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Sample records for normal gestation length

  1. Evaluation of the Normal Fetal Kidney Length and Its Correlation with Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokh Seilanian Toosi; Hossein Rezaie-Delui

    2013-01-01

    A true estimation of gestational age (GA) plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL) and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive e...

  2. Evaluation of the normal fetal kidney length and its correlation with gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaie-Delui, Hossein

    2013-05-30

    A true estimation of gestational age (GA) plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL) and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive equation to estimate GA on the KL and fetobiometry parameters. A significant correlation was found between GA and KL (r=0.83, P<0.002). The best GA predictor was obtained by combining head circumference, fetal biparietal diameter, femur length and KL with a standard error (SE) about 14.2 days. Our findings showed that KL measurements combination with other fetal biometric parameters could predict age of pregnancy with a better precision.

  3. Evaluation of the Normal Fetal Kidney Length and Its Correlation with Gestational Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokh Seilanian Toosi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A true estimation of gestational age (GA plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive equation to estimate GA on the KL and fetobiometry parameters. A significant correlation was found between GA and KL (r=0.83, P<0.002. The best GA predictor was obtained by combining head circumference, fetal biparietal diameter, femur length and KL with a standard error (SE about 14.2 days. Our findings showed that KL measurements combination with other fetal biometric parameters could predict age of pregnancy with a better precision.

  4. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  5. Umbilical cord length in singleton gestations: a Finnish population-based retrospective register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, L; Keski-Nisula, L; Harju, M; Räisänen, S; Georgiadis, S; Hannila, M-L; Heinonen, S

    2014-04-01

    Many complications of pregnancy and delivery are associated with umbilical cord length. It is important to examine the variation in length, in order to identify normal and abnormal conditions. Moreover, the factors influencing cord growth and development are not precisely known. The main objectives were to provide updated reference charts for umbilical cord length in singleton pregnancies and to evaluate potential factors affecting cord length. Birth register data of 47,284 singleton pregnant women delivering in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland was collected prospectively. Gender-specific centile charts for cord length from 22 to 44 gestational weeks were obtained using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). Gestational, fetal, and maternal factors were studied for their potential influence on cord length with single variable analysis and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Cord length increased according to gestational age, while the growth decelerated post-term. Birth weight, placental weight, pregravid maternal body mass index, parity, and maternal age correlated to cord length. Gestational diabetes and previous miscarriages were associated with longer cords, while female gender and placental abruption were associated with shorter cords. Girls had shorter cords throughout gestation although there was substantial variation in length in both genders. Cord length associated significantly with birth weight, placental weight, and gestational age. Significantly shorter cords were found in women with placental abruption. This important finding requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sonographic Evaluation of the Splenic Length in Normal Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of the sonographic measurements of the splenic length was performed on 150 healthy normal pregnant women correlating this with the body mass index, gestational age and parity. Data were analyzed using software SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).

  7. Sonographic Measurement of Fetal Ear Length in Turkish Women with a Normal Pregnancy

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    Mucize Eriç Özdemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal fetal ear length is a feature of chromosomal disorders. Fetal ear length measurement is a simple measurement that can be obtained during ultrasonographic examinations. Aims: To develop a nomogram for fetal ear length measurements in our population and investigate the correlation between fetal ear length, gestational age, and other standard fetal biometric measurements. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Ear lengths of the fetuses were measured in normal singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age and fetal ear length in millimetres was analysed by simple linear regression. In addition, the correlation of fetal ear length measurements with biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length were evaluated.Ear length measurements were obtained from fetuses in 389 normal singleton pregnancies ranging between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results: A nomogram was developed by linear regression analysis of the parameters ear length and gestational age. Fetal ear length (mm = y = (1.348 X gestational age-12.265, where gestational ages is in weeks. A high correlation was found between fetal ear length and gestational age, and a significant correlation was also found between fetal ear length and the biparietal diameter (r=0.962; p<0.001. Similar correlations were found between fetal ear length and head circumference, and fetal ear length and femur length. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a nomogram for fetal ear length. The study also demonstrates the relationship between ear length and other biometric measurements.

  8. The shifting trajectory of growth in femur length during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnerem, Ashild; Johnsen, Synnøve L; Nguyen, Tuan V; Kiserud, Torvid; Seeman, Ego

    2010-05-01

    Bone size is a determinant of bone strength and tracks in its percentile of origin during childhood and adolescence. We hypothesized that the ranking of an individual's femur length (FL) is established in early gestation and tracks thereafter. Fetal FL was measured serially using 2D ultrasound in 625 Norwegian fetuses. Tracking was assessed using Pearson correlation, a generalized estimating equation model, and by calculating the proportion of fetuses whose FL remained within the same quartile. Baseline FL Z-score (weeks 10 to 19) and later measurements correlated, but more weakly as gestation advanced: r = 0.59 (weeks 20 to 26); r = 0.45 (weeks 27 to 33); and r = 0.32 (weeks 34 to 39) (p baseline FL Z-score, placental weight (150 g), maternal height (5 cm), and weight (10 kg), was associated with a 0.25, 0.15, 0.10, and 0.05 SD higher FL Z-score at the end of gestation, respectively (p ranging from <0.001 to 0.02). Tracking within the same percentile throughout the whole of gestation, as suggest by growth charts, is uncommon. Deviation from tracking is more common and is the result of changes in growth velocity within and between fetuses and is partly influenced by maternal, fetal, and placental factors. (c) 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. The total plasmatic estriol on normal gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    The total plasmatic estriol in normal pregnants was determinated by radioimmunological method using estriol labelled with sup(125)I. The obtained results presented similar results in comparison with methods using sup(19)C and sup(3)H. (author)

  10. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  11. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length

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    Reyna Sámano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI. Objective: To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26–28 to three months postpartum (n = 168 mother–child dyads. An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497. Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011. Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722. Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents with

  12. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Chico-Barba, Gabriela; Godínez-Martínez, Estela; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Montiel-Ojeda, Diana; Tolentino, Maricruz

    2017-09-27

    Introduction : Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI). Objective : To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods : A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26-28 to three months postpartum ( n = 168 mother-child dyads). An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results : Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497). Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011). Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722). Conclusions : Pregnant adolescents with leptin

  13. Doppler ultrasound scan during normal gestation: umbilical circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, T.; Sabate, J.; Martinez-Benavides, M. M.; Sanchez-Ramos, J.

    2002-01-01

    To determine normal umbilical circulation patterns by means of Doppler ultrasound scan in a healthy gestating population without risk factors and with normal perinatal results, and to evaluate any occurring modifications relative to gestational age by obtaining records kept during pregnancy. One hundred and sixteen pregnant women carrying a single fetus have been studied. These women had no risk factors, with both clinical and analytical controls, as well as ultrasound scans, all being normal. There were performed a total of 193 Doppler ultrasound scans between weeks 15 and 41 of gestation, with blood-flow analysis in the arteries and vein of the umbilical cord. The obtained information was correlated with parameters that evaluate fetal well-being (fetal monitoring and/or oxytocin test) and perinatal result (delivery type, birth weight, Apgar score). Statistical analysis was performed with the programs SPSS 6.0.1 for Windows and EPIINFO 6.0.4. With pulsed Doppler, the umbilical artery in all cases demonstrated a biphasic morphology with systolic and diastolic components and without retrograde blood flow. As the gestation period increased, there was observed a progressive decrease in resistance along with an increase in blood-flow velocity during the diastolic phase. The Doppler ultrasound scan is a non-invasive method that permits the hemodynamic study of umbilical blood circulation. A knowledge of normal blood-flow signal morphology, as well as of the normal values for Doppler indices in relation to gestational age would permit us to utilize this method in high-risk pregnancies. (Author) 30 refs

  14. Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Neonatal Offspring of Mothers with Gestational and Pre-Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfillan, Christopher; Naidu, Pratyusha; Gunawan, Florence; Hassan, Fadwa; Tian, Pei; Elwood, Ngaire

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres undergo shortening with cell division, accelerated by increased oxidative stress. We aimed to demonstrate shortened telomeres in the offspring of mothers who have diabetes as a consequence of exposure to increased oxidative stress during intrauterine development. We examined the level of glycaemia (glucose, HbA1c, fructosamine), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and the levels of antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase) and correlate these findings with mean telomere length (TL) in maternal and foetal blood in groups of pregnant women with pre-gestational diabetes (PGD), gestational diabetes (GD) and a euglycaemic control group. Foetal and maternal glucose, maternal HbA1c, and foetal insulin and C-peptide were higher in the PGD group with the GD group being intermediate. Markers of oxidative stress did not vary between groups with the exception of foetal SOD activity that was highest in the GD group. There were no detectable differences in maternal or foetal TL between study groups. An exploratory analysis looking at correlations between glycaemic and oxidative stress parameters and TL revealed a negative correlation between maternal and foetal glucose and TL across the whole study population. This relationship held for the short-term marker of glycaemic control, fructosamine. We were unable to show significant telomere shortening in the offspring of mothers with PGD or GD. Exploratory analysis revealed a relationship between foetal TL and short-term glycaemia particularly in PGD. It is possible that increased telomerase activity can compensate for long-term increased oxidative stress but not for short-term dysglycaemia.

  15. The effect of genotype and birth type on gestation length and linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of genotype and birth type on gestation length and linear body ... was conducted in Enugu State University of Science and Technology, in the then ... Weekly weights and live body measurements of the kids were recorded from ...

  16. Doppler ultrasound scan during normal gestation: umbilical circulation; Ecografia Doppler en la gestacion normal: circulacion umbilical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, T.; Sabate, J.; Martinez-Benavides, M. M.; Sanchez-Ramos, J. [Hospital Virgen Macarena. Sevilla (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    To determine normal umbilical circulation patterns by means of Doppler ultrasound scan in a healthy gestating population without risk factors and with normal perinatal results, and to evaluate any occurring modifications relative to gestational age by obtaining records kept during pregnancy. One hundred and sixteen pregnant women carrying a single fetus have been studied. These women had no risk factors, with both clinical and analytical controls, as well as ultrasound scans, all being normal. There were performed a total of 193 Doppler ultrasound scans between weeks 15 and 41 of gestation, with blood-flow analysis in the arteries and vein of the umbilical cord. The obtained information was correlated with parameters that evaluate fetal well-being (fetal monitoring and/or oxytocin test) and perinatal result (delivery type, birth weight, Apgar score). Statistical analysis was performed with the programs SPSS 6.0.1 for Windows and EPIINFO 6.0.4. With pulsed Doppler, the umbilical artery in all cases demonstrated a biphasic morphology with systolic and diastolic components and without retrograde blood flow. As the gestation period increased, there was observed a progressive decrease in resistance along with an increase in blood-flow velocity during the diastolic phase. The Doppler ultrasound scan is a non-invasive method that permits the hemodynamic study of umbilical blood circulation. A knowledge of normal blood-flow signal morphology, as well as of the normal values for Doppler indices in relation to gestational age would permit us to utilize this method in high-risk pregnancies. (Author) 30 refs.

  17. Normal standards for kidney length as measured with US in premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Hedlund, G.L.; Pierson, W.P.; Null, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to develop normal standards for kidney length in premature infants, the authors measured kidney length by US imaging in 39 (to date) premature infants less than 72 hours old and without known renal disease. Kidney length was compared with four different parameters of body size, including gestational age, birth weight, birth length, and body surface area. Similar standards have been generated previously for normal renal length as measured by US imaging in full-term infants and older children. These standards have proven utility in cases of congenital and acquired disorders that abnormally increase or decrease renal size. Scatter plots of kidney length versus body weight and kidney length versus body surface area conformed well to a logarithmic distribution, with a high correlation coefficient and close-fitting 95% confidence limits (SEE = 2.05)

  18. Cervical length at 23 weeks' gestation - relation to demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significance of differences in median cervical lengths between subgroups was calculated according to maternal age, ethnic origin, maternal body mass ... and mortality worldwide, with major health care and economic consequences.u In South ...

  19. A STUDY OF CORRELATION OF FOOT LENGTH AND GESTATIONAL MATURITY IN NEONATES

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    M. Bhuvaneswari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gestational age estimation at birth can be done by clinical estimation through careful history of LMP, ultrasonic estimation of gestational age, date of first recorded foetal activity “quickening” first felt at approximately 16-18 weeks, Date of first recorded foetal heart sounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study sample of 800 live newborns were selected by simple random sampling technique born at GVR hospital and Government General Hospital, Kurnool from April 2015 to May 2016. Data was collected using standard proforma meeting the objectives of the study. a Gestational age assessment was done using modified Bellard’s score and b Foot length was measured using sliding calipers which is having an accuracy of a millimeter. Following instruments are used: 1 Sliding calipers for measuring foot length, 2 Flexible, non-stretchable measuring tape for head circumference, 3 Infantometer for measuring crown heel length, 4 Electronic weighing scale for measuring weight. RESULTS The foot length of preterm neonates ranged from 4.5-7.8 cm with the mean foot length of 6.1571 cm and 6.6964 cm for preterm SGA and AGA, respectively. The foot length of term neonates ranged from 5.4-8.7 cm with a mean foot length of 7.0471 cm, 7.5703 cm, 8.0391 cm for term SGA, AGA, LGA respectively. The foot length for post term neonates ranged from 6.7-8.8 cm, with a mean foot length of 7.5688 cm, 8.0170 cm and 8.2667 cm for post term SGA, AGA and LGA, respectively. This shows that foot length increases as the gestational age increases. CONCLUSION Foot length can be correlated significantly with the gestational age, birth weight, head circumference and crown heel length.

  20. Declines in Birth weight and Fetal Growth Independent of Gestational Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Esplin, M. Sean; Varner, Michael W.; Henry, Erick; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Objective Birth weight is decreasing in the US and elsewhere, even among term singletons, although trends in most maternal characteristics should contribute to increased birth weight. Some studies have attributed this decline to the simultaneous decrease in gestational length. Methods Using data from Intermountain Healthcare, where a successful initiative reduced the number of early term (37–38 week) elective deliveries, we examined trends in birth weight, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) among 219,694 singleton infants born July 2000 to December 2008 at 37–41 weeks gestation. Results Over the 8.5 years, births through scheduled deliveries at 37–38 weeks decreased (9.4% to 4.4%), but overall scheduled deliveries increased (29% to 34%) and mean gestational age at birth (39.1 weeks) did not change. Mean birth weight (3410g to 3383g) and LGA (9.0% to 7.4%) both decreased, whereas SGA increased (7.5% to 8.2%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics, birth weight decreased (36g; 95% CI: 31, 42), especially among infants born at 37–38 weeks (40g; 30, 49) or that had medical indications for urgent deliveries (48g; 34, 63). Odds of LGA decreased (0.84; 0.80, 0.88) and odds of SGA increased (1.14; 1.08, 1.20). Conclusion Even in a population where gestation length did not change, birth weight and fetal growth declined. Decrease in not only gestational length but in fetal growth as well is likely to be contributing to the widely observed recent decrease in birth weight. PMID:23262927

  1. Fish intake during pregnancy, fetal growth, and gestational length in 19 European birth cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Martinez, David; Barros, Henrique; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Casas, Maribel; Charles, Marie Aline; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Van Eijsden, Manon; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Govarts, Eva; Halldórsson, Thorhallur I.; Hanke, Wojciech; Haugen, Margaretha; Heppe, Denise H M; Heude, Barbara; Inskip, Hazel M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Jansen, Maria; Kelleher, Cecily; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Merletti, Franco; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Mommers, Monique; Murcia, Mario; Oliveira, Andreia; Olsen, Sjúrour F.; Pele, Fabienne; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Robinson, Siân M.; Stigum, Hein; Strøm, Marin; Sunyer, Jordi; Thijs, Carel; Viljoen, Karien; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet H.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Vrijheid, Martine; Chatzi, Leda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fish is a rich source of essential nutrients for fetal development, but in contrast, it is also a well-known route of exposure to environmental pollutants. Objective: We assessed whether fish intake during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth and the length of gestation in a panel

  2. Maternal height and length of gestation: does this impact on preterm labour in Asian women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ben Chong-Pun; Lao, Terence Tzu-Hsi

    2009-08-01

    Both maternal height and ethnicity may influence the gestation length, but their independent effect is unclear. This study was performed to examine the relationship between maternal height and gestational length in women with singleton pregnancies in a Chinese and southeast Asian population. A retrospective cohort study was performed on women carrying singleton pregnancies with spontaneous labour in a 48-month period managed under our department to determine the relationship between maternal height, expressed in quartiles, with the mean gestational age and incidence of preterm labour. Of the 16 384 women who delivered within this period, the 25th, 50th and 75th percentile values of maternal height were 153 cm, 156 cm and 160 cm respectively. Excluded from analysis were 6597 women because of multifetal pregnancy, teenage pregnancy (maternal age women with shorter stature. In our population, maternal height has an influence on gestational length, and the lower three quartiles was associated with increased odds of labour at > 32 to management and intervention.

  3. Telomere length in normal and neoplastic canine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadile, Casey D; Kitchell, Barbara E; Newman, Rebecca G; Biller, Barbara J; Hetler, Elizabeth R

    2007-12-01

    To determine the mean telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length in normal and neoplastic canine tissues. 57 solid-tissue tumor specimens collected from client-owned dogs, 40 samples of normal tissue collected from 12 clinically normal dogs, and blood samples collected from 4 healthy blood donor dogs. Tumor specimens were collected from client-owned dogs during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures at the University of Illinois Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, whereas 40 normal tissue samples were collected from 12 control dogs. Telomere restriction fragment length was determined by use of an assay kit. A histologic diagnosis was provided for each tumor by personnel at the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Illinois. Mean of the mean TRF length for 44 normal samples was 19.0 kilobases (kb; range, 15.4 to 21.4 kb), and the mean of the mean TRF length for 57 malignant tumors was 19.0 kb (range, 12.9 to 23.5 kb). Although the mean of the mean TRF length for tumors and normal tissues was identical, tumor samples had more variability in TRF length. Telomerase, which represents the main mechanism by which cancer cells achieve immortality, is an attractive therapeutic target. The ability to measure telomere length is crucial to monitoring the efficacy of telomerase inhibition. In contrast to many other mammalian species, the length of canine telomeres and the rate of telomeric DNA loss are similar to those reported in humans, making dogs a compelling choice for use in the study of human anti-telomerase strategies.

  4. Genetic and environmental causes of variation in gestation length of Jersey crossbred cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Anshuman; Mandal, Ajoy; Gupta, A. K.; Ratwan, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors and estimate the genetic parameter for gestation length (GL) of Jersey crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The data included the 986 parturition records on Jersey crossbred cattle maintained at the Eastern Regional Station of ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Kalyani, West Bengal, India during 36 years (1978-2013). The data were analyzed applying mixed model least square technique c...

  5. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  6. Intrauterine position affects fetal weight and crown-rump length throughout gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y D; Ma, Y L; Lindemann, M D

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of intrauterine positions on fetal growth throughout gestation, data from a total of 65 gilts (n = 784 fetuses) that were slaughtered at assigned days of gestation (d 43, 58, 73, 91, 101, and 108) on a project to evaluate fetal mineral deposition were used. Placenta units were removed from the uterus, and position, sex, weight, and crown-rump length (CRL) of each fetus were recorded. Fetuses were classified into 5 categories within a uterine horn for the absolute intrauterine position: the ovarian end (OE) of the uterine horn, next to the ovarian end (NOE), the middle (MD), next to the cervical end (NCE), and the cervical end (CE), and also classified for the relative fetal position with respect to the sex of adjacent fetuses. Fetuses at the OE and NOE of the uterine horn tended to be heavier (P = 0.06) and longer (P sex (fetuses surrounded by the opposite sexes) in weight or length. Male fetuses were heavier than female fetuses at d 43, 58, 73, and 108 of gestation (P position affects fetal growth more than the sex of the adjacent fetus in the uterine horn, 2) each end of the uterine horn (OE and CE) has heavier fetuses than the MD, and 3) male pigs grow faster than female pigs even before birth.

  7. The Effect of Gestational Age on Axial Length of the Eyes of Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the axial length of the eyes of premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity and to document the relationship with gestational age and changes as infants grew-up. Material and Method: The axial length of the eyes were measured by using a mobile A-scan ultrasonographic biometry device just before the first retinopathy of prematurity screening examination and 4-weeks thereafter. Results: One-hundred and thirty-six infants with a mean gestational age of 31,7±2,7 weeks and a birth-weight of 1561.0±379.3 g were included in the study. Axial length measurements were done at a mean postconceptional age of 35.8 ±2.6 (31-40 and 39.8±2.7 (35-44 weeks, consecutively. The mean axial length at first and second visits were 16.43±0.42 mm (15.28-17.13 and 16.69±0.41 mm (15.60-17.70, consecutively (p

  8. Effects of physical activity during pregnancy and gestational weight gain on newborn weight and length at birth in Warmińsko-Mazurskie province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłowicz, Katarzyna; Przybyłowicz, Mariusz; Grzybiak, Marek; Janiszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological research has identified a relationship between maternal physical activity, early nutrition and infant birth weight with likelihood of developing future diseases. The aim of the study was to determine a relationship between gestational weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy to the nutritional status of newborns. The presented study was conducted in the period from February 2010 until November 2012 in the gynecological and obstetric clinics in Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeship with various levels of reference. The research subjects included 510 women in the puerperal period aged 18-36. The scope of the research included an assessment of the selected anthropometric parameters of both pregnant women (body mass, height, BMI, gestational weight gain) and newborns (infant birth weight, infant length, Ponderal Index), as well as an analysis of the connections between the gestational weight gain, physical activity during pregnancy and anthropometric parameters of newborns. In the study group there was a significant percentage of women characterised by an inactive lifestyle and excessive gestational weight gain. There were significantly higher neonatal birth anthropometric parameters in women with abnormal excessive gestational weight gain than in women with normal and inappropriate - low gestational weight gain. The highest percentage of women with appropriate weight gain was observed in the group of women who are physically active, although this requires confirmation in larger population. Our studies have not shown statistically significant differences between the gestational weight gain and nutritional status of newborns in relation to the level of physical activity of pregnant women.

  9. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation: combined analysis of 13 European birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David; Barros, Henrique; Bonde, Jens Peter; Burdorf, Alex; Costet, Nathalie; dos Santos, Ana Cristina; Danileviciute, Asta; Eggesbø, Merete; Fernandez, Mariana; Fevotte, Joelle; García, Ana M.; Gražuleviciene, Regina; Hallner, Eva; Hanke, Wojciech; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kull, Inger; Stemann Larsen, Pernille; Melaki, Vasiliki; Monfort, Christine; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Patelarou, Evridiki; Polanska, Kinga; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Santa Marina, Loreto; Snijder, Claudia; Tardón, Adonina; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Zugna, Daniela; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design. We used data

  10. Sonographic Measurement of Normal Splenic Length in Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Bum; Cheon, Byung Kook; Kim, Jong Min; Oh, Kyung Seoung; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To establish upper limit of normal splenic length of Korean adults on ultrasonography and to determice the degree of interobserver and intraobserver variation. Ultrasonographic scans were performed to measure the maximum length of spleen in 105 of 150 adults selected by convenience sampling. Remained 45 cases with any conditions that could alter splenic size were excluded from this study. The maximum length of spleen was measured and correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight, age and sex. In 31 of the 105 adults we evaluated the interobserver and intraobserver variations in sonographic measurements of splenic length obtained by three radiologists in blind fashion. The mean splenic length in 105 adults was 8.56cm ({+-} 0.95). The splenic length positively correlated with body surface area, patient height and weight (P <0.001), and negatively correlated with patient age (P < 0.01). Male spleen (8.87 cm {+-} 1.07) was longer than female spleen (8.35 cm {+-} 0.81) (P < 0.05). The following guidelines are proposed for the upper limit of normal splenic length at different groups of body surface area: no longer than 10 cm at 1.20{approx}1.59 m{sup 2}, 11 cm at1.60{approx}1.79 m{sup 2}, and 12 cm at 1.80{approx}1.99 m{sup 2}. The mean interobserver variation between any two radiologists ranged from 0.32 cm ({+-} 0.29) to 0.39 cm ({+-} 0.33) and interobserver variations were within 1 cm in 96%. The mean intraobserver variations were within 0.5 cm in 91%. The splenic length closely correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight and age. Particularly the upper limit of normal splenic length changed according to body surface area. Interobserver variation about 1 cm and intraobserver variation about 0.5 cm should be considered in the measurement of the splenic length on ultrasonography

  11. Second trimester cervical length and risk of preterm birth in women with twin gestations treated with 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Durnwald, Celeste P

    2010-12-01

    To compare rates of preterm birth before 35 weeks based on cervical length measurement at 16-20 weeks in women with twin gestations who received 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) or placebo.

  12. Comparison of Serum Homocystein and Folic Acid Levels in Gestational Diabetes with Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Movahed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: High levels of homocystein are a risk factor for insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and cardio-vascular complications. This study was done to assess serum homocystein and folic acid levels and their relationship in women with gestational diabetes and compare them with normal pregnant women. Materials & Methods: This analytic epidemiologic case-control study was performed in Qazvin Kosar hospital in 2013-2015. 120 singleton pregnant women with 24-28 weeks of gestation according to 2-hour 75g oral glucose tolerance test were assigned to two groups; gestational diabetes (n=60, and normal pregnancy (n=60. Serum homocystein and folic acid levels were measured in two groups. Data were analyzed with statistical t-test and correlation method. Results: In gestational diabetes serum homocystein level was significantly higher (P<0.001 and folic acid was significantly lower (P<0.001 than normal pregnancy group .No relation-ship was observed between serum homocystein and serum folate. In both groups, serum folic acid was significantly related to fasting blood sugar. This relationship was inverse in gesta-tional diabetes group (P<0.001, r = - 0.512 and direct in normal pregnancy group (P=0.001 r =0.417. Conclusion: It seems folic acid has a role in regulation of serum homocystein level and blood sugar.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 93-98

  13. Association of newborn diseases with weight/length ratio and the adequacy of weight for gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the frequencies of newborn diseases in thosenewborns classified according to a weight/length rate and thoseclassified by the adequacy weight for gestational age. Methods: Aretrospective cross-sectional study by record assessment was carriedout enclosing all the live newborns at Hospital Geral do Grajaú, fromSeptember to December, 2009 (n =577 classified according to therate weight/length and also to the adequacy weight for gestationalage. The 10 and 90 percentiles of the weight/length distribution, nowdesignated as “indices” were calculated leading to the followingclassification: low index, for newborns below 54.8 g/cm; high index,for those over 75.8 g/cm; and average index, for the remainingnewborns. According to the adequacy weight for gestational age thenewborns were designated as pre-term for gestational age; term smallfor gestational age; appropriate term and large term. In this samplethere were no small and large pre-term or post-term newborns. Majordiseases were related to the index and adequacy extracts by the χ2test for a contingency table. Results: A significant association wasfound among low index, pre-term for gestational age newborns andterm small for gestational age; between average index and appropriatefor gestational age term newborns; and high index with large termappropriate for gestational age newborns (p< 0.001. Hypoglycemia(3.4% was associated to both low and high indices, to appropriatefor gestational age preterm newborns and to small for gestational ageterm newborns. Sepsis (3.1% was associated to both low index andpre-term appropriate for gestational age newborns. The respiratorydistress syndrome (1.3% was associated to low index and pre-termappropriate for gestational age newborns. Other respiratory distresssyndromes (3.8% were associated to low and high indices but notto the adequacy for gestational age classification. Jaundice (14.9%was not associated to the studied classifications

  14. Is sonographically measured cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation associated with intrapartum cesarean section? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Bradley; Narayan, Rajit; McGeechan, Kevin; Santiagu, Stanley; Vairavan, Ramesh; Burke, Minke; Phipps, Hala; Hyett, Jon

    2018-02-16

    Cesarean section rates continue to increase globally. Prediction of intrapartum cesarean section could lead to preventive measures. Our aim was to assess the association between sonographically measured cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation and cesarean section among women planning a vaginal birth. The population was women with a low-risk pregnancy or with gestational diabetes. This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. In all, 212 women with a low-risk pregnancy or with gestational diabetes were recruited including 158 nulliparous and 54 parous women. Maternal demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics were collected at 37 weeks of gestation. Semi-Bayesian logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation were used to assess the relationship between cervical length and cesarean section in labor. Rates of cesarean section were 5% (2/55) for cervical length ≤20 mm, 17% (17/101) for cervical length 20-32 mm, and 27% (13/56) for cervical length >32 mm. These rates were 4, 22 and 33%, respectively, in nulliparous women. In the semi-Bayesian analysis, the odds ratio for cesarean section was 6.2 (95% confidence interval 2.2-43) for cervical length 20-32 mm and 10 (95% confidence interval 4.8-74) for cervical length >32 mm compared with the lowest quartile of cervical length, after adjusting for maternal age, parity, height, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational diabetes, induction of labor, neonatal sex and birthweight centile. Cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation is associated with intrapartum cesarean section. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging: brain normal linear biometric values below 24 gestational weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazzini, C.; Righini, A.; Triulzi, F.; Rustico, M.; Consonni, D.

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently used to measure quantitative data concerning brain structural development. At present, morphometric MR imaging studies have been focused mostly on the third trimester of gestational age. However, in many countries, because of legal restriction on abortion timing, the majority of MR imaging fetal examination has to be carried out during the last part of the second trimester of pregnancy (i.e., before the 24th week of gestation). Accurate and reliable normative data of the brain between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation is not available. This report provides easy and practical parametric support to assess those normative data. From a database of 1,200 fetal MR imaging studies, we retrospectively selected 84 studies of the brain of fetuses aged 20-24 weeks of gestation that resulted normal on clinical and radiological follow-up. Fetuses with proved or suspected infections, twin pregnancy, and fetuses of mothers affected by pathology that might have influenced fetal growth were excluded. Linear biometrical measurements of the main cerebral structures were obtained by three experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. A substantial interobserver agreement for each measurements was reached, and normative data with median, maximum, and minimum value were obtained for brain structures. The knowledge of a range of normality and interindividual variability of linear biometrical values for the developing brain between 20th and 24th weeks of gestation may be valuable in assessing normal brain development in clinical settings. (orig.)

  16. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging: brain normal linear biometric values below 24 gestational weeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazzini, C.; Righini, A.; Triulzi, F. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Rustico, M. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Milan (Italy); Consonni, D. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Unit of Epidemiology, Milan (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently used to measure quantitative data concerning brain structural development. At present, morphometric MR imaging studies have been focused mostly on the third trimester of gestational age. However, in many countries, because of legal restriction on abortion timing, the majority of MR imaging fetal examination has to be carried out during the last part of the second trimester of pregnancy (i.e., before the 24th week of gestation). Accurate and reliable normative data of the brain between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation is not available. This report provides easy and practical parametric support to assess those normative data. From a database of 1,200 fetal MR imaging studies, we retrospectively selected 84 studies of the brain of fetuses aged 20-24 weeks of gestation that resulted normal on clinical and radiological follow-up. Fetuses with proved or suspected infections, twin pregnancy, and fetuses of mothers affected by pathology that might have influenced fetal growth were excluded. Linear biometrical measurements of the main cerebral structures were obtained by three experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. A substantial interobserver agreement for each measurements was reached, and normative data with median, maximum, and minimum value were obtained for brain structures. The knowledge of a range of normality and interindividual variability of linear biometrical values for the developing brain between 20th and 24th weeks of gestation may be valuable in assessing normal brain development in clinical settings. (orig.)

  17. Amniotic Fluid Arginine from Gestational Weeks 13 to 15 Is a Predictor of Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bjørke-Jenssen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later pregnancy is reported to increase birth weight. We measured arginine and the metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA in the amniotic fluid obtained in pregnancy weeks 13 to 15 from 363 pregnancies with a documented normal outcome and related the concentrations to birth weight, length, and head circumference. Arginine was higher in the amniotic fluid from female (mean 40.8 (SD 10.6 µmol/L compared to male fetuses (37.4 (SD 11.2 µmol/L, p = 0.003. Despite the gender difference, arginine in the amniotic fluid from gestational weeks 13–15 was the strongest predictor for birth weight, length, and head circumference. ADMA was a strong predictor for birth weight and length, SDMA for birth weight, while Arg/ADMA and Arg/SDMA only predicted head circumference in multiple linear regression models. Due to increased arginine demands, pregnancy is considered a state of relative arginine deficiency. Our findings reflect the importance of a good maternal arginine status in early pregnancy, an observation that should be evaluated in an intervention study.

  18. Fish intake during pregnancy, fetal growth, and gestational length in 19 European birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Martinez, David; Barros, Henrique; Brantsaeter, Anne-Lise; Casas, Maribel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; van Eijsden, Manon; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Govarts, Eva; Halldórsson, Thorhallur I; Hanke, Wojciech; Haugen, Margaretha; Heppe, Denise H M; Heude, Barbara; Inskip, Hazel M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Jansen, Maria; Kelleher, Cecily; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Merletti, Franco; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Mommers, Monique; Murcia, Mario; Oliveira, Andreia; Olsen, Sjúrður F; Pele, Fabienne; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Robinson, Siân M; Stigum, Hein; Strøm, Marin; Sunyer, Jordi; Thijs, Carel; Viljoen, Karien; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet H; Kogevinas, Manolis; Vrijheid, Martine; Chatzi, Leda

    2014-03-01

    Fish is a rich source of essential nutrients for fetal development, but in contrast, it is also a well-known route of exposure to environmental pollutants. We assessed whether fish intake during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth and the length of gestation in a panel of European birth cohort studies. The study sample of 151,880 mother-child pairs was derived from 19 population-based European birth cohort studies. Individual data from cohorts were pooled and harmonized. Adjusted cohort-specific effect estimates were combined by using a random- and fixed-effects meta-analysis. Women who ate fish >1 time/wk during pregnancy had lower risk of preterm birth than did women who rarely ate fish (≤ 1 time/wk); the adjusted RR of fish intake >1 but 1 but <3 times/wk and 15.2 g (95% CI: 8.9, 21.5 g) for ≥ 3 times/wk independent of gestational age. The association was greater in smokers and in overweight or obese women. Findings were consistent across cohorts. This large, international study indicates that moderate fish intake during pregnancy is associated with lower risk of preterm birth and a small but significant increase in birth weight.

  19. Gender mix in twins and fetal growth, length of gestation and adult cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Barbara; Hediger, Mary; Min, Sung-Joon; Brown, Morton B; Misiunas, Ruta B; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor Hugo; Nugent, Clark; Witter, Frank R; Newman, Roger B; Hankins, Gary D V; Grainger, David A; Macones, George A

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gender mix (the gender combinations of twin pairs) on fetal growth and length of gestation, and reviewed the literature on the long-term effects of this altered fetal milieu on cancer risk. In singletons, it is well established that females weigh less than males at all gestations, averaging 125-135 g less at full term. This gender difference is generally believed to be the result of the effect of androgens on fetal growth. The gender difference in fetal growth is greater before the third trimester and less towards term, with males growing not only more, but also earlier than females. Plurality is a known risk factor for reduced fetal growth and birthweight. Compared with singletons, the mean birthweight percentiles of twins fall substantially (by 10% or more) below the singleton 10th percentile by 28 weeks, below the singleton 50th percentile by 30 weeks, and below the singleton 90th percentile by 34 weeks. In unlike-gender twin pairs, it has been reported that the female prolongs gestation for her brother, resulting in a higher birthweight for the male twin than that of like-gender male twins. Other researchers have demonstrated that females in unlike-gender pairs had higher birthweights than females in like-gender pairs. Analyses from our consortium on 2491 twin pregnancies with known chorionicity showed longer gestations and faster rates of fetal growth in both males and females in unlike-gender pairs compared with like-gender male or female pairs, although these differences were not statistically significant. The post-natal effects for females growing in an androgenic-anabolic environment include increased sensation-seeking behaviour and aggression, lowered visual acuity, more masculine attitudes and masculinising effects of the auditory system and craniofacial growth. In contrast, there is no evidence to suggest that there might be a similar feminising effect on males from unlike-gender pairs. This hormonal exposure in utero

  20. Measurement of the uterus and gestation sac by ultrasound in early normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, M; Evans, L J; Duff, G B

    1981-01-14

    Uterine volumes measured by two different ultrasonic methods, and gestation sac volumes in early normal pregnancy are reported. The results obtained for uterine volume measurements are compared. Methods using measurements obtained from only a longitudinal scan were simpler but slightly less accurate. Uterine volumes were also calculated in a series of patients with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. The accuracy of the prediction of the outcome of the pregnancy, based solely on uterine volume was 71 percent. Uterine volume measurement is most useful in identifying cases of missed abortion where the period of gestation is known.

  1. Determinants of gestation length in Thoroughbred mares on German stud farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Mareike; Lüders, Imke; Böröcz, Jozsef; Uphaus, Hubert; Distl, Ottmar; Sieme, Harald

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of stallion and mare, their ages, and maternal lineage on the gestation length (GL) in Thoroughbreds. In addition, additive genetic effects of the dam, stallion and fetus were analyzed. Data were taken from 1993 through 2009, and included 16,226 pregnancies from 5959 Th oroughbred mares mated with 290 different stallions. All analyses were performed using linear mixed models. The GL ranged from 306 to 390 days, with a mean length of 347.0 ± 14.4 days. Mating of mares with stallions aged 17 years and older resulted in a significantly longer GL compared to younger stallions. Furthermore, the GL significantly increased with the increasing age of the mares, and the GL was longer with male foals. The month and year of breeding, as well as the mare´s breeding history (parity and reproductive status) also affected GL. The mare and stallion themselves explained 18% and 4% of the variance in GL. Coefficients of inbreeding of mares and foals had no significant effect on GL. The heritability for the GL was 0.17 for the dam and 0.006 for the fetus, whereas an additive genetic paternal effect was not estimable. The relative proportions among the additive genetic and permanent environmental contributions of the dam were 76.5% and 23.5%. A maternal lineage effect was not obvious. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Sámano; Hugo Martínez-Rojano; Gabriela Chico-Barba; Estela Godínez-Martínez; Bernarda Sánchez-Jiménez; Diana Montiel-Ojeda; Maricruz Tolentino

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI). Objective: To determine the corr...

  3. Weight, length and head circumference standards based on a population of Danish newborn boys and girls in gestational weeks 25 to 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, M; Høst, A; Kamper, J

    1997-01-01

    Growth standards of birth weight, birth length and birth head circumference were constructed based on a population of Danish newborn boys and girls in gestational weeks twenty-five to forty-three. Study populations were residents of the municipality of Odense for later gestational ages and reside......Growth standards of birth weight, birth length and birth head circumference were constructed based on a population of Danish newborn boys and girls in gestational weeks twenty-five to forty-three. Study populations were residents of the municipality of Odense for later gestational ages...... and residents of the county of Funen for early gestational ages. Strict selection criteria were employed....

  4. Clinical significance of DVM and its prevalence in pre-gestational diabetes cases versus normal pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Akhlaghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pre-gestational diabetes mellitus affects less than 1% of all pregnancies and is a significant cause of fetal morbidity and mortality. It is hypothesized that impaired placental function, in the form of abnormal placental weight and/or abnormal placental histology, may be responsible for this event in such pregnancies. Delayed villous maturation of placental villi, which is one of the findings associated with pre-gestational diabetes increases the rate of perinatal mortality. There is limited literature regarding the delayed maturation of placental villous. This review included trials (randomized and non-randomized, cohort and case-control studies registered in Medline/PubMed database, from January 2001 to September 2012 that evaluated the clinical significance of delayed villous maturation and its prevalence in pre-gestational diabetic cases compared to normal pregnancies.It emphasizes that further studies with focus on possible clinical or ultrasound markers of placental delayed villous maturation, especially in a high risk-group such as women with pre-gestational diabetes mellitus are highly recommended.

  5. Genetic and environmental causes of variation in gestation length of Jersey crossbred cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors and estimate the genetic parameter for gestation length (GL of Jersey crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The data included the 986 parturition records on Jersey crossbred cattle maintained at the Eastern Regional Station of ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Kalyani, West Bengal, India during 36 years (1978-2013. The data were analyzed applying mixed model least square technique considering the fixed effects of genetic group, season of calving, period of calving, parity of animal, birth weight, and sex of calf born from animal. The effect of sire was included as a random effect in the model. Results: The genetic group of animal, season of calving, parity of animal, and birth weight of calf born were found to be a significant source of variation in the GL, whereas the period of calving and sex of calf did not affect this trait. Cows with 62.5% Jersey inheritance had the shortest and longest GLs, respectively. Cows calved in summer and rainy season had shorter GL than those calved in the winter season. Older cows in 4th parity carried calves for longer days than the cows in 1st parity. The increase in calf birth weight significantly (p<0.01 contributed to a linear increase in GL value in this study. The heritability estimate of GL was 0.24±0.08. Conclusion: It can be concluded that selection for lower GL without distressing future growth of calf can be used to reduce calving difficulty, but a very small standard deviation of GL limits the benefit. Moreover, more accurate prediction of calving date will help in better management and health care of pregnant animals.

  6. Spatial correlation length of normalized cone data in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Griffiths, D. V.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of this study is to assess the anisotropic spatial correlation lengths of a sand layer deposit based on cone penetration testing with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) data. Spatial correlation length can be an important factor in reliability analysis of geotechnical systems, yet it...

  7. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after spontaneous human chorionic gonadotropin normalization following molar pregnancy evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Antonio; Maestá, Izildinha; Matos, Michelle; Elias, Kevin M; Rizzo, Julianna; Viggiano, Maurício Guilherme Campos

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after spontaneous human chorionic gonadotropin normalization in postmolar follow-up. Retrospective chart review of 2284 consecutive cases of hydatidiform mole with spontaneous normalization of hCG following uterine evacuation treated at one of five Brazilian reference centers from January 2002 to June 2013. After hCG normalization, GTN occurred in 10/2284 patients (0.4%; 95% CI 0.2%-0.8%). GTN developed in 9/1424 patients (0.6%; 95% CI 0.3%-1.2%) after a complete hydatidiform mole, in 1/849 patients (0.1%; 95% CInormalization was 18months, and no diagnoses were made before six months of postmolar surveillance. Patients who required more than 56days to achieve a normal hCG value had a ten-fold increased risk of developing GTN after hCG normalization (9/1074; 0.8%; 95% CI 0.4%-1.6%) compared to those who reached a normal hCG level in fewer than 56days (1/1210;0.08%; 95% CInormalization following molar pregnancy is exceedingly rare, and the few patients who do develop GTN after achieving a normal hCG value are likely to be diagnosed after completing the commonly recommended six months of postmolar surveillance. Current recommendations for surveillance after hCG normalization should be revisited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Placental Oxidative Status throughout Normal Gestation in Women with Uncomplicated Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of gestational age on placental oxidative balance throughout gestation were investigated in women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Placental tissues were obtained from normal pregnant women who delivered at term or underwent elective pregnancy termination at 6 to 23 + 6 weeks of pregnancy. Placental tissues were analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC and lipid peroxide (malondialdehyde, MDA levels using commercially available kits. Two hundred and one placental tissues were analyzed and the mean ± SD MDA (pmol/mg tissue and TAC (µmol Trolox equivalent/mg tissue levels for first, second, and third trimester groups were 277.01 ± 204.66, 202.66 ± 185.05, and 176.97 ± 141.61, P < 0.004 and 498.62 ± 400.74, 454.90 ± 374.44, and 912.19 ± 586.21, P < 0.0001 by ANOVA, respectively. Our data reflects an increased oxidative stress in the placenta in the early phase of normal pregnancy. As pregnancy progressed, placental antioxidant protective mechanisms increased and lipid peroxidation markers decreased resulting in diminution in oxidative stress. Our findings provide a biochemical support to the concept of a hypoxic environment in early pregnancy. A decrease in placental oxidative stress in the second and third trimesters appears to be a physiological phenomenon of normal pregnancy. Deviations from this physiological phenomenon may result in placental-mediated disorders.

  9. Delayed lactogenesis II secondary to gestational ovarian theca lutein cysts in two normal singleton pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Kathleen L; Barbalinardo, Laurie H; Platia, Maria Pia

    2002-08-01

    Hyperreactio luteinalis is an unusual condition in which, during pregnancy, both ovaries are enlarged by multiple theca lutein cysts that produce a high level of testosterone. Several weeks postpartum, the cysts resolve and testosterone level returns to normal. Two case studies are presented in which mothers with gestational ovarian theca lutein cysts experienced delayed lactogenesis II. The elevated testosterone at the time of birth suppressed milk production. Once the testosterone level dropped to approximately 300 ng/dL, milk production began. After the initial delay, both mothers breastfed their infants without supplementation.

  10. Ocular axial length measurement among normal adults using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , as visual compromise is a major consequence if they are not diagnosed and managed appropriately. Aim and Objectives: To use magnetic resonance imaging, to determine the normal AL of the eyeball and to establish the association, if any, ...

  11. Gestational length in Carthusian broodmares: effects of breeding season, foal gender, age of mare, year of parturition, parity and sire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satué, K; Felipe, M; Mota, J; Muñoz, A

    2011-01-01

    The length of gestation in Carthusian broodmares was calculated on the basis of 339 spontaneous full-term deliveries taking place in the 8-year period 1998-2005 from 158 broodmares and 29 stallions in a major farm of Spanish horses of Carthusian strain in southern Spain. Ultrasonography was used to determine follicular dehiscence, 1st day of pregnancy and to confirm conception in mares. Mean GL was 332.4 +/- 12.1 days, and a normal interval of 297-358 days was established for this breed. GL records were grouped on the basis of foal sex (colts or fillies), mating month (between November and January; February and April; May and July), age of the mare (4 to 7 years; 8 to 12 years; 13 to 17 years), breeding year, stallion and parity (primiparous vs. multiparous). GLs were 12.9 days shorter in mares mated between May and July than those mated between November and January and 15.3 days in mares mated between February and April (p < 0.001). Mares aged between 8-12 years had 5.3 days shorter GLs than those aged between 13-17 years (p < 0.05). Pregnancy was significantly 5.7 days longer when the mare gave birth to colts than fillies (p < 0.05). GL was 14.5 days longer in primiparous than in multiparous mares ( p < 0.001). No statistical differences in GL were found between the studied years. This study shows the influence of certain stallion on GL.

  12. Low-Normal FMR1 CGG Repeat Length: Phenotypic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha eMailick

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This population-based study investigates genotype-phenotype correlations of low-normal CGG repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene. FMR1 plays an important role in brain development and function, and encodes FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein, an RNA-binding protein that regulates protein synthesis impacting activity-dependent synaptic development and plasticity. Most past research has focused on CGG premutation expansions (41 to 200 CGG repeats and on fragile X syndrome (200+ CGG repeats, with considerably less attention on the other end of the spectrum of CGG repeats. Using existing data, older adults with 23 or fewer CGG repeats (2 SDs below the mean were compared with age-peers who have normal numbers of CGGs (24-40 with respect to cognition, mental health, cancer, and having children with disabilities. Men (n = 341 with an allele in the low-normal range and women (n = 46 with two low-normal alleles had significantly more difficulty with their memory and ability to solve day to day problems. Women with both FMR1 alleles in the low-normal category had significantly elevated odds of feeling that they need to drink more to get the same effect as in the past. These women also had two and one-half times the odds of having had breast cancer and four times the odds of uterine cancer. Men and women with low-normal CGGs had higher odds of having a child with a disability, either a developmental disability or a mental health condition. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that there is a need for tight neuronal homeostatic control mechanisms for optimal cognitive and behavioral functioning, and more generally that low numbers as well as high numbers of CGG repeats may be problematic for health.

  13. Bayesian inference of genetic parameters on litter size and gestation length in Hungarian Landrace and Hungarian Large White pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Csörnyei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters of number of piglets born alive (NBA and gestation length (GL were analyzed for 39798 Hungarian Landrace (HLA, 141397 records and 70356 Hungarian Large White (HLW, 246961 records sows. Bivariate repeatability animal models were used, applying a Bayesian statistics. Estimated and heritabilitie repeatabilities (within brackets, were low for NBA, 0.07 (0.14 for HLA and 0.08 (0.17 for HLW, but somewhat higher for GL, 0.18 (0.27 for HLA and 0.26 (0.35 for HLW. Estimated genetic correlations between NBA and GL were low, -0.08 for HLA and -0.05 for HLW.

  14. Gestational age and birth weight centiles of singleton babies delivered normally following spontaneous labor, in Southern Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanayake, K; Munasinghe, S; Goonewardene, M; Widanapathirana, P; Sandeepani, I; Sanjeewa, L

    2018-03-31

    To estimate the gestational age and birth weight centiles of babies delivered normally, without any obstetric intervention, in women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies establishing spontaneous onset of labour. Consecutive women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies, attending the Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of the Teaching Hospital Mahamodara Galle, Sri Lanka, with confirmed dates and establishing spontaneous onset of labor and delivering vaginally between gestational age of 34 - 41 weeks, without any obstetric intervention , during the period September 2013 to February 2014 were studied. The gestational age at spontaneous onset of labor and vaginal delivery and the birth weights of the babies were recorded. There were 3294 consecutive deliveries during this period, and of them 1602 (48.6%) met the inclusion criteria. Median gestational age at delivery was 275 days (range 238-291 days, IQR 269 to 280 days) and the median birth weight was 3000 g (range1700g - 4350g; IQR 2750-3250g). The 10th, 50th and 90th birth weight centiles of the babies delivered at a gestational age of 275 days were approximately 2570g, 3050g and 3550g respectively. The median gestational age among women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies who established spontaneous onset of labor and delivered vaginally, without any obstetric intervention, was approximately five days shorter than the traditionally accepted 280 days. At a gestational age of 275 days, the mean birth weight was approximately 3038g and the 50th centile of the birth weight of the babies delivered was approximately 3050g.

  15. Relationship between hamstring length and gluteus maximus strength with and without normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the relationship between hamstring length and gluteus maximus (GM) strength with and without normalization by body weight and height. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 34 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. To measure GM strength, subjects performed maximal hip joint extension with the knee joints flexed to 90° in the prone position. GM strength was normalized for body weight and height. [Results] GM strength with normalization was positively correlated with hamstring length, whereas GM strength without normalization was negatively correlated with hamstring length. [Conclusion] The normalization of GM strength by body weight and height has the potential to lead to more appropriate conclusions and interpretations about its correlation with hamstring length. Hamstring length may be related to GM strength.

  16. Higher pre-pregnancy body mass index is associated with excessive gestational weight gain in normal weight Chinese mothers with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wei, Qiong; Yu, Hong; Wang, Pin; Xia, Wenqing; Huang, Rong; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Haixia; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-05-01

    To assess how pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) affects pregnancy outcome and total gestational weight gain (GWG) in a cohort of women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Pregnant women at 24-28 gestational weeks diagnosed with GDM were classified as normal weight (pre-pregnancy BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) ) or overweight (pre-pregnancy BMI, 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2) ). GWG was derived from the self-reported pre-pregnancy and pre-delivery weights, and analyzed using 2009 Institute of Medicine categories. A total of 106 GDM women were categorized as normal weight (n = 79) or overweight (n = 27). No statistically significant differences were found between the groups in terms of various obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. Higher pre-pregnancy BMI, however, was associated with excessive GWG during pregnancy (difference between groups, P = 0.013). Furthermore, pre-pregnancy BMI (OR, 0.529; 95%CI: 0.377-0.742; P = 0.000) and pre-pregnancy overweight (OR, 3.825; 95%CI: 1.469-9.959; P = 0.006) were independent factors of GWG. Among Chinese GDM women, overweight GDM mothers gain excessive weight during pregnancy. Regulation of pre-pregnancy bodyweight might be an appropriate precaution against excessive GWG. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. DHA supplementation was compared to nutrition education to increase DHA consumption from fish and DHA fortified foods. Design. This two-part intervention included a randomized double-blind placebo controlled DHA supplementation arm and a nutrition education arm designed to increase intake of DHA from dietary sources by 300 mg per day. Setting. Denver Health Hospitals and Clinics, Denver, Colorado, USA. Population. 871 pregnant women aged 18–40 were recruited between16 and 20 weeks of gestation of whom 564 completed the study and complete delivery data was available in 505 women and infants. Methods. Subjects received either 300 or 600 mg DHA or olive oil placebo or nutrition education. Main Outcome Variable. Gestational length. Results. Gestational length was significantly increased by 4.0–4.5 days in women supplemented with 600 mg DHA per day or provided with nutrition education. Each 1% increase in RBC DHA at delivery was associated with a 1.6-day increase in gestational length. No significant effects on birth weight, birth length, or head circumference were demonstrated. The rate of early preterm birth (1.7% in those supplemented with DHA (combined 300 and 600 mg/day was significantly lower than in controls. Conclusion. Nutrition education or supplementation with DHA can be effective in increasing gestational length.

  18. On the normalization of the minimum free energy of RNAs by sequence length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Trotta

    Full Text Available The minimum free energy (MFE of ribonucleic acids (RNAs increases at an apparent linear rate with sequence length. Simple indices, obtained by dividing the MFE by the number of nucleotides, have been used for a direct comparison of the folding stability of RNAs of various sizes. Although this normalization procedure has been used in several studies, the relationship between normalized MFE and length has not yet been investigated in detail. Here, we demonstrate that the variation of MFE with sequence length is not linear and is significantly biased by the mathematical formula used for the normalization procedure. For this reason, the normalized MFEs strongly decrease as hyperbolic functions of length and produce unreliable results when applied for the comparison of sequences with different sizes. We also propose a simple modification of the normalization formula that corrects the bias enabling the use of the normalized MFE for RNAs longer than 40 nt. Using the new corrected normalized index, we analyzed the folding free energies of different human RNA families showing that most of them present an average MFE density more negative than expected for a typical genomic sequence. Furthermore, we found that a well-defined and restricted range of MFE density characterizes each RNA family, suggesting the use of our corrected normalized index to improve RNA prediction algorithms. Finally, in coding and functional human RNAs the MFE density appears scarcely correlated with sequence length, consistent with a negligible role of thermodynamic stability demands in determining RNA size.

  19. On the normalization of the minimum free energy of RNAs by sequence length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    The minimum free energy (MFE) of ribonucleic acids (RNAs) increases at an apparent linear rate with sequence length. Simple indices, obtained by dividing the MFE by the number of nucleotides, have been used for a direct comparison of the folding stability of RNAs of various sizes. Although this normalization procedure has been used in several studies, the relationship between normalized MFE and length has not yet been investigated in detail. Here, we demonstrate that the variation of MFE with sequence length is not linear and is significantly biased by the mathematical formula used for the normalization procedure. For this reason, the normalized MFEs strongly decrease as hyperbolic functions of length and produce unreliable results when applied for the comparison of sequences with different sizes. We also propose a simple modification of the normalization formula that corrects the bias enabling the use of the normalized MFE for RNAs longer than 40 nt. Using the new corrected normalized index, we analyzed the folding free energies of different human RNA families showing that most of them present an average MFE density more negative than expected for a typical genomic sequence. Furthermore, we found that a well-defined and restricted range of MFE density characterizes each RNA family, suggesting the use of our corrected normalized index to improve RNA prediction algorithms. Finally, in coding and functional human RNAs the MFE density appears scarcely correlated with sequence length, consistent with a negligible role of thermodynamic stability demands in determining RNA size.

  20. Insulin receptor binding and tyrosine kinase activity in skeletal muscle from normal pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Handberg, A.; Kühl, C.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether the decreased glucose tolerance and insulin resistance found in normal and gestational diabetic pregnancy might be associated with changes in insulin receptor function. METHODS: Eight nonpregnant healthy women (nonpregnant controls), eight healthy pregnant women...... (pregnant controls), and eight women with gestational diabetes were investigated. All were non-obese. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle, and insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activities in partially purified skeletal muscle insulin receptors were studied. The pregnant controls...... with gestational diabetes compared to nonpregnant controls (P pregnant women did not differ from the other two groups. Postpartum, no differences in insulin binding were found between the groups. Basal and maximal tyrosine kinase activities toward the exogenous substrate poly(Glu4Tyr1) were...

