for the breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jake H; Boon, June A; Bright, Janice M

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain standard echocardiographic measurements from healthy Border Collies and to compare these measurements to those previously reported for a general population of dogs. Standard echocardiographic data were obtained from twenty apparently healthy Border Collie dogs. These data (n = 20) were compared to data obtained from a general population of healthy dogs (n = 69). Border Collies were deemed healthy based on normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemical profile, electrocardiogram, and blood pressure, with no evidence of congenital or acquired heart disease on echocardiographic examination. Standard two dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiographic measurements were obtained and normal ranges determined. The data were compared to data previously obtained at our hospital from a general population of normal dogs. Two dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler reference ranges for healthy Border Collies are presented in tabular form. Comparison of the weight adjusted M-mode echocardiographic means from Border Collies to those from the general population of dogs showed Border Collies to have larger left ventricular systolic and diastolic dimensions, smaller interventricular septal thickness, and lower fractional shortening. There are differences in some echocardiographic parameters between healthy Border Collies and the general dog population, and the echocardiographic reference ranges provided in this study should be used as breed specific reference values for Border Collies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing expression with a reference gene: anomalies due to the influence of the test promoter on the reference promoter. Simran Bhullar Suma Chakravarthy Deepak Pental Pradeep Kumar Burma. Articles Volume 34 Issue 6 December 2009 pp 953-962 ...

  9. Healthy plants: necessary for a balanced 'One Health' concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Franz, David; Leclerc, J Eugene

    2009-01-01

    All life forms depend ultimately upon sunlight to create the energy 'currency' required for the functions of living. Green plants can make that conversion directly but the rest of us would perish without access to foods derived, directly or indirectly, from plants. We also require their fibre which we use for clothing, building and other purposes. However, plants, just as humans and animals, are attacked by pathogens that cause a myriad of symptoms that can lead to reduced yields, lower quality products and diminished nutritional value. Plant pathogens share many features with their human and animal counterparts. Some pathogens - whether of humans, animals, or plants - have nimble genomes or the ability to pirate genes from other organisms via mobile elements. Some have developed the ability to cross kingdoms in their host ranges. Many others share virulence factors, such as the type III secretion system (T3SS) or mechanisms for sensing population density, that work equally well in all kingdoms. Certain pathogens of hosts in all kingdoms rely upon insect vectors and use similar mechanisms to ensure dispersal (and sometimes survival) in this way. Plant-pathogen interactions have more direct consequence for humans when the microbes are human pathogens such as Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella spp., which can contaminate fresh produce or when they produce metabolites, such as mycotoxins, which are harmful when consumed. Finally, national biosecurity concerns and the need for prevention, preparedness and forensic capabilities cross all kingdom barriers. Thus, our communities that focus on one of these kingdoms have much to learn from one another and a complete and balanced 'One Health' initiative must be tripartite, embracing the essential components of healthy plants, healthy animals and healthy people.

  10. Normal Patterns of Deja Experience in a Healthy, Blind Male: Challenging Optical Pathway Delay Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old healthy, blind male, MT, who experiences normal patterns of deja vu. The optical pathway delay theory of deja vu formation assumes that neuronal input from the optical pathways is necessary for the formation of the experience. Surprisingly, although the sensation of deja vu is known to be experienced by blind…

  11. Normalizing Electrocardiograms of Both Healthy Persons and Cardiovascular Disease Patients for Biometric Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Miaomiao; Li, Fan; Wang, Guoqing; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Although electrocardiogram (ECG) fluctuates over time and physical activity, some of its intrinsic measurements serve well as biometric features. Considering its constant availability and difficulty in being faked, the ECG signal is becoming a promising factor for biometric authentication. The majority of the currently available algorithms only work well on healthy participants. A novel normalization and interpolation algorithm is proposed to convert an ECG signal into multiple template cycles, which are comparable between any two ECGs, no matter the sampling rates or health status. The overall accuracies reach 100% and 90.11% for healthy participants and cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, respectively. PMID:23977063

  12. CT Densitometry of the Lung in Healthy Nonsmokers with Normal Pulmonary Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Tack Sun; Chae, Eun Jin; Seo, Joon Beom; Jung, Young Ju; Oh, Yeon Mok; Lee, Sang Do [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the upper normal limit of low attenuation area in healthy nonsmokers. A total of 36 nonsmokers with normal pulmonary function test underwent a CT scan. Six thresholds (-980 --930 HU) on inspiration CT and two thresholds (-950 and -910 HU) on expiration CT were used for obtaining low attenuation area. The mean lung density was obtained on both inspiration CT and expiration CT. Descriptive statistics of low attenuation area and the mean lung density, evaluation of difference of low attenuation area and the mean lung density in both sex and age groups, analysis of the relationship between demographic information and CT parameters were performed. Upper normal limit for low attenuation area was 12.96% on inspiration CT (-950 HU) and 9.48% on expiration CT (-910 HU). Upper normal limit for the mean lung density was -837.58 HU on inspiration CT and 686.82 HU on expiration CT. Low attenuation area and the mean lung density showed no significant differences in both sex and age groups. Body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with low attenuation area on inspiration CT (-950 HU, r = -0.398, p = 0.016) and positively correlated with the mean lung density on inspiration CT (r 0.539, p = 0.001) and expiration CT (r = 0.432, p = 0.009). Age and body surface area were not correlated with low attenuation area or the mean lung density. Low attenuation area on CT densitometry of the lung could be found in healthy nonsmokers with normal pulmonary function, and showed negative association with BMI. Reference values, such as range and upper normal limit for low attenuation area in healthy subjects could be helpful in quantitative analysis and follow up of early emphysema, using CT densitometry of the lung.

  13. Contrast-enhanced MRI findings of the knee in healthy children; establishing normal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berg, J.M. van den; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Kuijpers, Taco W. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nusman, Charlotte M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis (OLVG), Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gulik, E.C. van; Barendregt, Anouk M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dolman, Koert M. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis (OLVG), Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reade, Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2018-03-15

    To define normative standards for the knee in healthy children using contrast-enhanced MRI, focusing on normal synovial membrane thickness. Secondly, presence of joint fluid and bone marrow oedema was evaluated. For this study, children without disorders potentially resulting in (accompanying) arthritis were included. Patients underwent clinical assessments, followed by contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI features were evaluated in consensus using the Juvenile Arthritis MRI Scoring (JAMRIS) system. Additionally, the presence of joint fluid was evaluated. No cartilage lesions or bone abnormalities were observed. We included 57 healthy children. The overall mean thickness of the normal synovial membrane was 0.4 mm (min-max; 0.0-1.8mm). The synovium was thickest around the cruciate ligaments and retropatellar and suprapatellar regions. The mean overall diameter of the largest pocket of joint fluid was 2.8 mm (min-max; 0.9-8.0mm). Bone marrow changes were observed in three children (all in the apex patellae). The normal synovial membrane was maximally 1.8 mm thick, indicating that the JAMRIS cut-off value of 2 mm can be considered a valid measure for evaluating synovial hypertrophy. Some joint fluid and bone marrow changes suggestive of bone marrow oedema in the apex patellae can be seen in healthy children. (orig.)

  14. Contrast-enhanced MRI findings of the knee in healthy children; establishing normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario; Berg, J.M. van den; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Nusman, Charlotte M.; Gulik, E.C. van; Barendregt, Anouk M.; Dolman, Koert M.

    2018-01-01

    To define normative standards for the knee in healthy children using contrast-enhanced MRI, focusing on normal synovial membrane thickness. Secondly, presence of joint fluid and bone marrow oedema was evaluated. For this study, children without disorders potentially resulting in (accompanying) arthritis were included. Patients underwent clinical assessments, followed by contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI features were evaluated in consensus using the Juvenile Arthritis MRI Scoring (JAMRIS) system. Additionally, the presence of joint fluid was evaluated. No cartilage lesions or bone abnormalities were observed. We included 57 healthy children. The overall mean thickness of the normal synovial membrane was 0.4 mm (min-max; 0.0-1.8mm). The synovium was thickest around the cruciate ligaments and retropatellar and suprapatellar regions. The mean overall diameter of the largest pocket of joint fluid was 2.8 mm (min-max; 0.9-8.0mm). Bone marrow changes were observed in three children (all in the apex patellae). The normal synovial membrane was maximally 1.8 mm thick, indicating that the JAMRIS cut-off value of 2 mm can be considered a valid measure for evaluating synovial hypertrophy. Some joint fluid and bone marrow changes suggestive of bone marrow oedema in the apex patellae can be seen in healthy children. (orig.)

  15. Planting Seeds to Grow Healthy Children: Strategic Community Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Planas, Jessica; Sullivan, Kelly; Tran, Hang; Cruz, Anna

    2018-02-01

    More than one third of U.S adults are considered obese, and childhood obesity has more than doubled in the past 30 years. Food security can influence obesity, in particular, within inner cities where access to healthy food is often limited. The use of a mobile food truck program (with refrigeration) was implemented in two large inner cities in Connecticut as part of an initiative aimed at helping low-income families with young children gain access to healthy food and nutrition education. Collaborating with community child care centers was used. The experiences of the families who participated in the program were assessed via focus groups. Main ideas derived from the focus groups were participant satisfaction with money saving suggestions, ideas for how to make healthier choices, and excitement about opportunities to receive foods that they would not normally buy. This innovative mobile food truck program demonstrated the value of strategic community partnerships to influence health.

  16. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  17. Erosion or normal variant? 4-year MRI follow-up of the wrists in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenarius, Derk F.M. [University of Tromsoe, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie [Oslo University Hospital, Department for Radiology and Intervention, Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine K1, Bergen (Norway)

    2016-03-15

    A large proportion of healthy children have wrist changes on MRI, namely carpal depressions, findings that have been described as pathological in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We performed follow-up imaging in a cohort of healthy children to evaluate carpal surface depressions over time, focusing on the presence of overlying cartilage as a potential discriminator between normal variants and true erosions. 74 of the initial cohort of 89 healthy children (83%) had a re-scan of their wrists using the same protocol, including coronal T1 and fat-saturated T2 sequences. A cartilage-selective sequence was added for this study. We registered number and location of bony depressions and presence of overlying cartilage. The total number of carpal depressions increased by age group and over time; their location was unchanged in 370 of 487 (76%) carpal sites and 91 of 117 (78%) metacarpal sites. In total, 426 of the 1,087 (39.2%) bony depressions were covered by cartilage, with a decreasing percentage by age (P = 0.001). Normal appearances during growth, such as bony depressions, should not be mistaken for pathology. There must be additional findings to support a diagnosis of disease. A cartilage sequence may add to the diagnostic image analysis. (orig.)

  18. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Deplanque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL, glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results: Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001. Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions: Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals.

  19. Study on optimization of normal plant outage work plan for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Kodama, Noriko; Takase, Kentaro; Miya, Kenzo

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses maintenance optimization in maintenance implementation stage following maintenance planning stage in nuclear power plants and proposes a methodology to get an optimum maintenance work plan. As a result of consideration, the followings were obtained. (1) The quantitative evaluation methodology for optimizing maintenance work plan in nuclear power plants was developed. (2) Utilizing the above methodology, a simulation analysis of maintenance work planning for BWR's PLR and RHR systems in a normal plant outage was performed. Maintenance cost calculation in several cases was carried out on the condition of smoothening man loading over the plant outage schedule as much as possible. (3) As a result of the simulation, the economical work plans having a flat man loading over the plant outage schedule were obtained. (author)

  20. [Colorimetric investigation of normal tongue and lip colors from 516 healthy adults by visible reflection spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-chun; Yang, Li; Xu, Ying; Liu, Pei-pei; Guo, Shi-jun; Liu, Song-hao

    2011-09-01

    Using the data from normal tongue and lip colors of normal people which were collected by the visible reflection spectrum, we analyzed the colorimetric parameters of tongue and lip colors. In this study, 516 healthy students aging from 19 to 26 from the colleges and universities of Guangdong Province of China were taken as research subjects. After collecting the data of tongue and lip colors of the 516 subjects using visible reflectance spectroscopy, CIE XYZ tristimulus values as defined by the International Commission on Illumination in 1964 were calculated, and the colorimetric parameters of the normal tongue and lip colors were obtained, such as the CIE 1964 chromaticity coordinate, brightness, dominant wavelength and excitation purity. The results of CIE 1964 chromaticity diagram calculated on the visible reflection spectrum showed that the normal tongue color chromaticity coordinate x(10) was 0.341 3±0.008 5 and y(10) was 0.332 6±0.005 1, and the normal lip color chromaticity coordinate x(10) was 0.357 7±0.009 2 and y(10) was 0.338 3±0.005 7; the brightness Y values of the normal tongue color and lip colors were 17.96±3.78 and 19.78±3.72, the dominant wavelength values of the normal tongue color and lip color were (626.3±51.6) nm and (600.4±18.2) nm, and the excitation purity values of the normal tongue color and lip color were 0.083±0.031 and 0.144±0.036, respectively. Application of the visible reflection spectrum is a standard way to collect colorimetric data for inspection of the complexion. The investigation of chromaticity coordinates, brightness, dominant wavelength and excitation purity of the normal tongue and lip colors may offer the basic reference for diagnosing morbid complexion on the tongue and lip colors in traditional Chinese medicine.

  1. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2018-01-01

    . RESULTS: Children in the lowest tertile of urinary BPA had significantly higher peak insulin levels during OGTT (P = 0.01), lower insulin sensitivity index (P triglyceride (P ... toward higher fat mass index (P = 0.1) compared with children in the highest tertile for uBPA. No significant differences in anthropometrics, body composition or glucose metabolism were associated with any of the phthalate metabolites measured. CONCLUSION: This pilot study on healthy normal...... and adolescents. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of the Copenhagen Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry and fasting...

  2. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalie Carlsson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents. Method: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of the Copenhagen Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry and fasting blood samples. First morning urine was collected and phthalate metabolites and BPA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS with prior enzymatic deconjugation. Individual chemical concentrations were divided into tertiles and analyzed in relation to biological outcome. Results: Children in the lowest tertile of urinary BPA had significantly higher peak insulin levels during OGTT (P = 0.01, lower insulin sensitivity index (P < 0.01, higher leptin (P = 0.03, triglyceride (P < 0.01 and total cholesterol levels (P = 0.04, lower aerobic fitness (P = 0.02 and a tendency toward higher fat mass index (P = 0.1 compared with children in the highest tertile for uBPA. No significant differences in anthropometrics, body composition or glucose metabolism were associated with any of the phthalate metabolites measured. Conclusion: This pilot study on healthy normal-weight children suggests an inverse association between BPA and insulin resistance. Our findings contrast other cross-sectional studies showing a positive association for BPA, which may be due to confounding or reverse causation because diet is an important source of both BPA exposure and obesity.

  3. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  4. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Feasibility and normal values of an integrated conductivity (Nanoduct™) sweat test system in healthy newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Claudia E; Schindler, Matthias; Mazur, Agnieszka; Malzacher, Andreas; Hornung, René; Barben, Juerg

    2017-07-01

    Nanoduct™ is a simple and practical sweat analysis system measuring conductivity in situ. It requires only three microlitres of sweat, making it especially applicable to newborns. We measured conductivity in 260 healthy term infants at the age of four days, and again at four weeks to determine the proportion of successful tests, test duration, and normal values for sweat conductivity in newborns. Sufficient sweat was collected in 159/260 of four-day olds (61%), and in 225/239 of four-week olds (94%). Mean (sd) test duration was 27 (5) and 25 (5) min. Mean (sd, range) conductivity was 53mmol/l (16, 8-114) at age four days, and 36 (9, 12-64) at four weeks. Determination of sweat conductivity using Nanoduct™ cannot be recommended for four-day old newborns. However, at the age of four weeks the success rate is high (94%), and conductivity values at that age are comparable to older healthy children. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Ovaries of Healthy Women: Determination of Normal Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, E.A.M.; Jaeger, H.J.; Libera, H.; Lange, S.; Forsting, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To establish normal values for the volume and maximal diameter of ovaries and ovarian follicles and for the number of ovarian follicles in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based on menstrual cycle phase and age. Material and Methods: We performed MRI of the pelvis on 100 healthy women. Volume of the ovaries and largest ovarian follicles and the number of ovarian follicles were determined by menstrual cycle phase and age. Results: The mean volume of the ovaries significantly increased with age and reached its peak between 31 and 40 years, and subsequently decreased. The mean volume of the largest ovarian follicles also significantly increased with age to reach its peak at 41-50 years. The highest mean numbers of ovarian follicles were found at 20-40 years. When the volumes of ovaries and of the largest ovarian follicles, and the number of ovarian follicles were compared between the first and second phase of the menstrual cycle, no significant differences were found. Conclusion: The volume and maximal diameter of ovaries and ovarian follicles and the number of ovarian follicles differ significantly with age, but not between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Knowledge of MRI-related normal values can be expected to aid the early identification of ovarian pathologies

  7. MR imaging of the uterus and cervix in healthy women: Determination of normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, Elke A.M.; Libera, Hanna; Lange, Silke; Forsting, Michael; Jaeger, Horst J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for the volume of the uterus and cervix in MRI based on age and the menstrual cycle phase. We performed MRI of the pelvis in 100 healthy women. For the uterus, they were further divided into two groups: one with myomas and/or adenomyosis and one without either. The volume of the uterus and cervix and thickness of the uterine wall layers were analysed by age and the menstrual cycle phase. The mean volume of the uterus in both groups and the cervix significantly increased with age to reach its peak at 41-50 years, and then dropped. Likewise, the thickness of the endometrium and the junctional zone, but not the myometrium, significantly increased until 41-50 years, and then decreased. When we compared the volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the uterine wall layers between the two phases of the menstrual cycle, we found no significant differences. The volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the endometrium and junctional zone differ significantly with age, but not between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Knowledge of MRI-related normal values can be expected to aid the early identification of uterine pathologies. (orig.)

  8. What Limits Cardiac Performance during Exercise in Normal Subjects and in Healthy Fontan Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André La Gerche

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is an important determinant of health but is significantly reduced in the patient with a univentricular circulation. Normal exercise physiology mandates an increase in pulmonary artery pressures which places an increased work demand on the right ventricle (RV. In a biventricular circulation with pathological increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and/or reductions in RV function, exercise-induced augmentation of cardiac output is limited. Left ventricular preload reserve is dependent upon flow through the pulmonary circulation and this requires adequate RV performance. In the Fontan patient, the reasons for exercise intolerance are complex. In those patients with myocardial dysfunction or other pathologies of the circulatory components, it is likely that these abnormalities serve as a limitation to cardiac performance during exercise. However, in the healthy Fontan patient, it may be the absence of a sub-pulmonary pump which limits normal increases in pulmonary pressures, trans-pulmonary flow requirements and cardiac output. If so, performance will be exquisitely dependent on pulmonary vascular resistance. This provides a potential explanation as to why pulmonary vasodilators may improve exercise tolerance. As has recently been demonstrated, these agents may offer an important new treatment strategy which directly addresses the physiological limitations in the Fontan patient.

  9. Human paraoxonase and HDL-cholesterol in pakistan patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.P.; Khan, A.H.; Mehboobali, N.

    2007-01-01

    Human serum paraoxonase is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound enzyme exhibiting antiatherogenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate any relationship between serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to normal healthy subjects and to examine possible association between serum paraoxonase activity and AMI in Pakistani population. In a case-control study, serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were monitored in 164 Pakistani patients with AMI and 106 normal healthy adults matched for gender, BMI and age within 10 years. Mean serum concentration of HDL-cholesterol and mean serum paraoxonase activity in AMI patients were not significantly different from the corresponding values in normal healthy subjects. Mean serum paraoxonase activity value was significantly lower in normal healthy subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (serum levels < 40mg/dl) compared to the value in those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol (P=0.04). In AMI patients, paraoxonase activity was lower in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol compared to those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol, however, the decrease was not statistically significant. Correlation analyses of the data revealed a moderate association of paraoxonase activity with HDL-cholesterol (Pearson's r= 0.225, P<0.01 for AMI patients and r=0.281, P<0.01 for normal healthy controls). Seventy three percent of normal healthy subjects and 65% of AMI patients in this study had low HDL-cholesterol. Low serum paraoxonase activity and high prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani population could be contributing to the high rates of coronary heart disease in this population. (author)

  10. Power plants operating in normal conditions, space management, and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertron, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the local populations considerations related to the establishment of a nuclear power plant comprising 4 units of 900 MW: reception of a population in the existing environment, acceptance of the power plant by the local population, effluent releases and environmental impacts, and the power plant future [fr

  11. Developing a reference of normal lung sounds in healthy Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Laura E; Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Elhilali, Mounya; Gilman, Robert H; Tielsch, James M; Chavez, Miguel A; Marin-Concha, Julio; Figueroa, Dante; West, James; Checkley, William

    2014-10-01

    Lung auscultation has long been a standard of care for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Recent advances in electronic auscultation and signal processing have yet to find clinical acceptance; however, computerized lung sound analysis may be ideal for pediatric populations in settings, where skilled healthcare providers are commonly unavailable. We described features of normal lung sounds in young children using a novel signal processing approach to lay a foundation for identifying pathologic respiratory sounds. 186 healthy children with normal pulmonary exams and without respiratory complaints were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. Lung sounds were recorded at eight thoracic sites using a digital stethoscope. 151 (81%) of the recordings were eligible for further analysis. Heavy-crying segments were automatically rejected and features extracted from spectral and temporal signal representations contributed to profiling of lung sounds. Mean age, height, and weight among study participants were 2.2 years (SD 1.4), 84.7 cm (SD 13.2), and 12.0 kg (SD 3.6), respectively; and, 47% were boys. We identified ten distinct spectral and spectro-temporal signal parameters and most demonstrated linear relationships with age, height, and weight, while no differences with genders were noted. Older children had a faster decaying spectrum than younger ones. Features like spectral peak width, lower-frequency Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and spectro-temporal modulations also showed variations with recording site. Lung sound extracted features varied significantly with child characteristics and lung site. A comparison with adult studies revealed differences in the extracted features for children. While sound-reduction techniques will improve analysis, we offer a novel, reproducible tool for sound analysis in real-world environments.

  12. Developing a Reference of Normal Lung Sounds in Healthy Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Laura E.; Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Elhilali, Mounya; Gilman, Robert H.; Tielsch, James M.; Chavez, Miguel A.; Marin-Concha, Julio; Figueroa, Dante; West, James

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Lung auscultation has long been a standard of care for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Recent advances in electronic auscultation and signal processing have yet to find clinical acceptance; however, computerized lung sound analysis may be ideal for pediatric populations in settings, where skilled healthcare providers are commonly unavailable. We described features of normal lung sounds in young children using a novel signal processing approach to lay a foundation for identifying pathologic respiratory sounds. Methods 186 healthy children with normal pulmonary exams and without respiratory complaints were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. Lung sounds were recorded at eight thoracic sites using a digital stethoscope. 151 (81 %) of the recordings were eligible for further analysis. Heavy-crying segments were automatically rejected and features extracted from spectral and temporal signal representations contributed to profiling of lung sounds. Results Mean age, height, and weight among study participants were 2.2 years (SD 1.4), 84.7 cm (SD 13.2), and 12.0 kg (SD 3.6), respectively; and, 47 % were boys. We identified ten distinct spectral and spectro-temporal signal parameters and most demonstrated linear relationships with age, height, and weight, while no differences with genders were noted. Older children had a faster decaying spectrum than younger ones. Features like spectral peak width, lower-frequency Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and spectro-temporal modulations also showed variations with recording site. Conclusions Lung sound extracted features varied significantly with child characteristics and lung site. A comparison with adult studies revealed differences in the extracted features for children. While sound-reduction techniques will improve analysis, we offer a novel, reproducible tool for sound analysis in real-world environments. PMID:24943262

  13. EEG Oscillatory States: Universality, Uniqueness and Specificity across Healthy-Normal, Altered and Pathological Brain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies) that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations’ functional significance. The results suggested that (a) there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b) EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal. PMID:24505292

  14. Normal Values for Heart Electrophysiology Parameters of Healthy Swine Determined on Electrophysiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Cepiel, Alicja; Janiszewski, Adrian; Pasławski, Robert; Gajek, Jacek; Pasławska, Urszula; Nicpoń, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Swine are a well-recognized animal model for human cardiovascular diseases. Despite the widespread use of porcine model in experimental electrophysiology, still no reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive electrophysiology study (EPS) have been developed in this species thus far. The aim of the study was to develop a set of normal values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive EPS of swine. The study included 36 healthy domestic swine (24-40 kg body weight). EPS was performed under a general anesthesia with midazolam, propofol and isoflurane. The reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters were calculated as arithmetic means ± 2 standard deviations. The reference values were determined for AH, HV and PA intervals, interatrial conduction time at its own and imposed rhythm, sinus node recovery time (SNRT), corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT), anterograde and retrograde Wenckebach points, atrial, atrioventricular node and ventricular refractory periods. No significant correlations were found between body weight and heart rate of the examined pigs and their electrophysiological parameters. The hereby presented reference values can be helpful in comparing the results of various studies, as well as in more accurately estimating the values of electrophysiological parameters that can be expected in a given experiment.

  15. Contrast sensitivity measured by two different test methods in healthy, young adults with normal visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Baste, Valborg; Roumes, Corinne; Høvding, Gunnar

    2015-03-01

    This study reports contrast sensitivity (CS) reference values obtained by two different test methods in a strictly selected population of healthy, young adults with normal uncorrected visual acuity. Based on these results, the index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) is calculated, aiming to establish ICS reference values for this population and to evaluate the possible usefulness of ICS as a tool to compare the degree of agreement between different CS test methods. Military recruits with best eye uncorrected visual acuity 0.00 LogMAR or better, normal colour vision and age 18-25 years were included in a study to record contrast sensitivity using Optec 6500 (FACT) at spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic and mesopic light and CSV-1000E at spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic light. Index of contrast sensitivity was calculated based on data from the three tests, and the Bland-Altman technique was used to analyse the agreement between ICS obtained by the different test methods. A total of 180 recruits were included. Contrast sensitivity frequency data for all tests were highly skewed with a marked ceiling effect for the photopic tests. The median ICS for Optec 6500 at 85 cd/m2 was -0.15 (95% percentile 0.45), compared with -0.00 (95% percentile 1.62) for Optec at 3 cd/m2 and 0.30 (95% percentile 1.20) FOR CSV-1000E. The mean difference between ICSFACT 85 and ICSCSV was -0.43 (95% CI -0.56 to -0.30, p<0.00) with limits of agreement (LoA) within -2.10 and 1.22. The regression line on the difference of average was near to zero (R2=0.03). The results provide reference CS and ICS values in a young, adult population with normal visual acuity. The agreement between the photopic tests indicated that they may be used interchangeably. There was little agreement between the mesopic and photopic tests. The mesopic test seemed best suited to differentiate between candidates and may therefore possibly be useful for medical selection purposes.

  16. Radiological impact of emissions from reprocessing plants during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.; Gruendler, D.; Hesel, D.; Muenster, M.; Schmidtlein, P.; Suender, B.

    1977-01-01

    When comparing the expected radiation exposure due to emissions from reprocessing plants with those from nuclear power plants it can be seen that the emissions from reprocessing plants contribute much more to the radiation exposure of the population than those from nuclear power plants. In the vicinity of reprocessing plants the highest contributions to the radiation exposure of the population are delivered by the following radionuclides: T, C 14 , Kr 85 , Sr 90 , Ru 106 , I 129 , Cs 134 , Cs 137 and Ce 144 as will as the Pu- and Cm-isotopes. Among these nuclides T, C 14 , Kr 85 und I 129 are globally distributed. While for T the contribution to the collective dose due to globally distributed T is small in comparison with the first pass exposure, the global contribution predominates for C 14 and Kr 85 . If an integration time of less than 10 5 years is considered, the contribution due to first pass exposure predominates for I 129 . When taking the radiation protection of the population into consideration, it seems sensible to retain 10% of T, 80 to 90% of C 14 , 90% of Kr 85 and 99,5% of I 129 in reprocessing plants and dispose of this material in a controlled manner. The fraction of the aerosols released should be about 10 -9 . Considering the global effects and the increasing number of nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants, an international agreement should be reached on these matters. (orig.) [de

  17. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is correlated closely with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L-Y; Shan, J-J; Tong, X-M; Zhu, H-Y; Yang, L-Y; Zheng, Q; Luo, Y; Shi, Q-X; Zhang, S-Y

    2014-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been demonstrated to be expressed in mature spermatozoa and correlated with sperm quality. Sperm CFTR expression in fertile men is higher than that in infertile men suffering from teratospermia, asthenoteratospermia, asthenospermia and oligospermia, but it is unknown whether CFTR is correlated with sperm parameters when sperm parameters are normal. In this study, 282 healthy and fertile men with normal semen parameters were classified into three age groups, group (I): age group of 20-29 years (98 cases, 27.1 ± 6.2), group (II): age group of 30-39 years (142 cases, 33.7 ± 2.6) and group (III): age group of more than or equal to 40 years (42 cases, 44.1 ± 4.6). Sperm concentration, total count and progressive motility were analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Sperm morphology was analysed by modified Papanicolaou staining. Sperm CFTR expression was conducted by indirect immunofluorescence staining. There was a significant positive correlation (P sperm progressive motility (r = 0.221) and normal morphology (r = 0.202), but there were no correlations between sperm CFTR expression and semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm total count as well as male age (P > 0.05). Our findings show that CFTR expression is associated with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters, but not associated with the number of spermatozoa and male age. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Plasma progranulin and relaxin levels in PCOS women with normal BMI compared to control healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is the most commonly encountered endocrine gland disease affecting 5-10 present of women at their reproductive age. This syndrome is associated with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Progranulin and relaxin are adipokins that are related with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Due to limited data about progranulin and relaxin plasma levels´ in women with PCOS and normal BMI, this study was conducted. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional. During the study 39 women with PCOS and BMI< 25 on the basis of Rotterdam criteria were chosen as the patient group and 38 healthy women were selected as the control group. The concentration of progranulin and relaxin were measured by ELISA technique. Results: The difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin, and also some of the biochemical parameters in the patient group versus to the control group was not significant, but there was significant difference in the concentrations of VLDL, triglyceride (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.016, HOMA-IR (p=0.015, testosterone (p=0.01, and DHEAS (p=0.034 in the patients group compared to the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin in the patient group compared to the control group was not significant. It could be inferred that lack of change in plasma level of progranulin and relaxin in women with PCOS is related to BMI<25 and FBS<110. Moreoverestosterones, insulin, DHEAS and HOMA-IR changes could be better predictors of PCOS and its associated diabetes.

  19. Normal spectrum of pulmonary parametric response map to differentiate lung collapsibility: distribution of densitometric classifications in healthy adult volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mario; Nemec, Stefan F.; Dufresne, Valerie; Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H.; Bankier, Alexander A.; Chamberlain, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary parametric response map (PRM) was proposed for quantitative densitometric phenotypization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known about this technique in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal spectrum of densitometric classification of pulmonary PRM in a group of healthy adults. 15 healthy volunteers underwent spirometrically monitored chest CT at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC). The paired CT scans were analyzed by PRM for voxel-by-voxel characterization of lung parenchyma according to 4 densitometric classifications: normal lung (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU); expiratory low attenuation area (LAA) (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); dual LAA (TLC<-950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); uncharacterized (TLC < -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU). PRM spectrum was 78 % ± 10 % normal lung, 20 % ± 8 % expiratory LAA, and 1 % ± 1 % dual LAA. PRM was similar between genders, there was moderate correlation between dual LAA and spirometrically assessed TLC (R = 0.531; p = 0.042), and between expiratory LAA and Vol Exp/Insp ratio (R = -0.572; p = 0.026). PRM reflects the predominance of normal lung parenchyma in a group of healthy volunteers. However, PRM also confirms the presence of physiological expiratory LAA seemingly related to air trapping and a minimal amount of dual LAA likely reflecting emphysema. (orig.)

  20. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Beneficial effects for healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is unanimously admitted that the chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in modern agriculture create a real environmental and public health problems. One of the promising solutions to substitute these agrochemicals products is the use of bio-resources, including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR ...

  1. Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy findings in a population with connective tissue disease and in normal healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Y; Elvins, D M; Ring, E F; McHugh, N J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and quantify the morphological characteristics of nailfold capillaries that distinguish different forms of connective tissue disease from healthy controls. METHODS: A CCD video microscope with fibreoptic illumination and PC based image processing was used to visualise nailfold capillaries and to quantify findings in 23 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), 22 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 21 patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), and 38 healthy controls. RESULTS: Capillary density was reduced in SSc (5.2 (SD 1.3) capillaries/mm) compared with other patient groups and controls. The average number of enlarged capillaries/finger was high in all disease groups (5.5-6.6) compared with controls (2). However, giant capillaries were most frequent in SSc (43%) and were not present in controls. Mild and moderate avascular areas were present in all groups (35%-68%), but severe avascularity was most frequent in SSc (44%) compared with other patients (18%-19%) and controls (0%). The greatest frequency of extensive haemorrhage was in SSc (35%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a range of abnormal capillary findings in patients with connective tissue disease and healthy controls. However, certain abnormalities such as a reduced number of capillaries, severe avascularity, giant capillaries, and haemorrhage are most commonly associated with SSc. Videomicroscopy with image processing offers many technical advantages that can be exploited in further studies of nailfold capillaries. Images PMID:8774177

  2. High Normal Uric Acid Levels Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Diabetes in Lean, Normoglycemic Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Michal; Vinker, Shlomo; Dinour, Dganit; Leiba, Merav; Twig, Gilad; Holtzman, Eliezer J; Leiba, Adi

    2016-10-01

    The risk associated with serum uric acid (SUA) levels within the normal range is unknown, especially among lean and apparently healthy adults. Evaluating whether high-normal SUA levels, 6.8 mg/dL and below, are associated with an increased diabetes risk, compared with low-normal SUA. This was a cohort study with 10 years of followup involving all clinics of the largest nationally distributed Health Maintenance Organization in Israel. Participants included 469,947 examinees, 40-70 years old at baseline, who had their SUA measured during 2002. We excluded examinees who had hyperuricemia (SUA > 6.8 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose, overweight or obesity and chronic cardiovascular or renal disorders. The final cohort was composed of 30 302 participants. Participants were followed up to a new diagnosis of diabetes during the study period. Odds ratio of developing diabetes among participants with high-normal baseline SUA were compared with low-normal (2 ≤ uric acid lean women when compared with those with low-normal values.

  3. Reaffirming normal: the high risk of pathologizing healthy adults when interpreting the MMPI-2-RF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, Anthony P; Lammy, Andrew B; Perle, Jonathan G; Martin, Phillip K; Grote, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to determine the proportion of the normal population expected to have scale elevations on the MMPI-2-RF when multiple scores are interpreted. Results showed that when all 40 MMPI-2-RF scales are simultaneously considered, approximately 70% of normal adults are likely to have at least one scale elevation at or above 65 T, and as many as 20% will have five or more elevated scales. When the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales are under consideration, 34% of normal adults have at least one elevated score. Interpretation of the Specific Problem Scales and Personality Psychopathology Five Scales--Revised also yielded higher than expected rates of significant scores, with as many as one in four normal adults possibly being miscategorized as having features of a personality disorder by the latter scales. These findings are consistent with the growing literature on rates of apparently abnormal scores in the normal population due to multiple score interpretation. Findings are discussed in relation to clinical assessment, as well as in response to recent work suggesting that the MMPI-2-RF's multiscale composition does not contribute to high rates of elevated scores.

  4. Motivation and perceived competence for healthy eating and exercise among overweight/obese adolescents in comparison to normal weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Suzanne; Grace, Benjamin; Pak, Youngju; Reina, Astrid; Durand, Quinn; Yee, Jennifer K

    2017-01-01

    The current literature on determinants of behavior change in weight management lacks sufficient studies on type of motivation among children/adolescents, on perceived competence, and in relation to healthy eating. This study aimed to investigate type of motivation and levels of perceived competence for healthy diet and exercise, as well as general self efficacy among adolescents. We hypothesized that overweight/obese adolescents would demonstrate lower autonomous motivation and perceived competence regarding diet and exercise, and lower self-efficacy in general, and that the scores would be influenced by socioeconomic factors. Normal weight ( n  = 40, body mass index Competence Scale (PCS) for healthy eating and exercise, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). Composite scores for the three scales were compared between the two groups using the using the two-sample t-test (for normal data) or the Mann-Whitney U test (for non-parametric data). Relationships between the composite scores and patient characteristics were determined using Pearson or Spearman's correlations. The average age of the total cohort was 15.9 ± 1.9 years. 54% were female, and 82% identified as Latino/Hispanic. In comparison to normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents exhibited higher scores for controlled motivation (mean ± standard deviation 28.3 ± 9.3 vs 18.1 ± 8.1) and higher perceived competence [median and 25-75% interquartile range 22.5 (19.0-26.0) vs 20.0 (15.5-25.0)] in relation to eating a healthy diet. These differences persisted after adjustment for age, sex, paternal education, and family income. Overweight/obese adolescents did not lack autonomous motivation but demonstrated higher controlled motivation and perceived competence for healthy eating in comparison to normal weight adolescents, independent of socioeconomic factors. In the clinical practice of weight management, providers should carefully assess adolescents for type of

  5. Comparison of penile length at 6–24 months between children with unilateral cryptorchidism and a healthy normal cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Soo Ryu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urologic diseases affected by testosterone can be associated with smaller penis size compared to the normal population. We sought to compare penile length in children with unilateral cryptorchidism and normative data from a cohort of healthy Korean boys. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in 259 Korean boys (212, normal cohort; 47, cryptorchidism aged 6–24 months, each of whom had been brought to an outpatient clinic at one of five tertiary hospitals (Gyeongsangnam-do Province between April 2014 and June 2015. Penile length was measured via stretched penile length (SPL and testicular size was measured using orchidometry (mL. Results: SPL in children with cryptorchidism was significantly shorter compared to a cohort of healthy Korean boys aged 6–24 months (3.7±0.5 cm and 4.3±0.8 cm, p<0.001, although there were no differences with regard to height, body weight and contralateral testicular size between the two groups. According to the stratified ages (6–12, 12–18, and 18–24 months, SPL in children with cryptorchidism was persistently shorter at their ages than those without. Conclusions: It might be that the penile length aged 6–24 months of children with unilateral cryptorchidism is shorter than that of a cohort of healthy Korean boys.

  6. Studying the effect of different elements in gastric emptying that produce normal variations in `healthy` individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, L. [Sydney University, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-06-01

    Maintaining the rate of emptying solids and liquids at normal levels, is an essential component for the correct functioning of the entire gastro-intestinal tract. There is no single-test available which provides a `baseline` for all gastric emptying studies. This problem arises due to many elements which normally effect the rate of gastric emptying, such as those dealing with patient factors, the composition of the liquid/solid meal used and also which radiopharmaceutical is chosen. It is therefore recommended that each Nuclear Medicine practice needs to set-up guidelines which are able to be consistently reproduced. One such guideline may be in the form of a `liquid glucose meal` which provides consistent and accurate results for gastric emptying studies 18 refs., 2 figs.

  7. High-normal levels of hs-CRP predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Lee

    Full Text Available We performed a follow-up study to address whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels within the normal range can predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in healthy male subjects. Among15347 male workers between 30 and 59 years old who received annual health check-ups in 2002, a NAFLD-free cohort of 4,138 was followed through December 2009. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a questionnaire. At each visit, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to identify fatty liver disease. The COX proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the relationship between hs-CRP and incident NAFLD. During the follow-up period, 28.8% (1191 of 4138 of participants developed NAFLD. The hazard ratios of NAFLD were increased by hs-CRP categories within the normal range in the non-adjusted model and age-adjusted model. After adjusting for age, exercise, smoking, BMI, systolic BP, triglyceride, and fasting glucose, these incidences were only increased between the lowest and the highest hs-CRP categories. The risk for NAFLD increased as the hs-CRP level increased (p< 0.001. As the hs-CRP level increased within the healthy cohort, the risk of developing NAFLD increased. This trend remained true even if the hs-CRP level remained within the normal range. hs-CRP can be used as a predictor of NAFLD, as well as other obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, individuals with higher hs-CRP levels (even within the normal range may require appropriate follow-up and management to prevent NAFLD development.

  8. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Korzyukov, Oleg; Roth, Thomas; Bowyer, Susan M; Drake, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP)--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS) (habitual total sleep time (TST) 7 h 32 m) vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS) (habitual TST ≤6 h). To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m) corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS), and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m) in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS), were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep), and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively). The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  9. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Gumenyuk

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS (habitual total sleep time (TST 7 h 32 m vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS (habitual TST ≤6 h. To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS, and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS, were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep, and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively. The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  10. Normal left ventricular mechanics by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. Reference values in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabay, Gonenc; Muraru, Denisa; Peluso, Diletta; Cucchini, Umberto; Mihaila, Sorina; Padayattil-Jose, Seena; Gentian, Denas; Iliceto, Sabino; Vinereanu, Dragos; Badano, Luigi P

    2014-08-01

    Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography is a novel tool to assess myocardial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular myocardial strain and rotation parameters by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in a large group of healthy adults across a wide age range to establish their reference values and to assess the influence of age, sex, and hemodynamic factors. Transthoracic echocardiograms were acquired in 247 healthy volunteers (139 women, 44 years [standard deviation, 16 years old] (range, 18-80 years). We measured longitudinal, circumferential, and radial peak systolic strain values, and left ventricular rotation and twist. Average values of global longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain were -21.5% (standard deviation, 2.0%), 40.1% (standard deviation, 11.8%) and -22.2% (standard deviation, 3.4%), respectively. Longitudinal strain was significantly more negative in women, whereas radial and circumferential strain and rotational parameters were similar in both sexes. Accordingly, lower limits of normality for the strain components were -16.9% in men and -18.5% in women for longitudinal strain, and -15.4% for circumferential and 24.6% for radial strain, irrespective of sex. Longitudinal strain values were more negative at the base than at apical segments. Mean rotational values were -6.9° (standard deviation, 3.5°) for the base, 13.0° (standard deviation, 6.5°) for apical rotation, and 20.0° (standard deviation, 7.3°) for net twist. We report the comprehensive assessment of normal myocardial deformation and rotational mechanics in a large cohort of healthy volunteers. We found that women have more negative longitudinal strain, accounting for their higher left ventricular ejection fraction. Availability of reference values for these parameters may foster their implementation in the clinical routine. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Circulating thrombopoietin levels in normal healthy blood donors and in aplastic anemia patients in relation to disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombopoietin (TPO is the key hematopoietic growth factor regulating the production of platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes and maintaining platelet hemostasis. This study was done to find any relationship between the levels of thrombopoietin and the severity of disease in patients with aplastic anemia. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of aplastic anemia and 45 normal healthy blood donors of both sexes over a period of 2 years, and TPO was estimated by using commercially available TPO-specific-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The median TPO level of 1190 pg/ml (range 625-7651 pg/ml in aplastic anemia patients was significantly higher than the median TPO level of 121.1 pg/ml (81.25-237.7 pg/ml in normal healthy blood donors (P = 0.000. No significant difference was observed in TPO levels of male and female patients (P = 0.453. The median TPO concentrations observed in very severe aplastic anemia, severe aplastic anemia, and nonsevere aplastic anemia were 2765 pg/ml (range 625-6451 pg/ml, 1190 pg/ml (range 672.1-7651 pg/ml, and 1111.5 pg/ml (range 761.1-2289.2 pg/ml, respectively. TPO in patients of very severe aplastic anemia was significantly higher than patients of nonsevere aplastic anemia (P = 0.043, with no significant relation among rest of the groups. Discussion: TPO levels in aplastic anemia patients were significantly higher than in healthy blood donors; however, in aplastic anemia patients TPO levels were significantly higher only in patients with very severe disease.

  12. Restoration of a healthy intestinal microbiota normalizes portal hypertension in a rat model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lezana, Teresa; Raurell, Imma; Bravo, Miren; Torres-Arauz, Manuel; Salcedo, María Teresa; Santiago, Alba; Schoenenberger, Andreu; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Genescà, Joan; Martell, María; Augustin, Salvador

    2018-04-01

    Portal hypertension (PH) drives most of the clinical complications in chronic liver diseases. However, its progression in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and its association with the intestinal microbiota (IM) have been scarcely studied. Our aim was to investigate the role of the IM in the mechanisms leading to PH in early NASH. The experimental design was divided in two stages. In stage 1, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 8 weeks a high-fat, high-glucose/fructose diet (HFGFD) or a control diet/water (CD). Representative rats were selected as IM donors for stage 2. In stage 2, additional HFGFD and CD rats underwent intestinal decontamination, followed by IM transplantation with feces from opposite-diet donors (heterologous transplant) or autologous fecal transplant (as controls), generating four groups: CD-autotransplanted, CD-transplanted, HFGFD-autotransplanted, HFGFD-transplanted. After IM transplantation, the original diet was maintained for 12-14 days until death. HFGFD rats developed obesity, insulin resistance, NASH without fibrosis but with PH, intrahepatic endothelial dysfunction, and IM dysbiosis. In HFGFD rats, transplantation with feces from CD donors caused a significant reduction of PH to levels comparable to CD without significant changes in NASH histology. The reduction in PH was due to a 31% decrease of intrahepatic vascular resistance compared to the HFGFD-autotransplanted group (P protein kinase B-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling pathway. The IM exerts a direct influence in the development of PH in rats with diet-induced NASH and dysbiosis; PH, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction revert when a healthy IM is restored. (Hepatology 2018;67:1485-1498). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. pGenN, a Gene Normalization Tool for Plant Genes and Proteins in Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ruoyao; Arighi, Cecilia N.; Lee, Jung-Youn; Wu, Cathy H.; Vijay-Shanker, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Automatically detecting gene/protein names in the literature and connecting them to databases records, also known as gene normalization, provides a means to structure the information buried in free-text literature. Gene normalization is critical for improving the coverage of annotation in the databases, and is an essential component of many text mining systems and database curation pipelines. Methods In this manuscript, we describe a gene normalization system specifically tailored for plant species, called pGenN (pivot-based Gene Normalization). The system consists of three steps: dictionary-based gene mention detection, species assignment, and intra species normalization. We have developed new heuristics to improve each of these phases. Results We evaluated the performance of pGenN on an in-house expertly annotated corpus consisting of 104 plant relevant abstracts. Our system achieved an F-value of 88.9% (Precision 90.9% and Recall 87.2%) on this corpus, outperforming state-of-art systems presented in BioCreative III. We have processed over 440,000 plant-related Medline abstracts using pGenN. The gene normalization results are stored in a local database for direct query from the pGenN web interface (proteininformationresource.org/pgenn/). The annotated literature corpus is also publicly available through the PIR text mining portal (proteininformationresource.org/iprolink/). PMID:26258475

  14. Atmospheric dispersion and the radiological consequences of normal airborne effluents from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, D.; Yang, L.; Sun, C.Z.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the consequences of the normal exhaust of radioactive materials in air from nuclear power plants and atmospheric dispersion is studied. Because the source terms of the exhaust from a nuclear power plant are relatively low and their radiological consequences are far less than the corresponding authoritative limits, the atmospheric dispersion models, their various modifications, and selections of relevant parameters have few effects on those consequences. In the environmental assessment and siting, the emphasis should not be placed on the consequence evaluation of routine exhaust of nuclear power plants, and the calculation of consequences of the exhaust and atmospheric field measurements should be appropriately, simplified. 12 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  15. [Statistical (Poisson) motor unit number estimation. Methodological aspects and normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle of healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga Oporto, L; Menéndez-de León, C; Bauzano Poley, E; Núñez-Castaín, M J

    Among the differents techniques for motor unit number estimation (MUNE) there is the statistical one (Poisson), in which the activation of motor units is carried out by electrical stimulation and the estimation performed by means of a statistical analysis based on the Poisson s distribution. The study was undertaken in order to realize an approximation to the MUNE Poisson technique showing a coprehensible view of its methodology and also to obtain normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) from a healthy population. One hundred fourteen normal volunteers with age ranging from 10 to 88 years were studied using the MUNE software contained in a Viking IV system. The normal subjects were divided into two age groups (10 59 and 60 88 years). The EDB MUNE from all them was 184 49. Both, the MUNE and the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) were significantly lower in the older age group (page than CMAP amplitude ( 0.5002 and 0.4142, respectively pphisiology of the motor unit. The value of MUNE correlates better with the neuromuscular aging process than CMAP amplitude does.

  16. Peroxisomicine A1 (plant toxin-514) affects normal peroxisome assembly in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Zapata, Rigoberto; Torres-González, Vladimira; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, Julio; Piñeyro-López, Alfredo; Rechinger, Karl B.; Keizer-Gunnink, Ineke; Kiel, Jan A.K.W.; Veenhuis, Marten

    Previously we demonstrated that peroxisomicine A1 (T-514), a plant toxin isolated from Karwinskia species, has a deteriorating effect on the integrity of peroxisomes of methylotrophic yeasts. Here we describe two strains of Hansenula polymorpha, affected in the normal utilization of methanol as sole

  17. Healthy plants: necessary for a balanced ‘One Health’ concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Fletcher

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available All life forms depend ultimately upon sunlight to create the energy ‘currency’ required for the functions of living. Green plants can make that conversion directly but the rest of us would perish without access to foods derived, directly or indirectly, from plants. We also require their fibre which we use for clothing, building and other purposes. However, plants, just as humans and animals, are attacked by pathogens that cause a myriad of symptoms that can lead to reduced yields, lower quality products and diminished nutritional value. Plant pathogens share many features with their human and animal counterparts. Some pathogens - whether of humans, animals, or plants - have nimble genomes or the ability to pirate genes from other organisms via mobile elements. Some have developed the ability to cross kingdoms in their host ranges. Many others share virulence factors, such as the type III secretion system (T3SS or mechanisms for sensing population density, that work equally well in all kingdoms. Certain pathogens of hosts in all kingdoms rely upon insect vectors and use similar mechanisms to ensure dispersal (and sometimes survival in this way. Plant-pathogen interactions have more direct consequence for humans when the microbes are human pathogens such as Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella spp., which can contaminate fresh produce or when they produce metabolites, such as mycotoxins, which are harmful when consumed. Finally, national biosecurity concerns and the need for prevention, preparedness and forensic capabilities cross all kingdom barriers. Thus, our communities that focus on one of these kingdoms have much to learn from one another and a complete and balanced ‘One Health’ initiative must be tripartite, embracing the essential components of healthy plants, healthy animals and healthy people.

  18. Effects of an outdoor bicycle-based intervention in healthy rural Indian men with normal and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Mogensen, P; Thomas, N

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity and low birth weight (LBW) may lead to an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The extent to which LBW individuals may benefit from physical exercise training when compared with those with normal birth weight (NBW) controls is uncertain. We assessed the impact...... of an outdoor exercise intervention on body composition, insulin secretion and action in young men born with LBW and NBW in rural India. A total of 61 LBW and 56 NBW healthy young men were recruited into the study. The individuals were instructed to perform outdoor bicycle exercise training for 45 min every day...... with LBW in rural India benefit metabolically from exercise training to an extent comparable with NBW controls....

  19. What’s Normal? Immune Profiling of Human Milk from Healthy Women Living in Different Geographical and Socioeconomic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lorena; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; García-Carral, Cristina; Manzano, Susana; McGuire, Michelle K.; Meehan, Courtney L.; McGuire, Mark A.; Williams, Janet E.; Foster, James; Sellen, Daniel W.; Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W.; Kamundia, Egidioh W.; Mbugua, Samwel; Moore, Sophie E.; Kvist, Linda J.; Otoo, Gloria E.; Lackey, Kimberly A.; Flores, Katherine; Pareja, Rossina G.; Bode, Lars; Rodríguez, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk provides a very wide range of nutrients and bioactive components, including immune factors, human milk oligosaccharides, and a commensal microbiota. These factors are essential for interconnected processes including immunity programming and the development of a normal infant gastrointestinal microbiome. Newborn immune protection mostly relies on maternal immune factors provided through milk. However, studies dealing with an in-depth profiling of the different immune compounds present in human milk and with the assessment of their natural variation in healthy women from different populations are scarce. In this context, the objective of this work was the detection and quantification of a wide array of immune compounds, including innate immunity factors (IL1β, IL6, IL12, INFγ, TNFα), acquired immunity factors (IL2, IL4, IL10, IL13, IL17), chemokines (IL8, Groα, MCP1, MIP1β), growth factors [IL5, IL7, epidermal growth factor (EGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TGFβ2], and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), in milk produced by healthy women of different ethnicities living in different geographic, dietary, socioeconomic, and environmental settings. Among the analyzed factors, IgA, IgG, IgM, EGF, TGFβ2, IL7, IL8, Groα, and MIP1β were detected in all or most of the samples collected in each population and, therefore, this specific set of compounds might be considered as the “core” soluble immune factors in milk produced by healthy women worldwide. This approach may help define which immune factors are (or are not) common in milk produced by women living in various conditions, and to identify host, lifestyle, and environmental factors that affect the immunological composition of this complex biological fluid. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02670278. PMID:28713365

  20. What’s normal? Oligosaccharide concentrations and profiles in milk produced by healthy women vary geographically12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Courtney L; McGuire, Mark A; Foster, James; Sellen, Daniel W; Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W; Kamundia, Egidioh W; Mbugua, Samwel; Moore, Sophie E; Prentice, Andrew M; Kvist, Linda J; Otoo, Gloria E; Brooker, Sarah L; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Placek, Caitlyn; Lackey, Kimberly A; Robertson, Bianca; Ruíz, Lorena; Pareja, Rossina G; Bode, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a complex fluid comprised of myriad substances, with one of the most abundant substances being a group of complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). There has been some evidence that HMO profiles differ in populations, but few studies have rigorously explored this variability. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that HMO profiles differ in diverse populations of healthy women. Next, we examined relations between HMO and maternal anthropometric and reproductive indexes and indirectly examined whether differences were likely related to genetic or environmental variations. Design: In this cross-sectional, observational study, milk was collected from a total of 410 healthy, breastfeeding women in 11 international cohorts and analyzed for HMOs by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: There was an effect of the cohort (P 4 times higher in milk collected in Sweden than in milk collected in rural Gambia (mean ± SEM: 473 ± 55 compared with 103 ± 16 nmol/mL, respectively; P < 0.05), and disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) concentrations ranged from 216 ± 14 nmol/mL (in Sweden) to 870 ± 68 nmol/mL (in rural Gambia) (P < 0.05). Maternal age, time postpartum, weight, and body mass index were all correlated with several HMOs, and multiple differences in HMOs [e.g., lacto-N-neotetrose and DSLNT] were shown between ethnically similar (and likely genetically similar) populations who were living in different locations, which suggests that the environment may play a role in regulating the synthesis of HMOs. Conclusions: The results of this study support our hypothesis that normal HMO concentrations and profiles vary geographically, even in healthy women. Targeted genomic analyses are required to determine whether these differences are due at least in part to genetic variation. A careful examination of sociocultural, behavioral, and environmental factors is needed to determine their roles in this regard. This

  1. What’s Normal? Immune Profiling of Human Milk from Healthy Women Living in Different Geographical and Socioeconomic Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ruiz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human milk provides a very wide range of nutrients and bioactive components, including immune factors, human milk oligosaccharides, and a commensal microbiota. These factors are essential for interconnected processes including immunity programming and the development of a normal infant gastrointestinal microbiome. Newborn immune protection mostly relies on maternal immune factors provided through milk. However, studies dealing with an in-depth profiling of the different immune compounds present in human milk and with the assessment of their natural variation in healthy women from different populations are scarce. In this context, the objective of this work was the detection and quantification of a wide array of immune compounds, including innate immunity factors (IL1β, IL6, IL12, INFγ, TNFα, acquired immunity factors (IL2, IL4, IL10, IL13, IL17, chemokines (IL8, Groα, MCP1, MIP1β, growth factors [IL5, IL7, epidermal growth factor (EGF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TGFβ2], and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM, in milk produced by healthy women of different ethnicities living in different geographic, dietary, socioeconomic, and environmental settings. Among the analyzed factors, IgA, IgG, IgM, EGF, TGFβ2, IL7, IL8, Groα, and MIP1β were detected in all or most of the samples collected in each population and, therefore, this specific set of compounds might be considered as the “core” soluble immune factors in milk produced by healthy women worldwide. This approach may help define which immune factors are (or are not common in milk produced by women living in various conditions, and to identify host, lifestyle, and environmental factors that affect the immunological composition of this complex biological fluid.Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02670278.

  2. The buccal cytome and micronucleus frequency is substantially altered in Down's syndrome and normal ageing compared to young healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Philip; Harvey, Sarah; Gruner, Tini; Fenech, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The buccal micronucleus cytome assay was used to investigate biomarkers for DNA damage, cell death and basal cell frequency in buccal cells of healthy young, healthy old and young Down's syndrome cohorts. With normal ageing a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.05, average increase +366%), karyorrhectic cells (P < 0.001, average increase +439%), condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average increase +45.8%) and basal cells (P < 0.001, average increase +233%) is reported relative to young controls. In Down's syndrome we report a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.001, average increase +733%) and binucleated cells (P < 0.001, average increase +84.5%) and a significant decrease in condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average decrease -52%), karyolytic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease -51.8%) and pyknotic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease -75.0%) relative to young controls. These changes show distinct differences between the cytome profile of normal ageing relative to that for a premature ageing syndrome, and highlight the diagnostic value of the cytome approach for measuring the profile of cells with DNA damage, cell death and proportion of cells with proliferative potential (i.e., basal cells). Significant correlations amongst cell death biomarkers observed in this study were used to propose a new model of the inter-relationship of cell types scored within the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. This study validates the use of a cytome approach to investigate DNA damage, cell death and cell proliferation in buccal cells with ageing

  3. Analysis of the diffusion tensor imaging parameters of a normal cervical spinal cord in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang-Feng; Wang, Shou-Sen; Zheng, Zhao-Cong; Tian, Jun; Xue, Liang

    2017-05-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) shows great advantage in the diagnosis of brain diseases, including cervical spinal cord (CSC) disease. This study aims to obtain the normal values of the DTI parameters for a healthy population and to establish a baseline for CSC disease diagnosis using DTI. A total of 36 healthy adults were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the entire CSC using the Siemens 3.0 T MR System. Sagittal DTI acquisition was carried out with a single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence along 12 non-collinear directions. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were determined at different cervical levels using a region of interest (ROI) method, following which they were correlated with parameters, like age and sex. Further, diffusion tensor tracking (DTT) was carried out to reconstruct the white matter fiber bundles of the CSC. The full and complete fiber bundle structure of a normal CSC was confirmed in both the T2-weighted and DTI images. The FA and ADC values were significantly negatively correlated with each other and showed strongly negative and positive correlations with age, respectively, but not with sex. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the FA and the ADC values at different cervical levels. The DTI technique can act as an important supplement to the conventional MRI technique for CSC observation. Moreover, the FA and ADC values can be used as sensitive parameters in the DTI study on the CSC by taking the effects of age into consideration.

  4. 'Aussie normals': an a priori study to develop clinical chemistry reference intervals in a healthy Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, G; Cavanaugh, J A; Potter, J M; Abhayaratna, W P; West, N P; Glasgow, N; Hawkins, C; Armbruster, D; Oakman, C; Hickman, P E

    2015-02-01

    Development of reference intervals is difficult, time consuming, expensive and beyond the scope of most laboratories. The Aussie Normals study is a direct a priori study to determine reference intervals in healthy Australian adults. All volunteers completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and exclusion was based on conditions such as pregnancy, diabetes, renal or cardiovascular disease. Up to 91 biochemical analyses were undertaken on a variety of analytical platforms using serum samples collected from 1856 volunteers. We report on our findings for 40 of these analytes and two calculated parameters performed on the Abbott ARCHITECTci8200/ci16200 analysers. Not all samples were analysed for all assays due to volume requirements or assay/instrument availability. Results with elevated interference indices and those deemed unsuitable after clinical evaluation were removed from the database. Reference intervals were partitioned based on the method of Harris and Boyd into three scenarios, combined gender, males and females and age and gender. We have performed a detailed reference interval study on a healthy Australian population considering the effects of sex, age and body mass. These reference intervals may be adapted to other manufacturer's analytical methods using method transference.

  5. Impact of the Make Healthy Normal mass media campaign (Phase 1) on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, James; Gale, Joanne; Grunseit, Anne; Bellew, William; Li, Vincy; Lloyd, Beverley; Maxwell, Michelle; Vineburg, John; Bauman, Adrian

    2018-06-01

    To determine the impact of the first phase of the Make Healthy Normal mass media campaign on NSW adults' active living and healthy eating knowledge, attitudes, intentions and behaviour. Cohort design with NSW adults, followed up three times over 12 months, with n=939 participants completing all three waves. We used generalised linear mixed models to examine campaign awareness, knowledge, attitudes, intentions and behaviours over time. Campaign recognition built to a reasonable level (45% at Wave 3), although unprompted recall was low (9% at Wave 3). There were significant increases in knowledge of physical activity recommendations (46% to 50%), the health effects of obesity (52% to 64%), and weight loss benefits (53% to 65%), with stronger effects in campaign recognisers. Conversely, we found declines in self-efficacy and intention to increase physical activity (39% to 31%) and decrease soft drink consumption (31% to 24%). Overall, there are some positives for the campaign but intentions need to be a focus of future campaign phases. Continued investment over the medium- to long-term is needed. Mass media campaigns can play a role in obesity prevention but robust evaluations are needed to identify the characteristics of effective campaigns. © 2018 The Authors.

  6. A method for named entity normalization in biomedical articles: application to diseases and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyejin; Choi, Wonjun; Lee, Hyunju

    2017-10-13

    In biomedical articles, a named entity recognition (NER) technique that identifies entity names from texts is an important element for extracting biological knowledge from articles. After NER is applied to articles, the next step is to normalize the identified names into standard concepts (i.e., disease names are mapped to the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings disease terms). In biomedical articles, many entity normalization methods rely on domain-specific dictionaries for resolving synonyms and abbreviations. However, the dictionaries are not comprehensive except for some entities such as genes. In recent years, biomedical articles have accumulated rapidly, and neural network-based algorithms that incorporate a large amount of unlabeled data have shown considerable success in several natural language processing problems. In this study, we propose an approach for normalizing biological entities, such as disease names and plant names, by using word embeddings to represent semantic spaces. For diseases, training data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) disease corpus and unlabeled data from PubMed abstracts were used to construct word representations. For plants, a training corpus that we manually constructed and unlabeled PubMed abstracts were used to represent word vectors. We showed that the proposed approach performed better than the use of only the training corpus or only the unlabeled data and showed that the normalization accuracy was improved by using our model even when the dictionaries were not comprehensive. We obtained F-scores of 0.808 and 0.690 for normalizing the NCBI disease corpus and manually constructed plant corpus, respectively. We further evaluated our approach using a data set in the disease normalization task of the BioCreative V challenge. When only the disease corpus was used as a dictionary, our approach significantly outperformed the best system of the task. The proposed approach shows robust

  7. Biochemical composition of fetal fluids in at term, normal developed, healthy, viable dogs and preliminary data from pathologic littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Bolis, B; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Mollo, A

    2018-03-01

    A proper canine neonatal assistance, required to reduce the high perinatal loss rate, imply a full knowledge about the fetal-to-neonatal physiology. Because fetal fluids play an important role throughout mammals pregnancy, influencing fetal growth and development, fetal well being, and contributing to guarantee the most suitable environment for the fetus, the knowledge about fetal fluids biochemical composition is of major importance. At first, the biochemical composition of fetal fluids collected by normal developed, healthy and viable newborns, is necessary to depict the normal features, and represent the first step for the further detection of abnormalities associated to fetal/neonatal distress and useful for the early identification of newborns needing special attention, immediately after birth. The present study was aimed to define the biochemical composition of amniotic and allantoic fluids collected from fetus delivered by caesarean section at term of pregnancy. To reduce the possible confounding effect of maternal labor or troubles at parturition, fetal fluids were collected only from puppies born by elective caesaeran section, at term of normal pregnancies. Fetal fluids from 76 puppies, 70 normal and six pathologic newborns, born by elective caesarean section were collected and analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine-kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, amylase, lipase, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), triglycerides, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, globulins, glucose, magnesium, potassium, chloride, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolarity. No significant differences were found between biochemical composition of amniotic or allantoic fluid in normal and pathologic newborns, maybe due to the small number of the pathologic puppies. Although some correlations between the two fluids were found (albumin, phosphorus, glucose and

  8. Multivariate relationships between international normalized ratio and vitamin K-dependent coagulation-derived parameters in normal healthy donors and oral anticoagulant therapy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golanski Jacek

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives International Normalized Ratio (INR is a world-wide routinely used factor in the monitoring of oral anticoagulation treatment (OAT. However, it was reported that other factors, e. g. factor II, may even better reflect therapeutic efficacy of OAT and, therefore, may be potentialy useful for OAT monitoring. The primary purpose of this study was to characterize the associations of INR with other vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins in a heterogenous group of individuals, including healthy donors, patients on OAT and patients not receiving OAT. The study aimed also at establishing the influence of co-morbid conditions (incl. accompanying diseases and co-medications (incl. different intensity of OAT on INR. Design and Methods Two hundred and three subjects were involved in the study. Of these, 35 were normal healthy donors (group I, 73 were patients on medication different than OAT (group II and 95 were patients on stable oral anticoagulant (acenocoumarol therapy lasting for at least half a year prior to the study. The values of INR and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT ratio, as well as activities of FII, FVII, FX, protein C, and concentration of prothrombin F1+2 fragments and fibrinogen were obtained for all subjects. In statistical evaluation, the uni- and multivariate analyses were employed and the regression equations describing the obtained associations were estimated. Results Of the studied parameters, three (factors II, VII and X appeared as very strong modulators of INR, protein C and prothrombin fragments F1+2 had moderate influence, whereas both APTT ratio and fibrinogen had no significant impact on INR variability. Due to collinearity and low tolerance of independent variables included in the multiple regression models, we routinely employed a ridge multiple regression model which compromises the minimal number of independent variables with the maximal overall determination coefficient. The best

  9. Myocardial infarction during anaphylaxis in a young healthy male with normal coronary arteries- is epinephrine the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamali, W D; Herath, H M M T B; Kulathunga, Aruna

    2017-09-04

    Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially fatal medical emergency. Myocardial injury or infarction in the setting of an anaphylaxis can be due the anaphylaxis itself, when it is known as Kounis syndrome or it can also be due to the effect of epinephrine treatment. Epinephrine is considered as the cornerstone in management of anaphylaxis. Myocardial infarction secondary to therapeutic doses of adrenaline is a rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported in literature. The mechanism of myocardial injury was considered to be due to coronary vasospasm secondary to epinephrine as the coronary angiograms were normal on these occasions. A 21-year- old previously healthy male got admitted to the local hospital with an urticarial rash and difficulty in breathing, one hour after ingestion of prawns for which he was known to be allergic. He was treated with 0.5 ml of intramuscular adrenaline (1:1000) which was administered to the lateral side of the thigh, following which he developed palpitations and tightening type central chest pain. Electrocardiogram showed ST segment depressions in leads III, aVF and V1 to V5 and he was transferred to a tertiary care hospital. The second electrocardiogram, done 2 h later, showed resolution of ST segment depressions but new T inversions in leads I and aVL. Troponin I was elevated with a titer of 2.15 ng/ml. He was treated with sublingual GTN in the emergency treatment unit and the symptoms resolved. Transthoracic 2D echocardiogram and stress testing with treadmill was normal and CT coronary angiogram revealed normal coronary arteries. Here we present a case of a young healthy adult with no significant risk factors for coronary artery disease who developed myocardial infarction following intramuscular administration of therapeutic dose of adrenalin for an anaphylactic reaction. The postulated mechanism is most likely an alpha receptor mediated coronary vascular spasm. However the use of adrenaline in the setting of life

  10. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P.; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient. MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories. This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category. PMID:27399079

  11. Comparison of auxin activty in tumourous and normal callus cultures from sunflower and tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal and tumourous calluses of sunflower and tobacco the level of extractable auxins was determined by Avena coleoptile straight growth test. Auxin activity was detected practically in two zones: I - at position with Rf 0.2-0.4 and II - at position with Rf 0.6-0.9. The tumour tissues of sunflower and tobacco plants, representing different types of neoplastic growth exhibit a 3 times higher auxin activity as compared with that of the corresponding normal tissues. Tobacco tissues, on the other hand, had a higher auxin level than the corresponding sunflower tissues and they exhibited different proportions in the activity of zones I and II, which points to a dominance of genetic regulation of hormone metabolism in these plants.

  12. Assessment of risks of accidents and normal operation at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, Ilkka; Vuori, Seppo.

    1977-01-01

    A probabilistic assessment model for the analysis of risks involved in the operation of nuclear power plants is described. With the computer code ARANO it is possible to estimate the health and economic consequences of reactor accidents both in probabilistic and deterministic sense. In addition the code is applicable to the calculation of individual and collective doses caused by the releases during normal operation. The estimation of release probabilities and magnitudes is not included in the model. (author)

  13. Analysis of adaptability of radioactive liquid effluent discharge under normal condition of inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yueping; Zhang Bing; Chen Yang; Zhu Lingqing; Tao Yunliang; Shangguan Zhihong

    2011-01-01

    The discharge of radioactive liquid effluent from inland nuclear power plant under normal operation is an important part to be considered in environmental impact assessment. Requirements of newly revised and upcoming standards GB 6249 and GB 14587 are introduced in this paper. Through an example of an inland NPP siting in the preliminary feasibility study phase, the adaptability to the relevant regulations in the site selection is analyzed. Also, the concerned problems in the design of AP1000 units are addressed. (authors)

  14. Human-Machine interface for off normal and emergency situations in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants (NPPs) have reported that a high percentage of all major failures in the plants are caused by human errors. Therefore, there has been much focus on elimination of human errors, enhancement of human performance, and general improvement of human machine interface (HMI). Both the utility management and the regulators are demanding improvement in this area. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Specialists' Meeting on 'Human-Machine Interface for Off Normal and Emergency Situations in Nuclear Power Plants' was co-organized by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and the Korea Power Engineering Company, INC (KOPEC), and took place in Taejeon, Republic of Korea, 1999 October 26-28. Fifty eight participants, representing nine member countries reviewed recent developments and discussed directions for future efforts in the Human-Machine Interface for Off Normal and Emergency Situations in NPPs. Twenty papers were presented, covering a wide spectrum of technical and scientific subjects including recent experience and benefits from Operational Experience with HMI, Development of HMI System, Licensing Issues for HMI and Future Development and Trends. (Author)

  15. Occupational radiation exposure at the Eurochemic reprocessing plant during normal operation and intervention periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenco, A.

    1980-01-01

    The Eurochemic reprocessing plant is a direct-maintenance, demonstration facility. From 1966 to 1974 it has processed about 180 tonnes of natural or low-enriched uranium, mainly as oxide, and about 30 tonnes of alloys of aluminium and highly enriched uranium. In this period, the operation was stopped for the time necessary to build and connect a new unit for the separation and purification of plutonium. As from 1975, all equipment was rinsed in order to put the plant in standby, some particular equipment was dismantled and a campaign of systematic decontamination was started. Simultaneously, the necessary steps were taken for the solidification and conditioning for storage or disposal of the wastes produced during the operation of the plant. The methods used to determine the individual doses due to external or internal irradiation are shortly described, as well as the rules set up for limiting these doses or for authorizing planned exposures. For the period 1966-1978 the paper shows the distribution of yearly individual and collective doses recorded for the permanent staff and for workers occupied for limited times. Correlations are shown between the absorbed doses and the nature of the work (normal operation, intervention, etc.) or the function in the enterprise (operation, maintenance, health physics, etc.). A small number of incidents leading to intakes or doses higher than normal did occur. However, experience has shown that careful planning and close collaboration between operational and health physics staff have resulted in keeping the doses within the authorized limits. (author)

  16. Human-Machine interface for off normal and emergency situations in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants (NPPs) have reported that a high percentage of all major failures in the plants are caused by human errors. Therefore, there has been much focus on elimination of human errors, enhancement of human performance, and general improvement of human machine interface (HMI). Both the utility management and the regulators are demanding improvement in this area. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Specialists' Meeting on 'Human-Machine Interface for Off Normal and Emergency Situations in Nuclear Power Plants' was co-organized by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and the Korea Power Engineering Company, INC (KOPEC), and took place in Taejeon, Republic of Korea, 1999 October 26-28. Fifty eight participants, representing nine member countries reviewed recent developments and discussed directions for future efforts in the Human-Machine Interface for Off Normal and Emergency Situations in NPPs. Twenty papers were presented, covering a wide spectrum of technical and scientific subjects including recent experience and benefits from Operational Experience with HMI, Development of HMI System, Licensing Issues for HMI and Future Development and Trends. (Author)

  17. Development of dose assessment code for release of tritium during normal operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, J.; Malatova, I.

    2009-01-01

    A computer code PTM H TO has been developed to assess tritium doses to the general public. The code enables to simulate the behavior of tritium in the environment released into the atmosphere under normal operation of nuclear power plants. Code can calculate the doses for the three chemical and physical forms: tritium gas (HT), tritiated water vapor and water drops (HTO). The models in this code consist of the tritium transfer model including oxidation of HT to HTO and reemission of HTO from soil to the atmosphere, and the dose calculation model

  18. An estimation of population doses from a nuclear power plant during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, K.

    1975-07-01

    A model is presented for estimation of the potential submersion and inhalation radiation doses to people located within a distance of 1000 km from a nuclear power plant during normal operation. The model was used to calculate doses for people living 200-1000 km from hypothetical nuclear power facility sited near the geographical centre of Denmark. Two kinds of sources are considered for this situation: - unit release of 15 isotopes of noble gases and iodines, - effluent releases from two types of 1000 MWe Light Water Power Reactors: PWR and BWR. Parameter variations were made and analyzed in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of the model. (author)

  19. Reliability analysis of meteorological data registered during nuclear power plant normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, V.; Ulke, A.; Marino, B.; Thomas, L.

    2011-01-01

    The atmosphere is the environment in which gaseous radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants are transported. It is therefore essential to have reliable meteorological information to characterize the dispersion and feed evaluation models and radiological environmental impact during normal operation of the plant as well as accidental releases. In this way it is possible to determine the effects on the environment and in humans. The basic data needed to represent adequately the local weather include air temperature, wind speed and direction, rainfall, humidity and pressure. On the other hand, specific data consistent with the used model is required to determine the turbulence, for instance, radiation, cloud cover and vertical temperature gradient. It is important that the recorded data are representative of the local meteorology. This requires, first, properly placed instruments, that should be kept in operation and undergoing maintenance on a regular basis. Second, but equally substantial, a thorough analysis of its reliability must be performed prior to storage and/or data processing. In this paper we present the main criteria to consider choosing the location of a meteorological tower in the area of a nuclear power plant and propose a methodology for assessing the reliability of recorded data. The methodology was developed from the analysis of meteorological data registered in nuclear power plants in Argentina. (authors) [es

  20. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jeanett F; Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Olsen, Nanna J; Stougaard, Maria; Mortensen, Erik L; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children's diet complied with the Danish national guidelines. Linear regression per protocol and intention-to-treat analyses of differences in intakes of energy, macronutrients, fruit, vegetables, fish, sugar-sweetened beverages and diet quality index between the two groups were conducted. The Healthy Start study was conducted during 2009-2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (dietary intake. Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P=0·02) compared with the control group. We observed lower intakes of carbohydrates and added sugar in the intervention group compared with the control group after the intervention (P=0·002, P=0·01). The intervention resulted in a lower energy intake, particularly from carbohydrates and added sugar after 15 months of intervention, suggesting that dietary intake can be changed in a healthier direction in children predisposed to obesity.

  1. Concept of voltage and frequency monitoring for a nuclear power plant normal power supply system - PWR 1300 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, R.B. de

    1990-01-01

    Voltage and frequency monitoring concept for a Nuclear Power Plant Normal Power Supply System (PWR 1300 MWe) is described based on the phylosophy adopted for Angra 2 and e NPP's. Some suggested setpoints are only guidance values and can be modified during plant commissioning for a better performance of the whole protection system. (author) [pt

  2. Motivation and perceived competence for healthy eating and exercise among overweight/obese adolescents in comparison to normal weight adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari, Suzanne; Grace, Benjamin; Pak, Youngju; Reina, Astrid; Durand, Quinn; Yee, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    Background The current literature on determinants of behavior change in weight management lacks sufficient studies on type of motivation among children/adolescents, on perceived competence, and in relation to healthy eating. This study aimed to investigate type of motivation and levels of perceived competence for healthy diet and exercise, as well as general self efficacy among adolescents. We hypothesized that overweight/obese adolescents would demonstrate lower autonomous motivation and per...

  3. Helicobacter Pylori Associated Antral Gastritis in Peptic Ulcer Disease Patients and Normal Healthy Population of Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gh. Jeelani Romshoo; G. M. Malik; M. Youssuf Bhat; Ab. Rashid rather; Javaid Ahmad Basu; Khursheed Ahmad Qureshi

    1998-01-01

    Aim: To study the association of Helicobacter pylori infection with chronic antral gastritis in peptic ulcer disease patients and healthy population of Kashmir. Methods: 50 peptic ulcer patients (duodenal ulcer = 46, gastric ulcer = 2 and combined duodenal and gastric ulcer = 2) and 30 asymptomatic healthy volunteers were included in this study. Peptic ulcer was diagnosed on endoscopic examination. 4–6 punch biopsies were taken from gastric antrum in all the individuals and in case of gastric...

  4. Differentially expressed genes in healthy and plum pox virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozárová, Z; Žilová, M; Šubr, Z

    2015-12-01

    Viruses use both material and energy sources of their hosts and redirect the production of disposable compounds in order to make viral replication more efficient. Metabolism of infected organisms is modified by these enhanced requirements as well by their own defense response. Resulting complex story consists of many regulation events on various gene expression levels. Elucidating these processes may contribute to the knowledge on virus-host interactions and to evolving new antiviral strategies. In our work we applied a subtractive cloning technique to compare the transcriptomes of healthy and plum pox virus (PPV)-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Several genes were found to be induced or repressed by the PPV infection. The induced genes were mainly related to general stress response or photosynthesis, several repressed genes could be connected with growth defects evoked by the infection. Interestingly, some genes usually up-regulated by fungal or bacterial infection were found repressed in PPV-infected plants. Potential involvement of particular differently expressed genes in the process of PPV infection is discussed.

  5. Increase in circulating holotranscobalamin after oral administration of cyanocobalamin or hydroxocobalamin in healthy adults with low and normal cobalamin status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Mahalle, Namita; Bhide, Vijayshri

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the absorption of synthetic cyanocobalamin and natural occurring hydroxocobalamin in populations with low and normal cobalamin (vitamin B12) status. METHODS: We included adults with low (n = 59) and normal (n = 42) cobalamin status and measured the change in serum holotran...

  6. Irregular meal pattern-effects on energy expenditure, metabolism and appetite regulation: a randomized controlled trial in healthy normal-weight women

    OpenAIRE

    Alhussain, Maha H; Macdonald, Ian A.; Taylor, Moira A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is increasing in parallel with greater all-day food availability. The latter may promote meal irregularity, dysregulation of the energy balance, and poor metabolic health.\\ud Objective: We investigated the effect of meal irregularity on the thermic effect of food (TEF), lipid concentrations, carbohydrate metabolism, subjective appetite, and gut hormones in healthy women.\\ud Design: Eleven normal-weight women (18–40 y of age) were recruited in a randomized crossover trial w...

  7. Data-driven identification of intensity normalization region based on longitudinal coherency of 18F-FDG metabolism in the healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiwei; Wu, Ping; Ziegler, Sibylle I; Guan, Yihui; Wang, Yuetao; Ge, Jingjie; Schwaiger, Markus; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Zuo, Chuantao; Förster, Stefan; Shi, Kuangyu

    2017-02-01

    In brain 18 F-FDG PET data intensity normalization is usually applied to control for unwanted factors confounding brain metabolism. However, it can be difficult to determine a proper intensity normalization region as a reference for the identification of abnormal metabolism in diseased brains. In neurodegenerative disorders, differentiating disease-related changes in brain metabolism from age-associated natural changes remains challenging. This study proposes a new data-driven method to identify proper intensity normalization regions in order to improve separation of age-associated natural changes from disease related changes in brain metabolism. 127 female and 128 male healthy subjects (age: 20 to 79) with brain 18 F-FDG PET/CT in the course of a whole body cancer screening were included. Brain PET images were processed using SPM8 and were parcellated into 116 anatomical regions according to the AAL template. It is assumed that normal brain 18 F-FDG metabolism has longitudinal coherency and this coherency leads to better model fitting. The coefficient of determination R 2 was proposed as the coherence coefficient, and the total coherence coefficient (overall fitting quality) was employed as an index to assess proper intensity normalization strategies on single subjects and age-cohort averaged data. Age-associated longitudinal changes of normal subjects were derived using the identified intensity normalization method correspondingly. In addition, 15 subjects with clinically diagnosed Parkinson's disease were assessed to evaluate the clinical potential of the proposed new method. Intensity normalizations by paracentral lobule and cerebellar tonsil, both regions derived from the new data-driven coherency method, showed significantly better coherence coefficients than other intensity normalization regions, and especially better than the most widely used global mean normalization. Intensity normalization by paracentral lobule was the most consistent method within both

  8. Comparison of the effects of dopamine, dobutamine, and dopexamine upon renal blood flow: a study in normal healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Mousdale, S; Clyburn, P A; Mackie, A M; Groves, N D; Rosen, M

    1988-01-01

    1. We compared the effects of dopexamine, dopamine and dobutamine on the heart rate, blood pressure and renal blood flow of six healthy volunteers in an open triple crossover trial. 2. The results suggest that at the dose ranges investigated dopamine was the most effective agent for increasing renal blood flow.

  9. Helicobacter Pylori Associated Antral Gastritis in Peptic Ulcer Disease Patients and Normal Healthy Population of Kashmir, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, G. M.; Bhat, M. Youssuf; rather, Ab. Rashid; Basu, Javaid Ahmad; Qureshi, Khursheed Ahmad

    1998-01-01

    Aim: To study the association of Helicobacter pylori infection with chronic antral gastritis in peptic ulcer disease patients and healthy population of Kashmir. Methods: 50 peptic ulcer patients (duodenal ulcer = 46, gastric ulcer = 2 and combined duodenal and gastric ulcer = 2) and 30 asymptomatic healthy volunteers were included in this study. Peptic ulcer was diagnosed on endoscopic examination. 4–6 punch biopsies were taken from gastric antrum in all the individuals and in case of gastric ulcer an additional biopsy was taken from the edge of the ulcer to exclude its malignant nature. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) organism was diagnosed using three different test methods, viz. Histology (using Giemsa Stain), Microbiology (Gram Stain) and Biochemistry (using one minute Endoscopy Room Test). Histological diagnosis of H. pylori was taken as the “gold standard” for the presence of H. pylori organism. Histological diagnosis of gastritis was made using Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain and the gastritis was classified as active chronic gastritis and superficial chronic gastritis. Results: Out of 30 peptic ulcer disease patients with associated antral gastritis, 27 (90%) were positive for H. pylori on histological examination (13 superficial chronic gastritis and 14 active chronic gastritis) whereas out of 8 healthy volunteers with histological evidence of chronic antral gastritis, H. pylori was observed in 7 individuals (87.50%) (4 active chronic gastritis and 3 superficial chronic gastritis). Conclusion: A highly significant association between H. pylori infection with chronic antral gastritis both in peptic ulcer disease patients and healthy volunteers of Kashmir was found in this study. Association between H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis was 90% in peptic ulcer group and 87.50% in healthy population (P<0.005). PMID:18493464

  10. Foxp3+ Treg expanded from patients with established diabetes reduce Helios expression while retaining normal function compared to healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiting Du

    Full Text Available Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells (Treg play a crucial role in regulating immune tolerance. The use of Treg to restore immune tolerance is considered an attractive novel approach to inhibit autoimmune disease, including type 1 diabetes (T1D, and to prevent rejection of organ transplants. In view of the goal of developing autologous Treg-based cell therapy for patients with long-term (>15 years T1D, it will be necessary to expand a sufficient amount of functional Treg in vitro in order to study and compare Treg from T1D patients and healthy subjects. Our results have demonstrated that there is a comparable frequency of Treg in the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs of patients with long-term T1D relative to those in healthy subjects; however, Th1 cells, but not Th17 cells, were increased in the T1D patients. Further, more Treg in PBLs from T1D patients than from healthy subjects expressed the CD45RO(+ memory cell phenotype, suggesting they were antigen-experienced cells. After isolation, Treg from both T1D patients and healthy subjects were successfully expanded with high purity. Although there was no difference in Helios expression on Treg in PBLs, in vitro expansion led to fewer Helios-expressing Treg from T1D patients than healthy subjects. While more Th1-like Treg expressing IFN-γ or TNF-α were found in the PBLs of T1D patients than healthy controls, there was no such difference in the expanded Treg. Importantly, expanded Treg from both subject groups were able to suppress autologous or allogeneic CD8(+ effector T cells equally well. Our findings demonstrate that a large number of ex vivo expanded functional Treg can be obtained from long-term T1D patients, although fewer expanded Treg expressed a high level of Helios. Thus, based on the positive outcomes, these potent expanded Treg from diabetic human patients may be useful in treating T1D or preventing islet graft rejection.

  11. Relationship between elevated triglyceride levels with the increase of HOMA-IR and HOMA-β in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Castañeda-Chacón, Argelia; Rodriguez-Morán, Martha; Aradillas-García, Celia; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that mildly elevated triglyceride levels are associated with the increase of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight, we conducted a cross-sectional population study. Based on fasting triglyceride levels, participants were allocated into groups with and without triglyceride levels ≥1.2 mmol/L. Normal weight was defined by body mass index between the 15th and 85th percentiles, for age and gender. Insulin resistance and insulin secretion were estimated using HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices. A total of 1660 children and adolescents were enrolled, of them 327 (19.7%) with mildly elevated triglycerides. The multivariate linear regression analysis showed that mildly elevated triglyceride levels in children were associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.214, p HOMA-β (β = 0.139, p = 0.001), systolic (β = 0.094, p = 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.102, p = 0.007), whereas in adolescents, HOMA-IR (β = 0.267, p HOMA-β (β = 0.154, p HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight.

  12. The intramuscular glucagon stimulation test does not provide good discrimination between normal and inadequate ACTH reserve when used in the investigation of short healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Ariel; Phillip, Moshe; de Vries, Liat

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the role of the glucagon stimulation test (GST) in evaluating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in children. We investigated the diagnostic value of the GST in evaluating the adrenocortical response in short healthy children. The GST was performed in 190 children investigated for short stature. A peak cortisol >500 nmol/l was considered a normal response. In the 45 (23.7%) with subnormal response, a 250-μg ACTH test was done. The rate of subnormal adrenal response to GST was higher among boys (33.9 vs. 8.9%, p 500 nmol/l in all the patients undergoing an ACTH stimulation test. Since adrenal response to GST is age- and gender-related and the false-positive rate is high, its routine performance in healthy children warrants reconsideration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, Raghuram

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality) and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18–71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, me...