  1. Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Birth Weight and Length of Gestation: A European Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Laura; Casas, Maribel; Garcia, Ana M.; Alexander, Jan; Barros, Henrique; Bergström, Anna; Bonde, Jens Peter; Burdorf, Alex; Costet, Nathalie; Danileviciute, Asta; Eggesbø, Merete; Fernández, Mariana F.; González-Galarzo, M. Carmen; Hanke, Wojciech; Jaddoe, Vincent; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kull, Inger; Lertxundi, Aitana; Melaki, Vasiliki; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olea, Nicolás; Polanska, Kinga; Rusconi, Franca; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Santos, Ana Cristina; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Zugna, Daniela; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Cordier, Sylvaine; Vrijheid, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women of reproductive age can be exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) at work, and exposure to EDCs in pregnancy may affect fetal growth. Objectives: We assessed whether maternal occupational exposure to EDCs during pregnancy as classified by application of a job exposure matrix was associated with birth weight, term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery. Methods: Using individual participant data from 133,957 mother–child pairs in 13 European cohorts spanning births from 1994 through 2011, we linked maternal job titles with exposure to 10 EDC groups as assessed through a job exposure matrix. For each group, we combined the two levels of exposure categories (possible and probable) and compared birth outcomes with the unexposed group (exposure unlikely). We performed meta-analyses of cohort-specific estimates. Results: Eleven percent of pregnant women were classified as exposed to EDCs at work during pregnancy, based on job title. Classification of exposure to one or more EDC group was associated with an increased risk of term LBW [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49], as were most specific EDC groups; this association was consistent across cohorts. Further, the risk increased with increasing number of EDC groups (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.06 for exposure to four or more EDC groups). There were few associations (p Olea N, Polanska K, Rusconi F, Santa-Marina L, Santos AC, Vrijkotte T, Zugna D, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Cordier S, Vrijheid M. 2016. Occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and birth weight and length of gestation: a European meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 124:1785–1793; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP208 PMID:27152464

  2. Effects of management in gestational diabetes mellitus with normal prepregnancy body mass index on pregnancy outcomes and placental ultrastructures: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yun; Zheng, Yan-Li; Wu, Ai-Min; Liu, Hong-Bin; Su, Jian-Bin; Lu, Xiao-Yan; Han, Yu-Wen; Ji, Jin-Long; Ji, Ju-Hua; Shi, Yue

    2016-12-01

    A great quantity of gestational diabetes mellitus with normal prepregnancy body mass index have emerged with the new criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus in China based on the International Diabetes in Pregnancy Consensus group criteria, and understanding placental changes and how they affect outcomes are necessary in order to develop effective management approach. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the effect of active management starting from the late second trimester in gestational diabetes mellitus women with normal prepregnancy body mass index on pregnancy outcomes and placental ultrastructures, and to provide scientific evidences for optimizing the management of gestational diabetes mellitus in China. Gestational diabetes mellitus women with normal prepregnancy body mass index in the same period of this prospective cohort study were divided into intervention group (n = 51) and control group (n = 55). The intervention group was managed rigorously, while the control group received conventional prenatal cares. The glucose profile, gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes were followed up and placental ultrastructures were observed and recorded by transmission electron microscopy. The blood glucose level and gestational weight gain in intervention group were significantly better controlled than those in control group (P gestational age were significantly lower in intervention group than in control group (P gestational age (P gestational diabetes mellitus women with normal prepregnancy body mass index can improve pregnancy outcomes and placental ultrastructures, and the abnormal placental ultrastructure might be closely associated with the undesirable glycemic control and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  3. Are gestational age, birth weight, and birth length indicators of favorable fetal growth conditions? A structural equation analysis of Filipino infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Kenneth A; Noble, Mark D; Adair, Linda S

    2013-07-30

    The fetal origins hypothesis emphasizes the life-long health impacts of prenatal conditions. Birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are indicators of the fetal environment. However, these variables often have missing data and are subject to random and systematic errors caused by delays in measurement, differences in measurement instruments, and human error. With data from the Cebu (Philippines) Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, we use structural equation models, to explore random and systematic errors in these birth outcome measures, to analyze how maternal characteristics relate to birth outcomes, and to take account of missing data. We assess whether birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are influenced by a single latent variable that we call favorable fetal growth conditions (FFGC) and if so, which variable is most closely related to FFGC. We find that a model with FFGC as a latent variable fits as well as a less parsimonious model that has birth weight, birth length, and gestational age as distinct individual variables. We also demonstrate that birth weight is more reliably measured than is gestational age. FFGCs were significantly influenced by taller maternal stature, better nutritional stores indexed by maternal arm fat and muscle area during pregnancy, higher birth order, avoidance of smoking, and maternal age 20-35 years. Effects of maternal characteristics on newborn weight, length, and gestational age were largely indirect, operating through FFGC. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Elevation in D-dimer concentrations is positively correlated with gestation in normal uncomplicated pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah ZA

    2012-08-01

    .36; P < 0.01 and negatively with international normalized ratio values (r = –0.281; P < 0.05. About 63.3% of the pregnant women had normal D-dimer values (0–200 ng/mL, 26.7% of the pregnant women had elevated D-dimer levels (201–499 ng/mL, while 10.0% of the pregnant women were found to be at risk of thrombosis (D-dimer > 500 ng/mL. A linear relationship was found to exist between D-dimer and gestation (y = 8.355x + 36.55; R2 = 0.130; P < 0.005.Conclusion: 10% of the pregnant women in this population had elevated D-dimer levels over 500 ng/mL, and through comparison with what has been reported in the literature, there is the possibility that this group may be at risk of thrombosis. Further studies, incorporating other diagnostic parameters, may be needed before a more logical conclusion can be drawn, since the D-dimer is not a specific test.Keywords: D-dimer, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, pregnancy, Nigeria

  5. Relationships of risk factors for pre-eclampsia with patterns of occurrence of isolated gestational proteinuria during normal term pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrie Macdonald-Wallis

    Full Text Available Isolated gestational proteinuria may be part of the pre-eclampsia disease spectrum. Confirmation of its association with established pre-eclampsia risk factors and higher blood pressure in uncomplicated pregnancies would support this concept.Data from 11,651 women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who had a term live birth but did not have pre-existing hypertension or diabetes or develop gestational diabetes or preeclampsia were used. Proteinuria was assessed repeatedly (median 12 measurements per woman by dipstick and latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of the population with different patterns of proteinuria in pregnancy.Higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, younger age, nulliparity and twin pregnancy were independently associated with increased odds of any proteinuria in pregnancy. Women who experienced proteinuria showed five patterns: proteinuria in early pregnancy only (≤ 20 weeks gestation, and onset at 21-28 weeks, 29-32 weeks, 33-36 weeks and ≥ 37 weeks gestation. There were higher odds of proteinuria onset after 33 weeks in obese women and after 37 weeks in nulliparous women compared with normal weight and multiparous women respectively. Smoking in pregnancy was weakly negatively associated with odds of proteinuria onset after 37 weeks. Twin pregnancies had higher odds of proteinuria onset from 29 weeks. In women with proteinuria onset after 33 weeks blood pressure was higher in early pregnancy and at the end of pregnancy.Established pre-eclampsia risk factors were related to proteinuria occurrence in late gestation in healthy term pregnancies, supporting the hypothesis that isolated gestational proteinuria may represent an early manifestation of pre-eclampsia.

  6. Paediatric renal length measurements from ultrasound and DMSA scans: does clinical practice reflect theoretical normal values?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.; Hassan, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Renal length measurement is a routine part of ultrasound examination in children and those results are plotted on a normogram style graph, so that each child's results are compared to a normal range (mean ± 2 S.D.). Renal length measurements from the posterior oblique views of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans in our department have not always correlated well with the ultrasound measurements on the same patients. Renal lengths from the DMSA scans of 120 patients with apparently normal kidneys were recorded and used to generate a normogram of renal length at different ages (0.5-7 years). This DMSA normogram was compared to the ultrasound (US) normogram used in the Paediatric Radiology Department, and it showed slight differences in renal lengths (3-8 mm), but that the US normogram had smaller coefficients of variation (US = 6.6%, NM 8.3%), implying a 'tighter' normal range. 39 of these patients had DMSA and ultrasound measurements of renal length within 3 months, and these were studied first by calculating the mean and CV values for different age groups, and then by plotting individual renal lengths on the appropriate normograms. The measured data produced much greater variability in the ultrasound measurements than the DTPA measurements, and the individual points produced 4/78 (5.1%) abnormal results for DMSA, but 21/78 (26.9%) abnormal results for ultrasound. Thus, in routine clinical use, using patients with apparently normal kidneys, ultrasound was unable to match the 'normal range' set by their current normogram, but the nuclear medicine showed 5.1% of values outside the normal (DMSA) range, which was completely appropriate for a range of ± 2 standard deviations

  7. Cardiovascular autonomic responses to head-up tilt in gestational hypertension and normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Nonna; Saarelainen, Heli; Kärkkäinen, Henna; Valtonen, Pirjo; Lyyra-Laitinen, Tiina; Laitinen, Tomi; Vanninen, Esko; Heinonen, Seppo

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of gestational hypertension on hemodynamics and cardiovascular autonomic regulation at rest and their responses to head-up tilt (HUT). We prospectively studied 56 pregnant women (28 with gestational hypertension and 28 healthy pregnant women) during the third trimester of pregnancy and 3 months after pregnancy. In women with pregnancy-induced hypertension, compared with control women, there were significant differences in hemodynamics and in markers of cardiovascular regulation (p Postural change from the supine to the upright position was associated with significant changes in hemodynamic responses in both groups during pregnancy (from p pregnancies (p changes in autonomic nervous function in hypertensive women appeared to be a feature of gestational-induced hypertension.

  8. Microstructure, length, and connection of limbic tracts in normal human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaowen eYu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cingulum and fornix play an important role in memory, attention, spatial orientation and feeling functions. Both microstructure and length of these limbic tracts can be affected by mental disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, autism, anxiety, and schizophrenia. To date, there has been little systematic characterization of their microstructure, length and functional connectivity in normally developing brains. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI data from 65 normally developing right-handed subjects from birth to young adulthood was acquired. After cingulate gyrus part of the cingulum (cgc, hippocampal part of the cingulum (cgh and fornix (fx were traced with DTI tractography, absolute and normalized tract lengths and DTI-derived metrics including fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity were measured for traced limbic tracts. Free water elimination (FWE algorithm was adopted to improve accuracy of the measurements of DTI-derived metrics. The role of these limbic tracts in the functional network at birth and adulthood was explored. We found a logarithmic age-dependent trajectory for FWE-corrected DTI metric changes with fast increase of microstructural integrity from birth to 2-year-old followed by a slow increase to 25-year-old. Normalized tract length of cgc increases with age, while no significant relationship with age was found for normalized tract lengths of cgh and fx. Stronger microstructural integrity on the left side compared to that of right side was found. With integrated DTI and rs-fMRI, the key connectional role of cgc and cgh in the default mode network (DMN was confirmed as early as birth. Systematic characterization of length and DTI metrics after FWE correction of limbic tracts offers insight into their morphological and microstructural developmental trajectories. These trajectories may serve as a normal reference for pediatric patients with

  9. Longitudinal study of aortic isthmus Doppler in appropriately grown and small-for-gestational-age fetuses with normal and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2012-04-01

    To establish reference ranges using longitudinal data for aortic isthmus (AoI) Doppler indices in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) fetuses and to document the longitudinal trends in a cohort of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses with normal umbilical artery Doppler and in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler.

  10. Assessing the Risk of Having Small for Gestational Age Newborns Among Lebanese Underweight and Normal Pre-pregnancy Weight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Rym El; Abbas, Hussein A; Alameddine, Hind; Bizri, Ayah Al; Melki, Imad; Yunis, Khalid A

    2018-01-01

    Introduction It has been established that underweight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG) are at a higher risk of having Small for Gestational Age (SGA) newborns. However, the association remains poorly studied in Middle Eastern societies exhibiting different ethnic groups, genetic predisposing factors along with differences in nutritional food intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of having a SGA newborn among underweight and normal weight BMI women while studying the role of GWG in this association. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 62,351 singleton pregnancies from the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network between 2001 and 2009 from 27 hospitals across Lebanon. Women who had underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI were included. Results A total of 8.6% newborns were SGA and 6.6% of women were underweight. Among women with normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI, 8.6 and 12.4% had SGA births respectively. Overall, the adjusted OR of having SGA newborns was significantly higher among underweight women (OR = 1.448; 95%CI = 1.287-1.630) compared to normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Below normal weight gain significantly increased the odds of SGA for both normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI women, with adjusted ORs of 1.535 (95% CI = 1.418-1.661) and 1.970 (95%CI = 1.515-2.560) respectively. Discussion Higher risks of SGA newborns in underweight and normal BMI women with low GWG were observed. In addition, normal weight gain couldn't protect underweight women of having risk for SGA newborns. Hence, all pregnant women should be encouraged to maintain healthy BMI before pregnancy and attain adequate GWG.

  11. The impact of signal normalization on seizure detection using line length features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logesparan, Lojini; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther; Casson, Alexander J

    2015-10-01

    Accurate automated seizure detection remains a desirable but elusive target for many neural monitoring systems. While much attention has been given to the different feature extractions that can be used to highlight seizure activity in the EEG, very little formal attention has been given to the normalization that these features are routinely paired with. This normalization is essential in patient-independent algorithms to correct for broad-level differences in the EEG amplitude between people, and in patient-dependent algorithms to correct for amplitude variations over time. It is crucial, however, that the normalization used does not have a detrimental effect on the seizure detection process. This paper presents the first formal investigation into the impact of signal normalization techniques on seizure discrimination performance when using the line length feature to emphasize seizure activity. Comparing five normalization methods, based upon the mean, median, standard deviation, signal peak and signal range, we demonstrate differences in seizure detection accuracy (assessed as the area under a sensitivity-specificity ROC curve) of up to 52 %. This is despite the same analysis feature being used in all cases. Further, changes in performance of up to 22 % are present depending on whether the normalization is applied to the raw EEG itself or directly to the line length feature. Our results highlight the median decaying memory as the best current approach for providing normalization when using line length features, and they quantify the under-appreciated challenge of providing signal normalization that does not impair seizure detection algorithm performance.

  12. Correlation of normal-range FMR1 repeat length or genotypes and reproductive parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Davis, Stephanie; Engmann, Lawrence; Nulsen, John C; Benadiva, Claudio A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to ascertain whether the length of normal-ranged CGG repeats on the FMR1 gene correlates with abnormal reproductive parameters. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional study of all FMR1 carrier screening performed as part of routine care at a large university-based fertility center from January 2011 to March 2014. Correlations were performed between normal-range FMR1 length and baseline serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), cycle day 3 follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), ovarian volumes (OV), antral follicle counts (AFC), and incidence of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), while controlling for the effect of age. Six hundred three FMR1 screening results were collected. One subject was found to be a pre-mutation carrier and was excluded from the study. Baseline serum AMH, cycle day 3 FSH, OV, and AFC data were collected for the 602 subjects with normal-ranged CGG repeats. No significant difference in median age was noted amongst any of the FMR1 repeat genotypes. No significant correlation or association was found between any allele length or genotype, with any of the reproductive parameters or with incidence of DOR at any age (p > 0.05). However, subjects who were less than 35 years old with low/low genotype were significantly more likely to have below average AMH levels compared to those with normal/normal genotype (RR 3.82; 95 % CI 1.38-10.56). This large study did not demonstrate any substantial association between normal-range FMR1 repeat lengths and reproductive parameters.

  13. Correlation Between Placental Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Protein Expression Throughout Gestation in Normal Human Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Jayasri; Agamasu, Enyonam; Bendek, Bolek; Salafia, Carolyn M; Mishra, Aruna; Lopez, Julia Vasquez; Kroes, Jessica; Dragich, Sharon Claire; Thakur, Ashley; Mikhail, Magdy

    2018-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), specifically MMP-9 plays a role in human placentation. The enzyme confers an invasive ability to cytotrophoblasts and degrades the endometrial matrix as the cells infiltrate the decidua to keep up with placental growth. Since tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) can induce the synthesis of MMP-9, we investigated the patterns of changes in and correlation between placental villous MMP-9 and TNF-α expressions throughout normal human gestation. Placentas were obtained from 179 normal pregnant women who underwent elective abortion or term delivery. Chorionic villi isolated from placental samples were grouped as first, second, and third trimester (7 0/7 -13 0/7 , 13 1/7 -23 6/7 , and 37 0/7 -42 4/7 weeks, respectively). Chorionic villous TNF-α and MMP-9 proteins were assayed using enzyme immunoassay kits. There were significant differences in MMP-9 and TNF-α protein expressions among the trimester groups ( P = .001). The MMP-9 protein increased progressively with an increase in gestational age (GA), but TNF-α peaked in the second trimester. Within each trimester group, we searched for the effects of variation of GA in days on the 2 variables. A significant positive correlation between MMP-9 and GA was noted in the first trimester ( r = 0.364, P = .005). No other comparisons were significant. When GA was controlled for, partial correlation revealed a significant positive correlation between TNF-α and MMP-9 only in the second trimester ( r = 0.300, P = .018). We hypothesize that the TNF-α peak and the positive correlation between TNF-α and MMP-9 in the second trimester of normal human gestation could contribute toward a successful pregnancy outcome.

  14. Early-to-mid gestation fetal testosterone increases right hand 2D:4D finger length ratio in polycystic ovary syndrome-like monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Abbott

    Full Text Available A smaller length ratio for the second relative to the fourth finger (2D:4D is repeatedly associated with fetal male-typical testosterone (T and is implicated as a biomarker for a variety of traits and susceptibility to a number of diseases, but no experimental human studies have been performed. The present study utilizes the rhesus monkey, a close relative of humans, and employs discrete gestational exposure of female monkeys to fetal male-typical T levels for 15-35 days during early-to-mid (40-76 days; n = 7 or late (94-139 days; n = 7 gestation (term: 165 days by daily subcutaneous injection of their dams with 10 mg T propionate. Such gestational exposures are known to enhance male-typical behavior. In this study, compared to control females (n = 19, only early-to-mid gestation T exposure virilizes female external genitalia while increasing 2D:4D ratio in the right hand (RH by male-like elongation of RH2D. RH2D length and 2D:4D positively correlate with androgen-dependent anogenital distance (AG, and RH2D and AG positively correlate with duration of early-to-mid gestation T exposure. Male monkeys (n = 9 exhibit a sexually dimorphic 2D:4D in the right foot, but this trait is not emulated by early-to-mid or late gestation T exposed females. X-ray determined phalanx measurements indicate elongated finger and toe phalanx length in males, but no other phalanx-related differences. Discrete T exposure during early-to-mid gestation in female rhesus monkeys thus appears to increase RH2D:4D through right-side biased, non-skeletal tissue growth. As variation in timing and duration of gestational T exposure alter male-like dimensions of RH2D independently of RH4D, postnatal RH2D:4D provides a complex biomarker for fetal T exposure.

  15. Austenite Grain Size Estimtion from Chord Lengths of Logarithmic-Normal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear section of grains in polyhedral material microstructure is a system of chords. The mean length of chords is the linear grain size of the microstructure. For the prior austenite grains of low alloy structural steels, the chord length is a random variable of gamma- or logarithmic-normal distribution. The statistical grain size estimation belongs to the quantitative metallographic problems. The so-called point estimation is a well known procedure. The interval estimation (grain size confidence interval for the gamma distribution was given elsewhere, but for the logarithmic-normal distribution is the subject of the present contribution. The statistical analysis is analogous to the one for the gamma distribution.

  16. Are Gestational Age, Birth Weight, and Birth Length Indicators of Favorable Fetal Growth Conditions? A Structural Equation Analysis of Filipino Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Kenneth A.; Noble, Mark D.; Adair, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    The fetal origin hypothesis emphasizes the life-long health impacts of prenatal conditions. Birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are indicators of the fetal environment. However, these variables often have missing data and are subject to random and systematic errors caused by delays in measurement, differences in measurement instruments, and human error. With data from the Cebu (Philippines) Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, we use structural equation models (SEMs), to expl...

  17. Kinetics of selenium 75 - methionine and its metabolites in various organs and the fetoplacentar unity of rats during normal and disturbed gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, G.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the following 3 groups of rats: animals with normal gestation, disturbed gestation and non-gestating control animals. Relative organ activity of the mothers and of the fetoplacental unit was measured as a function of time following injection with the selenium-75 labelled amino acid, methionine. During gestation amino acid methabolism in the mothers was accelerated, this effect being less apparent in mothers with disturbed gestation; in the latter case an increased renal loss of plasma proteins and amino acids can be assumed. High activity in the methylation cycle is characteristic for the foetus. Foetal growth retardation as a consequence of reduced placental blood supply leads to a redistribution of methionine-utilisation, whereby transmethylation is favoured over protein incorporation. In addition to these systemic-dependent changes, the reduced placental diffusion leads to a local decrease in diaplacental transport. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with birth weight but not with gestational length: results from a large prospective observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women consume caffeine daily. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal caffeine intake from different sources and (a) gestational length, particularly the risk for spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD), and (b) birth weight (BW) and the baby being small for gestational age (SGA). Methods This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. A total of 59,123 women with uncomplicated pregnancies giving birth to a live singleton were identified. Caffeine intake from different sources was self-reported at gestational weeks 17, 22 and 30. Spontaneous PTD was defined as spontaneous onset of delivery between 22+0 and 36+6 weeks (n = 1,451). As there is no consensus, SGA was defined according to ultrasound-based (Marsal, n = 856), population-based (Skjaerven, n = 4,503) and customized (Gardosi, n = 4,733) growth curves. Results The main caffeine source was coffee, but tea and chocolate were the main sources in women with low caffeine intake. Median pre-pregnancy caffeine intake was 126 mg/day (IQR 40 to 254), 44 mg/day (13 to 104) at gestational week 17 and 62 mg/day (21 to 130) at gestational week 30. Coffee caffeine, but not caffeine from other sources, was associated with prolonged gestation (8 h/100 mg/day, P caffeine was associated with spontaneous PTD risk. Caffeine intake from different sources, measured repeatedly during pregnancy, was associated with lower BW (Marsal-28 g, Skjaerven-25 g, Gardosi-21 g per 100 mg/day additional total caffeine for a baby with expected BW 3,600 g, P Caffeine intake of 200 to 300 mg/day increased the odds for SGA (OR Marsal 1.62, Skjaerven 1.44, Gardosi 1.27, P caffeine, consumption was associated with marginally increased gestational length but not with spontaneous PTD risk. Caffeine intake was consistently associated with decreased BW and increased odds of SGA. The association was strengthened by concordant results for

  19. Scalable production in human cells and biochemical characterization of full-length normal and mutant huntingtin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Huang

    Full Text Available Huntingtin (Htt is a 350 kD intracellular protein, ubiquitously expressed and mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Huntington's disease (HD is caused by a CAG triplet amplification in exon 1 of the corresponding gene resulting in a polyglutamine (polyQ expansion at the N-terminus of Htt. Production of full-length Htt has been difficult in the past and so far a scalable system or process has not been established for recombinant production of Htt in human cells. The ability to produce Htt in milligram quantities would be a prerequisite for many biochemical and biophysical studies aiming in a better understanding of Htt function under physiological conditions and in case of mutation and disease. For scalable production of full-length normal (17Q and mutant (46Q and 128Q Htt we have established two different systems, the first based on doxycycline-inducible Htt expression in stable cell lines, the second on "gutless" adenovirus mediated gene transfer. Purified material has then been used for biochemical characterization of full-length Htt. Posttranslational modifications (PTMs were determined and several new phosphorylation sites were identified. Nearly all PTMs in full-length Htt localized to areas outside of predicted alpha-solenoid protein regions. In all detected N-terminal peptides methionine as the first amino acid was missing and the second, alanine, was found to be acetylated. Differences in secondary structure between normal and mutant Htt, a helix-rich protein, were not observed in our study. Purified Htt tends to form dimers and higher order oligomers, thus resembling the situation observed with N-terminal fragments, although the mechanism of oligomer formation may be different.

  20. Normal telomere lengths in naive and memory CD4+ T cells in HIV type 1 infection: a mathematical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, K. C.; Noest, A. J.; Otto, S. A.; Miedema, F.; de Boer, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    To study CD4+ T cell productivity during HIV-1 infection, CD4+ T cell telomere lengths were measured. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T cells counts >300 cells/mm3 showed normal average telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length and normal

  1. Normal telomere lengths in naive and memory CD4 T cells in HIV type 1 infection : a mathematical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, K.C.; Noest, A.J.; Otto, S.A.; Miedema, F.; Boer, R.J. de

    1999-01-01

    To study CD4+ T cell productivity during HIV-1 infection, CD4+ T cell telomere lengths were measured. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T cells counts >300 cells/mm3 showed normal average telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length and normal

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MICROMETRICAL CHANGES OF THE PLACENTAL TERMINAL VILLI IN NORMAL AND PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Bhanu P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM & OBJECTIVES Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is escalating in Indian women amounting to 10% of the total pregnancies mainly due to the diet, obesity and sedentary life style. Placenta is a crucial organ of intrauterine life. The functional units of the placenta such as chorionic villi, foetal blood vessels, and the syncytial knots are altered histologically in gestational diabetic condition. The present study is undertaken to observe the morphological and micrometrical changes of the GDM and normal placenta. MATERIAL AND METHODS Total number of 96 placentas, out of which 48 are GDM and 48 from control were procured for the present study. The placentas were collected from our General Hospital, Nellore, AP. Morphology and micrometry of the placentas were studied. RESULTS The shape of placenta was similar in both groups, but the weight in GDM (537.27±131.97 g, diameter (168.2±13.23 mm and thickness (29.9±3.45 mm were significantly (P<0.005 increased when compared to control. The mean number (9.01±2.25 mm3 and diameter (0.08±0.03 mm of the terminal villi and number of foetal blood vessels (21.76±8.52 mm3 were found to be increased in GDM, but the diameter of the blood vessel (0.04±0.02 mm was decreased and highly significant (P<0.001. The syncytial knots and fibrinoid necrosis were also observed in GDM when compared to the normal placenta. CONCLUSION The placentas from GDM were observed with significant morphological and histological changes as compared to controls, which may alter the perinatal outcome resulting in macrosomia, congenital malformations and intrauterine growth retardation.

  3. International standards for newborn weight, length, and head circumference by gestational age and sex: the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, José; Cheikh Ismail, Leila; Victora, Cesar G; Ohuma, Eric O; Bertino, Enrico; Altman, Doug G; Lambert, Ann; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Carvalho, Maria; Jaffer, Yasmin A; Gravett, Michael G; Purwar, Manorama; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Noble, Alison J; Pang, Ruyan; Barros, Fernando C; Chumlea, Cameron; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Kennedy, Stephen H

    2014-09-06

    In 2006, WHO published international growth standards for children younger than 5 years, which are now accepted worldwide. In the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, our aim was to complement them by developing international standards for fetuses, newborn infants, and the postnatal growth period of preterm infants. INTERGROWTH-21(st) is a population-based project that assessed fetal growth and newborn size in eight geographically defined urban populations. These groups were selected because most of the health and nutrition needs of mothers were met, adequate antenatal care was provided, and there were no major environmental constraints on growth. As part of the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS), a component of INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, we measured weight, length, and head circumference in all newborn infants, in addition to collecting data prospectively for pregnancy and the perinatal period. To construct the newborn standards, we selected all pregnancies in women meeting (in addition to the underlying population characteristics) strict individual eligibility criteria for a population at low risk of impaired fetal growth (labelled the NCSS prescriptive subpopulation). Women had a reliable ultrasound estimate of gestational age using crown-rump length before 14 weeks of gestation or biparietal diameter if antenatal care started between 14 weeks and 24 weeks or less of gestation. Newborn anthropometric measures were obtained within 12 h of birth by identically trained anthropometric teams using the same equipment at all sites. Fractional polynomials assuming a skewed t distribution were used to estimate the fitted centiles. We identified 20,486 (35%) eligible women from the 59,137 pregnant women enrolled in NCSS between May 14, 2009, and Aug 2, 2013. We calculated sex-specific observed and smoothed centiles for weight, length, and head circumference for gestational age at birth. The observed and smoothed centiles were almost identical. We present the 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90

  4. Ultrasonographic assessment of maternal cardiac function and peripheral circulation during normal gestation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Paula G; Tórtora, Mariana; Rodríguez, Raúl; Arias, Daniel O; Gobello, Cristina

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in cardiac morphology, systolic function and some peripheral hemodynamic parameters during normal pregnancy in dogs. Twenty healthy bitches, 10 pregnant (PG) and 10 non-pregnant controls (CG), were evaluated every 10 days using echocardiography from day 0 of the estrus cycle to parturition or to day 65 for the PG and CG groups, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and uterine artery resistance index (RI) were also assessed. Throughout the study, the shortening fraction and cardiac output increased up to 30% vs. 5% (Pdogs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies: development of a multivariable model including cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Mheen, Lidewij; Schuit, Ewoud; Lim, Arianne C; Porath, Martina M; Papatsonis, Dimitri; Erwich, Jan J; van Eyck, Jim; van Oirschot, Charlotte M; Hummel, Piet; Duvekot, Johannes J; Hasaart, Tom H M; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Moons, Karl G M; de Groot, Christianne J M; Bruinse, Hein W; van Pampus, Maria G; Mol, Ben W J

    2014-04-01

    To develop a multivariable prognostic model for the risk of preterm delivery in women with multiple pregnancy that includes cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation and other variables. We used data from a previous randomized trial. We assessed the association between maternal and pregnancy characteristics including cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation and time to delivery using multivariable Cox regression modelling. Performance of the final model was assessed for the outcomes of preterm and very preterm delivery using calibration and discrimination measures. We studied 507 women, of whom 270 (53%) delivered models for preterm and very preterm delivery had a c-index of 0.68 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.72) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.75), respectively, and showed good calibration. In women with a multiple pregnancy, the risk of preterm delivery can be assessed with a multivariable model incorporating cervical length and other predictors.

  6. Chain length effects on the vibrational structure and molecular interactions in the liquid normal alkyl alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Wagenfeld, Sabine; Kerlé, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Alkyl alcohols are widely used in academia, industry, and our everyday lives, e.g. as cleaning agents and solvents. Vibrational spectroscopy is commonly used to identify and quantify these compounds, but also to study their structure and behavior. However, a comprehensive investigation and comparison of all normal alkanols that are liquid at room temperature has not been performed, surprisingly. This study aims at bridging this gap with a combined experimental and computational effort. For this purpose, the alkyl alcohols from methanol to undecan-1-ol have been analyzed using infrared and Raman spectroscopy. A detailed assignment of the individual peaks is presented and the influence of the alkyl chain length on the hydrogen bonding network is discussed. A 2D vibrational mapping allows a straightforward visualization of the effects. The conclusions drawn from the experimental data are backed up with results from Monte Carlo simulations using the simulation package Cassandra.

  7. Calculating length of gestation from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) database versus vital records may alter reported rates of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; Kotelchuck, Milton; Luke, Barbara; Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard; Diop, Hafsatou

    2014-05-01

    To compare length of gestation after assisted reproductive technology (ART) as calculated by three methods from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) and vital records (birth and fetal death) in the Massachusetts Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal Data System (PELL). Historical cohort study. Database linkage analysis. Live or stillborn deliveries. None. ART deliveries were linked to live birth or fetal death certificates. Length of gestation in 7,171 deliveries from fresh autologous ART cycles (2004-2008) was calculated and compared with that of SART CORS with the use of methods: M1 = outcome date - cycle start date; M2 = outcome date - transfer date + 17 days; and M3 = outcome date - transfer date + 14 days + day of transfer. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare methods. Singleton and multiple deliveries were included. Overall prematurity (delivery 45% of deliveries and by more than 1 week in >22% of deliveries. Each method differed from each other. Estimates of preterm birth in ART vary depending on source of data and method of calculation. Some estimates may overestimate preterm birth rates for ART conceptions. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. First-trimester screening in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology: significance of gestational dating by oocyte retrieval or sonographic measurement of crown-rump length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers or the perfo......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers...... or the performance of first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities. METHODS: GA was calculated using either DOA or CRL at blood sampling and nuchal translucency thickness (NT) measurement in 729 singleton pregnancies conceived by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI......). Weight-corrected log multiples of the median (MoM) marker distributions specific for IVF pregnancy were established using multiple log regression and compared for DOA- and CRL-based GA calculation. RESULTS: GA determined by CRL was significantly larger, albeit slightly, than was GA determined by DOA...

  9. Body composition is normal in term infants born to mothers with well-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Cheryl P; Raynes-Greenow, Camille H; Turner, Robin M; Carberry, Angela E; Jeffery, Heather E

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to describe body composition in term infants of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with infants of mothers with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). This cross-sectional study included 599 term babies born at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Neonatal body fat percentage (BF%) was measured within 48 h of birth using air-displacement plethysmography. Glycemic control data were based on third-trimester HbA(1c) levels and self-monitoring blood glucose levels. Associations between GDM status and BF% were investigated using linear regression adjusted for relevant maternal and neonatal variables. Of 599 babies, 67 (11%) were born to mothers with GDM. Mean ± SD neonatal BF% was 7.9 ± 4.5% in infants with GDM and 9.3 ± 4.3% in infants with NGT, and this difference was not statistically significant after adjustment. Good glycemic control was achieved in 90% of mothers with GDM. In this study, neonatal BF% did not differ by maternal GDM status, and this may be attributed to good maternal glycemic control.

  10. Variations and Determinants of Mortality and Length of Stay of Very Low Birth Weight and Very Low for Gestational Age Infants in Seven European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatttore, Giovanni; Numerato, Dino; Peltola, Mikko; Banks, Helen; Graziani, Rebecca; Heijink, Richard; Over, Eelco; Klitkou, Søren Toksvig; Fletcher, Eilidh; Mihalicza, Péter; Sveréus, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    The EuroHOPE very low birth weight and very low for gestational age infants study aimed to measure and explain variation in mortality and length of stay (LoS) in the populations of seven European nations (Finland, Hungary, Italy (only the province of Rome), the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland and Sweden). Data were linked from birth, hospital discharge and mortality registries. For each infant basic clinical and demographic information, infant mortality and LoS at 1 year were retrieved. In addition, socio-economic variables at the regional level were used. Results based on 16,087 infants confirm that gestational age and Apgar score at 5 min are important determinants of both mortality and LoS. In most countries, infants admitted or transferred to third-level hospitals showed lower probability of death and longer LoS. In the meta-analyses, the combined estimates show that being male, multiple births, presence of malformations, per capita income and low population density are significant risk factors for death. It is essential that national policies improve the quality of administrative datasets and address systemic problems in assigning identification numbers at birth. European policy should aim at improving the comparability of data across jurisdictions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. New population-based references for birth weight, length, and head circumference in singletons and twins from 23 to 43 gestation weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankilampi, Ulla; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Saari, Antti; Gissler, Mika; Dunkel, Leo

    2013-09-01

    Birth size curves are needed for clinical and epidemiological purposes. We constructed birth weight (BW), length (BL), and head circumference (BHC) references, assessed effects of twinness and parity, and defined cut-off points for small, appropriate, and large for gestational age. Birth register data of all 753,036 infants born in 1996-2008 in Finland were cleaned to create references reflecting optimal intrauterine growth. The final data included 533,666 singletons and 15,033 twins (median gestation weeks (gws) 40.0 and 37.1, respectively, 41.6% primiparous). Sex-specific BW, BL, and BHC references were constructed from 23 to 43 gws separately for singletons and twins born to primiparous or multiparous mothers. GAMLSS method was used for modelling. In singletons from 36 gws onwards, increased BW and BL were observed in comparison to previous reference from 1979-1983. Twins diverged from singletons from 30 gws onwards. At 37.0 gws, mean BW was 400 g lower and mean BL 1.2 cm shorter than in singletons. From 30 gws onwards, birth size was larger in infants of multiparous than primiparous mothers. Population-based birth size references are available for the evaluation of birth size. Accounting for plurality and parity improves the accuracy of birth size evaluation.

  12. Omentin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing properties, is negatively associated with insulin resistance in normal gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Benny; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Hemi, Rina; Yinon, Yoav; Schiff, Eyal; Mashiach, Roy; Kanety, Hannah; Sivan, Eyal

    2015-05-01

    Omentin, a newly identified adipokine, enhances insulin mediated glucose uptake in human adipocytes, thus, inducing systemic insulin-sensitizing effect. The aims of this study were to determine whether circulating maternal omentin levels are associated with insulin resistance indices and to assess which compartment, maternal, fetal, or placental, is the source of omentin in maternal circulation. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, and omentin were determined in 25 healthy pregnant women at the third trimester, before and 3 days after elective cesarean section. Cord blood omentin was measured in the 25 term neonates. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to evaluate insulin sensitivity before and after delivery. Antepartum maternal omentin levels were negatively correlated with insulin levels (r=-0.41, P=0.04) and positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S; r=0.4, P=0.04). Postpartum omentin levels were negatively correlated with maternal body mass index (r=-0.44, P=0.02). Median maternal omentin levels was comparable before and after delivery (57.2, inter-quartile range: 38.2-76.2 ng/mL vs. 53.4, 39.8-69.4 ng/mL, respectively, P=0.25) and highly correlated (r=0.83, Pinsulin resistance indices, suggesting that this adipokine may play a role in metabolic adaptations of normal gestation. The strong correlation between anteparum and postpartum maternal omentin levels, as well as the lack of association between maternal and neonatal omentin levels, suggest that placental or fetal compartments are unlikely as the main source of circulating maternal omentin.

  13. An investigation into kana reading development in normal and dyslexic Japanese children using length and lexicality effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambai, Ami; Uno, Akira; Kurokawa, Suzuko; Haruhara, Noriko; Kaneko, Masato; Awaya, Noriko; Kozuka, Junko; Goto, Takashi; Tsutamori, Eishi; Nakagawa, Kazumi; Wydell, Taeko N

    2012-06-01

    This is the first study to report differences between Japanese children with and without dyslexia in the way string-length and lexicality effects are manifested when reading Japanese kana. These children were asked to read kana words and non-words consisting of either two or five kana characters. The results showed that the error rates of the normal Preschoolers and Primary-School children with dyslexia were higher than those of the normal Primary-School children. Further, the reading latencies of the normal Preschoolers, First-graders and dyslexics were significantly longer than those of the normal Second, Third and Fifth/Sixth graders. Moreover, reading latencies became shorter as the age of the participants increased. Both normal and dyslexic children showed significant effects of length and lexicality on reading latencies. However, the interaction between the length and lexicality was only seen in normal children from the Second-grade onwards. These results suggest that (1) normal First-graders reach a ceiling in terms of reading accuracy and that (2) as Japanese normal children become older, they become better at lexical reading processes, which leads to fluent kana reading, but that (3) the dyslexics, even at Fifth/Sixth grades, have not developed sufficient lexical reading processes. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating the relationship between FMR1 allele length and cognitive ability in children: a subtle effect of the normal allele range on the normal ability range?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loat, C S; Craig, G; Plomin, R; Craig, I W

    2006-09-01

    The FMR1 gene contains a trinucleotide repeat tract which can expand from a normal size of around 30 repeats to over 200 repeats, causing mental retardation (Fragile X Syndrome). Evidence suggests that premutation males (55-200 repeats) are susceptible to a late-onset tremor/ataxia syndrome and females to premature ovarian failure, and that intermediate alleles ( approximately 41-55 repeats) and premutations may be in excess in samples with special educational needs. We explored the relationship between FMR1 allele length and cognitive ability in 621 low ability and control children assessed at 4 and 7 years, as well as 122 students with high IQ. The low and high ability and control samples showed no between-group differences in incidence of longer alleles. In males there was a significant negative correlation between allele length and non-verbal ability at 4 years (p = 0.048), academic achievement in maths (p = 0.003) and English (p = 0.011) at 7 years, and IQ in the high ability group (p = 0.018). There was a significant negative correlation between allele length and a standardised score for IQ and general cognitive ability at age 7 in the entire male sample (p = 0.002). This suggests that, within the normal spectrum of allele length, increased repeat numbers may have a limiting influence on cognitive performance.

  15. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

  16. First and third trimester serum concentrations of adropin and copeptin in gestational diabetes mellitus and normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Filip A; Jarmużek, Patrycja; Gondek, Agata; Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska, Agnieszka; Bomba-Opoń, Dorota; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disease diagnosed in 1.7% up to 11.6% pregnancies. The prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcome is significantly higher in the case of early onset of diabetes mellitus. Adropin is a hormone promoting carbohydrate oxidation over fat oxidation, and influence nitric oxide synthase. Copeptin is a cleavage product of the vasopressin precursor recently correlated with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine maternal serum adropin and copeptin concentrations in women with early and late manifestation of GDM and to discuss their potential role as biochemical markers of insulin resistance. Case-control study on 58 pregnant Caucasian women. Serum levels of adropin and copeptin were assessed in patients with early onset (GDM1) and classical gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM2). Complications such as macrosomia and hypotrophy were evaluated. There was no significant difference between the study and the control group (age, BMI, parity). Fetal growth disturbance rate was 37.5% in GDM1, 11% in GDM2 and 6% in controls. Adropin concentration in GDM patients was significantly higher than in control group (p gestational diabetes mellitus.

  17. The effect of halo-vest length on stability of the cervical spine. A study in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G J; Moskal, J T; Albert, T; Pritts, C; Schuch, C M; Stamp, W G

    1988-03-01

    In order to study how the efficiency of the halo vest is affected by different lengths of the vest, an experimental headband was devised that allowed the head of a normal person to be held securely in the halo attachment. The vest was then modified to allow it to be adjusted to three different lengths (Fig. 2): a full vest extended to the iliac crests, a short vest extended to the twelfth ribs, and a half vest extended to the level of the nipples. Twenty normal, healthy adult men participated in the study. For each vest length, radiographs were made of each subject demonstrating rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral bending of the cervical spine. There was no rotation of the cervical spine, regardless of the length of the vest. There was a variable degree of motion in flexion or extension of the upper part of the cervical spine with all vest lengths, but this was not statistically significant. There was definite increase of motion caudad to the level of the fifth cervical vertebra regardless of the length of the vest. We concluded that a lesion of the upper part of the cervical spine can be treated effectively by halo traction with a half vest. This will improve the comfort and care of the patient and avoid the necessity of removing the vest if emergency cardiovascular resuscitation is needed. In the treatment of lesions of the lower part of the cervical spine (caudad to the level of the fourth cervical vertebra), the use of a halo vest that extends caudad to the level of the twelfth ribs does provide additional stability.

  18. Comparison of penile length at 6–24 months between children with unilateral cryptorchidism and a healthy normal cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Soo Ryu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urologic diseases affected by testosterone can be associated with smaller penis size compared to the normal population. We sought to compare penile length in children with unilateral cryptorchidism and normative data from a cohort of healthy Korean boys. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in 259 Korean boys (212, normal cohort; 47, cryptorchidism aged 6–24 months, each of whom had been brought to an outpatient clinic at one of five tertiary hospitals (Gyeongsangnam-do Province between April 2014 and June 2015. Penile length was measured via stretched penile length (SPL and testicular size was measured using orchidometry (mL. Results: SPL in children with cryptorchidism was significantly shorter compared to a cohort of healthy Korean boys aged 6–24 months (3.7±0.5 cm and 4.3±0.8 cm, p<0.001, although there were no differences with regard to height, body weight and contralateral testicular size between the two groups. According to the stratified ages (6–12, 12–18, and 18–24 months, SPL in children with cryptorchidism was persistently shorter at their ages than those without. Conclusions: It might be that the penile length aged 6–24 months of children with unilateral cryptorchidism is shorter than that of a cohort of healthy Korean boys.

  19. Evidence of a normal mean telomere fragment length in patients with Ullrich-Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Kassem, M

    2001-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that premature ageing and increased morbidity and mortality is present in Ullrich-Turner syndrome. We studied telomere restriction fragment length (TRFL) in 30 women with Ullrich-Turner syndrome and 30 age-matched control women. All Turner women had...... the 45,X karyotype verified by karyotyping. We found no difference in the mean TRFL in the young age group (TS: 7011+/-521 vs C: 7285+/-917 bp, P = 0.3), or in the older age group (TS: 7357+/-573 vs C: 7221+/-621 bp, P = 0.6). In conclusion, our data suggest that Ullrich-Turner syndrome is not associated...... with excessive telomere loss, at least when studied in peripheral blood leucocytes, and thus quite different from other premature ageing syndromes....

  20. Impact of Maternal Glucose and Gestational Weight Gain on Child Obesity over the First Decade of Life in Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Teresa A; Pedula, Kathryn L; Vesco, Kimberly K; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Ogasawara, Keith K

    2016-08-01

    Objective To determine, among children with normal birth weight, if maternal hyperglycemia and weight gain independently increase childhood obesity risk in a very large diverse population. Methods Study population was 24,141 individuals (mothers and their normal birth weight offspring, born 1995-2003) among a diverse population with universal GDM screening [50-g glucose-challenge test (GCT); 3 h. 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if GCT+]. Among the 13,037 full-term offspring with normal birth weight (2500-4000 g), annual measured height/weight was ascertained between ages 2 and 10 years to calculate gender-specific BMI-for-age percentiles using USA norms (1960-1995 standard). Results Among children who began life with normal birth weight, we found a significant trend for developing both childhood overweight (>85 %ile) and obesity (>95 %ile) during the first decade of life with both maternal hyperglycemia (normal GCT, GCT+ but no GDM, GDM) and excessive gestational weight gain [>40 pounds (18.1 kg)]; p maternal glucose and/or weight gain effects to imprint for childhood obesity in the first decade remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal age, parity, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI. The attributable risk (%) for childhood obesity was 28.5 % (95 % CI 15.9-41.1) for GDM and 16.4 % (95 % CI 9.4-23.2) for excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions for Practice Both maternal hyperglycemia and excessive weight gain have independent effects to increase childhood obesity risk. Future research should focus on prevention efforts during pregnancy as a potential window of opportunity to reduce childhood obesity.

  1. Length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect the risk of early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Katherine S.; Bennett, Claire E.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is the length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range associated with the risk of early menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER The length of repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect risk of early menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There is a strong, well-established relationship between length of premutation FMR1 alleles and age at menopause, suggesting that this relationship could continue into the normal range. Within the normal range, there is conflicting evidence; differences in ovarian reserve have been identified with FMR1 repeat allele length, but a recent population-based study did not find any association with age at menopause as a quantitative trait. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We analysed cross-sectional baseline survey data collected at recruitment from 2004 to 2010 from a population-based, prospective epidemiological cohort study of >110 000 women to investigate whether repeat allele length was associated with early menopause. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD We included 4333 women from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS), of whom 2118 were early menopause cases (menopause under 46 years) and 2215 were controls. We analysed the relationship between length of FMR1 alleles and early menopause using logistic regression with allele length as continuous and categorical variables. We also conducted analyses with the outcome age at menopause as a quantitative trait as well as appropriate sensitivity and exploratory analyses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no association of the shorter or longer FMR1 allele or their combined genotype with the clinically relevant end point of early menopause in our main analysis. Likewise, there were no associations with age at menopause as a quantitative trait in our secondary analysis. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Women with homozygous alleles in the normal range may have undetected FMR1 premutation alleles, although there was no evidence to suggest this. We

  2. Determination of normal values for navicular drop during walking: a new model correcting for foot length and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus G; Rathleff, Michael S; Simonsen, Ole H

    2009-01-01

    participants. Normal values have not yet been established as foot length, age, gender, and Body Mass Index (BMI) may influence the navicular drop. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of foot length, age, gender, and BMI on the navicular drop during walking. METHODS: Navicular drop...... was measured with a novel technique (Video Sequence Analysis, VSA) using 2D video. Flat reflective markers were placed on the medial side of the calcaneus, the navicular tuberosity, and the head of the first metatarsal bone. The navicular drop was calculated as the perpendicular distance between the marker...... on the navicular tuberosity and the line between the markers on calcaneus and first metatarsal head. The distance between the floor and the line in standing position between the markers on calcaneus and first metatarsal were added afterwards. RESULTS: 280 randomly selected participants without any foot problems...

  3. Calf birth weight, gestation length, calving ease, and neonatal calf mortality in Holstein, Jersey, and crossbred cows in a pasture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, K; Maltecca, C; Cassady, J P; Baloche, G; Williams, C M; Washburn, S P

    2013-01-01

    Holstein (HH), Jersey (JJ), and crosses of these breeds were mated to HH or JJ bulls to form purebreds, reciprocal crosses, backcrosses, and other crosses in a rotational mating system. The herd was located at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Data for calf birth weight (CBW), calving ease (0 for unassisted, n=1,135, and 1 for assisted, n=96), and neonatal calf mortality (0 for alive, n=1,150, and 1 for abortions recorded after mid-gestation, stillborn, and dead within 48 h, n=81) of calves (n=1,231) were recorded over 9 calving seasons from 2003 through 2011. Gestation length (GL) was calculated as the number of days from last insemination to calving. Linear mixed models for CBW and GL included fixed effects of sex, parity (first vs. later parities), twin status, and 6 genetic groups: HH, JJ, reciprocal F(1) crosses (HJ, JH), crosses >50% Holsteins (HX) and crosses >50% Jerseys (JX), where sire breed is listed first. The CBW model also included GL as a covariate. Logistic regression for calving ease and neonatal calf mortality included fixed effects of sex, parity, and genetic group. Genetic groups were replaced by linear regression using percentage of HH genes as coefficients on the above models and included as covariates to determine various genetic effects. Year and dam were included as random effects in all models. Female calves (27.57±0.54 kg), twins (26.39±1.0 kg), and calves born to first-parity cows (27.67±0.56 kg) had lower CBW than respective male calves (29.53±0.53 kg), single births (30.71±0.19 kg), or calves born to multiparous cows (29.43±0.52 kg). Differences in genetic groups were observed for CBW and GL. Increased HH percentage in the calf increased CBW (+9.3±0.57 kg for HH vs. JJ calves), and increased HH percentage in the dams increased CBW (+1.71±0.53 kg for calves from HH dams vs. JJ dams); JH calves weighed 1.33 kg more than reciprocal HJ calves. Shorter GL was observed for twin births (272.6

  4. Length and volume of morphologically normal kidneys in Korean Children: Ultrasound measurement and estimation using body size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hwee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lim, Sok Hwan; Lee, Mi Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Eun [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and renal length and volume measured with ultrasound in Korean children who have morphologically normal kidneys, and to create simple equations to estimate the renal sizes using the anthropometric measurements. We examined 794 Korean children under 18 years of age including a total of 394 boys and 400 girls without renal problems. The maximum renal length (L) (cm), orthogonal anterior-posterior diameter (D) (cm) and width (W) (cm) of each kidney were measured on ultrasound. Kidney volume was calculated as 0.523 x L x D x W (cm{sup 3}). Anthropometric indices including height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index (m{sup 2}/kg) were collected through a medical record review. We used linear regression analysis to create simple equations to estimate the renal length and the volume with those anthropometric indices that were mostly correlated with the US-measured renal sizes. Renal length showed the strongest significant correlation with patient height (R2, 0.874 and 0.875 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). Renal volume showed the strongest significant correlation with patient weight (R2, 0.842 and 0.854 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). The following equations were developed to describe these relationships with an estimated 95% range of renal length and volume (R2, 0.826-0.884, p < 0.001): renal length = 2.383 + 0.045 x Height (± 1.135) and = 2.374 + 0.047 x Height (± 1.173) for the right and left kidneys, respectively; and renal volume 7.941 + 1.246 x Weight (± 15.920) and = 7.303 + 1.532 x Weight (± 18.704) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Scatter plots between height and renal length and between weight and renal volume have been established from Korean children and simple equations between them have been developed for use in clinical practice.

  5. Length and volume of morphologically normal kidneys in Korean Children: Ultrasound measurement and estimation using body size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hwee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lim, Sok Hwan; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Ji Eun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and renal length and volume measured with ultrasound in Korean children who have morphologically normal kidneys, and to create simple equations to estimate the renal sizes using the anthropometric measurements. We examined 794 Korean children under 18 years of age including a total of 394 boys and 400 girls without renal problems. The maximum renal length (L) (cm), orthogonal anterior-posterior diameter (D) (cm) and width (W) (cm) of each kidney were measured on ultrasound. Kidney volume was calculated as 0.523 x L x D x W (cm 3 ). Anthropometric indices including height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index (m 2 /kg) were collected through a medical record review. We used linear regression analysis to create simple equations to estimate the renal length and the volume with those anthropometric indices that were mostly correlated with the US-measured renal sizes. Renal length showed the strongest significant correlation with patient height (R2, 0.874 and 0.875 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). Renal volume showed the strongest significant correlation with patient weight (R2, 0.842 and 0.854 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). The following equations were developed to describe these relationships with an estimated 95% range of renal length and volume (R2, 0.826-0.884, p < 0.001): renal length = 2.383 + 0.045 x Height (± 1.135) and = 2.374 + 0.047 x Height (± 1.173) for the right and left kidneys, respectively; and renal volume 7.941 + 1.246 x Weight (± 15.920) and = 7.303 + 1.532 x Weight (± 18.704) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Scatter plots between height and renal length and between weight and renal volume have been established from Korean children and simple equations between them have been developed for use in clinical practice.

  6. High resolution post-mortem MRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brain in the second trimester of gestation. Normal foetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scola, Elisa; Palumbo, Giovanni; Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia Maria [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Neuroradiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Conte, Giorgio [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Neuroradiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Postgraduation School in Radiodiagnostics, Milan (Italy); Boito, Simona; Persico, Nicola [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ' L. Mangiagalli' , Milan (Italy); Rizzuti, Tommaso [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Pathology Unit, Milan (Italy); Triulzi, Fabio [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Neuroradiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Milan (Italy)

    2018-01-15

    To describe normal foetal brain development with high resolution post-mortem MRI (PMMRI) of non-fixed foetal brains. We retrospectively collected PMMRIs of foetuses without intracranial abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations studied after a termination of pregnancy due to extracranial abnormalities or after a spontaneous intrauterine death. PMMRIs were performed on a 3-T scanner without any fixation and without removing the brain from the skull. All PMMRIs were evaluated in consensus by two neuroradiologists. Our analysis included ten PMMRIs (median gestational age (GA): 21 weeks; range: 17-28 weeks). At 19 and 20 weeks of GA, the corticospinal tracts are recognisable in the medulla oblongata, becoming less visible from 21 weeks. Prior to 20 weeks the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) is more hypointense than surrounding deep grey nuclei; starting from 21 weeks the PLIC becomes isointense, and is hyperintense at 28 weeks. From 19-22 weeks, the cerebral hemispheres show transient layers: marginal zone, cortical plate, subplate, and intermediate, subventricular and germinal zones. PMMRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brains preserves the natural tissue contrast and skull integrity. We assessed foetal brain development in a small cohort of foetuses, focusing on 19-22 weeks of gestation. (orig.)

  7. High resolution post-mortem MRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brain in the second trimester of gestation. Normal foetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scola, Elisa; Palumbo, Giovanni; Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia Maria; Conte, Giorgio; Boito, Simona; Persico, Nicola; Rizzuti, Tommaso; Triulzi, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    To describe normal foetal brain development with high resolution post-mortem MRI (PMMRI) of non-fixed foetal brains. We retrospectively collected PMMRIs of foetuses without intracranial abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations studied after a termination of pregnancy due to extracranial abnormalities or after a spontaneous intrauterine death. PMMRIs were performed on a 3-T scanner without any fixation and without removing the brain from the skull. All PMMRIs were evaluated in consensus by two neuroradiologists. Our analysis included ten PMMRIs (median gestational age (GA): 21 weeks; range: 17-28 weeks). At 19 and 20 weeks of GA, the corticospinal tracts are recognisable in the medulla oblongata, becoming less visible from 21 weeks. Prior to 20 weeks the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) is more hypointense than surrounding deep grey nuclei; starting from 21 weeks the PLIC becomes isointense, and is hyperintense at 28 weeks. From 19-22 weeks, the cerebral hemispheres show transient layers: marginal zone, cortical plate, subplate, and intermediate, subventricular and germinal zones. PMMRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brains preserves the natural tissue contrast and skull integrity. We assessed foetal brain development in a small cohort of foetuses, focusing on 19-22 weeks of gestation. (orig.)

  8. Construction of a normalized full-length cDNA library of cephalopod Amphioctopus fangsiao and development of microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanwei; Liu, Wenfen; Xu, Xin; Yang, Jianmin; Wang, Weijun; Wei, Xiumei; Liu, Xiangquan; Sun, Guohua

    2017-10-01

    Amphioctopus fangsiao is one of the most economically important species and has been considered to be a candidate for aquaculture. In order to facilitate its fine-scale genetic analyses, we constructed a normalized full-length library successfully and developed a set of microsatellite markers in this study. The normalized full-length library had a storage capacity of 6.9×105 independent clones. The recombination efficiency was 95% and the average size of inserted fragments was longer than 1000 bp. A total of 3440 high quality ESTs were obtained, which were assembled into 1803 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 450 (25%) were assigned into 33 Gene Ontology terms, 576 (31.9%) into 153 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, and 275 (15.3%) into 22 Clusters of Orthologous Groups. Seventy-six polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 17, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied between 0.167 and 0.967 and between 0.326 and 0.944, respectively. Twelve loci were significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction and no linkage disequilibrium was found between different loci. This study provided not only a useful resource for the isolation of the functional genes, but also a set of informative microsatellites for the assessment of population structure and conservation genetics of A. fangsiao.

  9. Normal secretion of the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 during gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cypryk, Katarzyna; Vilsbøll, Tina; Nadel, Iwona

    2007-01-01

    in the GDM group than in the NGT group (p insulin concentration was higher (p insulin response (AUCtotal) was significantly greater (p = 0.01) in the GDM group than in the NGT group. Insulin resistance was significantly higher in GDM compared with control women...... correlations were observed between fasting GLP-1 and insulin concentration (r = 0.56, p insulin resistance (r = 0.43, p ... gestational women with diabetes mellitus in whom GDM was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria (75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)). The control group consisted of 13 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), matched according to age and duration of pregnancy. For all...

  10. Comparison of the Blood Level OF Leptin in Umbilical Cord of Newborns of Mothers With Gestational Diabetes and Normal Mothers and Its Relationship With Growth Indices of Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramesh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes is defined as an abnormal increase in blood glucose levels and is the most common disease that can complicate pregnancy. Leptin, a hormone produced mainly in adipose tissue, plays an important role in preventing fat accumulation in tissues such as skeletal muscle and myocardium and can be used to evaluate changes in lipid levels effectively. Leptin cannot cross the placental barrier, and its level in the umbilical cord is of fetal origin. Objectives Due to the lack of similar studies in Ahvaz, we aimed to determine the relationship between umbilical blood levels of this hormone with growth indices of newborns with normal mothers and mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Materials and Methods After delivery and using the aseptic method, 5 mL of blood from the umbilical vein was taken immediately by staffs to separate serum and was then stored at −20°C. Serum level of leptin was measured using the Elisa method in two groups: “case” and “control.” All information collected in the questionnaires was analyzed using SPSS-19 software as well as other statistical methods. Results Serum leptin levels in the cord blood of mothers with GDM were significantly higher than in normal mothers. There was a significant relationship between serum leptin levels and birth weight in infants with diabetic mothers. In this study, no significant correlation was observed between cord leptin levels and other growth indices. Conclusions Changes in neonatal leptin levels can reflect changes in the body fat tissue and neonatal birth weight and could be effective in predicting weight gain in newborns with mothers who have gestational diabetes and may reduce birth trauma or future complications.

  11. Normal ranges for fetal electrocardiogram values for the healthy fetus of 18-24 weeks of gestation: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdurmen, Kim M J; Lempersz, Carlijn; Vullings, Rik; Schroer, Christian; Delhaas, Tammo; van Laar, Judith O E H; Oei, S Guid

    2016-08-17

    The fetal anomaly ultrasound only detects 65 to 81 % of the patients with congenital heart disease, making it the most common structural fetal anomaly of which a significant part is missed during prenatal life. Therefore, we need a reliable non-invasive diagnostic method which improves the predictive value for congenital heart diseases early in pregnancy. Fetal electrocardiography could be this desired diagnostic method. There are multiple technical challenges to overcome in the conduction of the fetal electrocardiogram. In addition, interpretation is difficult due to the organisation of the fetal circulation in utero. We want to establish the normal ranges and values of the fetal electrocardiogram parameters in healthy fetuses of 18 to 24 weeks of gestation. Women with an uneventful singleton pregnancy between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation are asked to participate in this prospective cohort study. A certified and experienced sonographist performs the fetal anomaly scan. Subsequently, a fetal electrocardiogram recording is performed using dedicated signal processing methods. Measurements are performed at two institutes. We will include 300 participants to determine the normal values and 95 % confidence intervals of the fetal electrocardiogram parameters in a healthy fetus. We will evaluate the fetal heart rate, segment intervals, normalised amplitude and the fetal heart axis. Three months postpartum, we will evaluate if a newborn is healthy through a questionnaire. Fetal electrocardiography could be a promising tool in the screening program for congenital heart diseases. The electrocardiogram is a depiction of the intimate relationship between the cardiac nerve conduction pathways and the structural morphology of the fetal heart, and therefore particularly suitable for the detection of secondary effects due to a congenital heart disease (hypotrophy, hypertrophy and conduction interruption).

  12. Pst I restriction fragment length polymorphism of the human placental alkaline phosphatase gene in normal placentae and tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsavaler, L.; Penhallow, R.C.; Kam, W.; Sussman, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the human placental alkaline phosphatase gene from normal term placentae was studied by restriction enzyme digestion and Southern blot analysis using a cDNA probe to the gene for the placental enzyme. The DNA digests fall into three distinct patterns based on the presence and intensity of an extra 1.1-kilobase Pst I Band. The extra 1.1-kilobase band is present in 9 of 27 placenta samples, and in 1 of these samples the extra band is present at double intensity. No polymorphism was revealed by digestion with restriction enzymes EcoRI, Sma I, BamHI, or Sac I. The extra Pst I-digestion site may lie in a noncoding region of the gene because no correlation was observed between the restriction fragment length polymorphism and the common placental alkaline phosphatase alleles identified by starch gel electrophoresis. In addition, because placental alkaline phosphatase is frequently re-expressed in neoplasms, the authors examined tissue from ovarian, testicular, and endometrial tumors and from BeWo choriocarcinoma cells in culture. The Pst I-DNA digestion patterns from these cells and tissues were identical to those seen in the normal ovary and term placentae. The consistent reproducible digestion patterns seen in DNA from normal and tumor tissue indicate that a major gene rearrangement is not the basis for the ectopic expression of placental alkaline phosphatase in neoplasia

  13. Depressive symptoms and gestational length among pregnant adolescents: Cluster randomized control trial of CenteringPregnancy® plus group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Epel, Elissa; Lewis, Jessica B; Cunningham, Shayna D; Tobin, Jonathan N; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Thomas, Melanie; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-06-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with preterm birth among adults. Pregnant adolescents have high rates of depressive symptoms and low rates of treatment; however, few interventions have targeted this vulnerable group. Objectives are to: (a) examine impact of CenteringPregnancy® Plus group prenatal care on perinatal depressive symptoms compared to individual prenatal care; and (b) determine effects of depressive symptoms on gestational age and preterm birth among pregnant adolescents. This cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 14 community health centers and hospitals in New York City. Clinical sites were randomized to receive standard individual prenatal care (n = 7) or CenteringPregnancy® Plus group prenatal care (n = 7). Pregnant adolescents (ages 14-21, N = 1,135) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale during pregnancy (second and third trimesters) and postpartum (6 and 12 months). Gestational age was obtained from medical records, based on ultrasound dating. Intention to treat analyses were used to examine objectives. Adolescents at clinical sites randomized to CenteringPregnancy® Plus experienced greater reductions in perinatal depressive symptoms compared to those at clinical sites randomized to individual care (p = .003). Increased depressive symptoms from second to third pregnancy trimester were associated with shorter gestational age at delivery and preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation). Third trimester depressive symptoms were also associated with shorter gestational age and preterm birth. All p < .05. Pregnant adolescents should be screened for depressive symptoms prior to third trimester. Group prenatal care may be an effective nonpharmacological option for reducing depressive symptoms among perinatal adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Speech perception in older listeners with normal hearing:conditions of time alteration, selective word stress, and length of sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soojin; Yu, Jyaehyoung; Chun, Hyungi; Seo, Hyekyung; Han, Woojae

    2014-04-01

    Deficits of the aging auditory system negatively affect older listeners in terms of speech communication, resulting in limitations to their social lives. To improve their perceptual skills, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of time alteration, selective word stress, and varying sentence lengths on the speech perception of older listeners. Seventeen older people with normal hearing were tested for seven conditions of different time-altered sentences (i.e., ±60%, ±40%, ±20%, 0%), two conditions of selective word stress (i.e., no-stress and stress), and three different lengths of sentences (i.e., short, medium, and long) at the most comfortable level for individuals in quiet circumstances. As time compression increased, sentence perception scores decreased statistically. Compared to a natural (or no stress) condition, the selectively stressed words significantly improved the perceptual scores of these older listeners. Long sentences yielded the worst scores under all time-altered conditions. Interestingly, there was a noticeable positive effect for the selective word stress at the 20% time compression. This pattern of results suggests that a combination of time compression and selective word stress is more effective for understanding speech in older listeners than using the time-expanded condition only.

  15. Gestational diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000896.htm Gestational diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that starts or ...

  16. Obese motorcycle riders have a different injury pattern and longer hospital length of stay than the normal-weight patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang-Tsung; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-04-14

    The adverse effects of obesity on the physical health have been extensively studied in the general population, but not in motorcycle riders (includes both drivers and pillions). The aim of this study was to compare injury patterns, injury severities, mortality rates, and in-hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) between obese and normal-weight patients who were hospitalized for the treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents in a level I trauma center. Detailed data of 466 obese adult patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and 2701 normal-weight patients (25 > BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2)) who had sustained motorcycle accident-related injuries were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. We used the Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and independent Student's t-test to analyze differences between the two groups. Compared to normal-weight motorcycle riders, more obese riders were men and drivers as opposed to pillions. In addition, fewer obese motorcycle riders showed alcohol intoxication. Analyses of the patients' Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores revealed that obese motorcycle riders presented with a higher rate of injury to the thorax, but a lower rate of injury to the face than normal-weight patients. In addition, obese motorcycle riders had a 2.7-fold greater incidence of humeral, 1.9-fold greater incidence of pelvic, and 1.5-fold greater incidence of rib fractures. In contrast, normal-weight motorcycle riders sustained a significantly higher rate of maxillary and clavicle fractures. Obese motorcycle riders had a significant longer in-hospital LOS than normal-weight motorcycle riders did (10.6 days vs. 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.044), with an increase in in-hospital LOS of 0.82 days associated with every 10-unit increase in BMI. No statistically significant differences in Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Trauma

  17. Effects of physical activity during pregnancy and gestational weight gain on newborn weight and length at birth in Warmińsko-Mazurskie province

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Przybyłowicz; Mariusz Przybyłowicz; Marek Grzybiak; Katarzyna Janiszewska

    2014-01-01

    Background. Epidemiological research has identifi ed a relationship between maternal physical activity, early nutrition and infant birth weight with likelihood of developing future diseases. The aim of the study was to determine a relationship between gestational weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy to the nutritional status of newborns. Material and methods. The presented study was conducted in the period from February 2010 until November 2012 in the gynecological and obste...

  18. Changes of insulin resistance and β-cell function in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and normal pregnant women during mid- and late pregnant period: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Hui; Wu, Hui-Hua; Ding, Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Li, Feng; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to observe insulin resistance and β-cell function changes among women diagnosed with gestational impaired glucose tolerance or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in mid-pregnancy. Sixty-four pregnant women receiving prenatal care underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at 20-24 weeks of gestation and an insulin release test. The GDM group included 34 pregnant women diagnosed with gestational impaired glucose tolerance or GDM, and the subjects with normal blood glucose were the control group. Insulin resistance and islet β-cell function changes were observed with the oral glucose tolerance test and insulin release test. The homeostatic model assessment-β levels in late pregnancy were higher than those in mid-pregnancy for both groups, and the primary time effect was statistically significant. The early insulin secretion index (ΔI(30)/ΔG(30)) values in mid- and late pregnancy were lower in the GDM group. The values of the area under the curve of blood glucose in mid- and late pregnancy were higher in the GDM group than those in the control group. Insulin resistance was higher in GDM patients than in normal pregnant women. Insulin resistance was aggravated, and β-cell's ability to compensate for the increased insulin resistance by modulating insulin secretion was aggravated, as gestational week increased in women with gestational diabetes and normal pregnant women. Insulin resistance in women with GDM is higher than in pregnant women with normal metabolism of glucose. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Changes in the metabolic footprint of placental explant-conditioned medium cultured in different oxygen tensions from placentas of small for gestational age and normal pregnancies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, R P

    2012-01-31

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers significantly increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Accumulating evidence suggests that an SGA fetus results from a poorly perfused and abnormally developed placenta. Some of the placental features seen in SGA, such as abnormal cell turnover and impaired nutrient transport, can be reproduced by culture of placental explants in hypoxic conditions. Metabolic footprinting offers a hypothesis-generating strategy to investigate factors absorbed by and released from this tissue in vitro. Previously, metabolic footprinting of the conditioned culture media has identified differences in placental explants cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and between normal pregnancies and those complicated by pre-eclampsia. In this study we aimed to examine the differences in the metabolic footprint of placental villous explants cultured at different oxygen (O(2)) tensions between women who deliver an SGA baby (n = 9) and those from normal controls (n = 8). Placental villous explants from cases and controls were cultured for 96 h in 1% (hypoxic), 6% (normoxic) and 20% (hyperoxic) O(2). Metabolic footprints were analysed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to an electrospray hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). 574 metabolite features showed significant difference between SGA and normal at one or more of the oxygen tensions. SGA explant media cultured under hypoxic conditions was observed, on a univariate level, to exhibit the same metabolic signature as controls cultured under normoxic conditions in 49% of the metabolites of interest, suggesting that SGA tissue is acclimatised to hypoxic conditions in vivo. No such behaviour was observed under hyperoxic culture conditions. Glycerophospholipid and tryptophan metabolism were highlighted as areas of particular interest.

  20. Maternal OGTT Glucose Levels at 26–30 Gestational Weeks with Offspring Growth and Development in Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gongshu; Li, Nan; Sun, Shurong; Wen, Jing; Lyu, Fengjun; Gao, Wen; Li, Lili; Chen, Fang; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hou, Lifang

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We aim to evaluate the association of maternal gestational oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose concentrations with anthropometry in the offspring from birth to 12 months in Tianjin, China. Methods. A total of 27,157 pregnant women underwent OGTT during 26–30 weeks gestation, and their children had body weight/length measured from birth to 12 months old. Results. Maternal OGTT glucose concentrations at 26–30 gestational weeks were positively associated with Z-scores for birth length-for-gestational age and birth weight-for-length. Compared with infants born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance, infants born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (impaired glucose tolerance/new diabetes) had higher mean values of Z-scores for birth length-for-gestational age (0.07/0.23; normal group −0.08) and birth weight-for-length (0.27/0.57; normal group −0.001), smaller changes in mean values of Z-scores for length-for-age (0.75/0.62; normal group 0.94) and weight-for-length (0.18/−0.17; normal group 0.37) from birth to month 3, and bigger changes in mean values in Z-scores for weight-for-length (0.07/0.12; normal group 0.02) from month 9 to 12. Conclusions. Abnormal maternal glucose tolerance during pregnancy was associated with higher birth weight and birth length, less weight and length gain in the first 3 months of life, and more weight gain in the months 9–12 of life. PMID:24689042

  1. Lower extremity joint loads in habitual rearfoot and mid/forefoot strike runners with normal and shortened stride lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2018-03-01

    Our purpose was to compare joint loads between habitual rearfoot (hRF) and habitual mid/forefoot strikers (hFF), rearfoot (RFS) and mid/forefoot strike (FFS) patterns, and shorter stride lengths (SLs). Thirty-eight hRF and hFF ran at their normal SL, 5% and 10% shorter, as well as with the opposite foot strike. Three-dimensional ankle, knee, patellofemoral (PF) and hip contact forces were calculated. Nearly all contact forces decreased with a shorter SL (1.2-14.9% relative to preferred SL). In general, hRF had higher PF (hRF-RFS: 10.8 ± 1.4, hFF-FFS: 9.9 ± 2.0 BWs) and hip loads (axial hRF-RFS: -9.9 ± 0.9, hFF-FFS: -9.6 ± 1.0 BWs) than hFF. Many loads were similar between foot strike styles for the two groups, including axial and lateral hip, PF, posterior knee and shear ankle contact forces. Lateral knee and posterior hip contact forces were greater for RFS, and axial ankle and knee contact forces were greater for FFS. The tibia may be under greater loading with a FFS because of these greater axial forces. Summarising, a particular foot strike style does not universally decrease joint contact forces. However, shortening one's SL 10% decreased nearly all lower extremity contact forces, so it may hold potential to decrease overuse injuries associated with excessive joint loads.

  2. A comparative study of complications of cataract surgery with phacoemulsification in eyes with high and normal axial length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fesharaki

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: As the results illustrate, in this survey, age and high axial length were statistically significant risk factors for incidence of intraoperative complications of cataract surgery with phacoemulsification technique. Anticipation of these complications and also preparation and prophylactic measures may decrease incidence of these complications.

  3. Length Normalized Indices for Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass in Preterm and Term Infants during the First Six Months of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsita Goswami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Postnatal tissue accretion in preterm infants differs from those in utero, affecting body composition (BC and lifelong morbidity. Length normalized BC data allows infants with different body lengths to be compared and followed longitudinally. This study aims to analyze BC of preterm and term infants during the first six months of life. Methods: The BC data, measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, of 389 preterm and 132 term infants from four longitudinal studies were combined. Fat-mass/length2 (FMI and fat-free mass/length2 (FFMI for postmenstrual age were calculated after reaching full enteral feeding, at term and two further time points up to six months corrected age. Results: Median FMI (preterm increased from 0.4 kg/m2 at 30 weeks to 2.5, 4.3, and 4.8 kg/m2 compared to 1.7, 4.7, and 6 kg/m2 in term infants at 40, 52, and 64 weeks, respectively. Median FFMI (preterm increased from 8.5 kg/m2 (30 weeks to 11.4 kg/m2 (45 weeks and remained constant thereafter, whereas term FFMI remained constant at 11 kg/m2 throughout the tested time points. Conclusion: The study provides a large dataset of length normalized BC indices. Followed longitudinally, term and preterm infants differ considerably during early infancy in the pattern of change in FMI and FFMI for age.

  4. Breaking Through the Multi-Mesa-Channel Width Limited of Normally Off GaN HEMTs Through Modulation of the Via-Hole-Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Wen-Hsin; You, Yao-Hong; Lin, Jun-Huei; Lee, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Wen-Ching; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung; Lin, Ray-Ming

    2017-12-01

    We present new normally off GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) that overcome the typical limitations in multi-mesa-channel (MMC) width through modulation of the via-hole-length to regulate the charge neutrality screen effect. We have prepared enhancement-mode (E-mode) GaN HEMTs having widths of up to 300 nm, based on an enhanced surface pinning effect. E-mode GaN HEMTs having MMC structures and widths as well as via-hole-lengths of 100 nm/2 μm and 300 nm/6 μm, respectively, exhibited positive threshold voltages (V th ) of 0.79 and 0.46 V, respectively. The on-resistances of the MMC and via-hole-length structures were lower than those of typical tri-gate nanoribbon GaN HEMTs. In addition, the devices not only achieved the E-mode but also improved the power performance of the GaN HEMTs and effectively mitigated the device thermal effect. We controlled the via-hole-length sidewall surface pinning effect to obtain the E-mode GaN HEMTs. Our findings suggest that via-hole-length normally off GaN HEMTs have great potential for use in next-generation power electronics.

  5. Breaking Through the Multi-Mesa-Channel Width Limited of Normally Off GaN HEMTs Through Modulation of the Via-Hole-Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Wen-Hsin; You, Yao-Hong; Lin, Jun-Huei; Lee, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Wen-Ching; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung; Lin, Ray-Ming

    2017-06-01

    We present new normally off GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) that overcome the typical limitations in multi-mesa-channel (MMC) width through modulation of the via-hole-length to regulate the charge neutrality screen effect. We have prepared enhancement-mode (E-mode) GaN HEMTs having widths of up to 300 nm, based on an enhanced surface pinning effect. E-mode GaN HEMTs having MMC structures and widths as well as via-hole-lengths of 100 nm/2 μm and 300 nm/6 μm, respectively, exhibited positive threshold voltages ( V th) of 0.79 and 0.46 V, respectively. The on-resistances of the MMC and via-hole-length structures were lower than those of typical tri-gate nanoribbon GaN HEMTs. In addition, the devices not only achieved the E-mode but also improved the power performance of the GaN HEMTs and effectively mitigated the device thermal effect. We controlled the via-hole-length sidewall surface pinning effect to obtain the E-mode GaN HEMTs. Our findings suggest that via-hole-length normally off GaN HEMTs have great potential for use in next-generation power electronics.

  6. Altering length and velocity feedback during a neuro-musculoskeletal simulation of normal gait contributes to hemiparetic gait characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Karen; De Groote, Friedl; Aerts, Wouter; De Schutter, Joris; Duysens, Jacques; Jonkers, Ilse

    2014-04-30

    Spasticity is an important complication after stroke, especially in the anti-gravity muscles, i.e. lower limb extensors. However the contribution of hyperexcitable muscle spindle reflex loops to gait impairments after stroke is often disputed. In this study a neuro-musculoskeletal model was developed to investigate the contribution of an increased length and velocity feedback and altered reflex modulation patterns to hemiparetic gait deficits. A musculoskeletal model was extended with a muscle spindle model providing real-time length and velocity feedback of gastrocnemius, soleus, vasti and rectus femoris during a forward dynamic simulation (neural control model). By using a healthy subject's base muscle excitations, in combination with increased feedback gains and altered reflex modulation patterns, the effect on kinematics was simulated. A foot-ground contact model was added to account for the interaction effect between the changed kinematics and the ground. The qualitative effect i.e. the directional effect and the specific gait phases where the effect is present, on the joint kinematics was then compared with hemiparetic gait deviations reported in the literature. Our results show that increased feedback in combination with altered reflex modulation patterns of soleus, vasti and rectus femoris muscle can contribute to excessive ankle plantarflexion/inadequate dorsiflexion, knee hyperextension/inadequate flexion and increased hip extension/inadequate flexion during dedicated gait cycle phases. Increased feedback of gastrocnemius can also contribute to excessive plantarflexion/inadequate dorsiflexion, however in combination with excessive knee and hip flexion. Increased length/velocity feedback can therefore contribute to two types of gait deviations, which are both in accordance with previously reported gait deviations in hemiparetic patients. Furthermore altered modulation patterns, in particular the reduced suppression of the muscle spindle feedback during

  7. Anthropometry of Malawian live births between 35 and 41 weeks of gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalanda, B.F.; Buuren, S. van; Verhoeff, F.H.; Brabin, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to construct cross-sectional gestational age specific percentile curves for birthweight, length, head and mid-arm circumference for Malawian babies, and to compare these percentiles with reference values for babies born to women with normal pregnancies, from a developed

  8. Comparison of axial length, anterior chamber depth and intraocular lens power between IOLMaster and ultrasound in normal, long and short eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Zhang, Yaqin; Zhang, Haining; Jia, Zhijie; Zhang, Suhua; Wang, Xiaogang

    2018-01-01

    To compare the axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and intraocular lens power (IOLP) of IOLMaster and Ultrasound in normal, long and short eyes. Seventy-four normal eyes (≥ 22 mm and ≤ 25 mm), 74 long eyes (> 25 mm) and 78 short eyes (devices in the order of IOLMaster followed by Ultrasound. The IOLP were calculated using a free online LADAS IOL formula calculator. The difference in AL and IOLP between IOLMaster and Ultrasound was statistically significant when all three groups were combined. The difference in ACD between IOLMaster and Ultrasound was statistically significant in the normal group (Peye group (Peye group (P = 0.465). For the IOLP difference between IOLMaster and Ultrasound in the normal group, the percentage of IOLP differences eye group, they were 90.5%, 5.4%, 4.1% and 0%, respectively. For the short eye group, they were 61.5%, 23.1%, 10.3%, and 5.1%, respectively. IOLMaster and Ultrasound have statistically significant differences in AL measurements and IOLP (using LADAS formula) for normal, long eye and short eye. The two instruments agree regarding ACD measurements for the long eye group, but differ for the normal and short eye groups. Moreover, the high percentage of IOLP differences greater than |0.5|D in the short eye group is noteworthy.

  9. Circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, and normal pregnancy: evidence of selective dysregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 homeostasis in pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, J R; Papayianni, A; Brady, H R; Darling, M R; Walshe, J J

    1998-08-01

    Our purpose was to investigate circulating levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the peripheral and uteroplacental circulations during normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies. This prospective observational study involved 2 patient groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 women with pre-eclampsia and 30 normotensive women followed up longitudinally through pregnancy and post partum. There were an additional 13 women with established gestational hypertension. Group 2 consisted of 20 women with established pre-eclampsia and 19 normotensive control subjects undergoing cesarean delivery. Plasma levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were measured in blood drawn from the antecubital vein (group 1) and from both the antecubital and uterine veins (group 2). Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. In group 1 vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels did not change significantly throughout normal pregnancy and post partum. Women with established pre-eclampsia had increased vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels compared with the normotensive pregnancy group (P = .01). Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels were not elevated in women with established gestational hypertension. In group 2 significantly higher levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were detected in the uteroplacental (P post partum, is not a feature of nonproteinuric gestational hypertension, and is not observed with other major leukocyte adhesion molecules. Induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in pre-eclampsia may contribute to leukocyte-mediated tissue injury in this condition or may reflect perturbation of other, previously unrecognized, functions of this molecule in pregnancy.

  10. A Simple Laparoscopic Procedure to Restore a Normal Vaginal Length After Colpohysterectomy With Large Upper Colpectomy for Cervical and/or Vaginal Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Eric; Bresson, Lucie; Merlot, Benjamin; Puga, Marco; Kridelka, Frederic; Tsunoda, Audrey; Narducci, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Colpohysterectomy is sometimes associated with a large upper colpectomy resulting in a shortened vagina, potentially impacting sexual function. We report on a preliminary experience of a laparoscopic colpoplasty to restore a normal vaginal length. Patients with shortened vaginas after a laparoscopic colpohysterectomy were considered for a laparoscopic modified Davydov's procedure to create a new vaginal vault using the peritoneum of the rectum and bladder. From 2010 to 2014, 8 patients were offered this procedure, after informed preoperative consent. Indications were 2 extensive recurrent vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 and 6 radical hysterectomies for cervical cancer. Mean vaginal length before surgery was 3.8 cm (standard deviation, 1.6). Median operative time was 50 minutes (range, 45-90). Blood loss was minimal (50-100 mL). No perioperative complications occurred. Median vaginal length at discharge was 11.3 cm (range, 9-13). Sexual intercourse could be resumed around 10 weeks after surgery. At a median follow-up of 33.8 months (range, 2.4-51.3), 6 patients remained sexually active but 2 had stopped. Although this experience is small, this laparoscopic modified Davydov's procedure seems to be an effective procedure, adaptable to each patient's anatomy. If the initial postoperative regular self-dilatation is carefully observed, vaginal patency is durably restored and enables normal sexual function. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Am I normal? A systematic review and construction of nomograms for flaccid and erect penis length and circumference in up to 15,521 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Bramley, Sally; Muir, Gordon; Hodsoll, John

    2015-06-01

    To systematically review and create nomograms of flaccid and erect penile size measurements. Study key eligibility criteria: measurement of penis size by a health professional using a standard procedure; a minimum of 50 participants per sample. samples with a congenital or acquired penile abnormality, previous surgery, complaint of small penis size or erectile dysfunction. Synthesis methods: calculation of a weighted mean and pooled standard deviation (SD) and simulation of 20,000 observations from the normal distribution to generate nomograms of penis size. Nomograms for flaccid pendulous [n = 10,704, mean (SD) 9.16 (1.57) cm] and stretched length [n = 14,160, mean (SD) 13.24 (1.89) cm], erect length [n = 692, mean (SD) 13.12 (1.66) cm], flaccid circumference [n = 9407, mean (SD) 9.31 (0.90) cm], and erect circumference [n = 381, mean (SD) 11.66 (1.10) cm] were constructed. Consistent and strongest significant correlation was between flaccid stretched or erect length and height, which ranged from r = 0.2 to 0.6. relatively few erect measurements were conducted in a clinical setting and the greatest variability between studies was seen with flaccid stretched length. Penis size nomograms may be useful in clinical and therapeutic settings to counsel men and for academic research. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  12. Gestational surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinsden, Peter R

    2003-01-01

    Gestational surrogacy is a treatment option available to women with certain clearly defined medical problems, usually an absent uterus, to help them have their own genetic children. IVF allows the creation of embryos from the gametes of the commissioning couple and subsequent transfer of these embryos to the uterus of a surrogate host. The indications for treatment include absent uterus, recurrent miscarriage, repeated failure of IVF and certain medical conditions. Treatment by gestational surrogacy is straightforward and follows routine IVF procedures for the commissioning mother, with the transfer of fresh or frozen-thawed embryos to the surrogate host. The results of treatment are good, as would be expected from the transfer of embryos derived from young women and transferred to fit, fertile women who are also young. Clinical pregnancy rates achieved in large series are up to 40% per transfer and series have reported 60% of hosts achieving live births. The majority of ethical or legal problems that have arisen out of surrogacy have been from natural or partial surrogacy arrangements. The experience of gestational surrogacy has been largely complication-free and early results of the follow-up of children, commissioning couples and surrogates are reassuring. In conclusion, gestational surrogacy arrangements are carried out in a few European countries and in the USA. The results of treatment are satisfactory and the incidence of major ethical or legal complications has been limited. IVF surrogacy is therefore a successful treatment for a small group of women who would otherwise not be able to have their own genetic children.

  13. Mid-trimester amniotic fluid concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and lipopolysaccharide binding protein in normal pregnancies: a prospective evaluation according to parity, gestational age, and fetal gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberg, Christian; Fotopoulou, Christina; Linder, Mattea; Roehr, Charles Christoph; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Henrich, Wolfgang; Kalache, Karim

    2011-07-01

    To assess mid-trimester amniotic fluid concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) in pregnancies with normal outcome and correlate them with gestational week (GW), parity, and fetal gender. Cytokine concentrations were measured within a week of amniocentesis during GW 15+0 to 20+6 and correlated with GW at birth, parity, and fetal gender. After exclusion of women with an adverse pregnancy outcome or those lost to follow-up, 273 consecutive patients were evaluated (median parity: 1; range: 0-5). Ranges for IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and LBP were 4.9-2620 pg/mL, 36.2-5843 pg/mL, 8.0-28.2 pg/mL, and 0.06-1.9 μg/mL, respectively. IL-6, IL-8, and LBP values did not respectively differ among time points, but TNF-α values did between the 15(th) and 16(th) and the 15(th) and 18(th) weeks of gestation (Pparity or fetal gender were identified. Cytokine concentrations in amniotic fluid during the mid-trimester did not differ with parity or fetal gender. IL-6, IL-8, and LBP levels appeared stable with GW, whereas GW significantly influenced TNF-α concentrations. Further analyses are warranted to establish the role of cytokines in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  14. Leptin Intake at Physiological Doses Throughout Lactation in Male Wistar Rats Normalizes the Decreased Density of Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Immunoreactive Fibers in the Stomach Caused by Mild Gestational Calorie Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Szostaczuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational under nutrition in rats has been shown to decrease expression of sympathetic innervation markers in peripheral tissues of offspring, including the stomach. This has been linked to lower gastric secretion and decreased circulating levels of ghrelin. Considering the critical role of leptin intake during lactation in preventing obesity and reversing adverse developmental programming effects, we aimed to find out whether leptin supplementation may reverse the above mentioned alterations caused by mild gestational calorie restriction.Methods: Three groups of male rats were studied at a juvenile age (25 days old and during adulthood (3 and 6 months old: the offspring of ad libitum fed dams (controls, the offspring of dams that were diet restricted (20% from days 1 to 12 of gestation (CR, and CR rats supplemented with a daily oral dose of leptin (equivalent to 5 times the average amount they could receive each day from maternal milk throughout lactation (CR-Leptin. The density of TyrOH-immunoreactive (TyrOH+ fibers and the levels of Tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrOH—used as potential markers of functional sympathetic innervation—were measured in stomach. Plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were also determined.Results: Twenty five-day-old CR rats, but not CR-Leptin rats, displayed lower density of TyrOH+ fibers (−46% and TyrOH levels (−47% in stomach compared to controls. Alterations in CR animals were mitigated at 6 months of age, and differences were not significant. Adult CR-Leptin animals showed higher plasma ghrelin levels than CR animals, particularly at 3 months (+16%, and a lower leptin/ghrelin ratio (−28 and −37% at 3 and 6 months, respectively.Conclusion: Leptin intake during lactation is able to reverse the alterations in the density of TyrOH+ fibers in the stomach and normalize the increased leptin/ghrelin ratio linked to a mild gestational calorie restriction in rats, supporting the relevance of leptin as an

  15. A new set of ESTs and cDNA clones from full-length and normalized libraries for gene discovery and functional characterization in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamar Santiago

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpretation of ever-increasing raw sequence information generated by modern genome sequencing technologies faces multiple challenges, such as gene function analysis and genome annotation. Indeed, nearly 40% of genes in plants encode proteins of unknown function. Functional characterization of these genes is one of the main challenges in modern biology. In this regard, the availability of full-length cDNA clones may fill in the gap created between sequence information and biological knowledge. Full-length cDNA clones facilitate functional analysis of the corresponding genes enabling manipulation of their expression in heterologous systems and the generation of a variety of tagged versions of the native protein. In addition, the development of full-length cDNA sequences has the power to improve the quality of genome annotation. Results We developed an integrated method to generate a new normalized EST collection enriched in full-length and rare transcripts of different citrus species from multiple tissues and developmental stages. We constructed a total of 15 cDNA libraries, from which we isolated 10,898 high-quality ESTs representing 6142 different genes. Percentages of redundancy and proportion of full-length clones range from 8 to 33, and 67 to 85, respectively, indicating good efficiency of the approach employed. The new EST collection adds 2113 new citrus ESTs, representing 1831 unigenes, to the collection of citrus genes available in the public databases. To facilitate functional analysis, cDNAs were introduced in a Gateway-based cloning vector for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta. Herein, we describe the technical methods used in the library construction, sequence analysis of clones and the overexpression of CitrSEP, a citrus homolog to the Arabidopsis SEP3 gene, in Arabidopsis as an example of a practical application of the engineered Gateway vector for functional analysis. Conclusion The new

  16. A new set of ESTs and cDNA clones from full-length and normalized libraries for gene discovery and functional characterization in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M Carmen; Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; Forment, Javier; Arribas, Raquel; Alamar, Santiago; Conejero, Vicente; Perez-Amador, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    Background Interpretation of ever-increasing raw sequence information generated by modern genome sequencing technologies faces multiple challenges, such as gene function analysis and genome annotation. Indeed, nearly 40% of genes in plants encode proteins of unknown function. Functional characterization of these genes is one of the main challenges in modern biology. In this regard, the availability of full-length cDNA clones may fill in the gap created between sequence information and biological knowledge. Full-length cDNA clones facilitate functional analysis of the corresponding genes enabling manipulation of their expression in heterologous systems and the generation of a variety of tagged versions of the native protein. In addition, the development of full-length cDNA sequences has the power to improve the quality of genome annotation. Results We developed an integrated method to generate a new normalized EST collection enriched in full-length and rare transcripts of different citrus species from multiple tissues and developmental stages. We constructed a total of 15 cDNA libraries, from which we isolated 10,898 high-quality ESTs representing 6142 different genes. Percentages of redundancy and proportion of full-length clones range from 8 to 33, and 67 to 85, respectively, indicating good efficiency of the approach employed. The new EST collection adds 2113 new citrus ESTs, representing 1831 unigenes, to the collection of citrus genes available in the public databases. To facilitate functional analysis, cDNAs were introduced in a Gateway-based cloning vector for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta. Herein, we describe the technical methods used in the library construction, sequence analysis of clones and the overexpression of CitrSEP, a citrus homolog to the Arabidopsis SEP3 gene, in Arabidopsis as an example of a practical application of the engineered Gateway vector for functional analysis. Conclusion The new EST collection denotes an

  17. Comparison of telomere length and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 promoter methylation between breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues in Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Zehra; Akkiprik, Mustafa; Karabulut, Sevgi; Peker, Irem; Gullu Amuran, Gokce; Ozmen, Tolga; Gulluoglu, Bahadır M; Kaya, Handan; Ozer, Ayse

    2017-09-01

    Both insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and telomere length (TL) are associated with proliferation and senescence of human breast cancer. This study assessed the clinical significance of both TL and IGFBP7 methylation status in breast cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. We also investigated whether IGFBP7 methylation status could be affecting TL. Telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR to compare tumors with their adjacent normal tissues. The IGFBP7 promoter methylation status was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR and its expression levels were determined by western blotting. Telomeres were shorter in tumor tissues compared to controls (Pbreast cancer with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC; n=72; P=.014) compared with other histological type (n=29), and TL in IDC with HER2 negative (n=53; P=.017) was higher than TL in IDC with HER2 positive (n=19). However, telomeres were shortened in advanced stages and growing tumors. IGFBP7 methylation was observed in 90% of tumor tissues and 59% of controls (P=.0002). Its frequency was significantly higher in IDC compared with invasive mixed carcinoma (IMC; P=.002) and it was not correlated either with protein expression or the other clinicopathological parameters. These results suggest that IGFBP7 promoter methylation and shorter TL in tumor compared with adjacent tissues may be predictive biomarkers for breast cancer. Telomere maintenance may be indicative of IDC and IDC with HER2 (-) of breast cancer. Further studies with larger number of cases are necessary to verify this association. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Metabolic, hormonal characteristics and genetic variants of TCF7L2 associated with development of gestational diabetes mellitus in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-López, Ruth; Pérez-Luque, Elva; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Variation in TCF7L2 gene is associated with type 2 diabetes and with gestational diabetes mellitus in several populations, but there are no data in Mexican women with gestational diabetes mellitus. In this study, we examined metabolic and hormonal measurements as well as TCF7L2 genetic variants. We selected 108 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance and 90 with gestational diabetes mellitus according to 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria matched for gestational week. We collected data on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and concentrations of blood glucose, HbA1c , lipids profile, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The genotyping of rs7903146 and rs12255372 polymorphisms were made with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Actual and pre-gestational BMI, fasting glucose and HbA1c were higher (p gestational diabetes mellitus women than euglycemic women. No significant differences were found for lipids, insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes mellitus women had high GLP-1 levels (32 vs 24, p gestational diabetes women was significantly higher than that in euglycemic women (χ²  = 8.96; p gestational diabetes mellitus (OR = 9.1, 95% CI 2.8-29, p gestational BMI and rs12255372 risk allele are independently associated with gestational diabetes. The elevated GLP-1 levels in gestational diabetes women suggested some abnormality in insulin secretion. The low β-cell function, high pre-gestational BMI and rs12255372 risk allele are risk factors independently associated with the development of gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Gene discovery from Jatropha curcas by sequencing of ESTs from normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library from developing seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugantham Priyanka Annabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas L. is promoted as an important non-edible biodiesel crop worldwide. Jatropha oil, which is a triacylglycerol, can be directly blended with petro-diesel or transesterified with methanol and used as biodiesel. Genetic improvement in jatropha is needed to increase the seed yield, oil content, drought and pest resistance, and to modify oil composition so that it becomes a technically and economically preferred source for biodiesel production. However, genetic improvement efforts in jatropha could not take advantage of genetic engineering methods due to lack of cloned genes from this species. To overcome this hurdle, the current gene discovery project was initiated with an objective of isolating as many functional genes as possible from J. curcas by large scale sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results A normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas. The cDNA library contained about 1 × 106 clones and average insert size of the clones was 2.1 kb. Totally 12,084 ESTs were sequenced to average high quality read length of 576 bp. Contig analysis revealed 2258 contigs and 4751 singletons. Contig size ranged from 2-23 and there were 7333 ESTs in the contigs. This resulted in 7009 unigenes which were annotated by BLASTX. It showed 3982 unigenes with significant similarity to known genes and 2836 unigenes with significant similarity to genes of unknown, hypothetical and putative proteins. The remaining 191 unigenes which did not show similarity with any genes in the public database may encode for unique genes. Functional classification revealed unigenes related to broad range of cellular, molecular and biological functions. Among the 7009 unigenes, 6233 unigenes were identified to be potential full-length genes. Conclusions The high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas for the first time and 7009 unigenes coding

  20. Genetic parameters estimates for gestation length in beef cattle Componentes de variância para o período de gestação em bovinos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.M.C. Rocha

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Variance components were estimated for gestation length fitting the additive direct effect of calf, maternal genetic effect and sire effect as random effects. The statistical models also included the fixed effects of contemporary group, that included the date of breeding (AI, date of birth, and sex of calf, and the covariate age of dam at calving (linear and quadratic. Two different models were used, model 1 considering GL as a trait of the calf, and model 2 considering GL as a trait of the dam. The means of gestation length for the purebred animals were 294.55 days (males and 293.34 days (females, while for the crossbred animals they were 292.49 days (males and 292.55 days (females. Variance components for the purebred animals, fitting model 1, were 14.47, 72.78 and 57.31, for the additive genetic (sigma2a, total phenotypic (sigma2p and residual (sigma2e effects, respectively, with a heritability estimate of 0.21. For the crossbred animals, variance components for sigma2a, sigma2p, sigma2e were 90.40, 127.35 and 36.95, respectively, with a heritability of 0.71. Fitting model 2, the estimated variance components for the purebred animals were 12.78, 5.01, 74.84 and 57.05 for sigma2a , sire of calf (sigma ²asire, sigma2p, and sigma2e , respectively. The sire effect accounted for 0.07 (c² of the phenotypic variance and the coefficient of repeatability was 0.17. For the crossbred animals, the variance components were 22.11 (sigma2a , 22.97 (sigma ²asire , 127.70 (sigma2p and 82.61 (sigma2e, while c² was 0.18 and repeatability was 0.17. Therefore, regarding selection of beef cattle, it is suggested to use the heritability estimate obtained by model 1, where GL is considered as a trait of the calf.Estimaram-se os componentes de variância do período de gestação (PG considerando-se o efeito direto do bezerro e os efeitos direto da vaca e aleatório do touro (pai do bezerro. Além dos efeitos aleatórios, os modelos estatísticos incluíram os

  1. GDM Women's Pre-Pregnancy Overweight/Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Leng

    Full Text Available To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old.Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55, 2.98 (1.89-4.69, and 2.93 (2.07-4.13, respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84, 2.89 (1.78-4.70, and 2.84 (1.98-4.06, respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73, 1.96 (1.24-3.09, and 1.59 (1.15-2.21, respectively].Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG.

  2. Association analysis of calpain 10 gene variants/haplotypes with gestational diabetes mellitus among Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Martínez, Anna Gabriela; Sánchez-Corona, José; Vázquez-Vargas, Adriana Patricia; García-Zapién, Alejandra Guadalupe; López-Quintero, Andres; Villalpando-Velazco, Héctor Javier; Flores-Martínez, Silvia Esperanza

    2018-02-28

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolically complex disease with major genetic determinants. GDM has been associated with insulin resistance and dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells, so the GDM candidate genes are those that encode proteins modulating the function and secretion of insulin, such as that for calpain 10 (CAPN10). This study aimed to assess whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-43, SNP-44, SNP-63, and the indel-19 variant, and specific haplotypes of the CAPN10 gene were associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. We studied 116 patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and 83 women with normal glucose tolerance. Measurements of anthropometric and biochemical parameters were performed. SNP-43, SNP-44, and SNP-63 were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphisms, while the indel-19 variant was detected by TaqMan qPCR assays.  The allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies of the four variants did not differ significantly between women with gestational diabetes mellitus and controls. However, in women with gestational diabetes mellitus, glucose levels were significantly higher bearing the 3R/3R genotype than in carriers of the 3R/2R genotype of the indel-19 variant (p = 0.006). In conclusion, the 3R/3R genotype of the indel-19 variant of the CAPN-10 gene influenced increased glucose levels in these Mexican women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

  3. Lifestyle and health status in a sample of Swedish women four years after pregnancy: a comparison of women with a history of normal pregnancy and women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Margareta; Winkvist, Anna; Mogren, Ingrid

    2015-03-13

    Despite the recommendations to continue the regime of healthy food and physical activity (PA) postpartum for women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the scientific evidence reveals that these recommendations may not be complied to. This study compared lifestyle and health status in women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM with women who had a normal pregnancy and delivery. The inclusion criteria were women with GDM (ICD-10: O24.4 A and O24.4B) and women with uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery in 2005 (ICD-10: O80.0). A random sample of women fulfilling the criteria (n = 882) were identified from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. A questionnaire was sent by mail to eligible women approximately four years after the pregnancy. A total of 444 women (50.8%) agreed to participate, 111 diagnosed with GDM in their pregnancy and 333 with normal pregnancy/delivery. Women with previous GDM were significantly older, reported higher body weight and less PA before the index pregnancy. No major differences between the groups were noticed regarding lifestyle at the follow-up. Overall, few participants fulfilled the national recommendations of PA and diet. At the follow-up, 19 participants had developed diabetes, all with previous GDM. Women with previous GDM reported significantly poorer self-rated health (SRH), higher level of sick-leave and more often using medication on regular basis. However, a history of GDM or having overt diabetes mellitus showed no association with poorer SRH in the multivariate analysis. Irregular eating habits, no regular PA, overweight/obesity, and regular use of medication were associated with poorer SRH in all participants. Suboptimal levels of PA, and fruit and vegetable consumption were found in a sample of women with a history of GDM as well as for women with normal pregnancy approximately four years after index pregnancy. Women with previous GDM seem to increase their PA after childbirth, but still they perform their PA at

  4. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Zika and Pregnancy Articles Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... diabetes must also take insulin. Problems of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  5. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  6. [Growth patterns of appropriate for gestational age infants of gestational diabetic mothers during the first year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y L; Ma, R M; Zhang, Y; Mo, Y X; Chen, Z; Sun, Y H; Ding, Z B

    2016-08-02

    To explore the growth pattern of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants of mother with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The objects of this study were offspring of women who delivered in our hospital from January to December 2011. The GDM group included 70 AGA infants (36 male cases and 34 female cases) of mother with GDM. The control group included 154 AGA infants (66 male cases and 88 female cases) of women with normal glucose tolerance. The data of demographic characteristics of mothers of two groups were collected. Body weight and length of infants in two groups were measured at 3, 6 and 12 months age respectively. Body mass index (BMI), weight and height gain during infancy (0-3 months, 3-6 months and 6-12 months) of infants in two groups were also calculated. Body weight, length and BMI of male AGA infants in GDM group were less than that of control group at 3 months and 6 months age, but more than that of control group at 12 months age, however, there were no significant differences between two group(P>0.05). The weight and height gain during infancy (0-3 months, 3-6 months) of male AGA infants in GDM group were lower than that of control group, but the difference was statistically significant only at 3-6 months[(1.1±0.4) vs (1.4±0.4) kg, P=0.040; (4.9±2.3) vs (6.3±1.2) cm, P=0.026]. The weight and height gain during infancy (6-12 months) of male AGA infants of gestational diabetic mothers were higher than that of control group, but the difference was not statistically significant[(2.1±0.5) vs (1.8±0.5) kg, P=0.361; (8.4±1.3) vs (7.8±1.4) cm, P=0.464]. Male infants of gestational diabetic mothers grew slowly during their infancy of 0-6 months, and then their growth became increasingly fast, which suggested that the influence of intrauterine hyperglycemia environment of GDM mothers on fetal growth might continue after birth.

  7. Perceived psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Kubo

    Full Text Available Growing evidence links perceived stress-a potentially modifiable psychosocial risk factor-with health behaviors and obesity. Yet little is known about the relationship between stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, particularly among women with pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. We used baseline data from the Gestational Diabetes's Effects on Moms (GEM study: 1,353 women with gestational diabetes who delivered a term singleton within Kaiser Permanente Northern California were included. Perceived stress near the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis was measured using the validated Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10. Gestational weight gain was categorized according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Binomial regression analyses adjusted for gestational age and maternal age at the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis, and race/ethnicity and estimated rate ratios (RR and their 95% confidence interval (CI. Among women with a normal pregravid Body Mass Index (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, there was a significant association between high (Q4 PSS score and risk of both exceeding and gaining below the Institute of Medicine recommendations compared to those with lower stress (Q1 [adjusted RR = 2.16 95% CI 1.45-3.21; RR = 1.39 95% CI 1.01-1.91, respectively.] Among women with pregravid overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2, there was no association. Although the temporal relationship could not be established from this study, there may be a complex interplay between psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. Further studies examining stress earlier in pregnancy, risk of developing gestational diabetes and excess/inadequate gestational weight gain are warranted to clarify these complex relationships.

  8. Fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester: comparison between population groups from different ethnic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasozomenou, Panayiota; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Panteris, Eleftherios; Loufopoulos, Aristoteles; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2016-03-01

    To compare normal ranges of ultrasonographically measured fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester between different ethnic groups. A prospective, non-interventional study in order to establish normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester in a Greek population was conducted in 1220 singleton fetuses between 18 completed weeks and 23 weeks and 6 days of gestation. A literature search followed in order to identify similar studies in different population groups. Fetal nasal bone length mean values and percentiles from different population groups were compared. Analysis of measurements in the Greek population showed a linear association, i.e., increasing nasal bone length with increasing gestational age from 5.73 mm at 18 weeks to 7.63 mm at 23 weeks. Eleven studies establishing normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester were identified. Comparison of fetal nasal bone length mean values between the 12 population groups showed statistically significant differences (Pdifferent ethnic groups. Hence, distinct ethnic nomograms of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester should be used in a given population rather than an international model.

  9. GDM Women’s Pre-Pregnancy Overweight/Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Junhong; Li, Weiqin; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Liu, Gongshu; Li, Nan; Redman, Leanne M.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hou, Lifang; Hu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity) and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG) with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55), 2.98 (1.89-4.69), and 2.93 (2.07-4.13), respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84), 2.89 (1.78-4.70), and 2.84 (1.98-4.06), respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73), 1.96 (1.24-3.09), and 1.59 (1.15-2.21), respectively]. Conclusions Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG. PMID:26098307

  10. Resultados gestacionais e neonatais em mulheres com rastreamento positivo para diabetes mellitus e teste oral de tolerância à glicose - 100g normal Gestational and neonatal outcomes in women with positive screening for diabetes mellitus and 100g oral glucose challenge test normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moretti Rehder

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a frequência de resultados gestacionais e neonatais desfavoráveis em mulheres com rastreamento positivo e diagnóstico negativo para diabetes mellitus gestacional. MÉTODOS: trata-se de um estudo de corte transversal, retrospectivo e descritivo realizado entre 2000 e 2009. Foram incluídas no estudo 409 gestantes com rastreamento positivo para diabetes mellitus. As variáveis estudadas foram: maternas (idade, índice de massa corpórea, antecedente de cesárea, macrossomia ou diabetes mellitus em gestação anterior, antecedente pessoal e familiar de diabetes mellitus e hipertensão arterial crônica e neonatais (poli-hidrâmnio, idade gestacional por ocasião do parto, prematuridade, cesárea, recém-nascido (RN grande para idade gestacional (GIG, macrossomia, índice de Apgar, síndrome do desconforto respiratório, hipoglicemia e hiperbilirrubinemia. Inicialmente foi realizada análise descrita uni e multivariada para a ocorrência de fatores de risco e desfechos neonatais. Foram descritas as prevalências e respectivos intervalos de confiança a 95%. RESULTADOS: em 255 (62,3% das gestantes a via de parto foi cesárea. Quanto aos resultados perinatais, 14,2% dos RN foram classificados como prematuros e 19,3% dos RN como GIG. Os fatores de risco correlacionados com RN GIG foram sobrepeso ou obesidade, idade materna e antecedente de macrossomia em gestação anterior. CONCLUSÕES: na população com fatores de risco positivos ou glicemia de jejum alterada na primeira consulta do pré-natal, mesmo com curva glicêmica normal observa-se taxa de RN GIG elevada assim como índice de cesárea acima dos valores habitualmente presentes nas populações consideradas de baixo risco. As grávidas com tais características constituem um grupo diferenciado.PURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of adverse gestational and neonatal outcomes in women with a positive screening and negative diagnosis for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM

  11. Construction and evaluation of normalized cDNA libraries enriched with full-length sequences for rapid discovery of new genes from Sisal (Agave sisalana Perr.) different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Zhao; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Lu, Jun-Ying; Li, Jun-Feng

    2012-10-12

    To provide a resource of sisal-specific expressed sequence data and facilitate this powerful approach in new gene research, the preparation of normalized cDNA libraries enriched with full-length sequences is necessary. Four libraries were produced with RNA pooled from Agave sisalana multiple tissues to increase efficiency of normalization and maximize the number of independent genes by SMART™ method and the duplex-specific nuclease (DSN). This procedure kept the proportion of full-length cDNAs in the subtracted/normalized libraries and dramatically enhanced the discovery of new genes. Sequencing of 3875 cDNA clones of libraries revealed 3320 unigenes with an average insert length about 1.2 kb, indicating that the non-redundancy of libraries was about 85.7%. These unigene functions were predicted by comparing their sequences to functional domain databases and extensively annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Comparative analysis of sisal unigenes and other plant genomes revealed that four putative MADS-box genes and knotted-like homeobox (knox) gene were obtained from a total of 1162 full-length transcripts. Furthermore, real-time PCR showed that the characteristics of their transcripts mainly depended on the tight expression regulation of a number of genes during the leaf and flower development. Analysis of individual library sequence data indicated that the pooled-tissue approach was highly effective in discovering new genes and preparing libraries for efficient deep sequencing.

  12. Laminar burning velocity and Markstein length of nitrogen diluted natural gas/hydrogen/air mixtures at normal, reduced and elevated pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Haiyan [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Eng., Xi' an Jiaotong University (China); Institute of High Performance Computing, A-star (Singapore); Ji, Min; Jiao, Qi; Huang, Qian; Huang, Zuohua [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Eng., Xi' an Jiaotong University (China)

    2009-04-15

    Flame propagation of premixed nitrogen diluted natural gas/hydrogen/air mixtures was studied in a constant volume combustion bomb under various initial pressures. Laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths were obtained for the diluted stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures with different hydrogen fractions and diluent ratios under various initial pressures. The results showed that both unstretched flame speed and unstretched burning velocity are reduced with the increase in initial pressure (except when the hydrogen fraction is 80%) as well as diluent ratio. The velocity reduction rate due to diluent addition is determined mainly by hydrogen fraction and diluent ratio, and the effect of initial pressure is negligible. Flame stability was studied by analyzing Markstein length. It was found that the increase of initial pressure and hydrogen fraction decreases flame stability and the flame tends to be more stable with the addition of diluent gas. Generally speaking, Markstein length of a fuel with low hydrogen fraction is more sensitive to the change of initial pressure than that of a one with high hydrogen fraction. (author)

  13. A series of N-terminal epitope tagged Hdh knock-in alleles expressing normal and mutant huntingtin: their application to understanding the effect of increasing the length of normal huntingtin’s polyglutamine stretch on CAG140 mouse model pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shuqiu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington’s disease (HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease that is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ stretch within Huntingtin (htt, the protein product of the HD gene. Although studies in vitro have suggested that the mutant htt can act in a potentially dominant negative fashion by sequestering wild-type htt into insoluble protein aggregates, the role of the length of the normal htt polyQ stretch, and the adjacent proline-rich region (PRR in modulating HD mouse model pathogenesis is currently unknown. Results We describe the generation and characterization of a series of knock-in HD mouse models that express versions of the mouse HD gene (Hdh encoding N-terminal hemaglutinin (HA or 3xFlag epitope tagged full-length htt with different polyQ lengths (HA7Q-, 3xFlag7Q-, 3xFlag20Q-, and 3xFlag140Q-htt and substitution of the adjacent mouse PRR with the human PRR (3xFlag20Q- and 3xFlag140Q-htt. Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry analyses, we detect no significant interaction between soluble full-length normal 7Q- htt and mutant (140Q htt, but we do observe N-terminal fragments of epitope-tagged normal htt in mutant htt aggregates. When the sequences encoding normal mouse htt’s polyQ stretch and PRR are replaced with non-pathogenic human sequence in mice also expressing 140Q-htt, aggregation foci within the striatum, and the mean size of htt inclusions are increased, along with an increase in striatal lipofuscin and gliosis. Conclusion In mice, soluble full-length normal and mutant htt are predominantly monomeric. In heterozygous knock-in HD mouse models, substituting the normal mouse polyQ and PRR with normal human sequence can exacerbate some neuropathological phenotypes.

  14. Gestation period and twinning in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEACOCK, L J; ROGERS, C M

    1959-04-10

    The length of the gestation period in 118 births in a colony of chimpanzees was found to be 226.8 days, with a standard deviation of 13.3 and a range of 196 to 260 days. Six pairs of twins were born in 120 parturitions; thus the apparent twinning rate is higher than that in man.

  15. How to Treat Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Listen En Español How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Be sure to see the latest Diabetes Forecast ... and a healthy start for your baby. Gestational Diabetes – Looking Ahead Gestational diabetes usually goes away after ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: gestational diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Gestational diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood ...

  17. Vitamin D and gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Torloni, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D status (which is involved in glucose homeostasis) is related to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). GDM is characterized by increased resistance to and impaired secretion of insulin and results in higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including operative delivery......, macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and neonatal hypoglycemia. Women with GDM and their babies are at increased risk for developing type II diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: International definitions of vitamin D deficiency and normality are inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women particularly...