  14. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure) and general health in normal adults. Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18–71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction and devotional ...

  15. Ghrelin gene: identification of missense variants and a frameshift mutation in extremely obese children and adolescents and healthy normal weight students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Anke; Hoch, Anne; Geller, Frank; Schäfer, Helmut; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Goldschmidt, Hanspeter; Remschmidt, Helmut; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2002-06-01

    Ghrelin induces obesity via central and peripheral mechanisms. Administration of ghrelin leads to increased food intake and decreased fat utilisation in rodents. Ghrelin levels are decreased in obese individuals. Recently, a polymorphism (Arg-51-Gln) within the ghrelin gene (GHRL) was described to be associated with obesity. We screened the GHRL coding region in 215 extremely obese German Children and adolescents (study group 1) and 93 normal weight students (study group 2) by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP). We found the two previously described single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP: Arg-51-Gln and Leu-72-Met) in similar frequencies in study groups 1 and 2 (allele frequencies were: 0.019 and 0.016 for the 51-Gln allele and 0.091 and 0.086 for the 72-Met allele, respectively). Hence, we could not confirm the previous finding. Additionally, two novel variants were identified within the coding region: (1) We detected one healthy normal weight individual with a frameshift mutation (2bp deletion at codon 34). This frameshift mutation affects the coding region of the mature ghrelin. Hence, it is highly likely that the normal weight student is haplo-insufficient for ghrelin. (2) An A to T transversion leads to an amino acid exchange from Gln to Leu at amino acid position 90. The frequency of the 90-Leu allele was significantly higher in the extremely obese children and adolescents (0.063) than in the normal weight students (0.016; nominal p = 0.011). Additionally, we genotyped 134 underweight students and 44 normal weight adults for this SNP. Genotype frequencies were similar in extremely obese children and adolescents, underweight students and normal weight adults (p > 0.8). In conclusion, we identified four sequence variants in the coding region of the ghrelin gene in individuals belonging to different weight extremes. A frameshift mutation was detected in a normal weight individual. None of the variants seem to influence weight regulation.

  16. Effects of Indoor Horseback Riding and Virtual Reality Exercises on the Dynamic Balance Ability of Normal Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal adults. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 normal adults and divided them into two groups: an indoor horseback riding exercise group (IHREG, n = 12) and a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n = 12). [Methods] IHREG exercised on indoor horseback riding equipment and VREG exercised using the Nintendo Wii Fit three times a week for six weeks. The Biodex Balance System was used to analyze dynamic balance as measured by the overall stability index (OSI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI), and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). [Results] In the within-group comparison, IHREG and VERG both showed significant decreases in the dynamic balance indexes of OSI, APSI, and MLSI after the intervention, but no significant difference was found between the groups. [Conclusion] Both indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises were effective at improving the subjects’ dynamic balance ability as measured by OSI, APSI, and MLSI, and can be used as additional exercises for patients with conditions affecting postural control. PMID:25540494

  17. Clinical characteristics in normal healthy adults with microbleeds on echo-planar gradient-echo T2*-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Wakoh; Ide, Michiru; Ohnuki, Tomohide; Takagi, Shigeharu; Shinohara, Yukito

    2004-01-01

    The gradient-echo T 2 * -weighted sequence in magnetic resonance imaging is known to be useful for detecting microbleeds (MBs) in patients with intracranial hemorrhage or lacunar stroke. We investigated the characteristics of apparently healthy adults with MBs but without stroke, employing echo-planar gradient-echo T 2 * -weighted MRI. The subjects were recruited from among 3,537 participants who underwent brain check-ups at the HIMEDIC Imaging Center. Of the 3,537 participants, 3,296 (mean age, 55±11 years) without any history of cerebrovascular disease or apparent focal neurological manifestations were selected for the present study. MBs on echo-planar gradient-echo T 2 * -weighted MRI were observed in 74 (2.2%) of the 3,296 subjects. Of a total of 133 lesions found in these 74 persons, 31 were located in the basal ganglia or cortico-subcortical regions. Thirty were in the deep white matter, 19 in the thalamus, 16 in the cerebellum, and 6 in the brain stem. The subjects with MBs were significantly older than the subjects without MBs, and the mean values for their systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher than those in the subjects without MBs. Asymptomatic cerebral infarction, periventricular hyperintensity, and deep and subcortical white matter hyperintensity on T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MRI were more frequent in the subjects with MBs, as compared with those without MBs. Asymptomatic cerebral infarction, periventricular hyperintensity, and deep and subcortical white matter hyperintensity on T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MRI were more frequent in the subjects with MBs of the basal ganglia or thalamus than in those with MBs in other regions. MBs on echo-planar gradient-echo T 2 * -weighted MRI were thus relatively rare in apparently healthy adults. However, MBs in the basal ganglia or thalamus are suggested to be closely related to intracerebral microangiopathy. Persons with MBs in such regions should therefore be carefully checked for cerebrovascular risk

  18. Effect of dietary cholesterol and plant sterol consumption on plasma lipid responsiveness and cholesterol trafficking in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonse, Peter A S; Ramprasath, Vanu; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-01-01

    Dietary cholesterol and plant sterols differentially modulate cholesterol kinetics and circulating cholesterol. Understanding how healthy individuals with their inherent variabilities in cholesterol trafficking respond to such dietary sterols will aid in improving strategies for effective cholesterol lowering and alleviation of CVD risk. The objectives of this study were to assess plasma lipid responsiveness to dietary cholesterol v. plant sterol consumption, and to determine the response in rates of cholesterol absorption and synthesis to each sterol using stable isotope approaches in healthy individuals. A randomised, double-blinded, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial (n 49) with three treatment phases of 4-week duration were conducted in a Manitoba Hutterite population. During each phase, participants consumed one of the three treatments as a milkshake containing 600 mg/d dietary cholesterol, 2 g/d plant sterols or a control after breakfast meal. Plasma lipid profile was determined and cholesterol absorption and synthesis were measured by oral administration of [3, 4-13C] cholesterol and 2H-labelled water, respectively. Dietary cholesterol consumption increased total (0·16 (sem 0·06) mmol/l, P=0·0179) and HDL-cholesterol (0·08 (sem 0·03) mmol/l, P=0·0216) concentrations with no changes in cholesterol absorption or synthesis. Plant sterol consumption failed to reduce LDL-cholesterol concentrations despite showing a reduction (6 %, P=0·0004) in cholesterol absorption. An over-compensatory reciprocal increase in cholesterol synthesis (36 %, P=0·0026) corresponding to a small reduction in absorption was observed with plant sterol consumption, possibly resulting in reduced LDL-cholesterol lowering efficacy of plant sterols. These data suggest that inter-individual variability in cholesterol trafficking mechanisms may profoundly impact plasma lipid responses to dietary sterols in healthy individuals.

  19. Bathe the baby to make it strong and healthy: plant use and child care among Saramaccan Maroons in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruysschaert, Sofie; van Andel, Tinde; Van de Putte, Kobeke; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-01-12

    Young children are vulnerable to a range of illnesses and evil forces. Ethnobotanical folk remedies often play a major role in combating these afflictions. Here we show that plant use is highly valued and practiced within the Saramaccan Maroon Society in Suriname to maintain the general health and well-being of children. To assess the plant use importance in child care, we (1) quantified diversity and current status of herbal pharmacopoeia used in child care and (2) elucidated the reasons why care takers (mostly mothers) use these plants. We collected botanical vouchers of plants used in child care, carried out an ethnobotanical household survey with 105 women and interviewed 19 key informants. A total of 178 plant species were used in child care for different purposes. Preventive practices were preferred over curing remedies and plants were most frequently used to keep young children strong and healthy. Child care had a strong magical connotation. Bathing proved to be the most important type of application, often combined with drinking small amounts of the bath water. Plants play an important role in child care, but more research is needed on how Maroon plant use reflects actual health problems in young children in the Surinamese interior.

  20. The normalization of data in the Constant-Murley score for the shoulder. A study conducted on 563 healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, F A; Tajana, M S

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted in order to evaluate the theoretical design of the Constant-Murley system and to reveal any difficulties in obtaining data when it is used in 563 subjects not affected with shoulder pathology. The total mean score for the subjects examined was 85.2 points (minimum 75, maximum 100 points). Values revealed a decreasing trend beginning at 50 years of age for men and 30 for women. Only 4 subjects achieved a maximum score of 100. The measurements taken allowed us to elaborate a reference table based on sex and age, which was required to calculate the correct score. These values differ from those reported by the inventors of the system and they reveal the need to compile personal tables for the normalization of scores.

  1. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett F.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Start study was conducted during 2009–2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. Subjects: From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre......Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Design: Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children......-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (schooling), 285 children completed the intervention and had complete information on dietary intake. Results: Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P...

  2. Normal ranges for fetal electrocardiogram values for the healthy fetus of 18-24 weeks of gestation: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdurmen, Kim M J; Lempersz, Carlijn; Vullings, Rik; Schroer, Christian; Delhaas, Tammo; van Laar, Judith O E H; Oei, S Guid

    2016-08-17

    The fetal anomaly ultrasound only detects 65 to 81 % of the patients with congenital heart disease, making it the most common structural fetal anomaly of which a significant part is missed during prenatal life. Therefore, we need a reliable non-invasive diagnostic method which improves the predictive value for congenital heart diseases early in pregnancy. Fetal electrocardiography could be this desired diagnostic method. There are multiple technical challenges to overcome in the conduction of the fetal electrocardiogram. In addition, interpretation is difficult due to the organisation of the fetal circulation in utero. We want to establish the normal ranges and values of the fetal electrocardiogram parameters in healthy fetuses of 18 to 24 weeks of gestation. Women with an uneventful singleton pregnancy between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation are asked to participate in this prospective cohort study. A certified and experienced sonographist performs the fetal anomaly scan. Subsequently, a fetal electrocardiogram recording is performed using dedicated signal processing methods. Measurements are performed at two institutes. We will include 300 participants to determine the normal values and 95 % confidence intervals of the fetal electrocardiogram parameters in a healthy fetus. We will evaluate the fetal heart rate, segment intervals, normalised amplitude and the fetal heart axis. Three months postpartum, we will evaluate if a newborn is healthy through a questionnaire. Fetal electrocardiography could be a promising tool in the screening program for congenital heart diseases. The electrocardiogram is a depiction of the intimate relationship between the cardiac nerve conduction pathways and the structural morphology of the fetal heart, and therefore particularly suitable for the detection of secondary effects due to a congenital heart disease (hypotrophy, hypertrophy and conduction interruption).

  3. Reduced circulating stem cells associate with excess fasting and post-load NEFA exposure in healthy adults with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadini, Gian Paolo; Tura, Andrea; Pacini, Giovanni; Avogaro, Angelo; Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Saula

    2017-06-01

    Reduced levels of circulating stem cells (CSCs) predict cardiovascular events and death, but the factors underlying variability of CSCs in healthy adults are mostly unknown. Previous studies detected associations of CSCs with glucose tolerance or insulin resistance, while the role of fatty acids has been overlooked. We herein aimed to describe in better detail the metabolic abnormalities associated with a reduced CSC level. This was a cross-sectional study on 94 healthy male and female individuals with normal glucose tolerance, aged 18-65 years. All participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with blood samples collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. Mathematical models were applied to plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations. CSCs were defined as CD34 + or CD133 + . Participants (mean ± SEM age 43.8 ± 0.7; 41% males) were divided according to CSC levels below (low) or above (high) the median value and metabolic parameters were compared. There was no significant baseline difference between groups except for higher concentrations of fasting NEFA in subjects with low CSCs. Upon OGTT, individuals with low CSCs had higher area under curve (AUC) of NEFA (p glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Several insulin sensitivity and beta cell function indexes were not significantly different, except for a decrease in the disposition index (DI) in subjects with low CSCs. CSCs were associated with excess NEFA levels independently from age and DI. We show for the first time that, in healthy adults with normal glucose tolerance, low CSCs are strongly associated with excess NEFA exposure. The pathophysiological consequence of this association needs to be interpreted in view of the prognostic role of CSCs. Future studies should explore whether excess NEFA and low CSCs and are causally interconnected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Nicole Händel

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of primary interventions aiming to prevent excess weight gain among young children. Evaluating behavioral changes, such as physical activity (PA, may add to future development of efficient interventions. The objective was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of > 28 kg/m2, or mothers with ≤ 10 years of schooling.From a baseline study population of 635 normal weight 2-6 year old preschool children from the greater Copenhagen area, parents of 307 children had given information on PA at both the baseline and follow-up examinations. PA was obtained from a 7 days recording in the Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. Time used for sport activities were combined with outdoor playing time to achieve a proxy of total PA level of moderate to vigorous intensity.Linear regression analyses revealed that at follow-up the intervention group spent more time on sports and outdoor activities combined per week than the control group (ITT analyses: intervention: 400 min/week; 95% confidence interval (CI: 341, 459 versus control: 321 min/week; 95% CI: 277, 366; p = 0.02, although no significant intervention effects were seen for each of the subcategories, e.g. sports participation, outdoor activities, screen time, or commuting frequency.Our results suggest that the overall time spent on sports and outdoor activities combined was increased at follow-up among normal weight obesity-prone children, as a result of the Healthy Start intervention.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01583335.

  5. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Mina Nicole; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Stougaard, Maria; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of primary interventions aiming to prevent excess weight gain among young children. Evaluating behavioral changes, such as physical activity (PA), may add to future development of efficient interventions. The objective was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of > 28 kg/m2, or mothers with ≤ 10 years of schooling. From a baseline study population of 635 normal weight 2-6 year old preschool children from the greater Copenhagen area, parents of 307 children had given information on PA at both the baseline and follow-up examinations. PA was obtained from a 7 days recording in the Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. Time used for sport activities were combined with outdoor playing time to achieve a proxy of total PA level of moderate to vigorous intensity. Linear regression analyses revealed that at follow-up the intervention group spent more time on sports and outdoor activities combined per week than the control group (ITT analyses: intervention: 400 min/week; 95% confidence interval (CI): 341, 459 versus control: 321 min/week; 95% CI: 277, 366; p = 0.02), although no significant intervention effects were seen for each of the subcategories, e.g. sports participation, outdoor activities, screen time, or commuting frequency. Our results suggest that the overall time spent on sports and outdoor activities combined was increased at follow-up among normal weight obesity-prone children, as a result of the Healthy Start intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01583335.

  6. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, Raghuram

    2009-01-01

    To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality) and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks. Guna (personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered "The 'Gita" Inventory of Personality" (GIN) to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Self esteem in terms of competency (COM), global self esteem (GSE), moral and self esteem (MSE), social esteem (SET), family self esteem (FSE), body and physical appearance (BPA), and the lie scale (LIS) were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ). The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05 independent samples t-test). There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups (P self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains. This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise.

  7. Evaluating new methods for direct measurement of the moderator temperature coefficient in nuclear power plants during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makai, M.; Kalya, Z.; Nemes, I.; Pos, I.; Por, G.

    2007-01-01

    Moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity is not monitored during fuel cycles in WWER reactors, because it is not very easy or impossible to measure it without disturbing the normal operation. Two new methods were tested in our WWER type nuclear power plant to try methodologies, which enable to measure that important to safety parameter during the fuel cycle. One is based on small perturbances, and only small changes are requested in operation, the other is based on noise methods, which means it is without interference with reactor operation. Both method is new that aspects that they uses the plant computer data(VERONA) based signals calculated by C P ORCA diffusion code (Authors)

  8. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks. Guna (personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered "The ′Gita" Inventory of Personality" (GIN to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas . Self esteem in terms of competency (COM, global self esteem (GSE, moral and self esteem (MSE, social esteem (SET, family self esteem (FSE, body and physical appearance (BPA, and the lie scale (LIS were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ. Results: The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05 independent samples t-test. There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups ( P < 0.001 paired t-test. The number of persons who showed improvement in Sattva and decrease in Tamas was significant in the Y but not in the PE group (McNemar test. The effect size for self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains. Conclusions: This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise.

  9. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure) and general health in normal adults. Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts) for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI) which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled), Rajas (violent and uncontrolled) and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled). The general health status (total health), which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS), anxiety and insomnia (AI), social dysfunction (SF) and severe depression (SP), was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05, independent samples t test). Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test). SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test). There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in Yoga and Tamas reduced in PE. The general health

  10. Registration of FA and T1-weighted MRI data of healthy human brain based on template matching and normalized cross-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Milos; Peter, Roman; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Astri J; Lundervold, Arvid; Jan, Jiri

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we propose a new approach for three-dimensional registration of MR fractional anisotropy images with T1-weighted anatomy images of human brain. From the clinical point of view, this accurate coregistration allows precise detection of nerve fibers that is essential in neuroscience. A template matching algorithm combined with normalized cross-correlation was used for this registration task. To show the suitability of the proposed method, it was compared with the normalized mutual information-based B-spline registration provided by the Elastix software library, considered a reference method. We also propose a general framework for the evaluation of robustness and reliability of both registration methods. Both registration methods were tested by four evaluation criteria on a dataset consisting of 74 healthy subjects. The template matching algorithm has shown more reliable results than the reference method in registration of the MR fractional anisotropy and T1 anatomy image data. Significant differences were observed in the regions splenium of corpus callosum and genu of corpus callosum, considered very important areas of brain connectivity. We demonstrate that, in this registration task, the currently used mutual information-based parametric registration can be replaced by more accurate local template matching utilizing the normalized cross-correlation similarity measure.

  11. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Health in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure and general health in normal adults. Methods : Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas , pranayama , meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled, Rajas (violent and uncontrolled and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled. The general health status (total health, which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS, anxiety and insomnia (AI, social dysfunction (SF and severe depression (SP, was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Results : Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05, independent samples t test. Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test. SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test. Conclusions : There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than

  12. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Health in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure and general health in normal adults. Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas , pranayama , meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled, Rajas (violent and uncontrolled and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled. The general health status (total health, which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS, anxiety and insomnia (AI, social dysfunction (SF and severe depression (SP, was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Results: Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05, independent samples t test. Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test. SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test. Conclusions: There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in

  13. Constitutive expression of nitrate reductase allows normal growth and development of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincentz, M; Caboche, M

    1991-01-01

    A nitrate reductase (NR) deficient mutant of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia totally impaired in the production of NR transcript and protein was restored for NR activity by transformation with a chimaeric NR gene. This gene was composed of a full-length tobacco NR cDNA fused to the CaMV 35S promoter and to termination signals from the tobacco NR gene. The transgenic plants we obtained were viable and fertile and expressed from one-fifth to three times the wild-type NR activity in their leaves. The analysis of chimeric NR gene expression in these plants showed, by comparison with wild-type plants, that the regulation of NR gene expression by light, nitrate and circadian rhythm takes place at the transcriptional level. However, unlike nitrate, light was required for the accumulation of NR protein in transgenic plants, suggesting that NR expression is also controlled at the translational and/or post-translational level. Images PMID:2022181

  14. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina Nicole; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Rohde, Jeanett Friis

    2017-01-01

    was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre...... was obtained from a 7 days recording in the Children’s Physical Activity Questionnaire. Time used for sport activities were combined with outdoor playing time to achieve a proxy of total PA level of moderate to vigorous intensity. Results: Linear regression analyses revealed that at follow-up the intervention...... group spent more time on sports and outdoor activities combined per week than the control group (ITT analyses: intervention: 400 min/week; 95% confidence interval (CI): 341, 459 versus control: 321 min/week; 95% CI: 277, 366; p = 0.02), although no significant intervention effects were seen for each...

  15. Cardiac MRI. Estimation of changes in normalized myocardial gadolinium accumulation over time after contrast injection in patients with acute myocarditis and healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuckmann, F.; Buhr, C.; Maderwald, S.; Bruder, O.; Schlosser, T.; Nassenstein, K.; Erbel, R.; Barkhausen, J.

    2011-01-01

    An increased normalized gadolinium accumulation (NGA) in the myocardium during early washout has been used for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis (AM). Due to the fact that the pharmacokinetics of contrast agents are complex, time-related changes in NGA after contrast injection are likely. Because knowledge about time-related changes of NGA may improve the diagnostic accuracy of MR, our study aimed to estimate the time course of NGA after contrast injection in patients as well as in healthy volunteers. An ECG-triggered inversion recovery SSFP sequence with incrementally increasing inversion times was repetitively acquired over the 15 minutes after injection of 0.2 Gd-DTPA per kg body weight in a 4-chamber view in 15 patients with AM and 20 volunteers. The T 1relaxation times and the longitudinal relaxation rates (R1) of the myocardium and skeletal musculature were calculated for each point in time after contrast injection. The time course of NGA was estimated based on the linear relationship between R 1 and tissue Gd concentration. NGA decreased over time in the form of a negative power function in patients with AM and in healthy controls. NGA in AM tended to be higher than in controls (p > 0.05). NGA rapidly changes after contrast injection, which must be considered when measuring NGA. Although we observed a trend towards higher NGA values in patients with AM with a maximum difference one minute after contrast injection, NGA did not allow us to differentiate patients with AM from healthy volunteers, because the observed differences did not reach a level of significance. (orig.)

  16. Age-Specific Normal Reference Range for Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Healthy Chinese Han Women: A nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofang; Ding, Ting; Zhang, Hanwang; Zhang, Cuilian; Ma, Wenmin; Zhong, Ying; Qu, Wenyu; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Yi; Li, Zhiying; Huang, Kecheng; Deng, Song; Ma, Lanfang; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Jingjing; Yang, Shuhong; Huang, Jia; Wu, Meng; Fang, Li; Lu, Yunping; Luo, Aiyue; Wang, Shixuan

    2016-08-01

    The increasing use of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in clinic has raised concerns regarding the reliable reference range for this test. However, the reference range for AMH in normal Chinese female population has not been established. Furthermore, relationship between AMH and other clinical markers such as body mass index (BMI) and antral follicle counts (AFCs) and other sex-related hormones have not been examined in normal population-based women. We aimed to determine the age-specific reference range for serum AMH in healthy Chinese women throughout reproductive age to menopause and to estimate relationship between AMH and other clinical markers in healthy women. In this multicenter and nationwide study, advertisements were used to recruit 2055 women, aged 20 to 55 years, from 6 different regions in China; 1590 (77.37%) women met the inclusion criteria for the reference range population. We measured the baseline serum AMH levels using new Beckman Coulter Gen II assay. Serum concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), and AFCs were also determined in the follicular phase. The AMH-Age nomogram and AMH levels of different age-groups and the relationship between AMH and other clinical markers. Serum AMH concentrations declined progressively with age. A quadratic model defined as log (AMH) = (-1.970 + 0.296 × Age - 0.006 × Age(2)) fitted best the decline of AMH with age. The median AMH levels were 6.23, 5.65, 4.55, 3.74, 2.78, and 1.09 ng/mL for the 20 ≤ age women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. The buccal cytome and micronucleus frequency is substantially altered in Down's syndrome and normal ageing compared to young healthy controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Philip [CSIRO Human Nutrition, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Discipline of Physiology, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)], E-mail: philip.thomas@csiro.au; Harvey, Sarah; Gruner, Tini [Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Fenech, Michael [CSIRO Human Nutrition, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia)], E-mail: michael.fenech@csiro.au

    2008-02-01

    The buccal micronucleus cytome assay was used to investigate biomarkers for DNA damage, cell death and basal cell frequency in buccal cells of healthy young, healthy old and young Down's syndrome cohorts. With normal ageing a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.05, average increase +366%), karyorrhectic cells (P < 0.001, average increase +439%), condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average increase +45.8%) and basal cells (P < 0.001, average increase +233%) is reported relative to young controls. In Down's syndrome we report a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.001, average increase +733%) and binucleated cells (P < 0.001, average increase +84.5%) and a significant decrease in condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average decrease -52%), karyolytic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease -51.8%) and pyknotic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease -75.0%) relative to young controls. These changes show distinct differences between the cytome profile of normal ageing relative to that for a premature ageing syndrome, and highlight the diagnostic value of the cytome approach for measuring the profile of cells with DNA damage, cell death and proportion of cells with proliferative potential (i.e., basal cells). Significant correlations amongst cell death biomarkers observed in this study were used to propose a new model of the inter-relationship of cell types scored within the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. This study validates the use of a cytome approach to investigate DNA damage, cell death and cell proliferation in buccal cells with ageing.

  18. Dietary ratio of animal:plant protein is associated with 24-h urinary iodine excretion in healthy school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Johner, Simone A; Stehle, Peter; Remer, Thomas

    2015-07-14

    Adequate dietary iodine intake in children is essential for optimal physical and neurological development. Whether lower dietary animal food and salt intake may adversely affect iodine status is under discussion. We examined the association between dietary animal:plant protein ratio with 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-h UI, μg/d), and whether this is modified by salt intake. A 24-h UI was measured in 1959 24-h urine samples from 516 6- to 12-year-old participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study. Parallel 3 d weighed food records were used to estimate dietary intakes. Protein sources were classified as dairy, animal and plant. A repeated-measures regression model (PROC MIXED) was used to analyse the effect of animal:plant protein ratios on 24-h UI. plant protein ratios ranged from 0.5 (95 % CI 0.4, 0.6) to 1.6 (95 % CI 1.4, 1.9) (lowest and highest quartile). After adjustment for total energy intake, main dietary iodine sources (dairy and salt intake), and further covariates, the inter-individual variation in animal:plant protein ratio was significantly associated with variation in 24-h UI. One unit higher animal:plant protein ratio predicted 6 μg/d higher 24-h UI (P= 0.002) in boys and 5 μg/d (P= 0.03) in girls. This relationship was partially mediated by a higher salt intake at higher animal:plant protein ratios. These results suggest that lower consumption of animal protein is associated with a small decline in iodine excretion, partially mediated by decreased salt intake. Because limited salt and increased intake of plant-based foods are part of a preferable healthy food pattern, effective nutrition political strategies will be required in the future to ensure appropriate iodine nutrition in adherent populations.

  19. Effects of normal aging on calibration and response time of nuclear plant RTDs and pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.L.; Riner, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) and pressure, level, and flow transmitters provide a majority of the vital signals for the control and safety of nuclear power plants. Therefore, it is crucial to ensure that the performance of these sensors are maintained at an acceptable level while the plant is operating. Since aging has the potential to cause performance degradation in RTDs and pressure transmitters, several research projects have been sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study the aging characteristics of these sensors and ensure that adequate test methods and test frequencies are followed by the nuclear industry to ensure safety. The details of these projects are summarized in this paper

  20. Normal and compact spent fuel storage in light water reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenel, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    The compact storage of light water reactor spent fuel is a safe, cheap and reliable contribution towards overcoming the momentarily existing shortage in spent fuel reprocessing. The technical concept is described and physical behaviour discussed. The introduction of compact storage racks in nuclear power plants increases the capacity from 100 to about 240 %. The increase in decay heat is not more than about 14%, the increase in activity inventory and hazard potential does not exceed 20%. In most cases the existing power plant equipment fulfils the new requirements. (author)

  1. 3 Tesla (1) H MR spectroscopy of hip bone marrow in a healthy population, assessment of normal fat content values and influence of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansini, Vittorio; Monnet, Aurélien; Salleron, Julia; Hardouin, Pierre; Cortet, Bernard; Cotten, Anne

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate in a healthy population normal spectroscopic fat content (FC) values of the hip bone marrow and to assess the influence of age and sex on bone marrow conversion. Eighty volunteers (40 men; 40 women; ages: 20-60 years; divided into four consecutive groups) underwent acetabulum, femoral head, femoral neck, greater trochanter, and diaphysis localized (1) H MR spectroscopy. FC values of each anatomical site were obtained according to the following formula: Fat content = CH2 /(CH2  + Water)*100. To assess bone marrow conversion, a spectroscopic conversion index (SCI) was calculated as FC neck/FC greater trochanter. FC values showed a gradient as follows: greater trochanter > femoral head > femoral neck > diaphysis > acetabulum in every age group both in men and in women. SCI increased with age both in men and women, showing lower values in women for every age group. We obtained normal spectroscopic FC values from different areas of the hip, according to age and sex. These values may be used as reference values to evaluate, by the means of (1) H MR spectroscopy, pathological conditions affecting hip bone marrow. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A plant plasma membrane Ca2+ pump is required for normal pollen tube growth and fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtt, Morten; Romanowsky, Shawn M; Bækgaard, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Ca(2+) signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization. The dynamics of a Ca(2+) signal are largely controlled by influx (through channels) and efflux (through pumps and antiporters). The Arabidopsis genome...... and a high frequency of aborted fertilization, resulting in a >80% reduction in seed set. These findings identify a plasma membrane Ca(2+) transporter as a key regulator of pollen development and fertilization in flowering plants.......Ca(2+) signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization. The dynamics of a Ca(2+) signal are largely controlled by influx (through channels) and efflux (through pumps and antiporters). The Arabidopsis genome......-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells] gene disruptions of ACA9 were found to result in partial male sterility. Complementation was observed by using a ACA9-yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) fusion that displayed plasma membrane localization. Mutant aca9 pollen displayed a reduced growth potential...

  3. Radiation protection of population under normal operation conditions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, Eh.; Shvets, I.

    1976-01-01

    Evolution of shielding is defined in short; approaches suggested for applying in radiation protection or being used are evaluated and classified. Modern views analysis of a risk of biological irradiation consequences in public approaches to health protection in connection with the technical progress side by side with provision of separate persons protection requires attentin to the nuclear power plants protection optimization. Protection optimization suggests the analysis of separate components of technology and protection systems, used materials and constructive solutions, maintenance rules and operating load with respect to environmental discharge of radioactive products. It is expedient to carry out similtaneously the similar analysis with respect to the nuclear power plant personnel irradiation, as separate measures can affect both personnel and population irradiation [ru

  4. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.

  5. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki

    2009-01-01

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6±18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6±19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  6. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea); Medical Research Institute, Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea)). e-mail: growthkim@daum.net/growthkim@pusan.ac.kr)

    2009-12-15

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6+-18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6+-19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  7. Analysis of loss of normal feedwater transient using RELAP5/MOD1/NSC; KNU1 plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hho Jung; Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Young Jin; Kim, Jin Soo

    1986-01-01

    Simulation of the system thermal-hydraulic parameters was carried out following the KNU1(Korea Nuclear Unit-1) loss of normal feedwater transient sequence occurred on november 14, 1984. Results were compared with the plant transient data, and good agreements were obtained. Some deviations were found in the parameters such as the steam flowrate and the RCS(Reactor Coolant System) average temperature, around the time of reactor trip. It can be expected since the thermal-hydraulic parameters encounter rapid transitions due to the large reduction of the reactor thermal power in a short period of time and, thereby, the plant data involve transient uncertainties. The analysis was performed using the RELAP5/MOD1/NSC developed through some modifications of the interphase drag and the wall heat transfer modeling routines of the RELAP5/MOD1/CY018. (Author)

  8. Identification of Appropriate Reference Genes for Normalization of miRNA Expression in Grafted Watermelon Plants under Different Nutrient Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weifang; Deng, Qin; Shi, Pibiao; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a globally important crop belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The grafting technique is commonly used to improve its tolerance to stress, as well as to enhance its nutrient uptake and utilization. It is believed that miRNA is most likely involved in its nutrient-starvation response as a graft-transportable signal. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is the preferred method for miRNA functional analysis, in which reliable reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy. The purpose of this study was to select appropriate reference genes in scion (watermelon) and rootstocks (squash and bottle gourd) of grafted watermelon plants under normal growth conditions and nutrient stresses (nitrogen and phosphorus starvation). Under nutrient starvation, geNorm identified miR167c and miR167f as two most stable genes in both watermelon leaves and squash roots. miR166b was recommended by both geNorm and NormFinder as the best reference in bottle gourd roots under nutrient limitation. Expression of a new Cucurbitaceae miRNA, miR85, was used to validate the reliability of candidate reference genes under nutrient starvation. Moreover, by comparing several target genes expression in qRT-PCR analysis with those in RNA-seq data, miR166b and miR167c were proved to be the most suitable reference genes to normalize miRNA expression under normal growth condition in scion and rootstock tissues, respectively. This study represents the first comprehensive survey of the stability of miRNA reference genes in Cucurbitaceae and provides valuable information for investigating more accurate miRNA expression involving grafted watermelon plants.

  9. Birth defects in perinatal infants in areas contiguous to Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant before its normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ling; Yin Zhihua; Han Zhonghui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the status of birth defects among the perinatal infants in the areas contiguous to Hongyanhe nuclear power plant before its normal operation, so as to provide background information for the evaluation of the impact of nuclear power plant on birth defects. Methods: From 1 October 1995 to 30 September 2009 the midwifery units at second class and above of Wafangdian City were asked to be in charge of recording the birth defects among the perinatal infants born during this period within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant. Results: The total number of birth defects was 697, and the maternal number Was 83779. The average defect rate Was 83.20/10 4 . There were significant differences in the birth defect rate among different years (χ 2 =39.54, P<0.05), however, without linear trend therein,and among the survey areas (χ 2 =15.36, P<0.05) as well. The top five birth defects were congenital heart disease (148 cases), cleft lip with cleft palate (67 cases), congenital hydrocephalus (63 cases), and spina bifida (37 cases) and cleft lip (36 cases). Conclusions: The birth defect rate within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant is lower than that of the region of Liaoning Province and the national rate of birth defects. (authors)

  10. Optimal copper supply is required for normal plant iron deficiency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M; Armbrust, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. Understanding crosstalk between Fe and Cu nutrition could lead to strategies for improved growth on soils with low or excess metals, with implications for agriculture and phytoremediation. Here, we show that Cu and Fe nutrition interact to increase or decrease Fe and/or Cu accumulation in leaves and Fe uptake processes. Leaf Cu concentration increased under low Fe supply, while high Cu lowered leaf Fe concentration. Ferric reductase activity, an indicator of Fe demand, was inhibited at insufficient or high Cu supply. Surprisingly, plants grown without Fe were more susceptible to Cu toxicity.

  11. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-06-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  12. Gender differences in brain regional homogeneity of healthy subjects after normal sleep and after sleep deprivation: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xi-Jian; Gong, Hong-Han; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Fu-Qing; Min, You-Jiang; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Si-Yong; Liu, Bi-Xia; Xiao, Xiang-Zuo

    2012-06-01

    To explore the gender differences of brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) in healthy subjects during the resting-state, after normal sleep, and after sleep deprivation (SD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the ReHo method. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight males and eight females) each underwent the resting-state fMRI exams twice, i.e., once after normal sleep and again after 24h's SD. According to the gender and sleep, 16 subjects were all measured twice and divided into four groups: the male control group (MC), female control group (FC), male SD group (MSD), and female SD group (FSD). The ReHo method was used to calculate and analyze the data, SPM5 software was used to perform a two-sample T-test and a two-pair T-test with a P value right paracentral lobule (BA3/6), but in no obviously lower regions. Compared with the FC, the FSD showed significantly higher ReHo in bilateral parietal lobes (BA2/3), bilateral vision-related regions of occipital lobes (BA17/18/19), right frontal lobe (BA4/6), and lower ReHo in the right frontal lobe. Compared with the FC, the MC showed significantly higher ReHo in the left occipital lobe (BA18/19), and left temporal lobe (BA21), left frontal lobe, and lower ReHo in the right insula and in the left parietal lobe. Compared with the FSD, the MSD showed significantly higher ReHo in the left cerebellum posterior lobe (uvula/declive of vermis), left parietal lobe, and bilateral frontal lobes, and lower ReHo in the right occipital lobe (BA17) and right frontal lobe (BA4). The differences of brain activity in the resting state can be widely found not only between the control and SD group in a same gender group, but also between the male group and female group. Thus, we should take the gender differences into consideration in future fMRI studies, especially the treatment of brain-related diseases (e.g., depression). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of the predictive validity of laser-EPs in normal, UVB-inflamed and capsaicin-irritated skin with four analgesic compounds in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffler, Klaus; Nicolas, Laurent B; Borta, Andreas; Brand, Tobias; Reitmeir, Peter; Roebling, Robert; Scholpp, Joachim

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the predictivity of laser-(radiant-heat)-evoked potentials (LEPs) from the vertex electroencephalogram, using an algesimetric procedure, testing the anti-nociceptive/anti-hyperalgesic effects of single oral doses of four marketed analgesics (of different compound classes) vs. placebo, in healthy volunteers with three skin types. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind, five-way-crossover trial. Twenty-five healthy male/female Caucasians were included (receiving celecoxib 200 mg, pregabalin 150 mg, duloxetine 60 mg, lacosamide 100 mg or placebo) in a Williams design, with CO 2 laser-induced painful stimuli to normal, ultraviolet (UV) B-inflamed and capsaicin-irritated skin. LEPs and visual analogue scale ratings were taken at baseline and hourly for 6 h postdose from all three skin types. In normal skin, the averaged postdose LEP peak-to-peak-(PtP)-amplitudes were reduced by pregabalin (-2.68 μV; 95% confidence interval (CI) -4.16, 1.19) and duloxetine (-1.73 μV; 95% CI -3.21, -0.26) but not by lacosamide and celecoxib vs. placebo. On UVB-irradiated skin, reflecting inflammatory pain, celecoxib induced a pronounced reduction in LEP PtP amplitudes vs. placebo (-6.2 μV; 95% CI -7.88, -4.51), with a smaller reduction by duloxetine (-4.54 μV; 95% CI -6.21, -2.87) and pregabalin (-3.72 μV; 95% CI -5.40, -2.04), whereas lacosamide was inactive. LEP PtP amplitudes on capsaicin-irritated skin, reflecting peripheral/spinal sensitization, as in neuropathic pain, were reduced by pregabalin (-3.78 μV; 95% CI -5.31, -2.25) and duloxetine (-2.32 μV; 95% CI -3.82, -0.82) but not by celecoxib or lacosamide vs. placebo, which was in agreement with known clinical profiles. Overall, PtP amplitude reductions were in agreement with subjective ratings. LEP algesimetry is sensitive to analgesics with different modes of action and may enable the effects of novel analgesics to be assessed during early clinical

  14. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF CULTURED PLANT TISSUES UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS AND UNDER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgikh Yu.I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability induced by in vitro conditions known as somaclonal variation is of practical interest due to its potential uses in plant breeding but, on the other hand, if clonal propagation or transformation is main goal, it becomes an unwelcome phenomenon. Thus, it is important to know frequency, the genomic distribution, the mechanisms and factors influencing somaclonal variation. We studied variability of PCR-based DNA markers of cultured tissues and regenerated plants of maize and bread wheat. The original A188 line of maize and the somaclones obtained were tested using 38 RAPD and 10 ISSR primers. None of the A188 plants showed variation in the RAPD and ISSR spectra for any of the primers used. However, the PCR spectra obtained from the somaclones demonstrated some variations, i.e., 22 RAPD primers and 6 ISSR primers differentiated at least one somaclonal variant from the progenitor line. Six SCAR markers were developed based on several RAPD and ISSR fragments. The inheritance of these SCAR markers was verified in the selfing progeny of each somaclone in the R1–R4 generations and in the hybrids, with A188 as the parental line in the F1 and F2 generations. These markers were sequenced and bioinformatic searches were performed to understand the molecular events that may underlie the variability observed in the somaclones. All changes were found in noncoding sequences and were induced by different molecular events, such as the insertion of long terminal repeat transposon, precise miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE excision, microdeletion, recombination, and a change in the pool of mitochondrial DNA. In two groups of independently produced somaclones, the same features (morphological, molecular were variable, which confirms the theory of ‘hot spots’ occurring in the genome. The presence of the same molecular markers in the somaclones and in different non-somaclonal maize variants suggests that in some cases

  15. Rooting of healthy and CVC-affected 'Valência' sweet orange stem cuttings, through the use of plant regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Habermann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC is a disease caused by Xylella fastidiosa. Using different concentrations of plant regulators, such as auxins (indole-3-butyric acid and gibberellic acid biosynthesis-inhibitor (paclobutrazol, physiological rooting capacity of healthy and CVC-affected stem cuttings were evaluated in order to investigate the importance of plant hormone imbalance and xylem occlusion in plants with CVC. The percentages of dead, alive and rooted cuttings, cuttings with callus and mean number of roots per cuttings did not show statistical differences in response to the distinct concentrations of synthetic plant regulators. There were differences only between healthy and CVC-affected cuttings. This showed the importance of xylem occlusion and diffusive disturbances in diseased plants, in relation to root initiation capacity and hormonal translocation in the plant tissue.Clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma doença causada por Xylella fastidiosa, podendo determinar oclusão do xilema e desbalanço hormonal, o que por fim está relacionado ao processo de iniciação radicial em estacas. Usando diferentes concentrações de fitorreguladores, como auxinas (ácido 3-indol butírico e inibidores da biossíntese de ácido giberélico (paclobutrazol, que são promotores do enraizamento de estacas, verificou-se a capacidade fisiológica de enraizamento de estacas sadias e com CVC, a fim de investigar a importância do desbalanço hormonal e oclusão do xilema em plantas doentes. As porcentagens de estacas mortas, vivas, enraizadas e com calo e o número médio de raízes por estaca não mostraram diferenças estatísticas em resposta às diferentes concentrações dos reguladores vegetais sintéticos. Houve diferenças apenas entre estacas sadias e doentes. Isto aponta a importância da oclusão do xilema e distúrbios difusivos em plantas doentes, em relação à capacidade de iniciação radicial e à translocação hormonal no tecido

  16. Effect of enforced physical inactivity induced by 60-day of bed rest on hepatic markers of NAFLD in healthy normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudwill, Floriane; Bergouignan, Audrey; Gastebois, Caroline; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Lefai, Etienne; Blanc, Stéphane; Simon, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    Physical inactivity leads to a cluster of metabolic disorders that have been associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. We tested whether physical inactivity increases hepatic biomarkers of NAFLDs. Sixteen normal-weight healthy women (body mass index = 21.2 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) ) were studied under controlled energy balance conditions during a previous 60-day bed rest with (n = 8) or without (n = 8) a combined aerobic/resistive exercise protocol. Stored samples were retrospectively used to measure plasma hepatic markers, i.e. steatosis-related alanine and aspartate transaminases, cytokeratin 18 and angiopoietin-like 3, at baseline, after 30 and 60 days of bed rest. Fasting insulin and triglycerides were measured at baseline and after 30 days of bed rest. Two indexes were calculated, one combining alanine and aspartate transaminase and cytokeratin 18 and another cytokeratin 18, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and aspartate aminotransferase. Sixty days of bed rest increased all hepatic markers (P inactive conditions. Physical inactivity increases, independent of fat mass, hepatic markers of steatosis and steatohepatitis. Regular exercise can limit these physical inactivity-induced metabolic alterations. Future studies need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Association of Animal and Plant Proteins Intake with Hypertension in Iranian Adult Population: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence regarding the relationship between dietary proteins intake and blood pressure (BP, but they had inconsistent results. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the association between different kinds of protein intake (animal and plant protein and BP. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. We performed a cross-sectional study among 9660 randomly selected Iranian adults aged ≥19-year-old that they were selected from three large Iranian regions in 2007. A simplified validated 48-item-food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake including all kinds of protein. Systolic and diastolic BPs were measured in duplicate by trained personnel using a standard protocol. Multivariable regressions were applied to assess the relationship between protein intake and BP levels and the presence of hypertension (HTN. Results: More frequent consumption of animal, plant, and total protein intake were inversely associated with BP in a crude model (P < 0.001; however, after adjustment for potential confounders this relationship remained only for plant protein (P = 0.04. The risk of HTN occurrence decreased in the highest quintile of total and plant protein consumption by 19% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; confidence interval [CI]: [0.65–0.96]; P for trend = 0.004 and 18% (OR = 0.82; [CI: (0.67–0.94]; P for trend = 0.03, respectively. Conclusions: More frequent protein intake, especially plant protein consumption was inversely associated with BP and risk of HTN among Iranian adults.

  18. Public exposure from environmental release of radioactive material under normal operation of unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Parsouzi, Z.; Amrollahi, R.; Khamooshy, C.; Ghasemi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant is a VVER type reactor with 1000 MWe power. ► Doses of public critical groups living around the plant were assessed under normal reactor operation conditions. ► PC-CREAM 98 computer code developed by the HPA was applied to assess the public doses. ► Doses are comparable with those in the FSAR, in the ER and doses monitored. ► The doses assessed are lower than the dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/y associated with the plant. - Abstract: The Unit-1 Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP-1), constructed at the Hallileh site near Bushehr located at the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran, is a VVER type reactor with 1000 MWe power. According to standard practices, under normal operation conditions of the plant, radiological assessment of atmospheric and aquatic releases to the environment and assessment of public exposures are considered essential. In order to assess the individual and collective doses of the critical groups of population who receive the highest dose from radioactive discharges into the environment (atmosphere and aquatic) under normal operation conditions, this study was conducted. To assess the doses, the PC-CREAM 98 computer code developed by the Radiation Protection Division of the Health Protection Agency (HPA; formerly called NRPB) was applied. It uses a standard Gaussian plume dispersion model and comprises a suite of models and data for estimation of the radiological impact assessments of routine and continuous discharges from an NPP. The input data include a stack height of 100 m annual radionuclides release of gaseous effluents from the stack and liquid effluents that are released from heat removal system, meteorological data from the Bushehr local meteorological station, and the data for agricultural products. To assess doses from marine discharges, consumption of sea fish, crustacean and mollusca were considered. According to calculation by PC-CREAM 98 computer code, the highest individual

  19. Radioactive airborne effluents and the environmental impact assessment of CAP1400 nuclear power plant under normal operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiong; Guo, RuiPing; Zhang, ChunMing; Chen, XiaoQiu; Wang, Bo, E-mail: wangbo@chinansc.cn

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Typical radionuclides dispersion from CAP1400 under normal operation was simulated. • Modified Gaussian model considered radioactive decay, dry and wet deposition and so on. • The radioactive impact pathways on the public through atmosphere were compared. • The maximum individual effective dose was lower than the public irradiation limit. - Abstract: China Advanced Passive nuclear power plant with installed capacity reaching to 1400 MW (CAP1400) is independently designed as the China's state-of-the-art third generation nuclear power brand based on AP1000 technology digestion and absorption. The concentration of typical radionuclides dispersed from CAP1400 under normal operation was calculated with modified Gaussian model, considering mixed layer height, dry deposition, wet deposition, radioactive decay and so on. The atmospheric dispersion factors, ground deposition rate, individual dose and public dose were also investigated to estimate the radioactive effects of CAP1400 under normal operation on surrounding environment and human beings. The radioactive impact pathways on the public through atmosphere, such as immersion irradiation in the smoke plume, internal irradiation from ingestion and inhalation and external irradiation from surface deposition were briefly introduced with focus on the comparison of the maximum individual effective dose to different group from atmospheric dispersion. All computation results show that the maximum individual irradiation dose happened to children with total effective irradiation dose of 4.52E−03 mSv/y, which was lower than the public irradiation limit of 0.25 mSv/y.

  20. Radioactive airborne effluents and the environmental impact assessment of CAP1400 nuclear power plant under normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiong; Guo, RuiPing; Zhang, ChunMing; Chen, XiaoQiu; Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Typical radionuclides dispersion from CAP1400 under normal operation was simulated. • Modified Gaussian model considered radioactive decay, dry and wet deposition and so on. • The radioactive impact pathways on the public through atmosphere were compared. • The maximum individual effective dose was lower than the public irradiation limit. - Abstract: China Advanced Passive nuclear power plant with installed capacity reaching to 1400 MW (CAP1400) is independently designed as the China's state-of-the-art third generation nuclear power brand based on AP1000 technology digestion and absorption. The concentration of typical radionuclides dispersed from CAP1400 under normal operation was calculated with modified Gaussian model, considering mixed layer height, dry deposition, wet deposition, radioactive decay and so on. The atmospheric dispersion factors, ground deposition rate, individual dose and public dose were also investigated to estimate the radioactive effects of CAP1400 under normal operation on surrounding environment and human beings. The radioactive impact pathways on the public through atmosphere, such as immersion irradiation in the smoke plume, internal irradiation from ingestion and inhalation and external irradiation from surface deposition were briefly introduced with focus on the comparison of the maximum individual effective dose to different group from atmospheric dispersion. All computation results show that the maximum individual irradiation dose happened to children with total effective irradiation dose of 4.52E−03 mSv/y, which was lower than the public irradiation limit of 0.25 mSv/y

  1. Suppressive composts: microbial ecology links between abiotic environments and healthy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Yitzhak; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2012-01-01

    Suppressive compost provides an environment in which plant disease development is reduced, even in the presence of a pathogen and a susceptible host. Despite the numerous positive reports, its practical application is still limited. The main reason for this is the lack of reliable prediction and quality control tools for evaluation of the level and specificity of the suppression effect. Plant disease suppression is the direct result of the activity of consortia of antagonistic microorganisms that naturally recolonize the compost during the cooling phase of the process. Thus, it is imperative to increase the level of understanding of compost microbial ecology and population dynamics. This may lead to the development of an ecological theory for complex ecosystems as well as favor the establishment of hypothesis-driven studies.

  2. Analytical model for power plant condenser for transients and off-normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangamani, I.; Dutta, Anu; Chakraborty, G.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2006-11-01

    A computer code for power plant condenser dynamic analysis has been developed based on a lumped parameter approach considering time dependent mass and energy conservation equations over the control volumes for the shell side as well as tube side fluids. Effects of heat transfer on condenser structure and hot well level transients were considered in the analysis. Suitable heat transfer coefficient recommended by various standards and codes were employed. The code was used to analyze the condenser performance during steady state as well as transient (load rejection or turbine trip) conditions. The condenser performance is predicted in terms of condenser back pressure, shell side steam temperature and tube side coolant exit temperature with respect to time. As a part of parametric studies, the effect of change in tube side coolant flow rate and inlet temperature was also studied. The analysis predicted that up to 47% of rated coolant flow rate on the tube side (for design conditions), the steam dumping can be continued without condenser isolation. The paper describes the detailed methodology adopted for the condenser modeling and presents the results obtained from the different parametric studies and code validation. (author)

  3. An approach toward estimating the safety significance of normal and abnormal operating procedures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, T.F.; Harris, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's TMI Action Plan calls for a long-term plan to upgrade operating procedures in nuclear power plants. The scope of Generic Issue Human Factors 4.4, which stems from this requirement, includes the recommendation of improvements in nuclear power plant normal and abnormal operating procedures (NOPs and AOPs) and the implementation of appropriate regulatory action. This paper will describe the objectives, methodologies, and results of a Battelle-conducted value impact assessment to determine the costs and benefits of having the NRC implement regulatory action that would specify requirements for the preparation of acceptable NOPs and AOPs by the Commission's nuclear power plant licensees. The results of this value impact assessment are expressed in terms of ten cost/benefit attributes that can be affected by the NRC regulatory action. Five of these attributes require the calculation of change in public risk that could be expected to result from the action which, in this case, required determining the safety significance of NOPs and AOPs. In order to estimate this safety significance, a multi-step methodology was created that relies on an existing Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to provide a quantitative framework for modeling the role of operating procedures. The purpose of this methodology is to determine what impact the improvement of NOPs and AOPs would have on public health and safety

  4. Chlorophyll fluorescence, photochemical reflective index and normalized difference vegetative index during plant senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordon, Gabriela; Lagorio, M Gabriela; Paruelo, José M

    2016-07-20

    The relationship between the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and chlorophyll fluorescence along senescence was investigated in this work. Reflectance and radiance measurements were performed at canopy level in grass species presenting different photosynthetic metabolism: Avena sativa (C3) and Setaria italica (C4), at different stages of the natural senescence process. Sun induced-chlorophyll fluorescence at 760nm (SIF 760 ) and the apparent fluorescence yield (SIF 760 /a, with a=irradiance at time of measurement) were extracted from the radiance spectra of canopies using the Fraunhofer Line Discrimination-method. The photosynthetic parameters derived from Kautsky kinetics and pigment content were also calculated at leaf level. Whilst stand level NDVI patterns were related to changes in the structure of canopies and not in pigment content, stand level PRI patterns suggested changes both in terms of canopy and of pigment content in leaves. Both SIF 760 /a and Φ PSII decreased progressively along senescence in both species. A strong increment in NPQ was evident in A. sativa while in S. italica NPQ values were lower. Our most important finding was that two chlorophyll fluorescence signals, Φ PSII and SIF 760 /a, correlated with the canopy PRI values in the two grasses assessed, even when tissues at different ontogenic stages were present. Even though significant changes occurred in the Total Chlr/Car ratio along senescence in both studied species, significant correlations between PRI and chlorophyll fluorescence signals might indicate the usefulness of this reflectance index as a proxy of photosynthetic RUE, at least under the conditions of this study. The relationships between stand level PRI and the fluorescence estimators (Φ PSII and SIF 760 /a) were positive in both cases. Therefore, an increase in PRI values as in the fluorescence parameters would indicate higher RUE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All

  5. The normal limits, subclinical significance, related metabolic derangements and distinct biological effects of body site-specific adiposity in relatively healthy population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ho Yun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of visceral adipose tissue that occurs with normal aging is associated with increased cardiovascular risks. However, the clinical significance, biological effects, and related cardiometabolic derangements of body-site specific adiposity in a relatively healthy population have not been well characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we consecutively enrolled 608 asymptomatic subjects (mean age: 47.3 years, 27% female from 2050 subjects undergoing an annual health survey in Taiwan. We measured pericardial (PCF and thoracic peri-aortic (TAT adipose tissue volumes by 16-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA and related these to clinical characteristics, body fat composition (Tanita 305 Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, coronary calcium score (CCS, serum insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP level and circulating leukocytes count. Metabolic risk was scored by Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. RESULTS: TAT, PCF, and total body fat composition all increased with aging and higher metabolic scores (all p<0.05. Only TAT, however, was associated with higher circulating leukocyte counts (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05, serum insulin (ß-coef.:0.17, p<0.05 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05. These relationships persisted after adjustment in multivariable models (all p<0.05. A TAT volume of 8.29 ml yielded the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.74-0.83 to identify metabolic syndrome. TAT but not PCF correlated with higher coronary calcium score after adjustment for clinical variables (all p<0.05. CONCLUSION: In our study, we observe that age-related body-site specific accumulation of adipose tissue may have distinct biological effects. Compared to other adiposity measures, peri-aortic adiposity is more tightly associated with cardiometabolic risk profiles and

  6. The effect of speaking rate on serial-order sound-level errors in normal healthy controls and persons with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossett, Tepanta R D; McNeil, Malcolm R; Pratt, Sheila R; Tompkins, Connie A; Shuster, Linda I

    Although many speech errors can be generated at either a linguistic or motoric level of production, phonetically well-formed sound-level serial-order errors are generally assumed to result from disruption of phonologic encoding (PE) processes. An influential model of PE (Dell, 1986; Dell, Burger & Svec, 1997) predicts that speaking rate should affect the relative proportion of these serial-order sound errors (anticipations, perseverations, exchanges). These predictions have been extended to, and have special relevance for persons with aphasia (PWA) because of the increased frequency with which speech errors occur and because their localization within the functional linguistic architecture may help in diagnosis and treatment. Supporting evidence regarding the effect of speaking rate on phonological encoding has been provided by studies using young normal language (NL) speakers and computer simulations. Limited data exist for older NL users and no group data exist for PWA. This study tested the phonologic encoding properties of Dell's model of speech production (Dell, 1986; Dell,et al., 1997), which predicts that increasing speaking rate affects the relative proportion of serial-order sound errors (i.e., anticipations, perseverations, and exchanges). The effects of speech rate on the error ratios of anticipation/exchange (AE), anticipation/perseveration (AP) and vocal reaction time (VRT) were examined in 16 normal healthy controls (NHC) and 16 PWA without concomitant motor speech disorders. The participants were recorded performing a phonologically challenging (tongue twister) speech production task at their typical and two faster speaking rates. A significant effect of increased rate was obtained for the AP but not the AE ratio. Significant effects of group and rate were obtained for VRT. Although the significant effect of rate for the AP ratio provided evidence that changes in speaking rate did affect PE, the results failed to support the model derived predictions

  7. Assessment of axillary temperature for the evaluation of normal body temperature of healthy young adults at rest in a thermoneutral environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marui, Shuri; Misawa, Ayaka; Tanaka, Yuki; Nagashima, Kei

    2017-02-22

    The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate whether recently introduced methods of measuring axillary temperature are reliable, (2) examine if individuals know their baseline body temperature based on an actual measurement, and (3) assess the factors affecting axillary temperature and reevaluate the meaning of the axillary temperature. Subjects were healthy young men and women (n = 76 and n = 65, respectively). Three measurements were obtained: (1) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a predictive mode requiring 10 s (T ax-10 s ), (2) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a standard mode requiring 10 min (T ax-10 min ), and (3) tympanic membrane temperature continuously measured by infrared thermometry (T ty ). The subjects answered questions about eating and exercise habits, sleep and menstrual cycles, and thermoregulation and reported what they believed their regular body temperature to be (T reg ). T reg , T ax-10 s , T ax-10 min , and T ty were 36.2 ± 0.4, 36.4 ± 0.5, 36.5 ± 0.4, and 36.8 ± 0.3 °C (mean ± SD), respectively. There were correlations between T ty and T ax-10 min , T ty and T ax-10 s , and T ax-10 min and T ax-10 s (r = .62, r = .46, and r = .59, respectively, P body mass indices and irregular menstrual cycles. Modern devices for measuring axillary temperature may have changed the range of body temperature that is recognized as normal. Core body temperature variations estimated by tympanic measurements were smaller than those estimated by axillary measurements. This variation of axillary temperature may be due to changes in the measurement methods introduced by modern devices and techniques. However, axillary temperature values correlated well with those of tympanic measurements, suggesting that the technique may reliably report an individual's state of health. It is important for individuals to know their baseline axillary temperature to evaluate subsequent

  8. Model, parameter and code of environmental dispersion of gaseous effluent under normal operation from nuclear power plant with 600 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Gao Zhanrong

    1998-06-01

    The model of environmental dispersion of gaseous effluence under normal operation from a nuclear power plant with 600 MWe is established to give a mathematical expression of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor under mixing release condition based on quality assessment of radiological environment for 30 years of Chinese nuclear industry. In calculation, the impact from calm and other following factors have been taken into account: mixing layer, dry and wet deposition, radioactive decay and buildings. The doses caused from the following exposure pathways are also given by this model: external exposure from immersion cloud and ground deposition, internal exposure due to inhalation and ingestion. The code is named as ROULEA. It contains four modules, i.e. INPUT, ANRTRI, CHIQV and DOSE for calculating 4-dimension joint frequency, annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor and doses

  9. Measurement of blood flow in the superior sagittal sinus in healthy volunteers, and in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus and idiopathic intracranial hypertension with phase-contrast cine MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Gjerris, F

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure blood flow and velocity in the superior sagittal ++sinus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MR velocity mapping was used to examine 14 healthy volunteers, 15 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), 3 patients with high pressure hydrocephalus (HPH), and 11 patients with idiopathic...

  10. Psychosocial work strain of maintenance personnel during annual outage and normal operation in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Svensson, O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which evaluates psychosocial work demands during the annual outage for a maintenance work group in a nuclear power plant. The study is based on a stress paradigm and it has been asserted that increased work strain would have a negative effect on performance. Nineteen workers, aged 20-55 years, participated in the study. The subjects filled out a questionnaire comparing work strain during annual outage and normal operation. During the outage period a 3-shift 24-hour work schedule, including nightwork, was used (working hours during normal operation was 7-16). Increased demands on concentration and vigilance, increased time pressure and strain on social relations within the group were found to characterize work during annual outage. Interestingly, for specific work tasks an association was found between the risk of making errors and high psychological workload. Increased work strain, shiftwork including nightwork and reduced social support are important psychosocial risk factors that might contribute to human error during the outage period

  11. Process-oriented dose assessment model for 14C due to releases during normal operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, Karin; Hallberg, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    Swedish nuclear utility companies are required to assess doses due to releases of radionuclides during normal operation. In 2001, calculation methods used earlier were updated due to new authority regulations. The isotope 14 C is of special interest in dose assessments due to the role of carbon in the metabolism of all life forms. Earlier, factors expressing the ratio between concentration of 14 C in air and in various plants were used. In order to extend the possibility to take local conditions into account, a process-oriented assessment model for uptake of carbon and doses from releases of 14 C to air was developed (POM 14 C). The model uses part of Daisy which has been developed to model the turnover of carbon in crops. [Hansen, S., Jensen, H.E., Nielsen, N.E., Svendsen, H., 1993. Description of the Soil Plant System Model DAISY, Basic Principles and Modelling Approach. Simulation Model for Transformation and Transport of Energy and Matter in the Soil Plant Atmosphere System. Jordbruksfoerlaget, The Royal Veterianary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark]. The main objectives were to test model performance of the former method, and to investigate if taking site specific parameters into account to a greater degree would lead to major differences in the results. Several exposure pathways were considered: direct consumption of locally grown cereals, vegetables, and root vegetables, as well as consumption of milk and meat from cows having eaten fodder cereals and green fodder from the area around the nuclear plant. The total dose of the earlier model was compared with that of POM 14 C. The result of the former was shown to be slightly higher than the latter, but POM 14 C confirmed that the earlier results were of a reasonable magnitude. When full account of local conditions was taken, e.g. as regards solar radiation, temperature, and concentration of 14 C in air at various places in the surroundings of each nuclear plant, a difference in dose between

  12. A frequência do HPV na mucosa oral normal de indivíduos sadios por meio da PCR The frequency of human papillomavirus findings in normal oral mucosa of healthy people by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Esquenazi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Os papilomavírus humanos (HPV são DNA vírus pertencentes à família papilomaviridae com grupos de baixo e alto risco que infectam a pele e a mucosa podendo induzir a formação de tumores epiteliais benignos e malignos. Na mucosa oral, estes vírus têm sido associados a papilomas orais, hiperplasias epiteliais focais, leucoplasias e neoplasias orais. OBJETIVO: Estudar a frequência do HPV em mucosa oral de indivíduos normais. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Trabalho prospectivo em coorte transversal. Participaram desse estudo 100 indivíduos voluntários, faixa etária de 20 a 31 anos, estudantes universitários, sem história, queixas ou lesões visíveis ao exame físico de cavidade oral e orofaringe. Foram submetidos a questionário com perguntas referentes à epidemiologia da infecção pelo HPV. Foi colhido material de mucosa oral por raspado com escova e analisado pelo PCR. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram ausência de HPV em todas as amostras. CONCLUSÃO: Parece ter havido participação do alto nível socioeconômico com alimentação rica em carotenoides e vitamina C, baixo consumo tabágico e etílico e comportamento heterossexual predominantemente monogâmico com uso regular de preservativos.The human papillomavirus (HPV is a DNA virus, which belongs to papillomaviridae family, being of low and high risk, which infect the skin and mucous membranes and can induce benign and malign tumor formation. In the oral mucosa they have been associated with oral papilloma, focal epithelial hyperplasia, leucoplakia and oral neoplasia. AIM: to study the frequency of HPV finding in oral mucosa of normal people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study, cross-sectional cohort. One hundred volunteers, young adults, healthy, aged between 20 and 31 years, university students with no history, no complains, without oral or oropharyngeal lesions. They were submitted to a questionnaire with questions regarding HPV infection epidemiology. The samples were

  13. Expression of an engineered heterologous antimicrobial peptide in potato alters plant development and mitigates normal abiotic and biotic responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder K Goyal

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial cationic peptides (AMPs are ubiquitous small proteins used by living cells to defend against a wide spectrum of pathogens. Their amphipathic property helps their interaction with negatively charged cellular membrane of the pathogen causing cell lysis and death. AMPs also modulate signaling pathway(s and cellular processes in animal models; however, little is known of cellular processes other than the pathogen-lysis phenomenon modulated by AMPs in plants. An engineered heterologous AMP, msrA3, expressed in potato was previously shown to cause resistance of the transgenic plants against selected fungal and bacterial pathogens. These lines together with the wild type were studied for growth habits, and for inducible defense responses during challenge with biotic (necrotroph Fusarium solani and abiotic stressors (dark-induced senescence, wounding and temperature stress. msrA3-expression not only conferred protection against F. solani but also delayed development of floral buds and prolonged vegetative phase. Analysis of select gene transcript profiles showed that the transgenic potato plants were suppressed in the hypersensitive (HR and reactive oxygen species (ROS responses to both biotic and abiotic stressors. Also, the transgenic leaves accumulated lesser amounts of the defense hormone jasmonic acid upon wounding with only a slight change in salicylic acid as compared to the wild type. Thus, normal host defense responses to the pathogen and abiotic stressors were mitigated by msrA3 expression suggesting MSRA3 regulates a common step(s of these response pathways. The stemming of the pathogen growth and mitigating stress response pathways likely contributes to resource reallocation for higher tuber yield.

  14. Patients cured from craniopharyngioma or nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA) suffer similarly from increased daytime somnolence despite normal sleep patterns compared to healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van Kralingen, Klaas W.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Rabe, Klaus F.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Adults patients previously treated for craniopharyngioma have increased general and physical fatigue compared to healthy controls. This could be related to disturbed sleep patterns. The aim of this study was to compare sleepiness and sleep patterns in those patients to healthy controls and to

  15. Measurement of spontaneous DNA damage and DNA repair capacity in healthy adult individuals from high and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Jaikrishan, G.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2014-01-01

    Inhabitants of the south west coastal areas of Kerala receive high level natural radiation due to the presence of monazite ( 232 Th) in the beach sand. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the biological effects of high level natural radiation on humans. This study evaluate basal DNA damage in 149 healthy adult male subjects (104 from high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA, > 1mSv year -1 ) and 45 from normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA, d''1mSv year -1 ) by the alkaline comet assay. Oxidative DNA damage (ENDO III, FPG and hOGG1-sensitive sites) was measured by the enzyme modified comet assay. Induction and rejoining of DNA strand breaks was measured after irradiating peripheral blood lymphocytes with 2 Gy or 4 Gy gamma radiation. Basal damage due to age and residential area of the donors showed significant interaction (P=0.001), when all subjects were analyzed using a general linear model (GLM). In subgroup analysis, basal damage increased with age in subjects from the NLNRA (P=0.007), while a significant negative correlation (P=0.01) was observed in subjects from HLNRA. Oxidative DNA damage was not influenced by age, smoking habit or residential area in the entire sample. Subjects of high dose group from HLNRA (>5.75 mSv/y, N=34) showed a significant reduction in the induction of DNA damage after 2 Gy (P=0.03) and 4 Gy (P=0.05) compared to subjects form NLNRA. The study showed increased rejoining of DNA strand breaks in subjects from HLNRA when measured at 7 minutes after irradiation (P=0.04). In this pilot study, a low basal damage in elderly subjects from HLNRA and a reduced induction of DNA damage after 2 Gy and 4 Gy irradiation in high dose group subjects from HLNRA might suggest a possible role of chronic low dose natural radiation on the induction of an in vivo radio adaptive response. However, our findings need more validation in a larger study population. (author)

  16. Irregular meal-pattern effects on energy expenditure, metabolism, and appetite regulation: a randomized controlled trial in healthy normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhussain, Maha H; Macdonald, Ian A; Taylor, Moira A

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is increasing in parallel with greater all-day food availability. The latter may promote meal irregularity, dysregulation of the energy balance, and poor metabolic health. We investigated the effect of meal irregularity on the thermic effect of food (TEF), lipid concentrations, carbohydrate metabolism, subjective appetite, and gut hormones in healthy women. Eleven normal-weight women (18-40 y of age) were recruited in a randomized crossover trial with two 14-d isoenergetic diet periods (identical foods provided and free living) that were separated by a 14-d habitual diet washout period. In period 1, participants followed a regular meal pattern (6 meals/d) or an irregular meal pattern (3-9 meals/d), and in period 2, the alternative meal pattern was followed. Before and after each period, when participants were fasting and for 3 h after intake of a test drink, measurements were taken of energy expenditure, circulating glucose, lipids (fasting only), insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin. An ad libitum test meal was offered. Subjective appetite ratings were assessed while fasting, after the test drink, after the ad libitum meal, and during the intervention. Continuous interstitial glucose monitoring was undertaken for 3 consecutive days during each intervention, and the ambulatory activity pattern was recorded (ambulatory energy expenditure estimation). Regularity was associated with a greater TEF (P breakfast; day 9: after lunch and dinner). There was no difference between treatments for the test-drink gut hormone response. A time effect was noted for fasting GLP-1, fasting PYY, PYY responses, and hunger-rating responses to the test drink (P < 0.05). Lower hunger and higher fullness ratings were seen premeal and postmeal during the regular period while subjects were free living. Meal regularity appears to be associated with greater TEF and lower glucose responses, which may favor weight management and metabolic health. This

  17. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xuming Liu,1 Zhihan Yan,2 Tingyu Wang,1 Xiaokai Yang,1 Feng Feng,3 Luping Fan,1 Jian Jiang4 1Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Department of Radiology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Peking Union Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL after normal sleep (NS and after sleep deprivation (SD. Methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results: Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL, left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the

  18. Comparison of the corrosion potential for stainless steel measured in-plant and in laboratory during BWR normal water chemistry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molander, A.; Pein, K.; Tarkpea, P.; Takagi, Junichi; Karlberg, G.; Gott, K.

    1998-01-01

    To obtain reliable crack growth rate date for stainless steel in BWR environments careful laboratory simulation of the environmental conditions is necessary. In the plant the BWR normal water chemistry environment contains hydrogen peroxide, oxygen and hydrogen. However, in crack growth rate experiments in laboratories, the environment is normally simulated by adding 200 ppb oxygen to the high temperature water. Thus, as hydrogen peroxide is a more powerful oxidant than oxygen, it is to be expected that a lower corrosion potential will be measured in the laboratory than in the plant. To resolve this issue this work has been performed. In-plant and laboratory measurements have often been performed with somewhat different equipment, due to the special requirements concerning in-plant measurements. In this work such differences have been avoided and two identical sets of equipment for electrochemical measurements were built and used for measurements in-plant in a Swedish BWR and in high purity water in the laboratory. The host plant was Barsebaeck 1. Corrosion potential monitoring in-plant was performed under both NWC (Normal Water Chemistry) and HWC (Hydrogen Water Chemistry) conditions. This paper is, however, focused on NWC conditions. This is due to the fact, that the total crack growth obtained during a reactor cycle, can be determined by NWC conditions, even for plants running with HWC due to periodic stops in the hydrogen addition for turbine inspections or failure of the dosage or hydrogen production equipment. Thus, crack growth data for NWC is of great importance both for BWRs operating with HWC and NWC. Measurements in-plant and in the laboratory were performed during additions of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to the autoclave systems. The corrosion potentials were compared for various conditions in the autoclaves, as well as versus in-plant in-pipe corrosion potentials. (J.P.N.)

  19. Simulated Prism Therapy in Virtual Reality produces larger after-effects than standard prism exposure in normal healthy subject - Implications for Neglect Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality is an important area of exploration within computer-based cognitive rehabilitation of visual neglect. Virtual reality will allow for closer monitoring of patient behaviour during prism adaptation therapy and perhaps change the way we induce prismatic after......-effects. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effect of two different prism simulation conditions in virtual reality to a standard exposure to prism goggles after one session of Prism Adaptation Therapy in healthy subjects. METHOD: 20 healthy subjects were subjected to one session of prism adaptation therapy under...... training for rehabilitation of hemi spatial attentional deficits such as visual neglect....

  20. The effect of dexmedetomidine on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in healthy piglets with normal and lowered blood pressure anaesthetized with propofol-remifentanil total intravenous anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Louise Grandsgaard; Ambrus, Rikard; Rasmussen, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Background During anaesthesia and surgery, in particular neurosurgery, preservation of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation (CPO) is essential for normal postoperative brain function. The isolated effects on CPO of either individual anaesthetic drugs or entire anaesthetic protocols are of importance...

  1. Estimated radiological effects of the normal discharge of radioactivity from nuclear power plants in the Netherlands with a total capacity of 3500 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugt, G. van der; Wijker, H.; Kema, N.V.

    1977-01-01

    In the Netherlands discussions are going on about the installation of three nuclear power plants, leading with the two existing plants to a total capacity of 3500 MWe. To have an impression of the radiological impact of this program, calculations were carried out concerning the population doses due to the discharge of radioactivity from the plants during normal operation. The discharge via the ventilation stack gives doses due to noble gases, halogens and particulate material. The population dose due to the halogens in the grass-milk-man chain is estimated using the real distribution of grass-land around the reactor sites. It could be concluded that the population dose due to the contamination of crops and fruit is negligeable. A conservative estimation is made for the dose due to the discharge of tritium. The population dose due to the discharge in the cooling water is calculated using the following pathways: drinking water; consumption of fish; consumption of meat from animals fed with fish products. The individual doses caused by the normal discharge of a 1000 MWe plant appeared to be very low, mostly below 1 mrem/year. The population dose is in the order of some tens manrems. The total dose of the 5 nuclear power plants to the dutch population is not more than 70 manrem. Using a linear dose-effect relationship the health effects to the population are estimated and compared with the normal frequency

  2. Effect of psychological intervention in the form of relaxation and guided imagery on cellular immune function in normal healthy subjects. An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, R; Kristensen, J S; Hokland, P

    1991-01-01

    The present study measured the effects of relaxation and guided imagery on cellular immune function. During a period of 10 days 10 healthy subjects were given one 1-hour relaxation procedure and one combined relaxation and guided imagery procedure, instructing the subjects to imagine their immune...... on the immune defense and could form the basis of further studies on psychological intervention and immunological status. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-null...

  3. COMPARISON BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL COST INDEX IN HEALTHY NORMAL CHILDREN AS AGAINST AMBULATORY SPASTIC DIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY (WITH AND WITHOUT ORTHOSIS IN THE AGE GROUP 6 TO 18 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swatia Bhise

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy of rehabilitation program for subjects with orthosis with objective measurement. The study aiming to objectively compare the PCI and walking speed of normal children with ambulatory spastic diaplegic. Also we aimed to analyze whether BMIhad impact on energy cost. Methods: 41 normal children and 41 community walking spastic diaplegic aged between 6 to 18 yrs. were assessed to compare the PCI. Speed of walking and heart rate were checked constantlyboth barefoot and in shoes in normal children and with and without conventional AFO in children with spastic diaplegic at their chosen velocities over four consecutive lengths of a 12.5m walkway i.e. total 50m.,Pre and Post readings are taken. Heart rate is affected by speed; PCI with speed of walking and heart rate was calculated for each child. Results: The mean PCI in shoes and barefoot was same in normal children i.e. 0.05 ±0.039beats/meter. The PCI for children with pathological gait i.e. spastic diaplegic without orthosis and with orthosis is 0.199 ±0.176 and 0.104± 0.093beats/meter appreciably greater than that for normal children(p less than 0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that walking with orthosis in spastic diplegic CP children showed higher costs of energy and slower walking speed compared normal children with age matched. The PCI of walking, with orthosis in children with spastic Diplegic cerebral palsy is less as compared to without orthosis i.e. gait is more energy efficient with orthosis. BMI doesn’t show any correlation with PCI further study may require.

  4. Assessment of Blood Glucose Regulation and Safety of Resistant Starch Formula-Based Diet in Healthy Normal and Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Daw-Ming; Wu, Da-Jen; Peng, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the new resistant starch (RS) formula, PPB-R-203, on glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes.A cohort consisting of 40 healthy participants received test and control diets and was checked for up to 3 hours post-meal. A randomized, 2-regimen, cross-over, comparative study was conducted in 44 subjects with type 2 diabetes and glycemic control was assessed with a continuous glucose monitoring system.In healthy participants, serum glucose values and incremental areas under the glucose curves (AUC) were significantly lower in the PPB-R-203 than the control group (P blood glucose concentrations for subjects on the control regimen were higher than those for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen (7.9 ± 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.4-8.4 vs 7.4 ± 1.6, 95% CI 6.9-7.9 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.023). AUCs for total blood glucose and hyperglycemia (glucose >10 mmol/L) were also reduced for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen as compared with those on control regimen (total blood glucose: 16.2 ± 4.0, 95% CI 14.9-17.4 vs 18.7 ± 4.0, 95% CI 17.6-20.1, P AUC measurements for hypoglycemia (glucose glucose excursion.

  5. The contribution of 3D quantitative meniscal and cartilage measures to variation in normal radiographic joint space width—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Melanie; Wirth, Wolfgang; Emmanuel, Katja; Culvenor, Adam G.; Eckstein, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. Methods: The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0 ± 7.6; BMI 24.4 ± 3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. Results: The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.67) than for meniscal (−0.31 ≤ r ≤ 0.50) or demographic measures (−0.15 ≤ r ≤ 0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r ≥ 0.68 medially; r ≥ 0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r ≤ |0.32| medially; r ≤ |0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r 2 = 58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r 2 = 60/51%, respectively). Conclusions: In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations between

  6. The contribution of 3D quantitative meniscal and cartilage measures to variation in normal radiographic joint space width—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.roth@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Wirth, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.wirth@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404, Ainring (Germany); Emmanuel, Katja, E-mail: katja.emmanuel@icloud.com [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Paracelsus Medical University, Müllner Hauptstraße 48, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Culvenor, Adam G., E-mail: adam.culvenor@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, 3086, Victoria (Australia); Eckstein, Felix, E-mail: felix.eckstein@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404, Ainring (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Objective: To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. Methods: The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0 ± 7.6; BMI 24.4 ± 3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. Results: The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.67) than for meniscal (−0.31 ≤ r ≤ 0.50) or demographic measures (−0.15 ≤ r ≤ 0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r ≥ 0.68 medially; r ≥ 0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r ≤ |0.32| medially; r ≤ |0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r{sup 2} = 58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r{sup 2} = 60/51%, respectively). Conclusions: In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations

  7. High diversity of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius lineages and toxigenic traits in healthy pet-owning household members. Underestimating normal household contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Forty-three unrelated pet-owning households were screened in Spain to study the Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius nasal carriage, their genetic lineages and virulence traits. Sixty-seven healthy owners and 66 healthy pets were investigated. Isolates characterization was performed and potential interspecies transmission was assessed. S. aureus was present in 51.2% of households studied while S. pseudintermedius in 30.2%. Twenty-eight owners (41.8%) carried S. aureus: one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) [t5173-ST8-SCCmecIVa] and 27 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Three owners (4.5%) were colonized by methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP). Fifteen pets (22.7%) carried S. pseudintermedius: two methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) [ST71-SCCmecII/III; ST92-SCCmecV] and 13 MSSP; in addition, 8 pets (12.1%) presented MSSA. High diversity of spa and sequence types (STs) was detected. Typical livestock-associated S. aureus lineages (CC398, CC9) were observed in humans and/or companion animals and hospital and/or community-acquired S. aureus lineages (CC45, CC121, CC5, CC8) were detected among pets. Almost 40% of S. pseudintermedius were multidrug-resistant. S. aureus isolates harboured a remarkable high number of virulence genes. The expA gene was detected in 3 S. pseudintermedius isolates. Identical strains from both owners and their pets were identified in 5 households (11.6%): (a) four MSSA (t073-ST45/CC45, t159-ST121/CC121, t209-ST109/CC9, t021-ST1654([new])/singleton) and (b) one multidrug-resistant MSSP (ST142([new])). Highly clonally diverse and toxigenic S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius are common colonizers of healthy humans and pets. The presence of these bacterial species, virulence genes, and interspecies transmission detected, points out to consider pet ownership as a risk factor to acquire, maintain and spread, potential pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A first‐in‐human pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study of a fully human anti‐glucagon receptor monoclonal antibody in normal healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Ana; King, Thomas Alexander; Yang, Feng; Chan, Kuo‐Chen; Yancopoulos, George D.; Gromada, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Aims Glucagon receptor (GCGR) blockers are being investigated as potential therapeutics for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Here we report the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of REGN1193, a fully human glucagon receptor blocking monoclonal antibody from a first‐in‐human healthy volunteer randomized double‐blinded trial. Methods Healthy men and women received single ascending doses of REGN1193 ranging from 0.05 to 0.6 mg/kg (n = 42) or placebo (n = 14) intravenously. Safety, tolerability and PK were assessed over 106 days. The glucose‐lowering effect of REGN1193 was assessed after induction of hyperglycaemia by serial glucagon challenges. Results REGN1193 was generally well tolerated. There were small (50 mg/dL, and did not require treatment or medical assistance. Concentration‐time profiles suggest a 2‐compartment disposition and marked nonlinearity, consistent with target‐mediated clearance. REGN1193 inhibited the glucagon‐stimulated glucose increase in a dose‐dependent manner. The 0.6 mg/kg dose inhibited the glucagon‐induced glucose area under the curve for 0 to 90 minutes (AUC0‐90 minutes) by 80% to 90% on days 3 and 15, while blunting the increase in C‐peptide. REGN1193 dose‐dependently increased total GLP‐1, GLP‐2 and glucagon, with plasma levels returning to baseline by day 29 in all dose groups. Conclusion REGN1193, a GCGR‐blocking monoclonal antibody, produced a safety, tolerability and PK/PD profile suitable for further clinical development. The occurrence of transient elevations in serum hepatic aminotransferases observed here and reported with several small molecule glucagon receptor antagonists suggests an on‐target effect of glucagon receptor blockade. The underlying mechanism is unknown. PMID:28755409

  9. HEALTHY AND PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF MYOMETRIUM: PREGNANT MYOMETRIUM, UTERINE FIBROIDS AND LEIOMYOSARCOMA. Cambios normales y patológicos del miometrio: miometrio del embarazo, fibrosis uterina y leiomiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquapina Ciarmela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El miometrio, la pared muscular del útero, puede modificar su misma masa y las propiedades celulares en el embarazo y también en los tumores como el leiomioma y el leiomiosarcoma. El leiomioma, dicho también fibroma, es un tumor benigno del útero y se considera como  una de las causas más frecuentes de infertilità en el período reproductivo femenino. El leiomiosarcoma, en cambio, es un tumor maligno y agresivo de la musculatura lisa uterina. La presente revisión discute las características generales del leiomioma y el leiomiosarcoma y los relativos tratamientos clínicos actualmente usados y además describe las características del miometrio normal en el embarazo.  The myometrium, the muscular wall of the uterus, can modify its mass and cellular properties in pregnancy as well as in tumor conditions such as leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. Leiomyomas, also known as fibroids, are benign tumors of the uterus, considered to be one of the most frequent causes of infertility in reproductive years of women. Leiomyosarcomas in turn, are rare aggressive malignant uterine smooth-muscle tumors. The present review is discussing the general features of leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma with their current treatments and also discussing the characteristics of normal pregnant myometrium and compare with leiomyoma.

  10. Significant effect of topographic normalization of airborne LiDAR data on the retrieval of plant area index profile in mountainous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Heurich, Marco; Wang, Tiejun

    2017-10-01

    As an important metric for describing vertical forest structure, the plant area index (PAI) profile is used for many applications including biomass estimation and wildlife habitat assessment. PAI profiles can be estimated with the vertically resolved gap fraction from airborne LiDAR data. Most research utilizes a height normalization algorithm to retrieve local or relative height by assuming the terrain to be flat. However, for many forests this assumption is not valid. In this research, the effect of topographic normalization of airborne LiDAR data on the retrieval of PAI profile was studied in a mountainous forest area in Germany. Results show that, although individual tree height may be retained after topographic normalization, the spatial arrangement of trees is changed. Specifically, topographic normalization vertically condenses and distorts the PAI profile, which consequently alters the distribution pattern of plant area density in space. This effect becomes more evident as the slope increases. Furthermore, topographic normalization may also undermine the complexity (i.e., canopy layer number and entropy) of the PAI profile. The decrease in PAI profile complexity is not solely determined by local topography, but is determined by the interaction between local topography and the spatial distribution of each tree. This research demonstrates that when calculating the PAI profile from airborne LiDAR data, local topography needs to be taken into account. We therefore suggest that for ecological applications, such as vertical forest structure analysis and modeling of biodiversity, topographic normalization should not be applied in non-flat areas when using LiDAR data.

  11. Clinical relevance of specific cognitive complaints in determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a study of Healthy Elderly Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Avila Villanueva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective memory complaints in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ.Material and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI. The Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis and item response theory were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI.Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely forgetfulness of immediate information, executive functions and prospective memory proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10.Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints.