  18. Idiopathic and normal lateral lumbar curves: muscle effects interpreted by 12th rib length asymmetry with pathomechanic implications for lumbar idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros B. Grivas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The historical view of scoliosis as a primary rotation deformity led to debate about the pathomechanic role of paravertebral muscles; particularly multifidus, thought by some to be scoliogenic, counteracting, uncertain, or unimportant. Here, we address lateral lumbar curves (LLC and suggest a pathomechanic role for quadrates lumborum, (QL in the light of a new finding, namely of 12th rib bilateral length asymmetry associated with idiopathic and small non-scoliosis LLC. Methods Group 1: The postero-anterior spinal radiographs of 14 children (girls 9, boys 5 aged 9–18, median age 13 years, with right lumbar idiopathic scoliosis (IS and right LLC less that 10°, were studied. The mean Cobb angle was 12° (range 5–22°. Group 2: In 28 children (girls 17, boys 11 with straight spines, postero-anterior spinal radiographs were evaluated similarly to the children with the LLC, aged 8–17, median age 13 years. The ratio of the right/left 12th rib lengths and it’s reliability was calculated. The difference of the ratio between the two groups was tested; and the correlation between the ratio and the Cobb angle estimated. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS package. Results The ratio’s reliability study showed intra-observer +/−0,036 and the inter-observer error +/−0,042 respectively in terms of 95 % confidence limit of the error of measurements. The 12th rib was longer on the side of the curve convexity in 12 children with LLC and equal in two patients with lumbar scoliosis. The 12th rib ratios of the children with lumbar curve were statistically significantly greater than in those with straight spines. The correlation of the 12th rib ratio with Cobb angle was statistically significant. The 12th thoracic vertebrae show no axial rotation (or minimal in the LLC and no rotation in the straight spine group. Conclusions It is not possible, at present, to determine whether the 12th convex rib lengthening is

  19. The normal chain length distribution of the O antigen is required for the interaction of Shigella flexneri 2a with polarized Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilei Hoare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigella flexneri causes bacillary dysentery in humans. Essential to the establishment of the disease is the invasion of the colonic epithelial cells. Here we investigated the role of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS O antigen in the ability of S. flexneri to adhere to and invade polarized Caco-2 cells. The S. flexneri 2a O antigen has two preferred chain lengths: a short O antigen (S-OAg regulated by the WzzB protein and a very long O antigen (VL-OAg regulated by Wzz pHS2. Mutants with defined deletions of the genes required for O-antigen assembly and polymerization were constructed and assayed for their abilities to adhere to and enter cultured epithelial cells. The results show that both VL- and S-OAg are required for invasion through the basolateral cell membrane. In contrast, the absence of O antigen does not impair adhesion. Purified LPS does not act as a competitor for the invasion of Caco-2 cells by the wild-type strain, suggesting that LPS is not directly involved in the internalization process by epithelial cells.

  20. Determination of gestational age by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Kimberly; Lim, Ken

    2014-02-01

    (such as fetal growth restriction or macrosomia) result in a discrepancy between ultrasound biometric and clinical gestational age. Such reassignment may lead to the omission of appropriate-or the performance of inappropriate-fetal interventions. Summary Statements 1. When performed with quality and precision, ultrasound alone is more accurate than a "certain" menstrual date for determining gestational age in the first and second trimesters (≤ 23 weeks) in spontaneous conceptions, and it is the best method for estimating the delivery date. (II) 2. In the absence of better assessment of gestational age, routine ultrasound in the first or second trimester reduces inductions for post-term pregnancies. (I) 3. Ideally, every pregnant woman should be offered a first-trimester dating ultrasound; however, if the availability of obstetrical ultrasound is limited, it is reasonable to use a second-trimester scan to assess gestational age. (I) 4. Notwithstanding Summary Statements 1, 2, and 3, women vary greatly in their awareness of their internal functions, including ovulation, and this self-knowledge can sometimes be very accurate. (III) Recommendations 1. First-trimester crown-rump length is the best parameter for determining gestational age and should be used whenever appropriate. (I-A) 2. If there is more than one first-trimester scan with a mean sac diameter or crown-rump length measurement, the earliest ultrasound with a crown-rump length equivalent to at least 7 weeks (or 10 mm) should be used to determine the gestational age. (III-B) 3. Between the 12th and 14th weeks, crown-rump length and biparietal diameter are similar in accuracy. It is recommended that crown-rump length be used up to 84 mm, and the biparietal diameter be used for measurements > 84 mm. (II-1A) 4. Although transvaginal ultrasound may better visualize early embryonic structures than a transabdominal approach, it is not more accurate in determining gestational age. Crown-rump length measurement from

  1. Gestational Diabetes and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications.

  2. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C J Smeets

    Full Text Available Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA are treated with growth hormone (GH, inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a marker of biological age and shorter LTL is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.To investigate whether LTL is influenced by birth size, childhood growth and long-term GH treatment.We analyzed LTL in 545 young adults with differences in birth size and childhood growth patterns. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA (SGA-GH were compared to untreated short SGA (SGA-S, SGA with spontaneous catch-up to a normal body size (SGA-CU, and appropriate for gestational age with a normal body size (AGA-NS. LTL was measured using a quantitative PCR assay.We found a positive association between birth length and LTL (p = 0.04, and a trend towards a positive association between birth weight and LTL (p = 0.08, after adjustments for gender, age, gestational age and adult body size. Weight gain during infancy and childhood and fat mass percentage were not associated with LTL. Female gender and gestational age were positively associated with LTL, and smoking negatively. After adjustments for gender, age and gestational age, SGA-GH had a similar LTL as SGA-S (p = 0.11, SGA-CU (p = 0.80, and AGA-NS (p = 0.30.Larger size at birth is positively associated with LTL in young adulthood. Growth patterns during infancy and childhood are not associated with LTL. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA have similar LTL as untreated short SGA, SGA with spontaneous catch-up and AGA born controls, indicating no adverse effects of GH-induced catch-up in height on LTL.

  3. Hormone patterns in early human gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishell, D.R. Jr.; Thorneycroft, I.H.; Nagata, Y.; Murata, T.; Nakamura, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

  4. Effect of radiation on gestation periods in dams of Segment III beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The lengths of the gestation periods for bitches whose offspring were potentially assignable to Segment III of the Long-Term Study were not affected by radiation exposure (P = .998). Other factors were found to significantly correlate with the duration of the gestation periods, including the length of the first gestation period (P < .001), size of first litter (P = .175), the average environmental temperature during pregnancy (P = .055) and the size of the second litter

  5. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntyre, H David; Jensen, Dorte M; Jensen, Richard C

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes related to elevated fasting venous plasma glucose (FVPG) in a Danish pregnancy cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an observational cohort study including 1,516 women without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by Danish criteria....... FVPG measured at 28 weeks' gestation was related to pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: With use of the World Health Organization 2013 threshold of FVPG ≥5.1 mmol/L, 40.1% of the cohort qualified as having GDM. There was no evidence of excess fetal growth, hypertension in pregnancy, or caesarean delivery...

  6. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  7. The Effects of Mild Gestational Hyperglycemia on Exclusive Breastfeeding Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Verd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes increases the risk of a range of adverse perinatal outcomes, including breastfeeding failure, but the best cut-off point for gestational diabetes is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between mild gestational glucose tolerance impairment and the early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF. This is an observational study of 768 women with full term pregnancies that were screened for gestational diabetes at 24–28 weeks gestation. Subjects were divided into two groups: those with a normal 1-h glucose challenge test and those with an elevated 1-h glucose challenge test but still did not qualify for gestational diabetes. We constructed multivariable logistic regression models using data from 616 women with normal gestational glucose tolerance and 152 women with an isolated positive 1-h glucose challenge test. The risk of early exclusive breastfeeding cessation was found to increase in women with mildly impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy (adjusted OR, 1.65; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.45. Risks of early EBF cessation were also independently associated with the amount of neonatal weight loss and admission to the neonatal ward. Instead, parity was associated with a decreased risk for shorter EBF duration. Insulin resistance—even in the absence of gestational diabetes mellitus—may be an impeding factor for EBF.

  8. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  9. Decreased plasma chemerin levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, K J; Bonde, L; Svare, J A

    2014-01-01

    circulating chemerin levels, which may act to reduce pregnancy-induced insulin resistance and prevent glucose intolerance. Women with gestational diabetes, however, have severely reduced chemerin levels that remain low after delivery, which may contribute to the insulin resistance, glucose intolerance......AIMS: To evaluate fasting and post-prandial serum chemerin levels in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes, and again following delivery when normal glucose homeostasis is re-established. METHODS: Chemerin levels were measured in serum from nine women with gestational diabetes......, and from eight age- and BMI-matched pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance during two meal tests: in the third trimester and 3-4 months post partum. All women with gestational diabetes re-established normal glucose tolerance after delivery. RESULTS: Meal intake did not affect serum chemerin levels...

  10. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...

  11. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David

    2015-01-01

    to be present. The comparison group comprised all other employed women not included in the occupational sector being assessed. We performed meta-analyses of cohort-specific estimates and explored heterogeneity. RESULTS: Employees had a lower risk of preterm delivery than non-employees [adjusted odds ratio....... METHODS: We used data from >200 000 mother-child pairs enrolled in 13 European birth cohorts and compared employed versus non-employed women. Among employees, we defined groups of occupations representing the main sectors of employment for women where potential reproductive hazards are considered...... (ORadj) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-0.91]. Working in most of the occupational sectors studied was not associated with adverse birth outcomes. Being employed as a nurse was associated with lower risk SGA infants (ORadj 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99) whereas food industry workers had an increased...

  12. Children’s Brain Development Benefits from Longer Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elysia Poggi Davis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions to brain development associated with shortened gestation place individuals at risk for the development of behavioral and psychological dysfunction throughout the lifespan. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the benefit for brain development conferred by increased gestational length exists on a continuum across the gestational age spectrum among healthy children with a stable neonatal course. Neurodevelopment was evaluated with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 100 healthy right-handed six to ten year old children born between 28 and 41 gestational weeks with a stable neonatal course. Data indicate that a longer gestational period confers an advantage for neurodevelopment. Longer duration of gestation was associated with region-specific increases in grey matter density. Further, the benefit of longer gestation for brain development was present even when only full term infants were considered. These findings demonstrate that even modest decreases in the duration of gestation can exert profound and lasting effects on neurodevelopment for both term and preterm infants and may contribute to long-term risk for health and disease.

  13. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on pregnancy outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with pregnancy outcomes in Tianjin, China.Between June 2009 and May 2011, health care records of 33,973 pregnant women were collected and their children were measured for birth weight and birth length. The independent and joint associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines with the risks of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were examined by using Logistic Regression.After adjustment for all confounding factors, maternal prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, preterm delivery, large-for-gestational age infant (LGA, and macrosomia, and inversely associated with risks of small-for-gestational age infant (SGA and low birth weight. Maternal excessive GWG was associated with increased risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia, and decreased risks of preterm delivery, SGA, and low birth weight. Maternal inadequate GWG was associated with increased risks of preterm delivery and SGA, and decreased risks of LGA and macrosomia, compared with maternal adequate GWG. Women with both prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG had 2.2-5.9 folds higher risks of GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia compared with women with normal prepregnancy BMI and adequate GWG.Maternal prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, and greater infant size at birth. Health care providers should inform women to start the pregnancy with a BMI in the normal weight category and limit their GWG to the range specified for their prepregnancy BMI.

  14. Exon 3-deleted/full-length growth hormone receptor polymorphism genotype frequencies in Spanish short small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children and adolescents (n = 247) and in an adult control population (n = 289) show increased fl/fl in short SGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audí, Laura; Esteban, Cristina; Carrascosa, Antonio; Espadero, Rosa; Pérez-Arroyo, Annalisa; Arjona, Rosa; Clemente, María; Wollmann, Hartmut; Fryklund, Linda; Parodi, Luis A

    2006-12-01

    A polymorphism in the human GH receptor gene (d3/fl-GHR) resulting in genomic deletion of exon 3 has been associated with the degree of height increase in response to GH therapy. The objective of the study was to evaluate the frequencies of d3/fl-GHR polymorphism genotypes in control and short small-for-gestational-age (SGA) populations. An adult control population with heights normally distributed (ACPNH) between -2 and +2 sd score (SDS) and a short non-GH-deficient SGA child population were selected. Thirty Spanish hospitals participated in the selection of the short non-GH-deficient SGA children in the setting of a controlled, randomized trial, and one of these hospitals selected the ACPNH. CONTROLS AND PATIENTS: Two hundred eighty-nine adult subjects of both sexes constituted the ACPNH and 247 children and adolescents of both sexes the short SGA patients. Heights and weights were recorded in the ACPNH, and auxologic and biochemical data were recorded at each hospital for the SGA patients; d3/fl-GHR genotypes were determined and data analyzed in a single hospital. In short SGA patients, d3/fl-GHR genotype frequencies were significantly different from those in ACPNH, with a higher frequency of fl/fl genotype (P or=-2 SDS, n = 60). Our data showed significant differences in the frequency distribution of the d3/fl-GHR genotypes between a normally distributed adult height population and short SGA children, with the biologically less active fl/fl genotype being almost twice as frequent in SGA patients. These data suggest that the d3/fl-GHR polymorphism might be considered among the factors that contribute to the phenotypic expression of growth.

  15. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease -Choriocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozik, M.

    2011-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic tumors are a group of a diseases from the benign hydatidiform mole, through the invasive mole to the highly malignant form of a choriocarcinoma. Choriocarcinoma is a rare tumor and it is the most malignant and aggressive neoplasm of all the gestational trophoblastic diseases. It grows rapidly and metastasizes to the lung, liver, and, less frequently, to the brain. The author presents the case of a 26-year-old woman who is indicated to the CT examination for suspected brain tumor based on the previous examinations. The patient was diagnosed with metastatic choriocarcinoma to the brain, kidney and adrenal gland on the basis of an anamnesis by her husband, a high value of beta-hCG and a gynecological examination. (author)

  16. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  17. Gestational surrogacy in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rozée , Virginie; Unisa , Sayeed; De La Rochebrochard , Elise

    2016-01-01

    International audience; While gestational surrogacy is illegal in France, it is authorized in other countries, such as India. Drawing upon a study of Indian surrogates, Indian and foreign intended parents pursuing surro­gacy, as well as physicians, lawyers and Indian clinic and agency managers, Virginie Rozée, Sayeed Unisa and Elise de La Rochebrochard describe how surrogacy services are organized in India and examine the expectations and rationales of the protagonists.

  18. Gestational Diabetes and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  19. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Excessive gestational weight gain is associated with long-term body fat and weight retention at 7 y postpartum in African American and Dominican mothers with underweight, normal, and overweight prepregnancy BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Whyatt, Robin M; Hoepner, Lori A; Ramirez-Carvey, Judyth; Oberfield, Sharon E; Hassoun, Abeer; Perera, Frederica P; Gallagher, Dympna; Rundle, Andrew G

    2015-12-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with postpartum weight retention (PPWR) and abdominal adiposity, but long-term effects are understudied in low-income and minority populations at high risk of obesity and associated sequelae. We examined associations between GWG and long-term PPWR and adiposity in a prospective cohort of African American and Dominican mothers in the Bronx and Northern Manhattan. Women (n = 302) were enrolled during pregnancy and were followed for 7 y postpartum. Linear regression was used to relate excessive GWG [greater than 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines] to outcomes [percentage body fat and long-term PPWR (change in weight from prepregnancy to 7 y postpartum)], adjusting for covariates and included an interaction term between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) and GWG. Mean ± SD prepregnancy BMI and total GWG were 25.6 ± 5.8 (42% of women had BMI ≥25) and 16.6 ± 7.8 kg (64% of women had total GWG greater than IOM guidelines), respectively. Associations between GWG and long-term PPWR and the percentage body fat varied by prepregnancy BMI (P-interaction ≤ 0.06); excessive GWG was associated with a higher percentage body fat and greater long-term PPWR in mothers with lower prepregnancy BMI. To illustrate the interaction, a predicted covariate-adjusted model, which was used to derive estimates for the percentage body fat and PPWR associated with excessive GWG, was estimated for 2 prepregnancy BMI examples. For a woman with prepregnancy BMI of 22, excessive GWG was associated with 3.0% higher body fat (P mothers were predicted by interacting effects of prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG. The provision of support for mothers to begin pregnancy at a healthy weight and to gain weight appropriately during pregnancy may have important lasting implications for weight-related health in this population. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00043498. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Fluoxetine effect on gestation and fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ösz Bianca Eugenia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs is very controversial. There is no conclusive evidence for increased risk of malformations after SSRI use in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine how fluoxetine is affecting gestation and fetal development in rats. Twenty sexually mature female Wistar rats weighting between 250-260 g received 20 mg/kg body weight fluoxetine from the first day of gestation and during the entire gestation period.The drug was administered by oral route. Healthy, primipareus animals were selected along with 20 female Wistar rats, as control group. Mature males were caged with virgin females for an entire week. Rat’s behaviour during gestation, after birth and rats body weight was examined. The number of healthy pups was also noted. The females not giving birth after 21 days to any pup were anesthetized (halothane through gas scavenging apparatus untilled death and the gravid uterus were dissected out and examined. Compared to the controlled group, in which weight gain was more significant, the animals from the experimental group had a slight increase in body weight. The weight gain normally induced by gestation, is less significant in fluoxetine treated rats due to the increase serotonin levels in the brain. The uteri examination of pregnant rats showed an increase in the number of dead and resorbed rat embryos. Preclinical studies suggest that the inclusion of fluoxetine in pregnancy category C is justified and the appropriateness of its administration in pregnancy is still an unresolved issue.

  2. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  3. Association between placentome size, measured using transrectal ultrasonography, and gestational age in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyinka, F D; Laven, R A; Lawrence, K E; van Den Bosch, M; Blankenvoorde, G; Parkinson, T J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate whether fetal age could be accurately estimated using placentome size. Fifty-eight cows with confirmed conception dates in two herds were used for the study. The length of the long axis and cross-sectional area of placentomes close to the cervix were measured once every 10 days between approximately 60-130 days of gestation and once every 15 days between 130-160 days of gestation. Four to six placentomes were measured using transrectal ultrasonography in each uterine horn. A linear mixed model was used to establish the factors that were significantly associated with log mean placentome length and to create an equation to predict gestational age from mean placentome length. Limits of agreement analysis was then used to evaluate whether the predictions were sufficiently accurate for mean placentome length to be used, in practice, as a method of determining gestational age. Only age of gestation (puterine horn (p=0.048) were found to have a significant effect on log mean placentome length. From the three models used to predict gestational age the one that used log mean placentome length of all placentomes, adjusting for the effect of horn, had the smallest 95% limits of agreement; ±33 days. That is, predicted gestational age had a 95% chance of being between 33 days greater and 33.7 days less than actual age. This is approximately twice that reported in studies using measurement of fetal size. Measurement of placentomes near to the cervix using transrectal ultrasonography was easily achieved. There was a significant association between placentome size and gestational age, but between-cow variation in placentome size and growth resulted in poor agreement between placentome size and gestational age. Although placentomes can be easily visualised during diagnosis of pregnancy using transrectal ultrasonography, mean placentome size should not be used to estimate gestational age.

  4. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  5. Gestational age at birth and brain white matter development in term-born infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies on infants/children born preterm have shown that adequate gestational length is critical for brain white matter development. Less is known regarding how variations in gestational age at birth in term infants/children affect white matter development, which was evaluated in this study. Using d...

  6. New insights in factors influencing growth in children born small for gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Renes (Judith)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Small for gestational age (SGA) refers to the size of an infant at birth. It is defined as a birth weight and/ or birth length of at least two standard deviation scores (SDS) below the mean for gestational age (1, 2). SGA children can be born full-term or premature.

  7. A method of estimating conceptus doses resulting from multidetector CT examinations during all stages of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damilakis, John; Tzedakis, Antonis; Perisinakis, Kostas; Papadakis, Antonios E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Current methods for the estimation of conceptus dose from multidetector CT (MDCT) examinations performed on the mother provide dose data for typical protocols with a fixed scan length. However, modified low-dose imaging protocols are frequently used during pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for the estimation of conceptus dose from any MDCT examination of the trunk performed during all stages of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study to model the Siemens Sensation 16 and Sensation 64 MDCT scanners. Four mathematical phantoms were used, simulating women at 0, 3, 6, and 9 months of gestation. The contribution to the conceptus dose from single simulated scans was obtained at various positions across the phantoms. To investigate the effect of maternal body size and conceptus depth on conceptus dose, phantoms of different sizes were produced by adding layers of adipose tissue around the trunk of the mathematical phantoms. To verify MCNP results, conceptus dose measurements were carried out by means of three physical anthropomorphic phantoms, simulating pregnancy at 0, 3, and 6 months of gestation and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) crystals. Results: The results consist of Monte Carlo-generated normalized conceptus dose coefficients for single scans across the four mathematical phantoms. These coefficients were defined as the conceptus dose contribution from a single scan divided by the CTDI free-in-air measured with identical scanning parameters. Data have been produced to take into account the effect of maternal body size and conceptus position variations on conceptus dose. Conceptus doses measured with TLD crystals showed a difference of up to 19% compared to those estimated by mathematical simulations. Conclusions: Estimation of conceptus doses from MDCT examinations of the trunk performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be made

  8. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Fetal eyeball volume: relationship to gestational age and biparietal diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Marwan; Feldman, Yulia; Degani, Shimon; Grinin, Vitali; Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob

    2009-08-01

    To measure and determine normal values of the fetal eyeball volume between 14 and 40 weeks of gestation. The volume of the fetal eyeball was measured with three-dimensional ultrasound between 14 and 40 weeks of gestation using the VOCAL software.Only singleton pregnancies without fetal growth restriction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension or major fetal malformation were included. Over all, 203 women were studied. In 125 both eyeballs were measured while in 78 only one eyeball was measured. The volume of the eyeball correlated strongly with gestational age (right: R = 0.946, P eyeball volume and the BPD were: square of right eyeball = -0.180 + 0.187 BPD, square of left eyeball = -0.182 + 0.187 BPD. The volume of the eyeball has strong positive correlations with gestational age and BPD. Our data may be helpful in fetuses suspected of having eye anomalies.

  10. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demas, B.E.; Hricak, H.; Braga, C.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four women with suspected gestational trophoblastic neoplasms were evaluated prospectively to identify imaging algorithms optimal for treatment planning. All underwent chest radiography, chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. Ten also underwent pelvic CT, 13 pelvic US. The most sensitive imaging combination was chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. However, correct assignment to ACOG therapeutic categories was achieved by means of history, physical examination, beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin measurements, and chest radiography in 81% of patients. Hepatic and cranial imaging defined the need for radiation therapy. Chest CT was needed only when chest radiographs were negative. Pelvic imaging aided diagnosis but did not assist in treatment planning

  11. Gestational diabetes: A clinical update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Ulla; Madsen, Lene Ring; Skajaa, Gitte Oeskov

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing in prevalence in tandem with the dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Much controversy surrounds the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes, emphasizing the importance and relevance...

  12. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of complications for mother and child. Along with the growing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of gestational diabetes is expected to rise. With adequate and timely treatment, the risk of complications is reduced.

  13. Controversies in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and controversy are old friends. However, several major studies in the field have clarified some of the main issues. There is now no doubt that hyperglycaemia, at levels less than those that occur in overt diabetes, is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as large-for-gestational age infants, neonatal hyperinsulinism, neonatal hypoglycaemia and pre-eclampsia. We also have evidence now that a standard approach to GDM with diagnosis at 24-28 weeks, dietary advice, self-monitoring of blood glucose and insulin therapy as needed reduces these adverse perinatal outcomes. Unknown, however, is if this same approach is effective at reducing long-term risks of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both the mothers and babies. For example, could our management strategies miss critical time points of fuel-mediated injury to the foetus important for the baby's long-term metabolic health? The implications of a recent international consensus statement on new diagnostic criteria for GDM are discussed, as well as issues relating to the timing of diagnosis. The potential place for a risk calculator for adverse outcomes in GDM pregnancy that takes into account glycaemic and non-glycaemic risk factors is considered. Such a tool could help stratify GDM women to different levels of care. Ongoing issues relating to maternal glycaemic and foetal growth targets, and the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents in GDM are discussed. To resolve some of the remaining controversies, further carefully designed randomised controlled trials in GDM with long-term follow-up of both mothers and babies are necessary. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between ultrasound estimated fetal gestational age and cerebellar appearance in healthy pregnant Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyekun, Ademola A; Orji, Michael O

    2015-01-01

    Fetal biometry by ultrasound provides reliable and important information about fetal growth and wellbeing. Evaluation of the fetal posterior fossa is useful in the assessment of neural tube-defects. Studies on normal ultrasound fetal cerebellar appearance and diameter across gestational age (GA) are scanty in the Nigerian medical literature. This study was carried out to study normal fetal cerebellar appearance and diameter at various GAs among healthy pregnant Nigerian Africans. This was a prospective study of 450 healthy singleton pregnant women between 13 and 42 weeks gestation. A curvilinear probe with a 3.5 MHz transducer of a SonoAce X6 (Medison Inc., Korea 2010) scanner was used to assess fetal transcerebellar diameter (TCD) and appearance. GA was also determined using fetal biometric parameters such as the biparietal diameter, femur length, and abdominal circumference. Fetal cerebellar appearance was correlated against GA. The cerebellar appearance was graded into: Grade I: 164 fetuses (36.4%), Grade II; 102 fetuses (22.7%) and Grade III: 184 fetuses (40.9%). Mean GA and TCD was 21 weeks and 21.2 mm for Grade I; 28 weeks and 32.6 mm for Grade II; and 35 weeks and 47.1 mm for Grade III. There was significance difference among the cerebellar grades at the GA groups and transverse cerebellar diameter (P < 0.000). There is a gradual and steady change in ultrasonographic appearance of the fetal cerebellar and diameter appearance with advancing gestation. The changes ranged from anechoic, "pair of eye glass" appearance at second trimester to relatively echogenic, "dumb-bell" appearance at early third trimester, and solid, "fan-shape" in late third trimester.

  15. The FL/AC ratio for prediction of shoulder dystocia in women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Elaine L; Casey, Brian M; McIntire, Donald D; Twickler, Diane M

    2017-10-01

    To determine if sonographic variables, including fetal femur length to abdominal circumference (FL/AC) ratio, are associated with shoulder dystocia in women with gestational diabetes. This was a retrospective cohort study of women with gestational diabetes who delivered singleton infants at Parkland Hospital from 1997 to 2015. Diagnosis and treatment of gestational diabetes were uniform including sonography at 32-36 weeks. Biometric calculations were evaluated for correlation with shoulder dystocia. During the study period, 6952 women with gestational diabetes underwent a sonogram at a mean gestation of 34.8 ± 1.8 weeks. Of 4183 vaginal deliveries, 66 experienced shoulder dystocia (16/1000). The FL/AC was associated with shoulder dystocia (p dystocia in women with gestational diabetes. Additionally, it is a simple ratio that is independent of the reference used and remains stable, unlike age-adjusted AC and HC/AC ratio.

  16. Comparison of early gestational development between natural and stimulated pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, M. O.; Yoon, T. K.; Cha, G. Y.

    1990-01-01

    In order to assess the difference in growth and development between the stimulated and natural pregnancies, we compared the sonographic measurement of early embryos from the fifth to seventh gestational week, in terms of mean size of gestational sac, crown rump length, fetal heart rate and yolk sac size between 26 ovulation stimulated pregnancies and 38 natural pre gnancies. The two groups were compared by multiple regression analysis, The data suggest that there is attend that embryos smaller in stimulated pregnancies though significant statistical differences was not proved

  17. Normal renal development investigated with fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzani, Linde; Brugger, Peter Christian; Hoermann, Marcus; Kasprian, Gregor; Csapone-Balassy, Csilla; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate age-dependent changes in fetal kidney measurements with MRI. Patients and methods: Fetal MRI examinations were used to study the kidney length (218 fetuses), signal intensities of renal tissue, renal pelvis, and liver tissue on T2-weighted images (223 fetuses), and the whole-kidney apparent diffusion coefficient (107 fetuses). A 1.5 T superconducting unit with a phased array coil was used in patients from 16 to 39 weeks' gestation. The imaging protocol included T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo, T2-weighted balanced angiography and diffusion-weighted sequences. Slice thickness ranged from 3 to 5 mm. Results: Fetal kidney length as a function of gestational age was expressed by the linear regression: kidney length (mm) = 0.190 x gestational age (d) - 8.034 (R 2 0.883, p 2 /s) = 0.0302 x square (gestational age (d)) - 14.202 x gestational age (d) + 2728.6 (R 2 = 0.225, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The length, signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and apparent diffusion coefficient of the fetal kidney change significantly with gestational age. The presented data may help in the prenatal diagnosis of renal anomalies

  18. Polycystic ovary disease. A risk factor for gestational diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzone, A; Caruso, A; Di Simone, N; De Carolis, S; Fulghesu, A M; Mancuso, S

    1995-04-01

    We investigated the impact of pregestationally elevated insulin plasma levels on glycemic control in pregnant women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). Twelve patients with PCOD who became pregnant within six months following evaluation of their metabolic status were the study subjects. Four were obese and six (two obese) had a hyperinsulinemic response to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). They were tested with the OGTT at 28-30 weeks of gestation. We also tested 12 normal patients and 10 consecutive patients with gestational diabetes; all were at the same gestational age. Plasma levels of insulin and glucose were determined in the samples collected for a period of four hours after glucose load (100 g). All PCOD patients significantly increased their insulin secretion in pregnancy. The hyperinsulinemic PCOD patients developed gestational diabetes (two patients) and impaired gestational glucose tolerance (three patients). The area under the insulin curve was greater in PCOD patients than in control and gestational diabetes patients (P PCOD may develop a derangement of glycemic control, probably related to their pregestational insulinemic status.

  19. Is Doppler ultrasound useful for evaluating gestational trophoblastic disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence H. Lin

    Full Text Available Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive method for evaluating vascularization and is widely used in clinical practice. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes a group of highly vascularized malignancies derived from placental cells. This review summarizes data found in the literature regarding the applications of Doppler ultrasound in managing patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane and LILACS databases were searched for articles published in English until 2014 using the following keywords: “Gestational trophoblastic disease AND Ultrasonography, Doppler.” Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were separated into the 4 following groups according to the aim of the study. (1 Doppler ultrasound does not seem to be capable of differentiating partial from complete moles, but it might be useful when evaluating pregnancies in which a complete mole coexists with a normal fetus. (2 There is controversy in the role of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. (3 Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia because abnormal myometrial vascularization and lower uterine artery Doppler indices seem to be correlated with invasive disease. (4 Lower uterine artery Doppler indices in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are associated with methotrexate resistance and might play a role in prognosis. CONCLUSION: Several studies support the importance of Doppler ultrasound in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, particularly the role of Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of trophoblastic neoplasia and the chemoresistance of trophoblastic tumors. Doppler findings should be used as ancillary tools, along with human chorionic gonadotropin assessment, in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  20. Is Doppler ultrasound useful for evaluating gestational trophoblastic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lawrence H; Bernardes, Lisandra S; Hase, Eliane A; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana P V

    2015-12-01

    Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive method for evaluating vascularization and is widely used in clinical practice. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes a group of highly vascularized malignancies derived from placental cells. This review summarizes data found in the literature regarding the applications of Doppler ultrasound in managing patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane and LILACS databases were searched for articles published in English until 2014 using the following keywords: "Gestational trophoblastic disease AND Ultrasonography, Doppler." Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were separated into the 4 following groups according to the aim of the study. (1) Doppler ultrasound does not seem to be capable of differentiating partial from complete moles, but it might be useful when evaluating pregnancies in which a complete mole coexists with a normal fetus. (2) There is controversy in the role of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. (3) Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia because abnormal myometrial vascularization and lower uterine artery Doppler indices seem to be correlated with invasive disease. (4) Lower uterine artery Doppler indices in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are associated with methotrexate resistance and might play a role in prognosis. Several studies support the importance of Doppler ultrasound in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, particularly the role of Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of trophoblastic neoplasia and the chemoresistance of trophoblastic tumors. Doppler findings should be used as ancillary tools, along with human chorionic gonadotropin assessment, in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  1. Continuous growth reference from 24th week of gestation to 24 months by gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertsson-Wikland Kerstin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth charts and child growth assessment have become prime global instruments in child health practice over the 30 years. An updated, continuous growth standard that bridges size at birth values with postnatal growth values can improve child growth screening and monitoring. Methods This novel growth chart was constructed from two sources of information. Size at birth (weight, length and head circumference reference values were updated based on information of normal deliveries (i.e. singleton live births without severe congenital malformation, with healthy mothers and born vaginally from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, 1990–1999 (n = 810393. Weight was evaluated using logarithmic transformation as for postnatal weight. Standard deviations were estimated from data within the empirical mean ± 1.0 SD for each gestational week and gender. These values were smoothed by empirical curve-fitting together with values from our recently published postnatal growth reference including 3650 longitudinally followed children from birth to final height 9. Timescale and weight axes were made logarithmic in order to magnify the early time part of the graph. Results This study presents the first continuous gender specific growth chart from birth irrespective of gestational age at birth until 2 years of age for weight, length and head circumference. Birth weight at 40 weeks of gestation increased approximately 100 gram and length increased only 1 mm compared with earlier Swedish reference from 1977–81. The curve is now less S-shaped as compared with earlier curves and compared with 4 curves from other countries and with more constant variation over the whole range. Conclusion Our values picture the unrestricted pattern of growth improving the detection of a deviating growth pattern, when the growth of an individual infant is plotted on the charts. Especially for very preterm infants age corrected growth can be more easily evaluated

  2. Relation of maternal vitamin D status with gestational diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and glucose intolerance, and its impact on pregnant women and their newborns. Methods: A cohort of pregnant women were divided into three groups: women with gestational diabetes mellitus, ones with normal results both after the 50 gr and 100 ...

  3. Clusters of week-specific maternal gestational weight gain pattern and their association with birthweight: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huan; Yin, Chuanmin; Dong, Xinran; Acharya, Ganesh; Li, Xiaotian

    2017-10-01

    Gestational weight gain varies widely among different populations, and an inappropriate gestational weight gain is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to investigate week-specific serial changes in gestational weight gain in an urban Chinese population to derive clusters of gestational weight gain patterns and explore the impact of gestational weight gain patterns on birthweight. This was an observational cohort study of 6130 women delivered at a university hospital in Shanghai, China. Pre-pregnancy bodyweight, height, week-specific and total gestational weight gain, pregnancy outcome and birthweight were extracted using electronic medical records. The association between gestational weight gain and gestational age was tested using linear regression, and week-specific reference percentiles for gestational weight gain were calculated. Hierarchical clustering was used to derive gestational weight gain clusters. Mean birthweight among the clusters was compared using Dunnet's test. We found a significant linear association between gestational weight gain and gestational age (r = 0.56; p gain pattern were identified. The birthweight significantly correlated with gestational weight gain (r = 0.28; p gain throughout the pregnancy, the mean birthweight among the clusters that had abnormal gestational weight gain (inadequate or excessive) in the third trimester was significantly different (p gain (between 5 and 95 percentile) in the third-trimester had similar mean birthweight. Women with abnormal gestational weight gain before the third-trimester still had a fair chance of delivering a normal birthweight baby if their gestational weight gain was normal in the third-trimester, suggesting that interventions started even late in pregnancy may have a positive effect on fetal growth. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus among women born in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jytte Lindskov; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Greenlanders and to evaluate the quality of the current screening procedure for gestational diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Observational retrospective study of consecutive birth-log data and medical records on pregnant....... However, only 54% of those women were screened. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was calculated to be 4.3% among high-risk Greenlandic pregnant women (2/46) (95% CI 0-10.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a suboptimal screening rate, the prevalence of GDM among Greenlanders seems to be relatively low...... women who had given birth in Nuuk during 2008. METHODS: Information about maternal weight, weight gain in pregnancy, height, blood pressure, result of oral glucose tolerance test, family history of diabetes, smoking and alcohol habits, ethnicity, delivery and birth weight and length was collected...

  5. The management of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wah Cheung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available N Wah CheungCentre for Diabetes and Endocrinology Research, Westmead Hospital, and University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: The incidence of gestational diabetes is increasing. As gestational diabetes is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and has long-term implications for both mother and child, it is important that it is recognized and appropriately managed. This review will examine the pharmacological options for the management of gestational diabetes, as well as the evidence for blood glucose monitoring, dietary and exercise therapy. The medical management of gestational diabetes is still evolving, and recent randomized controlled trials have added considerably to our knowledge in this area. As insulin therapy is effective and safe, it is considered the gold standard of pharmacotherapy for gestational diabetes, against which other treatments have been compared. The current experience is that the short acting insulin analogs lispro and aspart are safe, but there are only limited data to support the use of long acting insulin analogs. There are randomized controlled trials which have demonstrated efficacy of the oral agents glyburide and metformin. Whilst short-term data have not demonstrated adverse effects of glyburide and metformin on the fetus, and they are increasingly being used in pregnancy, there remain long-term concerns regarding their potential for harm.Keywords: gestational diabetes, insulin, oral antidiabetic agents, pregnancy, type 2 diabetes

  6. The Therapeutic Effect of Zuogui Wan in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qianjin; Niu, Xin; Liu, Xinshe; Xu, Kaixia; Yang, Xiangzhu; Wang, Huifeng

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment, we established an animal model of gestational diabetes mellitus rats using streptozotocin. Using the rat model of GDM, the pregnant rats in 1-19d were divided into three groups: (1) Zuogui Wan gestational diabetes mellitus group (group I, n = 12), (2) gestational diabetes mellitus rats as the control group (group II, n = 11), and (3) rats of normal pregnancy group (group III, n = 11). Compared with gestational diabetes mellitus rats as the control group, Zuogui Wan can change the indexes of fasting blood glucose, body weight, total cholesterol, insulin, and metabolism cage index significantly in Zuogui Wan gestational diabetes mellitus group. We can conclude that Zuogui Wan has the therapeutic effect on gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:25136475

  7. Polymorphism of the renalase gene in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Jamil, Zehra; Alam, Faiza; Malik, Hajira Zafar; Madhani, Sarosh Irfan; Ahmad, Muhammad Saad; Shabbir, Tayyab; Rehmani, Muhammed Noman; Rabbani, Amna

    2017-01-01

    Renalase is considered as a novel candidate gene for type 2 diabetes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase and two single nucleotide polymorphisms with gestational diabetes mellitus. One hundred and ninety-eight normotensive pregnant females (n = 99 gestational diabetes mellitus; n = 99 euglycemic pregnant controls) were classified according to the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study criteria. Fasting and 2-h post glucose load blood levels and anthropometric assessment was performed. Serum renalase was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas DNA samples were genotyped for renalase single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2576178 and rs10887800 using Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism method. In an age-matched case control study, no difference was observed in the serum levels of renalase (p > 0.05). The variant rs10887800 showed an association with gestational diabetes mellitus and remained significant after multiple adjustments (p gestational diabetes. Although gestational diabetes mellitus is self-reversible, yet presence of this minor G allele might predispose to metabolic syndrome phenotypes in near the future.

  8. Case report: prenatal diagnosis of diastrophic dysplasia by ultrasound at 21 weeks of gestation in a mother with massive obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C; Sohn, C; Sergi, C

    1998-04-01

    Routine prenatal ultrasound of a massively obese mother at 21 weeks of gestation revealed short-limb dwarfism in the fetus. The proportionate shortening of tubular bones of about 50 per cent of the normal length, the absence of thoracic dysplasia, and a normal head circumference narrowed the diagnosis down to a severe but non-lethal skeletal dysplasia. Ulnar deviation of the hands and talipes made diastrophic dysplasia the most likely differential diagnosis. At post-mortem clinical examination, the diagnosis of diastrophic dysplasia was clearly apparent due to highly specific 'hitch-hiker thumbs', similarly luxated big toes, facial dysmorphism, and a cleft palate. Retrospective re-evaluation of the prenatal ultrasound videos revealed the misplaced thumbs, which together with the ulnar deviation of the wrist and suspected talipes, led to the conclusion that the definitive diagnosis can be established prenatally, even in a mother with massive obesity.

  9. Ethical issues in gestational surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ber, R

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of contraceptive technologies has resulted in the separation of sex and procreation. The introduction of new reproductive technologies (mainly IVF and embryo transfer) has led not only to the separation of procreation and sex, but also to the redefinition of the terms mother and family. For the purpose of this essay, I will distinguish between: 1. the genetic mother--the donor of the egg; 2. the gestational mother--she who bears and gives birth to the baby; 3. the social mother--the woman who raises the child. This essay will deal only with the form of gestational surrogacy in which the genetic parents intend to be the social parents, and the surrogate mother has no genetic relationship to the child she bears and delivers. I will raise questions regarding medical ethical aspects of surrogacy and the obligation(s) of the physician(s) to the parties involved. I will argue that the gestational surrogate is "a womb to rent," that there is great similarity between gestational commercial surrogacy and organ transplant marketing. Furthermore, despite claims to freedom of choice and free marketing, I will claim that gestational surrogacy is a form of prostitution and slavery, exploitation of the poor and needy by those who are better off. The right to be a parent, although not constitutional, is intuitive and deeply rooted. However, the issue remains whether this right overrules all other rights, and at what price to the parties involved. I will finally raise the following provocative question to society: In the interim period between today's limited technology and tomorrow's extra-corporeal gestation technology (ectogenesis), should utilizing females in PVS (persistent vehetative state) for gestational surrogacy be socially acceptable/permissible--provided they have left permission in writing?

  10. Ultrasound assessment of placental function: the effectiveness of placental biometry in a low-risk population as a predictor of a small for gestational age neonate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinty, Patricia

    2012-07-01

    The aims of the study were to establish reference ranges for placental length and thickness in a low-risk obstetric population and to assess the likelihood of a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate on the basis of placental length at 18-24 weeks\\' gestation.

  11. A STUDY ON PLACENTAL MORPHOLOGY IN GESTATIONAL DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katadi Venkata Sudha Madhuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM refers to any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Maternal diabetes constitutes an unfavourable environment for embryonic and foetoplacental development. The histomorphological changes in the placenta are associated with increased perinatal morbidity, increased risk of diabetes in the offspring and the mother in the ensuing years of life. Present study aims to study the morphological changes in the placenta along with maternal and foetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GDM. MATERIALS AND METHODS A descriptive observational case-controlled study was conducted from January 2013 to November 2016 in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam. Hundred and sixty four women diagnosed with GDM and hundred women with normal gestation were enrolled in the study. Foetal surveillance was done by Doppler ultrasound and kick count technique during the gestation. Foetal and maternal outcome was evaluated and compared to the outcome of normal gestation. Placental specimens from term gestations (38-42 weeks diagnosed with GDM and normal full-term gestations were studied to assess the morphological parameters. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive statistical measures. RESULTS In the present study, 62.19% of the GDM cases terminated as normal gestations. Recurrent UTI was the most common complication (14.02% during the antenatal period. 17.68% of the foetuses from GDM mothers presented with macrosomia, however, there were no cases of congenital anomalies or shoulder dystocia. Placental tissue from the GDM cases was larger, heavier and more cotyledonous as compared to placenta from normal subjects. The umbilical cord showed eccentric and central attachment in all the controls and most of the cases and 5.48% of the cases showed marginal attachment of the umbilical cord. CONCLUSION The study describes the various maternal, foetal and placental outcomes in pregnancies

  12. [Chinese neonatal birth weight curve for different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Shulian; Shi, Wenjing; Yan, Weili; Wang, Xiaoli; Lyu, Qin; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Qin; Qiu, Quanfang; Li, Xiaoying; He, Haiying; Wang, Jimei; Li, Ruichun; Lu, Jiarong; Yin, Zhaoqing; Su, Ping; Lin, Xinzhu; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shujun; Xin, Hua; Han, Yanqing; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Zhankui; Wang, Huiqin; Qiu, Yinping; Liu, Huayan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Mingxia; Li, Wenjing; Han, Shuping; Cao, Bei; Yi, Bin; Zhang, Yihui; Chen, Chao

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, the reference of birth weight for gestational age has not been updated. The aim of this study was to set up Chinese neonatal network to investigate the current situation of birth weight in China, especially preterm birth weight, to develop the new reference for birth weight for gestational age and birth weight curve. A nationwide neonatology network was established in China. This survey was carried out in 63 hospitals of 23 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. We continuously collected the information of live births in participating hospitals during the study period of 2011-2014. Data describing birth weight and gestational age were collected prospectively. Newborn's birth weight was measured by electronic scale within 2 hours after birth when baby was undressed. The evaluation of gestational age was based on the combination of mother's last menstrual period, ultrasound in first trimester and gestational age estimation by gestational age scoring system. the growth curve was drawn by using LMSP method, which was conducted in GAMLSS 1.9-4 software package in R software 2.11.1. A total of 159 334 newborn infants were enrolled in this study. There were 84 447 male and 74 907 female. The mean birth weight was (3 232 ± 555) g, the mean birth weight of male newborn was (3 271 ± 576) g, the mean weight of female newborn was (3 188 ± 528) g. The test of the variables' distribution suggested that the distribution of gestational age and birth weight did not fit the normal distribution, the optimal distribution for them was BCT distribution. The Q-Q plot test and worm plot test suggested that this curve fitted the distribution optimally. The male and female neonatal birth weight curve was developed using the same method. Using GAMLSS method to establish nationwide neonatal birth weight curve, and the first time to update the birth weight reference in recent 28 years.

  13. Clinical diagnosis of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Edmond A

    2013-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis remains controversial. ACOG criteria are based on the long-term risk of maternal diabetes. ADA recently suggested diagnosing GDM with 1 elevated value on an oral glucose tolerance test based on a 1.75-fold risk of large-for-gestational age infants resulting in a 17.8% rate of GDM. Given the lack of neonatal-based outcomes for the traditional position and problems of reproducibility and benefit/harm balance of the ADA approach, an alternative is presented herein based on a 2-fold risk of a large-for-gestational age baby, requiring 2 separate abnormalities to reduce false positives giving a more balanced benefit/harm ratio (10% GDM rate).

  14. Maternal hepatitis B infection and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Terence T; Chan, Ben C P; Leung, Wing-Cheong; Ho, Lai-Fong; Tse, Ka-Yu

    2007-07-01

    This retrospective cohort study was performed to examine the relationship between maternal hepatitis B virus infection, as indicated by the surface antigen status, with the development of gestational diabetes mellitus in a normal-risk Chinese obstetric population. Maternal demographics, risk factors, and pregnancy outcome of 13,683 singleton pregnancies delivering in 1998-2001 were analysed according to maternal hepatitis B surface antigen status, which was routinely screened. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the role of hepatitis B infection in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus. The 1138 women (8.3%) with hepatitis B infection had lower mean weight and body mass index, similar prevalence of chronic medical diseases and smokers, but increased prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, which remained significant (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.51) after adjustment for confounding variables. However, there was no difference in pregnancy outcome. Our results confirmed the independent association between hepatitis B infection with gestational diabetes mellitus. The magnitude of chronic hepatitis B infection in the developing world and certain ethnic groups could have contributed to the high prevalence of gestational and possibly type 2 diabetes in these populations. Further studies on the long-term implications of our finding are warranted.

  15. Pregnancy-specific stress, preterm birth, and gestational age among high-risk young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Heather J; Kershaw, Trace S; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Yonkers, Kimberly Ann; Lin, Haiqun; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that pregnancy-specific stress is associated with preterm birth. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between change in pregnancy-specific stress over the course of pregnancy and birth outcomes (i.e., preterm birth and gestational age) in an understudied but vulnerable group using a theoretically derived model. Multivariate linear and logistic regression techniques were used to examine the association between pregnancy-specific stress (measured in second and third trimester) and length of gestation (i.e., preterm birth and gestational age) among a sample of 920 Black and/or Latina adolescent and young women. Second trimester pregnancy-specific stress was not associated with preterm birth or gestational age. Third trimester pregnancy-specific stress was associated with preterm birth but not with gestational age. Change in pregnancy-specific stress between second and third trimester was significantly associated with increased likelihood of preterm delivery and shortened gestational age, even after controlling for important biological, behavioral, psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural risk factors. Findings emphasize the importance of measuring pregnancy-specific stress across pregnancy, as the longitudinal change from second to third trimester was significantly associated with length of gestation measured both as a dichotomous variable (preterm birth) and a continuous variable (gestational age). Furthermore, this is the first study to observe the association of pregnancy-specific stress with length of gestation in this understudied population-unique in age, race, and ethnicity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Cardiopulmonary adaptation in large for gestational age infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela-Huerta, M; Aguilera-López, A; Alarcón-Santos, S; Amador, N; Aldana-Valenzuela, C; Heredia, A

    2007-09-01

    To compare cardiopulmonary adaptation in large for gestational age infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers. Color Doppler echocardiography was performed in 113 (22 large for gestational age infants of diabetic mothers, 21 of nondiabetic mothers and 70 adequate for gestational age newborns) full-term infants. Pulmonary arterial pressure was significantly higher in infants of diabetic mothers than in those of nondiabetic mothers and normal infants at 24 h (38.5 vs. 32.5, and 35.5 mmHg, respectively). However, slow fall in this parameter was shown in all large for gestational age infants. Open ductus arteriosus was frequent in all large for gestational age infants, but its closure was significantly delayed in infants of diabetic mothers. Septal hypertrophy was higher in infants of diabetic mothers than in large for gestational age infants of nondiabetic mothers. Large for gestational age infants born from nondiabetic mothers showed delayed fall in pulmonary arterial pressure similar to those born from diabetic mothers but showed lower proportion of septal hypertrophy. Patent ductus arteriosus persisted for longer period of time in all large for gestational age infants than in normal infants, but its closure was significantly delayed in infants of diabetic mothers.

  17. Glycemic Status During Pregnancy in Gestational Diabetic & Non-Gestational Diabetic Women & its Effect on Maternal & Fetal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Sawant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: 1.To study the time course of plasma glucose, in gestational diabetic and normal pregnant women. 2.To compare maternal outcome and fetal outcome in gestational diabetic and normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Five hundred pregnant individuals visiting the Antenatal Clinic of Rural Medical College, Loni in either half of the gestation were screened and gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the WHO criteria. Results: The scope of diabetes and pregnancy encompasses not only diabetics marching through pregnancy but also, any form of abnormal glucose tolerance developing during gestation, termed as gestational diabetes, abnormal glucose tolerance of any etiology recognized or unrecognized starting before pregnancy or revealed during pregnancy, is associated with a high risk of a poor maternal and fetal outcomes. In our study we found a significantly higher incidence of caesarean section in-patients with GDM when compared with the normal group (67% versus 25%, P <0.001. In GDM cases, we observed fetal macrosomia, high birth weight etc. Naturally these are the factors, which add to the pre-existing unfavourable maternal factors affecting the process of labour adversely. We observed a significant difference in the incidence of preterm labour in between the GDM and non-GDM groups (22% Vs 13%, p<0.05. These individuals underwent a process of preterm labour at a gestational age of 32+3 weeks. Hyperglycemia and polyhydramnios are held responsible for preterm labour. The incidence rate of PIH was more in subjects with GDM as compared to the other group. However this difference failed to prove statistically significant at 5% level of significance. Though we did not get a significant difference in occurrence of PIH in between the GDM and non-GDM groups, we do agree with the comment that hyperglycemia earlier in the pregnancy is associated with greater incidence of PIH as three of the four cases who were diagnosed

  18. Normal renal development investigated with fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: linde.witzani@aon.at; Brugger, Peter Christian [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hoermann, Marcus [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Csapone-Balassy, Csilla [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate age-dependent changes in fetal kidney measurements with MRI. Patients and methods: Fetal MRI examinations were used to study the kidney length (218 fetuses), signal intensities of renal tissue, renal pelvis, and liver tissue on T2-weighted images (223 fetuses), and the whole-kidney apparent diffusion coefficient (107 fetuses). A 1.5 T superconducting unit with a phased array coil was used in patients from 16 to 39 weeks' gestation. The imaging protocol included T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo, T2-weighted balanced angiography and diffusion-weighted sequences. Slice thickness ranged from 3 to 5 mm. Results: Fetal kidney length as a function of gestational age was expressed by the linear regression: kidney length (mm) = 0.190 x gestational age (d) - 8.034 (R {sup 2} 0.883, p < 0.001). Paired t-test analysis showed a highly statistically significant difference between the ratio of renal tissue signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity and the ratio of liver signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity on T2-weighted images (t = -50.963, d.f. = 162, p < 0.001), with renal tissue hyperintense to liver tissue. The apparent diffusion coefficient in relation to gestational age was described by the equation: ADC ({mu}m{sup 2}/s) = 0.0302 x square (gestational age (d)) - 14.202 x gestational age (d) + 2728.6 (R {sup 2} = 0.225, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The length, signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and apparent diffusion coefficient of the fetal kidney change significantly with gestational age. The presented data may help in the prenatal diagnosis of renal anomalies.

  19. Gestational diabetes insipidus. Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejmocka-Ambroziak, Anna; Grzechocińska, Barbara; Jastrzebska, Helena; Kochman, Magdalena; Cyganek, Anna; Wielgoś, Mirosław; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a very rare complication. However, undiagnosed and untreated may lead to serious complications in both mother and fetus. In this study, a case of 34-year-old female patient with diabetes insipidus associated with pregnancy was reported. We discussed process of diagnosis and treatment with particular emphasis on the monitoring of water-electrolyte imbalance during labor.

  20. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective. The aim of this study...

  1. Large for Gestational Age (LGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mother Other risk factors for having large-for-gestational-age newborns include Maternal obesity Having had previous LGA babies Genetic abnormalities or syndromes (for example, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or Sotos syndrome) Excessive weight gain during pregnancy (the fetus gets more calories as ...

  2. EAMJ Feb. gestation.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-02

    Feb 2, 2009 ... Majority of the women studied were at a gestation of 8 to 11 weeks (38.9%). Most patients ... foetal risks, and management and follow-up of both entities are .... thyrotoxicosis in Asian women in Singapore and found-out that the ...

  3. [Ultrasound measurement of fetal posterior fossa at 11 to 13⁺⁶ gestational weeks for screening open spina bifida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng-Zhen; Li, Sheng-Li; Wen, Hua-Xuan; Ouyang, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Qiong; Bi, Jing-Ru

    2014-06-01

    To establish the normal reference ranges of transabdominal ultrasound measurements of the posterior fossa structure in fetuses at 11 to 13⁺⁶ gestational weeks and explore their clinical value in screening open spina bifida (OSB). Between January, 2013 and September, 541 randomly selected normal fetuses underwent nuchal translucency at the gestational age 11 to 13⁺⁶ weeks. The parameters of the posterior fossa were measured in mid-sagittal view of the fetal face and the axial view of the transverse cerebellum insonated through the anterior fontanel by transabdominal ultrasound to establish the normal reference ranges. The measurements were obtained from 3 fetuses with OSB for comparison with the reference ranges. In normal fetuses, the parameters of the posterior fossa measured in the two views showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Two high echogenic lines were observed in normal fetuses, as compared with one in fetuses with OSB representing the posterior border of the brain stem and the anterior border of the fourth ventricle. The line between the posterior border of the fourth ventricle and the anterior border of the cisterna magna was not displayed in fetuses with OSB. The anteroposterior diameters of the brain stem, the fourth ventricle, and cisterna magna all increased in positive correlation with the crown-lump length in normal fetuses. In the 3 OSB fetuses, the anteroposterior diameter of the brain stem exceeded the 95th percentile and the anteroposterior diameter of fourth ventrical-cisterner magena was below the 5th percentile of the reference range for CRL; the brain stem to fourth ventrical-cisterner magena anteroposterior diameter ratio was increased to above 1. The established normal reference ranges of the parameters of fetal posterior fossa may provide assistance in early OSB detection. The absence of the posterior border of the fourth ventricle and the anterior border of the cisterna magna and a brainstem to fourth ventrical

  4. Am I at Risk for Gestational Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they control their blood sugar levels. Babies whose mothers had gestational diabetes are at higher risk for certain health ... best way to improve outcomes for babies whose mothers have gestational diabetes. Later in Life Babies whose mothers had ...