  12. Study of skin and nail Candida species as a normal flora based on age groups in healthy persons in Tehran-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat, Z; Hashemi, S J; Ahamdikia, K; Daie Ghazvini, R; Bazvandi, F

    2017-12-01

    The skin is the body's largest organ that hosts heterogeneous inhabitants. Until now, the diversity of the cutaneous microbiome was mainly investigated for bacteria and there is a little information about the skin fungal flora. Also, among skin fungal flora, Candida is found as a main member whose distribution is affected by sex, age, climate. In this study, differences in Candida community structure associated with 9 different skin sites of 238 healthy people during 10 months from July to March 2016, are described. These subjects were divided by age into 4 groups: infants, children, adults and geriatrics. The collected samples were examined by culture on Sabouraud Chloramphenicol Agar and CHROM-agar Candida. For precise identification of species ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 rDNA regions were sequenced where needed. The frequency of Candida species was significantly different between age groups. The most Candida isolations were related to the elderly age group and the fewest in the infants. C. parapsilosis virtually, was the predominant isolated species in all age groups. This study showed no statistically significant effect of the subject's sex on Candida population resident on human skin surface. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. A Wearable Magneto-Inertial System for Gait Analysis (H-Gait: Validation on Normal Weight and Overweight/Obese Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Agostini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wearable magneto-inertial sensors are being increasingly used to obtain human motion measurements out of the lab, although their performance in applications requiring high accuracy, such as gait analysis, are still a subject of debate. The aim of this work was to validate a gait analysis system (H-Gait based on magneto-inertial sensors, both in normal weight (NW and overweight/obese (OW subjects. The validation is performed against a reference multichannel recording system (STEP32, providing direct measurements of gait timings (through foot-switches and joint angles in the sagittal plane (through electrogoniometers. Methods: Twenty-two young male subjects were recruited for the study (12 NW, 10 OW. After positioning body-fixed sensors of both systems, each subject was asked to walk, at a self-selected speed, over a 14-m straight path for 12 trials. Gait signals were recorded, at the same time, with the two systems. Spatio-temporal parameters, ankle, knee, and hip joint kinematics were extracted analyzing an average of 89 ± 13 gait cycles from each lower limb. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altmann plots were used to compare H-Gait and STEP32 measurements. Changes in gait parameters and joint kinematics of OW with respect NW were also evaluated. Results: The two systems were highly consistent for cadence, while a lower agreement was found for the other spatio-temporal parameters. Ankle and knee joint kinematics is overall comparable. Joint ROMs values were slightly lower for H-Gait with respect to STEP32 for the ankle (by 1.9° for NW, and 1.6° for OW and for the knee (by 4.1° for NW, and 1.8° for OW. More evident differences were found for hip joint, with ROMs values higher for H-Gait (by 6.8° for NW, and 9.5° for OW. NW and OW showed significant differences considering STEP32 (p = 0.0004, but not H-Gait (p = 0.06. In particular, overweight/obese subjects showed a higher cadence (55.0 vs. 52.3 strides/min and a

  14. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of a combined extract of sage, rosemary and melissa, traditional herbal medicines, on the enhancement of memory in normal healthy subjects, including influence of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, N S L; Menzies, R; Hodgson, F; Wedgewood, P; Howes, M-J R; Brooker, H J; Wesnes, K A; Perry, E K

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate for the first time the effects of a combination of sage, rosemary and melissa (Salvia officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.; SRM), traditional European medicines, on verbal recall in normal healthy subjects. To devise a suitable study design for assessing the clinical efficacy of traditional herbal medicines for memory and brain function. Forty-four normal healthy subjects (mean age 61 ± 9.26y SD; m/f 6/38) participated in this study. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study was performed with subjects randomised into an active and placebo group. The study consisted of a single 2-week term ethanol extract of SRM that was chemically-characterised using high resolution LC-UV-MS/MS analysis. Immediate and delayed word recall were used to assess memory after taking SRM or placebo (ethanol extract of Myrrhis odorata (L.) Scop.). In addition analysis was performed with subjects divided into younger and older subgroups (≤ 62 years mean age n = 26: SRM n = 10, Placebo n = 16; ≥ 63 years n = 19: SRM n = 13, Placebo n = 6). Overall there were no significant differences between treatment and placebo change from baseline for immediate or delayed word recall. However subgroup analysis showed significant improvements to delayed word recall in the under 63 year age group (p memory in healthy subjects under 63 years of age. Short- and long- term supplementation with SRM extract merits more robust investigation as an adjunctive treatment for patients with Alzheimer's disease and in the general ageing population. The study design proved a simple cost effective trial protocol to test the efficacy of herbal medicines on verbal episodic memory, with future studies including broader cognitive assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. The Risk of Heart Failure and Cardiometabolic Complications in Obesity May Be Masked by an Apparent Healthy Status of Normal Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchita Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many obese individuals are normoglycemic and asymptomatic of cardiometabolic complications, this apparent healthy state may be a misnomer. Since heart failure is a major cause of mortality in obesity, we investigated the effects of heme-oxygenase (HO on heart failure and cardiometabolic complications in obese normoglycemic Zucker-fatty rats (ZFs. Treatment with the HO-inducer, hemin, reduced markers of heart failure, such as osteopontin and osteoprotegerin, abated left-ventricular (LV hypertrophy/fibrosis, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins including collagen IV, fibronectin, TGF-β1, and reduced cardiac lesions. Furthermore, hemin suppressed inflammation by abating macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β but enhanced adiponectin, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP, HO activity, insulin sensitivity, and glucose metabolism. Correspondingly, hemin improved several hemodynamic/echocardiographic parameters including LV-diastolic wall thickness, LV-systolic wall thickness, mean-arterial pressure, arterial-systolic pressure, arterial-diastolic pressure, LV-developed pressure, +dP/dt, and cardiac output. Contrarily, the HO-inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effect, exacerbating inflammatory/oxidative insults and aggravated insulin resistance (HOMA-index. We conclude that perturbations in insulin signaling and cardiac function may be forerunners to overt hyperglycemia and heart failure in obesity. Importantly, hemin improves cardiac function by suppressing markers of heart failure, LV hypertrophy, cardiac lesions, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins, and inflammatory/oxidative mediators, while concomitantly enhancing the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis.

  16. Objective measurement of minimal fat in normal skeletal muscles of healthy children using T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Serai, Suraj; Merrow, Arnold C; Wang, Lily; Horn, Paul S; Laor, Tal

    2014-02-01

    Various skeletal muscle diseases result in fatty infiltration, making it important to develop noninvasive biomarkers to objectively measure muscular fat. We compared T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with physical characteristics previously correlated with intramuscular fat to validate T2 maps and MRS as objective measures of skeletal muscle fat. We evaluated gluteus maximus muscles in 30 healthy boys (ages 5-19 years) at 3 T with T1-weighted images, T2-W images with fat saturation, T2 maps with and without fat saturation, and MR spectroscopy. We calculated body surface area (BSA), body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile (BMI %). We performed fat and inflammation grading on T1-W imaging and fat-saturated T2-W imaging, respectively. Mean T2 values from T2 maps with fat saturation were subtracted from T2 maps without fat saturation to determine T2 fat values. We obtained lipid-to-water ratios by MR spectroscopy. Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships between BSA, BMI, BMI %, T2 fat values, and lipid-to-water ratios for each boy. Twenty-four boys completed all exams; 21 showed minimal and 3 showed no fatty infiltration. None showed muscle inflammation. There was correlation between BSA, BMI, and BMI %, and T2 fat values (P values and lipid-to-water ratios (P skeletal muscles, even in microscopic amounts, and validate each other. Both techniques might enable detection of minimal pathological fatty infiltration in children with skeletal muscle disorders.

  17. Accuracy and uncertainty analysis of soil Bbf spatial distribution estimation at a coking plant-contaminated site based on normalization geostatistical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Guanlin

    2015-12-01

    Data distribution is usually skewed severely by the presence of hot spots in contaminated sites. This causes difficulties for accurate geostatistical data transformation. Three types of typical normal distribution transformation methods termed the normal score, Johnson, and Box-Cox transformations were applied to compare the effects of spatial interpolation with normal distribution transformation data of benzo(b)fluoranthene in a large-scale coking plant-contaminated site in north China. Three normal transformation methods decreased the skewness and kurtosis of the benzo(b)fluoranthene, and all the transformed data passed the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test threshold. Cross validation showed that Johnson ordinary kriging has a minimum root-mean-square error of 1.17 and a mean error of 0.19, which was more accurate than the other two models. The area with fewer sampling points and that with high levels of contamination showed the largest prediction standard errors based on the Johnson ordinary kriging prediction map. We introduce an ideal normal transformation method prior to geostatistical estimation for severely skewed data, which enhances the reliability of risk estimation and improves the accuracy for determination of remediation boundaries.

  18. Cadmium Sorption Characteristics of Soil Amendments and its Relationship with the Cadmium Uptake by Hyperaccumulator and Normal Plants in Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Wu, Qi-Tang; Lee, Charles C.C.; Li, Baoqin; Long, Xinxian

    2013-01-01

    In order to select appropriate amendments for cropping hyperaccumulator or normal plants on contaminated soils and establish the relationship between Cd sorption characteristics of soil amendments and their capacity to reduce Cd uptake by plants, batch sorption experiments with 11 different clay minerals and organic materials and a pot experiment with the same amendments were carried out. The pot experiment was conducted with Sedum alfredii and maize (Zea mays) in a co-cropping system. The results showed that the highest sorption amount was by montmorillonite at 40.82 mg/g, while mica was the lowest at only 1.83 mg/g. There was a significant negative correlation between the n value of Freundlich equation and Cd uptake by plants, and between the logarithm of the stability constant K of the Langmuir equation and plant uptake. Humic acids (HAs) and mushroom manure increased Cd uptake by S. alfredii, but not maize, thus they are suitable as soil amendments for the co-cropping S. alfredii and maize. The stability constant K in these cases was 0.14–0.16 L/mg and n values were 1.51–2.19. The alkaline zeolite and mica had the best fixation abilities and significantly decreased Cd uptake by the both plants, with K ≥ 1.49 L/mg and n ≥ 3.59. PMID:24912231

  19. Development of operators' mental model acquisition system (2). Integration of knowledge representation about normal and abnormal plant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Mizoguchi, R.; Yoshikawa, S.

    1999-03-01

    This report discusses a representation scheme of device failures anticipated in nuclear power plant, to describe related knowledge in a computer software. Coping ability covering a wide range of physical events is desired in plant operators and maintenance staffs, but it is impractical to give them a set of experience to cover the all possible events in the education/training curriculum. However, in case that their knowledge of plant design and of generally-known physical principles are enforced, their ability of cause identification and of appropriate responding actions against inexperienced events are expected to be enhanced, by combining the basic engineering and physical knowledge. Most of the anomalies anticipated in nuclear power plants are initiated as an incipient failure in some auxiliary equipment initially affecting only within the relative subsystem and hiding from the central control room, and then are propagated to deviate process parameters in the main subsystems to be observed from the control room. Incipient failures in auxiliary subsystems, such as a chemical degrading of an axis holder caused by a blockage of lubricant supply line through increased friction and subsequent extra heating, are typically local and irreversible consequences. On the other hand, deviation propagation in main systems, such as outlet temperature rise by an increased pump rotation friction though decreased coolant flow rate, are typically global and reversible consequences. This paper describes a methodology development to represent a category of knowledge to support operators' and maintenance staffs' effort in understanding local and irreversible failure consequences. (author)

  20. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  1. Effect of pre-plant treatments of yam (Dioscorea rotundata setts on the production of healthy seed yam, seed yam storage and consecutive ware tuber production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Olufunmilayo Claudius-Cole

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous pests and diseases of yams are perpetuated from season to season through the use of infected seed material. Developing a system for generating healthy seed material would disrupt this disease cycle and reduce losses in field and storage. The use of various pre-plant treatments was evaluated in field experiments carried out at three sites in Nigeria. Yam tubers of four preferred local cultivars were cut into 100 g setts and treated with pesticide (fungicide + insecticide mixture, neem extract (1 : 5 w/v, hot water (20 min at 53 °C or wood ash (farmers practice and compared with untreated setts. Pesticide treated setts sprouted better than all other treatments and generally led to lower pest and disease damage of yam tubers. Pesticide treatment increased tuber yields over most treatments, depending on cultivar, but effectively doubled the production as compared to the control. Pesticide and hot water treated setts produced the healthiest seed yams, which had lower storage losses than tubers from other treatments. These pre-treated seed yams produced higher yields corresponding to 700 % potential gain compared to the farmers usual practice. Treatments had no obvious influence on virus incidence, although virus-symptomatic plants yielded significantly less than nonsymptomatic plants. This study demonstrated that pre-plant treatment of setts with pesticide is a simple and effective method that guarantees more, heavier and healthier seed yam tubers.

  2. Novel Natural Products for Healthy Ageing from the Mediterranean Diet and Food Plants of Other Global Sources-The MediHealth Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltenberger, Birgit; Halabalaki, Maria; Schwaiger, Stefan; Adamopoulos, Nicolas; Allouche, Noureddine; Fiebich, Bernd L; Hermans, Nina; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Kesternich, Victor; Pieters, Luc; Schönbichler, Stefan; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Tran, Hung; Trougakos, Ioannis P; Viljoen, Alvaro; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Wolfrum, Christian; Xynos, Nikos; Stuppner, Hermann

    2018-05-06

    There is a rapid increase in the percentage of elderly people in Europe. Consequently, the prevalence of age-related diseases will also significantly increase. Therefore, the main goal of MediHealth, an international research project, is to introduce a novel approach for the discovery of active agents of food plants from the Mediterranean diet and other global sources that promote healthy ageing. To achieve this goal, a series of plants from the Mediterranean diet and food plants from other origins are carefully selected and subjected to in silico, cell-based, in vivo (fly and mouse models), and metabolism analyses. Advanced analytical techniques complement the bio-evaluation process for the efficient isolation and identification of the bioactive plant constituents. Furthermore, pharmacological profiling of bioactive natural products, as well as the identification and synthesis of their metabolites, is carried out. Finally, optimization studies are performed in order to proceed to the development of innovative nutraceuticals, dietary supplements or herbal medicinal products. The project is based on an exchange of researchers between nine universities and four companies from European and non-European countries, exploiting the existing complementary multidisciplinary expertise. Herein, the unique and novel approach of this interdisciplinary project is presented.

  3. Balancing of generators at wind power plants. Operational balancing in normal operation at wind power plants; Auswuchten von Generatoren auf Windkraftanlagen. Betriebsauswuchten im Normalbetrieb der Windkraftanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Dieter [IDF vibrodiagnose GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Gerrit [WSB Service GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    An increasing or suddenly arising unbalanced state in the generator of a wind power plant can be recognized by means of condition monitoring systems and regularly accomplished oscillation diagnoses. A strong unbalanced state results in a fast bearing wear, increases the risk of outage and reduces the profit. The risk of a further damage of the generator by means of a clearly increased vibration severity often is substantial. The counterbalancing takes place at the extended rotor at work benches in workshops. Among other things, the substantial cost is based on the expense of the disassembly and remounting of the generator. The total costs may amount several ten thousand Euro. As an alternative to balancing in the workshop, an operating balancing is recommended on the plant in order to reduce the costs. This was successfully realized by the engineer's office IDF vibrodiagnose GmbH (Dresden, Federal Republic of Germany) by the example of a Vestas V44 plant. The authors of the contribution under consideration describe the approach and advantages of an operating balancing. The main vibration stimulation at generators are described.

  4. Requirements of blue, UV-A, and UV-B light for normal growth of higher plants, as assessed by actions spectra for growth and related phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T. [Kobe Women`s Univ., Higashisuma (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    It is very important for experimental purposes, as well as for the practical use of plants when not enough sunlight is available. To grow green higher plants in their normal forms under artificial lighting constructing efficient and economically reasonable lighting systems is not an easy task. One possible approach would be to simulate sunlight in intensity and the radiation spectrum, but its high construction and running costs are not likely to allow its use in practice. Sunlight may be excessive in irradiance in some or all portions of the spectrum. Reducing irradiance and removing unnecessary wavebands might lead to an economically feasible light source. However, removing or reducing a particular waveband from sunlight for testing is not easy. Another approach might be to find the wavebands required for respective aspects of plant growth and to combine them in a proper ratio and intensity. The latter approach seems more practical and economical, and the aim of this Workshop lies in advancing this approach. I summarize our present knowledge on the waveband requirements of higher plants for the regions of blue, UV-A and UV-B.

  5. Healthy Skin Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin. If you’re helping out in the kitchen, make sure you use hot pads or wear ... in humans, plants, and animals, while others are essential for a healthy life. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) ( ...

  6. Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Orfanakos, Nickolaos; Farajian, Paul; Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Makariti, Ifigenia P; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos; Ha, Marie-Ann; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2017-10-01

    The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response. Ten healthy, normal-weight volunteers participated in GI investigation. Then, 50 healthy, normal-weight individuals consumed, crossover, in random order, the preloads as snack, with 1-wk washout period. Ad libitum meal (lunch and dessert) was offered. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected at baseline, 2 h after breakfast, just before preload consumption, 2 h after preload, 3 h after preload, just before meal (lunch and dessert), 1 h after meal, and 2 h after meal consumption. The carob snack was a low GI food, whereas the chocolate cookie was a high GI food (40 versus 78, respectively, on glucose scale). Consumption of the carob preload decreased the glycemic response to a following meal and to the individual's feelings of hunger, desire to eat, preoccupation with food, and thirst between snack and meal, as assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Subsequently, participants consumed less amounts of food (g) and had lower total energy intake at mealtimes. The carob snack led to increased satiety, lower energy intake at meal, and decreased postmeal glycemic response possibly due to its low GI value. Identifying foods that promote satiety and decrease glycemic response without increasing the overall energy intake may offer advantages to body weight and glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efeito de hormônios vegetais sôbre o enraizamento de estacas de amoreira, plantadas em estufins, em posição normal e invertida Cuttings of Morus alba treated with plant hormones and planted in propagator covers with plastic covers, in reverse and normal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Castilho Rúbia

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são relatados os resultados obtidos com o emprêgo de hormônios vegetais em estacas de amoreira, variedade Catânia 1, plantadas em estufins com cobertura de matéria plástica, em dois sistemas de plantio, invertido e normal. O sistema invertido apresentou melhor resultado no enraizamento das estacas. Com relação aos hormônios vegetais empregados, o ácido-beta-indolacético, na concentração de 100 mg/1 de água destilada, concorreu para aumentar a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas.In the present paper the results are reported that were obtained by the utilization of plant hormones on cuttings of Morus alba of the variety Catania 1, which were planted in propagator covers with plastic covers, obeying two planting systems, the reverse and the normal one. The reverse planting system showed better results in the rooting of the cuttings. As to the plant hormones used, the beta indolacetic acid, at a concentration of 100 mg to the litre of distilled water, contributed to increase the percentage of fixing the roots of the cuttings.

  8. The proposals on cooperation to foreign centers of science on thermophysical properties of reactor materials in a broad band of pressure and temperatures realized at normal transient and emergency operation activity of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortov, V.E.

    1996-01-01

    The proposals on cooperation in the area of thermophysical properties of reactor materials in a broad band of pressure and temperature realized at normal transient and emergency operation activity of nuclear power plants are discussed. 1 fig

  9. A simple method for normalization of DNA extraction to improve the quantitative detection of soil-borne plant pathogenic oomycetes by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Ishiguro, Y; Kageyama, K; Zhu, Z

    2015-08-01

    Most of the current research into the quantification of soil-borne pathogenic oomycetes lacks determination of DNA extraction efficiency, probably leading to an incorrect estimation of DNA quantity. In this study, we developed a convenient method by using a 100 bp artificially synthesized DNA sequence derived from the mitochondrion NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene of Thunnus thynnus as a control to determine the DNA extraction efficiency. The control DNA was added to soils and then co-extracted along with soil genomic DNA. DNA extraction efficiency was determined by the control DNA. Two different DNA extraction methods were compared and evaluated using different types of soils, and the commercial kit was proved to give more consistent results. We used the control DNA combined with real-time PCR to quantify the oomycete DNAs from 12 naturally infested soils. Detectable target DNA concentrations were three to five times higher after normalization. Our tests also showed that the extraction efficiencies varied on a sample-to-sample basis and were simple and useful for the accurate quantification of soil-borne pathogenic oomycetes. Oomycetes include many important plant pathogens. Accurate quantification of these pathogens is essential in the management of diseases. This study reports an easy method utilizing an external DNA control for the normalization of DNA extraction by real-time PCR. By combining two different efficient soil DNA extraction methods, the developed quantification method dramatically improved the results. This study also proves that the developed normalization method is necessary and useful for the accurate quantification of soil-borne plant pathogenic oomycetes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Eating Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is much we can do to promote healthy eating habits. Together we can prevent or delay onset of diabetes, obesity and other chronic conditions and diseases. Benefits Helps maintain a healthy weight A healthy weight reduces risk of chronic ...

  11. CD4+, CD8+, CD3+ cell counts and CD4+/CD8+ ratio among patients with mycobacterial diseases (leprosy, tuberculosis), HIV infections, and normal healthy adults: a comparative analysis of studies in different regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tahziba; Kulshreshtha, K K; Yadav, V S; Katoch, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the CD4+, CD8+, CD3+ cell counts and the CD4/CD8 ratio among normal healthy controls (adults and children), leprosy patients (without any complications and during reactional states), TB patients (with and without HIV), and HIV-positive patients (early infection and full-blown AIDS) and correlated the changes with disease progression. In our study, it was observed that among adults, CD4+ cell counts ranged from 518-1098, CD8+ from 312-952, whereas CD4/CD8 ratio from 0.75-2.30. Among children, both CD4+ and CD8+ cells were more and the CD4/CD8 ratio varied from 0.91-3.17. With regard to leprosy patients, we observed that CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts were lower among PB (pauci-bacillary) and MB (multi-bacillary) patients. CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.99 ± 0.28 among PB patients while the ratio was lower, 0.78 ± 0.20, among MB patients. CD4+ cell counts were raised during RR (reversal reactions) and ENL (erythema nodosum leprosum) among the PB and MB patients whereas the CD8+ cell counts were lower among PB and MB patients. CD4/CD8 ratio doubled during reactional episodes of RR and ENL. Among the HIV-negative tuberculosis (TB) patients, both the CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts were found to be less and the CD4/CD8 ratio varied between 0.53-1.75. Among the HIV-positive TB patients and HIV-positive patients, both the CD4+ and CD8+ cells were very less and ratio drops significantly. In the initial stages of infection, as CD4+ counts drop, an increase in the CD8+ cell counts was observed and the ratio declines. In full-blown cases, CD4+ cell counts were very low, 3-4 to 54 cells, CD8+ cells from 12-211 and the ratio drops too low. This study is the first of its kind in this region of the country and assumes importance since no other study has reported the values of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts among patients with mycobacterial diseases (leprosy and TB), HIV infections along with normal healthy individuals of the region, and correlation with clinical

  12. Effects of polydextrose with breakfast or with a midmorning preload on food intake and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females: An acute, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Alvin; Olli, Kaisa; Pasman, Wilrike; Hendriks, Henk; Alhoniemi, Esa; Raza, Ghulam Shere; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2017-03-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) reduces subsequent energy intake (EI) when administered at midmorning in single-blind trials of primarily normal-weight men. However, it is unclear if this effect also occurs when PDX is given at breakfast time. Furthermore, for ecological validity, it is desirable to study a female population, including those at risk for obesity. We studied the effects of PDX, served as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females. Per earlier studies, the primary outcome was defined as the difference in subsequent EI when PDX was consumed at midmorning versus placebo. Thirty-two volunteers were enrolled in this acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, and crossover trial to examine the effects of 12.5 g of PDX, administered as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI, subjective feelings of appetite, well-being, and mood. Gastric emptying rates and the blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine were measured in the group that received PDX as part of their breakfast. There were no differences in EI between volunteers who were fed PDX and placebo. PDX intake with breakfast tended to elevate blood glucose (P = 0.06) during the postabsorptive phase, significantly lowered insulin by 15.7% (P = 0.04), and increased GLP-1 by 39.9% (P = 0.02); no other effects on blood parameters or gastric emptying rates were observed. PDX intake at midmorning reduced hunger by 31.4% during the satiation period (P = 0.02); all other subjective feelings of appetite were unaffected. Volunteers had a uniform mood profile during the study. PDX was well tolerated, causing one mild adverse event throughout the trial. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  14. Effect of mucoprotective plant-derived therapies on damage to colonic mucosa caused by carprofen and robenacoxib administered to healthy dogs for 21 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szweda, Magdalena; Szarek, Józef; Dublan, Krystyna; Męcik-Kronenberg, Tomasz; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; Bigoszewski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may cause gastrointestinal damage in dogs. To determine the extent to which lansoprazole, liquorice extract, and a herbal solution exhibit protective effects on colonic mucosa when administered to dogs concurrently with the NSAIDs carprofen or robenacoxib. Thirty-five healthy beagle dogs (15 male and 20 female) aged 13-14 weeks and weighing 4.3-5.5 kg at the beginning of the experiment were included. Endoscopy and biopsy of the caudal gastrointestinal tract were performed pretreatment and on the last day of a 21-day treatment period with (1) oral carprofen; (2) carprofen and the proton-pump inhibitor lansoprazole; (3) carprofen, liquorice extract, and a herbal solution that contained extracts of thyme, icelandic lichen, hyssop, and saponariae root; (4) robenacoxib; (5) robenacoxib and lansoprazole; (6) robenacoxib, liquorice extract, and herbal solution; or (7) an empty gelatin capsule. Statistical analyses were performed with the Kruskal-Wallis, Cochran's Q, and chi-squared test with p carprofen and robenacoxib tested damaged the colonic mucosa with most severe microscopic lesions following administration of robenacoxib with lansoprazole. The risk of histopathological lesions in the colon increased most rapidly in robenacoxib with lansoprazole (absolute risk increase -0.85) similar to robenacoxib only (-0.75), whereas the best result was recorded following the plant remedies together with carprofen (-0.15) and the plant remedies together with robenacoxib (-0.2). Concurrent administration of liquorice extract and an herbal solution with robenacoxib was associated with decreased severity of the NSAID-induced mucosal lesions.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow as assessed by principal component analysis and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET in healthy subjects at rest: normal distribution and effect of age and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, M.; Salmaso, D.; Jonsson, C.; Hatherly, R.; Larsson, S.A.; Jacobsson, H.; Waegner, A.

    2002-01-01

    The increasing implementation of standardisation techniques in brain research and clinical diagnosis has highlighted the importance of reliable baseline data from normal control subjects for inter-subject analysis. In this context, knowledge of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in normal ageing is a factor of the utmost importance. In the present study, rCBF was investigated in 50 healthy volunteers (25 men, 25 women), aged 31-78 years, who were examined at rest by means of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). After normalising the CBF data, 27 left and 27 right volumes of interest (VOIs) were selected and automatically outlined by standardisation software (computerised brain atlas). The heavy load of flow data thus obtained was reduced in number and grouped in factors by means of principal component analysis (PCA). PCA extracted 12 components explaining 81% of the variance and including the vast majority of cortical and subcortical regions. Analysis of variance and regression analyses were performed for rCBF, age and gender before PCA was applied and subsequently for each single extracted factor. There was a significantly higher CBF on the right side than on the left side (P<0.001). In the overall analysis, a significant decrease was found in CBF (P=0.05) with increasing age, and this decrease was particularly evident in the left hemisphere (P=0.006). When gender was specifically analysed, CBF was found to decrease significantly with increasing age in females (P=0.037) but not in males. Furthermore, a significant decrease in rCBF with increasing age was found in the brain vertex (P=0.05), left frontotemporal cortex (P=0.012) and temporocingulate cortex (P=0.003). By contrast, relative rCBF in central structures increased with age (P=0.001). The ability of standardisation software and PCA to identify functionally connected brain regions might contribute to a better

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow as assessed by principal component analysis and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET in healthy subjects at rest: normal distribution and effect of age and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, M. [Inst. of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine, CNR, Rome (Italy); Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, D. [Inst. of Psychology, CNR, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, C.; Hatherly, R.; Larsson, S.A. [Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Waegner, A. [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    The increasing implementation of standardisation techniques in brain research and clinical diagnosis has highlighted the importance of reliable baseline data from normal control subjects for inter-subject analysis. In this context, knowledge of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in normal ageing is a factor of the utmost importance. In the present study, rCBF was investigated in 50 healthy volunteers (25 men, 25 women), aged 31-78 years, who were examined at rest by means of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). After normalising the CBF data, 27 left and 27 right volumes of interest (VOIs) were selected and automatically outlined by standardisation software (computerised brain atlas). The heavy load of flow data thus obtained was reduced in number and grouped in factors by means of principal component analysis (PCA). PCA extracted 12 components explaining 81% of the variance and including the vast majority of cortical and subcortical regions. Analysis of variance and regression analyses were performed for rCBF, age and gender before PCA was applied and subsequently for each single extracted factor. There was a significantly higher CBF on the right side than on the left side (P<0.001). In the overall analysis, a significant decrease was found in CBF (P=0.05) with increasing age, and this decrease was particularly evident in the left hemisphere (P=0.006). When gender was specifically analysed, CBF was found to decrease significantly with increasing age in females (P=0.037) but not in males. Furthermore, a significant decrease in rCBF with increasing age was found in the brain vertex (P=0.05), left frontotemporal cortex (P=0.012) and temporocingulate cortex (P=0.003). By contrast, relative rCBF in central structures increased with age (P=0.001). The ability of standardisation software and PCA to identify functionally connected brain regions might contribute to a better

  17. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  18. The development of a speech act coding scheme to characterize communication patterns under an off-normal situation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hwan; Park, Jin Kyun

    2009-01-01

    Since communication is an important means to exchange information between individuals/teams or auxiliary means to share resources and information given in the team and group activity, effective communication is the prerequisite for construct powerful teamwork by a sharing mental model. Therefore, unless communication is performed efficiently, the quality of task and performance of team lower. Furthermore, since communication is highly related to situation awareness during team activities, inappropriate communication causes a lack of situation awareness and tension and stress are intensified and errors are increased. According to lesson learned from several accidents that have actually occurred in nuclear power plant (NPP), consequence of accident leads most critical results and is more dangerous than those of other industries. In order to improve operator's cope ability and operation ability through simulation training with various off-normal condition, the operation groups are trained regularly every 6 months in the training center of reference NPP. The objective of this study is to suggest modified speech act coding scheme and to elucidate the communication pattern characteristics of an operator's conversation during an abnormal situation in NPP

  19. The development of a speech act coding scheme to characterize communication patterns under an off-normal situation in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hwan; Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Since communication is an important means to exchange information between individuals/teams or auxiliary means to share resources and information given in the team and group activity, effective communication is the prerequisite for construct powerful teamwork by a sharing mental model. Therefore, unless communication is performed efficiently, the quality of task and performance of team lower. Furthermore, since communication is highly related to situation awareness during team activities, inappropriate communication causes a lack of situation awareness and tension and stress are intensified and errors are increased. According to lesson learned from several accidents that have actually occurred in nuclear power plant (NPP), consequence of accident leads most critical results and is more dangerous than those of other industries. In order to improve operator's cope ability and operation ability through simulation training with various off-normal condition, the operation groups are trained regularly every 6 months in the training center of reference NPP. The objective of this study is to suggest modified speech act coding scheme and to elucidate the communication pattern characteristics of an operator's conversation during an abnormal situation in NPP.

  20. Validating Internal Control Genes for the Accurate Normalization of qPCR Expression Analysis of the Novel Model Plant Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lambret-Frotté

    Full Text Available Employing reference genes to normalize the data generated with quantitative PCR (qPCR can increase the accuracy and reliability of this method. Previous results have shown that no single housekeeping gene can be universally applied to all experiments. Thus, the identification of a suitable reference gene represents a critical step of any qPCR analysis. Setaria viridis has recently been proposed as a model system for the study of Panicoid grasses, a crop family of major agronomic importance. Therefore, this paper aims to identify suitable S. viridis reference genes that can enhance the analysis of gene expression in this novel model plant. The first aim of this study was the identification of a suitable RNA extraction method that could retrieve a high quality and yield of RNA. After this, two distinct algorithms were used to assess the gene expression of fifteen different candidate genes in eighteen different samples, which were divided into two major datasets, the developmental and the leaf gradient. The best-ranked pair of reference genes from the developmental dataset included genes that encoded a phosphoglucomutase and a folylpolyglutamate synthase; genes that encoded a cullin and the same phosphoglucomutase as above were the most stable genes in the leaf gradient dataset. Additionally, the expression pattern of two target genes, a SvAP3/PI MADS-box transcription factor and the carbon-fixation enzyme PEPC, were assessed to illustrate the reliability of the chosen reference genes. This study has shown that novel reference genes may perform better than traditional housekeeping genes, a phenomenon which has been previously reported. These results illustrate the importance of carefully validating reference gene candidates for each experimental set before employing them as universal standards. Additionally, the robustness of the expression of the target genes may increase the utility of S. viridis as a model for Panicoid grasses.

  1. Normal axial skeleton structure in common roach Rutilus rutilus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) and malformations due to radiation contamination in the area of the Mayak (Chelyabinsk Province, Russia) nuclear plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogutskaya, N G; Zuykov, M A; Naseka, A M; Anderson, E B

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to describe normal axial skeletal structure in common roach Rutilus rutilus from putative unaffected environmental conditions, and the occurrence of skeletal malformations in the fish from an area under radiation contamination. Specimens were collected from water bodies of the Techa Cascade Reservoirs located near the Mayak atomic industry plant in the River Ob' drainage, Chelyabinsk Province, Russia. One sample was collected from Lake Irtyash, a reservoir of drinkable water, supplying the town of Ozersk, and the other one from a technical reservoir which is a storage of liquid radioactive waste from Mayak and characterized by high radioactive contamination (mostly (90)Sr and (137)Cs). A comparison was made with historical material collected from the River Ob' before the middle of the 20th century, i.e. before the environment became affected by radioactive contamination. A high number of abnormalities of the axial skeleton were detected in both Mayak samples, in 94 and 97% of examined specimens, in contrast to about 20% in the historical specimens. The abnormalities were in both the unpaired fins and the vertebral column, including the caudal complex and included supernumerary elements, fusions, deformities and displacement of the elements. Most axial skeleton abnormalities, however, were minor, such as splitting, shortening or deformation of spines. Severe defects, such as extensive scolioses, lordoses and kyphoses, were not found. The causes of the abnormalities were not identified in this study, but the high incidence of malformations may be attributed to genetically determined imbalance during development. The almost equal distribution of abnormalities among the fish from non-contaminated and radioactive contaminated reservoirs may be explained by either recent gene flow within the population of R. rutilus in the River Techa system or the effect of unknown unfavourable environmental factors such as chemical pollution. © 2011 The Authors

  2. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  3. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  4. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.

  5. STAR-concept: method for the definition and generation of computer-based systems to support the operator during normal and disturbed plant situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felkel, L.; Roggenbauer, H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes a variety of functions to improve man-machine communication in nuclear power plants by advanced use of process computers. Special functions of interest here are: computerized operational manual; post trip analysis; alarm reduction; disturbance analysis and surveillance; and improved plant information processing, retrieval and display. All these functions use complex combinations of plant signals. The combinations (discrete process models) have to be described in a homogenous and formal way. The methodology used as well as the functions and examples are given. Experience from a pilot application in a nuclear power plant is also reported

  6. Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Facts School Meals Smart Snacks Celebrations & Rewards Food and Beverage Marketing Water Access Healthy Eating Learning Opportunities Staff ... Services Acute & Emergency Care Care Coordination Chronic Disease Management Family Engagement Chronic ... Allergies Oral Health Local School Wellness Policy Whole ...

  7. Caracterização isozimática e atividade de peroxidase em folhas de plantas hiperídrica, intermediária e normal de Bidens pilosa L. mantidas in vitro Isoezymatic characterization and peroxidase activity in leaves of hyperhydric, intermediary and normal plants of Bidens pilosa L. grown in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Emílio Zanzirolani de Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizadas as plantas: hiperídrica, intermediária e normal de um clone de Bidens pilosa mantido em cultivo in vitro por meio de isozimas e da atividade de peroxidase. Empregando-se a eletroforese em géis de amido a 12%, testou-se seis isozimas, sendo detectado polimorfismo em peroxidase e fosfatase ácida, permitindo caracterizar cada tipo de planta. Não houve polimorfismo em fosfogluco isomerase, fosfoglucomutase, glutamato oxaloacetato transaminase e malato desidrogenase. A atividade da peroxidase foi maior nas plantas hiperídricas e intermediárias. Conclui-se que a variabilidade enzimática tem potencial como marcador de hiperidricidade em plantas mantidas in vitro.Activity of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7 and isozymes analysis of a Bidens pilosa clone maintained in vitro culture were characterized in hyperhydric, intermediary and normal plants. Electrophorese in starch gels (12% of six isozymes systems was tested, polymorphisms in peroxidase and acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2 were detected. There was absence of polymorphism in phosphoglucoisomerase (EC 5.3.1.9, phosphoglucomutase (EC 5.4.2.2, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.1 and malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37. Comparing the activity of peroxidase enzyme, it was higher in hyperhydric and intermediary plants in relation to normal ones. Enzymatic variability is a potential tool as hyperhydricity marker in plants grown in vitro.

  8. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  9. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  10. Healthy living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... living URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002393.htm Healthy living To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Good health habits can allow you to avoid illness and improve your quality of life. The following steps will help you ...

  11. Studies regarding the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis oil treatments in healthy and potato virus Y (PVY infected plants Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Liliana BĂDĂRĂU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The potato virus Y cause loss in yield and quality of tubers. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and antioxidants such as rosmarinic acid present in oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants are implicated in signaling against stress. The effects of these chemicals on tuber yield and pigments content were evaluated in plants testing positive after virus mechanical infection. Without chemical treatment, positive plants showed significant reductions in leaf pigments content and tuber weights compared to uninfected controls. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and oil treatments of PVY infected plants significantly reduced the number of minitubers, enhancing their weights, while leaf pigment content also increased. This research demonstrates potential benefits of treatments with oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants and hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid in enhancing the yield and quality of tubers.

  12. Reliability analysis of safety systems of nuclear power plant and utility experience with reliability safeguarding of systems during specified normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    The paper gives an outline of the methods applied for reliability analysis of safety systems in nuclear power plant. The main tasks are to check the system design for detection of weak points, and to find possibilities of optimizing the strategies for inspection, inspection intervals, maintenance periods. Reliability safeguarding measures include the determination and verification of the broundary conditions of the analysis with regard to the reliability parameters and maintenance parameters used in the analysis, and the analysis of data feedback reflecting the plant response during operation. (orig.) [de

  13. Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...

  14. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  16. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  17. The effect of moderate sedation on exocrine pancreas function in normal healthy subjects: a prospective, randomized, cross-over trial using the synthetic porcine secretin stimulated Endoscopic Pancreatic Function Test (ePFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Darwin L; Zuccaro, Gregory; Purich, Edward; Fein, Seymor; Vanlente, Frederick; Vargo, John; Dumot, John; O'laughlin, Cathy; Trolli, Patricia

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a purely endoscopic collection method for the assessment of pancreatic secretory function (ePFT). The pancreatic secretory effects of sedation medications utilized during endoscopic procedures are not completely known. To study the effect of moderate sedation on the exocrine pancreas gland in a prospective, randomized trial. Healthy volunteers were randomized by computers to one of two treatments (A-no sedation, B-sedation) in period 1 and crossed-over to the other treatment in period 2 with a minimal washout interval of 7 days. Sedation dosage was standardized for each patient based on age, gender and weight from a previously published dosing nomogram. Synthetic porcine secretin (ChiRhoClin, Inc., Burtonsville, Maryland) was used as the pancreatic stimulant. Duodenal fluid samples were aspirated via the endoscope every 5 min for 1 h and sent on ice to our hospital laboratory for the measurement of pancreatic secretory electrolyte concentrations by autoanalyzer. A total of 17 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Sixteen subjects (8 males and 8 females) completed the randomized prospective trial. Median intravenous meperidine and midazolam sedation dose was 62.5 mg and 2.5 mg, respectively. Maximum pancreatic juice flow occurred during the early phase of secretion and maximum bicarbonate concentration occurred during the late phase of secretion. Analysis of the electrolyte composition of the endoscopically collected duodenal drainage fluid revealed a constant cation concentration for both sodium and potassium over the 1 h collection period. The anions, chloride and bicarbonate, exhibited a reciprocal relationship identical to that seen in traditional gastroduodenal tube collection studies. There was no statistical difference observed between the sedation and no sedation groups. The estimated total bicarbonate output (area under curve, AUC) for the sedated and non-sedated groups were 5,017 meq + 724 (range 3,663-6,173) and 5,364 meq +/- 583 (range 4

  18. Mental Health: What's Normal, What's Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Understanding what's considered normal mental health can be tricky. See how feelings, thoughts and behaviors determine mental health and how to recognize if you or a ...

  19. Associação entre a antropometria e a leptina circulante nos compartimentos materno, fetal e placentário, na gravidez normal Association between anthropometry and circulating leptin in maternal, fetal and placental compartments, in healthy pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cipriano Castro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a importância da leptina materna e fetal circulantes na gestação saudável por meio da avaliação de sua associação com variáveis antropométricas materna, placentária e fetal ao nascimento e as relações entre os compartimentos avaliados. MÉTODOS: em estudo transversal foi incluída amostra de 33 gestações únicas, a termo, com fetos saudáveis. As variáveis avaliadas foram idade materna, peso materno, índice de massa corporal, peso do recém-nascido, peso placentário e índice placentário. Amostras de sangue materno foram obtidas imediatamente antes do parto e em sangue do cordão umbilical ao nascimento. A dosagem da leptina sérica foi realizada por meio de radioimunoensaio convencional. As relações entre as concentrações de leptina sérica materna e da artéria e veia umbilicais com as variáveis de estudo foram verificadas através da regressão linear. RESULTADOS: a leptina foi detectada no sangue de todas as 33 gestantes e seus respectivos recém-nascidos, sendo a concentração no sangue materno (17,1±1,77 ng/ml superior à dos vasos umbilicais (veia 9,0±1,16 ng/mL; artéria 8,2±1,02 ng/mL, pPURPOSE: to evaluate the importance of circulating maternal and fetal leptin in the healthy gestation, using its association with maternal, placental and fetal anthropometric variables, obtained at birth, and the relationship between the evaluated compartments. METHODS: in a transversal study a population of 33 single, healthy and term gestations was studied. The evaluated variables were maternal age, maternal weight, body mass index (BMF, weight of the newborn, placental weight, and placental index. Samples of maternal blood were immediately obtained before birth and from fetal umbilical cord blood at birth. Determination of serum leptin was performed using conventional radioimmunoassay. The relationships between serum leptin concentrations in maternal blood, umbilical artery and vein and the studied

  20. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Normal Growth of Healthy Infants Born from HIV+ Mothers Fed a Reduced Protein Infant Formula Containing the Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Fructo-Oligosaccharides: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Da Costa Ribeiro Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of a new reduced protein (2.1 g/100 kcal infant formula containing 4 g/L of 90% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS and 10% fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS. Methods Healthy term infants from Brazil were enrolled. Those born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive mothers were randomized to a test ( n = 65 or control ( n = 63 formula group. Infants born to HIV-negative mothers were either exclusively breast-fed ( n = 79 or received a mixed diet (breast milk and test formula, n = 65. Between 2 weeks and 4 months of age, infants were exclusively fed according to their assigned group. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months. Digestive tolerance was evaluated during the first 4 months. The primary outcome was mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups. Results Data from all infants ( N = 272 were used in the intention-to-treat (ITT analysis and data from 230 infants were used in the per-protocol (PP analysis. The difference in mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups was 1.257 g/day (onesided 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.705 to inf, P < 0.001 in the PP analysis, showing that the lower bound of the 95% CI was above the -3.0 g/day non-inferiority margin. Results were similar in the ITT analysis. Symptoms of digestive tolerance and frequency of adverse events were similar in the two groups. Conclusions The formula containing 2.1 g/100 kcal protein and GOS and FOS was safe and tolerated well.

  2. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Dry Plant Extract of Common Bean Seed (Phaseoli Vulgari Pericarpium does not Have an Affect on Postprandial Glycemia in Healthy Human Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Cerović

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to assess the effects and safety of a dry Phaseoli vulgari pericarpium (PVP extract on postprandial glycemia in healthy participants. A randomized crossover experiment where participants received either PVP extract or placebo. Chemical compounds in dry extract were assessed by established methods. Eighteen healthy participants (9 male and 9 female aged 29+/-4,8 years, body mass index (BMI 23+/-3,7 kg/m(2 were recruited among students and staff at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade. All participants were able to follow the study protocol without difficulty. The participants received either PVP extract or placebo 30 minutes before a 50g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. The protocol followed the guidelines for the OGTT with blood samples drawn at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. This study demonstrated that there was no significantly effect of the PVP extract on incremental blood glucose (IBG and their areas under the curve (AUC neither male nor female participants. However, IBG together with AUC changes were significantly lower in male compared with female participants in treated and untreated groups. The presence of chrome, soluble fiber, vitamin C, protein, glucose and lectins were also quantified. The applied amount of PVP extract was unable to produce the postprandial hypoglycemia. We assumed that amounts of chrome, soluble fiber, vitamin C which have beneficial effects on diabetes treatment were sufficient to produce hypoglycemia.

  4. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds; Healthy food trends - linseeds; Healthy snacks - flaxseeds; Healthy diet - flaxseeds; Wellness - flaxseeds ... of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www. ...

  5. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Healthy-cooking techniques capture the flavor and nutrients of food without extra fat or salt. By Mayo Clinic Staff Healthy cooking doesn't mean that ...

  6. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. - Highlights: ► Traffic-related pollutant deposition as important pathway for crop contamination. ► Heavy metal content often over EU standards for lead concentration in food crops. ► ‘Grow your own’ food in inner cities not always ‘healthier’ than supermarket products. ► No support for generalisations of crops as ‘risky high’ or ‘safe low’ accumulators. - Higher overall traffic burden increased, while the presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced heavy metal content in crop biomass.