  5. PROGESTERONE AND ESTRADIOL PROFILES DURING ESTROUS CYCLE AND GESTATION IN DWARF GOATS (CAPRA HIRCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. KHANUM, M. HUSSAIN AND R. KAUSAR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum progesterone and estradiol profiles during estrous cycle, gestation and parturition in four Dwarf goat females (Capra hircus were monitored. Blood sampling was carried out daily during estrous cycle and on alternate days during gestation till parturition. Observations regarding length of estrous cycle, gestation length, litter size and birth weight of kids were recorded. With the initiation of cyclicity, estradiol attained higher levels (7.7 ± 1.7 pg/ml at estrus phase and dropped down to the lower levels within 3 to 4 days post-estrus. Concomitantly, progesterone started to increase from the mean basal value of 0.1 ± 0.03 ng/ml on day-0 to 3.0 ± 0.9 ng/ml on day-6 of estrous cycle and reached the peak value of 7.7 ± 0.6 ng/ml on day-12. From day-15, a decline was observed in progesterone values till the end of the cycle. A second estradiol rise of 14.0 ± 1.2pg/ml was observed on day-18 of the cycle. The mean estrous cycle length was 18.2 ± 2.1 days. During gestation, higher progesterone levels were maintained in the range of 4.3–11.0 ng/ml. Estradiol remained at lower concentrations for 30-50 days of gestation, then gradually increased and reached 270 ± 13.0 pg/ml a few days before parturition. It dropped again to basal values within 1-2 days postpartum. The mean gestation length in Dwarf goats was 144.8 ± 3.9 days and the litter size was 1.8 ± 0.5. It was concluded that Dwarf goat is a prolific breed, having a short gestation length with multiple births being common.

  6. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  7. Diagnostic protocol for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (IADPSG/ADA, 2011): influence on the occurrence of GDM and mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH) and on the perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirimarco, Mariana Pinto; Guerra, Helena Maciel; Lisboa, Eduardo Guimarães; Vernini, Joice Monalisa; Cassetari, Bianca Nicolosi; de Araujo Costa, Roberto Antonio; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; de Mattos Paranhos Calderon, Iracema

    2017-01-01

    In August 2011, the Specialized Center for Diabetes and Pregnancy of the Botucatu Medical School/Unesp adopted a new diagnostic protocol for gestational diabetes mellitus, recommended by the American Diabetes Association and the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group. The glycemic profile was evaluated using the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) used to diagnose mild gestational hyperglycemia, recognized and treated in our department as gestational diabetes mellitus. The cost-effectiveness of the new guidelines and the continued need for the evaluation of the glycemic profile, as part of our Service protocol, are controversial and require further investigation. We aimed to assess the impact of the new guidelines on the evaluation of mild gestational hyperglycemia and gestational diabetes mellitus, the incidence of adverse perinatal outcomes, and the association between the 75-g OGTT and the glycemic profile for the diagnosis of mild gestational hyperglycemia. This cross-sectional study was performed identifying a convenience sample of pregnant women and their newborns. The women used our Service for diagnostic procedures, prenatal care and delivery, both before (January 2008 to August 14, 2011) and after (August 15, 2011 to December 2014) the protocol modification. The following variables were compared, following stratification according to diagnostic protocol: prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and mild gestational hyperglycemia, newborns large for gestational age, macrosomia, first cesarean delivery, and newborn hospital stay. Statistical analysis was performed using Poisson regression, the Student's t test, the Chi square or Fisher's exact test and risk estimate. The statistical significance threshold was set at 95% (p gestational hyperglycemia, despite a normal 75-g OGTT. The new guidelines did not affect perinatal outcome. These results support the validity of maintaining the glycemic profile as part of the

  8. Association of GSTs polymorphisms with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Shaoru; Zhai, Qianqian; Hai, Jie; Wang, Di; Cao, Meng; Zhang, Qinggui

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms and development of gestational diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population. A total of 320 patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and 358 pregnancy subjects were consecutively collected between January 2013 and December 2014. Genotyping for detection of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 IIe105Val was conducted by using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms) method. By Fisher's exact test, we found that the genotype distributions of GSTP1 IIe105Val were in line with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in control subjects (P=0.57). By Chi-square test, we found significant differences in the genotype distributions of GSTM1 (χ(2)=11.49, P=0.001) and GSTT1 (χ(2)=18.50, Pgestational diabetes mellitus when compared with the present genotype, and the adjusted Ors (95% CI) were 1.71 (1.24-2.36) and 2.00 (1.44-2.79), respectively. However, the GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphism was not associated with an elevated risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, we suggest that the GSTM1 null genotype and GSTT1 null genotype are correlated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population.

  9. Serum chemerin level during the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuezhou; Quan, Xiaozhen; Lan, Yanli; Ye, Jinhai; Wei, Qipeng; Yin, Xiaofang; Fan, Fangfang; Xing, Hui

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between chemerin level in the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. The blood samples of 212 women at 8-12 weeks of gestation were collected. After screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 19 women with GDM and 20 women randomly selected from 144 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from these women. Triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, insulin and chemerin were measured. Gestational weight gain and body mass index was assessed. Serum levels of chemerin were significantly elevated during late gestation, and the risk of GDM was positively associated with maternal serum chemerin in the first trimester. Serum chemerin level during the first trimester of pregnancy has the potential to predict risk of GDM.

  10. Resting-state oscillatory activity in children born small for gestational age: a magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBoersma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG in 4-7 year old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA children with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth (SGA+; 6 boys, 7 girls; mean age 6.3 y (SD=0.9 and children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 7 boys, 3 girls; mean age 6.0 y (SD=1.2 participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used nonparametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed was significantly lower head circumference (HC and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth.

  11. Maternal Obesity, Gestational Weight Gain, and Asthma in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, Kristen J; Liu, Jihong; Boghossian, Nansi S; McLain, Alexander C

    2017-11-09

    Obesity is common among women of childbearing age; intrauterine exposure to maternal obesity or gestational weight gain may influence the development of asthma in early childhood. We examined the relationships of maternal obesity and gestational weight gain with asthma in offspring. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, which has a nationally representative sample of children followed from birth in 2001 through age 4 (n = 6,450). Asthma was based on parental report of a medical professional's diagnosis. We used generalized estimating equation binomial models to compute adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of childhood asthma with maternal obesity and 4 measures of gestational weight gain. Compared with children of normal-weight mothers, children of obese mothers had increased risk of asthma (adjusted OR, 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.12) by age 4, and children born to overweight mothers had similar risk (adjusted OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.99-1.59). Extreme-low weight gain (gain (≥25 kg) were associated with increased risk of asthma; however, the following measures were not significant predictors of asthma: meeting gestational weight gain recommendations of the Institute of Medicine, total gestational weight gain, and weekly rate of weight gain in the second and third trimesters. Extreme-low or extreme-high gestational weight gain and maternal obesity are risk factors for early childhood asthma, further evidence of the long-term impact of intrauterine exposure on children and the need to target preconception care to improve child health indicators.

  12. The relationship of birth weight, gestational age, and postmenstrual age with ocular biometry parameters in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze ocular biometry parameters and evaluate their relationship with gestational age, birth weight, and postmenstrual age in prematurely born infants. Methods: The right eyes of 361 premature infants born before the 36th gestational week were evaluated. Birth weight, gestational week, and gender were recorded. An A-scan Biometer was used for obtaining axial measurements, including anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous length, and total axial length. Results: Gestational age and birth weight values ranged from 23 to 36 weeks and from 560 to 2,670 g, respectively. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 30.8 ± 2.8 weeks and 1,497.9 ± 483.6 g, respectively. During the first examination (4-5 weeks of postnatal age, birth weight and gestational age of the infants correlated significantly and positively with lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length (r>0.5, p<0.001, but not with anterior chamber depth (r<0.5. Increased vitreous and axial lengths correlated significantly with increasing postmenstrual age of the infants (r=0.669, p<0.001; r=0.845, p<0.001, respectively. Conclusions: Lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length, but not anterior chamber depth, were significantly correlated with birth weight and gestational age. All four parameters increased with increasing postmenstrual age, with higher correlations for vitreous and axial lengths than for anterior chamber depth and lens thickness. It was concluded that axial elongation resulted primarily from increasing posterior chamber length.

  13. Association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy, gestational weight gain and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinxo, Sonela; Bimbashi, Astrit; Z Kakarriqi, Eduard; Zaimi, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain affects the preterm birth. The association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and preterm birth appears to be complex and varied by studies from different countries, thus this association between the gestational weight gain and preterm birth is more consolidated. The study aims to determine any association between the pre pregnancy maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate in the Albanian context. In case control study, we analyzed women who have delivered in obstetric institutions in Tirana during the year 2012. Body mass index and gestational weight gain of 150 women who had a preterm delivery were compared with those of 150 matched control women who had a normal delivery regarding the gestation age. The self-reported pre pregnancy weight, height, gestational weight gain, age, education and parity are collected through a structured questioner. The body mass index and gestational weight gain are categorized based on the Institute of Medicine recommendation. The multiple logistic regression is used to measure the association between the nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate. The women which have a underweight status or obese of pre pregnancy are more likely to have a preterm birth compared to the women of a normal pre-pregnancy nutritional status (respectively OR =2.7 and 4.3 pnutritional status and gestational weight gain affects the risk for preterm birth. Pre-pregnancy and gestation nutritional assessments should be part of routine prenatal visits.

  14. Gestational Hyperandrogenism in Developmental Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Christopher; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Androgen excess (hyperandrogenism) is a common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The potential causes of androgen excess in women include polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), adrenal tumors, and racial disparity among many others. During pregnancy, luteoma, placental aromatase deficiency, and fetal CAH are additional causes of gestational hyperandrogenism. The present report reviews the various phenotypes of hyperandrogenism during pregnancy and its origin, pathophysiology, and the effect of hyperandrogenism on the fetal developmental trajectory and offspring consequences. PMID:27967205

  15. Diabetes and Pregnancy: Gestational Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-14

    Gestational diabetes happens in a woman who develops diabetes during pregnancy. This podcast discusses its potential effects and action steps to avoid complications.  Created: 11/14/2007 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT) and National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD), Prevention Research Branch.   Date Released: 11/27/2007.

  16. Effects of Gestational Age and Birth Weight on Brain Volumes in Healthy 9 Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soelen, I.L.C.; Brouwer, R.M.; Peper, J.S.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; van Leeuwen, M.; de Vries, L.S.; Kahn, R.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of gestational age and birth weight on brain volumes in a population-based sample of normal developing children at the age of 9 years. Study design: A total of 192 children from twin births were included in the analyses. Data on gestational age and birth weight were

  17. CXC chemokine ligand 16 is increased in gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia and associated with lipoproteins in gestational diabetes mellitus at 5 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekva, Tove; Michelsen, Annika E; Aukrust, Pål; Paasche Roland, Marie Cecilie; Henriksen, Tore; Bollerslev, Jens; Ueland, Thor

    2017-11-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life, but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between CXC chemokine ligand 16 and indices of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation in gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia. This sub-study of the population-based prospective cohort included 310 women. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed during pregnancy and 5 years later along with lipid analysis. CXC chemokine ligand 16 was measured in plasma (protein) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (messenger RNA) during pregnancy and at follow-up. Circulating CXC chemokine ligand 16 was higher in gestational diabetes mellitus women early in pregnancy and at follow-up, while higher in preeclampsia women late in pregnancy compared to control women. Messenger RNA of CXC chemokine ligand 16 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were lower in gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia women compared to control women. Increased circulating CXC chemokine ligand 16 level was associated with a higher apolipoprotein B and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in gestational diabetes mellitus women but not in normal pregnancy at follow-up. Our study shows that women with gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia had a dysregulated CXC chemokine ligand 16 during pregnancy, and in gestational diabetes mellitus, the increase in CXC chemokine ligand 16 early in pregnancy and after 5 years was strongly associated with their lipid profile.

  18. An investigation into utilising gestational body mass index as a screening tool for adverse birth outcomes and maternal morbidities in a group of pregnant women in Khayelitsha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, HR; Visser, J; Tomlinson, M; Rotheram-Borus, MJ; Gissane, C; Harwood, J; LeRoux, I

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the gestational body mass index (BMI) method to screen for adverse birth outcomes and maternal morbidities. Design This was a substudy of a randomised controlled trial, the Philani Mentor Mothers’ study. Setting and subjects The Philani Mentor Mothers’ study took place in a peri-urban settlement, Khayelitsha, between 2009 and 2010. Pregnant women living in the area in 2009-2010 were recruited for the study. Outcome measures Maternal anthropometry (height and weight) and gestational weeks were obtained at baseline to calculate the gestational BMI, which is maternal BMI adjusted for gestational age. Participants were classified into four gestational BMI categories: underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Birth outcomes and maternal morbidities were obtained from clinic cards after the births. Results Pregnant women were recruited into the study (n = 1 058). Significant differences were found between the different gestational BMI categories and the following birth outcomes: maternal (p-value = 0.019), infant hospital stay (p-value = 0.03), infants staying for over 24 hours in hospital (p-value = 0.001), delivery mode (p-value = 0.001), birthweight (p-value = 0.006), birth length (p-value = 0.007), birth head circumference (p-value = 0.007) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (p-value = 0.001). Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has used the gestational BMI method in a peri-urban South African pregnant population. Based on the findings that this method is able to identify unfavourable birth outcomes, it is recommended that it is implemented as a pilot study in selected rural, peri-urban and urban primary health clinics, and that its ease and effectiveness as a screening tool is evaluated. Appropriate medical and nutritional advice can then be given to pregnant women to improve both their own and their infants’ birth-related outcomes and maternal morbidities

  19. Metabolic fingerprint of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzik, Danuta; Zorawski, Marcin; Skotnicki, Mariusz; Zarzycki, Wieslaw; Kozlowska, Gabryela; Bibik-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Vallejo, María; García, Antonia; Barbas, Coral; Ramos, M Pilar

    2014-05-30

    Gestational Diabetes (GDM) is causing severe short- and long-term complications for mother, fetus or neonate. As yet, the metabolic alterations that are specific for the development of GDM have not been fully determined, which also precludes the early diagnosis and prognosis of this pathology. In this pilot study, we determine the metabolic fingerprint, using a multiplatform LC-QTOF/MS, GC-Q/MS and CE-TOF/MS system, of plasma and urine samples of 20 women with GDM and 20 with normal glucose tolerance in the second trimester of pregnancy. Plasma fingerprints allowed for the discrimination of GDM pregnant women from controls. In particular, lysoglycerophospholipids showed a close association with the glycemic state of the women. In addition, we identified some metabolites with a strong discriminative power, such as LPE(20:1), (20:2), (22:4); LPC(18:2), (20:4), (20:5); LPI(18:2), (20:4); LPS(20:0) and LPA(18:2), as well as taurine-bile acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives. Finally, we provide evidence for the implication of these compounds in metabolic routes, indicative of low-grade inflammation and altered redox-balance, that may be related with the specific pathophysiological context of the genesis of GDM. This highlights their potential use as prognostic markers for the identification of women at risk to develop severe glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide and, although diabetes usually remits after pregnancy, women with GDM have a high risk of developing postpartum type 2-diabetes, particularly when accompanied by obesity. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of GDM, as well as the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early diagnostic markers for GDM are relevant issues. In the present study, we devised a multiplatform metabolic fingerprinting approach to obtain a comprehensive picture of the early metabolic alternations that occur in GDM, and may

  20. A successful method for severe gestational thrombocytopenia: A rare case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan İncebıyık

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a normally progressing pregnancy, especially in thethird trimester thrombocyte numbers reduce by about10%. The reason for this reduction is thought to be thehemodilution and increased consumption in pregnancy.Generally, it is recognized by chance during routine bloodcount and it is the second most common hematologicanomaly during pregnancy. Once thrombocytopenia isdiagnosed in pregnancy, research must be done to determinewhether it is a life-threatening risk factor in terms ofthe mother-fetus-infant. The majority of thrombocytopeniaseen in pregnancy is gestational thrombocytopenia. Thispaper examines an active labor, normal birthing case witha thrombocyte count of 7916/mm3.Key words: Gestational thrombocytopenia, idiopathicthrombocytopenic purpura, normal birth

  1. Gestational Diabetes in Korea: Incidence and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Chul Jang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Korean women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM have a 3.5 times greater risk of developing postpartum diabetes than the general population. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in early postpartum is reported as 10-15% in Korean women. A prospective follow-up study on Korean women with GDM showed that approximately 40% of women with previous GDM were expected to develop diabetes within 5 years postpartum. Independent risk factors for the development of diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM are pre-pregnancy body weight, gestational age at diagnosis, antepartum hyperglycemia on oral glucose tolerance test, low insulin response to oral glucose load, and family history of diabetes. Women with postpartum diabetes have greater body mass indexes, body weight, and waist circumferences than women with normal glucose tolerance. Multiple logistic regression analysis has revealed that waist circumference is the strongest obesity index along with systolic blood pressure and that triglyceride levels are a major independent risk factor for developing diabetes. These results in Korean women with previous GDM underline the importance of postpartum testing in Korean women diagnosed with GDM, and demonstrate that impaired B-cell function, obesity, and especially visceral obesity, are associated with the development of diabetes.

  2. Refractive Status at Birth: Its Relation to Newborn Physical Parameters at Birth and Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Raji Mathew; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Puliyel, Jacob Mammen; Varughese, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Background Refractive status at birth is related to gestational age. Preterm babies have myopia which decreases as gestational age increases and term babies are known to be hypermetropic. This study looked at the correlation of refractive status with birth weight in term and preterm babies, and with physical indicators of intra-uterine growth such as the head circumference and length of the baby at birth. Methods All babies delivered at St. Stephens Hospital and admitted in the nursery were eligible for the study. Refraction was performed within the first week of life. 0.8% tropicamide with 0.5% phenylephrine was used to achieve cycloplegia and paralysis of accommodation. 599 newborn babies participated in the study. Data pertaining to the right eye is utilized for all the analyses except that for anisometropia where the two eyes were compared. Growth parameters were measured soon after birth. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to see the association of refractive status, (mean spherical equivalent (MSE), astigmatism and anisometropia) with each of the study variables, namely gestation, length, weight and head circumference. Subsequently, multiple linear regression was carried out to identify the independent predictors for each of the outcome parameters. Results Simple linear regression showed a significant relation between all 4 study variables and refractive error but in multiple regression only gestational age and weight were related to refractive error. The partial correlation of weight with MSE adjusted for gestation was 0.28 and that of gestation with MSE adjusted for weight was 0.10. Birth weight had a higher correlation to MSE than gestational age. Conclusion This is the first study to look at refractive error against all these growth parameters, in preterm and term babies at birth. It would appear from this study that birth weight rather than gestation should be used as criteria for screening for refractive error, especially in developing

  3. Refractive status at birth: its relation to newborn physical parameters at birth and gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Mathew Varghese

    Full Text Available Refractive status at birth is related to gestational age. Preterm babies have myopia which decreases as gestational age increases and term babies are known to be hypermetropic. This study looked at the correlation of refractive status with birth weight in term and preterm babies, and with physical indicators of intra-uterine growth such as the head circumference and length of the baby at birth.All babies delivered at St. Stephens Hospital and admitted in the nursery were eligible for the study. Refraction was performed within the first week of life. 0.8% tropicamide with 0.5% phenylephrine was used to achieve cycloplegia and paralysis of accommodation. 599 newborn babies participated in the study. Data pertaining to the right eye is utilized for all the analyses except that for anisometropia where the two eyes were compared. Growth parameters were measured soon after birth. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to see the association of refractive status, (mean spherical equivalent (MSE, astigmatism and anisometropia with each of the study variables, namely gestation, length, weight and head circumference. Subsequently, multiple linear regression was carried out to identify the independent predictors for each of the outcome parameters.Simple linear regression showed a significant relation between all 4 study variables and refractive error but in multiple regression only gestational age and weight were related to refractive error. The partial correlation of weight with MSE adjusted for gestation was 0.28 and that of gestation with MSE adjusted for weight was 0.10. Birth weight had a higher correlation to MSE than gestational age.This is the first study to look at refractive error against all these growth parameters, in preterm and term babies at birth. It would appear from this study that birth weight rather than gestation should be used as criteria for screening for refractive error, especially in developing countries where the

  4. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain influence birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R; Xu, L; Wu, M L; Huang, S H; Cao, X J

    2018-02-01

    Evidence suggests that pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain have impact on pregnancy and birth weight, yet whether maternal gestational weight gain has a differential effect on the rates of adverse birth weight among women with different pre-pregnancy body mass index categories are unknown. We selected 1617 children matched with their mothers as study subjects. The subjects were divided into three categories: weight gain below the American Institute of Medicine guidelines, weight gain within the American Institute of Medicine guidelines and weight gain above the American Institute of Medicine guidelines. The prevalence of pre-pregnancy underweight and overweight/obese women was 16.3% and 12.3%. And nearly 15.2% of the women had gestational weight gain below American Institute of Medicine guideline, 52.1% of the women had gestational weight gain above American Institute of Medicine guideline. Maternal overweight and obese was associated with increased risk for macrosomia and large-for-gestational age. Women had gestational weight gain below American Institute of Medicine guideline were more likely to have low birth weight and small-for-gestational age than women who had gestational weight gain within American Institute of Medicine guideline. Furthermore, the risks for macrosomia and large-for-gestational age were increased in women with above American Institute of Medicine guideline. And for women with a normal weight before pregnancy, gestational weight gain above the American Institute of Medicine guidelines were associated with higher rates of macrosomia and large-for-gestational age, compared with the women of similar pre-pregnancy weight category but with gestational weight gain within the American Institute of Medicine guidelines. Women with abnormal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain are at risk for adverse birth weight outcomes. Moreover, gestational weight gain has a differential effect on the rates of adverse

  5. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  6. Gestational age and newborn size according to parental social mobility: an intergenerational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Matijasevich, Alicia; Mola, Christian Loret de; Barros, Aluisio J D; Santos, Ina S; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-10-01

    We examined the associations between socioeconomic trajectories from birth to adulthood and gestational age and birth size in the next generation, using linked data from two population-based birth cohorts carried out in a Brazilian city. By comparing socioeconomic trajectories of mothers and fathers, we attempted to identify-specific effects of maternal and paternal socioeconomic trajectory on offspring birth weight, birth length, head circumference and gestational age at birth. 2 population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in 1982 and 2004 in Pelotas (Brazil); 156 mothers and 110 fathers from the earlier cohort had children in 2004. Gestational age and birth length, weight and head circumference were measured. Analyses were carried out separately for mothers and fathers. Mediation analyses assessed the role of birth weight and adult body mass index (BMI). Among mothers, but not for fathers, childhood poverty was strongly associated with smaller size in the next generation (about 400 g in weight and 1.5 cm in height) and shorter gestations (about 2 weeks). Adult poverty did not play a role. For mothers, the associations with gestational age, birth length and weight-but not with head circumference-persisted after adjusting for maternal birth weight and for the height and weight of the grandmother. Maternal birth weight did not mediate the observed associations, but high maternal BMI in adulthood was partly responsible for the association with gestational age. Strong effects of early poverty on gestational age and birth size in the next generation were observed among mothers, but not among fathers. These findings suggest a specific maternal effect of socioeconomic trajectory, and in particular of early poverty on offspring size and duration of pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of foetal liver volume by three-dimensional ultrasound in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, Gülşah; Gültekin, Hüseyin; Kubat, Ayça; Gokmen Karasu, Ayse Filiz; Güngör, Emre Sinan; Zebitay, Galip Ali; Verit Atmaca, Fatma Ferda

    2018-03-19

    The aim of the study was to assess the standard foetal biometric measurements and foetal liver volume (FLV) in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) at the time of GDM screening and to compare the results with foetuses in normal pregnancies. Ninety-seven pregnant women with normal singleton uncomplicated pregnancies between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation were allocated into GDM (+) (n: 33) and GDM (-) (n: 64) groups based on their 75 g oral glucose tolerance test results. Foetal biometric measurements and FLV measurements of the groups were compared. Although there were no significant differences in the standard biometric measurements between the two groups, FLV was significantly higher in the women with GDM (p liver length and foetal liver volume (FLV) have been evaluated as ultrasound parameters of glycaemic control. While the evaluation of foetal liver dimensions has a role in identifying foetal growth acceleration, previous studies addressed patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus rather than gestational diabetes mellitus, utilised two-dimensional ultrasound and did not argue the diagnostic value of these findings. What do the results of this study add? In our study, besides the standard biometric measurements, the FLV measurements were evaluated by a three-dimensional ultrasound. Although there were no significant differences in the standard biometric measurements between the GDM (+) and GDM (-) groups, the FLV was significantly higher in women with GDM. The FLV was found to be a potential predictive factor for GDM. The ROC analysis implied that as a cut-off value of FLV of 32.72 cm 3 for GDM prediction, the sensitivity was 78.8% and the specificity was 56.3%. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practise and/or further research? Screening for GDM with oral glucose tolerance test within the limited weeks of gestation may not always be feasible. On the other hand, the mid-trimester ultrasound scanning

  8. Predictive accuracy of changes in transvaginal sonographic cervical length over time for preterm birth: a systematic review and metaanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Romero, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    To determine the accuracy of changes in transvaginal sonographic cervical length over time in predicting preterm birth in women with singleton and twin gestations. PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs, and Medion (all from inception to June 30, 2015), bibliographies, Google scholar, and conference proceedings. Cohort or cross-sectional studies reporting on the predictive accuracy for preterm birth of changes in cervical length over time. Two reviewers independently selected studies, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted the data. Summary receiver-operating characteristic curves, pooled sensitivities and specificities, and summary likelihood ratios were generated. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 7 provided data on singleton gestations (3374 women) and 8 on twin gestations (1024 women). Among women with singleton gestations, the shortening of cervical length over time had a low predictive accuracy for preterm birth at predictive accuracy for preterm birth at predictive accuracies for preterm birth of cervical length shortening over time and the single initial and/or final cervical length measurement in 8 of 11 studies that provided data for making these comparisons. In the largest and highest-quality study, a single measurement of cervical length obtained at 24 or 28 weeks of gestation was significantly more predictive of preterm birth than any decrease in cervical length between these gestational ages. Change in transvaginal sonographic cervical length over time is not a clinically useful test to predict preterm birth in women with singleton or twin gestations. A single cervical length measurement obtained between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation appears to be a better test to predict preterm birth than changes in cervical length over time. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Relationship between 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate concentrations and gestational age at delivery in twin gestation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Caritis, Steve N

    2012-11-01

    We sought to evaluate in women with twin gestation the relationship between 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) concentration and gestational age at delivery and select biomarkers of potential pathways of drug action.

  10. Gestational diabetes insipidus: a review of an underdiagnosed condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, Nikolay; Audibert, François; Bedard, Marie-Josée; Mahone, Michèle; Goffinet, François; Kadoch, Isaac-Jacques

    2010-03-01

    To review the etiology, diagnosis, and management of diabetes insipidus during pregnancy. A search of the literature was performed in PubMed using key word searching and citation snowballing to identify articles published in English between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2008, on the subject of diabetes insipidus during pregnancy. Once the articles were identified, a thorough review of all results was conducted. Results and conclusions were compiled and summarized. We reviewed 50 studies selected using the following key words: diabetes insipidus, pregnancy, arginine vasopressin, vasopressinase. Gestational diabetes insipidus is underdiagnosed because polyuria is often considered normal during pregnancy. Clinicians caring for pregnant women should consider screening for gestational diabetes insipidus, because it could be associated with serious underlying pathology.

  11. Creation and validation of the Singapore birth nomograms for birth weight, length and head circumference based on a 12-year birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Woei Bing; Fook-Chong, Stephanie M C; Ler, Grace Y L; Loh, Zhi Wen; Yeo, Cheo Lian

    2014-06-01

    Both gestation and birth weight have significant impact on mortality and morbidity in newborn infants. Nomograms at birth allow classification of infants into small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) categories, for risk stratification and more intensive monitoring. To date, the growth charts for preterm newborn infants in Singapore are based on the Fenton growth charts, which are constructed based on combining data from various Western growth cohorts. Hence, we aim to create Singapore nomograms for birth weight, length and head circumference at birth, which would reflect the norms and challenges faced by local infants. Growth parameters of all babies born or admitted to our unit from 2001 to 2012 were retrieved. Following exclusion of outliers, nomograms for 3 percentiles of 10th, 50th, and 90th were generated for the gestational age (GA) ranges of 25 to 42 weeks using quantile regression (QR) combined with the use of restricted cubic splines. Various polynomial models (second to third degrees) were investigated for suitability of fit. The optimum QR model was found to be a third degree polynomial with a single knotted cubic spline in the mid-point of the GA range, at 33.5 weeks. Check for goodness of fit was done by visual inspection first. Next, check was performed to ensure the correct proportion: 10% of all cases fall above the upper 90th percentile and 10% fall below the lower 10th percentile. Furthermore, an alternative formula-based method of nomogram construction, using mean, standard deviation (SD) and assumption of normality at each gestational age, was used for counterchecking. A total of 13,403 newborns were included in the analysis. The new infant-foetal growth charts with respect to birth weight, heel-crown length and occipitofrontal circumference from 25 to 42 weeks gestations with the 10th, 50th and 90th were presented. Nomograms for birth weight, length and head circumference at birth had significant impact on neonatal

  12. "COMPARISON OF MATERNAL AND FETAL/NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS IN GESTATIONAL AND PRE-GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS "

    OpenAIRE

    F. Akhlaghi A. B. Hamedi

    2005-01-01

    Presence of maternal diabetes mellitus (DM) during pregnancy has important consequences for both mother and child. To determine maternal and fetal/neonatal complications of gestational DM and compare them with pre-gestational DM, a prospective study was performed in 100 diabetic women delivered in our hospital from January 2001 to April 2002. Pregnancy outcome in 27 women with gestational DM and 73 women with pre-gestational DM and their offspring were studied and analyzed. The mean age of wo...

  13. Early biometric lag in the prediction of small for gestational age neonates and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Nadav; Pessel, Cara; Coletta, Jaclyn; Krieger, Abba M; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E

    2011-01-01

    An early fetal growth lag may be a marker of future complications. We sought to determine the utility of early biometric variables in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this retrospective cohort study, the crown-rump length at 11 to 14 weeks and the head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, femur length, humerus length, transverse cerebellar diameter, and estimated fetal weight at 18 to 24 weeks were converted to an estimated gestational age using published regression formulas. Sonographic fetal growth (difference between each biometric gestational age and the crown-rump length gestational age) minus expected fetal growth (number of days elapsed between the two scans) yielded the biometric growth lag. These lags were tested as predictors of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates (≤10th percentile) and preeclampsia. A total of 245 patients were included. Thirty-two (13.1%) delivered an SGA neonate, and 43 (17.6%) had the composite outcome. The head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and estimated fetal weight lags were identified as significant predictors of SGA neonates after adjusted analyses (P biometric lag variables and the development of preeclampsia. Routinely available biometric data can be used to improve the prediction of adverse outcomes such as SGA. These biometric lags should be considered in efforts to develop screening algorithms for adverse outcomes.

  14. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  15. Estimating Gestational Age From Ultrasound Fetal Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupski, Daniel W; Owen, John; Kim, Sungduk; Fuchs, Karin M; Albert, Paul S; Grantz, Katherine L

    2017-08-01

    To compare the accuracy of a new formula with one developed in 1984 (and still in common use) and to develop and compare racial and ethnic-specific and racial and ethnic-neutral formulas. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons was a prospective cohort study that recruited women in four self-reported racial-ethnic groups-non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and Asian-with singleton gestations from 12 U.S. centers (2009-2013). Women with a certain last menstrual period confirmed by first-trimester ultrasonogram had longitudinal fetal measurements by credentialed study ultrasonographers blinded to the gestational age at their five follow-up visits. Regression analyses were performed with linear mixed models to develop gestational age estimating formulas. Repeated cross-validation was used for validation. The estimation error was defined as the mean squared difference between the estimated and observed gestational age and was used to compare the formulas' accuracy. The new formula estimated the gestational age (±2 SD) within ±7 days from 14 to 20 weeks of gestation, ±10 days from 21 to 27 weeks of gestation, and ±17 days from 28 to 40 weeks of gestation. The new formula performed significantly better than a formula developed in 1984 with an estimation error of 10.4 compared with 11.2 days from 21 to 27 weeks of gestation and 17.0 compared with 19.8 days at 28-40 weeks of gestation, respectively. Racial and ethnic-specific formulas did not outperform the racial and ethnic-neutral formula. The NICHD gestational age estimation formula is associated with smaller errors than a well-established historical formula. Racial and ethnic-specific formulas are not superior to a racial-ethnic-neutral one.

  16. Gestational diabetes mellitus screening and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktün, Hale Lebriz; Uyan, Derya; Yorgunlar, Betül; Acet, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    To verify the usefulness of the World Health Organization criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women and its effectiveness in the prevention of maternal and neonatal adverse results in women younger than 35 years without apparent risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. This is a retrospective study based on population involving 1360 pregnant women who delivered and who were followed-up in a university hospital in Istanbul. All women underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test screening, usually in between the 24(th)-28(th) weeks of pregnancy. In all cases, the identification of gestational diabetes mellitus was determined in accordance with the World Health Organization criteria. Approximately 28% of the pregnant women aged younger than 35 years with no risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus were diagnosed with the oral glucose tolerance test in this study. In the gestational diabetes mellitus group, the primary cesarean section rate was importantly higher than that in the non-gestational diabetes mellitus group. Preterm delivery was also associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus was strongly associated with admittance to the neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal respiratory problems didn't showed any significant deviation between the groups. There was a moderate association between gestational diabetes mellitus and metabolic complications. Pregnant women with no obvious risk factors were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus using the World Health Organization criteria. The treatment of these women potentially reduced their risk of adverse maternal and neonatal hyperglycemia-related events, such as cesarean section, polyhydramnios, preterm delivery, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, large for gestational age, and higher neonatal weight.

  17. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...... prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain was available. Information about spontaneous preterm birth with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and about induced preterm deliveries was obtained from national registers. Cox regression analyses were used to examine...... associations of prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain with subtypes of preterm birth. The crude risks of PPROM and of induced preterm deliveries were higher in obese women (BMI > or = 30) than in normal-weight women (18.5 gestation, when obese...

  19. Intra-gestational sac injection for tubal pregnancy: an interventional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yitang; Sun Xiaobo; Xu Xiaojun; Zhang Feiyue; Wu Ke; Song Yingxin; Han Mingjun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: It's an investigation of the procedure, effects and clinical application of the interventional intra-gestational sac injection as a treatment of tubal pregnancy. Methods: Under DSA guidance a selective salpingography was performed and MTX was injected into the gestational sac or oviduct. The procedure was performed in 13 cases with oviductal pregnancy before the gestational sac ruptured. Results: Technical success was obtained in all cases. The serum HCG began to fall in 7 days after the procedure, and dropped to normal level in 2-4 weeks of the procedure. Conclusion: Interventional selective salpingography and intra-gestational sac injection is a simple, safe and effective treatment of the un-ruptured tubal pregnancy

  20. Probiotics for preventing gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Helen L; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Conwell, Louise S; Callaway, Leonie K

    2014-02-27

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes for mother and infant. The prevention of GDM using lifestyle interventions has proven difficult. The gut microbiome (the composite of bacteria present in the intestines) influences host inflammatory pathways, glucose and lipid metabolism and, in other settings, alteration of the gut microbiome has been shown to impact on these host responses. Probiotics are one way of altering the gut microbiome but little is known about their use in influencing the metabolic environment of pregnancy. To assess the effects of probiotic supplementation when compared with other methods for the prevention of GDM. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2013) and reference lists of the articles of retrieved studies. Randomised and cluster-randomised trials comparing the use of probiotic supplementation with other methods for the prevention of the development of GDM. Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Quasi-randomised and cross-over design studies are not eligible for inclusion in this review. Studies presented only as abstracts with no subsequent full report of study results would also have been excluded. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included study. Data were checked for accuracy. Eleven reports (relating to five possible trials) were found. We included one study (six trial reports) involving 256 women. Four other studies are ongoing.The included trial consisted of three treatment arms: probiotic with dietary intervention, placebo and dietary intervention, and dietary intervention alone; it was at a low risk of bias. The study reported primary outcomes of a reduction in the rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (risk ratio (RR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.70), with no statistical difference in the rates of

  1. Heritability of gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elina Scheers; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2015-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences...... on the variation in GWG in the first and second pregnancy in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin mother-pairs. Further, we explored if any co-variance existed between factors influencing the variation in GWG of the mothers’ first and second pregnancies. By using Swedish nationwide record-linkage data, we...... identified 694 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their first pregnancy and 465 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their second pregnancy during 1982–2010. For a subanalysis, 143 twin mother-pairs had complete data on two consecutive pregnancies during the study period. We used structural equation...

  2. Exercise: An Alternative Therapy for Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artal, Raul

    1996-01-01

    Exercise is encouraged in the management of pregnant women with gestational diabetes or women with Type II diabetes who become pregnant. Although non-weight-bearing exercises may be best for sedentary women, moderate workouts appear to be safe for most women with gestational diabetes. The role of exercise, risk factors, warning signs, and examples…

  3. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a broad term encompassing both benign and malignant growths arising from products of conception in the uterus. GTDs contain paternal chromosomes and are placental in origin. Find evidence-based information on gestational trophoblastic disease treatment.

  4. Midpregnancy Cervical Length in Nulliparous Women and its Association with Postterm Delivery and Intrapartum Cesarean Delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, A. J.; van Os, M. A.; Kleinrouweler, C. E.; Verhoeven, C. J. M.; de Miranda, E.; Bossuyt, P. M.; de Groot, C. J. M.; Haak, M. C.; Pajkrt, E.; Mol, B. W. J.; Kazemier, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association between midpregnancy cervical length and postterm delivery and cesarean delivery during labor. In a multicenter cohort study, cervical length was measured in low-risk singleton pregnancies between 16 and 22 weeks of gestation. From this cohort, we identified nulliparous

  5. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  6. Ocular Axial Length Measurement Among Normal Adults Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-07-26

    Jul 26, 2017 ... eye is the AL and report from previous studies suggest that in an adult, the average ... 2017 Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow ..... Parel JM, Gelender H, Trefers WF, Norton EW.

  7. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  8. Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O

  9. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are risk factors for infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Siminerio, Lara L; Himes, Katherine P; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Lash, Timothy L; Parisi, Sara M; Abrams, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of the joint and independent relationships of gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) on risk of infant mortality was performed. This study used Pennsylvania linked birth-infant death records (2003-2011) from infants without anomalies born to mothers with prepregnancy BMI categorized as underweight (n = 58,973), normal weight (n = 610,118), overweight (n = 296,630), grade 1 obesity (n = 147,608), grade 2 obesity (n = 71,740), and grade 3 obesity (n = 47,277). Multivariable logistic regression models stratified by BMI category were used to estimate dose-response associations between z scores of gestational weight gain and infant death after confounder adjustment. Infant mortality risk was lowest among normal-weight women and increased with rising BMI category. For all BMI groups except for grade 3 obesity, there were U-shaped associations between gestational weight gain and risk of infant death. Weight loss and very low weight gain among women with grades 1 and 2 obesity were associated with high risks of infant mortality. However, even when gestational weight gain in women with obesity was optimized, the predicted risk of infant death remained higher than that of normal-weight women. Interventions aimed at substantially reducing preconception weight among women with obesity and avoiding very low or very high gestational weight gain may reduce risk of infant death. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  10. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  11. [Clinical characteristics of 7 patients with gestational diabetes insipidus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Qun; Xiong, Chun-Qiu; Wu, Min; Dong, Ruo-Lin; Chen, Yun-Qin; Gao, Jie; Chen, Ou-Jing; Huang, Yin-Ping

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the clinical feature, treatment and prognosis of both the mother and the fetus with gestational diabetes insipidus. A total of 7 cases of gestational diabetes insipidus collected in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou Combination of Traditional Chinese Medicine with Western Medicine Hospital, and Zhejiang Taizhou Hospital from June 1993 to June 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. Seven cases symptoms all characterized by excessive thirst polydipsia and polyuria. The average 24 h urinary output was between 11 L to 13 L and manifested of hypobaricuria. After effective treatment (three cases were treated with 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin, another three patients were managed with hydrochlorothiazide, and the last one was cured with antisterone), seven patients with gestational diabetes insipidus did not have any severe consequences. Their symptoms of excessive thirst, polyuria, and polydypsia disappeared from 7 days to 3 months after parturition. Urinary volume returned to normal standard of 1000-2000 ml during 24 hours. Specific gravity of urine recovered normally between a range 1.015-1.025 and serum sodium recovered between 135-147 mmol/L. The average duration of illness was 52 days. Eight newborn infants survived. Two of them were sent to neonatal intensive care unit for treatment. One was because of premature delivery caused by antepartum eclampsia, and the other case was one of the twins who had hydronephrosis. The baby of the first case left hospital after 3 weeks' treatment. The latter one's symptom disappeared 2 weeks after delivery. No obvious symptom was discovered among all the babies through follow-up telephone calls 42 days after childbirth. Gestational diabetes insipidus is a rare endocrinopathy complicating pregnancy. This disorder is characterized by excessive thirst, polydypsia, polyuria, hypobaric urine and electrolyte disturbances usually manifesting in the third trimester of pregnancy or puerperium

  12. Maternal and Neonatal Outcome in Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, G Thiruvikrama; Das, Ashok Kumar; Habeebullah, Syed; Bhat, Vishnu; Shamanna, Suryanarayana Bettadpura

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is common and is accompanied with other comorbidities. Challenges to treatment exist at our institute as it serves women with low income. This study assessed the burden of comorbidities and the outcome of GDM. This was a prospective, observational study of women with gestational diabetes attending the obstetrics department from September 2012 to April 2014. GDM was diagnosed based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Medical comorbidities were noted, and lipid profile was done. All the women were followed up till delivery, and the complications were recorded. Age- and parity-matched pregnant women with normal oral glucose tolerance test were recruited as controls. One hundred and thirty-nine women were followed up till delivery. The average age was 28 years. Eighteen percent had bad obstetric history. The average body mass index was 28.8. Twenty-five percent had gestational hypertension (HTN), and 6.4% had chronic HTN. Thirty percent had hypothyroidism. 65% women received insulin. The glucose values were within the recommended range in 60% of the women. Maternal hypoglycemia occurred in 7 (5%) women. Forty-four percent of the women required cesarean section and 34% had complications either during pregnancy or labor. Three neonates had macrosomia. Twenty-six neonates (20%) required admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Four neonates (3%) died. Newborns of mothers whose GDM optimally treated had less complications. Gestational diabetes is associated with HTN, hypothyroidism, obesity, and lipid abnormalities. The majority of women required insulin for treatment and optimal control of blood glucose resulted in lower neonatal complications.

  13. Maternal and neonatal outcome in mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Thiruvikrama Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is common and is accompanied with other comorbidities. Challenges to treatment exist at our institute as it serves women with low income. This study assessed the burden of comorbidities and the outcome of GDM. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study of women with gestational diabetes attending the obstetrics department from September 2012 to April 2014. GDM was diagnosed based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Medical comorbidities were noted, and lipid profile was done. All the women were followed up till delivery, and the complications were recorded. Age- and parity-matched pregnant women with normal oral glucose tolerance test were recruited as controls. Results: One hundred and thirty-nine women were followed up till delivery. The average age was 28 years. Eighteen percent had bad obstetric history. The average body mass index was 28.8. Twenty-five percent had gestational hypertension (HTN, and 6.4% had chronic HTN. Thirty percent had hypothyroidism. 65% women received insulin. The glucose values were within the recommended range in 60% of the women. Maternal hypoglycemia occurred in 7 (5% women. Forty-four percent of the women required cesarean section and 34% had complications either during pregnancy or labor. Three neonates had macrosomia. Twenty-six neonates (20% required admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Four neonates (3% died. Newborns of mothers whose GDM optimally treated had less complications. Conclusion: Gestational diabetes is associated with HTN, hypothyroidism, obesity, and lipid abnormalities. The majority of women required insulin for treatment and optimal control of blood glucose resulted in lower neonatal complications.

  14. Glomerulogenesis: Can it predict the gestational age? A study of 176 fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga Chikkannaiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate assessment of gestational age of fetuses is essential from both clinical and medico-legal point of view. Crown-rump length, crown-heel length, foot length, and the weight of the fetus are the commonly used parameters for fetal age assessment. However, this estimate often lacks accuracy and sometimes is necessary to combine other data. An analysis of the embryological development of nephrons in the kidney can assist in this determination. Objective : To correlate the gestational age with the histological study of sequential development of nephrons in fetal kidney. Materials and Methods: This study included 176 fetuses delivered between June 2009 and June 2011 and aged from 12 to 40 weeks. The number of glomerular generations counted in hematoxylin and eosin-stained microscopic sections of the kidneys were correlated with the reported period of gestation based on obstetrical methods. Regression analysis was used to determine the statistical significance of the correlation. Results: A high degree of statistically significant correlation was observed between the period of gestation and the number of glomerular generations (P value < 0.0001. Conclusion: The histological assessment of the number of glomerular generations in kidney can be used as a reliable method of estimating fetal age.

  15. Hormones of Adipose Tissue and Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Payenok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and gestational diabetes are the risk factors for complications both in the mother and in the fetus. Adipose tissue hormones (leptin, adiponectin, resistin are secreted by the human placenta and regulate the function of trophoblast. The review presents data from the literature on the role of adipocytokines in the development of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in obese women. The article considers the criteria and algorithms for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group.

  16. [Gestational diabetes insipidus during a twin pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mesmay, M; Rigouzzo, A; Bui, T; Louvet, N; Constant, I

    2013-02-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is an uncommon clinical disease whose prevalence is approximately two to three pregnancies per 100,000. It may be isolated or associated with preeclampsia. We report a case of gestational diabetes insipidus in a twin pregnancy, originally isolated during two months, and secondarily complicated by HELLP-syndrome. We recall the specific pathophysiology of polyuric-polydipsic syndrome during pregnancy and summarize its various causes. Finally, we discuss the indications, in case of isolated gestational diabetes insipidus, of treatment by dDAVP. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. High dietary fiber during late gestation reduces the rate of stillborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyera, Takele; Højgaard, Camilla Kaae; Vinther, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial effects of dietary fiber in the diet of gestating sows have been thoroughly investigated from behavioral and welfare prospective. However, there is limited information whether dietary fiber is beneficial from a reproductive point of view. Therefore, the present study aimed to inves......The beneficial effects of dietary fiber in the diet of gestating sows have been thoroughly investigated from behavioral and welfare prospective. However, there is limited information whether dietary fiber is beneficial from a reproductive point of view. Therefore, the present study aimed...... assigned to the control and treatment group, respectively. Sows in the control group were fed according to normal feeding strategy of the herd, fed a standard gestation diet until 1 week before expected parturition, fed a transition diet until day 5 of lactation and a standard lactation diet until weaning....... Sows in the treatment group were fed as the control group but part of the gestation diet (from day 102 to 108 of gestation) and part of the transition diet (from day 109 of gestation until farrowing) was replaced by a fiber rich supplement. Thus, 350 and 700 g/d of the supplement replaced part...

  18. Gestational Weight Gain and Pregnancy Outcomes in 481 Obese Glucose-Tolerant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of gestational weight gain in obese glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a historical cohort study of 481 women with prepregnancy BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 and a normal 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during the third trimester......-weight women (3,478 g). In multivariate analyses, increasing weight gain was associated with significantly higher rates of hypertension (OR 4.8 [95% CI for group 4 vs. group 1: 1.7-13.1]), cesarean section (3.5 [1.6-7.8]), induction of labor (3.7 [1.7-8.0]), and large-for-gestational-age infants (4.7 [2.......0-11.0]). There was no difference in rates of small-for-gestational-age infants. Significant predictors for birth weight (determined by multiple linear regression) were gestational weight gain, 2-h OGTT result, pre-gestational BMI, maternal age, gestational age, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing weight gain in obese women...

  19. Intrauterine Exposure to Maternal Stress Alters Bdnf IV DNA Methylation and Telomere Length in the Brain of Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, Arun; Borrelli, Kristyn; Tulbert, Christine; Bollinger, Justin; Ronca Finco, April E.; Roth, Tania L.

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could contribute to the long-term effects of intrauterine exposure to maternal stress on offspring behavioral outcomes. Here, we measured methylation of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult rat male and female offspring whose mothers were exposed to unpredictable and variable stressors throughout gestation. Males exposed to prenatal stress had greater methylation (Bdnf IV) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to non-stressed controls. Further, prenatally-stressed males had shorter telomeres than controls in the mPFC. This study provides the first evidence in a rodent model of an association between prenatal stress exposure and subsequent shorter brain telomere length. Together findings indicate a long-term impact of prenatal stress on DNA methylation and telomere biology with relevance for behavioral and health outcomes, and contribute to a growing literature linking stress to intergenerational epigenetic alterations and changes in telomere length.

  20. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  1. Drugs Approved for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gestational trophoblastic disease. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. The gestational age pattern of human mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöley, Jonas; Vaupel, James W.; Jacobsen, Rune

    -infant lifetable by gestational age spanning week 23 until week 100 after the last menstrual period of the mother. This joint lifetable shows a remarkable regularity in the gestational age profile of fetal- and infant mortality: Mortality rates are declining over the whole observed age range with the exception......In order to check hypotheses about the cause for "ontogenescense" -- the phenomenon of a declining force of mortality prior to maturity -- I analyse data on human mortality by gestational age. Based on extensive microdata on births, fetal- and infant deaths in the US 2009 I calculate a joint fetal...... of a "birth hump" peaking week 38. The absolute rate of decline slows down over age. The observed gestational age pattern of the force of mortality is consistent with three hypotheses concerning the causes for ontogenescense: 1) Adaptation: as the organism growths it becomes more resilient towards death, 2...

  3. Fetal programming and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lara J; Norman, Jane E; Rice, Gregory E; Illanes, Sebastián E

    2016-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is defined by new-onset glucose intolerance during pregnancy. About 2-5% of all pregnant women develop gestational diabetes during their pregnancies and the prevalence has increased considerably during the last decade. This metabolic condition is manifested when pancreatic β-cells lose their ability to compensate for increased insulin resistance during pregnancy, however, the pathogenesis of the disease remains largely unknown. Gestational diabetes is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome as well as with long-term adverse effects on the offspring which likely occurs due to epigenetic modifications of the fetal genome. In the current review we address gestational diabetes and the short and long term complications for both mothers and offspring focusing on the importance of fetal programming in conferring risk of developing diseases in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceptions among women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Judith; Ismail, Khalida; Amiel, Stephanie; Forbes, Angus

    2014-04-01

    Women with gestational diabetes are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, which could be prevented or delayed by lifestyle modification. Lifestyle interventions need to take into account the specific situation of women with gestational diabetes. We aimed to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of gestational diabetes, their diabetes risk perceptions, and their views on type 2 diabetes prevention, to inform future lifestyle interventions. We conducted a metasynthesis that included 16 qualitative studies and identified 11 themes. Factors that require consideration when developing a type 2 diabetes prevention intervention in this population include addressing the emotional impact of gestational diabetes; providing women with clear and timely information about future diabetes risk; and offering an intervention that fits with women's multiple roles as caregivers, workers, and patients, and focuses on the health of the whole family.

  5. Gestational diabetes mellitus results in a higher prevalence of small for gestational age babies

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Avalos, G

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that babies of diabetic mothers are more likely to be large for gestational age (LGA). This retrospective study aimed to assess whether the converse may also be true, that there may also a higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) amongst babies of mothers with GDM.\\r\

  6. Maternal insulin therapy does not restore foetoplacental endothelial dysfunction in gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subiabre, Mario; Silva, Luis; Villalobos-Labra, Roberto; Toledo, Fernando; Paublo, Mario; López, Marcia A.; Salsoso, Rocío; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis

    Pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus subjected to diet (GDMd) that do not reach normal glycaemia are passed to insulin therapy (GDMi). GDMd associates with increased human cationic amino acid transporter 1 (hCAT-1)-mediated transport of L-arginine and nitric oxide synthase

  7. Reduced postprandial GLP-1 responses in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, L; Vilsbøll, T; Nielsen, T

    2013-01-01

    AIM: We investigated postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and again following delivery when normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was re-established. METHODS: Eleven women with GDM [plasma glucose (PG) concentration...

  8. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  9. [Predisposition and phenotypes of gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinwechter, H; Demandt, N; Schäfer-Graf, U

    2014-05-01

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed with a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test based on IADPSG criteria which had been recently adopted by WHO. In industrial countries GDM is one of the most frequent pregnancy complications. In 2012, in Germany GDM had been diagnosed in 4,3 % of all births, overall 27,700 cases. GDM has to be considered as a preliminary stage of type 2 diabetes with insulin resistance and inadequate β-cell-compensation. Additionally, adverse metabolic profile, associations with inflammatory parameters, with D vitamin metabolism, and insufficient decline of renal threshold for glucose had been identified in women with GDM. Within 10 years after GDM roughly 50 % of the women convert to overt diabetes, mostly type 2. GDM and type 2 diabetes share potential candidate genes. In about 1 % of GDM in Caucasian women a mutation in glucokinase gene had been found (GCK-MODY). Predisposition to GDM is predominantly characterized by family history of diabetes, previous GDM in pregnancies, factors of metabolic syndrome, and unfavorable life style. The probability for GDM rises with increasing mother's age and preconceptional BMI. Via fetal programming GDM dispones to offspring obesity as early as school entry. Prevention of GDM focus on regular physical exercise, normalizing body weight before conception, reducing excess intake of animal protein and soft drinks, planning of pregnancy in younger ages, and avoiding pollutant exposition as well as smoking cessation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Visual Evoked Potential to Assess Retinopathy in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari Kumar, K V S; Ahmad, F M H; Sood, Sandeep; Mansingh, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated for early retinopathy using the visual evoked potential (VEP) in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. All patients with GDM and type 2 diabetes seen between June and October of 2014 were included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Patients with secondary diabetes, ocular or major illness were excluded from the study. VEP was recorded in both eyes to derive prominent positive peak latency (P100), amplitude and initial negative deflection (N75) latency. The data were compared with 10 gestational age-matched controls with normal glucose tolerance. Appropriate statistical methods were used for comparison among the 3 groups. The study participants (40 with GDM, 10 with type 2 diabetes, 10 with normal glucose tolerance) had a median (25th to 75th interquartile range) age of 26 (24.3, 30) years, a gestational age of 24.5 (21, 27) weeks and weights of 66.8 (63.4, 71.5) kg. The P100 latencies were comparable among the 3 groups (p=0.0577). However, patients with any diabetes (GDM and type 2 diabetes) had prolonged P100 latencies (p=0.0139) and low P100 amplitudes (p=0.0391) in comparison to controls. P100 latency showed a direct correlation with hyperglycemia (p=0.0118). Our data showed that VEP abnormalities are detectable even in the short-term hyperglycemia of GDM and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.

  12. Gestational ultrasonography and Dopplerfluxometry in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) zoometric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, S A; Leão, D L; Oliveira, K G; Sodré, I S; Domingues, S F S

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were as follows: 1) to evaluate blood flow in the uterine (UA) and umbilical (Uma) arteries in pregnant capuchin monkeys by measuring the resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI); 2) to determine the presence or absence of the early diastolic notch and diastolic flow in the UA and Uma flow waveforms, respectively; 3) to perform conceptus echobiometry for fetal growth assessment during pregnancy; 4) to describe the moment that the fetal organs were initially observed; and 5) to determine when the diagnosis of fetal gender is possible. Seven healthy, sexually mature female Sapajus apella were examined in Weeks -20 to -1 before whelping (whelping Week 0). Triplex Doppler was used to assess the blood flow and fetal heart rate, and B-mode ultrasonography was used to assess the fetal organs and conceptus measurements, including the gestational sac latero-lateral longitudinal (LLL) and latero-lateral transversal (LLT), the crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (BPD), occipito-frontal diameter (OFD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and fetal organ. All the pregnancies ended with a normal whelping and the birth of a live newborn. Prior to whelping, all conceptus dimensions increased significantly, whereas the RI and PI of both the UA and Uma decreased significantly. For the UA, the RI and PI were (mean ± SEM) 0.835 ± 0.017 and 2.157 ± 0.129, 0.808 ± 0.008 and 1.920 ± 0.041, and 0.761 ± 0.006 and 1.759 ± 0.036 on periods -3, -2 and -1, respectively. For the Uma, the RI and PI were 0.97 ± 0.01 and 2.50 ± 0.02 at Week -17 and were 0.64 ± 0.02 and 0.98 ± 0.04 at Week -1, respectively. The complete disappearance of the early diastolic notch in the UA, and the complete appearance of diastolic flow in the Uma occurred on Week -1 and Week -11, respectively. Linear regression analyses regarding the relationship of the weeks before whelping (WBW) with the

  13. Understanding Gestational Diabetes: A Practical Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This brochure addresses the problem of gestational diabetes and answers the most frequently asked questions about the disease. It begins by defining gestational diabetes and discussing its cause, then addresses such topics as: (1) how gestational diabetes differs from other types of diabetes; (2) who is at risk for developing gestational diabetes…

  14. Correlation between self-reported gestational age and ultrasound measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Thomsen, Sten Grove

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We studied the agreement between different measurements of gestational age, i.e. self-reported gestational age in the Danish National Birth Cohort Study, ultrasound-estimated gestational age from the medical records in one Danish county and gestational age from the Danish National...