  7. 4 Healthy Ways to Deal With Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emotions can be a healthy, normal response to difficult situations and people. But sometimes they can feel overwhelming, and we reach for other things – like cigarettes or “comfort foods” to deal.

  8. A randomized trial of the effect of a plant-based dietary pattern on additional breast cancer events and survival: the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Faerber, Susan; Wright, Fred A; Rock, Cheryl L; Newman, Vicky; Flatt, Shirley W; Kealey, Sheila; Jones, Vicky E; Caan, Bette J; Gold, Ellen B; Haan, Mary; Hollenbach, Kathryn A; Jones, Lovell; Marshall, James R; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Stefanick, Marcia L; Thomson, Cynthia; Wasserman, Linda; Natarajan, Loki; Thomas, Ronald G; Gilpin, Elizabeth A

    2002-12-01

    The Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study is a multisite randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of a high-vegetable, low-fat diet, aimed at markedly raising circulating carotenoid concentrations from food sources, in reducing additional breast cancer events and early death in women with early-stage invasive breast cancer (within 4 years of diagnosis). The study randomly assigned 3088 such women to an intensive diet intervention or to a comparison group between 1995 and 2000 and is expected to follow them through 2006. Two thirds of these women were under 55 years of age at randomization. This research study has a coordinating center and seven clinical sites. Randomization was stratified by age, stage of tumor and clinical site. A comprehensive intervention program that includes intensive telephone counseling, cooking classes and print materials helps shift the dietary pattern of women in the intervention. Through an innovative telephone counseling program, dietary counselors encourage women in the intervention group to meet the following daily behavioral targets: five vegetable servings, 16 ounces of vegetable juice, three fruit servings, 30 g of fiber and 15-20% energy from fat. Adherence assessments occur at baseline, 6, 12, 24 or 36, 48 and 72 months. These assessments can include dietary intake (repeated 24-hour dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaire), circulating carotenoid concentrations, physical measures and questionnaires about health symptoms, quality of life, personal habits and lifestyle patterns. Outcome assessments are completed by telephone interview every 6 months with medical record verification. We will assess evidence of effectiveness by the length of the breast cancer event-free interval, as well as by overall survival separately in all the women in the study as well as specifically in women under and over the age of 55 years.

  9. Healthy and adverse effects of plant-derived functional metabolites: the need of revealing their content and bioactivity in a complex food matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse - unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods.

  10. Effect of Azospirillum brasilense on the harvest and radical development of sugar cane plants, variety C86 - 456, obtained by in vitro culture in normal conditions and under overhumidity of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to know the influence of the bacteria Azospirillum brasilense on plants of sugar cane, cultivar C86-456, from tissue culture under normal conditions and flooded soil in a Vertisol from El Valle del Cauto, an experiment was carried out using an at random blocks design. The main crop variables (pol in cane, t. caña.ha-1 and t. pol.ha-1 at the twelve months of age were taken, as stump of spring of the year and the development reached by the radical system in its more active area to achieve this experiment. The best results in the crop variables and development of the radical system were obtained it the treatments where the bacteria was present, although non significant under both conditions, evidencing that the stress due to excess of water in the soil affects the normal development of the sugar cane in general by modifying the kindness that the rhizospheric microorganism provides. Key words: biofertilizer, radical system, Saccharum, yield

  11. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  12. Regurgitation in healthy and non healthy infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallo Luciano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uncomplicate regurgitation in otherwise healthy infants is not a disease. It consists of milk flow from mouth during or after feeding. Common causes include overfeeding, air swallowed during feeding, crying or coughing; physical exam is normal and weight gain is adequate. History and physical exam are diagnostic, and conservative therapy is recommended. Pathologic gastroesophageal reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease refers to infants with regurgitation and vomiting associated with poor weight gain, respiratory symptoms, esophagitis. Reflux episodes occur most often during transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter unaccompanied by swallowing, which permit gastric content to flow into the esophagus. A minor proportion of reflux episodes occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter fails to increase pressure during a sudden increase in intraabdominal pressure or when lower esophageal sphincter resting pressure is chronically reduced. Alterations in several protective mechanisms allow physiologic reflux to become gastroesophageal reflux disease; diagnostic approach is both clinical and instrumental: radiological series are useful to exclude anatomic abnormalities; pH-testing evaluates the quantity, frequency and duration of the acid reflux episodes; endoscopy and biopsy are performed in the case of esophagitis. Therapy with H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors are suggested.

  13. Who is affected more by air pollution - sick or healthy? Some evidence from a health survey of schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant in Northern Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogev-Baggio, T.; Bibi, H.; Dubnov, J.; Or-Hen, K.; Carel, R.; Portnov, B.A. [University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Natural Resources & Environmental Management

    2010-03-15

    A cohort of 1181 schoolchildren, residing near a major coal-fired power plant in the Hadera district of Israel, were subdivided into three health status groups: (a) healthy children, (b) children experiencing chest symptoms, and (c) children with asthma or spastic bronchitis. Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) were performed twice (in 1996 and 1999) and analyzed in conjunction with air pollution estimates at the children's places of residence and several potential confounders - height, age, gender, parental education, passive smoking, housing density, length of residence in the study area and proximity to the main road. A significant negative association was found between changes in PFT results and individual exposure estimates to air pollution, controlled for socio-demographic characteristics of children and their living conditions. A sensitivity analysis revealed a decrease in the Forced Expiratory Volume during the First Second (FEV1) of about 19.6% for children with chest symptoms, 11.8% for healthy children, and approximately 7.9% for children diagnosed with asthma. Results of a sensitivity test for the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) were found to be similar. Exposure to air pollution appeared to have had the greatest effect on children with chest symptoms. This phenomenon may be explained by the fact that this untreated symptomatic group might experience the most severe insult on their respiratory system as a result of exposure to ambient air pollution, which is reflected by a considerable reduction in their FEV1 and FVC. Since asthmatic children have lower baseline and slower growth rates, their PFT change may be affected less by exposure to air pollution, reflecting a well known relationship between pulmonary function change and height growth, according to which age-specific height is very similar for preadolescent children, but shifts upward with age during the growth spurt.

  14. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  15. Healthy Pets and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent the spread of germs between pets and people. Keep pets and their supplies out of the kitchen, and ... a local wildlife rehabilitation facility. More Information Healthy Pets Healthy People Clean Hands Save Lives! Stay Healthy at Animal ...

  16. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thalassemia” More What can a person living with thalassemia do to stay healthy? A healthy lifestyle is ... disorder”, as well as making healthy choices. Managing Thalassemia Thalassemia is a treatable disorder that can be ...

  17. Healthy food trends - kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... Kale is full of vitamins and minerals, including: Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin K If you take ...

  18. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  19. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  20. Have a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... important that you: Don’t smoke or drink alcohol. Eat healthy foods and get enough folic acid. Stay active. Take ... Learn more: Pregnant? Don’t Smoke! Quit Smoking Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Next ... 7 of 11 sections Take Action: Eat Healthy and Stay Active Eat healthy foods. Making healthy food choices during pregnancy can help ...

  1. Making Health Easier: Healthy Eating in Los Angeles, CA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. This podcast highlights one preschool teacher who teaches kids about healthy eating and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroom—like planting a classroom garden and eating healthy snacks.

  2. MR guided spatial normalization of SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, B.; Barnden, L.R.; Kwiatek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In SPECT population studies where magnetic resonance (MR) scans are also available, the higher resolution of the MR scans allows for an improved spatial normalization of the SPECT scans. In this approach, the SPECT images are first coregistered to their corresponding MR images by a linear (affine) transformation which is calculated using SPM's mutual information maximization algorithm. Non-linear spatial normalization maps are then computed either directly from the MR scans using SPM's built in spatial normalization algorithm, or, from segmented TI MR images using DARTEL, an advanced diffeomorphism based spatial normalization algorithm. We compare these MR based methods to standard SPECT based spatial normalization for a population of 27 fibromyalgia patients and 25 healthy controls with spin echo T 1 scans. We identify significant perfusion deficits in prefrontal white matter in FM patients, with the DARTEL based spatial normalization procedure yielding stronger statistics than the standard SPECT based spatial normalization. (author)

  3. Movement Discordance between Healthy and Non-Healthy US Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Swartz

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to significantly impact cardiometabolic health. Accelerometer data, as a measure of physical activity, can be used to objectively identify a disparity in movement (movement discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the Movement Discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults in a large US population sample.Demographic, health and accelerometer data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 cohorts were used for this study. Participants were classified as either having a "normal" or "abnormal" value for each cardiometabolic health parameter examined, based on published criteria. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine significance of each abnormal health parameter (risk factor in its unique effect on the accelerometer counts, controlling for age and gender. Average accelerometer counts per minute (cpm by gender and age categories were estimated separately for the groups of normal and abnormal cardiometabolic risk.Average cpm for those with healthy levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 296 cpm (for C reactive protein to 337 cpm (for waist circumference, while average cpm for those with abnormal levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 216 cpm (for insulin to 291 cpm (for LDL-cholesterol. After controlling for age and gender, waist circumference, HbA1c, Insulin, Homocysteine, and HDL-Cholesterol were the cardiometabolic health parameters that showed significant, unique and independent effects on cpm. Overall, individuals who have abnormal values for all significant cardiometabolic health parameters ("unhealthy" averaged 267 cpm (SE = 15 cpm, while the healthy sample of this study averaged 428 cpm (SE = 10 cpm. The difference in cpm between the unhealthy and healthy groups is similar between males and females. Further, for both males and females, the

  4. Advancing Normal Birth: Organizations, Goals, and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hotelling, Barbara A.; Humenick, Sharron S.

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the support for advancing normal birth is summarized, based on a comparison of the goals of Healthy People 2010, Lamaze International, the Coalition for Improving Maternity Services, and the midwifery model of care. Research abstracts are presented to provide evidence that the midwifery model of care safely and economically advances normal birth. Rates of intervention experienced, as reported in the Listening to Mothers survey, are compared to the forms of care recommended by ...

  5. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. METHODS: Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results...... 100 mg/5 min. CONCLUSIONS: A sweat production rate of 100 mg/5 min as measured by gravimetric testing may be a reasonable cut-off value for distinguishing axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis from normal physiological sweat production....

  6. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for restoring areas with degraded water quality, as well as protecting healthy waters from emerging problems before expensive damages occur. ... exclusively on restoring impaired waters, EPA created the Healthy ... more emphasis to proactively protecting high quality waters, following the ...

  7. Tips for Healthy Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent voice problems and maintain a healthy voice: Drink water (stay well hydrated): Keeping your body well hydrated by drinking plenty of water each day (6-8 glasses) is essential to maintaining a healthy voice. The ...

  8. Comparisons of stomatal parameters between normal and abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... plant's different parts attract more people's attention. Bougainvillea ... When this plant flowered, leaf length was divided into six stages. Normal leaves which length ..... and driving environmental change. Nature. 424: 901-908.

  9. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  10. ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTHY EATING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne

    understanding of adolescent healthy eating. Based on this, the thesis presents three research questions which are investigated in three research papers. The research questions are: 1. Which roles do parents and adolescents have in healthy eating socialisation? 2. How does the social influence from parents...... and family members’ roles regarding healthy eating socialisation is underexposed, the study aimed at exploring adolescents’ and parents’ awareness of and involvement in healthy eating and investigated how they related it to their roles in the healthy eating socialisation taking place within the family...... or a cooperative one helping parents. Parents initiated dialogues with family members about healthy eating and felt responsible as role models often fulfilling the adolescents’ demands and acknowledging their help. The findings confirm that parents still have the upper hand, when it comes to healthy eating...

  11. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  12. [Healthy Cities projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  13. Are there healthy obese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Malassezia versus Candida in Healthy Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihelská Z.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genera Malassezia and Candida include yeasts which are members of the normal mycobiota of the skin and mucosal sites of humans and other warm-blooded animals. These yeasts are associated with a variety of dermatological disorders and also systemic diseases in humans and other animals. This study confirms the occurrence of Malassezia and Candida species in healthy dogs. Samples were collected from different body sites: external ear canal, interdigital area, skin of the axilla and of the neck, and the oral and rectal mucosae. The isolates were identified using phenotypic methods (biochemical-physiological and morphological characteristics. The presence of yeasts were investigated in the specimens from 70 healthy dogs. Malassezia species were isolated in 44 dogs from which 84 Malassezia isolates were obtained. Only one Candida isolate was obtained from the dogs examined. It was found that Candida does not occur in dogs normally and Malassezia was the main colonizing yeast in healthy dogs.

  15. Metabolically Healthy Obesity and Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Netterstrom, Marie K.; Johansen, Nanna B.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Recent studies have suggested that a subgroup of obese individuals is not at increased risk of obesity-related complications. This subgroup has been referred to as metabolically healthy obese. Objective: To investigate whether obesity is a risk factor for development of ischemic heart...... risk factors (low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose). Metabolically healthy individuals were defined as having no metabolic risk factors, and metabolically unhealthy individuals were defined as having a minimum of one. Main Outcome...... Measures: IHD. Results: During follow-up, 323 participants developed IHD. Metabolically healthy obese men had increased risk of IHD compared with metabolically healthy normal-weight men [hazard ratio (HR), 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1 to 8.2)]. The corresponding results for women were less...

  16. Active and Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  17. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of

  18. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldborg Hansen, Pelle; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lund Skov, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    . However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...... working with or incorporating the nudge approach into programs or policies aimed at making healthy choices easier...

  19. A personalized healthy workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Justin

    2017-01-01

    In February 2017, seven partners signed a contract to collaborate on a project called the Healthy Workplace. Measuremen, Menzis, Health2Work, ENGIE, Planon, and Hanzehogeschool Groningen are dedicated to make the regular workplace a healthy workplace. Health is of primary importance for both the

  20. Cortical Thinning in Network-Associated Regions in Cognitively Normal and Below-Normal Range Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Walter Heinrichs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether cortical thickness across the brain and regionally in terms of the default mode, salience, and central executive networks differentiates schizophrenia patients and healthy controls with normal range or below-normal range cognitive performance. Cognitive normality was defined using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB composite score (T=50 ± 10 and structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to generate cortical thickness data. Whole brain analysis revealed that cognitively normal range controls (n=39 had greater cortical thickness than both cognitively normal (n=17 and below-normal range (n=49 patients. Cognitively normal controls also demonstrated greater thickness than patients in regions associated with the default mode and salience, but not central executive networks. No differences on any thickness measure were found between cognitively normal range and below-normal range controls (n=24 or between cognitively normal and below-normal range patients. In addition, structural covariance between network regions was high and similar across subgroups. Positive and negative symptom severity did not correlate with thickness values. Cortical thinning across the brain and regionally in relation to the default and salience networks may index shared aspects of the psychotic psychopathology that defines schizophrenia with no relation to cognitive impairment.

  1. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  2. Heart rate variability in healthy population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Hussain, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Heart rate variability has been considered as an indicator of autonomic status. Little work has been done on heart rate variability in normal healthy volunteers. We aimed at evolving the reference values of heart rate variability in our healthy population. Methods: Twenty-four hour holter monitoring of 37 healthy individuals was done using Holter ECG recorder 'Life card CF' from 'Reynolds Medical'. Heart rate variability in both time and frequency domains was analysed with 'Reynolds Medical Pathfinder Digital/700'. Results: The heart rate variability in normal healthy volunteers of our population was found in time domain using standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of average NN intervals (SDANN), and Square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD). Variation in heart rate variability indices was observed between local and foreign volunteers and RMSSD was found significantly increased (p<0.05) in local population. Conclusions: The values of heart rate variability (RMSSD) in healthy Pakistani volunteers were found increased compared to the foreign data reflecting parasympathetic dominance in our population. (author)

  3. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  4. Monoterpenes Support Systemic Acquired Resistance within and between Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedlmeier, Marlies; Ghirardo, Andrea; Wenig, Marion; Knappe, Claudia; Koch, Kerstin; Georgii, Elisabeth; Dey, Sanjukta; Parker, Jane E; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Vlot, A Corina

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the role of volatile organic compounds in systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a salicylic acid (SA)-associated, broad-spectrum immune response in systemic, healthy tissues of locally infected plants. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analyses of SAR-related emissions of wild-type and non-SAR-signal-producing mutant plants associated SAR with monoterpene emissions. Headspace exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to a mixture of the bicyclic monoterpenes α-pinene and β-pinene induced defense, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and expression of SA- and SAR-related genes, including the SAR regulatory AZELAIC ACID INDUCED1 ( AZI1 ) gene and three of its paralogs. Pinene-induced resistance was dependent on SA biosynthesis and signaling and on AZI1 Arabidopsis geranylgeranyl reductase1 mutants with reduced monoterpene biosynthesis were SAR-defective but mounted normal local resistance and methyl salicylate-induced defense responses, suggesting that monoterpenes act in parallel with SA The volatile emissions from SAR signal-emitting plants induced defense in neighboring plants, and this was associated with the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphene in the emissions of the "sender" plants. Our data suggest that monoterpenes, particularly pinenes, promote SAR, acting through ROS and AZI1 , and likely function as infochemicals in plant-to-plant signaling, thus allowing defense signal propagation between neighboring plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  5. Spinal cord normalization in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jiwon; Seigo, Michaela; Saidha, Shiv; Sotirchos, Elias; Zackowski, Kathy; Chen, Min; Prince, Jerry; Diener-West, Marie; Calabresi, Peter A; Reich, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord (SC) pathology is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and measures of SC-atrophy are increasingly utilized. Normalization reduces biological variation of structural measurements unrelated to disease, but optimal parameters for SC volume (SCV)-normalization remain unclear. Using a variety of normalization factors and clinical measures, we assessed the effect of SCV normalization on detecting group differences and clarifying clinical-radiological correlations in MS. 3T cervical SC-MRI was performed in 133 MS cases and 11 healthy controls (HC). Clinical assessment included expanded disability status scale (EDSS), MS functional composite (MSFC), quantitative hip-flexion strength ("strength"), and vibration sensation threshold ("vibration"). SCV between C3 and C4 was measured and normalized individually by subject height, SC-length, and intracranial volume (ICV). There were group differences in raw-SCV and after normalization by height and length (MS vs. HC; progressive vs. relapsing MS-subtypes, P normalization by length (EDSS:r = -.43; MSFC:r = .33; strength:r = .38; vibration:r = -.40), and height (EDSS:r = -.26; MSFC:r = .28; strength:r = .22; vibration:r = -.29), but diminished with normalization by ICV (EDSS:r = -.23; MSFC:r = -.10; strength:r = .23; vibration:r = -.35). In relapsing MS, normalization by length allowed statistical detection of correlations that were not apparent with raw-SCV. SCV-normalization by length improves the ability to detect group differences, strengthens clinical-radiological correlations, and is particularly relevant in settings of subtle disease-related SC-atrophy in MS. SCV-normalization by length may enhance the clinical utility of measures of SC-atrophy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  6. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  7. Disparities -- Healthy People 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health based on their racial or ethnic group; religion; socioeconomic status; gender; age; mental health; cognitive, sensory, ... Contact Us Site Map Accessibility Privacy Policy Disclaimers Freedom of Information Act Healthy People 2010 Archive Nondiscrimination ...

  8. Jaundice in Healthy Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Jaundice in Healthy Newborns KidsHealth / For Parents / Jaundice in ... within a few days of birth. Types of Jaundice The most common types of jaundice are: Physiological ( ...

  9. Healthy Living after Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Cooking for Health Food for Thought: Heart-healthy Diet is Also Good For Your Brain Physical Activity Get Moving and Boost Your Brain Power Understanding Risky Conditions Converging Risk Factors for Stroke ...

  10. Healthy Lifestyle: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintain a healthy weight. Try brisk walking, jogging, biking, swimming or water aerobics. If you're a ... as dancing and gardening, also can improve your health. Whatever you choose, take time to warm up ...

  11. Healthy Ride Trip Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A dataset that shows trips taken using the Healthy Ride system by quarter. The dataset includes bike number, membership type, trip start and end timestamp, and...

  12. Healthy Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  13. Healthy lifestyle in teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Kamran, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The role of individual healthy behaviors like physical activity, nutrition and stress management on reduction of rate of disease mortality and morbidity is well known. The aim of this study is to determine healthy life style in teachers employed in district No.4 in Isfahan, Iran, in 2010. Materials and Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional study were 96 teachers in district No. 4, selected via random sampling method. The data collection was performed using a question...

  14. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  15. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  16. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  17. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  18. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  19. Comparison of serum concentrations of environmental allergen-specific IgE in atopic and healthy (nonatopic) horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkołek, P; Sitkowski, W; Szczepanik, M; Adamek, Ł; Pluta, M; Taszkun, I; Gołyński, M; Malinowska, A

    2017-12-01

    Allergic responses in humans, horses and other species are mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. Serum testing to detect allergen-specific IgE antibodies has been developed for dogs, cats and horses; this allows for the identification of allergens and determination of appropriate allergen- specific immunotherapies. This study compared serum allergen-specific IgE concentrations in atopic and healthy horses. The study was performed on Malopolski breed atopic (n=21) and nonatopic (n=21) clinically healthy horses. Allergen-specific IgE serum concentrations were measured in summer seasons of 2008-2015 using a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. A Northern and Central European allergen panel containing mite, insect, mould and plant pollen allergens, including 15 tests of individual allergens and 5 tests of allergen mixtures was used. The mean allergen-specific IgE concentrations in the atopic and normal horse populations were compared. Among the atopic horses, the strongest positive reactions occurred against the storage mites Tyrophagus putrescentiae and the domestic mite Dermatophagoides farinae. The atopic horses also demonstrated high IgE concentrations against insects, particularly Tabanus sp., the plant pollens colza, cultivated rye and the mould pollen mixture Aspergillus/Penicillium. No horses in the atopic group were IgE-negative. Among all mite, insect, mould and some plant allergen groups the differences in mean specific IgE concentrations between allergic and healthy horses were significant. The mean IgE concentrations for most allergen groups were significantly higher in the atopic horses than in the healthy animals. However, a high incidence of positive reactions was observed in both healthy and allergic horses. Our results showed a high frequency of polysensitization in atopic horses. Copyright© by the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  20. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2015-08-07

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool.

  1. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  2. Healthy human gut phageome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health.

  3. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  4. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  5. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  6. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  7. Healthy Buildings '88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, B.; Lindvall, T.; Maansson, L.G.

    1988-06-01

    The Healthy Buildings '88 Conference focuses on the technical solutions and functional requirements contributing to Healthy Buildings for people to live and work in. The main object of the Conference is to give architects, consultants, real-estate owners and manufacturers of building materials recommendations on choice of materials and choice of systems and on how to combine materials and systems. The program includes overview lectures, plenary symposia with invited speakers, workshops, poster presentations and an exhibition of scientific, educational and technical material. One part of the conference is devoted to the problem of radon in residential buildings

  8. PENGARUH EKSTRAK TANAMAN OBAT ASLI TERHADAP SUHU NORMAL MENCIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wahjoedi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of screening of the medicinal plants efficacy, 19 plants have been tested to see their influence to the normal body temperature of mice. Among the 19 plants there are some medicinal plants which are used as antipyretic by the Indonesian people. Those are Ageratum conyzoides L, Brasica rugosa Prain, Euphatorium triplinerve Vahl, Messua ferrea L and Oroxylum indicum Vent. The administration is intra-peritoneally. Some extract at test dose (1/3 - 1/2 LD 50 decrease the normal body temperature more than 2°C. Most of them happened to be known as antipyretic in traditional medicines.

  9. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  10. Medically-enhanced normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To consider public perspectives on the use of medicines for non-medical purposes, a usage called medically-enhanced normality (MEN). Method: Examples from the literature were combined with empirical data derived from two Danish research projects: a Delphi internet study and a Telebus...

  11. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Digital Pupillometry in Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmann, Annekatrin; Waizel, Maria; Kazerounian, Sara; Szurman, Peter; Wilhelm, Helmut; Boden, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the pupil size of normal subjects at different illumination levels with a novel pupillometer. The pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with an infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH, Alsdorf, Germany) at five different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32, and 250 lux). Measurements were performed by the same investigator. Ninety images were executed during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm. This cross-sectional study analysed 490 eyes of 245 subjects (mean age: 51.9 ± 18.3 years, range: 6–87 years). On average, pupil diameter decreased with increasing light intensities for both eyes, with a mean pupil diameter of 5.39 ± 1.04 mm at 0 lux, 5.20 ± 1.00 mm at 0.5 lux, 4.70 ± 0.97 mm at 4 lux, 3.74 ± 0.78 mm at 32 lux, and 2.84 ± 0.50 mm at 250 lux illumination. Furthermore, it was found that anisocoria increased by 0.03 mm per life decade for all illumination levels (R2 = 0.43). Anisocoria was higher under scotopic and mesopic conditions. This study provides additional information to the current knowledge concerning age- and light-related pupil size and anisocoria as a baseline for future patient studies. PMID:28228832

  13. Healthy lifestyle in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Kamran, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The role of individual healthy behaviors like physical activity, nutrition and stress management on reduction of rate of disease mortality and morbidity is well known. The aim of this study is to determine healthy life style in teachers employed in district No.4 in Isfahan, Iran, in 2010. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 96 teachers in district No. 4, selected via random sampling method. The data collection was performed using a questionnaire including demographic healthy lifestyle questions. Analysis of the data was performed through Software SPSS version 18. The mean age of the subjects was 40.26 ± 6.05 years and, BMI mean was 25.08 ± 3.20. 96.8% of them were married and 3.1% also were single. 1% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 13.5%had moderate, 85.4% had a good lifestyle. In terms of nutrition, 2% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 23% moderate, 74% good. 76% in terms of physical activity, 29.2% smoking and 21.9% stress had a weak lifestyle. According to the results, planning for teachers in school for receiving information about healthy lifestyle is important.

  14. Healthy Eating for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and beverages, such as some yogurts and juices. Foods and Beverages to Limit To keep weight in check at ... helps with weight control, muscle strength and stress management. Reviewed April 2018 Tags Food Health Nutrition Wellness Dietary Guidelines and MyPlate Healthy ...

  15. Many Healthy Returns

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    International travel is usually very safe but there are things you should do to stay safe and healthy. Experts show you how to avoid problems when visiting developing nations. This includes being cautious about the food you eat and the water you drink, and to be aware of vehicles and road conditions to prevent problems.

  16. Eating Healthy for Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    You are what you eat—and so is your baby. In addition to being smokefree, eating well during pregnancy is one of the best and most important things you can do for yourself and your baby. But healthy “eating for two” is more than just eating more.

  17. Coagulation profiles of healthy Andalusian donkeys are different than those of healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, F J; Perez-Ecija, R A; Monreal, L; Estepa, J C

    2011-01-01

    Coagulation disorders are frequently diagnosed, especially in hospitalized equidae, and result in increased morbidity and mortality. However, hemostatic reference intervals have not been established for donkeys yet. To determine whether the most common coagulation parameters used in equine practice are different between healthy donkeys and horses. Thirty-eight healthy donkeys and 29 healthy horses. Blood samples were collected to assess both coagulation and fibrinolytic systems by determination of platelet count, fibrinogen concentration, clotting times (prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT]), fibrin degradation products (FDP) and D-Dimer concentrations. PT and aPTT in donkeys were significantly (P donkeys than in horses. The coagulation parameters most commonly determined in equine practice are different in donkeys compared with horses. Thus, the use of normal reference ranges reported previously for healthy horses in donkeys might lead to a misdiagnosis of coagulopathy in healthy donkeys, and unnecessary treatments in sick donkeys. This is the first report of normal coagulation profile results in donkeys, and further studies are warranted to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of the differences observed between donkeys and horses. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Normalization reduces intersubject variability in cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Mark J; Herrmann, Barbara S; Guinan, John J; Rauch, Steven D

    2014-09-01

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are used to assess saccular and inferior vestibular nerve function. Normalization of the VEMP waveform has been proposed to reduce the variability in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials by correcting for muscle activation. In this study, we test the hypothesis that normalization of the raw cervical VEMP waveform causes a significant decrease in the intersubject variability. Prospective cohort study. Large specialty hospital, department of otolaryngology. Twenty healthy subjects were used in this study. All subjects underwent cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing using short tone bursts at 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 Hz. Both intersubject and intrasubject variability was assessed. Variability between raw and normalized peak-to-peak amplitudes was compared using the coefficient of variation. Intrasubject variability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient and interaural asymmetry ratio. cVEMPs were present in most ears. Highest peak-to-peak amplitudes were recorded at 750 Hz. Normalization did not alter cVEMP tuning characteristics. Normalization of the cVEMP response caused a significant reduction in intersubject variability of the peak-to-peak amplitude. No significant change was seen in the intrasubject variability. Normalization significantly reduces cVEMP intersubject variability in healthy subjects without altering cVEMP characteristics. By reducing cVEMP amplitude variation due to nonsaccular, muscle-related factors, cVEMP normalization is expected to improve the ability to distinguish between healthy and pathologic responses in the clinical application of cVEMP testing.

  19. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  20. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  1. Prueba de supresión con Dexametasona 1mg en una población de individuos con normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad: Estudio multicéntrico The Overnight 1mg Dexamethasone Test in Healthy Subjects with Normal Weight, Overweight and Obesity: a Multicentric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Pardes; Susana Belli; Fabiana Baña; Liliana Contreras; Estela Cardoso; Liliana Costa; Dora Cornaló; Mariela Leal; Marcela Martínez; María Teresa Nofal; Gabriela Ruibal

    2007-01-01

    La prueba de supresión con dexametasona-1mg oral nocturna evalúa la conservación del mecanismo de retroalimentación negativa normal ejercido por los glucocorticoides sobre el eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal (HH-A), siendo ampliamente utilizada en el algoritmo diagnóstico de sospecha de síndrome de Cushing (SC). Pero la concentración de cortisol sérico matinal postinhibición que define la supresiblidad normal ha sido motivo de controversia, con valores variables desde el original =5 ug/dl (=13...

  2. Notifiable events in systems for fission of nuclear fuels - nuclear power plants and research reactors with maximum output exceeding 50 kW of thermal normal rating - in the Federal Republic of Germany. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter of 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    There were 32 notifiable events in nuclear power plants in Germany in the second quarter of 1996. The report lists and characterises all the 32 events notified in the reporting period. The events did not involve any radioactivity release exceeding the maximum permissible limits during this period, so that there were no radiation hazards to the population or the environment. One event was classified at level 1 of the INES event scale (Anomaly). Research reactor operators in Germany reported 5 notifiable events in the reporting period. The report lists and characterises these events. These events did not involve any radioactivity release exceeding the maximum permissible limits during this period, so that there were no radiation hazards to the population or the environment. All events notified were classified into the lowest categories of safety significance of the official event scales (N, or below scale). (orig./DG) [de

  3. Identification of a non-host plant of Xylella fastidiosa to rear healthy sharpshooter vectors Identificação de uma planta não-hospedeira de Xylella fastidiosa para criação de insetos vetores sadios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Cristina Marucci

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Rearing leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae vectors free of Xylella fastidiosa is a requirement for studies of various aspects of vector-pathogen interactions. The selection of a plant that allows vector development but not bacterial multiplication is desirable to produce healthy vectors. In this study, two leafhopper hosts, Vernonia condensata ('boldo' and Aloysia virgata ('lixeira' were needle inoculated with citrus and coffee strains of X. fastidiosa to evaluate if these plants support pathogen colonization. The inoculated plants did not present symptoms and the pathogen was not detected by culture and PCR tests, neither soon after inoculation (7-14 days nor later, at 1, 4, 6 and 12 months after inoculation. To obtain healthy adults of the leafhopper vectors Acrogonia citrina, Bucephalogonia xanthophis, Dilobopterus costalimai, Homalodisca ignorata and Oncometopia facialis, early-instar nymphs were reared on V. condensata. X. fastidiosa was not detected in any of 175 adults obtained. V. condensata and A. virgata are nonpropagative hosts of X. fastidiosa and enable the production of healthy leafhoppers for vector studies.A obtenção de cigarrinhas (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae livres de Xylella fastidiosa é importante para estudos de interação entre essa bactéria e seus vetores, sendo desejável a seleção de uma planta que permita a criação desses insetos, mas não a multiplicação da bactéria. Neste estudo, duas plantas hospedeiras de cigarrinhas, Vernonia condensata (boldo e Aloysia virgata (lixeira, foram inoculadas por agulha com as estirpes de citros e de cafeeiro de X. fastidiosa, para avaliar a possibilidade deste patógeno colonizá-las. Não foram observados sintomas, nem se detectou a bactéria por isolamento em meio de cultura e/ou PCR em períodos curtos (7 e 14 dias ou longos (1, 4, 6 e 12 meses após a inoculação. Para obtenção de adultos sadios das cigarrinhas vetoras, Acrogonia citrina, Bucephalogonia xanthophis

  4. Caladium plant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care If the plant was eaten, wipe out the mouth with a ... to Expect at the Emergency Room Take the plant with you to the hospital, if possible. The health care provider will measure and monitor the person's vital ...

  5. Healthy eating at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa; Egberg Mikkelsen, Bent

    ". This paper highlights the role that the organisation of food provision plays by comparing the attitudes of students towards in-school food provision as opposed to out-of-school provision where food is provided by outside caterers. Schools having internal food production and schools having external food...... operated catering seems to have a negative effect on the social and cultural structures and functions related to the meal during lunchtime. Having meals in schools where external caterers are employed is experienced as an individual act by the students in comparison with schools having internal catering......Unhealthy eating are common among adolescents and the school is a well suited setting for promoting healthy eating. For the school to play a role here, however an environment must be created, in which the school and the students develop a sense of ownership for a healthy food and nutrition "regime...

  6. : Healthy lifestyles’ promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gómez, Erika; Díaz-Campo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The goal of this research was to analyse the advertising of food broadcast by the two Spanish private thematic channels aimed at children with more audience in Spain (Neox and Boing). A content analysis was made in order to study the commercials showed during the hours of children’s enhanced protection established by the normative of this country. The paper presents the increasing concern about kids´ obesity and the role of food industry. Healthy lifestyles are promote...

  7. Some like it healthy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contini, Caterina; Casini, Leonardo; Stancu, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Authorising new health claims in Europe will favour the diffusion on the market of a greater number of foods with health claims. This scenario presents new opportunities to promote healthy food choices and launches new challenges to define strategies aimed at promoting products on the market...... sensitive of health claims and to characterise them with respect to the rest of the population. The results supply insights for the development of more targeted health promotion campaigns, as well as for actions in food marketing....

  8. Many Healthy Returns

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-08

    International travel is usually very safe but there are things you should do to stay safe and healthy. Experts show you how to avoid problems when visiting developing nations. This includes being cautious about the food you eat and the water you drink, and to be aware of vehicles and road conditions to prevent problems.  Created: 2/8/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/8/2010.

  9. Empowering a healthy practice environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha

    2015-03-01

    This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Data on the safety of repeated MRI in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott K. Holland

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Examination of neurocognitive and biometric data from a decade-long, longitudinal fMRI study of normal language development in this small, longitudinal sample of healthy children in the age range of 5 to 18 years, who received up to 10 MRI scans, provides scientific evidence to support the belief that MRI poses minimal risk for use in research with healthy children.

  11. Temperament Affects Sympathetic Nervous Function in a Normal Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Methods Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean vers...

  12. The variability problem of normal human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have suggested considerable inter-individual variability in the time course pattern of net joint moments during normal human walking, although the limited sample sizes precluded statistical analyses. The purpose of the present study was to obtain joint moment patterns from...... a group of normal subjects and to test whether or not the expected differences would prove to be statistically significant. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recorded on video while they walked across two force platforms. Ten kinematic and kinetic parameters were selected and input to a statistical...... cluster analysis to determine whether or not the 15 subjects could be divided into different 'families' (clusters) of walking strategy. The net joint moments showed a variability corroborating earlier reports. The cluster analysis showed that the 15 subjects could be grouped into two clusters of 5 and 10...

  13. Normal anatomical measurements in cervical computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaunbauer, W.; Daepp, S.; Haertel, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radiodiagnostically relevant normal values and variations for measurements of the cervical region, the arithmetical average and the standard deviation were determined from adequate computer tomograms on 60 healthy women and men, aged 20 to 83 years. The sagittal diameter of the prevertebral soft tissue and the lumina of the upper respiratory tract were evaluated at exactly defined levels between the hyoid bone and the incisura jugularis sterni. - The thickness of the aryepiglottic folds, the maximal sagittal and transverse diameters of the thyroid gland and the calibre of the great cervical vessels were defined. - To assess information about laryngeal function in computerized tomography, measurements of distances between the cervical spine and anatomical fixed points of the larynx and hypopharynx were made as well as of the degree of vocal cord movement during normal respiration and phonation. (orig.) [de

  14. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Professionals En Español Publications, Data, & Statistics Healthy Swimming Resources Health Promotion Materials Find Your State Training & ... Announcements Outbreak Response Toolkits CDC at Work: Healthy Swimming Fast Facts Index of Water-Related Topics Model ...

  15. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.

  16. Healthy Habits Can Lengthen Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2018 Print this issue Health Capsule Healthy Habits Can Lengthen Life Send us your comments Physical activity is one of five healthy lifestyle factors that can lower your risk for several diseases and lengthen ...

  17. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...

  18. Making Health Easier: Healthy Eating in Los Angeles, CA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-05

    Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. This podcast highlights one preschool teacher who teaches kids about healthy eating and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroom—like planting a classroom garden and eating healthy snacks.  Created: 3/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/5/2013.

  19. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  20. Theory of normal metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The organizers requested that I give eight lectures on the theory of normal metals, ''with an eye on superconductivity.'' My job was to cover the general properties of metals. The topics were selected according to what the students would need to known for the following lectures on superconductivity. My role was to prepare the ground work for the later lectures. The problem is that there is not yet a widely accepted theory for the mechanism which pairs the electrons. Many mechanisms have been proposed, with those of phonons and spin fluctuations having the most followers. So I tried to discuss both topics. I also introduced the tight-binding model for metals, which forms the basis for most of the work on the cuprate superconductors

  1. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of your control, you can make positive lifestyle changes to lose weight and to maintain a healthy weight. These include a healthy eating plan and being more physically active. Take the Challenge When it comes to aiming for a healthy ...

  2. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with no breaks in the surface. It is warm (not hot or red) and neither dry and flaky nor moist and wrinkled. Healthy skin is a mirror of a healthy body. How to take care of your skin NUTRITION: To keep your skin healthy, eat a well- ...

  3. Analysis of phytohormones and secondary plant products (main flavonoids and terpenes) in healthy and damaged needles from the natural location. Nachweis von Phytohormonen und sekundaeren Pflanzenstoffen (vor allem Flavonoiden und Terpenen) in gesunden und geschaedigten Nadeln vom natuerlichen Standort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, M [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Botanik und Mikrobiologie

    1989-07-01

    The determination of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in needles of fir (Abies alba Mill.) is difficult due to the small amount of ABA and the large volume of phenolic and terpenoic compounds, which have similar structures compared with ABA. The quantitative analysis of ABA in purified extracts was not possible by HPLC because of deficient separation. A qualified method for exact quantification is gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. In this way ABA was completely separated from all other substances. Starting from the question, whether the content of secondary plant products of needles of Picea abies (L.) Karst. is influenced by damage, spruces from Wank Mountain were analysed. The needle concentrations of different compounds were influenced significantly by the class of damage as well as by the level of altitude. (orig.).

  4. Metabolomics data normalization with EigenMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V Karpievitch

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry has become one of the analytical platforms of choice for metabolomics studies. However, LC-MS metabolomics data can suffer from the effects of various systematic biases. These include batch effects, day-to-day variations in instrument performance, signal intensity loss due to time-dependent effects of the LC column performance, accumulation of contaminants in the MS ion source and MS sensitivity among others. In this study we aimed to test a singular value decomposition-based method, called EigenMS, for normalization of metabolomics data. We analyzed a clinical human dataset where LC-MS serum metabolomics data and physiological measurements were collected from thirty nine healthy subjects and forty with type 2 diabetes and applied EigenMS to detect and correct for any systematic bias. EigenMS works in several stages. First, EigenMS preserves the treatment group differences in the metabolomics data by estimating treatment effects with an ANOVA model (multiple fixed effects can be estimated. Singular value decomposition of the residuals matrix is then used to determine bias trends in the data. The number of bias trends is then estimated via a permutation test and the effects of the bias trends are eliminated. EigenMS removed bias of unknown complexity from the LC-MS metabolomics data, allowing for increased sensitivity in differential analysis. Moreover, normalized samples better correlated with both other normalized samples and corresponding physiological data, such as blood glucose level, glycated haemoglobin, exercise central augmentation pressure normalized to heart rate of 75, and total cholesterol. We were able to report 2578 discriminatory metabolite peaks in the normalized data (p<0.05 as compared to only 1840 metabolite signals in the raw data. Our results support the use of singular value decomposition-based normalization for metabolomics data.

  5. Normalization of the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To construct normal values for the tests of the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) and evaluate the prevalence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) among Turkish patients with liver cirrhosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-five healthy subjects and sixty patients with liver ...

  6. Sonographic Evaluation of the Splenic Length in Normal Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of the sonographic measurements of the splenic length was performed on 150 healthy normal pregnant women correlating this with the body mass index, gestational age and parity. Data were analyzed using software SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).

  7. Normal values for cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Harkel, A.D.J.; Takken, T.; van Osch-Gevers, M.; Helbing, W.A.

    BACKGROUND: A reference set of data of normal values of newly developed cardiopulmonary parameters of exercise testing in an 8-18-year-old population is lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed in 175 healthy school children (8-18 years old). Continuous

  8. Sonographic assessment of the normal limits of the spleen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Ultrasonogrphy is a good modality for the detection of splenomegaly even when it is not clinically palpable. The objective of this study was to establish the normal values of splenic length in healthy school children in South.East, Nigeria and to correlate them with body indices. Materials and Methods: ...

  9. Anal sphincter complex: endoanal MR imaging of normal anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussain, S. M.; Stoker, J.; Laméris, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the normal anatomy of the anal sphincter complex on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Ten healthy volunteers (four men, six women; age range, 21-26 years) underwent MR imaging with an endoanal coil. The lower part of the anal canal contained the internal sphincter, the longitudinal muscle

  10. [Healthy school environments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Corzo, Josefina; Munévar-Molina, Raúl A; Munévar-Quintero, Fabio I

    2015-04-01

    Objective To determine factors that characterizes school environments and their relationship with student learning, welfare and health. Method This is a case study supported by a comprehensive qualitative paradigm applied to classroom ecology. The fieldwork was carried out in six public schools for students in economic strata one and two that use computers in virtual classrooms. The information was collected through field journals, film recordings, observation, and recordings of interviews. The information was analyzed by categories in open general and focused cycles. Results The virtual era has enriched the debate about the importance of the environment in pedagogical processes. Nonetheless, the emergence of new diseases is a risk which students are exposed to. Pollution and overcrowding factors prevail in traditional classroom activities, while in the computer rooms the environment is healthier. Hence the need to incorporate these issues into the curriculum reforms and action plans to guide healthy living of schoolchildren and their families. Despite budget constraints, innovative ideas and projects were found. Schools have developed free preventive and corrective strategies such as workshops, talks and lectures by invited specialists, trainees, and students writing theses. They have also introduced controlled Internet access. Conclusion The educational community understands that the concept of health is at the heart of a comprehensive concept of education. In addition, classroom ecology has determining implications for learning and living together in pleasant and healthy environments that are incorporated into institutional educational projects.

  11. Development of a Plant Health Index Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyun Young; An, Sang Ha; Seo, Ho Joon; Kim, Cho

    2010-01-01

    Since 2008, BNF Technology Inc. and Kyung Hee University have developed the 'Plant Health Index (PHI)' which is a software package to detect 'unhealthy conditions' of plant equipment in advance. While the difference between a setpoint and an operational condition is called 'process margin', the residual between an anticipated normal condition and an operational condition is called 'process uncertainty' or 'healthiness' in this study. It is obvious that the anomalies in process uncertainty can be observed earlier than those in process margin, which is the concept of 'early-warning' proposed in the recent condition-based maintenance (CBM) studies. One of the key factors for implementing the early warning capability should be how to expect the anticipated normal conditions using available information. The PHI was developed on the basis of empirical models, and we have published a few papers with regarding to the core technologies of the PHI. However, the overall architecture and features of the PHI have not been introduced to academic area so far. This paper delineates the overview of the PHI, and focuses on the recently developed module, which is the health index generator

  12. Development of a Plant Health Index Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); An, Sang Ha [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ho Joon [BNF Technology Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cho [Korea South-East Power Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Since 2008, BNF Technology Inc. and Kyung Hee University have developed the 'Plant Health Index (PHI)' which is a software package to detect 'unhealthy conditions' of plant equipment in advance. While the difference between a setpoint and an operational condition is called 'process margin', the residual between an anticipated normal condition and an operational condition is called 'process uncertainty' or 'healthiness' in this study. It is obvious that the anomalies in process uncertainty can be observed earlier than those in process margin, which is the concept of 'early-warning' proposed in the recent condition-based maintenance (CBM) studies. One of the key factors for implementing the early warning capability should be how to expect the anticipated normal conditions using available information. The PHI was developed on the basis of empirical models, and we have published a few papers with regarding to the core technologies of the PHI. However, the overall architecture and features of the PHI have not been introduced to academic area so far. This paper delineates the overview of the PHI, and focuses on the recently developed module, which is the health index generator

  13. Healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Eric M; King, Dana E; Everett, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    Though the benefits of healthy lifestyle choices are well-established among the general population, less is known about how developing and adhering to healthy lifestyle habits benefits obese versus normal weight or overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between healthy lifestyle habits (eating 5 or more fruits and vegetables daily, exercising regularly, consuming alcohol in moderation, and not smoking) and mortality in a large, population-based sample stratified by body mass index (BMI). We examined the association between healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in a sample of 11,761 men and women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III; subjects were ages 21 and older and fell at various points along the BMI scale, from normal weight to obese. Subjects were enrolled between October 1988 and October 1994 and were followed for an average of 170 months. After multivariable adjustment for age, sex, race, education, and marital status, the hazard ratios (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality for individuals who adhered to 0, 1, 2, or 3 healthy habits were 3.27 (2.36-4.54), 2.59 (2.06-3.25), 1.74 (1.51-2.02), and 1.29 (1.09-1.53), respectively, relative to individuals who adhered to all 4 healthy habits. When stratified into normal weight, overweight, and obese groups, all groups benefited from the adoption of healthy habits, with the greatest benefit seen within the obese group. Healthy lifestyle habits are associated with a significant decrease in mortality regardless of baseline body mass index.

  14. Orchid Classification Disease Identification And Healthiness Prediction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. V Sanjaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Floriculture has become one of Sri Lankas major foreign exchange ventures and it has grown substantially during the last few years. Currently we can find three major types of growers in floriculture. They are Large Commercial Ventures Middle Level growers and Village Level growers. Both Middle Level and Village level growers usually go for low cost cultivation with minimum advanced techniques sticking to conventional methods. Orchid cultivation is more pleasurable and profitable than any other floriculture ventures. As the orchid cultivation is so pleasurable we can introduce another group of growers who cultivate orchid in their home gardens for making their home gardens beautiful. But the problem is that most of these growers may not have the knowledge to identify the specie of the plants as there are a number of similar looking plants which are in different species. And also they may not have the knowledge about the orchid diseases. Because of that they may not be able to get the maximum outcome from their cultivations. So the aim of our project is to address the above mentioned issues by introducing a system which can identify orchid species amp diseases and predict the healthiness of the orchid plants. The only input to this system is an image of an orchid leaf and the system will provide the orchid specie name diseases if there any healthiness of the orchid plant and suggestions to overcome the issues associated with the orchid plant as the output. We identify the orchid species and diseases by extracting the features of orchid plant leaf in the input image using image processing technics and with the use of data mining technics we predict the healthiness of the orchid plant. So this system will be a great help for the people who love to grow orchids but dont have knowledge about the orchid species and diseases. And also they will be able to find the healthiness of their orchid plants.

  15. 14CO2-assimilation, translocation of 14C, and 14C-carbonate uptake in different organs of spring barley plants in relation to adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, B.K.; Ibenthal, W.-D.; Heitefuss, R.

    1986-01-01

    The cultivar Peruvian of spring barley, which is susceptible at all growth stages, and Asse, which exhibits adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew, were compared in 14 CO 2 assimilation, distribution of 14 C, and 14 C-carbonate uptake in different organs of healthy and infected plants. The reduction of 14 CO 2 assimilation in infected plants at the first and fourth leaf stages was greater in Peruvian than in Asse. In Peruvian, the 14 C which was fixed by the infected third leaf of plants with mildew on the lower 3 leaves remained in the third leaves with very little translocation to other parts of the plant. Infection of the lower three leaves at the fourth leaf stage reduced 14 CO 2 assimilation in noninfected fourth leaves of Asse less than that of Peruvian, but the flow of 14 C from the healthy fourth leaves into other plant parts such as leaf sheaths was markedly stimulated in Peruvian compared to Asse. Infection also reduced the uptake of 14 C-carbonate by seedling roots, the reduction being greater in Peruvian than Asse. A greater proportion of the 14 C absorbed by roots of Asse was translocated to the infected leaves than that of Peruvian. It was concluded that powdery mildew disrupted the normal pattern of photosynthesis and translocation of metabolites in a susceptible cultivar more markedly than in an adult-plant-resistant cultivar of spring barley. (author)

  16. NORMAL GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE F344 RAT NASAL TRANSITIONAL/RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The nasal epithelium is an important target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity in rodents. Gene expression profiles were determined in order to provide normal baseline data for nasal transitional/respiratory epithelium from healthy rats. Ce...

  17. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  18. Teachers Offering Healthy Escape Options for Teenagers in Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaywell, Joan F.

    2005-01-01

    "[T]wenty-five percent of today's teenagers have inordinate emotional baggage beyond the normal angst of adolescence." This burden can lead to unhealthy escapes, including substance abuse, sexual activity, violence, eating disorders, and suicide. One healthy escape, however, lies in books, where students can read about teenagers living in painful…

  19. Reference ranges of some haematological parameters in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The haematological values of populations differ due to numerous factors. It is essential to establish the normal haematological values in every population to ensure appropriate interpretation of results in health and disease states. Materials and Methods: A total of 184 consenting apparently healthy adults (62 ...

  20. The effect of ascorbic acid and propranolol on normal sleep and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of ascorbic acid on open field locomotor activity and normal sleep in healthy adult rats and evaluate how these correlate with those of propranolol. MethodS: Eighty healthy adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups of 40 animals each group.

  1. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  2. Tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretani, Colin F; Radke, C J

    2014-06-01

    Dry-eye disease, an increasingly prevalent ocular-surface disorder, significantly alters tear physiology. Understanding the basic physics of tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes benefits both diagnosis and treatment of dry eye. We present a physiological-based model to describe tear dynamics during blinking. Tears are compartmentalized over the ocular surface; the blink cycle is divided into three repeating phases. Conservation laws quantify the tear volume and tear osmolarity of each compartment during each blink phase. Lacrimal-supply and tear-evaporation rates are varied to reveal the dependence of tear dynamics on dry-eye conditions, specifically tear osmolarity, tear volume, tear-turnover rate (TTR), and osmotic water flow. Predicted periodic-steady tear-meniscus osmolarity is 309 and 321 mOsM in normal and dry eyes, respectively. Tear osmolarity, volume, and TTR all match available clinical measurements. Osmotic water flow through the cornea and conjunctiva contribute 10 and 50% to the total tear supply in healthy and dry-eye conditions, respectively. TTR in aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) is only half that in evaporative dry eye (EDE). The compartmental periodic-steady tear-dynamics model accurately predicts tear behavior in normal and dry eyes. Inclusion of osmotic water flow is crucial to match measured tear osmolarity. Tear-dynamics predictions corroborate the use of TTR as a clinical discriminator between ADDE and EDE. The proposed model is readily extended to predict the dynamics of aqueous solutes such as drugs or fluorescent tags.

  3. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  4. Assessment of transformability of bacteria associated with tomato and potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Ray, J.L.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Transformation of plant-associated bacteria by plant DNA has never been demonstrated in agricultural fields. In total 552 bacterial isolates from stems of Ralstonia solanacearum-infected and healthy tomato plants and from stems and leaves of healthy potato plants were tested for natural genetic

  5. Establishing the proteome of normal human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Schutzer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the entire protein content, the proteome, of normal human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF would enable insights into neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Until now technologic hurdles and access to true normal samples hindered attaining this goal.We applied immunoaffinity separation and high sensitivity and resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to examine CSF from healthy normal individuals. 2630 proteins in CSF from normal subjects were identified, of which 56% were CSF-specific, not found in the much larger set of 3654 proteins we have identified in plasma. We also examined CSF from groups of subjects previously examined by others as surrogates for normals where neurologic symptoms warranted a lumbar puncture but where clinical laboratory were reported as normal. We found statistically significant differences between their CSF proteins and our non-neurological normals. We also examined CSF from 10 volunteer subjects who had lumbar punctures at least 4 weeks apart and found that there was little variability in CSF proteins in an individual as compared to subject to subject.Our results represent the most comprehensive characterization of true normal CSF to date. This normal CSF proteome establishes a comparative standard and basis for investigations into a variety of diseases with neurological and psychiatric features.

  6. The Healthy Start project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Buch-Andersen, Tine; Händel, Mina N

    2012-01-01

    . Finally, interventions focused on other factors than diet and activity are lacking. The objectives were to perform a randomized, controlled intervention aiming at preventing overweight in children aged 2-6 years, who are yet normal weight, but have high predisposition for future overweight......, and to intervene not only by improving diet and physical activity, but also reduce stress and improve sleep quality and quantity. METHODS: Based on information from the Danish national birth registry and administrative birth forms, children were selected based on having either high birth weight, a mother who......-going, but it is estimated that 394 children will be included. The intervention took place over on average 11/2 year, between 2009 and 2011, and consisted of optional individual guidance in optimizing diet and physical activity habits, reducing chronic stress and stressful events and improving sleep quality and quantity...

  7. Plant diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozuka, Shin-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    Standard data approximately defined are inputted as 1:1 functional data between at least two or more plant data and each of plant data are inputted. Diagnosis data corresponding to each of process data are formed based on the functional data. Limit value data to be a threshold value which determines whether the diagnosis data are in a predetermined state or not are formed. The diagnosis data and the limit value data are displayed in a recognizable state. If diagnosis data of a plurality of plants are displayed simultaneously, all of the plant data are substantially the same value with one standard datum if the plant is in a normal state. When abnormality should occur in the plant, the difference between the diagnosis data and the standard data is remarkable, and the difference between the diagnosis data of other normal plant data and the standard data are also made remarkably, accordingly, the display of a plurality of diagnosis data is scattered thereby capable of diagnosing the abnormality of the plant. (N.H.)

  8. Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-12-09

    Dec 9, 2009 ... varies from one construct to another, the Pref-reporter ... conditions (16 h day and 8 h night, 28°C ± 2°C, relative ... Ptest stands for the synthetic promoter driving the gus reporter gene or 35S promoter in the case of the.

  9. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  10. Lose Weight, Add Healthy Years (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    People with obesity are at increased risk for many diseases and chronic conditions. Achieving and maintaining a normal weight is a key factor in a healthy lifestyle. In this podcast, Dr. Cynthia Ogden discusses obesity.

  11. Ureterocolonic anastomosis in clinically normal dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, E.A.; Walter, M.C.; Goldschmidt, M.H.; Biery, D.N.; Bovee, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Ureterocolonic anastomosis was evaluated in 13 clinically normal dogs. Urinary continence was maintained after surgery, and the procedure was completed without technique errors in all but 2 dogs. Three dogs died within 5 weeks (2 of undetermined causes and 1 of aspiration pneumonia and neurologic disease), and 1 dog was euthanatized 4 months after surgery because of neurologic signs. Two healthy dogs were euthanatized 3 months after surgery for light microscopic evaluation of their kidneys. Five dogs were euthanatized 6 months after surgery for light microscopic evaluation of their kidneys. Gastrointestinal and neurologic disturbances developed in 4 dogs at various postoperative intervals. Plasma ammonia concentration measured in 2 dogs with neurologic signs was increased. Plasma ammonia concentration measured in 5 dogs without neurologic signs was within normal limits. All 5 dogs, in which metabolic acidosis was diagnosed, had high normal or above normal serum chloride concentration. Serum urea nitrogen values were increased after surgery because of colonic absorption of urea. Serum creatinine concentration was increased in 1 dog 6 months after surgery. Individual kidney glomerular filtration rate was reduced in 38% (3/8) of the kidneys from 4 other dogs at 6 months after surgery. Of 5 dogs euthanatized at 3 to 4 months after surgery, 4 had bilateral pyelitis, and 1 had unilateral pyelonephritis. Six months after surgery, pyelonephritis was diagnosed in 40% (4/10) of the kidneys from 5 dogs. The ureterocolonic anastomosis procedure is a salvage procedure that should allow complete cystectomy. However, variable degress of metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, and neurologic disease may result

  12. Comparative optimism about healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N = 770; T2: N = 510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutrition and Healthy Eating: Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're like most adults, caffeine is a part of ... US adults: 2001-2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015;101:1081. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for ...

  14. Healthy lifestyle and Czech consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kubešová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on healthy lifestyle. It concentrates specifically on impact on human health and which lifestyle lives Czech population. This work summarizes the principles of helathy lifestyle and reveals lifestyles of Czech people with market segmentation and MML-TGI data in the practical part. This can help firms in targeting and addressing people within healthy lifestyle.

  15. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... For information on establishing skin tolerance, see our “Pressure Sores” pamphlet.) Pressure releases in a wheelchair can be ...

  16. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  17. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  18. Healthy School Communities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Yessis, Jennifer; Manske, Steve; Gleddie, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Healthy school communities aim to optimise student health and educational achievement. Various models, terms and resources have been used to describe healthy school communities. Policy makers and practitioners have reported confusion around many of the key concepts involved because of the varying models and terms.…

  19. Characteristics of a Healthy Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Phylis Lan

    The reason for studying the characteristics of a healthy family is to encourage and strengthen the family and to move toward an enriched family life by using the characteristics as bench marks. Six characteristics are discussed as the essence of a healthy family: (1) commitment; (2) togetherness; (3) appreciation; (4) good communication; (5)…

  20. Difference in pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline in healthy smokers and non-smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Borgström, L; Wollmer, P

    1991-01-01

    Pathophysiological studies have shown that the alveolocapillary transfer of small solutes is much faster in healthy smokers than in non-smokers. The effects of smoking on the pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline were examined in normal subjects. Nine healthy smokers and 13 healthy non-smokers inhaled nebulised terbutaline and dry terbutaline powder on two study days. Plasma concentrations of terbutaline were measured up to 240 minutes after the inhalation. The plasma concentration of t...

  1. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ward, Leigh Cordwin

    2014-01-01

    Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent.......Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent....

  2. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.

  3. Bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina | Okeke | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior‑posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events ...

  4. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mahmoud; Beer, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN), to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  5. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghandi

    Full Text Available Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN, to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  6. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  7. St. John's wort impairs glucose tolerance by reducing insulin response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  8. Diversifying Food Systems in the Pursuit of Sustainable Food Production and Healthy Diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwivedi, Sangam L.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T.; Ceccarelli, Salvatore; Grando, Stefania; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2017-01-01

    Increasing demand for nutritious, safe, and healthy food because of a growing population, and the pledge to maintain biodiversity and other resources, pose a major challenge to agriculture that is already threatened by a changing climate. Diverse and healthy diets, largely based on plant-derived

  9. Diversifying Food Systems in the Pursuit of Sustainable Food Production and Healthy Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Sangam L.; van Bueren, Edith T. Lammerts; Ceccarelli, Salvatore; Grando, Stefania; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Ortiz Rios, Rodomiro Octavio

    2017-01-01

    Increasing demand for nutritious, safe, and healthy food because of a growing population, and the pledge to maintain biodiversity and other resources, pose a major challenge to agriculture that is already threatened by a changing climate. Diverse and healthy diets, largely based on plant-derived food, may reduce diet-related illnesses. Investments in plant sciences will be necessary to design diverse cropping systems balancing productivity, sustainability, and nutritional quality. Cultivar di...

  10. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; univariate study; normalization models; stainless steel; standard error of prediction. Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their ...

  11. Healthy children, healthy nation — tackling the obesity problem ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... ... restricting sales of unhealthy food and drink in the vicinity of schools, and ... Read the full story of change: Caribbean health: Healthy children, ... the Caribbean by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund, ...

  12. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  13. The N'ormal Distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An optimal way of choosing sample size in an opinion poll is indicated using the normal distribution. Introduction. In this article, the ubiquitous normal distribution is intro- duced as a convenient approximation for computing bino- mial probabilities for large values of n. Stirling's formula. • and DeMoivre-Laplace theorem ...

  14. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...... in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....

  15. Interplant communication of tomato plants through underground common mycorrhizal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Zeng, Ren Sen; Xu, Jian Feng; Li, Jun; Shen, Xiang; Yihdego, Woldemariam Gebrehiwot

    2010-10-13

    Plants can defend themselves to pathogen and herbivore attack by responding to chemical signals that are emitted by attacked plants. It is well established that such signals can be transferred through the air. In theory, plants can also communicate with each other through underground common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) that interconnect roots of multiple plants. However, until now research focused on plant-to-plant carbon nutrient movement and there is no evidence that defense signals can be exchanged through such mycorrhizal hyphal networks. Here, we show that CMNs mediate plant-plant communication between healthy plants and pathogen-infected tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). After establishment of CMNs with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae between tomato plants, inoculation of 'donor' plants with the pathogen Alternaria solani led to increases in disease resistance and activities of the putative defensive enzymes, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and lipoxygenase in healthy neighbouring 'receiver' plants. The uninfected 'receiver' plants also activated six defence-related genes when CMNs connected 'donor' plants challenged with A. solani. This finding indicates that CMNs may function as a plant-plant underground communication conduit whereby disease resistance and induced defence signals can be transferred between the healthy and pathogen-infected neighbouring plants, suggesting that plants can 'eavesdrop' on defence signals from the pathogen-challenged neighbours through CMNs to activate defences before being attacked themselves.

  16. Plant abnormality inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  17. Brain energy metabolism and blood flow differences in healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) are important indices of healthy aging of the brain. Although a frequent topic of study, changes of CBF and CMRO(2) during normal aging are still controversial, as some authors......, and in the temporal cortex. Because of the inverse relation between OEF and capillary oxygen tension, increased OEF can compromise oxygen delivery to neurons, with possible perturbation of energy turnover. The results establish a possible mechanism of progression from healthy to unhealthy brain aging, as the regions...

  18. Demonstration of Microbial Subgroups among Normal Vaginal Microbiota Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, M.-L. T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we identified subgroups of observations relating to the healthy vaginal microbiota. This microbiota resides in a dynamic environment that undergoes cyclic change during the menstrual cycle. Cluster analysis procedures were applied to divide a set of 226 normal microbiota observations into groups. Three subgroups containing 100, 65, and 61 observations were identified. Plots of principal components determined by canonical analysis were obtained to demonstrate graphically the clus...

  19. Normal isometric strength of rotator cuff muscles in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chezar, A.; Berkovitch, Y.; Haddad, M.; Keren, Y.; Soudry, M.; Rosenberg, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The most prevalent disorders of the shoulder are related to the muscles of rotator cuff. In order to develop a mechanical method for the evaluation of the rotator cuff muscles, we created a database of isometric force generation by the rotator cuff muscles in normal adult population. We hypothesised the existence of variations according to age, gender and dominancy of limb. Methods A total of 400 healthy adult volunteers were tested, classified into groups of 50 men and women for e...

  20. Data from: Compatible and incompatible pathogen-plant interactions differentially affect plant volatile emissions and the attraction of parasitoid wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.; Weldegergis, B.T.; Dicke, M.; Gols, R.

    2016-01-01

    The three data sheets show the data for the three types of comparisons that were made: (1) wasp choice when offered acaterpillar infested plant and a caterpillar + pathogen infected plant (2) wasp choice when offered a healthy plant against a singleattacker infected/infected plant and (3) wasp

  1. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Beneficial effects for healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-07-06

    Jul 6, 2016 ... lytic enzymes, hydrogen cyanide and volatile compounds. In view of the ..... atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia (N2 + 4H2 2NH3 +. H2) (Weyens et ...... Identification of ... Microbiological methods for assessing soil quality. ed.

  2. Chitinase Activity in Healthy and Sclerotium rolfsii Infected Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG PUDJIHARTATI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to analyze the endo- or exo-chitinase activities of healthy and Sclerotium rolfsii infected peanuts. The experiment analyzed 24 different peanut genotypes. Results of the experiment showed chromogenic dimer was the most suitable substrate for analysing chitinase activities. Both endo- and exo-chitinases activities were detected in leaf, stem, and crown tissues. Increased in chitinase activities were detected in S. rolfsii infected peanut tissues than in healthy plant. Regression analysis showed negative slope between disease intensity and chitinase activity in S. rolfsii infected peanut tissue (R2= 0.45.

  3. BWR normal water chemistry guidelines: 1986 revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    Boiling water reactors (BWRs) have experienced stress corrosion cracking in the reactor cooling system piping resulting in adverse impacts on plant availability and personnel radiation exposure. The BWR Owners Group and EPRI have sponsored a major research and development program to provide remedies for this stress corrosion cracking problem. This work shows that the likelihood of cracking depends on the plant's water chemistry performance (environment) as well as on material condition and stress level. Plant experience and other research demonstrate that water quality also affects fuel performance and radiation field buildup in BWRs. This report,''BWR Normal Water Chemistry Guidelines: 1986 Revision,'' presents suggested generic water chemistry specifications, justifies the proposed water chemistry limits, suggests responses to out-of-specification water chemistry, discusses available chemical analysis methods as well as data management and surveillance schemes, and details the management philosophy required to successfully implement a water chemistry control program. An appendix contains recommendations for water quality of auxiliary systems. 73 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Making Healthy Decisions About Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens: How to Make Healthy Decisions About Sex Page Content Article Body Before you decide to ... alcohol or use drugs. Are You Ready for Sex? Sex can change your life and relationships. Having ...

  5. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  6. Eat for a Healthy Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods you buy. “Product labels give consumers the power to compare foods quickly and easily so they can judge which products best fit into a heart healthy diet or meet other dietary needs,” Schneeman says. “ ...

  7. Disability and Health: Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  8. Doppler ultrasound scan during normal gestation: umbilical circulation; Ecografia Doppler en la gestacion normal: circulacion umbilical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, T.; Sabate, J.; Martinez-Benavides, M. M.; Sanchez-Ramos, J. [Hospital Virgen Macarena. Sevilla (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    To determine normal umbilical circulation patterns by means of Doppler ultrasound scan in a healthy gestating population without risk factors and with normal perinatal results, and to evaluate any occurring modifications relative to gestational age by obtaining records kept during pregnancy. One hundred and sixteen pregnant women carrying a single fetus have been studied. These women had no risk factors, with both clinical and analytical controls, as well as ultrasound scans, all being normal. There were performed a total of 193 Doppler ultrasound scans between weeks 15 and 41 of gestation, with blood-flow analysis in the arteries and vein of the umbilical cord. The obtained information was correlated with parameters that evaluate fetal well-being (fetal monitoring and/or oxytocin test) and perinatal result (delivery type, birth weight, Apgar score). Statistical analysis was performed with the programs SPSS 6.0.1 for Windows and EPIINFO 6.0.4. With pulsed Doppler, the umbilical artery in all cases demonstrated a biphasic morphology with systolic and diastolic components and without retrograde blood flow. As the gestation period increased, there was observed a progressive decrease in resistance along with an increase in blood-flow velocity during the diastolic phase. The Doppler ultrasound scan is a non-invasive method that permits the hemodynamic study of umbilical blood circulation. A knowledge of normal blood-flow signal morphology, as well as of the normal values for Doppler indices in relation to gestational age would permit us to utilize this method in high-risk pregnancies. (Author) 30 refs.

  9. Is perceived dysphonia related to perceived healthiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; Debo, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Literature has shown that voice-disordered persons are at higher risk for negative attitudes on several personality and physical appearance traits than vocally normal persons. This study investigated general perceptions of health in subjects with various degrees of dysphonia. Recordings from 100 normophonic and dysphonic subjects were auditorily rated on dysphonia severity by five experienced clinicians and on degree of healthiness/unhealthiness by seven unexperienced listeners. Results revealed strong correlation between auditory ratings of dysphonia severity and unhealthiness severity. Dysphonic subjects are rated significantly unhealthier than normophonic subjects, and the receiver-operating characteristics curve showed that even slight dysphonia induces negative attributions of unhealthiness. This study provides additional evidence for the negative attitudes with which dysphonic speakers are confronted, especially in terms of health.

  10. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  11. Understanding the Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR): An electromyographic study in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.; Meijer, O.G.; Bruijn, S.M.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Nanayakkara, P.W.B.; van Royen, B.J.; Wu, W; Xia, C.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR) is an important test in diagnosing pelvic girdle pain (PGP). It is difficult to understand what happens normally during the ASLR, let alone why it would be impaired in PGP. In the present study, healthy subjects performed the ASLR under normal conditions, with

  12. A Healthy Start Can Begin Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy pregnancy begins before you ever become pregnant. Give yourself the best chance for a healthy pregnancy and healthy baby before you start down the road to motherhood. If you smoke, now’s a great time to quit.

  13. Making Healthy Choices at Fast Food Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and ...

  14. The normal and pathological language

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Luis D.

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary development of normal and pathological psychology has achieved in recent decades, thanks to the dual method of objective observation and oral survey enabled the researcher spirit of neuro-psychiatrist penetrate the intimate mechanism of the nervous system whose supreme manifestation is thought. It is normal psychology explaining the complicated game of perceptions: their methods of transmission, their centers of projection, its transformations and its synthesis to construct ...

  15. Is normal science good science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Kępińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Normal science” is a concept introduced by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962. In Kuhn’s view, normal science means “puzzle solving”, solving problems within the paradigm—framework most successful in solving current major scientific problems—rather than producing major novelties. This paper examines Kuhnian and Popperian accounts of normal science and their criticisms to assess if normal science is good. The advantage of normal science according to Kuhn was “psychological”: subjective satisfaction from successful “puzzle solving”. Popper argues for an “intellectual” science, one that consistently refutes conjectures (hypotheses and offers new ideas rather than focus on personal advantages. His account is criticized as too impersonal and idealistic. Feyerabend’s perspective seems more balanced; he argues for a community that would introduce new ideas, defend old ones, and enable scientists to develop in line with their subjective preferences. The paper concludes that normal science has no one clear-cut set of criteria encompassing its meaning and enabling clear assessment.

  16. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  17. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...... for the Japanese fast breeder reactor plant MONJU....

  18. Inspiratory and expiratory HRCT findings in healthy smokers' lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Kwak, Byung Kook; Choi, Chi Hoon; Yang, Keun Mung; Lee, Chang Joon; Joo, Dong Il; Kim, Yang Soo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lung changes in healthy smokers, as seen on inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Twenty-seven healthy smokers (light smokers, below 20 pack-years, n=16; heavy smokers, above 20 pack-years, n=11) and 25 nonsmokers underwent inspiratory and expiratory HRCT. All healthy smokers had normal pulmonary function and chest radiography. Parenchymal and subpleural micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis and septal line were evaluated on inspiratory scan and by air-trapping on expiratory scan. According to the findings of HRCT, heavy smokers and higher frequency of parenchymal micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, and air-trapping than nonsmokers and light smokers. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  19. normal values of key pinch strength in a healthy nigerian population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi-staged sampling method was used to ... Methods: A cross sectional survey of participants who had no previous hand .... groups; German, Swiss, Turkish and Korean, (table. 5). .... The interplay of genetic and socio-cultural influences.

  20. Evidence of genetic predisposition for metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically obese normal weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lam Opal; Loos, Ruth JF; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2018-01-01

    Obesity has evolved into a global pandemic that constitutes a major threat to public health. The majority of obesity-related health care costs are due to cardiometabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which are risk factors for Type 2 diabetes and cardi......Obesity has evolved into a global pandemic that constitutes a major threat to public health. The majority of obesity-related health care costs are due to cardiometabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which are risk factors for Type 2 diabetes...... are located in or near genes that implicate pathways involved in adipogenesis, fat distribution, insulin signaling, and insulin resistance. It has been suggested that a threshold for subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability may be at play in the manifestation of MHO and MONW, where expiry of adipose tissue...... storage capacity could lead to ectopic lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues such as liver, muscle, heart, and pancreatic beta cells. Understanding the genetic aspects of the mechanisms that underpin MHO and MONW is crucial to define appropriate public health action points and to develop effective...

  1. Consumer lay theories on healthy nutrition: A Q methodology application in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarar, Nadine; Orth, Ulrich R

    2018-01-01

    Food is an important driver of individual health, and an important subject in public policy and health intervention research. Viewpoints on what constitutes healthy nutrition, however, are manifold and highly subjective in nature, suggesting there is no one-size-fits-all behavioral change intervention. This research explores fundamental lay theories regarding healthy nutrition with consumers in Germany. The study aimed at identifying and characterizing distinct groups of consumers based on similarities and differences in the lay theories individuals hold by means of Q methodology. Thirty German consumers ranked a Q set of 63 statements representing a vast spectrum of individual opinions and beliefs on healthy nutrition into a quasi-normal distribution. Factor analysis identified four major lay theories on healthy nutrition: (1) "Healthy is what tastes good, in moderation", (2) "Healthy nutrition is expensive and inconvenient", (3) "Healthy is everything that makes me slim and pretty", and (4) "Only home-made, organic, and vegetarian food is healthy". Consensus existed among the theories about the question of whom to trust regarding nutritional information and the low relevance of information from official sources. Disagreement existed concerning the overall importance of healthy nutrition in day-to-day lives and whether food healthiness is related to organic or conventional production methods. The findings underscore that specific consumer groups should be engaged separately when intervening in healthy nutrition issues. Implications for public policies and intervention strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of vegetation on urban climate and healthy urban colonies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, S.H.; Murthy, M.S.R.; Bhagya Lakshmi, O.; Shylaja, G. (Ecology and Environmental Biology Lab., Dept. of Botany, Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India))

    1991-01-01

    The role of plants in developing a healthy atmosphere is very desirable in the context of deteriorating environment resulting from increased urbanization, industrialization and improper environmental management. This investigation has attempted to screen plants for their ability to improve the design and development of healthy environments around buildings and urban centres of Hyderabad. Ability index values were computed on the basis of canopy area, physiological characters of trees growing in polluted environments, pollution stress and population load. Azadirachta indica, Pithecolobium dulce and Cassia fistula are suggested for plantations around buildings and urban centres for minimizing pollution. Certain susceptible trees like Pongamia glabra and Polyalthia longifolia have been suggested in the diagnosis and investigation of air quality through biological means. (orig.).

  3. Regional differences of the urinary proteomes in healthy Chinese individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Weiwei; Wu, Jianqiang; Pan, Li; Zhang, Fanshuang; Wang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Biao; Shan, Guangliang; Gao, Youhe

    2017-01-01

    Urine is a promising biomarker source for clinical proteomics studies. Although regional physiological differences are common in multi-center clinical studies, the presence of significant differences in the urinary proteomes of individuals from different regions remains unknown. In this study, morning urine samples were collected from healthy urban residents in three regions of China and urinary proteins were preserved using a membrane-based method (Urimem). The urine proteomes of 27 normal s...

  4. Precaval retropancreatic space: Normal anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Myung Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    The authors defined precaval retropancreatic space as the space between pancreatic head with portal vein and IVC and analyzed the CT findings of this space to know the normal structures and size in this space. We evaluated 100 cases of normal abdominal CT scan to find out normal anatomic structures of precaval retropancreatic space retrospectively. We also measured the distance between these structures and calculated the minimum, maximum and mean values. At the splenoportal confluence level, normal structures between portal vein and IVC were vessel (21%), lymph node (19%), and caudate lobe of liver (2%) in order of frequency. The maximum AP diameter of portocaval lymph node was 4 mm. Common bile duct (CBD) was seen in 44% and the diameter was mean 3 mm and maximum 11 mm. CBD was located in extrapancreatic (75%) and lateral (60.6%) to pancreatic head. At IVC-left renal vein level, the maximum distance between CBD and IVC was 5 mm and the structure between posterior pancreatic surface and IVC was only fat tissue. Knowledge of these normal structures and measurement will be helpful in differentiating pancreatic mass with retropancreatic mass such as lymphadenopathy.

  5. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  7. Reprocessing plants safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.G.; Leighton, C.; Millington, D.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield site consists of a number of relatively self-contained activities carried out in separate plants across the site. The physical conditions and time scales applied in reprocessing and storage make it relatively benign. The potential for minor releases of radioactivity under fault conditioning is minimised by plant design definition of control procedures, training and supervision. The risks to both the general public and workforce are shown to be low with all the safety criteria being met. Normal operating conditions also have the potential for some occupational radiation exposure and the plant and workers are monitored continuously. Exposure levels have been reduced steadily and will continue to fall with plant improvements. (U.K.)

  8. Tree planting in Haiti: How to plant and care for your nursery grown seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrstan Hubbel; Yvonne Barkley; Jeremiah R. Pinto; R. Kasten Dumroese; Sabine Deristin; Raymond Joseph; Randy Brooks; Anthony S. Davis

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings need the right amounts of sunlight, water and nutrients to live and grow into healthy trees. Different types of trees have different requirements, so seedlings will need planting sites that meet all of their requirements. For example, pine trees need full sun, a moderate amount of water and a certain combination of nutrients to grow into healthy trees. If you...

  9. A review of healthy condition for reactor operators of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Yang Di; Zhu Lixin; Zhou Limin

    2008-01-01

    Physical health is one of fundamental elements and the necessary qualification for holding operator license or senior operator license of a nuclear power plant issued by NNSA. Based upon requirements for healthy qualification of reactor operators in nuclear safety regulations and some new issued regulations, especially some involved national standard (GB), review direction, relevant contents and criteria were described, and some suggestions were provided in this paper. (authors)

  10. Adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating and communication about healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice

    2009-01-01

    /methodology/approach - Four focus group interview sessions were conducted with 22 eighth and ninth grade adolescents (aged 13 to 15) in Hong Kong. Findings - The participants perceived a balanced diet and regular meal times as the most important attributes of healthy eating. Participants were most likely to eat unhealthy...

  11. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  12. Energy Innovations for Healthy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. The project also provided resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge, concomitant with the goal to reduce energy consumption in homes by at least 30% as a first step toward achieving envisioned widespread availability of net-zero energy homes by 2030. In addition, the project included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings.

  13. CT and MRI normal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.

    1998-01-01

    This book gives answers to questions frequently heard especially from trainees and doctors not specialising in the field of radiology: Is that a normal finding? How do I decide? What are the objective criteria? The information presented is three-fold. The normal findings of the usual CT and MRI examinations are shown with high-quality pictures serving as a reference, with inscribed important additional information on measures, angles and other criteria describing the normal conditions. These criteria are further explained and evaluated in accompanying texts which also teach the systematic approach for individual picture analysis, and include a check list of major aspects, as a didactic guide for learning. The book is primarily intended for students, radiographers, radiology trainees and doctors from other medical fields, but radiology specialists will also find useful details of help in special cases. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Marrow transfusions into normal recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.

    1983-01-01

    During the past several years we have explored the transfusion of bone marrow into normal nonirradiated mice. While transfused marrow proliferates readily in irradiated animals, only minimal proliferation takes place in nonirradiated recipients. It has generally been assumed that this was due to the lack of available proliferative sites in recipients with normal marrow. Last year we were able to report that the transfusion of 200 million bone marrow cells (about 2/3 of the total complement of marrow cells of a normal mouse) resulted in 20% to 25% of the recipient's marrow being replaced by donor marrow. Thus we can now study the behavior of animals that have been transfused (donor) and endogenous (recipient) marrow cells, although none of the tissues of either donor or recipient have been irradiated. With these animals we hope to investigate the nature of the peculiar phenomenon of serial exhaustion of marrow, also referred to as the limited self-replicability of stem cells

  15. The construction of normal expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    The gradual upward changes of standards in normal everyday life have significant environmental implications, and it is therefore important to study how these changes come about. The intention of the article is to analyze the social construction of normal expectations through a case study. The case...... concerns the present boom in bathroom renovations in Denmark, which offers an excellent opportunity to study the interplay between a wide variety of consumption drivers and social changes pointing toward long-term changes of normal expectations regarding bathroom standards. The study is problemoriented...... and transdisciplinary and draws on a wide range of sociological, anthropological, and economic theories. The empirical basis comprises a combination of statistics, a review of magazine and media coverage, visits to exhibitions, and qualitative interviews. A variety of consumption drivers are identified. Among...

  16. Normalized cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  17. Random Generators and Normal Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David H.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to the authors' previous chaotic-dynamical model for random digits of fundamental constants, we investigate a complementary, statistical picture in which pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) are central. Some rigorous results are achieved: We establish b-normality for constants of the form $\\sum_i 1/(b^{m_i} c^{n_i})$ for certain sequences $(m_i), (n_i)$ of integers. This work unifies and extends previously known classes of explicit normals. We prove that for coprime $b,c>1$ the...

  18. Sonographic findings of normal newborn spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Sup; Kim, Dong Gyu

    1988-01-01

    The authors performed spinal cord ultrasonography of 21 healthy newborn infants in Gyeongsang National University Hospital. Normal spinal cord revealed low echogenecity at that of cerebrospinal fluid and was demarcated by intense reflections from its dorsal and ventral surfaces. The central canal was routinely seen as a thin linear reflection in the center of the cord. The nerve roots making up the cauda equina formed a poorly defined collection of intense linear echoes extending from the conus. On real time image, the normal spinal cord exhibited rather slow and rhythmical anteroposterior movement within the subarachnoid fluid. A distinct and rapid vascular pulsation of the spinal cord was usually recognizable. The approximate level of vertebral bodies was determined as follows; most ventrally located vertebral body was thought to be L5 and S1 was seen slightly posterior to the L5 directed inferoposteriorly. According to the above criteria terminal portions of spinal cord were seen around the L2 body in 5 MHz and pointed termination of conus medullaris was clearly seen at L2-3 junction and in upper body of L3 by 7.5 MHz. So it would be better to examine by 5 MHz for spatial orientation and then by 7.5 MHz for more accurate examination. High-resolution, real-time ultrasonography was a safe, rapid screening technique for evaluation of the spinal cord in infants. Additional applications of spinal sonography may be possible in the evaluation of neonatal syringohydromyelia and meningocele as well as intraspinal cyst localization for possible percutaneous puncture by ultrasound guidance

  19. Abnormal blood-brain barrier permeability in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis investigated by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig Præstekær; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics.......To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics....

  20. Impaired glucose tolerance in healthy men with low body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmoller André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and high body mass index (BMI are recognized risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, data suggest that also underweight predisposes people to develop T2DM. Here, we experimentally tested if already moderate underweight is associated with impaired glucose tolerance as compared to normal weight controls. Obese subjects were included as additional reference group. Method We included three groups of low weight, normal weight, and obese subjects comprising 15 healthy male participants each. All participants underwent a standardized hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp intervention to determine glucose tolerance. In addition, insulin sensitivity index (ISI was calculated by established equation. Results ISI values were higher in low and normal weight than in obese subjects (P P = 0.303. Comparable to obese participants (P = 0.178, glucose tolerance was found decreased in low weight as compared with normal weight subjects (P = 0.007. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between glucose tolerance and BMI in low (P = 0.043 and normal weight subjects (P = 0.021, an effect that was found inverse in obese participants (P = 0.028. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that not only obese but also healthy people with moderate underweight display glucose intolerance. It is therefore suggested that all deviations from normal BMI may be accompanied by an increased risk of developing T2DM in later life indicating that the maintenance of body weight within the normal range has first priority in the prevention of this disease.

  1. Virtual coaches for healthy lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Klaassen, Randy; Nijholt, Antinus; Esposito, Anna; Jain, Lakhmi C.

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the idea of the software interface agent the question recurs whether these agents should be personified and graphically visualized in the interface. In this chapter we look at the use of virtual humans in the interface of healthy lifestyle coaching systems. Based on theory

  2. Interdisciplinary Research on Healthy Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; Carey, James; Li, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    This Special Collection was edited by Frans Willekens, James R. Carey, and Qiang Li. The papers in this collection represent a small selection of papers presented at an international conference on healthy aging, held in October 2012 in Beijing and Hangzhou, China. The first part of the conference,

  3. Social discourses of healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Askegaard, Søren; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework of discourses regarding consumers' healthy eating as a useful conceptual scheme for market segmentation purposes. The objectives are: (a) to identify the appropriate number of health-related segments based on the underlying discursive subject positions of the frame...

  4. Program Review: Raising Healthy Eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Benavente, Janet C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight children and adults has been increasing steadily over the past three decades. Behaviors related to diet and nutrition are often established in early childhood. Toddlers most often develop healthy eating habits through parent modeling. Due to the steady increase in obesity in children, there is a clear need for…

  5. Review of Healthy, Happy Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Jefferson, Gisele

    2011-01-01

    The number of obese children has nearly tripled in the past 30 years. Research has identified a clear connection between parental income, education, ethnicity, and the risk for obesity. Recent research demonstrates that parenting style may also impact the ability to establish healthy eating environments. This article reviews a program, currently…

  6. From Survival to Healthy Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte Orr; Wind, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    and the spouses built their mutual and individual lives focusing on their relationship and strived to return to their usual everyday life. Within three to six months the couples went from “survival” where the diagnosis dominated to “wellbeing” where healthy aging/lifestyle dominated. All eight couples led...

  7. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24342605 . Review Date 4/24/2016 Updated by: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, ...

  8. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  9. Normal forms in Poisson geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcut, I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of Poisson manifolds is highly nontrivial even locally. The first important result in this direction is Conn's linearization theorem around fixed points. One of the main results of this thesis (Theorem 2) is a normal form theorem in Poisson geometry, which is the Poisson-geometric

  10. Mixed normal inference on multicointegration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotic likelihood analysis of cointegration in I(2) models, see Johansen (1997, 2006), Boswijk (2000) and Paruolo (2000), has shown that inference on most parameters is mixed normal, implying hypothesis test statistics with an asymptotic 2 null distribution. The asymptotic distribution of the

  11. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Is My Child’s Appetite Normal? Cayla, who is 4 years old, did not finish her lunch. But she is ready to play. Her ... snack for later. That is okay! Your child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in ...

  12. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Pettorossi, A.; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  13. Semigroups of data normalization functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2016-01-01

    Variable centering and scaling are functions that are typically used in data normalization. Various properties of centering and scaling functions are presented. It is shown that if we use two centering functions (or scaling functions) successively, the result depends on the order in which the

  14. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  15. Neutron RBE for normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.; Hornsey, S.