  15. Positive Correlation of Resistin with Blood Lipids in Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Zare

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Resistin is an important adipokin, secreted from adipocytes and causes insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes (GDM is characterized by insulin resistance in insulin target tissues. The goal of this research was to investigate whether there is a relationship among resistin and various clinical and metabolic parameters in GDM.Materials & Methods: 76 pregnant women who got the diagnosis of GDM were enrolled as the study group. 70 gestational age-matched pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance were recruited as the control group of the study. Serum resistin concentration, in addition to various metabolic and biochemical parameters, were measured in two groups.Results: Plasma resistin was not significantly different in GDM patients and subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Correlation analysis revealed that LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglyceride were positively correlated with plasma resistin (P < 0.004, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively.Conclusion: Plasma resistin is correlated with insulin resistance, high serum LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and TG in the Iranian GDM patients.

  16. Full Length Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    In recent years, a new technique was introduced that combines both hydrolysis and ... Cassava Starch Preparation: The cassava starch used for this investigation was prepared ... One normal HCl and one normal NaOH were used to adjust the ...

  17. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  18. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  19. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  20. Fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parellada, C B; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 142 consecutive pregnancies in 28 women of normal weight, 39 overweight women and 75 obese women with Type 2 diabetes (pre-pregnancy BMI .../week, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, gestational weight gain was associated with a higher infant birth weight z-score independent of pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, HbA1c and insulin dose at last visit, ethnicity and parity [β=0.1 (95% CI 0.06-0.14), P

  1. Gestational Age Assessment with Anthropometric Parameters in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloy Kumar Das1,

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to evaluate the relationship between gestational age (GA and neonatal anthropometric parameters, namely head circumference (HC and crown-heel length (CHL. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care hospital with 530 consecutively live-born newborns of 28–41 weeks gestation. Anthropometric parameters were measured after three days of life. We summarized the variables using descriptive statistics, including percentile values, and the strength of association was determined through correlation analysis. The correlation was strong for HC and CHL, and linear regression analysis was done to develop predictive equations. Results: HC and CHL correlated well with GA with r-values of 0.863 and 0.859, respectively. The regression equations derived were GA (week = 9.2671 + [0.8616 × HC (cm] and GA (weeks = 7.2489 + [0.621 × CHL (cm]. Multiple regression gave the relationship as GA (weeks = 4.0244 + [0.4058 × HC (cm] + [0.4249× CHL (cm]. Application of this multiple regression equation to a test cohort of 30 babies for prediction of GA gave a mean margin of error of 2.9%, indicating that it is a satisfactory tool for prediction. Conclusions: HC and CHL can be used as simple tools for predicting GA in babies when this is in doubt. This can help in identification of high-risk newborns at primary care level without recourse to imaging modalities.

  2. Normal development of fetal hepatic haematopoiesis during the second trimester of gestation is upregulated by fibronectin expression in the stromal cells of the portal triads El desarrollo normal de la hematopoyesis hepática fetal durante el segundo trimestre de embarazo está regulado al alza por la expresión de fibronectina en las células del estroma de las tríadas portales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tamiolakis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: in midtrimester fetuses the principal site of hematopoiesis is the liver. In hematopoietic organs, stromal cells such as fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and macrophage-like cells develop networks to maintain hematopoiesis, i.e. hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal, proliferation, and growth, by interaction with hematopoietic progenitor cells. ECM glycoproteins produced by the stromal cells are known to play a critical role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. Numerous soluble and membrane-bound factors directly regulating haematopoiesis have been documented, but little is known about fetal hepatic stromal cell activity and stromal extracellular matrix protein-fibronectin, on fetal hepatic haematopoiesis. The binding of late stage erythroid cells to fibronectin has been well characterized and is believed to be critical for the terminal stages of erythroid differentiation. The intention of this article is to determine the role of fibronectin in fetal hepatic hematopoietic proliferation and differentiation in different stages of development. Material and method: we examined and compared the immunohistochemical expression of fibronectin in the hepatic stromal portal fields in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester of gestation respectively, in relation to the appearance of CD34 progenitor hematopoietic, stromal progenitor and vascular endothelial positive cells. Results: our results demonstrated a quantitative difference in the second trimester of gestation concerning the expression of fibronectin in the connective tissue stroma of the hepatic portal fields over the equivalent expression of the protein in the first (p Objetivo: en el segundo trimestre de la gestación, el principal foco de hematopoyesis del feto es el hígado. En los órganos hematopoyéticos, las células del estroma, como fibroblastos, células epiteliales y células de tipo macrófago, desarrollan redes para mantener la hematopoyesis, es decir, la auto

  3. Maternal and cord blood fatty acid patterns with excessive gestational weight gain and neonatal macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaiyong; Ye, Kui; Han, Yanping; Sheng, Jie; Jin, Zhongxiu; Bo, Qinli; Hu, Chunqiu; Hu, Chuanlai; Li, Li

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the association of maternal excessive gestational weight gain with saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in maternal and cord serum. We included 77 pairs of women and their newborns and classified them into three groups as follows: mothers with normal gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group I (30 pairs), mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group II (30 pairs), and mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their macrosomic babies in group III (17 pairs). Serum fatty acid concentrations were determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. No remarkable difference in maternal dietary intake was observed among the three groups. C16:0, C18:0, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group III mothers than in group I mothers. Compared with group I neonates, total saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations were significantly lower but total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group II neonates (ppattern.

  4. Prenatal Brain MR Imaging: Reference Linear Biometric Centiles between 20 and 24 Gestational Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, G; Milani, S; Palumbo, G; Talenti, G; Boito, S; Rustico, M; Triulzi, F; Righini, A; Izzo, G; Doneda, C; Zolin, A; Parazzini, C

    2018-05-01

    Evaluation of biometry is a fundamental step in prenatal brain MR imaging. While different studies have reported reference centiles for MR imaging biometric data of fetuses in the late second and third trimesters of gestation, no one has reported them in fetuses in the early second trimester. We report centiles of normal MR imaging linear biometric data of a large cohort of fetal brains within 24 weeks of gestation. From the data bases of 2 referral centers of fetal medicine, accounting for 3850 examinations, we retrospectively collected 169 prenatal brain MR imaging examinations of singleton pregnancies, between 20 and 24 weeks of gestational age, with normal brain anatomy at MR imaging and normal postnatal neurologic development. To trace the reference centiles, we used the CG-LMS method. Reference biometric centiles for the developing structures of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, and theca were obtained. The overall interassessor agreement was adequate for all measurements. Reference biometric centiles of the brain structures in fetuses between 20 and 24 weeks of gestational age may be a reliable tool in assessing fetal brain development. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  5. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Wheat shorts in diets of gestating swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L G; King, G L

    1981-03-01

    Sixty-four gilts were assigned to be bred at first or third observed estrus and fed gestation diets of pelleted wheat shorts with a free choice mineral-vitamin supplement or fortified corn-soybean meal. Only the dietary effects are included in this report. The gilts were fed their respective diets starting at 25 days after insemination. The experiment continued through three gestation-lactation cycles. Females fed the wheat shorts received less digestible energy during gestation and weighed less at day 109 of gestation and days 1, 7 and 21 of lactation in each of the three gestation-lactation periods. Females fed wheat shorts had lighter pigs at birth, weaned more pigs per litter in each parity and returned to estrus more slowly after weaning than females fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Results of a metabolism trial conducted with 12 barrows revealed that wheat shorts contained approximately 2.93 kcal digestible energy/kg dry matter and had an apparent protein digestibility of 72%, compared with values of 4.0 kcal and 86%, respectively, for the corn-soybean meal diets.

  7. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility study of gestational age estimation using three common foetal biometric parameters: Experienced versus inexperienced sonographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohagwu, C.C.; Onoduagu, H.I.; Eze, C.U.; Ochie, K.; Ohagwu, C.I.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess reproducibility of estimating gestational age (GA) of foetus using femur length (FL), biparietal diameter (BPD) and abdominal circumference (AC) within experienced and inexperienced sonographers and between the two. Patients and methods: Two sets of GA estimates each were obtained for FL, BPD and AC by the two observers in 20 normal singleton foetuses. The first estimates for the three biometric parameters were made by the experienced sonographer. Subsequently, the inexperienced sonographer, blind to the estimates of the first observer obtained his own estimates for the same biometric parameters. After a time interval of ten minutes the process was repeated for the second set of GA estimates. All the gestational age estimates were made following standard protocol. Statistical analysis was performed by Pearson's and intraclass correlations, coefficient of variation and Bland–Altman plots. Statistical inferences were drawn at p < 0.05. Results: The Pearson's and intraclass correlations of between GA estimates within and between both observers from measurement of FL, BPD and AC were very high and statistically significant (p < 0.05). Coefficient of variation for duplicate measurements for GA estimates within observers and between observers were quite negligible. Between observers, the first and second GA estimates from FL measurements showed the least variation. Estimates from BPD and AC measurements showed greater degree of variation between the observers. Conclusion: Reproducibility of GA estimation using FL, BPD and AC within experienced and inexperienced sonographers and between the two was excellent. Therefore, a fresh Nigerian radiography graduate with adequate exposure in obstetric ultrasound can correctly determine the gestational age of foetus in routine obstetric ultrasound without supervision

  8. Date fruit consumption at term: Effect on length of gestation, labour and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nuguelis; Mohd Nahwari, Siti Hayati; Sulaiman, Sofiah; Hassan, Jamiyah

    2017-07-01

    Labour induction and augmentation with Prostaglandin and Oxytocin are well established as standard practice worldwide. They are safe when used judiciously, but may be associated with maternal and neonatal morbidities. Other safer alternatives have been studied including dates consumption during late pregnancy with various outcomes. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effect of date fruit consumption during late pregnancy on the onset of labour and need for induction or augmentation of labour. A total of 154 nulliparous women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy were randomly allocated to either dates-consumer (77) or control group (77). The women in the dates-consumer group had significantly less need for augmentation of labour and longer intervention to delivery interval. There was no significant difference in the onset of spontaneous labour. Dates consumption reduces the need for labour augmentation but does not expedite the onset of labour. Impact statement • Dates fruit consumption during late pregnancy has been shown to positively affect the outcome of labour and delivery. In this study, date consumption reduced the need for labour augmentation with oxytocin but did not expedite the onset of labour. Therefore, dates consumption in late pregnancy is a safe supplement to be considered as it reduced the need for labour intervention without any adverse effect on the mother and child. This further supports the finding of earlier studies.

  9. Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Birth Weight and Length of Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birks, Laura; Casas, Maribel; Garcia, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women of reproductive age can be exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) at work, and exposure to EDCs in pregnancy may affect fetal growth.Objectives: We assessed whether maternal occupational exposure to EDCs during pregnancy as classified by application of a job exposure...... women were classified as exposed to EDCs at work during pregnancy, based on job title. Classification of exposure to one or more EDC group was associated with an increased risk of term LBW [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49], as were most specific EDC groups; this association was consistent...... groups as assessed through a job exposure matrix. For each group, we combined the two levels of exposure categories (possible and probable) and compared birth outcomes with the unexposed group (exposure unlikely). We performed meta-analyses of cohort-specific estimates.Results: Eleven percent of pregnant...

  10. RISK FACTORS FOR GESTATIONAL TROPHOBLASTIC NEOPLASIA: A CASE CONTROL STUDY IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Sreedharan Nair

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gestational trophoblastic disease is a spectrum of proliferative abnormalities of the trophoblast. GTD represents a benign form of the disease while GTN is the malignant often metastatic lesion. 75-80 per cent of patients initially diagnosed as GTD will follow a benign course after dilatation and curettage. 15-20 per cent develop locally invasive disease and 3-5 per cent develop metastatic lesions. The study aims to assess the proportion of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia among women with gestational trophoblastic disease and identify the risk factors for chemotherapy in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case-control study conducted in a tertiary hospital during a 5-year period. Cases are gestational trophoblastic neoplasia diagnosed by either rising beta-HCG levels or plateauing beta-HCG levels or by histological evidence of choriocarcinoma. Controls are cases of gestational trophoblastic disease post evacuation with normal HCG regression at 8 weeks. There were 306 controls and 57 cases. RESULTS Tabulated and analysed using SPSS package. Of the 363 patients of gestational trophoblastic disease, 57 (15.7% needed chemotherapy. 98.2% belonged to the age group of 20-35 years. 63% had gestational age of more than 12 weeks, 56.1% had pre-evacuation HCG of more than 40,000. 15.7% needed combination therapy. CONCLUSION 1. 83.1% of patients belonged to age group of 20-30 years. 2. Blood group distribution of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease did not show any significance. 3. 15.7% of total patients were diagnosed to have gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that necessitated chemotherapy. 4. When uterine size was more than 12 weeks, a statistically significant number of patients needed chemotherapy compared to non-chemotherapy group. 5. When BHCG values were more than 40,000, a statistically significant number of patients needed chemotherapy. 6. A risk score of seven or more was found to

  11. Relationship between blood pressure and insulin resistance in patients with gestational diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Shujuan; Zhang Sujuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship existe between blood pressure level and degree of insulin resistance in patients with gestational diabetes. Methods: Ninety-five cases of gestational diabetes were diagnosed among 350 pregnant women. Of them, 55 were found to be hypertensive and 40 were normotensive. Fasting, 1,2, 3h post-prandial (75g glucose) blood sugar (with peroxidase method) levels and fasting insulin (with RIA) levels were measured in these patients and 85 normal pregnant women (as control). Results: Fasting, 1, 2, 3h post 75g glucose blood sugar and fasting insulin levels in the 55 hypertensive diabetics were significantly higher than those in the normotensives and controls (P<0.05). The calculated insulin sensitivity indices were significantly lower (P also < 0.05). Conclusion: A higher insulin resistance existed in hypertensive gestational diabetics which might be a risk factor of developing hypertension. (authors)

  12. Gestational Weight Gain and its Relation with Birth Weight of the Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Meena; Paneru, Rupa

    2017-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is an important predictor of the health of the newborn. It is affected by body mass index of the women. This study was conducted to find out gestational weight gain according to Institute of Medicine 2009 recommendation and relationship of newborn birth weight to body mass index and gestational weight gain of the women. It was cross sectional, hospital based study. The women, who attended at term pregnancy for delivery and having recorded first trimester body weight, were included in the study. Their body mass index was calculated and they were stratified into 4 groups according to body mass index. The gestational weight gain was calculated by subtracting first trimester body weight from body weight at the time of admission for delivery. All the women were followed till delivery. The newborn birth weight was taken immediately after delivery. A total of 227 women were enrolled in the study. More than half of the women had normal body mass index. There were 84 (37%) overweight and obese women. Mean gestational weight gain was 10.21 kg, and mean weight of the newborn was 3.05 kg. There were equal number of women who had adequate weight gain and less weight gain according to recommendation. Excess weight gain was seen in 34 (15%) women. Women of higher body mass index and women who had gain more weight during pregnancy had larger newborns. Body mass index and gestational weight gain of the women were important predictors of birth weight of the newborn. There is a positive correlation between gestational weight gain of the women and birth weight of the newborn.

  13. Gestational diabetes mellitus screening, management and outcomes in the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Yin Yin May; Sowter, Martin; Kenealy, Timothy; Herman, Josephine; Ekeroma, Alec

    2015-04-17

    To describe current practices for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in the Cook Islands and consider the implications of alternative screening strategies. Eligible women had antenatal care from January 2009 to December 2012. A non-fasting 50 g glucose challenge between 24 and 28 weeks gestation (positive if 1-hour glucose greater than or equal to 7.8 mmol/L) was followed by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed if fasting glucose greater than or equal to 5.2 mmol/L or 2-hour glucose greater than or equal to 8.0 mmol/L; pregnancy impaired glucose tolerance if positive screen and negative diagnostic test). Uptake of the screening programme rose from 49.0% to 99.6% by the end of the study period. 646 women had a glucose challenge; for 186/646 (28.8%) the challenge was positive; 183 had an oral glucose tolerance test; 89/646 (13.8%) had pregnancy impaired glucose tolerance; 94/646 (13.9%) had gestational diabetes mellitus. Median maternal weight gain was 6 kg (gestational diabetes mellitus) and 10 kg (normal glucose tolerance); caesarean section rates were 25% and 11% respectively; baby birthweights were not significantly different. 59 women with gestational diabetes mellitus had a post-natal glucose tolerance test at their 6-week check and 21 (35.6%) had diabetes confirmed. The gestational diabetes mellitus screening programme has a high uptake and current management appears effective in reducing maternal and fetal weight gain. A proposed new screening programme is outlined.

  14. Correlation between atherogenic risk and adiponectin in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a pregnancy complication which increases the risk for maternal and foetal complications during pregnancy, and also significantly increases the cardiovascular risk for women’s health in the postpartum. Current literature provides contradictory information on the role of adiponectin (AdipoQ in the course of GDM. The aim of the study was to measure AdipoQ concentration in blood of women with GDM and to find correlations between this adipokine and clinical and biochemical parameters of the atherogenic risk. Material and methods. The GDM group included 50 women diagnosed with GDM between 24 – 28 weeks of gestation who underwent routine prenatal tests for GDM in compliance with the guidelines of the Polish Diabetes Association. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation at GDM diagnosis. Laboratory tests included serum AdipoQ concentration, fasting glucose and insulin, OGTT, lipid parameters, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in serum. Results. The GDM group showed significantly elevated fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR values, total cholesterol, LDLcholesterol and triglicerydes as compared with the control group (p<0.05. The atherogenic index, CRP, fibrinogen in women with GDM were significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.05. AdipoQ concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups during gestation (p=0.7054. No correlations, except with the neonatal weight (r= – 0.29, p<0.05, were found between AdipoQ and the studied parameters. Conclusions. Based on the conducted studies, it may be conclude that women with early diagnosed and promptly treated GDM have a normal adiponectin level, although insulin resistant changes and increased cardiovascular risk in basic metabolic parameters are observed. Moreover, adiponectin does not reflect the atherogenic risk in pregnant women with GDM.

  15. Association of Maternal Vitamin C Status with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedyeh Masoodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of antioxidants in the etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been given limited attention. Vitamin C is a nutrient with radical quenching property and has been claimed to influence glucose tolerance. Aim: To study the association between vitamin C status (dietary intake and plasma concentrations and GDM. Material and Methods: Using a case-control design with 1:3 ratio we examined 42 pregnant women with GDM and 158 normal glucose tolerant (NGT gestational age-matched healthy pregnant women at an average of 26 weeks of gestation. Maternal vitamin C intake was determined using detailed semi food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ and 24 hour diet recall. Plasma vitamin C was determined using a spectrophotometric method in non-fasting samples. GDM was diagnosed by 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT using International Association for Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG criteria (fasting ≥92mg%, 1hour ≥180mg%, 2 hour ≥153mg %. Results: GDM women had lower median intake of vitamin C (35.0 mg/day vs. 66.7; p<0.001 and lower median plasma vitamin C concentration (45.9 µmol/L vs. 95.2; p<0.001 compared to NGT women. Plasma vitamin C concentration was inversely related to fasting, 1 hour and 2 hour post glucose plasma glucose concentrations (p<0.001. The associations remained significant after adjustment for age, income, pre-pregnancy BMI, and stress. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that low vitamin C intake as well as low plasma vitamin C concentration is associated with GDM. This association needs to be tested in a large prospective study and subsequently in a clinical trial

  16. Surrogate markers of the kidney and liver in the assessment of gestational diabetes mellitus and fetal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Shao-Gang, Ma; Liang, Cheng; Feng, Bai; Wei, Xu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether serum levels of butyrylcho-linesterase activity, cystatin C, and pre-albumin has the potential value as γ-glutamyl transferase in reflecting gestational diabetes mellitus and its fetal outcome. Seventy-six gestational diabetes mellitus women and 76 pregnancies with normal glucose tolerance in the second trimester were enrolled. Maternal serum parameters of butyrylcholinesterase activity, γ-glutamyl transferase, cystatin C, and pre-albumin were detected and evaluated. The pregnant complications and fetal outcome were also evaluated. Levels of butyrylcholinesterase activity, γ-glutamyl transferase, cystatin C, pre-albumin and glycemic variables were higher in the gestational diabetes mellitus patients than in the controls. Levels of butyrylcholinesterase activity were significantly correlated to the levels of fasting plasma glucose, cystatin C, and γ- glutamyl transferase (p gestational diabetes mellitus group. There were statistical differences in cases of preterm delivery, preeclampsia and postpartum hemorrhage. Higher levels of γ-glutamyl transferase and pre-albumin were risk markers for gestational diabetes mellitus (p gestational diabetes mellitus status but not with the fetal outcome. Pre-albumin can be equivalent as γ-glutamyl transferase in reflecting the presence of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  17. Factors affecting gestation duration in the bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilts, Bruce E; Davidson, Autumn P; Hosgood, Giselle; Paccamonti, Dale L; Baker, David G

    2005-07-15

    A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the effects of age, breed, parity, and litter size on the duration of gestation in the bitch. Bitches at two locations were monitored from breeding to whelping. A total of 764 litters whelped from 308 bitches (36 large hounds, 34 Golden Retrievers, 23 German Shepherd Dogs (GSD), and 215 Labrador Retrievers). By breed, the number of whelpings was 152, 72, 58, and 482 for the hounds, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherd Dogs, and Labrador Retrievers, respectively. Whelping was predicted to be 57 d from the first day of cytologic diestrus in the hounds or 65 d from the initial progesterone rise in the other breeds. The average gestation duration (calculated as 8 d prior to Day 1 of cytologic diestrus in hounds or measured from the initial progesterone rise in other breeds) by breed (days +/- S.D.) was 66.0 +/- 2.8, 64.7 +/- 1.5, 63.6 +/- 2.1, and 62.9 +/- 1.3 for the hounds, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherd Dogs, and Labrador Retrievers, respectively. The relationship of age, breed, parity, and litter size with the difference in gestation duration was evaluated using log linear modeling. Age or parity had no effect on gestation duration. Compared to Labrador Retrievers, the German Shepherd Dogs, Golden Retrievers and hounds were more likely to have a longer gestation duration; three, four and nearly eight times as likely, respectively. Bitches whelping four or fewer pups were significantly more likely to have a longer gestation duration than those whelping five or more pups; the prolongation averaging 1 d.

  18. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  19. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  20. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  2. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Compliant walking appears metabolically advantageous at extreme step lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Bertram, John E A

    2018-05-19

    Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases. 10 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill using progressively increasing step lengths (100%, 120%, 140% and 160% of preferred step length), in both normal and compliant leg walking as energy expenditure was recorded via indirect calorimetry. Leg compliance was controlled by lowering the center-of-mass trajectory during stance, forcing the leg to flex and extend as the body moved over the foot contact. For normal step lengths, compliant leg walking was more costly than normal walking gait, but compliant leg walking energetic cost did not increase as rapidly for longer step lengths. This led to an intersection between normal and compliant walking cost curves at 114% relative step length (regression analysis; r 2  = 0.92 for normal walking; r 2  = 0.65 for compliant walking). Compliant leg walking is less energetically demanding at longer step lengths where a spontaneous shift to compliant walking has been observed, suggesting the human motor control system is sensitive to energetic requirements and will employ alternate movement patterns if advantageous strategies are available. The transition could be attributed to the interplay between (i) leg work controlling body travel during single stance and (ii) leg work to control energy loss in the step-to-step transition. Compliant leg walking requires more stance leg work at normal step lengths, but involves less energy loss at the step-to-step transition for very long steps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... interviews of the mother during pregnancy and post partum. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (in brackets) are presented. Infantile colic was defined as crying for more than three hours per day and for more than three days per week (modified Wessel’s criteria). Results A total of 4...... with GA gestational weeks 32-40. Finally, after adjusting for GA...

  5. [Gestational diabetes mellitus: data from outpatient department for women for years 1994-1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanadys, W M; Oleszczuk, J

    1999-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. This study involved analysis of data collected prospectively from a cohort of women who received prenatal care from Outpatient Department for Women, from 1994 to 1998. The population consisted of 1017 pregnant women. It is a group of patients living mainly in geographical area, including Czechów district in Lublin. Therefore, it represents quantitative relations characteristics in natural conditions of the place of residence of a larger group of municipality population. Glucose challenge test (GCT) according to indications of Experts Team of Polish Diabetologic Society in early diagnostics of gestational diabetes melitus--a 50-g loading dose of glucose and 1-h test was considered abnormal if value was 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L). Patients with abnormal GCT underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) according to criteria the World Health Organization, e.g., venous plasma glucose 2 h after 75 g oral glucose load > 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L). From patients screened for GDM between 24 and 28 wk gestation, 59 (5.8%) showed an abnormal GCT and from these 18 (1.8%) had an abnormal GTT. The testing sequence was repeated in 32 wk gestation among patients with normal GTT after an abnormal GCT and 1 had abnormal GTT. Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus is shown to be 1.9%.

  6. Serum zinc levels in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Sharbaf F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy has been related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies in which pregnant women have been supplemented with zinc to examine its effects on the outcome of the pregnancy have been carried out in industrialized countries and the results have been inconclusive. It has been shown that women with gestational diabetes (GDM have lower serum zinc levels than healthy pregnant women, and higher rates of macrosomia. Zinc is required for normal glucose metabolism, and strengthens the insulin-induced transportation of glucose into cells by its effect on the insulin signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels of GDM patients and evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation. "nMethods: In the first stage of this prospective controlled study, we enrolled 70 women who were 24-28 weeks pregnant at the Prenatal Care Center of Mirza Kochak Khan Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The serum zinc level of each subject was determined. In the second stage, among these 70 subjects, the diabetics receiving insulin were divided into two groups, only one of which received a zinc supplement and the other group was the control group. Birth weight of neonates and insulin dosages were recorded. "nResults: The mean serum zinc level in the GDM group was lower than that of the control group (94.83 vs. 103.49mg/dl, respectively and the mean birth weight of neonates from the GDM women who received the zinc supplement was lower than that of the control group (3849g vs. 4136g. The rate of macrosomia was lower in the zinc supplemented group (20% vs. 53%. The mean of increase of insulin after receiving the zinc supplement was lower (8.4u vs. 13.53. "nConclusion: Maternal insulin resistance is associated with the accumulation of maternal fat tissue during early stages of pregnancy and greater fetoplacental nutrient availability in later stages, when 70% of fetal growth occurs, resulting in macrosomia. In

  7. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  8. Kidney development in the first year of life in small-for-gestational-age preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotoura, Efthalia; Giapros, Vasilios; Drougia, Aikaterini; Argyropoulou, Maria; Papadopoulou, Frederica; Nikolopoulos, Panayiotis; Andronikou, Styliani

    2005-01-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants have been reported to have a significantly reduced number of nephrons that could be a risk factor for development of hypertension later in life. To evaluate kidney size prospectively in relation to other anthropometric parameters during the first year of life in SGA babies. The babies in the study were 31-36 weeks' gestational age (GA) at birth and were matched with control preterm infants of similar GA, but appropriate for gestational age (AGA). The SGA infants were further classified as symmetrical and asymmetrical according to the anthropometric parameters. The total number of measurements in symmetrical SGA preterm infants was 324, in asymmetrical SGA preterm infants 295, and in AGA infants 536. In symmetrical SGA preterm infants (31-36 weeks' GA) mean kidney length (± SD) of 56±4 mm was significantly different from the controls (58.9±4.6 mm) up to 6 months' chronological age (P < 0.05). In the asymmetrical SGA preterm infants, mean kidney length (45.3±4.0 mm) was significantly different from the controls (48.2±4.4 mm) up to 40 weeks' corrected age. At 1 year chronological age, all preterm infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical SGA and AGA) had similar mean kidney length (61.6±4.6, 62.8±4.3, and 62.3±4.0 mm, respectively). The ratio of kidney length to crown-to-heel length was similar in all preterm groups. Kidney length in preterm SGA infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical) follows closely the other auxological parameters during the first year of life. (orig.)

  9. The relationship between insulin resistance and the change of cytosol free calcium concentration in gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pu; Zheng Lei; Cen Rongguang; Song Yangxiu

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the insulin resistance (IR) and abnormalities of cellular calcium metabolism in gestational diabetes mellitus, the changes in the [Ca 2+ ]i and the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity in circulating erythrocytes of 32 cases gestational diabetes were compared with those of 47 normal pregnant and 43 non pregnant women. The level of [Ca 2+ ]i in circulating erythrocyte in gestational diabetes mellitus women was significantly higher than that in the pregnant and non pregnant women (P 2+ ]i in circulating erythrocytes in gestational diabetes mellitus was positively correlated with fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin, negatively with the insulin receptor tyrosine kisase activity (P 2+ ]i level during the gastational period might be one of the possible factor in the insulin resistance of gestaional diabetes mellitus. (authors)

  10. Gestational stress induces persistent depressive-like behavior and structural modifications within the postpartum nucleus accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Achikam; Sherer, Morgan; Leuner, Benedetta

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common complication following childbirth experienced by one in every five new mothers. Pregnancy stress enhances vulnerability to PPD and has also been shown to increase depressive-like behavior in postpartum rats. Thus, gestational stress may be an important translational risk factor that can be used to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying PPD. Here we examined the effects of gestational stress on depressive-like behavior during the early/mid and late postpartum periods and evaluated whether this was accompanied by altered structural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region that has been linked to PPD. We show that early/mid (PD8) postpartum female rats exhibited more depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test as compared to late postpartum females (PD22). However, two weeks of restraint stress during pregnancy increased depressive-like behavior regardless of postpartum timepoint. In addition, dendritic length, branching, and spine density on medium spiny neurons in the NAc shell were diminished in postpartum rats that experienced gestational stress although stress-induced reductions in spine density were evident only in early/mid postpartum females. In the NAc core, structural plasticity was not affected by gestational stress but late postpartum females exhibited lower spine density and reduced dendritic length. Overall, these data not only demonstrate structural changes in the NAc across the postpartum period, they also show that postpartum depressive-like behavior following exposure to gestational stress is associated with compromised structural plasticity in the NAc and thus may provide insight into the neural changes that could contribute to PPD. PMID:25359225

  11. CASE REPORT A recurrent gestational choriocarcinoma case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    molar pregnancy (Luna Russo et al., 2015). To our knowledge recurrence resulting in rupture 14 month following a live pregnancy is an extremely rare event. Management of gestational trophoblastic disease in our setup poses multiple challenges as seen in this particular case. Serum β-HCG follow up for these patients ...

  12. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including

  13. Mothers after Gestational Diabetes in Australia (MAGDA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O’Reilly, Sharleen L.; Dunbar, James A.; Versace, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly prevalent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the effectiveness of a group-based lifestyle modification program in mothers with prior GDM within their first postnatal year. Methods and Findings: In this study, 573 women...

  14. Serum chromium levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P G Sundararaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure serum chromium level in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM from Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: Thirty women with gestational diabetes, 60 age matched controls. Inclusion criteria: Gestational age 22-28 weeks, age group 20-35 years. Exclusion Criteria: Gestational age beyond 28 weeks, malnutrition or presence of infection. Serum chromium was measured using inductive couple plasma emission spectrometer. Results: Serum chromium levels of women with GDM, 1.59+/-0.02 ng/ml (range: 0.16-4.0 ng/ml were lower than in controls (4.58+/-0.62 ng/ml; range 0.82-5.33 ng/ml (P < 0.001. However, there were no significant differences among cases and controls when subdivided by parity. Conclusions: Women with GDM from a South Indian city had lower levels of serum chromium compared to pregnant women without GDM. Studies may be done whether chromium supplementation is useful in this group of women.

  15. Iron, Oxidative Stress and Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taifeng Zhuang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both iron deficiency and hyperglycemia are highly prevalent globally for pregnant women. Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to control iron deficiency. The purposes of the review are to assess the oxidative effects of iron supplementation and the potential relationship between iron nutrition and gestational diabetes. High doses of iron (~relative to 60 mg or more daily for adult humans can induce lipid peroxidation in vitro and in animal studies. Pharmaceutical doses of iron supplements (e.g., 10× RDA or more for oral supplements or direct iron supplementation via injection or addition to the cell culture medium for a short or long duration will induce DNA damage. Higher heme-iron intake or iron status measured by various biomarkers, especially serum ferritin, might contribute to greater risk of gestational diabetes, which may be mediated by iron oxidative stress though lipid oxidation and/or DNA damage. However, information is lacking about the effect of low dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and gestational diabetes. Randomized trials of low-dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily for pregnant women are warranted to test the relationship between iron oxidative stress and insulin resistance/gestational diabetes, especially for iron-replete women.

  16. Gestational surrogacy: Viewpoint of Iranian infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Azad; Sattarzadeh, Nilofar; Gholizadeh, Leila; Sheikhalipour, Zahra; Allahbakhshian, Atefeh; Hassankhani, Hadi

    2011-09-01

    Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women's viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9%) was positive. 36 (15.1%) women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4%) did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2%) said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1%) believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.

  17. Gestational surrogacy: Viewpoint of Iranian infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahmani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women′s viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. Aim: To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. Setting and Design: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. 0 Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. 0 Results: Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9% was positive. 36 (15.1% women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4% did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2% said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1% believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Conclusion: Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.

  18. Screening for gestational diabetes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter; van Assche, Andre

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) is rising globally and it represents an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. GDM is also associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers and offspring. Acceptance and implementation of the 2013 World Health...

  19. Gestational trophoblastic disease following complete hydatidiform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gestational trophoblastic disease following complete hydatidiform mole in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. ... The main outcome measures were pre- and post-evacuation serum hCG levels and complications associated with oral methotrexate use. Results : The prevalence of CHM was 3.42 per 1,000 deliveries.

  20. Gestational Age and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atladóttir, H Ó; Schendel, D.E.; Henriksen, T B

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder. Several previous studies have identified pre-term birth as a risk factor for ASD but none has studied whether the association between gestational age and ASD has changed over time. This is a Danish population-based follow...

  1. an alternative therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic effects of glibenclamide in fetuses of normoglycemic rats: an alternative therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus. ... However, GLIB animals presented a light brownish precipitate into the center-lobular veins and in the liver parenchyma among the hepatocytes. These results indicated a possible passage of the drug ...

  2. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  3. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  4. 3D Power Doppler ultrasound and computerised placental assessment in normal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Mary; Zombori, Gergely; Ryan, John; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years there have been significant developments in the use of 3D Power Doppler (3DPD) imaging and quantitative 3DPD histogram analysis to estimate both placental volume and intra-placental vasculature. This study aims to determine if placental volume, vascularisation and blood flow are correlated with gestational age in normal pregnancy. It also examines whether or not a new software method for analysis of percentage calcification (the ‘placentometer’) correlates well with gestation. Material and method: This was a prospective cohort study of 250 women with normal pregnancies (12 + 6 to 39 + 5 weeks gestation). 3DPD ultrasound was used to evaluate placental volume, vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation-flow index (VFI). Placental volume (calculated at 35–40 weeks gestation), was correlated with birth weight. Following each scan the percentage of calcification was also calculated using the placentometer. Results: Placental volume correlated significantly with gestational age: 66.676 + 0.623 × GA (P < 0.001). No significant change with gestation was noted in VI, FI and VFI (VI: P = 0.199, FI: P = 0.299, VFI: P = 0.557). Software analysis of the percentage of calcification, demonstrated the expected increase in calcification as gestation increased: −4.605 + 0.032 × GA (P < 0.001). From 35 to 40 weeks gestation volume was related to birth weight (P < 0.01). Conclusion: This study shows that in normal low-risk pregnancy placental volume increases with gestational age, whereas vascularisation and blood flow are independent of gestation. Placental volume in late pregnancy is related to birth weight. Software analysis of the percentage of calcification demonstrates an increase with advancing gestation

  5. Stride length: measuring its instantaneous value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, G C; Mazzeo, J R

    2007-01-01

    Human gait has been studied from different viewpoints: kinematics, dynamics, sensibility and others. Many of its characteristics still remain open to research, both for normal gait and for pathological gait. Objective measures of some of its most significant spatial/temporal parameters are important in this context. Stride length, one of these parameters, is defined as the distance between two consecutive contacts of one foot with ground. On this work we present a device designed to provide automatic measures of stride length. Its features make it particularly appropriate for the evaluation of pathological gait

  6. Effect of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms on susceptiblity to gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y H; Xu, Y L; Zhang, W H

    2016-06-03

    We investigate the role of the GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 IIe105Val genetic polymorphisms in the susceptibility to gestational diabetes mellitus. A total of 223 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 265 healthy pregnant women were examined at The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine from May 2013 to November 2013. Genotyping for detection of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms was conducted using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. There were statistically significant differences between patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and control subjects in terms of age (χ(2) = 6.68, P = 0.01) and BMI (t = 7.56, P gestational diabetes mellitus compared to the present genotype [adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1.85 (1.26-2.72)]. However, the unconditional logistic analysis revealed that GSTT1 and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms could not influence the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population. In summary, we suggest that the GSTM1 gene polymorphism could influence the susceptibility to gestational diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population.

  7. Diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (WS 331-2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Medical Service Specialty Standard Committee of Mi

    2012-01-01

    The criteria provide the screening and diagnosis for gestational diabetes mellitus and it should be applied to all medical institutions and health care practitioners for gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis in China.

  8. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe; Crandell, Jamie L; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37-2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27-2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30-1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27-1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86-0.91). Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain.

  9. Gestational Age Estimation Based on Fetal Pelvimetry on Fetal Ultrasound in Iraqi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar Razzaq Al-Esawi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is an integral part of obstetric practice, and assessment of gestational age (GA is a central element of obstetric ultrasonography. Sonographic estimation of GA is derived from calculations based on fetal measurements. Numerous equations for GA calculation from fetal biometry have been adopted in routine practice. This study reports a new method of estimating GA in the second and third trimester using interischial distance (IID, the distance between the two ischial primary ossification centers, on fetal ultrasound. Four hundred women with uncomplicated normal singleton pregnancies from 16 weeks to term were examined. Standard fetal obstetric ultrasound was done measuring biparietal diameter (BPD and femur length (FL for each fetus. The IID, in millimeters, was correlated with the GA in weeks based upon the BPD and FL individually, and the BPD and FL together. Statistical analysis showed strong correlation between the IID and GA calculated from the FL with correlation coefficient (r =0.989, P < 0.001. Strong linear correlation was also found between the IID and GA based upon BPD and BPD+FL. Further statistical analysis using regression equations also showed that the IID was slightly wider in female fetuses, but this difference was not statistically significant. Resulting from this analysis, we have arrived at an easy-to-use equation: GA Weeks = (IID mm + 8 ±1 week. We feel this method can be especially applicable in the developing world, where midwives may not have access to software for fetal biometry in their basic handheld ultrasound machines. Even more sophisticated machines may not come with loaded software for obstetrics analysis. There are several limitations to this study, discussed below. We recommend further studies correlating the IID with other biometric parameters.

  10. Short fetal leukocyte telomere length and preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Menon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rupture of the fetal membranes is a common harbinger of imminent labor and delivery. Telomere shortening is a surrogate for oxidative stress (OS and senescence. Fetal leukocyte and placental membrane DNA telomere lengths were evaluated to determine their association with preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (pPROM or spontaneous preterm births with intact membranes (PTB, compared to term birth. METHODS: Telomere lengths were quantified in cord blood leukocytes (n = 133 from three major groups: 1 pPROM (n = 28, 2 PTB (n = 69 and 3 uncomplicated full term births (controls, n = 35, using real-time quantitative PCR. Placental membrane specimens (n = 18 were used to correlate fetal leukocyte and placental telomere lengths. Telomere length differences among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA. Pearson correlation coefficients determined relationships between leukocyte and placental membrane telomere lengths. RESULTS: In pregnancies with intact membranes, fetal leukocyte telomere length was inversely proportional to gestational age. The mean telomere length decreased as gestation progressed, with the shortest at term. pPROM had telomere lengths (9962 ± 3124 bp that were significantly shorter than gestational age-matched PTB (11546 ± 4348 bp, p = 0.04, but comparable to term births (9011 ± 2497 bp, p = 0.31. Secondary analyses revealed no effects of race (African American vs. Caucasian or intraamniotic infection on telomere length. A strong Pearson's correlation was noted between fetal leukocyte and placental membrane telomere lengths (ρ = 0.77; p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal leukocyte telomere length is reduced in pPROM compared to PTB but is similar to term births. pPROM represents a placental membrane disease likely mediated by OS-induced senescence.

  11. Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight in Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Liu, Enqing; Guo, Jia; Pan, Lei; Li, Baojuan; Wang, Ping; Liu, Jin; Wang, Yue; Liu, Gongshu; Hu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with anthropometry in the offspring from birth to 12 months old in Tianjin, China. Methods Between 2009 and 2011, health care records of 38,539 pregnant women had been collected, and their children had been measured body weight and length at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. The independent and joint associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines with anthropometry in the offspring were examined using General Linear Model and Logistic Regression. Results Prepregnancy BMI and maternal GWG were positively associated with Z-scores for birth weight-for-gestational age, birth length-for-gestational age, and birth weight-for-length. Infants born to mothers with excessive GWG had the greatest changes in Z-scores for weight-for-age from birth to Month 3, and from Month 6 to Month 12, and the greatest changes in Z-scores for length-for-age from birth to months 3 and 12 compared with infants born to mothers with adequate GWG. Excessive GWG was associated with an increased risk of offspring overweight or obesity at 12 months old in all BMI categories except underweight. Conclusions Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater weight gain and length gain of offspring in early infancy. Excessive GWG was associated with increased infancy overweight and obesity risk. PMID:24204979

  12. Recent Declines in Induction of Labor by Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for singleton births per 100 singleton births. Gestational age categories : Early preterm: Births prior to 34 completed weeks of ... delivery is managed for multiple gestation pregnancies. The primary measure used to determine gestational age is the interval between the first day of ...

  13. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Key words: Diabetes mellitus, gestation, risk factors, Sudan. INTRODUCTION. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a universal risk factor for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.[1] Low gestational age, neonatal macrosomia, hypoglycemia, respiratory distress syndrome are frequent complications of GDM and ...

  14. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in twin and triplet gestations in Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samera F. AlBasri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Tocompare maternal and neonatal complications in twin and triplet gestations at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Retrospective medical records of 165 women with 144 twin and 21 triplet pregnancies from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed. Comparisons were carried out for maternal complications, gestational age at birth, neonatal birth weight, and neonatal intensive care admission. Results: Most common complications were preterm birth (49%, gestational diabetes mellitus (13.3%, and premature rupture of membrane (4.8%. All triplet pregnancies and 42% twin pregnancies terminated in preterm birth. Gestational length was longer (p less than 0.001 in twin births (36.0 ± 3.05 weeks than for triplet births (32 ± 3.81 weeks. Rates for in vitro fertilization, ovulation induction, and cesareans were higher in women with triplets than in those with twins. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission was higher (p less than 0.001 for triplets (76.2% than for twins (23.6%. The mean weight of twins was 2333.83 ± 558.69 grams and triplets was 1553.41 ± 569.73 grams. Hyaline membrane disease, neonatal jaundice, and neonatal sepsis were most common neonatal complications. Conclusion: Neonates from triplet pregnancies were preterm, had low birth weight and needed more often NICU admission in comparison to those from twin pregnancies.

  15. Maternal Fish Consumption and Infant Birth Size and Gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner John M

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scientific literature poses a perplexing dilemma for pregnant women with respect to the consumption of fish from natural bodies of water. On one hand, fish is a good source of protein, low in fat and a rich source of other nutrients all of which have presumably beneficial effects on developing embryos and fetuses. On the other hand, consumption of fish contaminated with environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has been associated with decrements in gestation and birth size. Methods 2,716 infants born between 1986–1991 to participants of the New York State Angler Cohort Study were studied with respect to duration of maternal consumption of contaminated fish from Lake Ontario and its tributaries and gestation and birth size. Hospital delivery records (maternal and newborn were obtained for 92% of infants for the ascertainment of gestation (weeks, birth size (weight, length, chest, and head circumference and other known determinants of fetal growth (i.e., maternal parity, history of placental infarction, uterine bleeding, pregnancy loss or cigarette smoking and infant's race, sex and presence of birth defect. Duration of maternal fish consumption prior to the index infant's birth was categorized as: none; 1–2, 3–7, 8+ years, while birth weight (in grams, birth length (in centimeters, and head and chest circumference (in centimeters were left as continuous variables in multiple linear regression models. Birth size percentiles, ponderal indices and head to chest circumference ratios were computed to further assess proportionality and birth size in relation to gestational age. Results Analysis of variance failed to identify significant mean differences in gestation or any measure of birth size in relation to duration of maternal lifetime fish consumption. Multiple linear regressions identified gestational age, male sex, number of daily cigarettes, parity and placental infarction, as significant

  16. Hypertension Risk Subsequent to Gestational Dysglycemia Is Modified by Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Lewis, Rhonda; Huynh, Jennifer; Li, Sylvia; Wenger, Julia; Thadhani, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Additionally, gestational dysglycemia has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus but not yet associated with hypertension subsequent to pregnancy in long-term follow-up. Therefore, we set out to examine this relationship as well as the role of race/ethnicity in modifying this relationship. We analyzed a prospective observational cohort followed between 1998 and 2007. There were 17 655 women with self-reported race/ethnicity and full-term, live births. A 1-hour 50 g oral glucose-load test and a 3-hour 100 g oral glucose-tolerance test enabled third trimester stratification of women into 1 of 4 glucose-tolerance groups: (1) normal (n=15 056); (2) abnormal glucose-load test (n=1558); (3) abnormal glucose-load and -tolerance tests (n=520); and (4) gestational diabetes mellitus (n=521). Women were then followed for a mean±standard deviation of 4.1±2.9 years after delivery for the development of hypertension. Although gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with an increased risk of hypertension after pregnancy (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.58 [1.02, 2.45]; P=0.04), dysglycemia defined by an abnormal glucose-load test predicted hypertension only among black women (4.52 [1.24, 16.52]; P=0.02). The risk of hypertension after pregnancy among dysglycemia groups not meeting criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus varied based on the race/ethnicity of the population. Further research on the implications of the intersection of race/ethnicity and gestational dysglycemia on subsequent hypertension is warranted. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Nuclear reactor with scrammable part length rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A new part length rod is provided. It may be used to control xenon induced power oscillations but to contribute to shutdown reactivity when a rapid shutdown of the reactor is required. The part length rod consists of a control rod with three regions. The lower control region is a longer weaker active portion separated from an upper stronger shorter poison section by an intermediate section which is a relative non-absorber of neutrons. The combination of the longer weaker control section with the upper high worth poison section permits the part length rod of this to be scrammed into the core when a reactor shutdown is required but also permits the control rod to be used as a tool to control power distribution in both the axial and radial directions during normal operation

  18. [Gestational weight gain and optimal ranges in Chinese mothers giving singleton and full-term births in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Duan, Y F; Pang, X H; Jiang, S; Yin, S A; Yang, Z Y; Lai, J Q

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To analyze the status of gestational weight gain (GWG) among Chinese mothers who gave singleton and full-term births, and to look at optimal GWG ranges. Methods: In 2013, using the multi-stage stratified and population proportional cluster sampling method, we investigated 8 323 mother-child pairs at their 0-24 months postpartum from 55 counties (cities/districts) of 30 provinces (except Tibet) in mainland China. Questionnaire was used to collect data on body weight before pregnancy and delivery, diseases during gestation, hemorrhage or not at postpartum, child birth weight and length, and other information about pregnant outcomes. We measured mother's body weight and height, and child's body weight and length. Based on 'Chinese Adult Body Weight Standard', we divided mothers into four groups according to their body weight before pregnancy: low weight (BMImothers and children, and according to P25-P75 of GWG among mothers who had good pregnant outcomes and good anthropometry, and whose children had good anthropometry. The status of GWG was assessed by the new optimal ranges. Results: P50 (P25-P75) of GWG among the 8 323 mothers was 15.0 (10.0-19.0) kg. According to the proposed optimal GWG ranges of IOM, the proportions of inadequate, optimal and excessive GWG accounted for 27.2% (2 263 mothers), 36.2% (3 016 mothers) and 36.6% (3 044 mothers). The optimal GWG ranges for low weight, normal weight, overweight and obesity were 11.5-18.0, 10.0-15.0, 8.0-14.0 and 5.0-11.5 kg. Based on these optimal GWG ranges established in this study, the rates of inadequate, optimal and excessive GWG were 15.7% (1 303 mothers), 45.0% (3 744 mothers) and 39.3% (3 276 mothers), and these rates were significantly different from that defined by the IOM standards (χ2=345.36, Pmothers is 15.0 kg, which is at a relatively higher level. This study suggests the optimal GWG ranges for Chinese women who give singleton and full-term babies, which appears lower than IOM's.

  19. Omega 3 fatty acids, gestation and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larqué, Elvira; Gil-Sánchez, Alfonso; Prieto-Sánchez, María Teresa; Koletzko, Berthold

    2012-06-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a reduction in maternal serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) percentage and its possible depletion in the maternal store. Since the synthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in the fetus and placenta is low, both the maternal LCPUFA status and placental function are critical for their supply to the fetus. Maternal supplementation with DHA up to 1 g/d or 2·7 g n-3 LCPUFA did not have any harmful effect. DHA supplementation in large studies slightly the enhanced length of gestation (by about 2 days), which may increase the birth weight by about 50 g at delivery. However no advice can be given on their general using to avoid preterm deliveries in low or high risk pregnancies. Several studies, but not all, reported improvements of the offspring in some neurodevelopmental tests as a result of DHA supplementation during gestation, or, at least, positive relationships between maternal or cord serum DHA percentages and cognitive skills in young children. The effect seems more evident in children with low DHA proportions, which raises the question of how to identify those mothers who might have a poor DHA status and who could benefit from such supplementation. Most studies on the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression were judged to be of low-to-moderate quality, mainly due to small sample sizes and failure to adhere to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines. In contrast, the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on reducing allergic diseases in offspring are promising.

  20. Comparisons of stomatal parameters between normal and abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... plant's different parts attract more people's attention. Bougainvillea ... When this plant flowered, leaf length was divided into six stages. Normal leaves which length ..... and driving environmental change. Nature. 424: 901-908.

  1. Spinal cord normalization in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jiwon; Seigo, Michaela; Saidha, Shiv; Sotirchos, Elias; Zackowski, Kathy; Chen, Min; Prince, Jerry; Diener-West, Marie; Calabresi, Peter A; Reich, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord (SC) pathology is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and measures of SC-atrophy are increasingly utilized. Normalization reduces biological variation of structural measurements unrelated to disease, but optimal parameters for SC volume (SCV)-normalization remain unclear. Using a variety of normalization factors and clinical measures, we assessed the effect of SCV normalization on detecting group differences and clarifying clinical-radiological correlations in MS. 3T cervical SC-MRI was performed in 133 MS cases and 11 healthy controls (HC). Clinical assessment included expanded disability status scale (EDSS), MS functional composite (MSFC), quantitative hip-flexion strength ("strength"), and vibration sensation threshold ("vibration"). SCV between C3 and C4 was measured and normalized individually by subject height, SC-length, and intracranial volume (ICV). There were group differences in raw-SCV and after normalization by height and length (MS vs. HC; progressive vs. relapsing MS-subtypes, P normalization by length (EDSS:r = -.43; MSFC:r = .33; strength:r = .38; vibration:r = -.40), and height (EDSS:r = -.26; MSFC:r = .28; strength:r = .22; vibration:r = -.29), but diminished with normalization by ICV (EDSS:r = -.23; MSFC:r = -.10; strength:r = .23; vibration:r = -.35). In relapsing MS, normalization by length allowed statistical detection of correlations that were not apparent with raw-SCV. SCV-normalization by length improves the ability to detect group differences, strengthens clinical-radiological correlations, and is particularly relevant in settings of subtle disease-related SC-atrophy in MS. SCV-normalization by length may enhance the clinical utility of measures of SC-atrophy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  2. Ultrasonographic assessment of renal length in 310 Turkish children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning was performed with a 3.5 MHz ultrasound probe in the supine position. The ultrasonographic appearance of the kidneys we measured was normal. The maximum length of each kidney was measured. The renal length was correlated with somatic parameters including age, body height and weight. Regression ...

  3. The risk of postpartum maternal hyperglycaemia in women with gestational diabetes is reduced by breastfeeding

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, MW

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes. It identifies women at risk of pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular risk in later life. Recent studies have suggested that breastfeeding may confer a beneficial effect on postpartum maternal glucose tolerance in both women with GDM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy.\\r\

  4. [Motor behavior of human fetuses during the second trimester of gestation: a longitudinal ultrasound study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, C; Crespo-Eguílaz, N; Alcázar, J L; Narbona, J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this research is to contribute to knowledge of the normal spontaneous motor behavior of the human fetus during the second trimester of pregnancy. This study focuses on five patterns of spontaneous fetal movement: startle (S), axo-rhizomelic rhythmia (ARR), axial stretching (AS), general movement (GM), and diaphragmatic contraction (DC). A cohort of 13 subjects was followed up using 2D obstetrical ultrasound images at 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of gestation. As inclusion criteria, neonatal neurological examination and general movements after eutocic delivery at term were normal in all of the subjects, and their neuromotor and cognitive development until the end of pre-school age were also normal. All these five motor patterns are present at the beginning of the 2(nd) gestational trimester, but their quantitative and qualitative traits are diverse according to gestational ages. The phasic, isolated or rhythmically repeated movements, S and ARR, are prominent at 12 and 16 weeks of gestation, and then their presence gradually diminishes. By contrast, tonic and complex AS and GM movements increase their presence and quality at 20 and 24 weeks. RAR constitute a particular periodic motor pattern not described in previous literature. Moreover, the incidence of DC is progressive throughout the trimester, in clusters of 2-6 arrhythmic and irregular beats. Fetal heart rate increases during fetal motor active periods. All five normal behavioral patterns observed in the ultrasounds reflect the progressive tuning of motor generators in human nervous system during mid-pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Mai, Caiyuan; Hou, Minming; Chen, Rong; Duan, Dongmei; Xu, Huikun; Lin, Xiaohong; Wen, Jiying; Lv, Lijuan; Lei, Qiong; Niu, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases compared with normal women. This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with GDM. Methods: 453 women with GDM (cases) and 1,180 healthy women (controls) were included in this study. The post-partum examinations included 2 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, lipid profiles, anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height, weight) and ...

  6. Altered procollagen gene expression in mid-gestational mouse excisional wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Stephanie R; Quirk, Gerald L; Sykes, Virginia W; Kordula, Tomasz; Lanning, David A

    2007-11-01

    Many pathologic conditions are characterized by excessive tissue contraction and scar formation. Previously, we developed a murine model of excisional wound healing in which mid-gestational wounds heal scarlessly compared with late-gestational wounds. We theorized that variations in procollagen gene expression may contribute to the scarless and rapid closure. Time-dated pregnant FVB strain mice underwent laparotomy and hysterotomy on embryonic days 15 (E15) and 18 (E18). Full-thickness, excisional wounds (3 mm) were made on each of 4 fetuses per doe and then harvested at 32, 48, or 72 h. Control tissue consisted of age-matched normal fetal skin. Procollagen types 1alpha1, 1alpha2, and 3 gene expressions were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and normalized to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Trichrome staining was also performed. Procollagen 1alpha1 expression was decreased in E15 wounds at 32 h compared with their normal skin groups. Procollagen types 1alpha2 and 3 expressions were both increased in the E15 groups compared with the E18 groups at 48 h. At 72 h, the E15 wounds had a collagen density similar to the surrounding normal skin while E18 wounds exhibited increased collagen deposition in a disorganized pattern. This study demonstrates that the pattern of gene expression for types 1 and 3 collagen varies between mid- and late-gestational mouse excisional wounds. These alterations in procollagen expression may contribute to a pattern of collagen deposition in the mid-gestational fetuses that is more favorable for scarless healing with less type 1 and more type 3 collagen.