    1979-01-01

    RBE for various normal tissues is considered as a function of neutron dose per fraction. Results from a variety of centres are reviewed. It is shown that RBE is dependent on neutron energy and is tissue dependent, but is not specially high for the more critical tissues or for damage occurring late after irradiation. (author)

  16. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  17. Air pollution damage to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, G T

    1974-01-01

    The effects of the most important air pollutants on plants are described in detail. The include: smoke and particulates, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, peroxyacetyl nitrate, nitrogen oxides, and ozone. An attempt is made to show that plant injury by air pollution can be recognized and evaluated in the presence of effects from insect, fungal, bacterial, viral pathogens and the symptoms of nutrient and enviromental stress. All plants are more or less affected by toxic gases and metals absorbed from the air. For each plant and each pollutant there is a critical concentration above which damage occurs, and below which growth is normal.

  18. Association of Tumor Growth Factor-? and Interferon-? Serum Levels with Insulin Resistance in Normal Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Sanie, Mohammad Sadegh; Yusefi, Alireza; Zabetian, Hassan; Zareian, Parvin; Hakimelahi, Hossein; Madani, Abdolhossien; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is related to change in glucose metabolism and insulin production. The aim of our study was to determine the association of serum IFN-? and TGF-? levels with insulin resistance during normal pregnancy. This cross sectional study was carried out on 97 healthy pregnant (in different trimesters) and 28 healthy non-pregnant women. Serum TGF-? and IFN-? level were measured by ELISA method. Pregnant women had high level TGF-? and low level IFN-? as compared non-pregnant women. Maternal se...

  19. Mechanism of insulin resistance in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, K; Man, C Dalla; Smith, F E; Thelwall, P E; Cobelli, C; Robson, S C; Taylor, R

    2013-08-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with insulin resistance although the mechanism is not understood. Increased intramyocellular lipid is closely associated with the insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and the aim of this study was to determine whether this was so for the physiological insulin resistance of pregnancy. Eleven primiparous healthy pregnant women (age: 27-39 years, body mass index 24.0±3.1 kg/m2) and no personal or family history of diabetes underwent magnetic resonance studies to quantify intramyocellular lipid, plasma lipid fractions, and insulin sensitivity. The meal-related insulin sensitivity index was considerably lower in pregnancy (45.6±9.9 vs. 193.0±26.1; 10(-4) dl/kg/min per pmol/l, p=0.0002). Fasting plasma triglyceride levels were elevated 3-fold during pregnancy (2.3±0.2 vs. 0.8±0.1 mmol/l, pinsulin resistance is distinct from that underlying type 2 diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Normal thyroid function values in Ethiopians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassie, Emnetu; Abdulkadir, Jemal

    1990-01-01

    Thyroid function values were determined in 56 healthy nongoitrous adult Ethiopians. The mean triiodothyronine (T3) values for 20 males and 36 females were 1.42+-0.32 nmol/L and 1.51+-0.25 nmol/L, and thyroxine (T4) values were 119 22 nmol/L and 116+21 nmol/L respectively. The mean thyrotropin (TSH) values for males and females were identical at 1.86+-0.94 mu/L. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) at 2 hours was 8.6+-4.4% in males and 11.3+-4.3% in females, and at 24 hours 31.7+-11.7% and 38.9+-11.1% respectively. The difference between males and females were significant at both 2 and 24 hours (P<0.05). The ranges for the 3 hormones derived from the mean 2SD values are close to these supplied with the kits but the Ethiopian RAIU values are higher than the values currently applicable in developed countries, probably indicative of the lower level of dietary iodine available to the population here. The values obtained in this study are offered to serve as normal reference for the interpretation of thyroid function results in Ethiopian patients. A strategy for the rational utilization of the available in vitro tests is suggested

  1. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory.

  2. Healthy Lifestyle of Czech University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Marholdová, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with the healthy lifestyle of Czech university students. The main objectives are to map the healthy lifestyle of Czech university students, especially to find out whether they follow the principles of healthy lifestyle, to find out their knowledge concerning this issue, to find out if there are any obstacles to follow the healthy lifestyle and to find out whether they know any projects supporting health and healthy lifestyle. In the theoretical part of the thesis the basic te...

  3. Approaches in modulating proline metabolism in plants for salt and drought stress tolerance: Phytohormones, mineral nutrients and transgenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Masood, Asim; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Khan, M Iqbal R; Anjum, Naser A

    2017-06-01

    Major abiotic stress factors such as salt and drought adversely affect important physiological processes and biochemical mechanisms and cause severe loss in crop productivity worldwide. Plants develop various strategies to stand healthy against these stress factors. The accumulation of proline (Pro) is one of the striking metabolic responses of plants to salt and drought stress. Pro biosynthesis and signalling contribute to the redox balance of cell under normal and stressful conditions. However, literature is meager on the sustainable strategies potentially fit for modulating Pro biosynthesis and production in stressed plants. Considering the recent literature, this paper in its first part overviews Pro biosynthesis and transport in plants and also briefly highlights the significance of Pro in plant responses to salt and drought stress. Secondly, this paper discusses mechanisms underlying the regulation of Pro metabolism in salt and drought-exposed plant via phytohormones, mineral nutrients and transgenic approaches. The outcome of the studies may give new opportunities in modulating Pro metabolism for improving plant tolerance to salt and drought stress and benefit sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Healthy Pregnancies. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A woman's behaviors during pregnancy can have a significant influence on her baby's healthy development. Women who smoke or drink alcohol during pregnancy, go without prenatal care or suffer from poor nutrition are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy or childbirth, and their babies are at increased risk for developing a number…

  5. Normal-range verbal-declarative memory in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, R Walter; Parlar, Melissa; Pinnock, Farena

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive impairment is prevalent and related to functional outcome in schizophrenia, but a significant minority of the patient population overlaps with healthy controls on many performance measures, including declarative-verbal-memory tasks. In this study, we assessed the validity, clinical, and functional implications of normal-range (NR), verbal-declarative memory in schizophrenia. Performance normality was defined using normative data for 8 basic California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II; Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000) recall and recognition trials. Schizophrenia patients (n = 155) and healthy control participants (n = 74) were assessed for performance normality, defined as scores within 1 SD of the normative mean on all 8 trials, and assigned to normal- and below-NR memory groups. NR schizophrenia patients (n = 26) and control participants (n = 51) did not differ in general verbal ability, on a reading-based estimate of premorbid ability, across all 8 CVLT-II-score comparisons or in terms of intrusion and false-positive errors and auditory working memory. NR memory patients did not differ from memory-impaired patients (n = 129) in symptom severity, and both patient groups were significantly and similarly disabled in terms of functional status in the community. These results confirm a subpopulation of schizophrenia patients with normal, verbal-declarative-memory performance and no evidence of decline from higher premorbid ability levels. However, NR patients did not experience less severe psychopathology, nor did they show advantage in community adjustment relative to impaired patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekan, Thomas; Weissbach, Carmen; Voigt, Jan; Ebert, Bernd; MacDonald, Rainer; Bahner, Malte L.; Mahler, Marianne; Schirner, Michael; Berliner, Michael; Berliner, Birgitt; Osel, Jens; Osel, Ilka

    2011-07-01

    Fluorescence imaging using the dye indocyanine green as a contrast agent was investigated in a prospective clinical study for the detection of rheumatoid arthritis. Normalized variances of correlated time series of fluorescence intensities describing the bolus kinetics of the contrast agent in certain regions of interest were analyzed to differentiate healthy from inflamed finger joints. These values are determined using a robust, parameter-free algorithm. We found that the normalized variance of correlation functions improves the differentiation between healthy joints of volunteers and joints with rheumatoid arthritis of patients by about 10% compared to, e.g., ratios of areas under the curves of raw data.

  7. [Research on the original plants of Xian Zhao Zi (Senshosi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaka, Shuji

    2008-01-01

    Since the Heian period, Xian Zhao Zi (Senshosi) has been used as part of the ceremony believed to help in a healthy pregnancy and safe birth. The purpose of this report is to consider which plants are original Xian Zhao Zi plants. Past research lists certain plants as Xian Zhao Zi, but it was difficult to draw any conclusions.

  8. Superconducting versus normal conducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Podlech, Holger

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important issues of high-power hadron linacs is the choice of technology with respect to superconducting or room-temperature operation. The favour for a specific technology depends on several parameters such as the beam energy, beam current, beam power and duty factor. This contribution gives an overview of the comparison between superconducting and normal conducting cavities. This includes basic radiofrequency (RF) parameters, design criteria, limitations, required RF and plug power as well as case studies.

  9. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  10. Lithium control during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Jain, D.

    2010-01-01

    Periodic increases in lithium (Li) concentrations in the primary heat transport (PHT) system during normal operation are a generic problem at CANDU® stations. Lithiated mixed bed ion exchange resins are used at stations for pH control in the PHT system. Typically tight chemistry controls including Li concentrations are maintained in the PHT water. The reason for the Li increases during normal operation at CANDU stations such as Pickering was not fully understood. In order to address this issue a two pronged approach was employed. Firstly, PNGS-A data and information from other available sources was reviewed in an effort to identify possible factors that may contribute to the observed Li variations. Secondly, experimental studies were carried out to assess the importance of these factors in order to establish reasons for Li increases during normal operation. Based on the results of these studies, plausible mechanisms/reasons for Li increases have been identified and recommendations made for proactive control of Li concentrations in the PHT system. (author)

  11. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  12. Prevalence of Demodex canis-positive healthy dogs at trichoscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondati, Alessandra; De Lucia, Michela; Furiani, Nicla; Monaco, Moira; Ordeix, Laura; Scarampella, Fabia

    2010-04-01

    Demodex canis is thought to be present in small numbers in the skin of most healthy dogs; however, available data on the prevalence of normal dogs harbouring D. canis are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using microscopic examination of plucked hairs, the prevalence of healthy dogs harbouring D. canis. Seventy-eight clinically healthy dogs with no history of dermatological problems and clinically normal skin and hair coat were included in the study. Five areas (perioral skin 2-3mm from both labial commissures, periungual skin of the third digit of both anterior paws and chin) were examined in each dog. Fifty to sixty hairs were plucked from each skin site and microscopically examined. No D. canis mites were observed and only one adult form of Demodex injai was found in the labial commissure of one dog. Based on these results, the estimated prevalence of healthy dogs harbouring D. canis in clinically normal skin should not exceed the threshold of 5.4%, with 95% confidence level. Considering our and previous findings, we propose that, although small numbers of D. canis might inhabit the skin of normal dogs, the probability of finding these mites in normal dogs is low. Consequently, in most cases, the presence of a D. canis mite in the skin should not be considered as indicative of normality.

  13. "Ser diferente é normal?"/"Being different: is it normal?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Veras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pergunta título deste trabalho retoma o slogan “Ser diferente é normal”, que é parte da campanha criada para uma organização não-governamental que atende portadores de Síndrome de Down. O objetivo é a inclusão social da pessoa com deficiência e o primeiro passo foi propor a inclusão de um grupo de diferentes no grupo dito normal. No vídeo de lançamento da campanha, o diferente, identificado como normal, é mostrado por meio de exemplos – um negro com cabelo black-power, um skin-head, um corpo tatuado, um corpo feminino halterofílico, uma família hippie, uma garota com síndrome de Down. A visão da adolescente dançando reduz, de certo modo, o efeito imaginário que vai além da síndrome, uma vez que apenas o corpo com seus olhinhos puxados se destacam, e não se interrogam questões cognitivas. Minha proposta é refletir sobre o estatuto paradoxal do exemplo, tal como é trabalhado nesse vídeo: se, por definição, um exemplo mostra de fato seu pertencimento a uma classe, pode-se concluir que é exatamente por ser exemplar que ele se encontra fora dela, no exato momento em que a exibe e define. The question in the title of this paper refers to the slogan "ser diferente é normal" ("It´s normal to be different", which is part of a campaign created for a NGO that supports people with Down syndrome. The objective of the campaign is to promote the social inclusion of individuals with Down syndrome, and the first step was to propose the inclusion of a group of "differents" in the so-called normal group. The film launching the campaign shows the different identified as normal by means of examples: a black man exhibiting blackpower haircut, a skin-head, a tattooed body, an over-athletic female body, a hippie family and a girl with Down syndrome. The vision of the dancing teenager lessens the imaginary effect that surpasses the syndrome, since only her body and her little oriental eyes stand out and no cognitive issues are

  14. PHARMACOKINETIC VARIATIONS OF OFLOXACIN IN NORMAL AND FEBRILE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AHMAD, H. RAZA, G. MURTAZA AND N. AKHTAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of experimentally Escherichia coli-induced fever (EEIF on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin was evaluated. Ofloxacin was administered @ 20 mg.kg-1 body weight intravenously to a group of eight healthy rabbits and compared these results to values in same eight rabbits with EEIF. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin in normal and febrile rabbits were determined by using two compartment open kinetic model. Peak plasma level (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-α in normal and febrile rabbits did not differ (P>0.05. However, area under first moment of plasma concentration-time curve (AUMC0-α in febrile rabbits was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that in normal rabbits. Mean values for elimination rate constant (Ke, elimination half life (t1/2β and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were significantly (P<0.05 lower in febrile rabbits compared to normal rabbits, while mean residence time (MRT and total body clearance (Cl of ofloxacin did not show any significant difference in the normal and febrile rabbits. Clinical significance of the above results can be related to the changes in the volume of distribution and elimination half life that illustrates an altered steady state in febrile condition; hence, the need for an adjustment of dosage regimen in EEIF is required.

  15. Healthy Municipios in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, H E; Llanos, G; Contreras, A; Rocabado, F; Gross, S; Suárez, J; González, J

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the Healthy Municipios movement in Latin America and gives examples of some PAHO projects that could become demonstration projects. The Healthy Municipios movement was established in the early 1990s. The movement aims to promote healthy municipalities according to objectives set forth in the 1987 Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion, the 1992 Declaration of Bogota, and the 1993 Caribbean Health Promotion Charter. The movement is a joint effort of government, the health sector, and the community in promoting health locally. Key features of the movement are its creativity, variety, political strength, and adaptation to local conditions. Technical cooperation serves the purpose of facilitating information exchange and promotes the use of modern techniques of analysis and scientific and technical information. All projects shared the following common features: initiation by the local community with strong political commitment, intersectoral organizational structure, widespread community mobilization and participation, problem solving activities, and a recognizable leader. Pioneering projects include the Comprehensive Project for Cienfuegos, Cuba; the Health Manizales, Colombia; the Network in Mexico; Baruta and El Hatillo, Venezuela; Valdivia, Chile; and San Carlos Canton, Costa Rica. It is concluded that these projects and most others aim to assure equity. These efforts are important for placing health on the political agenda and implementing healthy policies. The Valdivia project, for example, serves a population of about 120,000 in the urban city of Valdivia, the semi-urban area, and rural areas. The project was officially sanctioned by the President of Chile on World Health Day in 1993. Progress was reported in mass communication and school-based programs. Attention was directed also to prevention of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and to the problem of traffic accidents.

  16. The retest distribution of the visual field summary index mean deviation is close to normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew J; Cheng, Allan C Y; Lau, Samantha; Le-Pham, Anne; Liu, Victor; Rahman, Farahnaz

    2016-09-01

    When modelling optimum strategies for how best to determine visual field progression in glaucoma, it is commonly assumed that the summary index mean deviation (MD) is normally distributed on repeated testing. Here we tested whether this assumption is correct. We obtained 42 reliable 24-2 Humphrey Field Analyzer SITA standard visual fields from one eye of each of five healthy young observers, with the first two fields excluded from analysis. Previous work has shown that although MD variability is higher in glaucoma, the shape of the MD distribution is similar to that found in normal visual fields. A Shapiro-Wilks test determined any deviation from normality. Kurtosis values for the distributions were also calculated. Data from each observer passed the Shapiro-Wilks normality test. Bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals for kurtosis encompassed the value for a normal distribution in four of five observers. When examined with quantile-quantile plots, distributions were close to normal and showed no consistent deviations across observers. The retest distribution of MD is not significantly different from normal in healthy observers, and so is likely also normally distributed - or nearly so - in those with glaucoma. Our results increase our confidence in the results of influential modelling studies where a normal distribution for MD was assumed. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  17. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  18. Understanding a Normal Distribution of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltenfort, Mitchell G

    2015-12-01

    Assuming data follow a normal distribution is essential for many common statistical tests. However, what are normal data and when can we assume that a data set follows this distribution? What can be done to analyze non-normal data?

  19. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  20. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  1. Healthy change processes - Relations with job insecurity, sickness absenteeism, sickness presenteeism and turnover intention

    OpenAIRE

    Bødal, Åshild

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of a healthy change process (HCPI) could predict negative outcomes that normally follow organisational change, such as qualitative job insecurity, total sickness (sickness absenteeism and -presenteesim) and turnover intention. It was hypothesised that negative relationships existed between a healthy change process and qualitative job insecurity, total sickness and turnover intention. In addition, it was believed that experienced st...

  2. Remaining life assessment and plant life extension in high temperature components of power and petrochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the reasons why plant life can so easily be extended beyond the original design life. It details the means by which plant life extension is normally achieved, a structured plan for achieving such plant life extension at reasonable cost and some of the key techniques used in assessing the remaining life and discusses the simple repair options available. (author)

  3. Epigenetic alterations of the SERPINE1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    , 17 of 20 patients with oral carcinoma were found to have between 2.5- and 50-fold increased tumor PAI-1 mRNA level, as compared with the matched tumor-adjacent normal tissues. The PAI-1 mRNA level in connective tissues from 15 healthy volunteers was similar to the level in tumor-adjacent normal...... tissues, but the level in epithelium was 5- to 10-fold lower. Analyzing DNA methylation of 25 CpG sites within 960 bp around the transcription initiation site of the SERPINE1 gene by bisulfite sequencing, we did the surprising observation that both tumors and tumor-adjacent normal tissue had a significant...... level of methylation, whereas there was very little methylation in tissue from healthy volunteers, suggesting that tumor-adjacent normal tissue already contains transformation-associated epigenetic changes. However, there was no general inverse correlation between PAI-1 mRNA levels and SERPINE1 gene...

  4. Close-range hyperspectral image analysis for the early detection of stress responses in individual plants in a high-throughput phenotyping platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Asaari, Mohd Shahrimie; Mishra, Puneet; Mertens, Stien; Dhondt, Stijn; Inzé, Dirk; Wuyts, Nathalie; Scheunders, Paul

    2018-04-01

    The potential of close-range hyperspectral imaging (HSI) as a tool for detecting early drought stress responses in plants grown in a high-throughput plant phenotyping platform (HTPPP) was explored. Reflectance spectra from leaves in close-range imaging are highly influenced by plant geometry and its specific alignment towards the imaging system. This induces high uninformative variability in the recorded signals, whereas the spectral signature informing on plant biological traits remains undisclosed. A linear reflectance model that describes the effect of the distance and orientation of each pixel of a plant with respect to the imaging system was applied. By solving this model for the linear coefficients, the spectra were corrected for the uninformative illumination effects. This approach, however, was constrained by the requirement of a reference spectrum, which was difficult to obtain. As an alternative, the standard normal variate (SNV) normalisation method was applied to reduce this uninformative variability. Once the envisioned illumination effects were eliminated, the remaining differences in plant spectra were assumed to be related to changes in plant traits. To distinguish the stress-related phenomena from regular growth dynamics, a spectral analysis procedure was developed based on clustering, a supervised band selection, and a direct calculation of a spectral similarity measure against a reference. To test the significance of the discrimination between healthy and stressed plants, a statistical test was conducted using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The proposed analysis techniques was validated with HSI data of maize plants (Zea mays L.) acquired in a HTPPP for early detection of drought stress in maize plant. Results showed that the pre-processing of reflectance spectra with the SNV effectively reduces the variability due to the expected illumination effects. The proposed spectral analysis method on the normalized spectra successfully

  5. Mathematical analysis of the normal anatomy of the aging fovea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Brooke; Gupta, Akash; Strange, Taylor; Schaal, Yuval; Schaal, Shlomit

    2014-08-28

    To mathematically analyze anatomical changes that occur in the normal fovea during aging. A total of 2912 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) normal foveal scans were analyzed. Subjects were healthy individuals, aged 13 to 97 years, with visual acuity ≥20/40 and without evidence of foveal pathology. Using automated symbolic regression software Eureqa (version 0.98), foveal thickness maps of 390 eyes were analyzed using several measurements: parafoveal retinal thickness at 50 μm consecutive intervals, parafoveal maximum retinal thickness at two points lateral to central foveal depression, distance between two points of maximum retinal thickness, maximal foveal slope at two intervals lateral to central foveal depression, and central length of foveal depression. A unique mathematical equation representing the mathematical analog of foveal anatomy was derived for every decade, between 10 and 100 years. The mathematical regression function for normal fovea followed first order sine curve of level 10 complexity for the second decade of life. The mathematical regression function became more complex with normal aging, up to level 43 complexity (0.085 fit; P < 0.05). Young foveas had higher symmetry (0.92 ± 0.10) along midline, whereas aged foveas had significantly less symmetry (0.76 ± 0.27, P < 0.01) along midline and steeper maximal slopes (29 ± 32°, P < 0.01). Normal foveal anatomical configuration changes with age. Normal aged foveas are less symmetric along midline with steeper slopes. Differentiating between normal aging and pathologic changes using SD-OCT scans may allow early diagnosis, follow-up, and better management of the aging population. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  6. Resistive index for kidney evaluation in normal and diseased cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipisca, Vlad; Murino, Carla; Cortese, Laura; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Auletta, Luigi; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the resistive index (RI) in normal cats and in cats with various renal diseases, and to evaluate the effect of age on RI. The subjects were cats that had ultrasonography (US) of the urinary tract and RI measurement at our centre between January 2003 and April 2014. Based on clinical evaluation, biochemical and haematological tests, urinalysis and US, the cats were classified as healthy or diseased. RI measurements were made from the interlobar or arcuate arteries. Data were analysed for differences between the right and the left kidney, the two sexes, different age groups in healthy cats, and between healthy and diseased cats. A total of 116 cats (68 males, 48 females) were included: 24 healthy and 92 diseased. In the healthy cats, RI (mean ± SD) differed significantly (P = 0.02) between the right kidney (0.54 ± 0.07) and the left kidney (0.59 ± 0.08). For the left kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.73 ± 0.12) and acute kidney injury (0.72 ± 0.08) (P = 0.0008). For the right kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.72 ± 0.11), acute kidney injury (0.74 ± 0.08), polycystic kidney disease (0.77 ± 0.11) and renal tumour (0.74 ± 0.001) (P cats, useful in the differential diagnosis of diffuse renal diseases. While it does not change with the age of the cat, ultrasonographers should be aware that RI may differ between the two kidneys. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  7. The number of antral follicles in normal women with proven fertility is the best reflection of reproductive age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, G.J.; Broekmans, F.J.; Looman, C.W.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Jong, F.H. de; Velde, E.R. te

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive capacity of several markers of reproductive age in normal women. METHODS: Healthy female volunteers (n = 162) aged 25-46 years with proven, normal fertility and regular menstrual cycles were recruited. In this selected group,

  8. A locally adaptive normal distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvanitidis, Georgios; Hansen, Lars Kai; Hauberg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    entropy distribution under the given metric. The underlying metric is, however, non-parametric. We develop a maximum likelihood algorithm to infer the distribution parameters that relies on a combination of gradient descent and Monte Carlo integration. We further extend the LAND to mixture models......The multivariate normal density is a monotonic function of the distance to the mean, and its ellipsoidal shape is due to the underlying Euclidean metric. We suggest to replace this metric with a locally adaptive, smoothly changing (Riemannian) metric that favors regions of high local density...

  9. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  10. Multispectral histogram normalization contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, J. M.; Schwartz, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    A multispectral histogram normalization or decorrelation enhancement which achieves effective color composites by removing interband correlation is described. The enhancement procedure employs either linear or nonlinear transformations to equalize principal component variances. An additional rotation to any set of orthogonal coordinates is thus possible, while full histogram utilization is maintained by avoiding the reintroduction of correlation. For the three-dimensional case, the enhancement procedure may be implemented with a lookup table. An application of the enhancement to Landsat multispectral scanning imagery is presented.

  11. Normal modes and continuous spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmforth, N.J.; Morrison, P.J.

    1994-12-01

    The authors consider stability problems arising in fluids, plasmas and stellar systems that contain singularities resulting from wave-mean flow or wave-particle resonances. Such resonances lead to singularities in the differential equations determining the normal modes at the so-called critical points or layers. The locations of the singularities are determined by the eigenvalue of the problem, and as a result, the spectrum of eigenvalues forms a continuum. They outline a method to construct the singular eigenfunctions comprising the continuum for a variety of problems

  12. Normal movement selectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J

    2010-05-13

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant walkdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report covers the following: preparatory steps for performing plant walk-down; the objective of the first plant walk-down; plant walk-down procedures; earthquake screening evaluation; walk-down documentation; second plant walk-down. The following objectives concerning the plant walk-down(s) were achieved. The plant system configuration is verified in order to proceed with event tree and fault tree analyses. Systems interactions, other types of dependencies or plant unique features are identified. he safety related components that are judged to generically possess high capacities (i.e., larger than the earthquake review level) have been verified to contain no weaknesses. Further analyses needed to establish the capacities of remaining safety-related components are identified and necessary field data are obtained. Information on components is obtained to assist in HCLPF (fragility) evaluation and peer review of the seismic margin study

  14. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between terre...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water.......Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...

  15. Prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children in Ardabil, North Western Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrooz Nemati; Gholam Ali Afrooz; Ali Asgari; Bagher Ghobari Bonab

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Having healthy non-handicapped children plays a major role in mental health of the family and decreases family and society's costs. While consanguineous marriage could lead to expression of recessive genes and a variety of handicaps including deafness, the aim of present study was to scrutinize the prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children as well as its relationship with deafness.Methods: In this study, 467 couples parenting normal ch...

  16. Volume and dimensions of angiographically normal coronary arteries assessed by multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Samuel Kiil; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Fuchs, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine normal values for coronary artery volume (CAV) and individual vasculature and segment dimensions. METHODS: We examined 200 healthy volunteers with an Agatston score of 0 and a normal, high quality coronary CTA. Using 320 slice multidetector...... administration and left ventricular mass. The respective contribution of the left and right coronary vascularture is influenced by coronary dominance....

  17. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren R. Laughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose accelerates carbohydrate oxidation after a meal. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that fructose may also play a role in the secretion of insulin and GLP-1, and in the maturation of preadipocytes to increase fat storage capacity. Therefore, fructose undergoing its normal metabolism has the interesting property of potentiating the disposal of a dietary carbohydrate load through several routes.

  18. Feedforward somatosensory inhibition is normal in cervical dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrè, Elisa R; Ganos, Christos; Bhatia, Kailash P; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Insufficient cortical inhibition is a key pathophysiological finding in dystonia. Subliminal sensory stimuli were reported to transiently inhibit somatosensory processing. Here we investigated whether such subliminal feedforward inhibition is reduced in patients with cervical dystonia. Sixteen cervical dystonia patients and 16 matched healthy controls performed a somatosensory detection task. We measured the drop in sensitivity to detect a threshold-level digital nerve shock when it was preceded by a subliminal conditioning shock, compared to when it was not. Subliminal conditioning shocks reduced sensitivity to threshold stimuli to a similar extent in both patients and controls, suggesting that somatosensory subliminal feedforward inhibition is normal in cervical dystonia. Somatosensory feedforward inhibition was normal in this group of cervical dystonia patients. Our results qualify previous concepts of a general dystonic deficit in sensorimotor inhibitory processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    Studies of the human microbiome have revealed that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut, skin and vagina. Much of this diversity remains unexplained, although diet, environment, host genetics and early microbial exposure have all been implicated. Accordingly, to characterize the ecology of human-associated microbial communities, the Human Microbiome Project has analysed the largest cohort and set of distinct, clinically relevant body habitats so far. We found the diversity and abundance of each habitat's signature microbes to vary widely even among healthy subjects, with strong niche specialization both within and among individuals. The project encountered an estimated 81-99% of the genera, enzyme families and community configurations occupied by the healthy Western microbiome. Metagenomic carriage of metabolic pathways was stable among individuals despite variation in community structure, and ethnic/racial background proved to be one of the strongest associations of both pathways and microbes with clinical metadata. These results thus delineate the range of structural and functional configurations normal in the microbial communities of a healthy population, enabling future characterization of the epidemiology, ecology and translational applications of the human microbiome.

  20. Integrated risk - healthy technical conscience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, P. [Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The personal obligation leaders and individuals internalize and exercise to ensure plant operation, maintenance, and engineering activities are conducted in a manner consistent with plant design, emergency response strategies, technical requirements and that preserve operating, design and safety margins. Technical errors are increasing, both in number and significance. Causes are common at many utilities. The majority of these engineering human performance weaknesses have not had immediate impact on station reliability and safety (not self-revealing). In some recent projects, the same weaknesses affected a station's viability.

  1. Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives. Healthy People...

  2. Update on normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiranjan Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is labelled when typical glaucomatous disc changes, visual field defects and open anterior chamber angles are associated with intraocular pressure (IOP constantly below 21 mmHg. Chronic low vascular perfusion, Raynaud's phenomenon, migraine, nocturnal systemic hypotension and over-treated systemic hypertension are the main causes of normal tension glaucoma. Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography and visual field analysis are the main tools of investigation for the diagnosis of NTG. Management follows the same principles of treatment for other chronic glaucomas: To reduce IOP by a substantial amount, sufficient to prevent disabling visual loss. Treatment is generally aimed to lower IOP by 30% from pre-existing levels to 12-14 mmHg. Betaxolol, brimonidine, prostaglandin analogues, trabeculectomy (in refractory cases, systemic calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine and 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure are considered in the management of NTG. The present review summarises risk factors, causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NTG.

  3. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  4. Psychopharmacology of theobromine in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, Matthew J; Childs, Emma; Hart, Amy B; de Bruin, Eveline; Palmer, Abraham A; Wilkinson, Joy E; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-07-01

    Theobromine, a methylxanthine related to caffeine and present in high levels in cocoa, may contribute to the appeal of chocolate. However, current evidence for this is limited. We conducted a within-subjects placebo-controlled study of a wide range of oral theobromine doses (250, 500, and 1,000 mg) using an active control dose of caffeine (200 mg) in 80 healthy participants. Caffeine had the expected effects on mood including feelings of alertness and cardiovascular parameters. Theobromine responses differed according to dose; it showed limited subjective effects at 250 mg and negative mood effects at higher doses. It also dose-dependently increased heart rate. In secondary analyses, we also examined individual differences in the drug's effects in relation to genes related to their target receptors, but few associations were detected. This study represents the highest dose of theobromine studied in humans. We conclude that theobromine at normal intake ranges may contribute to the positive effects of chocolate, but at higher intakes, effects become negative.

  5. The Comparison of Risky Decision Making in Opium Abuser and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risky decision making is one of the most basic mechanisms of impulsive and addictive behaviors. The purpose of present study was the comparison of risky decision making in opium abuser and healthy matched individuals. Method: In present cross sectional study, 50 opium abusers compared to 50 healthy who were matched on age and gender. Balloon Analogue Risk Taking Task was used for evaluation of risk taking in participant of both groups. Results: The results showed that opium abusers have had higher scores on number of plumbing balloon and exploded balloon in BART task than normal individuals. Conclusion: Opium abusers have higher risk taking than normal individuals.

  6. Consumers' practical understanding of healthy food choices: a fake food experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method.

  7. Healthy and sustainable diets for future generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Hilary; Broun, Pierre; Cook, Douglas; Cooper, Karen; Drewnowski, Adam; Pollard, Duncan; Sweeney, Gary; Roulin, Anne

    2018-07-01

    Global food systems will face unprecedented challenges in the coming years. They will need to meet the nutritional needs of a growing population and feed an expanding demand for proteins. This is against a backdrop of increasing environmental challenges (water resources, climate change, soil health) and the need to improve farming livelihoods. Collaborative efforts by a variety of stakeholders are needed to ensure that future generations have access to healthy and sustainable diets. Food will play an increasingly important role in the global discourse on health. These topics were explored during Nestlé's second international conference on 'Planting Seeds for the Future of Food: The Agriculture, Nutrition and Sustainability Nexus', which took place in July 2017. This article discusses some of the key issues from the perspective of three major stakeholder groups, namely farming/agriculture, the food industry and consumers. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Healthy Aging with Go4Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Healthy Aging with Go4Life ® Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of ... is to make physical activity a cornerstone of healthy aging, for a simple reason. Being physically active is ...

  9. FEEDING GUIDELINES FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS (START HEALTHY PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Butte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The dietary guidelines for americans contains recommendations on diets and healthy lifestyles but it does not deal with specificities of the diet and feeding breast and small infants (to 2 years. However, parents and carecgivers need practical recommendations on feeding infants and toddlers that are necessary to ensure a normal growth and to create the basis for forming healthy food habits, which apart from other benefits might help prevent the development of obesity and other diseases in both childhood and adulthood. The feeding guidelines for infants and toddlers is aimed at providing parents and carecgivers with practical information on feeding breast and small infants. It is intendced for adding and broadening recommendations worked out by other expert groups and organizations. The article provides a substantiation of the guidelines. The methodology, results and a complete reference list used to work out the recommendations are presented in another document.Key words: infants, nutrition.

  10. Gastric emptying in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oster-Jorgensen, E.; Qvist, N.

    1993-01-01

    that liquid lag phase (min) and was significantly shorter in Phase II than in Phase I (1 vs. 4, P = 0.007). The half emptying time of solid linear phase (min) was reproduced with nearly identical median and range values in the three series (I[1]: 67[51-87]; I[2]: 63[47-80]; 61[47-76]). With meal ingestion......This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between meal ingestion and phase activity of the migrating motor complex and whether reproducibility is increased when meal ingestion takes place in relation to preselected...... characteristics of the migrating motor complex. We examined 12 healthy males, and the design included three examinations, twice with meal ingestion in a duodenal Phase I, and once in a Phase II. The meal consisted of an omelette labelled with 99mTc followed by 150 ml water labelled with 111In. The results showed...

  11. Is My Penis Normal? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth / For Teens / Is My Penis Normal? Print en español ¿Es normal mi pene? ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...

  12. Normal vibrations in gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolling, G.; Waugh, J.L.T.

    1964-01-01

    The triple axis crystal spectrometer at Chalk River has been used to observe coherent slow neutron scattering from a single crystal of pure gallium arsenide at 296 o K. The frequencies of normal modes of vibration propagating in the [ζ00], (ζζζ], and (0ζζ] crystal directions have been determined with a precision of between 1 and 2·5 per cent. A limited number of normal modes have also been studied at 95 and 184 o K. Considerable difficulty was experienced in obtaining welt resolved neutron peaks corresponding to the two non-degenerate optic modes for very small wave-vector, particularly at 296 o K. However, from a comparison of results obtained under various experimental conditions at several different points in reciprocal space, frequencies (units 10 12 c/s) for these modes (at 296 o K) have been assigned: T 8·02±0·08 and L 8·55±02. Other specific normal modes, with their measured frequencies are (a) (1,0,0): TO 7·56 ± 008, TA 2·36 ± 0·015, LO 7·22 ± 0·15, LA 6·80 ± 0·06; (b) (0·5, 0·5, 0·5): TO 7·84 ± 0·12, TA 1·86 ± 0·02, LO 7·15 ± 0·07, LA 6·26 ± 0·10; (c) (0, 0·65, 0·65): optic 8·08 ±0·13, 7·54 ± 0·12 and 6·57 ± 0·11, acoustic 5·58 ± 0·08, 3·42 · 0·06 and 2·36 ± 004. These results are generally slightly lower than the corresponding frequencies for germanium. An analysis in terms of various modifications of the dipole approximation model has been carried out. A feature of this analysis is that the charge on the gallium atom appears to be very small, about +0·04 e. The frequency distribution function has been derived from one of the force models. (author)

  13. Normal vibrations in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolling, G; Waugh, J L T

    1964-07-01

    The triple axis crystal spectrometer at Chalk River has been used to observe coherent slow neutron scattering from a single crystal of pure gallium arsenide at 296{sup o}K. The frequencies of normal modes of vibration propagating in the [{zeta}00], ({zeta}{zeta}{zeta}], and (0{zeta}{zeta}] crystal directions have been determined with a precision of between 1 and 2{center_dot}5 per cent. A limited number of normal modes have also been studied at 95 and 184{sup o}K. Considerable difficulty was experienced in obtaining welt resolved neutron peaks corresponding to the two non-degenerate optic modes for very small wave-vector, particularly at 296{sup o}K. However, from a comparison of results obtained under various experimental conditions at several different points in reciprocal space, frequencies (units 10{sup 12} c/s) for these modes (at 296{sup o}K) have been assigned: T 8{center_dot}02{+-}0{center_dot}08 and L 8{center_dot}55{+-}02. Other specific normal modes, with their measured frequencies are (a) (1,0,0): TO 7{center_dot}56 {+-} 008, TA 2{center_dot}36 {+-} 0{center_dot}015, LO 7{center_dot}22 {+-} 0{center_dot}15, LA 6{center_dot}80 {+-} 0{center_dot}06; (b) (0{center_dot}5, 0{center_dot}5, 0{center_dot}5): TO 7{center_dot}84 {+-} 0{center_dot}12, TA 1{center_dot}86 {+-} 0{center_dot}02, LO 7{center_dot}15 {+-} 0{center_dot}07, LA 6{center_dot}26 {+-} 0{center_dot}10; (c) (0, 0{center_dot}65, 0{center_dot}65): optic 8{center_dot}08 {+-}0{center_dot}13, 7{center_dot}54 {+-} 0{center_dot}12 and 6{center_dot}57 {+-} 0{center_dot}11, acoustic 5{center_dot}58 {+-} 0{center_dot}08, 3{center_dot}42 {center_dot} 0{center_dot}06 and 2{center_dot}36 {+-} 004. These results are generally slightly lower than the corresponding frequencies for germanium. An analysis in terms of various modifications of the dipole approximation model has been carried out. A feature of this analysis is that the charge on the gallium atom appears to be very small, about +0{center_dot}04 e. The

  14. Environmental hazards from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, D.

    1973-04-01

    The article discusses the radiation exposure due to nuclear power stations in normal operation and after reactor incidents. Also mentioned is the radiation exposure to the emissions from fuel reprocessing plants and radioactive waste facilities. (RW/AK) [de

  15. President's Commission and the normal accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter incorporates the major points of an analysis of the accident at Three Mile Island that I prepared in September 1979. In contrast to the findings of the President's Commission (1979), I did not view the accident as the result of operator error, an inept utility, or a negligent Nuclear Regulatory Commission but as a consequence of the complexity and interdependence that characterize the system itself. I argued that the accident was inevitable-that is, that it could not have been prevented, foreseen, or quickly terminated, because it was incomprehensible. It resembled other accidents in nuclear plants and in other high risk, complex and highly interdependent operator-machine systems; none of the accidents were caused by management or operator ineptness or by poor government regulation, though these characteristics existed and should have been expected. I maintained that the accident was normal, because in complex systems there are bound to be multiple faults that cannot be avoided by planning and that operators cannot immediately comprehend

  16. Endostatin concentration in plasma of healthy human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.; Malik, M.O.; Khan, M.J.; Fatima, S.; Habib, S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in many cardiovascular and cancerous diseases, including atherosclerosis and is controlled by a fine balance between angiogenic and angiostatic mediators. Endostatin is one of the main angiostatic mediators, and inhibits angiogenesis and prevents progression of atherosclerosis. The available literature shows a broad range of concentrations in relatively small samples of healthy controls and is calculated by using different techniques. This study was aimed to determine the basal endostatin concentration in plasma of healthy volunteers, to fully understand its physiological role. Methods: Fifty healthy adult volunteers were recruited to the study. Participants were advised not to participate in any physical activity on the day before the blood sampling. The volunteers' physical activity, height, weight, heart rate and blood pressure were recorded. The samples were analysed for plasma endostatin concentration, using ELISA. The participants were divided by gender and ethnic groups to calculate any difference. Results: Endostatin and other variables were normally distributed. Most of the participants had a moderate level of physical activity with no gender related difference (p=0.370). The mean value for plasma endostatin in all samples was 105+-12 ng/ml with range of 81-132 ng/ml. For males, it was 107+-13 ng/ml, while for females; 102+-12 ng/ml. There were no significant gender or ethnicity related differences in endostatin concentration. Moreover, endostatin was not significantly related with any anthropometric and physical variable. Conclusion: This study gives endostatin levels in normal healthy people and show no gender and ethnicity related differences in endostatin levels. Endostatin was not related with any anthropometric and physical variable. (author)

  17. Striving for the unknown normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    During the last decade, more and more people have received prescriptions for ADHD drug treatment, and simultaneously the legitimacy of the ADHD diagnosis has been heavily debated among both professionals and laymen. Based on an anthropological fieldwork among adults with ADHD, I illustrate how...... the ADHD diagnosis both answers and produces existential questions on what counts as normal behaviour and emotions. The diagnosis helps the diagnosed to identify, accept and handle problems by offering concrete explanations and solutions to diffuse experienced problems. But the diagnostic process...... is not only a clarifying procedure with a straight plan for treatment and direct effects. It is also a messy affair. In a process of experimenting with drugs and attempting to determine how or whether the medication eliminates the correct symptoms the diagnosed is put in an introspective, self...

  18. IIH with normal CSF pressures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soh Youn Suh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a condition of raised intracranial pressure (ICP in the absence of space occupying lesions. ICP is usually measured by lumbar puncture and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure above 250 mm H 2 O is one of the diagnostic criteria of IIH. Recently, we have encountered two patients who complained of headaches and exhibited disc swelling without an increased ICP. We prescribed acetazolamide and followed both patients frequently; because of the definite disc swelling with IIH related symptoms. Symptoms and signs resolved in both patients after they started taking acetazolamide. It is generally known that an elevated ICP, as measured by lumbar puncture, is the most important diagnostic sign of IIH. However, these cases caution even when CSF pressure is within the normal range, that suspicion should be raised when a patient has papilledema with related symptoms, since untreated papilledema may cause progressive and irreversible visual loss.

  19. Role of endothelium in radiation-induced normal tissue damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliat, F.

    2007-05-01

    More than half of cancers are treated with radiation therapy alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver enough ionising radiation to destroy cancer cells without exceeding the level that the surrounding healthy cells can tolerate. Unfortunately, radiation-induced normal tissue injury is still a dose limiting factor in the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy. The knowledge of normal tissue radiobiology is needed to determine molecular mechanisms involved in normal tissue pathogenic pathways in order to identify therapeutic targets and develop strategies to prevent and /or reduce side effects of radiation therapy. The endothelium is known to play a critical role in radiation-induced injury. Our work shows that endothelial cells promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and fibro-genic phenotype after irradiation. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time the importance of PAI-1 in radiation-induced normal tissue damage suggesting that PAI-1 may represent a molecular target to limit injury following radiotherapy. We describe a new role for the TGF-b/Smad pathway in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced damages. TGF-b/Smad pathway is involved in the fibro-genic phenotype of VSMC induced by irradiated EC as well as in the radiation-induced PAI-1 expression in endothelial cells. (author)

  20. Are cancer cells really softer than normal cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Charlotte; Goud, Bruno; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-05-01

    Solid tumours are often first diagnosed by palpation, suggesting that the tumour is more rigid than its surrounding environment. Paradoxically, individual cancer cells appear to be softer than their healthy counterparts. In this review, we first list the physiological reasons indicating that cancer cells may be more deformable than normal cells. Next, we describe the biophysical tools that have been developed in recent years to characterise and model cancer cell mechanics. By reviewing the experimental studies that compared the mechanics of individual normal and cancer cells, we argue that cancer cells can indeed be considered as softer than normal cells. We then focus on the intracellular elements that could be responsible for the softening of cancer cells. Finally, we ask whether the mechanical differences between normal and cancer cells can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers of cancer progression. © 2017 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.