  7. [Multiple gestation epidemiology--15 years survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carla T; Branco, Miguel R; Ferreira, Isabel D; Nordeste, Ana; Fonseca, Margarida; Taborda, Adelaide; Silva, Isabel S; Almeida, Maria do Céu

    2005-01-01

    Between January of 1987 and December of 2001 were born 1243 twins related to 609 multiple pregnancies, in Maternidade Bissaya-Barreto. Data were grouped in periods of three years and several parameters were studied. The rate of multiple gestation has increased probably due to the contribution of the assisted conception techniques, and to the increase of the number of multiple fetal pregnancies (two or more) and to the increase of the mother age. These more frequent obstetric problems were preterm birth, gestational hypertension and abnormal sonographic data of fetal growth. The average age of delivery was 34 weeks and the birth weight has decreased. The most important factors for neonatal morbidity were hyaline membranous disease, intraventricular haemorrhage and the twin-twin transfusion syndrome. The neonatal mortality decreased in the last studied period.

  8. Ethical and Legal Issues in Gestational Surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Claudia; Capasso, Emanuele; Terracciano, Lucia; Delbon, Paola; Fedeli, Piergiorgio; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Policino, Fabio; Niola, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    This study originated from events that occurred in 2014 in an Italian hospital, where the embryos of a couple, obtained by means of homologous insemination, were mistakenly implanted into the uterus of another woman who, along with her husband, underwent the same treatment. Faced with this serious adverse circumstance, that gives rise to ethical and legal issues, the authors conducted a comparative examination of how to consider the division of maternity (between biological mother and uterine mother) and the related division of paternity (between genetic father and legal father, husband or partner of the gestational mother). Some preliminary observations are made concerning parenthood and filiation within the context of currently applicable Italian law. The following is a detailed analysis of the arguments in favour of the parental figures involved (gestational mother/genetic mother).

  9. Galectins in angiogenesis: consequences for gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sandra M; Conrad, Melanie L; Freitag, Nancy; Barrientos, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Members of the galectin family have been shown to exert several roles in the context of reproduction. They contribute to placentation, maternal immune regulation and facilitate angiogenesis encompassing decidualisation and placenta formation during pregnancy. In the context of neo-vascularisation, galectins have been shown to augment signalling pathways that lead to endothelial cell activation, cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro in addition to angiogenesis in vivo. Angiogenesis during gestation ensures not only proper foetal growth and development, but also maternal health. Consequently, restriction of placental blood flow has major consequences for both foetus and mother, leading to pregnancy diseases. In this review we summarise both the established and the emerging roles of galectin in angiogenesis and discuss the possible implications during healthy and pathological gestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethical and Legal Issues in Gestational Surrogacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Claudia; Capasso, Emanuele; Terracciano, Lucia; Delbon, Paola; Fedeli, Piergiorgio; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Policino, Fabio; Niola, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study originated from events that occurred in 2014 in an Italian hospital, where the embryos of a couple, obtained by means of homologous insemination, were mistakenly implanted into the uterus of another woman who, along with her husband, underwent the same treatment. Faced with this serious adverse circumstance, that gives rise to ethical and legal issues, the authors conducted a comparative examination of how to consider the division of maternity (between biological mother and uterine mother) and the related division of paternity (between genetic father and legal father, husband or partner of the gestational mother). Some preliminary observations are made concerning parenthood and filiation within the context of currently applicable Italian law. The following is a detailed analysis of the arguments in favour of the parental figures involved (gestational mother/genetic mother). PMID:29675478

  11. Triglycerides as an early pathophysiological marker of endothelial dysfunction in nondiabetic women with a previous history of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokup, Alina; Góralczyk, Barbara; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Rość, Danuta

    2012-02-01

    To investigate whether baseline triglyceride levels are associated with early glucose dysregulation and/or cardiovascular risk in women with a previous history of gestational diabetes. Prospective postpregnancy cohort study. Polish university hospitals. Participants included 125 women with previous gestational diabetes and 40 women with normal glucose regulation during pregnancy. All women were studied 2-24 months (mean 12 ± 10 months) after the index pregnancy. Women with previous gestational diabetes were divided into tertiles in accordance with baseline triglyceride levels. We assessed glucose regulation (oral glucose tolerance test), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment), markers of endothelial dysfunction (soluble: intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, tissue plasminogen activator antigen, von Willebrand factor antigen), fibrinolysis (plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen), inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and lipid levels. Women with previous gestational diabetes (78% normal glucose regulation, 22% impaired glucose tolerance) had a high cardiometabolic risk profile compared with control women (100% normal glucose regulation). Baseline triglycerides >0.83 mmol/l were associated with a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance, higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio. Triglycerides >1.22 mmol/l were associated with higher body fat indexes, higher insulin resistance, higher levels of endothelial dysfunction biomarkers, higher plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen and dyslipidemia. Only E-selectin was independently associated with triglyceride levels. Baseline triglyceride levels are a cardiovascular risk marker as well as a pathophysiological parameter independently associated with endothelial dysfunction in nondiabetic women with previous gestational diabetes at 2-24 months after an index pregnancy. Normalization of

  12. [Placental atherosclerosis and markers of endothelial dysfunction in infants born to mothers with gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Morales, Cruz Mónica; Brito Zurita, Olga Rosa; González Heredia, Ricardo; Cruz López, Miguel; Méndez Padrón, Araceli; Matute Briseño, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-05

    The pathophysiology of gestational diabetes itself causes hyperstimulation of adipose tissue and of the placenta cells increasing the production of inflammatory cytokines, which cause changes in the tissues exposed such as the placenta and foetus. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare metabolic markers and endothelial dysfunction in umbilical cord blood, as well as to determine the presence of atherosclerosis in the placentas of newborn infants of patients with gestational diabetes and in patients with normally progressing pregnancies. An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out in 84 patients, obtaining data such as age, smoking and weight gain in pregnancy; the gestational age of the newborns was determined by Capurro, and their weight and destination subsequent to birth, the placentas were also collected in order to look for atherosclerosis through histological studies and glucose, insulin, VLDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, cholesterol, fibrinogen, PCR and markers of endothelial dysfunction (adiponectin, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and IL-6) were determined in blood samples obtained from the umbilical cord. Placental atherosclerosis presented in 28.94% of the group with gestational diabetes compared to 10.52% of the group with normally progressing pregnancies (P=.044); differences were found in glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, HOMA-IR, PCR-us, HDL-C, not in VLDL-C. Twenty-one point five percent of the newborns of the gestational diabetes patients required hospitalization, against 5.2% in the control group, Pregnancies that involve diabetes have higher proportion of atherosclerosis, hospitalization of the newborn, insulin resistance, as well as elevation of markers associated with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in umbilical cord blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodland C Cindy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin is an azalide antibiotic with an extensive range of indications and has become a common treatment option due to its convenient dosing regimen and therapeutic advantages. Human studies addressing gestational use of azithromycin have primarily focused on antibiotic efficacy rather than fetal safety. Our primary objective was to evaluate the possibility of teratogenic risk following gestational exposure to azithromycin. Methods There were 3 groups of pregnant women enrolled in our study: 1 women who took azithromycin. 2 women exposed to non-teratogenic antibiotics for similar indications, and 3 women exposed to non-teratogenic agents. They were matched for gestational age at time of call, maternal age, cigarette and alcohol consumption. Rates of major malformations and other endpoints of interest were compared among the three groups. Results Pregnancy outcome of 123 women in each group was ascertained. There were no statistically significant differences among the three groups in the rates of major malformations; 3.4% (exposed versus 2.3% (disease matched and 3.4% (non teratogen or any other endpoints that were examined. In the azithromycin group, 88 (71.6% women took the drug during the first trimester Conclusion Results suggest that gestational exposure to azithromycin is not associated with an increase in the rate of major malformations above the baseline of 1–3%. Our data adds to previous research showing that macrolide antibiotics, as a group, are generally safe in pregnancy and provides an evidence-based option for health professionals caring for populations with chlamydia.

  14. Lipotoxicity, β cell dysfunction, and gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) is caused by failure of islet β cells to meet the increased insulin requirements of pregnancy. Recently, Prentice et al. (2014) discovered a 7-fold elevation of the furan fatty acid metabolite 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanopropanoic acid (CMPF) in plasma of women with GDM and showed that CMPF directly induces β cell dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Fetomaternal transfusion and diagnosis of gestational choriocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, L; Izard, A; Schiavone, S; Kermanach, P; Deramecourt, M; Duclusaud, A; Gertych, W; Girard, S

    2015-03-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a rare but agressive malignant trophoblastic neoplasm. Fetomaternal transfusion can be the first sign of choriocarcinoma. We describe two cases of gestational choriocarinoma whose first manifestation was a fetomaternal transfusion. Fetomaternal transfusion is a rare demonstration of choriocarcinoma but its diagnosis must lead to a placenta examination with specific research of choriocarcinoma. The more the therapeutic care is precise, the better is the forecast. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the Causal Relationship of Maternal Height on Birth Size and Gestational Age at Birth: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ge; Bacelis, Jonas; Lengyel, Candice; Teramo, Kari; Hallman, Mikko; Helgeland, Øyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Myhre, Ronny; Sengpiel, Verena; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational epidemiological studies indicate that maternal height is associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth measures (i.e., shorter mothers deliver infants at earlier gestational ages with lower birth weight and birth length). Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain these associations. This study aimed to investigate the casual relationships behind the strong association of maternal height with fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) and gestational age by a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using phenotype and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 3,485 mother/infant pairs from birth cohorts collected from three Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, and Norway). We constructed a genetic score based on 697 SNPs known to be associated with adult height to index maternal height. To avoid confounding due to genetic sharing between mother and infant, we inferred parental transmission of the height-associated SNPs and utilized the haplotype genetic score derived from nontransmitted alleles as a valid genetic instrument for maternal height. In observational analysis, maternal height was significantly associated with birth length (p = 6.31 × 10−9), birth weight (p = 2.19 × 10−15), and gestational age (p = 1.51 × 10−7). Our parental-specific haplotype score association analysis revealed that birth length and birth weight were significantly associated with the maternal transmitted haplotype score as well as the paternal transmitted haplotype score. Their association with the maternal nontransmitted haplotype score was far less significant, indicating a major fetal genetic influence on these fetal growth measures. In contrast, gestational age was significantly associated with the nontransmitted haplotype score (p = 0.0424) and demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0234) causal effect of every 1 cm increase in maternal

  17. Serum adiponectin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Bhograj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.[1] Pregnancy is a unique situation in which there is a physiological temporary increase in insulin resistance (IR. The mechanisms responsible for the gestational-induced IR are not completely understood. The current study was undertaken to compare adiponectin levels during 24–28 weeks period of gestation in drug-naive newly diagnosed GDM women with a cohort of normoglycemic pregnant women. Subjects and Methods: A total of 47 pregnant women in the age group of 18–40 years were included in this cross-sectional study, of which 13 were GDM cases and 34 were normoglycemic controls. Serum adiponectin level was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean adiponectin level was 16.92 ng/ml (standard deviation [SD] = 2.78 and 19.38 ng/ml (SD = 2.71 in case and control groups, respectively, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.008. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated decreased serum adiponectin levels in women with GDM when compared with age- and body mass index-matched euglycemic pregnant women.

  18. Comparison of gestational dating methods and implications ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: Estimating gestational age is usually based on date of last menstrual period (LMP) or clinical estimation (CE); both approaches introduce potential bias. Differences in methods of estimation may lead to misclassificat ion and inconsistencies in risk estimates, particularly if exposure assignment is also gestation-dependent. This paper examines a'what-if' scenario in which alternative methods are used and attempts to elucidate how method choice affects observed results.METHODS: We constructed two 20-week gestational age cohorts of pregnancies between 2000 and 2005 (New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, USA) using live birth certificates : one defined preterm birth (PTB) status using CE and one using LMP. Within these, we estimated risk for 4 categories of preterm birth (PTBs per 106 pregnancies) and risk differences (RD (95% Cl s)) associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM2. 5).RESULTS: More births were classified preterm using LMP (16%) compared with CE (8%). RD divergences increased between cohorts as exposure period approached delivery. Among births between 28 and 31 weeks, week 7 PM2.5 exposure conveyed RDs of 44 (21 to 67) for CE and 50 (18 to 82) for LMP populations, while week 24 exposure conveyed RDs of 33 (11 to 56) and -20 (-50 to 10), respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Different results from analyses restricted to births with both CE and LMP are most likely due to differences in dating methods rather than selection issues. Results are sensitive t

  19. Personality type influence the gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franik, Grzegorz; Lipka, Nela; Kopyto, Katarzyna; Kopocińska, Joanna; Owczarek, Aleksander; Sikora, Jerzy; Madej, Paweł; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancy is frequently followed by the development of obesity. Aside from psychological factors, hormonal changes influence weight gain in pregnant women. We attempted to assess the potential association between personality type and the extent of gestational weight gain. The study group involved 773 women after term delivery (age 26.3 ± 3.9 years, body mass before pregnancy 61.2 ± 11.1 kg). Weight gain during pregnancy was calculated by using self-reported body mass prior to and during the 38th week of pregnancy. Personality type was assessed using the Polish version of the Framingham Type A Behavior Patterns Questionnaire (adapted by Juczynski). Two hundred forty-six (31.8%) study subjects represented type A personalities, 272 (35.2%) type B and 255 (33.0%) an indirect type. Gestational weight gain was related to the behavior patterns questionnaire score and age. In women gain was higher than in women with type B behavior of the same age. In women >30, the gestational weight gain was larger for type B personalities. Type A personality and increased urgency in younger pregnant women increases the risk of developing obesity during pregnancy in women below 30 years old. A higher level of competitiveness demonstrates a risk factor of excessive weight gain during pregnancy regardless of age.

  20. Serum homocysteine level in gestational diabetes: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari Tanha F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Increased total plasma homocysteine (Hcy is an accepted risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD, stroke, preclampsia, recurrent abortion and diabetes type I and II. The aim of the current study was to assess serum homocysteine and its relation with serum folat, vitamine B12 and lipid profile in gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare these with those of pregnant women."n"n Methods: In a prospective controlled survey 80 pregnant women (24-28 weeks with uncomplicated pregnancies were evaluated. They were assigned to one of two groups according to the results of 100g-OGTT. In the case group there were pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus according to the OGTT and in the control group women who had normal OGTT results were put. Levels of fasting glucose, homocysteine, vit B12, and folic acid, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL were measured in both groups."n"nResults: The mean level of homocysteine in GDM group was significantly higher than control group (p=0.000. The mean level of folic acid and vit B12 was significantly lower than the level in control group (p=0.001, p=0.004 respectively. Body

  1. Longitudinal study of serum placental GH in 455 normal pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Skibsted, Lillian; Skouby, Sven O

    2002-01-01

    women with normal singleton pregnancies at approximately 19 and 28 wk gestation. Serum placental GH concentrations were measured by a highly specific immunoradiometric assay, and fetal size was measured by ultrasound. Data on birth weight, gender, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, and smoking...

  2. Study of plasma adrenomedullin level in normal pregnancy and preclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Azza Abo; Zedan, Magda; el-Salam, Gamal E Abd; el-Mashad, Ashraf I

    2008-02-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether maternal circulating adrenomedullin (AM) values in patients with preeclampsia are different from those in normotensive pregnant women at different gestational ages. In a prospective clinical study, 90 women aged 17 to 40 years old, were divided into 4 main groups: group I (45 women): Normotensive pregnant women at first trimester (15 women), second trimester (15 women), and third trimester (15 women) of pregnancies. Group II (15 women): Pregnant women with preeclampsia at 25 to 38 weeks of gestation. Group III (15 women): Normotensive healthy nonpregnant women. Group IV (15 women): Hypertensive nonpregnant women. The plasma AM concentration was measured in all women by using enzyme immunoassay kits. Plasma AM levels in pregnant women with normal blood pressure at different gestational ages (first, second, and third trimesters) were statistically significantly higher than those detected in nonpregnant normotensive women and significantly increased with increasing gestational age (P < .001). Moreover, there was significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and increasing gestational age (r = 0.915, P < .001). Preeclamptic patients had the highest mean plasma AM levels compared with all other groups, which is statistically significant (P < .001) and there was a significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, severity of preeclampsia, and proteinuria in pregnant patients with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma AM concentration increases throughout pregnancy and increases as gestational age progresses. AM production starts very early in gestation, suggesting that it may have an important role in human reproduction, from implantation to delivery. Maternal plasma AM level in preeclampsia appears to be higher than that in normal pregnancy.

  3. Cervical Length and Androgens in Pregnant Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Has Metformin Any Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetelig Løvvik, Tone; Stridsklev, Solhild; Carlsen, Sven M; Salvesen, Øyvind; Vanky, Eszter

    2016-06-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased risk of preterm delivery. Shortening of the cervix is a sign of preterm delivery. This study aimed to investigate potential effect of metformin on cervical length and whether androgen levels correlate with cervical length in PCOS pregnancies. This was a sub-study of a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study (The PregMet study) performed at 11 secondary or tertiary centers from 2005 to 2009. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnancies of 245 women with PCOS, age 18-42 years participated. Participants were randomly assigned to metformin or placebo from first trimester to delivery. We compared cervical length and androgen levels in metformin and placebo groups at gestational weeks 19 and 32. We also explored whether cervical length correlated with androgen levels. We found no difference in cervical length between the metformin and the placebo groups at gestational week 19 and 32. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) tended to be higher in the metformin group. There were no correlations between androgens and cervical length at week 19. At gestational week 32, androstenedione (P = .02) and DHEAS (P = .03) showed a trend toward negative correlation to cervical length. High androstenedione level correlated with shortening of cervical length from week 19 to 32 when adjusted for confounders (P = .003). T (P = .03), DHEAS (P = .02), and free testosterone index (P = .03) showed a similar trend. Metformin in pregnancy did not affect cervical length in women with PCOS. High maternal androgen levels correlated with cervical shortening from the second to the third trimester of pregnancy, as a sign of cervical ripening.

  4. Gestations and parturitions after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeltz, J.; Hoeltz, A.; Potthoff, P.; Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.; Hinz, G.; Kaul, A.; Martignoni, K.; Roedler, H.D.; Schwarz, E.; Tsavachidis, C.

    1991-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating courses of gestation and parturitions in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident and at comparing the results obtained with those from a study carried out in 1981/82 on factors assumed to have a role in pre-term deliveries. In this connection, attempts were made to find out whether regional increases in radiation caused by the accident and the general uneasiness arising from this fact could be linked to higher rates of infants being born prematurely. A three-step procedure was followed for the survey, in which Step One hat the purpose of compiling basic data on the gestations and parturitions examined using information from patient records. In Step Two a biogramme was established on the basis of questionnaires filled in by pregnant women. Step Three was included for a post-partum ascertainment of material risk factors and data of paturition in women participating in the Step Two investigations. The information obtained from patient records pointed to no differences in the percentage shares of premature deliveries between the individual exposure regions examined, nor could any such discrepancies be revealed on the basis of the biogramme and post-partum survey. In areas showing elevated levels of radioactivity as a result of the Chernobyl fallout the proportion of women claiming to have fears about ecological afflictions invariably was 4 to 9% larger than that determined for areas, where radiation exposure remained within the range generally accepted as normal. Statistically significant increases in the percentage shares of premature deliveries could, however, be proven for groups of women showing additional risk factors other than radiation exposure. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Getting too sweet: galectin-1 dysregulation in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sandra M; Gueuvoghlanian-Silva, Barbara Y; Tirado-González, Irene; Torloni, Maria R; Freitag, Nancy; Mattar, Rosiane; Conrad, Melanie L; Unverdorben, Laura; Barrientos, Gabriela; Knabl, Julia; Toldi, Gergely; Molvarec, Attila; Rose, Matthias; Markert, Udo R; Jeschke, Udo; Daher, Silvia

    2014-07-01

    Galectin-1 (gal-1) is a prototype carbohydrate-binding protein, whose dysregulation is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion and pre-eclampsia. Furthermore, it is known that faulty gal-1 protein production or gene regulation can be caused by single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the LGALS1 gene. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is also an adverse pregnancy outcome and the most common metabolic disorder during gestation. However, gal-1 expression patterns during GDM remain largely unknown. Our aims were to define local and peripheral gal-1 expression patterns during pregnancy, and to investigate LGALS1 gene polymorphisms in GDM patients. Circulating gal-1 levels were determined by ELISA in GDM patients and normal pregnant controls, and LGALS1 gene polymorphisms were assessed for association with GDM. Placental tissues were collected from control and GDM term pregnancies to evaluate local gal-1 expression by immunofluorescence. Our results show that GDM is associated with a failure to increase circulating gal-1 levels during the second and third trimester, as well as overexpression of gal-1 in placental tissue. Additionally, the LGALS1 polymorphism rs4820294 was associated with the development of GDM. In pregnancies complicated by GDM, we observed gal-1 dysregulation both locally in the placenta and peripherally in the circulation. Furthermore, the association between the LGALS1 polymorphism and GDM may indicate a genetic contribution to this adverse pregnancy outcome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14, in women with ectopic gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Sørensen, Steen; Vejtorp, M

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the serum level of the secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14 (PP14) and progesterone (P) in women with ectopic gestation. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected prospectively and preoperatively. Reference range was determined from a prospective population of 98...... observing the low serum levels of PP14 and P, a correlation analysis was made and compared with the findings in normally pregnant women. RESULTS: A significant positive correlation was found between the level of PP14 and P (P less than 0.00002), not found in normal intrauterine pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS...

  7. Pregnancy Weight Gain by Gestational Age in Women with Uncomplicated Dichorionic Twin Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Platt, Robert W; Abrams, Barbara; Braxter, Betty J; Eckhardt, Cara L; Himes, Katherine P; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2018-03-01

    Twin pregnancies are at increased risk for adverse outcomes and are associated with greater gestational weight gain compared to singleton pregnancies. Studies that disentangle the relationship between gestational duration, weight gain and adverse outcomes are needed to inform weight gain guidelines. We created charts of the mean, standard deviation and select percentiles of maternal weight gain-for-gestational age in twin pregnancies and compared them to singleton curves. We abstracted serial prenatal weight measurements of women delivering uncomplicated twin pregnancies at Magee-Womens Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA, 1998-2013) and merged them with the hospital's perinatal database. Hierarchical linear regression was used to express pregnancy weight gain as a smoothed function of gestational age according to pre-pregnancy BMI category. Charts of week- and day-specific values for the mean, standard deviation, and percentiles of maternal weight gain were created. Prenatal weight measurements (median: 11 [interquartile range: 9, 13] per woman) were available for 1109 women (573 normal weight, 287 overweight, and 249 obese). The slope of weight gain was most pronounced in normal weight women and flattened with increasing pre-pregnancy BMI (e.g. 50th percentiles of 6.8, 5.7, and 3.6 kg at 20 weeks and 19.8, 18.1, and 14.4 at 37 weeks in normal weight, overweight, and obese women, respectively). Weight gain patterns in twins diverged from singletons after 17-19 weeks. Our charts provide a tool for the classification of maternal weight gain in twin pregnancies. Future work is needed to identify the range of weight gain associated with optimal pregnancy health outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Morphology and morphometry of fetal liver at 16-26 weeks of gestation by magnetic resonance imaging: Comparison with embryonic liver at Carnegie stage 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamabe, Yui; Hirose, Ayumi; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2013-06-01

    Normal liver growth was described morphologically and morphometrically using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of human fetuses, and compared with embryonic liver to establish a normal reference chart for clinical use. MRI images from 21 fetuses at 16-26 weeks of gestation and eight embryos at Carnegie stage (CS)23 were investigated in the present study. Using the image data, the morphology of the liver as well as its adjacent organs was extracted and reconstructed three-dimensionally. Morphometry of fetal liver growth was performed using simple regression analysis. The fundamental morphology was similar in all cases of the fetal livers examined. The liver tended to grow along the transversal axis. The four lobes were clearly recognizable in the fetal liver but not in the embryonic liver. The length of the liver along the three axes, liver volume and four lobes correlated with the bodyweight (BW). The morphogenesis of the fetal liver on the dorsal and caudal sides was affected by the growth of the abdominal organs, such as the stomach, duodenum and spleen, and retroperitoneal organs, such as the right adrenal gland and right kidney. The main blood vessels such as inferior vena cava, portal vein and umbilical vein made a groove on the surface of the liver. Morphology of the fetal liver was different from that of the embryonic liver at CS23. The present data will be useful for evaluating the development of the fetal liver and the adjacent organs that affect its morphology. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  9. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 predicts gestational hypertension and preeclampsia in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boya Li

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4 has been proposed to be a potential predictive factor of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia (GH/PE because of its integrating metabolic and inflammatory responses. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are more likely to develop both GH/PE, than the normal population. The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between plasma FABP4 in the second trimester of pregnancy and the risk of GH/PE in women with GDM.This was a nested case-control study conducted within a large on-going prospective cohort study conducted at Peking University First Hospital. A total of 1344 women, who were diagnosed with GDM, according to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, participated in the GDM One-Day Clinic at Peking University First Hospital from February 24, 2016 to February 9, 2017. Of the 748 GDM women who agreed to the blood sample collection, 637 were followed until their delivery. The cases included GDM patients who developed gestational hypertension or preeclampsia (GDM-GH/PE group, n = 41. Another 41 matched GDM women without major complications were selected as the control group (GDM group.The incidence of GH/PE was 6.44% and 3.30% for preeclampsia. The level of the second trimester plasma FABP4 in the GDM-GH/PE group was significantly higher than the GDM group (17.53±11.35 vs. 12.79±6.04 ng/ml, P = 0.020. The AUC ROC for the second trimester plasma FABP4 predicted GH/PE in the GDM patients alone was 0.647 (95%CI 0.529-0.766. Multivariate analysis showed that the elevated second trimester FABP4 level was independently associated with GH/PE in the GDM patients (OR 1.136 [95% CI 1.003-1.286], P = 0.045.Increased second trimester plasma FABP4 independently predicted GH/PE in GDM patients.

  10. Reference range of fetal nasal bone length between 18 and 24 weeks of pregnancy in an unselected Brazilian population: experience from a single service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Júnior, Edward; Martins, Wellington P; Pires, Claudio Rodrigues; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Zanforlin Filho, Sebastião Marques

    2014-08-01

    To determine reference range of fetal nasal bone length (NBL) during the second trimester of pregnancy in a Brazilian population. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study with 2681 normal singleton pregnancies between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation. The NBL was obtained in the mid-sagittal plane of the fetal face profile using the following landmarks: nasal bone, overlying skin and the tip of the nose. The NBL was measured by placing the calipers in the out-to-out position. To assess the correlation between NBL and gestational age (GA), polynomial equations were calculated, with adjustments by coefficient of determination (R(2)). The mean of NBL ranged from 5.72 ± 0.87 mm at 18-18 + 6 weeks to 7.45 ± 1.23 mm at 24-24+6 weeks of pregnancy. We observed a good correlation between NBL and GA, best represented by a linear equation: NBL = 0.080+0.276*GA (R(2 )= 0.16). We established a reference range of fetal NBL in the second trimester of pregnancy in a Brazilian population.

  11. Gestational trophoblastic disease with hyperthyroidism: Anesthetic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Khanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of hyperthyroidism with gestational trophoblastic disease is a known albeit rare clinical condition. We herein report the successful anesthetic management of such a case in our institute. There are only few case reports in literature of this association. Often, the diagnosis of hyperthyroid state is retrospective one, as it can be missed in the emergency scenario of patient requiring molar evacuation. This case report highlights the perioperative management and optimization of hyperthyroid state prior to surgical evacuation of the invasive hydatidiform mole.

  12. Bilateral Tubal Gestation Associated with Schistosomiasis in an African Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Odubamowo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of tubal ectopic gestation caused by schistosomiasis induced tubal pathology is undocumented in this environment, which may be due to rarity of this pathology. Bilateral tubal gestation is common in patients that have undergone in vitro fertilization. We report a hitherto undocumented case of spontaneous bilateral ectopic gestation following tubal schistosomiasis. Case Report. Mrs. OB was a 32-year-old G4P3+0 (3 alive woman who complained of abdominal pain and bleeding per vaginam of 4 and 2 days’ duration respectively following 8 weeks of amenorrhea. A clinical impression of ruptured ectopic gestation was confirmed by ultrasound scanning. She had bilateral salpingectomy with histology of specimens showing bilateral ectopic gestation with Schistosoma haematobium induced salpingitis (findings of Schistosoma haematobium ova noted on slide. Conclusion. Schistosoma induced salpingitis is a rare but possible cause of bilateral tubal gestation.

  13. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  14. Hysteroscopic Differences in the Gestational Sac in Asymptomatic Blighted Ovum and Viable Pregnancy at Early Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Tsai Kung

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: The anatomic alterations of the gestational sac reflect impending sac necrosis and abortion in early-stage pregnancy loss. There were no morphologic differences between the two groups in the pattern of capillary distribution on the endometrium or the implantation base.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaicher, Wibke; Brugger, Peter C.; Mittermayer, Christoph; Schwindt, Jens; Deutinger, Josef; Bernaschek, Gerhard; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaicher, Wibke [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: wibke.blaicher@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Schwindt, Jens [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Deutinger, Josef [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Bernaschek, Gerhard [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  17. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Cardiovascular Risk: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Burlina, S.; Dalfr?, M. G.; Chilelli, N. C.; Lapolla, A.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus is increasing in parallel with the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity around the world. Current evidence strongly suggests that women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Given the growing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, it is important to identify appropriate reliable markers of cardiovascular disease and specific treatment strategies capable of contai...

  18. Trends and outcomes of gestational surrogacy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kiran M; Boulet, Sheree L; Jamieson, Denise J; Kissin, Dmitry M

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate trends and reproductive outcomes of gestational surrogacy in the United States. Retrospective cohort study. Infertility clinics. IVF cycles transferring at least one embryo. Use of a gestational carrier. Trends in gestational carrier cycles during 1999-2013, overall and for non-U.S. residents; reproductive outcomes for gestational carrier and nongestational carrier cycles during 2009-2013, stratified by the use of donor or nondonor oocytes. Of 2,071,984 assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles performed during 1999-2013, 30,927 (1.9%) used a gestational carrier. The number of gestational carrier cycles increased from 727 (1.0%) in 1999 to 3,432 (2.5%) in 2013. Among gestational carrier cycles, the proportion with non-U.S. residents declined during 1999-2005 (9.5% to 3.0%) but increased during 2006-2013 (6.3% to 18.5%). Gestational carrier cycles using nondonor oocytes had higher rates of implantation (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.26), clinical pregnancy (aRR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), live birth (aRR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.12-1.21), and preterm delivery (aRR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) compared with nongestational carrier cycles. When using donor oocytes, multiple birth rates were higher among gestational carrier compared with nongestational carrier cycles (aRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.19). Use of gestational carriers increased during 1999-2013. Gestational carrier cycles had higher rates of ART success than nongestational carrier cycles, but multiple birth and preterm delivery rates were also higher. These risks may be mitigated by transferring fewer embryos given the higher success rates among gestational carrier cycles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Neighbourhood food environment and gestational diabetes in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Janevic, Teresa; Borrell, Luisa N.; Savitz, David A.; Herring, Amy H.; Rundle, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The association between neighbourhood characteristics and gestational diabetes has not been examined previously. We investigated the relationship between the number of healthy food outlets (supermarkets; fruit/vegetable and natural food stores), and unhealthy food outlets (fast food; pizza; bodegas; bakeries; convenience, candy/nut and meat stores) in census tract of residence, and gestational diabetes in New York City. Gestational diabetes, census tract and individual-level covariates were a...

  20. Use of placental vascularization indices and uterine artery peak systolic velocity in early detection of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes, chronic or gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altorjay, Ábel T; Surányi, Andrea; Nyári, Tibor; Németh, Gábor

    2017-04-14

    We aimed to investigate correlations between uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV), and placental vascularization in groups of normal blood pressure (NBP) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (chronic hypertension (CHT), gestational hypertension (GHT) and preeclampsia (PE)) alone or in combination with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and hypothesized that AUtPSV rises when GDM complicates pregnancy hypertension. Placental 3-dimensional power Doppler indices, such as vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI), and uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV) were measured in CHT (N=43), CHT+GDM (N=15), GHT (N=57), GHT+GDM (N=23) and PE (N=17) pregnancies, and compared to NBP (N=109). Correlations were analyzed between vascularization indices, AUtPSV, pregestational BMI and adverse pregnancy outcome rates. In our results VI was higher in CHT (P=0.010), while FI was lower in CHT (P=0.009), GHT and PE (P=0.001) compared to NBP. In case of VFI, significant difference was found between CHT and GHT (P=0.002), and NBP and PE (P=0.001). FI was found prognostic for umbilical pH and neonatal birth weight. Pre-gestational BMI was significantly higher in GHT+GDM compared to GHT, and in CHT+GDM compared to the CHT group. As for AUtPSV, significant difference was found between NBP and CHT (P=0.012), NBP and CHT+GDM (P=0.045), NBP and GHT+GDM (P=0.007), NBP and PE (P=0.032), and GHT and GHT+GDM (P=0.048) groups. Our study revealed that vascularization indices and AUtPSV show significant differences due to gestational pathology, and can be useful in detection of pregnancies at risk.

  1. Fetal growth disorders in twin gestations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M

    2012-06-01

    Twin growth is frequently mismatched. This review serves to explore the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie growth aberrations in twin gestations, the prenatal recognition of abnormal twin growth, and the critical importance of stratifying management of abnormal twin growth by chorionicity. Although poor in utero growth of both twins may reflect maternal factors resulting in global uteroplacental dysfunction, discordant twin growth may be attributed to differences in genetic potential between co-twins, placental dysfunction confined to one placenta only, or one placental territory within a shared placenta. In addition, twin-twin transfusion syndrome represents a distinct entity of which discordant growth is a common feature. Discordant growth is recognized as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. Intertwin birth weight disparity of 18% or more should be considered to represent a discordance threshold, which serves as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. At this cutoff, perinatal morbidity is found to increase both for the larger and the smaller twin within a discordant pair. There remains uncertainty surrounding the sonographic parameters that are most predictive of discordance. Although heightening of fetal surveillance in the face of discordant twin growth follows the principles applied to singleton gestations complicated by fetal growth restriction, the timing of intervention is largely influenced by chorionicity.

  2. Potential Mechanisms of Exercise in Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy. This condition shares same array of underlying abnormalities as occurs in diabetes outside of pregnancy, for example, genetic and environmental causes. However, the role of a sedentary lifestyle and/or excess energy intake is more prominent in GDM. Physically active women are less likely to develop GDM and other pregnancy-related diseases. Weight gain in pregnancy causes increased release of adipokines from adipose tissue; many adipokines increase oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Increased intramyocellular lipids also increase cellular oxidative stress with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species. A well-planned program of exercise is an important component of a healthy lifestyle and, in spite of old myths, is also recommended during pregnancy. This paper briefly reviews the role of adipokines in gestational diabetes and attempts to shed some light on the mechanisms by which exercise can be beneficial as an adjuvant therapy in GDM. In this regard, we discuss the mechanisms by which exercise increases insulin sensitivity, changes adipokine profile levels, and boosts antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:23691290

  3. Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2012-04-01

    We have previously defined a new syndrome "Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms" in which choriocarcinoma or persistent hydatidiform mole has a minimal growth rate and becomes chemorefractory. Previously we described a new treatment protocol, waiting for hCG rise to >3000 mIU/ml and disease becomes more advanced, then using combination chemotherapy. Initially we found this treatment successful in 8 of 8 cases, here we find this protocol appropriate in a further 16 cases. Initially we used hyperglycosylated hCG, a limited availability test, to identify this syndrome. Here we propose also using hCG doubling rate to detect this syndrome. Minimally aggressive gestational trophoblastic disease can be detected by chemotherapy resistance or low hyperglycosylated hCG, disease by hyperglycosylated hCG and by hCG doubling test. All were recommended to hold off further chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. One case died prior to the start of the study, one case withdrew because of a lung nodule and one withdrew refusing the suggested combination chemotherapy. The remaining 16 women were all successfully treated. A total of 8 plus 16 or 24 of 24 women were successfully treated using the proposed protocol, holding back on chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Placental Nutrient Transport in Gestational Diabetic Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Castillo-Castrejon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity during pregnancy is rising and is associated with increased risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy (1. Fetal growth is determined by the maternal nutrient supply and placental nutrient transfer capacity. GDM-complicated pregnancies are more likely to be complicated by fetal overgrowth or excess adipose deposition in utero. Infants born from GDM mothers have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disorders later in life. Diverse factors, such as ethnicity, age, fetal sex, clinical treatment for glycemic control, gestational weight gain, and body mass index among others, represent a challenge for studying underlying mechanisms in GDM subjects. Determining the individual roles of glucose intolerance, obesity, and other factors on placental function and fetal growth remains a challenge. This review provides an overview of changes in placental macronutrient transport observed in human pregnancies complicated by GDM. Improved knowledge and understanding of the alterations in placenta function that lead to pathological fetal growth will allow for development of new therapeutic interventions and treatments to improve pregnancy outcomes and lifelong health for the mother and her children.

  5. Potential Mechanisms of Exercise in Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy. This condition shares same array of underlying abnormalities as occurs in diabetes outside of pregnancy, for example, genetic and environmental causes. However, the role of a sedentary lifestyle and/or excess energy intake is more prominent in GDM. Physically active women are less likely to develop GDM and other pregnancy-related diseases. Weight gain in pregnancy causes increased release of adipokines from adipose tissue; many adipokines increase oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Increased intramyocellular lipids also increase cellular oxidative stress with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species. A well-planned program of exercise is an important component of a healthy lifestyle and, in spite of old myths, is also recommended during pregnancy. This paper briefly reviews the role of adipokines in gestational diabetes and attempts to shed some light on the mechanisms by which exercise can be beneficial as an adjuvant therapy in GDM. In this regard, we discuss the mechanisms by which exercise increases insulin sensitivity, changes adipokine profile levels, and boosts antioxidant mechanisms.

  6. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, David I.; Pritchard, Amy M.; Clarke, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:24106538

  7. Attitudes towards gestational diabetes among a multiethnic cohort in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Mary; Steele, Cheryl; Margetts, Heather

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the attitudes and beliefs towards gestational diabetes of a multiethnic sample of pregnant women with gestational diabetes. Women from non-Caucasian background are disproportionately represented in gestational diabetes statistics. This is of particular importance in multicultural Australia, where increasing numbers of non-Caucasian women give birth. Cross-sectional survey. The Diabetes Attitude Scale, version 3 was administered to 200 women with gestational diabetes from Vietnamese, Indian, Filipino and Caucasian backgrounds. A total of 143 questionnaires were returned indicating a response rate of 71·5%. There were significant between group differences in terms of educational level (p = 0·001) and English fluency (p = 0·001). Lower educational level, though not English language fluency, was associated with poorer appreciation of gestational diabetes as a serious condition and also with a lower valuing of tight glucose control. This effect was seen irrespective of ethnic group. Indian and Vietnamese women indicated a lower valuing of patient autonomy and also reported less negative psychological effects than Caucasian and Filipino women. Women from non-Caucasian ethnicities may be at risk of poorer self-management of gestational diabetes related to lower education, lower health literacy and a lower appreciation of gestational diabetes as a serious condition. Nurses and midwives provide information and advice to women with gestational diabetes. Knowledge about factors that impact on attitude towards gestational diabetes among multiethnic populations is important for developing educational programmes to address their needs. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Jamie L.; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. Sample: The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. Methods: A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. Results: A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37–2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27–2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09–1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30–1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27–1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09–1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86–0.91). Conclusions: Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain. PMID:26741198

  9. Normal variants of skin in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available 2221 consecutive live births taking place between March 1994 and February 1995 were evaluated for a minimum period of 5 days to note for the occurrence of various normal anatomical variants specially those of skin. Birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, socio-economic status and consanguinity were carefully recorded in all the cases. Mongolian spots (72%, Epstein pearls (43.8%, Milia (26.2% and Erythema toxicum (25.2%, were the common dermatological variants noted. Maturity of the babies and possibly genetic factors (consanguinity are important factors in their causation as ordered in our study.

  10. Study on the Imprinting Status of Insulin-Like Growth Factor II (IGF-II Gene in Villus during 6–10 Gestational Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the difference of imprinting status of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II gene in villus between normal embryo development group and abnormal embryo development group and to investigate the relationship between karyotype and the imprinting status of IGF-II gene. Methods. A total of 85 pregnant women with singleton pregnancy were divided into two groups: one with abnormal embryo development (n=38 and the other with normal embryo development (n=47. Apa I polymorphism of IGF-II gene in chorionic villus was assayed with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. The relationship between chromosomal abnormal karyotype and IGF-II gene imprinting status was analyzed by primary cell culture and G-banding chromosomal karyotype analysis. Results. IGF-II imprinting loss rate was higher in the abnormal embryo development group than the normal embryo development group (44.7% versus 31.6%, but without significant difference (P>.05. The percentage of abnormal chromosomes of chorionic villus in the abnormal embryo development group was 42.5%, in which IGF-II imprinting loss rate reached 64.7%. No abnormal karyotypes were found in the normal embryo development group. However, there was significant difference in IGF-II imprinting loss rate between two groups (P>.05. Conclusion. During weeks 6–10 of gestation, abnormal embryonic development is correlated with chromosomal abnormalities. The imprinting status of IGF-II gene played important roles in embryonic development, and imprinting loss might be related to chromosomal abnormalities.

  11. Maternal weight determines the association between Hbalc in second half of pregnancy and risk of large for gestational age babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus; Møller, Margrethe

    Aim: To assess the association between maternal glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetic pregnancies and the risk of delivering large for gestational age babies (LGA) taking into account maternal body mass index (BMI), weight gain, age, White class, and smoking habits.  Method: We identified...... all pregnant diabetic women in a Danish county. HbA1c values after 20th gestational week were collected and offspring was categorized as large, normal or small for gestational age. Logistic regression models we fitted to assess the association between HbA1c and risk of delivering a LGA baby taking...... into account the impact of potential confounding from the above mentioned factors.   Results: We found 209 singleton pregnancies of which 59% (95% CI: 52%-65%) terminated with a LGA baby. HbA1c, BMI, and weight gain were all associated with increasing risk of delivering a LGA baby. Analyses stratified...

  12. The administration of metformin during pregnancy reduces polycystic ovary syndrome related gestational complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, V; Musacchio, M C; Piomboni, P; Di Sabatino, A; Morgante, G

    2011-07-01

    To prospectively evaluate the safety of metformin administration during pregnancy in a group of PCOS patients by assessing its effect on the prevalence of gestational complications and neonatal outcome. Our prospective, single centre study included 98 pregnant women with PCOS treated with metformin throughout pregnancy and 110 normal pregnant controls. All PCOS patients were hyperinsulinemic and received metformin (1700-3000 mg/day) before conception and until 37 weeks' gestation. Metformin treatment in the pregnant PCOS patients resulted in significant decrease in miscarriage rate (9.1% vs 20%; pmetformin therapy throughout pregnancy resulted in significant reduction in pregnancy complications with concomitant improved neonatal outcome, with no serious deleterious side effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ponderal index at birth associates with later risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crusell, Mie; Damm, Peter; Hansen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Low birth weight (BW) and low ponderal index (PI) are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study has two purposes: first to investigate the influence of PI on the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); second, to study the association between glucose...... metabolism and BW in women with previous GDM. METHODS: GDM cohort: 185 women with GDM in 1978-1996, attending a follow-up study in 2000-2002. Control cohort: 1137 women from a population-based diabetes screening study (Inter99) in a neighbouring county in 1999-2001. BW and birth length were collected from...

  14. Impact of excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index and abnormal gestational weight gain on pregnancy outcomes in women with chronic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornaghi, Sara; Algeri, Paola; Todyrenchuk, Lyudmyla; Vertemati, Emanuela; Vergani, Patrizia

    2018-04-10

    To investigate the effects of excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and abnormal gestational weight gain on adverse outcomes in women with chronic hypertension (CH). A retrospective cohort study of CH women with singleton pregnancy delivered at our Institution in 2002-2013. Women were categorized as normal, overweight, and obese, according to their pre-pregnancy BMI. Further stratification was based on gestational weight gain (insufficient, adequate, and excessive) as defined by 2009 IOM guidelines. Gestational diabetes, hypothyroidism, superimposed preeclampsia, preterm birth gain increased odds of small for gestational age neonate in normal BMI women (aOR, 1.82; 95% CI 1.31-2.07), whereas excessive gain was associated with superimposed preeclampsia in normal BMI patients (aOR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.16-7.89) and with cesarean delivery in obese women (aOR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.09-5.81). Excessive pre-conception BMI and abnormal gestational weight gain increase odds of pregnancy complications in CH women. Our results stress the importance of pre-conception counseling for weight normalization in CH women, and support IOM recommendations for adequate weight gain during CH pregnancies. Copyright © 2018 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Potential role of the angiogenic factor "EG-VEGF" in gestational trophoblastic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Feige, J-J; Benharouga, M; Aboussaouira, T; Nadifi, S; Mahdaoui, S; Samouh, N; Alfaidy, N

    2013-10-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (MGT) includes a wide spectrum of pathologies of the placenta, ranging from benign precancerous lesions, with gestational trophoblastic tumors. Metastases are the leading causes of death as a result of this tumor. They represent a major problem for obstetrics and for the public health system. To date, there is no predictor of the progression of molar pregnancies to gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT). Only an unfavorable plasma hCG monitoring after evacuation of hydatidiform mole is used to diagnose a TTG. The causes of the development of this cancer are still poorly understood. Increasing data in the literature suggests a close association between the development of this tumor and poor placental vascularization during the first trimester of pregnancy. The development of the human placenta depends on a coordination between the trophoblast and endothelial cells. A disruption in the expression of angiogenic factors could contribute to uterine or extra-uterine tissue invasion by extravillous trophoblast, contributing to the development of TTG. This review sheds lights on the phenomenon of angiogenesis during normal and abnormal placentation, especially during the MGT and reports preliminary finding concerning, the variability of expression of "Endocrine Gland-Derived Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor" (EG-VEGF), a specific placental angiogenic factor, in normal and molar placentas, and the potential role of differentiated expressions of the main placental angiogenic factors in the scalability of hydatidiform moles towards a recovery or towards the development of gestational trophoblastic tumor. Deciphering the mechanisms by which the angiogenic factor influences these processes will help understand the pathophysiology of MGT and to create opportunities for early diagnosis and treatment of the latter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  17. Energy requirements for gestation and lactation in a delayed implanter, the American badger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, H J; Miller, B; Ryder, T; Ryder, L

    1985-01-01

    1. Two adult female badgers were water-deprived and/or fasted during the last one-half to two-thirds of pregnancy while a third pregnant female received water ad libitum and was fed meat and dog food. 2. The litter size, birth weights, post partum energy consumption, growth rate, development of homeothermy, tooth eruption and date of weaning, as well as other developmental characteristics, were not significantly different between cubs born to the fed or fasted mothers. 3. The energy demands for gestation are apparently small and are accommodated by fat reserves during periods of food deprivation. However, the calculated energy for lactation is 16 times that of gestation, which is quadruple the expenditure for most mammals. 4. As a result of delayed implantation, the length of gestation and litter weights of badgers are considerably below those predicted from allometric equations. 5. The period of lactation is therefore extremely critical to the survival of both the cubs and lactating adults which require heavy fat stores and possibly torpor to ensure sufficient energy availability during prolonged winter food shortage.

  18. Prenatal Clinical Assessment of NT-proBNP as a Diagnostic Tool for Preeclampsia, Gestational Hypertension and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Sadlecki

    Full Text Available Common complications of pregnancy include preeclampsia (PE, gestational hypertension (GH and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Hypertensive disorders (PE/GH and GDM may result in greater maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Women with PE/GH, one of the most common causes of heart burden in an obstetrical setting, present with elevated serum levels of BNP and NT-proBNP. The aim of this study was to shed more light on the role of NT-proBNP in pathophysiology of PE, GH and GDM. The study included 156 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. A total of 26 women developed arterial hypertension during pregnancy, 14 were diagnosed with PE, and GDM was detected in 81 patients. The control group included 35 women with uncomplicated pregnancies, normal arterial blood pressure and normal glucose concentrations. Patients with GH presented with significantly higher serum concentrations of NT-proBNPthan normotensive women (65.5 vs. 37.4 pg/ml; p = 0.0136. Serum levels of NT-proBNP in patients with PE were the highest of all the analyzed subsets, being significantly higher than in women without this condition (89.00 vs. 37.4pg/ml,p = 0,0136. However, women with and without GDM did not differ significantly in terms of their serum NT-proBNPconcentrations. Serum NT-proBNP (pg/ml (p = 0.0001 and BMI (p<0.0001 turned out to be independent predictors of GH on multivariate logistic regression analysis.Moreover, serum NT-proBNP (pg/ml was identified as an independent indicator of PE (p = 0.0016. A significant inverse correlation was found between birth weight and maternal serum NT-proBNP concentrations. In our opinion, NT-proBNP can be a useful clinical marker of GH and PE. Determination of NT-proBNP levels may be helpful in identification of patients with PE and GH and in their qualification for intensive treatment; this in turn, may be reflected by better neonatal outcomes.

  19. Newborn regional body composition is influenced by maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and the birthweight standard score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, E M; Renault, K M; Nørgaard, K; Nilas, L; Jensen, J E B; Hyldstrup, L; Michaelsen, K F; Cortes, D; Pryds, O

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated whether newborn body composition is influenced by prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG) and explored any associations between body composition and birthweight standard score (z-score), categorised by size for gestational age. We recruited 231 obese and 80 normal weight mothers and their newborn infants and assessed the babies' body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The total and abdominal fat masses of infants born to mother who were obese before pregnancy were 135 g (p weight mothers. The infants' fat mass increased by 11 g (p gestational age (15.3%) than small for gestational age (5.2%) and appropriate for gestational age (9.8%) (p < 0.001). Lower birthweight z-score was associated with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass (p = 0.009). Infants born to obese mothers had higher fat mass at birth, with abdominal fat accumulation. Low birthweight was associated with a lower crude abdominal fat mass, but a higher proportion of total fat mass placed abdominally. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Enamel defect of deciduous teeth in small gestational age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyanti S Syarif

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enamel defect could be caused by genetic and environmental factors in prenatal period. Meanwhile, prenatal malnutrition could also cause small gestational age (SGA. Small Gestational Age is the term used for a neonatal baby with birthweight below the -2SD normal value or 10th percentile on the intrauterine Lubchenco curve. This condition is due to intra-uterine growth restriction, and eventually ends up with several developmental defects of organs, including teeth. In fact, deciduous tooth development has a critical phase within this development period. Purpose: The aim of this study is not only to find out the incidence of enamel defect in SGA children, but also to know the percentage of SGA risk factor to develop enamel defect. Method: This was a epidemiology research with consecutive admission technique. It consisted of 153 SGA children aged 9–48 months. Next, the Ponderal index was used to assign SGA types, symmetrical or asymmetrical one-in this study 59 and 94 respectively. On the other hand, three hundred and ninety Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA children aged 4–48 months were also included in the study as a control group. Enamel defect then was determined by intraoral examination, classified into hypoplasia and hypocalcifications. Chi-square test was finally used to determine the relative risk ratio between the SGA and the control AGA children. Result: The result of this research showed that incidence of enamel defect in SGA children was 86.92%, meanwhile, that in AGA children was 23.08%, 66.00% of which were commonly suffered from hypocalcification. With p<0.05 it is also known that SGA children has the risk of enamel defect with hypocalcification, about 79% higher than AGA children. Conclusion: It could be concluded that 79% of SGA children had the risk of deciduous tooth enamel defect with hypocalcification as the most.Latar belakang: Defek email dapat terjadi karena faktor genetik dan lingkungan sistemik yang

  1. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  2. The impact of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) fasting glucose diagnostic criterion on the prevalence and outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus in Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S; Mei, J; Song, W; Liu, Y; Tan, Y-D; Chi, S; Li, P; Chen, X; Deng, S

    2014-03-01

    The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) proposed that a one-time value of fasting plasma glucose of 5.1 mmol/l or over at any time of the pregnancy is sufficient to diagnose gestational diabetes. We evaluated the repercussions of the application of this threshold in pregnant Han Chinese women. This is a retrospective study of 5360 (72.3% of total) consecutively recruited pregnant Han Chinese women in one centre from 2008 to 2011. These women underwent a two-step gestational diabetes diagnostic protocol according to the previous American Diabetes Association criteria. The IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion was used to reclassify these 5360 women. The prevalence, clinical characteristics and obstetric outcomes were compared among the women classified as having gestational diabetes by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria (approximately 90% were treated), those reclassified as having gestational diabetes by the single IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion (untreated), but not as having gestational diabetes by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria, and those with normal glucose tolerance. There were 626 cases of gestational diabetes defined by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria (11.7%) and these cases were associated with increased risks of maternal and neonatal outcomes when compared with the women with normal glucose tolerance. With the IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion, another 1314 (24.5%) women were reclassified as having gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes classified by the IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion was associated with gestational hypertension (P = 0.0094) and neonatal admission to nursery (P = 0.035) prior to adjustment for maternal age and BMI, but was no longer a predictor for adverse pregnancy outcomes after adjustment. The simple IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion increased the Chinese population with gestational diabetes by 200%. The

  3. Recurrence of gestational diabetes in primiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Anne R; Darling, Mette S; Hansen, Mia K L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases the risk for diabetes in the next pregnancy and later in life. Thus, estimating the risk of GDM in further pregnancies provides a time frame for possible preventive measures. We aimed to calculate the recurrence rate of GDM in primiparous...... women and evaluate the factors involved such as age, body mass index, weight gain, time between pregnancy and postpartum OGTT results. Material and methods We established a prospective cohort during a 5-year period at the Department of Obstetrics at Kolding Hospital. Women with diet-treated GDM...... in their first pregnancy and a subsequent pregnancy constituted our study population. Multiparity and insulin-treated GDM were exclusion criteria. Results Among 15 735 deliveries, 535 women were diagnosed with GDM (3.4%). Of these, 209 (39.1%) were nulliparous women, treated with diet only. Seventy...

  4. Pregnancy outcome in undiagnosed gestational diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehdashtian, M.; Aletayeb, S.M.H.; Kajbaf, T.Z.; Taheri, M.; Aminzadeh, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the outcomes of macrosomia and compare the risk factors associated with neonatal and maternal complications between mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) and Non-GDM mothers, and determine whether it is important to screen for GDM before birth. Methodology: We sampled the venous blood of the mothers of 120 macrosomic neonates in the was based on a HbA1c>5.9%. Results: Twenty-three (19%) mothers had an HgbA1c>5.9%. Maternal and neonatal complications mother's age, parity, and BMI, other risk factors for the development of GDM didn't differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions: The frequency of neonatal and maternal complications associated with the birth macrosonic neonates are significantly different between GDM and non-GDM mothers. Hence, of the universal screening of pregnant women for GDM is not recommended. (author)

  5. Preconception counseling and contraception after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted-Pedersen, L; Skouby, S O; Damm, P

    1991-01-01

    -contraceptive compounds appear to be safe for women with previous GDM when administered for limited periods. At the follow-up examination, we found no increased risk of developing diabetes in women with previous GDM who used oral contraception. We consider the intrauterine contraceptives (IUD) a safe and effective......Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed in the period 1978-1984 were followed for on average 6 yr after the index pregnancy. Thirty percent had diabetes mellitus at the follow-up examination, and preliminary results indicate that at least another third will develop diabetes during...... a subsequent pregnancy. Therefore, family planning and contraceptive guidance should follow the lines for women with pregestational diabetes. When low-dose hormonal contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel were given to women with previous GDM, glucose tolerance and lipoprotein levels...

  6. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania : public health perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectives

    Abstract

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or

  7. Prevention of preterm delivery in twin gestations (PREDICT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, L; Klein, K; Nicolaides, K H

    2011-01-01

    -blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial performed in 17 centers in Denmark and Austria. Women with twin gestations were randomized to daily treatment with progesterone pessaries or apparently identical placebo pessaries, starting from 20-24 weeks until 34 weeks' gestation. Primary outcome was incidence...

  8. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 660: Family Building Through Gestational Surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Gestational surrogacy is an increasingly common form of family building that can allow individuals or a couple to become parents despite circumstances in which carrying a pregnancy is biologically impossible or medically contraindicated. The practice of gestational surrogacy involves a woman known as a gestational carrier who agrees to bear a genetically unrelated child with the help of assisted reproductive technologies for an individual or couple who intend(s) to be the legal and rearing parent(s), referred to as the intended parent(s). Obstetrician-gynecologists may become involved in gestational surrogacy through caring for the gestational carrier or by caring for the intended parent(s). Although gestational surrogacy increases options for family building, this treatment also involves ethical, medical, psychosocial, and legal complexities that must be taken into account to minimize risks of adverse outcomes for the gestational carrier, intended parent(s), and resulting children. The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of gestational surrogacy and to describe the ethical responsibilities for obstetrician-gynecologists who take part in the care of women who participate in these arrangements.

  9. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus status based on results from oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting blood glucose and Hb1c values, as well as diagnoses made by local obstetricians. RESULTS: The audit categorized 783 pregnancies as gestational diabetes mellitus, corresponding to 0.89% of the 87 792...

  10. Secular trends in gestational age and birthweight in twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Derom, C.A.; Vlietinck, R; Nijhuis, J.G.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, the overall rate of preterm births has increased. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this trend is also seen for multiple gestations. More specifically, we examined if there has been a decrease in gestational age for live born monozygotic (MZ) and

  11. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was performed to analyse the carbohydrate quantity of the non-standardised breakfast meal test consumed as part of a screening test for gestational diabetes. Design: A prospective descriptive design was utilised. Setting: Screening for gestational diabetes was performed in the High-Risk Antenatal ...

  12. [Prevalence of postpartum impaired glucose tolerance after gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Macias Rocha, Ana Laura; Puente Alvarez, Erika Isela

    2012-10-01

    gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects 2 to 10% of pregnancies and it has been postulated as a variant of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) because they share a similar pathophysioiogy. Approximately in 90% the carbohydrate intolerance resolves after pregnancy, however after 5 to 16 years after delivery women will have a risk of 17 to 63% to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. to determine the frequency of postpartum impaired glucose tolerance in women with previous GDM. 125 patients with diagnosis of GMD were included, general data were captured, type of control during pregnancy and complications occurred. The women were instructed to undergo a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test of 75 g and 2 h, 6 weeks after their delivery date and they were classified into five groups: normal patients, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose and combined both. after follow up 13 women (10.4%) were diagnosed as DM2; 14 patients (11.2%) were classified as glucose intolerance; 16 (12.8%) were catalogued with impaired fasting glucose; 6 (4.8%) had both disorders; and 76 (60.8%) were diagnosed as healthy women. the detection with a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test is necessary for the identification of the various types of disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism including DM2.

  13. The contribution of fat component to gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.

  14. An atlas of the prenatal mouse brain: gestational day 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambra, U B; Silver, J; Lauder, J M

    1991-11-01

    A prenatal atlas of the mouse brain is presently unavailable and is needed for studies of normal and abnormal development, using techniques including immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. This atlas will be especially useful for researchers studying transgenic and mutant mice. This collection of photomicrographs and corresponding drawings of Gestational Day (GD) 14 mouse brain sections is an excerpt from a larger atlas encompassing GD 12-18. In composing this atlas, available published studies on the developing rodent brain were consulted to aid in the detailed labeling of embryonic brain structures. C57Bl/6J mice were mated for 1 h, and the presence of a copulation plug was designated as GD 0. GD 14 embryos were perfused transcardially with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections (10 microns thickness) were cut through whole heads in sagittal and horizontal planes. They were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and photographed. Magnifications were 43X and 31X for the horizontal and sagittal sections, respectively. Photographs were traced and line drawings prepared using an Adobe Illustrator on a Macintosh computer.

  15. Plasma YKL-40 during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnov, Anders R; Rathcke, Camilla N; Bonde, Lisbeth; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2015-11-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterised by hyperglycaemia during pregnancy. The clinical circumstances involved in the development of GDM leaves the patient at a high risk of the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Plasma levels of the inflammation marker YKL-40 are elevated in type 2 diabetes and correlate with fasting plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. With the present study we aimed to determine if pregnancy (and associated insulin resistance) with or without GDM affects plasma YKL-40 levels. Plasma from women diagnosed with GDM and healthy normal glucose-tolerant pregnant women (non-GDM) was obtained at the third trimester of pregnancy and again 3-4 months following delivery, and levels of YKL-40 and interleukin 6 (IL-6; known to regulate YKL-40) were measured. Plasma YKL-40 levels were similarly low during pregnancy in both groups and increased significantly after delivery, but remained lower in the GDM group compared with the non-GDM group postpartum. In contrast, plasma IL-6 levels were not affected by pregnancy or diagnosis of GDM, Nevertheless, YKL-40 levels were associated with IL-6 levels in the non-GDM group (but not in the GDM group). Pregnancy seems to be associated with a temporary reduction in circulating YKL-40, which increases after delivery, but to a much lesser extent in women with GDM than in non-GDM women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Non-insulin management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM complicates a substantial number of pregnancies. There is consensus that in patients of GDM, excellent blood glucose control, with diet and, when necessary, oral hypoglycemics and insulin results in improved perinatal outcomes, and appreciably reduces the probability of serious neonatal morbidity compared with routine prenatal care. Goals of metabolic management of a pregnancy complicated with GDM have to balance the needs of a healthy pregnancy with the requirements to control glucose level. Medical nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of therapy for women with GDM. Surveillance with daily self-monitoring of blood glucose has been found to help guide management in a much better way than blood glucose checking in labs and clinics, which tends to be less frequent. Historically, insulin has been the therapeutic agent of choice for controlling hyperglycemia in pregnant women. However, difficulty in medication administration with multiple daily injections, potential for hypoglycemia, and increase in appetite and weight make this therapeutic option cumbersome for many pregnant patients. Use of oral hypogycemic agents (OHAs in pregnancy has opened new vistas for GDM management. At present, there is a growing acceptance of glyburide (glibenclamide use as the primary therapy for GDM. Glyburide and metformin have been found to be safe, effective and economical for the treatment of gestational diabetes. Insulin, however, still has an important role to play in GDM. GDM is a window of opportunity, which needs to be seized, for prevention of diabetes in future life. Goal of our educational programs should be not only to improve pregnancy outcomes but also to promote healthy lifestyle changes for the mother that will last long after delivery. Team effort on part of obstetricians and endocrinologists is required to make " the diabetes capital of the world" into " the diabetes care capital of the world".

  17. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Multiple Gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanc, Phyllis; Nyberg, David A; Khati, Nadia J; Deshmukh, Sandeep Prakash; Dudiak, Kika M; Henrichsen, Tara Lynn; Poder, Liina; Shipp, Thomas D; Simpson, Lynn; Weber, Therese M; Zelop, Carolyn M

    2017-11-01

    Women with twin or higher-order pregnancies will typically have more ultrasound examinations than women with a singleton pregnancy. Most women will have at minimum a first trimester scan, a nuchal translucency evaluation scan, fetal anatomy scan at 18 to 22 weeks, and one or more scans in the third trimester to evaluate growth. Multiple gestations are at higher risk for preterm delivery, congenital anomalies, fetal growth restriction, placenta previa, vasa previa, and velamentous cord insertion. Chorionicity and amnionicity should be determined as early as possible when a twin pregnancy is identified to permit triage of the monochorionic group into a closer surveillance model. Screening for congenital heart disease is warranted in monochorionic twins because they have an increased rate of congenital cardiac anomalies. In addition, monochorionic twins have a higher risk of developing cardiac abnormalities in later gestation related to right ventricular outflow obstruction, in particular the subgroups with twin-twin transfusion syndrome or selective intrauterine growth restriction. Monochorionic twins have unique complications including twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, twin embolization syndrome, and acardius, or twin-reversed arterial perfusion sequence. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or

  18. Evolução do comprimento cervical uterino na gestação, avaliado pela ultra-sonografia transvaginal Changes in cervical length during pregnancy measured by transvaginal ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Antônio de Oliveira Freitas-Júnior

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a evolução do comprimento cervical uterino, ao longo da gestação, avaliado por meio da ultra-sonografia transvaginal. MÉTODOS: foi realizado estudo prospectivo, longitudinal, no qual 82 gestantes hígidas foram acompanhadas desde o início da gestação, das quais 49 mantiveram o seguimento até o parto sem complicações da gravidez, sendo examinadas a cada quatro semanas, e agrupadas, conforme a paridade, em nulíparas ou com um ou mais partos anteriores. O comprimento do colo uterino foi avaliado em vista sagital pela ultra-sonografia transvaginal, com a medida linear da distância entre os orifícios cervicais interno e externo. RESULTADOS: as médias de comprimento do colo uterino, bem como os percentis 5, 25, 50, 75 e 95, em função da idade gestacional, não diferiram significativamente entre os grupos estudados (p>0.05. No intervalo entre a 20ª e a 24ª semana gestacional o comprimento cervical variou entre 28, 35 e 47,2 mm, com os percentis 5, 50 e 95, respectivamente. O comprimento cervical uterino diminuiu progressivamente ao longo da gestação normal, sendo esse encurtamento significativo após a 20ª semana de gravidez e mais expressivo após a 28ª semana (pPURPOSE: to establish a normality curve of cervical length during pregnancy measured by transvaginal ultrasonography. METHODS: we conducted a prospective, longitudinal study on 82 healthy pregnant women who were followed up from the beginning of pregnancy to delivery at four-week intervals, of whom 49 concluded the study. Patients were divided according to parity into nulliparous women and women with one or more previous deliveries. Cervical length was measured in a sagittal view by transvaginal ultrasonography, as the linear distance between internal and external cervical os. RESULTS: no significant difference was observed in mean cervical length or the 5th, 25, 50th, 75th, or 95th percentile according to gestational age between groups (p>0

  19. Ultrasonographic features of normal lower ureters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soon; Bae, M. Y.; Park, K. J.; Jeon, H. S.; Lee, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Although ultrasonographic evaluation of the normal ureters is difficult due to bowel gas, the lower segment of the normal ureters can be visualized using the urinary bladder as an acoustic window. Authors prospetively performed ultrasonography with the standard suprapubic technique and analyzed the ultrasonographic features of normal lower ureters in 79 cases(77%). Length of visualized segment of the distal ureter ranged frp, 1.5cm to 7.2 cm and the visualized segment did not exceed 3.9mm in maximum diameter. Knowledge of sonographic features of the normal lower ureters can be helpful in the evaluation of pathologic or suspected pathologic conditions of the lower ureters

  20. Lean body mass in small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.; Gotfredsen, A.; Knudsen, F.U.

    1988-01-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry using 153 Gd in a whole-body scanner was used to measure lean body mass (LBM) in 51 newborn infants. LBM% decreased exponentially with increasing gestational age in both small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. In preterm SGA and AGA infants LBM was 104% and 103%, respectively, indicating that no fat was detectable. In term SGA infants LBM was 98%, which corresponded to 48 gm fat on average, and in term AGA infants LBM was 87%, which corresponded to 452 gm fat on average. The LBM%, ponderal index, and skinfold thickness were significantly different between AGA and SGA infants. Infants with clinical signs of intrauterine wastage had significantly higher LBM% than did infants without signs of weight loss. Our results on LBM% by dual photon absorptiometry agree with earlier dissection data; the clinically applicable methods of (1) height combined with weight (i.e., ponderal index), (2) skinfold thickness, and (3) scoring by clinical observations are useful for the estimation of lack of fat as an indicator of intrauterine growth retardation

  1. Morbidity and Mortality in Small for Gestational Age Infants at 22 to 29 Weeks' Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghossian, Nansi S; Geraci, Marco; Edwards, Erika M; Horbar, Jeffrey D

    2018-02-01

    To identify the relative risks of mortality and morbidities for small for gestational age (SGA) infants in comparison with non-SGA infants born at 22 to 29 weeks' gestation. Data were collected (2006-2014) on 156 587 infants from 852 US centers participating in the Vermont Oxford Network. We defined SGA as sex-specific birth weight thin plate spline term on GA by SGA were used to calculate the adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for outcomes by GA. Compared with non-SGA infants, the risk of patent ductus arteriosus decreased for SGA infants in early GA and then increased in later GA. SGA infants were also at increased risks of mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, severe retinopathy of prematurity, and chronic lung disease. These risks of adverse outcomes, however, were not homogeneous across the GA range. Early-onset sepsis was not different between the 2 groups for the majority of GAs, although severe intraventricular hemorrhage was decreased among SGA infants for only gestational week 24 through week 25. SGA was associated with additional risks to mortality and morbidities, but the risks differed across the GA range. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. The developmental effects of HIV and alcohol: a comparison of gestational outcomes among babies from South African communities with high prevalence of HIV and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten A M; Fernandez, Anne; Claborn, Kasey; Kuo, Caroline; Koen, Nastassja; Zar, Heather; Stein, Dan J

    2017-05-08

    There is growing evidence of the negative impact of alcohol on morbidity and mortality of individuals living with HIV but limited evidence of in utero effects of HIV and alcohol on exposure on infants. We conducted a population-based birth cohort study (N = 667 mother-infant dyads) in South Africa to investigate whether maternal alcohol use and HIV affected gestational outcomes. Descriptive data analysis was conducted for all variables using frequency distributions, measures of central tendency, and estimates of variance. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to determine whether maternal alcohol use, maternal HIV status and other risk factors (socioeconomic status, smoking, depression) predicted infant outcomes. Our results showed severity of recent alcohol use and lifetime alcohol use predicted low birth weight. Similarly lifetime alcohol use predicted shorter infant length, smaller head length, smaller head circumference, and early gestational age. However, HIV status was not a significant predictor of gestational outcomes. The unexpected finding that maternal HIV status did not predict any of the gestational outcomes may be due to high rates of ART usage among HIV-infected mothers. The potentially negative effects of HIV on gestational outcomes may have been attenuated by improved maternal health due to high coverage of antiretroviral treatment in South Africa. Interventions are needed to reduce alcohol consumption among pregnant mothers and to support healthy growth and psychosocial development of infants.

  3. The Effective Coherence Length in Anisotropic Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Nesher, O

    1999-01-01

    If electrons are transmitted from a normal conductor(N) into a superconductor(S), common wisdom has it that the electrons are converted into Cooper pairs within a coherence length from the interface. This is true in conventional superconductors with an isotropic order parameter. We have established experimentally that the situation is rather different in high Tc superconductors having an anisotropic order parameter. We used epitaxial thin film S/N bilayers having different interface orientations in order to inject carriers from S into N along different directions. The distance to which these carriers penetrate were determined through their effect on the Tc of the bilayers. We found that the effective coherence length is 20A only along the a or b directions, while in other directions we find a length of 250dr20A out of plane, and an even larger value for in-plane, off high symmetry directions. These observations can be explained using the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model adapted to anisotropic superconductivity. Several implications of our results on outstanding problems with high Tc junctions will be discussed

  4. Gestational Weight Gain-for-Gestational Age Z-Score Charts Applied across U.S. Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Bodnar, Lisa M; Petito, Lucia C; Abrams, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    Gestational weight gain may be a modifiable contributor to infant health outcomes, but the effect of gestational duration on gestational weight gain has limited the identification of optimal weight gain ranges. Recently developed z-score and percentile charts can be used to classify gestational weight gain independent of gestational duration. However, racial/ethnic variation in gestational weight gain and the possibility that optimal weight gain differs among racial/ethnic groups could affect generalizability of the z-score charts. The objectives of this study were (1) to apply the weight gain z-score charts in two different U.S. populations as an assessment of generalisability and (2) to determine whether race/ethnicity modifies the weight gain range associated with minimal risk of preterm birth. The study sample included over 4 million live, singleton births in California (2007-2012) and Pennsylvania (2003-2013). We implemented a noninferiority margin approach in stratified subgroups to determine weight gain ranges for which the adjusted predicted marginal risk of preterm birth (gestation gain between California and Pennsylvania births, and among several racial/ethnic groups in California. The optimal ranges decreased as severity of prepregnancy obesity increased in all groups. The findings support the use of weight gain z-score charts for studying gestational age-dependent outcomes in diverse U.S. populations and do not support weight gain recommendations tailored to race/ethnicity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. 78 FR 11210 - Notice of NIH Consensus Development Conference: Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Development Conference: Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS... ``Consensus Development Conference: Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.'' The conference will be open to... http://prevention.nih.gov/cdp/ . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a...

  6. Short- and long-term effects of gestational diabetes mellitus on healthcare cost: a cross-sectional comparative study in the ATLANTIC DIP cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyliv, A; Gillespie, P; O'Neill, C; Noctor, E; O'Dea, A; Tierney, M; McGuire, B; Glynn, L G; Dunne, F

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the association between gestational diabetes mellitus and costs of care during pregnancy and 2-5 years post pregnancy. Healthcare utilization during pregnancy was measured for a sample of 658 women drawn from the Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy (ATLANTIC DIP) network. Healthcare utilization 2-5 years post pregnancy was assessed for a subsample of 348 women via a postal questionnaire. A vector of unit costs was applied to healthcare activity to calculate the costs of care at both time points. Differences in cost for women with gestational diabetes mellitus compared with those with normal glucose tolerance during the pregnancy were examined using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Gestational diabetes mellitus was independently associated with an additional €817.60 during pregnancy (€1192.1 in the gestational diabetes mellitus group, €511.6 in the normal glucose tolerance group), in the form of additional delivery and neonatal care costs, and an additional €680.50 in annual healthcare costs 2-5 years after the index pregnancy (€6252.4 in the gestational diabetes mellitus group, €5434.8 in the normal glucose tolerance group). These results suggest that gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased costs of care during and post pregnancy. They provide indication of the associated cost that can be avoided or reduced by the screening, prevention and management of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnancy. These estimates are useful for further studies that examine the cost and cost-effectiveness of such programmes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  7. Plasticity in the olfactory bulb of the maternal mouse is prevented by gestational stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnoue, Laure; Malvaut, Sarah; Ladevèze, Elodie; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Koehl, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Maternal stress is associated with an altered mother-infant relationship that endangers offspring development, leading to emotional/behavioral problems. However, little research has investigated the stress-induced alterations of the maternal brain that could underlie such a disruption of mother-infant bonding. Olfactory cues play an extensive role in the coordination of mother-infant interactions, suggesting that motherhood may be associated to enhanced olfactory performances, and that this effect may be abolished by maternal stress. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the impact of motherhood under normal conditions or after gestational stress on olfactory functions in C57BL/6 J mice. We report that gestational stress alters maternal behavior and prevents both mothers’ ability to discriminate pup odors and motherhood-induced enhancement in odor memory. We investigated adult bulbar neurogenesis as a potential mechanism of the enhanced olfactory function in mothers and found that motherhood was associated with an increased complexity of the dendritic tree of newborn neurons. This motherhood-evoked remodeling was totally prevented by gestational stress. Altogether, our results may thus provide insight into the neural changes that could contribute to altered maternal behavior in stressed mothers. PMID:27886228

  8. [Risks factors for the development of diabetes in women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypryk, Katarzyna; Szymczak, Wiesław; Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena; Zawodniak-Szałapska, Małgorzata; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Women who suffered from impaired carbohydrate metabolism during pregnancy are more likely to develop different types of diabetes later in their lives. The aim of this paper was to study the risk factors for the development of diabetes in group of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in anamnesis. 200 women took part in this study, who had gestational diabetes diagnosed between 1980-1998. All women were divided into 4 groups depending on the type of disorders occurring at the moment of examination: DM1 - women diagnosed with type I diabetes, DM2 - women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, IGT-women with glucose levels in OGTT, which applied to impaired glucose tolerance (acc. to WHO criteria), NDM - women with no clinical signs of diabetes, with normal result of OGTT. The risk of diabetes development is significantly higher (independently of the clinical type) in women who had had GDM include: high glucose levels at the time of GDM diagnosis, early onset of symptoms - related to weeks of gestation, and the insulin treatment during pregnancy. However multifactor analysis indicates that the only significant risk factors for DM 1 are early onset of diabetes during pregnancy and high glucose levels 2 hours after OGTT during pregnancy (p women who suffered from diabetes during pregnancy.

  9. Two-Dimensional Echocardiography Estimates of Fetal Ventricular Mass throughout Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam James; Ohuma, Eric O; Upton, Ross; Packham, Alice; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Roseman, Fenella; Norris, Tess; Molloholli, Malid; Wanyonyi, Sikolia; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Leeson, Paul

    2017-08-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound quality has improved in recent years. Quantification of cardiac dimensions is important to screen and monitor certain fetal conditions. We assessed the feasibility and reproducibility of fetal ventricular measures using 2D echocardiography, reported normal ranges in our cohort, and compared estimates to other modalities. Mass and end-diastolic volume were estimated by manual contouring in the four-chamber view using TomTec Image Arena 4.6 in end diastole. Nomograms were created from smoothed centiles of measures, constructed using fractional polynomials after log transformation. The results were compared to those of previous studies using other modalities. A total of 294 scans from 146 fetuses from 15+0 to 41+6 weeks of gestation were included. Seven percent of scans were unanalysable and intraobserver variability was good (intraclass correlation coefficients for left and right ventricular mass 0.97 [0.87-0.99] and 0.99 [0.95-1.0], respectively). Mass and volume increased exponentially, showing good agreement with 3D mass estimates up to 28 weeks of gestation, after which our measurements were in better agreement with neonatal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. There was good agreement with 4D volume estimates for the left ventricle. Current state-of-the-art 2D echocardiography platforms provide accurate, feasible, and reproducible fetal ventricular measures across gestation, and in certain circumstances may be the modality of choice. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Association between periodontal disease and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) - a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Deepika S; Verma, Mahesh; Lamba, Arundeep Kaur; Gupta, Madhavi M; Sharma, Shashi; Perumal, Vanamail

    2018-04-03

    The present study aims to determine the association between periodontal disease and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and the effect of this association on pregnancy outcome in North Indian population. A total of 584 primigravidae were recruited at 12-14 weeks of gestation. Their periodontal examination was done along with 75g oral glucose load test at the time of recruitment. GDM was diagnosed as per the DIPSI (The Diabetes in Pregnancy Study group India) guidelines (≥140mg/dL). Women with normal plasma glucose values underwent a repeat 75g oral glucose load test at 24-28 weeks of gestation. All patients were followed up for pregnancy outcomes. Out of 584 primigravida, 184 (31.5%) had gingivitis and 148 (25.3%) had periodontitis. Overall, 332 (56.8%) pregnant women had periodontal disease. It was associated with GDM with adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 2.85 (95%CI=1.47-5.53). The occurrence of preeclampsia was associated with periodontal disease with aHR of 2.20 (95%CI=0.86-5.60). If primigravidae had periodontal disease along with GDM, the risk of preeclampsia had shown increased aHR of 18.79 (95% CI= 7.45 - 47.40). The study shows a significant association of periodontal disease with GDM and an increased risk of developing preeclampsia due to this association. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of cool versus warm temperatures on gestation in the aspic viper (Vipera aspis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Catherine Louise; Pastore, Jean-Henri; Bonnet, Xavier

    2013-07-01

    Previous experimental data suggested that digestion and growth rates are not impaired under cool constant temperature (23°C) in a viviparous snake (Vipera aspis). These results challenged the widespread notion that both elevated temperatures (e.g. 30°C) and temperature fluctuations are required for digestion and growth in temperate climate reptiles. Here, we investigated the impact of constant cool temperatures on another physiological performance that is crucial to population persistence: gestation. At the time when reproductive females were midway through vitellogenesis, we placed ten reproductive and two non-reproductive female aspic vipers at each of two contrasted constant temperature conditions: cool (23°C) versus warm (28°C). Sixty percent of the females placed at 28°C gave birth to healthy offspring, suggesting that constant warm body temperatures were compatible with normal offspring production. Conversely, none of the cool females gave birth to healthy offspring. A blister disease affected exclusively cool pregnant females. Apparently, the combination of cool temperatures plus gestation was too challenging for such females. Our results suggest that reproduction is more thermally sensitive than digestion or growth, indeed gestation faltered under moderately cool thermal constraints. This sensitivity could be a crucial factor determining the capacity of this species to colonize different habitats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lack of predictive power of plasma lipids or lipoproteins for gestational diabetes mellitus in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Yuko; Matsuura, Masaaki; Yao, Zemin; Ito, Satoru; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Yoshitsugu, Michiyasu; Miyauchi, Akito; Hiyoshi, Toru

    2015-11-01

    To determine the diagnostic potential of plasma lipids and apolipoproteins in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 1,161 Japanese women at 20-28 weeks of gestation who underwent a glucose challenge test (GCT). A total of 1,161 Japanese women at 20-28 weeks of gestation underwent a GCT. Participants with a positive test (GCT[+]) underwent a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test. Clinical and biochemical parameters were determined and quantification of apolipoproteins (Apo), including ApoB, ApoB48, ApoA-I and ApoC-III, was carried out. The prevalence of GCT(+; with a 130 mg/dL glucose cut-off) and GDM was 20% and 4%, respectively. There was a trend for increased triglycerides and ApoC-III in GDM(+) participants. However, the difference in plasma triglycerides, ApoC-III or ApoB48 did not reach statistical significance between GDM(+) and GDM(-) women. Values of 1-h glucose (P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (P = 0.002) were significant risk factors for GDM. Prediction of GDM using only the ApoC-III value is not easy, although triglycerides and ApoC-III were higher in the GDM(+) group. The present findings show no significant difference in plasma lipid levels between women diagnosed with GDM and those with normal glucose tolerance.

  13. Analysis of the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants. Methods: Infants with a birth weight of less than 2,500 g or with a gestation period of less than 36 weeks were included in the study. Infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=138, while those without ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=236. All infants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including corneal diameter measurements, pachymetry, biometry, and fundoscopy. Between-group comparisons of horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial lengths were performed. Independent sample t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Data was obtained from 374 eyes of 187 infants (102 female, 85 male. The mean gestational age at birth was 30.7 ± 2.7 weeks (range 25-36 weeks, the mean birth weight was 1,514 ± 533.3 g (range 750-1,970 g, and the mean postmenstrual age at examination was 40.0 ± 4.8 weeks. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight of Group 1 were statistically lower than Group 2 (p0.05. Conclusions: The presence of ROP in premature infants does not alter the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, or axial length.

  14. Racial and ethnic disparities in universal cervical length screening with transvaginal ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Miriam J; Shainker, Scott A; Hacker, Michele R; Burris, Heather H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Determine if race or ethnicity is associated with missed or late transvaginal cervical length screening in a universal screening program. Methods Retrospective cohort study of nulliparous women with singleton gestations and a fetal anatomical ultrasound from 16-24 weeks' gestation from January, 2012 through November, 2013. We classified women into mutually exclusive racial and ethnic groups: non-Hispanic black (black), Hispanic, Asian, non-Hispanic white (white), and other or unknown race. We used log-binomial regression to calculate the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of missed or late (≥ 20 weeks' gestation) screening vs. optimally-timed screening between the different racial and ethnic groups. Results Among the 2 967 women in our study population, 971 (32.7%) had either missed or late cervical length screening. Compared to white women, black (RR: 1.3; 95% CI:1.1-1.5) and Hispanic (RR:1.2; 95% CI:1.01-1.5) women were more likely to have missed or late screening. Among women screened, black (vs. white) women were more likely to be screened late (RR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.6-3.1). Conclusions Black and Hispanic women may be more likely to have missed or late cervical length screenings. PMID:26987873

  15. Disappearance of enlarged nuchal translucency before 14 weeks' gestation: relationship with chromosomal abnormalities and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M A; Pajkrt, E; Bleker, O P; Bonsel, G J; Bilardo, C M

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the natural course of enlarged nuchal translucency (NT) and to determine if its disappearance before 14 weeks' gestation is a favorable prognostic sign in relation to fetal karyotype and pregnancy outcome. A total of 147 women with increased NT (> 95th centile) at first measurement were included in this study. A second measurement was performed in all cases, at an interval of at least 2 days. Both measurements were taken between 10 + 3 and 14 + 0 weeks. All women underwent chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis for subsequent karyotyping. In those women with a normal karyotype, a fetal anomaly scan was performed at 20 weeks' gestation. Pregnancy outcome was recorded in all cases. The finding of persistent or disappearing NT enlargement was analyzed in relation to fetal karyotype and pregnancy outcome. Of the 147 paired measurements, NT remained enlarged at the second measurement in 121 (82%) cases. An abnormal karyotype was found in 35% of these cases. In 26 (18%) fetuses the NT measurement was found to be below the 95th percentile at the second measurement and in only two of them an abnormal karyotype was found (8%). In the 103 chromosomally normal fetuses an adverse outcome (i.e. fetal loss or structural defects) was recorded in 22 fetuses with persistent enlargement (28%) and in four fetuses with disappearing enlargement (17%). Disappearance of an enlarged NT before 14 weeks' gestation is not a rare phenomenon and seems to be a favorable prognostic sign with respect to fetal karyotype. Overall, no significant difference in pregnancy outcome was found between chromosomally normal fetuses with persisting or disappearing NT enlargement. Copyright 2004 ISUOG

  16. HbA1c and Gestational Weight Gain Are Factors that Influence Neonatal Outcome in Mothers with Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquiel, Beatriz; Herranz, Lucrecia; Hillman, Natalia; Burgos, Ma Ángeles; Grande, Cristina; Tukia, Keleni M; Bartha, José Luis; Pallardo, Luis Felipe

    2016-06-01

    Maternal glucose and weight gain are related to neonatal outcome in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to explore the influence of average third-trimester HbA1c and excess gestational weight gain on GDM neonatal complications. This observational study included 2037 Spanish singleton pregnant women with GDM followed in our Diabetes and Pregnancy Unit. The maternal HbA1c level was measured monthly from GDM diagnosis to delivery. Women were compared by average HbA1c level and weight gain categorized into ≤ or > the current Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations for body mass index. The differential effects of these factors on large-for-gestational-age birth weight and a composite of neonatal complications were assessed. Women with an average third-trimester HbA1c ≥5.0% (n = 1319) gave birth to 7.3% versus 3.8% (p = 0.005) of large-for-gestational-age neonates and 22.0% versus 16.0% (p = 0.006) of neonates with complications. Women with excess gestational weight gain (n = 299) delivered 12.5% versus 5.2% (p gestational-age neonates and 24.7% versus 19.0% (p = 0.022) of neonates with complications. In an adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis among mothers exposed to the respective risk factors, ∼47% and 52% of large-for-gestational-age neonates and 32% and 37% of neonatal complications were potentially preventable by attaining an average third-trimester HbA1c level gestational weight gain. Average third-trimester HbA1c level ≥5% and gestational weight gain above the IOM recommendation are relevant risk factors for neonatal complications in mothers with gestational diabetes.

  17. PREDICTIVE ACCURACY OF TRANSCEREBELLAR DIAMETER IN COMPARISON WITH OTHER FOETAL BIOMETRIC PARAMETERS FOR GESTATIONAL AGE ESTIMATION AMONG PREGNANT NIGERIAN WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyekun, A A; Orji, M O

    2014-04-01

    To compare the predictive accuracy of foetal trans-cerebellar diameter (TCD) with those of other biometric parameters in the estimation of gestational age (GA). A cross-sectional study. The University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Four hundred and fifty healthy singleton pregnant women, between 14-42 weeks gestation. Trans-cerebellar diameter (TCD), biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL), abdominal circumference (AC) values across the gestational age range studied. Correlation and predictive values of TCD compared to those of other biometric parameters. The range of values for TCD was 11.9 - 59.7mm (mean = 34.2 ± 14.1mm). TCD correlated more significantly with menstrual age compared with other biometric parameters (r = 0.984, p = 0.000). TCD had a higher predictive accuracy of 96.9% ± 12 days), BPD (93.8% ± 14.1 days). AC (92.7% ± 15.3 days). TCD has a stronger predictive accuracy for gestational age compared to other routinely used foetal biometric parameters among Nigerian Africans.

  18. Intelligence and psychosocial functioning during long-term growth hormone therapy in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pareren, Yvonne K; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Slijper, Froukje S M; Koot, Hans M; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2004-11-01

    Short stature is not the only problem faced by small for gestational age (SGA) children. Being born SGA has also been associated with lowered intelligence, poor academic performance, low social competence, and behavioral problems. Although GH treatment in short children born SGA can result in a normalization of height during childhood, the effect of GH treatment on intelligence and psychosocial functioning remains to be investigated. We show the longitudinal results of a randomized, double-blind, GH-dose response study initiated in 1991 to follow growth, intelligence quotient (IQ), and psychosocial functioning in SGA children during long-term GH treatment. Patients were assigned to one of two treatment groups (1 or 2 mg GH/m(2) body surface.d, or approximately 0.035 or 0.07 mg/kg.d). Intelligence and psychosocial functioning were evaluated at start of GH treatment (n = 74), after 2 yr of GH treatment (n = 76), and in 2001 (n = 53). IQ was assessed by a short-form Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Block-design and Vocabulary subtests). Behavioral problems were measured by the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Young Adult Behavior Checklist, and self-perception was measured by the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Mean (sem) birth length sd score was -3.6 (0.2), mean age and height at start was 7.4 (0.2) yr and -3.0 (0.1) sd score, respectively, mean duration of GH treatment was 8.0 (0.2) yr, and mean age in 2001 was 16.5 (0.3) yr. After 2 yr of GH treatment, 96% of both GH groups showed a height gain sd score of 1 sd from the start of treatment or more, resulting in a normal height (i.e. height >/= -2.0 sd for age and sex) in 70% of the children. In 2001, 48 (91%) of the 53 children participating in this study had reached a normal height. Block-design s-score and the estimated total IQ significantly increased (P growth in adolescents born SGA, IQ, behavior, and self-perception showed a significant improvement

  19. Gestational Protein Restriction Impairs Glucose Disposal in the Gastrocnemius Muscles of Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Kumar, Sathish

    2017-01-01

    Gestational low-protein (LP) diet causes hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in adult offspring, but the mechanism is not clearly understood. In this study, we explored the role of insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP-exposed female offspring. Pregnant rats were fed a control (20% protein) or an isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery. Normal diet was given to mothers after delivery and to pups after weaning until necropsy. Offspring were euthanized at 4 months, and gastrocnemius muscles were treated with insulin ex vivo for 30 minutes. Messenger RNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months. LP females were smaller at birth but showed rapid catchup growth by 4 weeks. Glucose tolerance test in LP offspring at 3 months showed elevated serum glucose levels (P insulin levels. In gastrocnemius muscles, LP rats showed reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 upon insulin stimulation due to the overexpression of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, but serine phosphorylation was unaffected. Furthermore, insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)–3α, and GSK-3β was diminished in LP rats, and they displayed an increased basal phosphorylation (inactive form) of glycogen synthase. Our study shows that gestational protein restriction causes peripheral insulin resistance by a series of phosphorylation defects in skeletal muscle in a mechanism involving insulin receptor substrate 1, SHP-2, Akt, GSK-3, and glycogen synthase causing dysfunctional GSK-3 signaling and increased stored glycogen, leading to distorted glucose homeostasis. PMID:28324067

  20. Fetal movement detection: comparison of the Toitu actograph with ultrasound from 20 weeks gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, J A; Costigan, K A; Pressman, E K

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of Doppler-detected fetal movement by a commercially available monitor and investigates whether characteristics of maternal body habitus and the intrauterine environment affect its performance. Fetal movement was evaluated in normal pregnancies using both ultrasound visualization and a fetal actocardiograph (Toitu MT320; Tofa Medical Inc., Malvern, PA). Data were collected for 32 min on 34 fetuses stratified by gestational age (20-25 weeks; 28-32 weeks; 35-39 weeks). Fetal and maternal characteristics were recorded. Comparisons between ultrasound-detected trunk and limb movements and actograph records were conducted based both on 10-s time intervals and on detection of individual movements. Time-based comparisons indicated agreement between ultrasound and actograph 94.7% of the time; this association rose to 98% when movements of less than 1 s duration were excluded. Individual movements observed on ultrasound were detected by the actograph 91% of the time, and 97% of the time when brief, isolated movements were excluded. The overall kappa value for agreement was 0.88. The actograph was reliable in detecting periods of quiescence as well as activity. These findings did not vary by gestational age. The number of movements detected by the actograph, but not the single-transducer ultrasound, significantly increased over gestation. Maternal age, parity, weight, height, or body mass index were not consistently associated with actograph validity. Characteristics of the uterine environment, including placenta location, fetal presentation, and amniotic fluid volume also did not affect results. The Toitu actograph accurately detects fetal movement and quiescence from as early as 20 weeks gestation and has utility in both clinical and research settings. Actographs are most useful for providing objective and quantifiable measures of fetal activity level, including number and duration of movements, while visualization through ultrasound is

  1. Achieving Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain: The Role of Healthcare Provider Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deputy, Nicholas P; Sharma, Andrea J; Kim, Shin Y; Olson, Christine K

    2018-01-10

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) revised gestational weight gain recommendations in 2009. We examined associations between healthcare provider advice about gestational weight gain and inadequate or excessive weight gain, stratified by prepregnancy body mass index category. We analyzed cross-sectional data from women delivering full-term (37-42 weeks of gestation), singleton infants from four states that participated in the 2010-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (unweighted n = 7125). Women reported the weight gain range (start and end values) advised by their healthcare provider; advice was categorized as follows: starting below recommendations, starting and ending within recommendations (IOM consistent), ending above recommendations, not remembered, or not received. We examined associations between healthcare provider advice and inadequate or excessive, compared with appropriate, gestational weight gain using adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, 26.3% of women reported receiving IOM-consistent healthcare provider advice; 26.0% received no advice. Compared with IOM-consistent advice, advice below recommendations was associated with higher likelihood of inadequate weight gain among underweight (aPR 2.22, CI 1.29-3.82) and normal weight women (aPR 1.57, CI 1.23-2.02); advice above recommendations was associated with higher likelihood of excessive weight gain among all but underweight women (aPR range 1.36, CI 1.08-1.72 to aPR 1.42, CI 1.19-1.71). Not remembering or not receiving advice was associated with both inadequate and excessive weight gain. Few women reported receiving IOM-consistent advice; not receiving IOM-consistent advice put women at-risk for weight gain outside recommendations. Strategies that raise awareness of IOM recommendations and address barriers to providing advice are needed.

  2. Gestational age, gender and parity specific centile charts for placental weight for singleton deliveries in Aberdeen, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J M; Bhattacharya, S; Horgan, G W

    2013-03-01

    The weight of the placenta is a crude but useful proxy for its function in vivo. Accordingly extremes of placental weight are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes while even normal variations in placental size may impact lifelong health. Centile charts of placental weight for gestational age and gender are used to identify placental weight extremes but none report the effect of parity. Thus the objective was to produce gender and gestational age specific centile charts for placental weight in nulliparous and multiparous women. Data was extracted from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank for all women delivering singleton babies in Aberdeen city and district after 24 weeks gestation. Gestational age specific centile charts for placental weight by gender and parity grouping (n = 88,649 deliveries over a 30 year period) were constructed using the LMS method after exclusion of outliers (0.63% of deliveries meeting study inclusion criteria). Tables and figures are presented for placental weight centiles according to gestational age, gender and parity grouping. Tables are additionally presented for the birth weight to placental weight ratio by gender. Placental weight and the fetal:placental weight ratio were higher in male versus female deliveries. Placental weight was greater in multiparous compared with nulliparous women. We present strong evidence that both gender and parity grouping influence placental weight centiles. The differences at any given gestational age are small and the effects of parity are greater overall than those of gender. In contrast the birth weight to placental weight ratio differs by gender only. These UK population specific centile charts may be useful in studies investigating the role of the placenta in mediating pregnancy outcome and lifelong health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Secular trends in gestational age and birthweight in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Derom, C; Vlietinck, R; Nijhuis, J G; Zeegers, M P A; Boomsma, D I

    2010-09-01

    In recent decades, the overall rate of preterm births has increased. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this trend is also seen for multiple gestations. More specifically, we examined if there has been a decrease in gestational age for live born monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins and if there has been a simultaneous change in birthweight. The contributions of fertility treatments and Caesarean sections were taken into consideration. All analyses were carried out in two large European twin cohorts. Cross-sectional study of 6310 live born twin pairs, born between 1964-2007, from the Belgian East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey and 14,712 twin pairs, born between 1990-2006, from the Netherlands Twin Register. Multiple regression analyses were performed with gestational age as outcome variable, and multilevel analysis with birthweight as outcome variable. All analyses were performed with and without adjustment for zygosity, parity, maternal age, mode of conception and delivery and, for the analyses of birthweight, gestational age. Gestational age decreased in a linear fashion from 1964 to 2007 with a decrease of 0.25 days per year in a similar way for MZ and DZ twins. Changes in birthweight depended on gestational age: up to 32 weeks, birthweight decreased and after 32 weeks birthweight increased. The frequency of infertility treatment and Caesarean sections, primiparity and advanced maternal age increased over the years, but none of these factors influenced the secular trends in gestational age and birthweight. The decrease in gestational age and change in birthweight in twins are sources of concern, especially for very preterm twins, for whom birthweight decreased. For twins born after 32 weeks, an increase in birthweight was observed and this is very likely the explanation for the decrease in gestational age.

  4. Measurements using 7.0 T post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging of the scalar dimensions of the fetal brain between 12 and 20 weeks gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiangtao; Zhang, Zhonghe; Teng, Gaojun; Meng, Haiwei; Yu, Taifei; Hou, Zhongyu; Fang, Fang; Zang, Fengchao; Liu, Shuwei

    2011-12-01

    In this study, scalar values for the fetal brain from 12 to 20 weeks gestational age were obtained. Fifty-two fetal specimens of 12-20 weeks gestational age with an anatomically normal and developmentally appropriate central nervous system (CNS) were scanned using a 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The linear biometric measurements of the brain were then determined. All the measurements (except for the interhemispheric distance) were found to increase linearly with gestational age, although each increased at a different growth rates. The 95% confidence interval for each value was obtained. These data may be considered to be a valuable reference for the assessment of normal fetal brain development in clinical settings and as a supplement to post-mortem MRI or anatomical investigations. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Cardiovascular Risk: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Burlina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus is increasing in parallel with the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity around the world. Current evidence strongly suggests that women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Given the growing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, it is important to identify appropriate reliable markers of cardiovascular disease and specific treatment strategies capable of containing obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in order to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in the women affected.

  6. Sonographic monitoring of complications and anomalies in twin gestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, B.G.; Grumbach, K.; Arger, P.H.; Mintz, M.C.; Arenson, R.L.; Mennuti, M.T.; Gabbe, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    One hundred sixty-eight twin gestations were evaluated to assess the role of US in the diagnosis of obstetric complications and anomalies. US revealed the following complications: symptomatic polyhydramnios (eight cases), myomas (seven), placenta previa (three), and abruption (five). Fetal anomalies included twin-twin transfusion syndrome (two), acardiac anomaly (two), chromosomal abnormality (two), anencephaly (one), hydrocephaly (one), and conjoined twins (two). In 26 gestations intrauterine fetal demise or neonatal death involved one or both twins for a total of 42 deaths, constituting a mortality of 12.5%. No maternal deaths occurred. The impact of sonographic monitoring on the obstetric management of twin gestations is emphasized

  7. Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hyldgård; Overgaard, Charlotte; Olesen, Christinna Rebecca

    Title: Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes Background: Women whose pregnancy was complicated by gestational diabetes have a 7-fold higher risk of developing diabetes, primarily type 2. 40% of women with a history gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM...... of health consequences for women. Aims: Examine the extent of participation in follow-up screening in the Danish Region of North Jutland, and the possible consequences of nonattendance. Methods: A register based study. In Danish national registers 2171 birthing women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM...

  8. Serum YKL-40 and gestational diabetes - an observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Johansen, Julia S; Christiansen, Ib J

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum YKL-40 in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present large observational cohort study of 1179 pregnant women, we determined serum YKL-40 four times during pregnancy (at gestational age 12, 20, 25, and 32 weeks). Pregnancy outcome was obtained from medical...... records. Sixty-eight women (5.8%) developed GDM. Serum YKL-40 increased from gestational age (GA) 12 weeks and the following weeks in the women who developed GDM and was independent of BMI, parity, and maternal age (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.45-5.00, p = 0.002). No association was found between serum YKL-40...

  9. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  10. Exercise guidelines for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayachee, Cliantha; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. This disease has many detrimental consequences for the woman, the unborn foetus and child. The management of GDM aims to mediate the effects of hyperglycaemia by controlling blood glucose levels. Along with pharmacology and dietary interventions, exercise has a powerful potential to assist with blood glucose control. Due to the uncertainty of risks and benefits of exercise during pregnancy, women tend to avoid exercise. However, under adequate supervision exercise is both safe and beneficial in the treatment of GDM. Therefore it is vital that exercise is incorporated into the continuum of care for women with GDM. Medical doctors should be able to refer to competently informed exercise professionals to aid in GDM treatment. It is important that exercise treatment is informed by research. Hence, the development of evidence-based guidelines is important to inform practice. Currently there are no guidelines for exercise in GDM. This review aims to assess the efficacy of exercise for the management of GDM in order to establish an exercise prescription guideline specific to the condition. It is recommended that women with GDM should do both aerobic and resistance exercise at a moderate intensity, a minimum of three times a week for 30-60 min each time. PMID:26240700

  11. Serum Adiponectin in Women with Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue adipokin that may contribute to obesity and insulin resistantance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance in gestational diabetes (GDM.Materials & Methods: Serum adiponectin levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C, insulin levels and blood lipids were measured in 66 women with GDM and 70 pregnant women without GDM. The associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance were evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA–IR and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI.Results: There were statistically significant between-group differences in FBS, HbA1C and HOMA–IR. Adiponectin concentrations were not significantly different in GDM women in comparison with the control group. However, GDM women above the age of 30 have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than those without GDM. Adiponectin was positively associated with QUICKI (r = 0.268, P < 0.03 and inversely related to HOMA–IR (r = 0.238, P < 0.05.Conclusion: Adiponectin is significantly decreased in older women with GDM. Deficiency of adiponectin may correlate with insulin resistance in GDM.

  12. Metformin in gestational diabetes: An emerging contender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance occurring first time during pregnancy. Its prevalence is simultaneously increasing with the global rise of diabesity. GDM commonly develops, when maternal glucose metabolism is unable to compensate for the progressive development of insulin resistance, arising primarily from the consistently rising diabetogenic placental hormones. It classically develops during the second or third trimester. Theoretically, insulin sensitizers should have been the ideal agent in its treatment, given the insulin resistance, the major culprit in its pathogenesis. Fortunately, majority of women can be treated satisfactorily with lifestyle modification, and approximately 20% requires more intensive treatment. For several decades, insulin has been the most reliable treatment strategy and the gold standard in GDM. Metformin is effective insulin sensitizing agent and an established first line drug in type 2 diabetes currently. As it crosses the placenta, a safety issue remains an obstacle and, therefore, metformin is currently not recommended in the treatment of GDM. Nevertheless, given the emerging clinically equivalent safety and efficacy data of metformin compared to insulin, it appears that it may perhaps open a rather new door in managing GDM. The aim of this review is to critically analyze, the safety and efficacy data of metformin regarding its use in GDM and pregnant mothers with polycystic ovarian disease, which has emerged in past decades.

  13. Gestational diabetes from A to Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghani Dirar, AbdelHameed; Doupis, John

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of hyperglycaemia that is recognized for the first time during pregnancy. This definition includes cases of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) identified early in pregnancy and true GDM which develops later. GDM constitutes a greater impact on diabetes epidemic as it carries a major risk of developing T2DM to the mother and foetus later in life. In addition, GDM has also been linked with cardiometabolic risk factors such as lipid abnormalities, hypertensive disorders and hyperinsulinemia. These might result in later development of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the different risk factors, the pathophysiological mechanisms and the genetic factors of GDM, will help us to identify the women at risk, to develop effective preventive measures and to provide adequate management of the disease. Clinical trials have shown that T2DM can be prevented in women with prior GDM, by intensive lifestyle modification and by using pioglitazone and metformin. However, a matter of controversy surrounding both screening and management of GDM continues to emerge, despite several recent well-designed clinical trials tackling these issues. The aim of this manuscript is to critically review GDM in a detailed and comprehensive manner, in order to provide a scientific analysis and updated write-up of different related aspects. PMID:29290922

  14. Gestational carrier in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugappan, Gayathree; Farland, Leslie V; Missmer, Stacey A; Correia, Katharine F; Anchan, Raymond M; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2018-03-01

    To compare clinical outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with the use of gestational carriers (GCs) with non-GC IVF cycles. Retrospective cohort study of assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles performed with (24,269) and without (1,313,452) the use of a GC. ART centers. Infertile patients seeking IVF with or without use of a GC. Autologous and donor oocyte cycles, fresh and cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles. Live birth rate (LBR), twin and high-order multiple birth rates. Approximately 2% of embryo transfers used a GC. Per embryo transfer, GCs had greater pregnancy rate and LBR across all IVF types compared with non-GC cycles in crude models and models adjusted a priori for potential confounders. For women with uterine-factor infertility, embryo transfer with the use of a GC resulted in a higher odds of live birth for autologous fresh embryos and for cryopreserved embryos compared with patients with non-uterine-factor infertility diagnoses. GC benefits LBRs for some patients seeking ART. The highest LBRs occurred when the indication for GC was uterine-factor infertility. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  16. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  17. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  18. Umbilical Cord Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Relation to Birthweight, Head Circumference and Infant Length at Age 14 Days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    infants. In the third trimester, the pregnant women completed questionnaires, and clinical examination included birthweight, head circumference, and infant length at age 14 days. RESULTS: Fifty-three percent of the newborn population had UC 25(OH)D ... linear regression models with adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, sex, parity, gestational age, or infant age at examination, season of birth, smoking, gestational diabetes, examiner, and cohort identity, we found no relationship between birthweight or head circumference and UC 25(OH)D. However, infants...

  19. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  20. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  1. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  2. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  3. Cervical Length in Patients at Risk for Placenta Accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rac, Martha W F; McIntire, Donald D; Wells, C Edward; Moschos, Elysia; Twickler, Diane D

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate cervical length measurements in women with placenta accreta compared to women with a nonadherent low-lying placenta or placenta previa and evaluate this relationship in terms of vaginal bleeding, preterm labor, and preterm birth. We conducted a retrospective cohort study between 1997 and 2011 of gravidas with more than 1 prior cesarean delivery who had a transvaginal ultrasound examination between 24 and 34 weeks for a low-lying placenta or placenta previa. Cervical length was measured from archived images in accordance with national guidelines by a single investigator, who was blinded to outcomes and ultrasound reports. The diagnosis of placental accreta was based on histologic confirmation. For study purposes, preterm birth was defined as less than 36 weeks, and cervical lengths of 3 cm or less were considered short. Standard statistical analyses were used. A total of 125 patients met inclusion criteria. The cohort was divided into patients with (n = 43 [34%]) and without (n = 82 [66%]) placenta accreta and stratified by gestational age at the ultrasound examinations. Women with placenta accreta had shorter cervical length measurements during their 32- to 34-week ultrasound examinations (mean ± SD, 3.23 ± 0.98 versus 3.95 ± 1.0 cm; P accreta had shorter cervical lengths at 32 to 34 weeks than women with a nonadherent low-lying placenta or placenta previa, but this finding did not correlate with a higher risk of vaginal bleeding or preterm labor resulting in preterm birth before 36 weeks. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Determination of mean fetal transcerebellar diameter as a predictive biometric parameter in third trimester of pregnancy in correlation with fetal gestational age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, K.; Shahid, R.; Virk, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine mean transcerebellar diameter (TCD) in third trimester of pregnancy on ultrasound as a predictive biometric parameter of gestational age. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Radiology Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from Feb to Aug 2013. Material and Methods: A total of 100 pregnant women in their third trimester were included in this study. TCD was measured on ultrasound, by identifying the cerebellum in the posterior cranial fossa and measuring it in from outer edge to outer edge. Results: Mean age of the patients was 26.80 +- 2.71 years. Mean gestational age was 33.18+-2.42 weeks. In present study mean TCD was 36.47 +- 4.30 cm. After applying ANOVA test on parity, gestational age and maternal age it revealed that gestational age and TCD (mm) had significant relation (p<0.001). Conclusion: In the normally developing fetus, the TCD increases in a linear fashion with advancing gestational age. The data of this study suggest fetal TCD on ultrasound is a reliable predictive biometric parameter of gestational age. (author)

  5. Assessment of placental volume and vascularization at 11-14 weeks of gestation in a Taiwanese population using three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-I; Yang, Ming-Jie; Wang, Peng-Hui; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Yao

    2014-12-01

    The placental volume and vascular indices are crucial in helping doctors to evaluate early fetal growth and development. Inadequate placental volume or vascularity might indicate poor fetal growth or gestational complications. This study aimed to evaluate the placental volume and vascular indices during the period of 11-14 weeks of gestation in a Taiwanese population. From June 2006 to September 2009, three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound was performed in 222 normal pregnancies from 11-14 weeks of gestation. Power Doppler ultrasound was applied to the placenta and the placental volume was obtained by a rotational technique (VOCAL). The three-dimensional power histogram was used to assess the placental vascular indices, including the mean gray value, the vascularization index, the flow index, and the vascularization flow index. The placental vascular indices were then plotted against gestational age (GA) and placental volume. Our results showed that the linear regression equation for placental volume using gestational week as the independent variable was placental volume = 18.852 × GA - 180.89 (r = 0.481, p power Doppler ultrasonography showed a constant distribution throughout gestation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  6. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  7. Diet and exercise interventions for preventing gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Emily; Crane, Morven; Tieu, Joanna; Han, Shanshan; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa

    2015-04-12

    % CI 0.29 to 3.42; 2202 fetuses) or neonatal death (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.85; 2202 neonates).Very few differences were shown between groups for the review's secondary outcomes, including for induction of labour, perineal trauma, pre-eclampsia, postpartum haemorrhage and infection, macrosomia, birthweight, small-for-gestational age, ponderal index, neonatal hypoglycaemia requiring treatment, hyperbilirubinaemia requiring treatment, shoulder dystocia, bone fracture or nerve palsy. Women receiving a combined diet and exercise intervention were, however, found to have a reduced risk of preterm birth compared with women receiving no intervention (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.93; five trials, 2713 women).A trend towards reduced weight gain during pregnancy was shown for women receiving the combined diet and exercise intervention (mean difference (MD) -0.76 kg, 95% CI -1.55 to 0.03; eight trials, 2707 women; P = 0.06, random-effects); but no clear difference in postnatal weight retention was observed overall.In relation to adherence to the interventions, a number of trials that reported on behaviour modifications showed benefits in diet- (5/8 trials) and physical activity- (4/8 trials) related behaviours for women receiving the combined diet and exercise intervention, compared with women receiving no intervention; however there was notable variation across trials in outcomes measured and results observed. Only two trials reported on well-being and quality of life of women, and did not observe differences between groups for these outcomes.Very few trials reported on outcomes relating to the use of health services, although one trial suggested a reduced length of antenatal hospital stay for women receiving a combined diet and exercise intervention (MD -0.27 days, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.05; 2153 women).No information was available on outcomes for the infant as a child or adult, or for most longer-term outcomes for the mother. There are limitations associated with the available RCT

  8. Lengths of the maxillary central incisor, the nasal bone, and the anterior cranial base in different skeletal malocclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Kjær, Inger; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    with neutral occlusion and normal craniofacial morphology (n=39). Two-way ANOVA tests were used to evaluate differences in lengths between groups and gender. Results. Statistically shorter maxillary central incisor length was found in the open bite group (p

  9. Spontaneous Emission Enhancement at Finite-length Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, K.; Willatzen, Morten; Bordo, V.

    2013-01-01

    We study spontaneous emission enhancement of a two-level atomic emitter placed in a dielectric medium near a finite-length cylindrical metal nanowire. We calculate the dependence of the Purcell factor and the normalized decay rate to a continuous spectrum on the nanowire radius for several emitter...

  10. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  12. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  13. Fasting glycaemia to simplify screening for gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser Rüetschi, J; Jornayvaz, F R; Rivest, R; Huhn, E A; Irion, O; Boulvain, M

    2016-12-01

    Recommendations in Switzerland on screening for gestational diabetes endorse the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group consensus. As universal testing is time consuming and glucose loading is unpleasant, the recommendations include a simplification, not performing the glucose loading in women with fasting glycaemia fasting glycaemia was fasting glycaemia. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 10.9% in our population. Among 251 women with gestational diabetes, fasting glycaemia was ≥5.1 mmol/l in 119 women (47.4%), between 4.4 and fasting glycaemia between 4.4 and fasting glycaemia is an attractive alternative to universal screening with the complete 75-g glucose tolerance test. This strategy is, however, slightly less sensitive than previously reported in higher-risk populations. Fasting glycaemia can be considered as an alternative to the complete test for gestational diabetes screening. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Relation of maternal vitamin D status with gestational diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency, gestational diabetes and insulin resistance are interrelated. Severe vitamin D ... and bone homeostasis but also in various organs and ... whereas those with elevated glucose levels after the 50 gr OGTT but ...

  15. Observations on placentome diameters in gestating West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-09-09

    /10.4314/sokjvs.v13i3.4. Observations on placentome diameters in gestating West. African dwarf does experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. OO Leigh. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, ...

  16. Caesarean section and risk of autism across gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yip, Benjamin Hon Kei; Leonard, Helen; Stock, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The positive association between caesarean section (CS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be attributed to preterm delivery. However, due to lack of statistical power, no previous study thoroughly examined this association across gestational age. Moreover, most studies did...

  17. Impact of maternal gestational diabetes on neutrophil functions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJