WorldWideScience

Sample records for normal gait cycle

  1. Modeling and simulation of normal and hemiparetic gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengas, Lely A.; Camargo, Esperanza; Sanchez, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Gait is the collective term for the two types of bipedal locomotion, walking and running. This paper is focused on walking. The analysis of human gait is of interest to many different disciplines, including biomechanics, human-movement science, rehabilitation and medicine in general. Here we present a new model that is capable of reproducing the properties of walking, normal and pathological. The aim of this paper is to establish the biomechanical principles that underlie human walking by using Lagrange method. The constraint forces of Rayleigh dissipation function, through which to consider the effect on the tissues in the gait, are included. Depending on the value of the factor present in the Rayleigh dissipation function, both normal and pathological gait can be simulated. First of all, we apply it in the normal gait and then in the permanent hemiparetic gait. Anthropometric data of adult person are used by simulation, and it is possible to use anthropometric data for children but is necessary to consider existing table of anthropometric data. Validation of these models includes simulations of passive dynamic gait that walk on level ground. The dynamic walking approach provides a new perspective of gait analysis, focusing on the kinematics and kinetics of gait. There have been studies and simulations to show normal human gait, but few of them have focused on abnormal, especially hemiparetic gait. Quantitative comparisons of the model predictions with gait measurements show that the model can reproduce the significant characteristics of normal gait.

  2. Normal human gait patterns in Peruvian individuals: an exploratory assessment using VICON motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, R.; Moscoso, M.; Callupe, R.; Pajaya, J.; Elías, D.

    2017-11-01

    Gait analysis is of clinical relevance for clinicians. However, normal gait patterns used in foreign literature could be different from local individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the normal gait patterns and parameters of Peruvian individuals in order to have a local referent for clinical assessments and making diagnosis and treatment Peruvian people with lower motor neuron injuries. A descriptive study with 34 subjects was conducted to assess their gait cycle. VICON® cameras were used to capture body movements. For the analyses, we calculated spatiotemporal gait parameters and average angles of displacement of the hip, knee, and ankle joints with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The results showed gait speed was 0.58m/s, cadence was 102.1steps/min, and the angular displacement of the hip, knee and ankle joints were all lower than those described in the literature. In the graphs, gait cycles were close to those reported in previous studies, but the parameters of speed, cadence and angles of displacements are lower than the ones shown in the literature. These results could be used as a better reference pattern in the clinical setting.

  3. A Wearable Magneto-Inertial System for Gait Analysis (H-Gait: Validation on Normal Weight and Overweight/Obese Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Agostini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wearable magneto-inertial sensors are being increasingly used to obtain human motion measurements out of the lab, although their performance in applications requiring high accuracy, such as gait analysis, are still a subject of debate. The aim of this work was to validate a gait analysis system (H-Gait based on magneto-inertial sensors, both in normal weight (NW and overweight/obese (OW subjects. The validation is performed against a reference multichannel recording system (STEP32, providing direct measurements of gait timings (through foot-switches and joint angles in the sagittal plane (through electrogoniometers. Methods: Twenty-two young male subjects were recruited for the study (12 NW, 10 OW. After positioning body-fixed sensors of both systems, each subject was asked to walk, at a self-selected speed, over a 14-m straight path for 12 trials. Gait signals were recorded, at the same time, with the two systems. Spatio-temporal parameters, ankle, knee, and hip joint kinematics were extracted analyzing an average of 89 ± 13 gait cycles from each lower limb. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altmann plots were used to compare H-Gait and STEP32 measurements. Changes in gait parameters and joint kinematics of OW with respect NW were also evaluated. Results: The two systems were highly consistent for cadence, while a lower agreement was found for the other spatio-temporal parameters. Ankle and knee joint kinematics is overall comparable. Joint ROMs values were slightly lower for H-Gait with respect to STEP32 for the ankle (by 1.9° for NW, and 1.6° for OW and for the knee (by 4.1° for NW, and 1.8° for OW. More evident differences were found for hip joint, with ROMs values higher for H-Gait (by 6.8° for NW, and 9.5° for OW. NW and OW showed significant differences considering STEP32 (p = 0.0004, but not H-Gait (p = 0.06. In particular, overweight/obese subjects showed a higher cadence (55.0 vs. 52.3 strides/min and a

  4. Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during...

  5. Comprehensive non-dimensional normalization of gait data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzone, Ornella; Schwartz, Michael H; Baker, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Normalizing clinical gait analysis data is required to remove variability due to physical characteristics such as leg length and weight. This is particularly important for children where both are associated with age. In most clinical centres conventional normalization (by mass only) is used whereas there is a stronger biomechanical argument for non-dimensional normalization. This study used data from 82 typically developing children to compare how the two schemes performed over a wide range of temporal-spatial and kinetic parameters by calculating the coefficients of determination with leg length, weight and height. 81% of the conventionally normalized parameters had a coefficient of determination above the threshold for a statistical association (pnormalized non-dimensionally. All the conventionally normalized parameters exceeding this threshold showed a reduced association with non-dimensional normalization. In conclusion, non-dimensional normalization is more effective that conventional normalization in reducing the effects of height, weight and age in a comprehensive range of temporal-spatial and kinetic parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Perception of Gait Patterns that Deviate from Normal and Symmetric Biped Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet eHandzic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the range of gait patterns that are perceived as healthy and human-like with the goal of understanding how much asymmetry is allowable in a gait pattern before other people start to notice a gait impairment. Specifically, this study explores if certain abnormal walking patterns can be dismissed as unimpaired or not uncanny. Altering gait biomechanics is generally done in the fields of prosthetics and rehabilitation, however the perception of gait is often neglected. Although a certain gait can be functional, it may not be considered as normal by observers. On the other hand, an abnormally perceived gait may be more practical or necessary in some situations, such as limping after an injury or stroke and when wearing a prosthesis. This research will help to find the balance between the form and function of gait. Gait patterns are synthetically created using a passive dynamic walker (PDW model that allows gait patterns to be systematically changed without the confounding influence from human sensorimotor feedback during walking. This standardized method allows the perception of specific changes in gait to be studied. The PDW model was used to produce walking patterns that showed a degree of abnormality in gait cadence, knee height, step length, and swing time created by changing the foot roll-over-shape, knee damping, knee location, and leg masses. The gait patterns were shown to participants who rated them according to separate scales of impairment and uncanniness. The results indicate that some pathological and asymmetric gait patterns are perceived as unimpaired and normal. Step time and step length asymmetries less than 5%, small knee location differences, and gait cadence changes of 25% do not result in a change in perception. The results also show that the parameters of a pathologically or uncanny perceived gait can be beneficially altered by increasing other independent parameters, in some sense masking the initial

  7. Effect of arm cycling on gait of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study group received arm cycling in addition to gait training exercise, while the control group received gait training exercises only. Three dimensional (3D) motion analysis was used before and after the training program to evaluate the angular displacements of shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle joints during gait sub ...

  8. An Inverse Kinematic Approach Using Groebner Basis Theory Applied to Gait Cycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    AN INVERSE KINEMATIC APPROACH USING GROEBNER BASIS THEORY APPLIED TO GAIT CYCLE ANALYSIS THESIS Anum Barki AFIT-ENP-13-M-02 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-13-M-02 AN INVERSE KINEMATIC APPROACH USING GROEBNER BASIS THEORY APPLIED TO GAIT CYCLE ANALYSIS THESIS...APPROACH USING GROEBNER BASIS THEORY APPLIED TO GAIT CYCLE ANALYSIS Anum Barki, BS Approved: Dr. Ronald F. Tuttle (Chairman) Date Dr. Kimberly Kendricks

  9. Assessment of gait in toddlers with normal motor development and in hemiplegic children with mild motor impairment: a validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla R. P. Figueiredo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The optimization of gait performance is an important goal in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (CP who present a prognosis associated with locomotion. Gait analysis using videos captured by digital cameras requires validation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of a method that involves the analysis of videos captured using a digital camera for quantifying the temporal parameters of gait in toddlers with normal motor development and children with CP. METHOD: Eleven toddlers with normal motor development and eight children with spastic hemiplegia who were able to walk without assistive devices were asked to walk through a space contained in the visual field of two instruments: a digital camera and a three-dimensional motion analysis system, Qualisys Pro-Reflex. The duration of the stance and swing phases of gait and of the entire gait cycle were calculated by analyzing videos captured by a digital camera and compared to those obtained by Qualisys Pro-Reflex, which is considered a highly accurate system. RESULTS: The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC demonstrated excellent agreement (ICC>0.90 between the two procedures for all measurements, except for the swing phase of the normal toddlers (ICC=0.35. The standard error of measurement was less than 0.02 seconds for all measures. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal similarities between the two instruments, suggesting that digital cameras can be valid instruments for quantifying two temporal parameters of gait. This congruence is of clinical and scientific relevance and validates the use of digital cameras as a resource for helping the assessment and documentation of the therapeutic effects of interventions targeted at the gait of children with CP.

  10. Non-MTC gait cycles: An adaptive toe trajectory control strategy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiranayagam, Braveena K; Sparrow, W A; Lai, Daniel T H; Begg, Rezaul K

    2017-03-01

    Minimum-toe-clearance (MTC) above the walking surface is a critical representation of toe-trajectory control due to its association with tripping risk. Not all gait cycles exhibit a clearly defined MTC within the swing phase but there have been few previous accounts of the biomechanical characteristics of non-MTC gait cycles. The present report investigated the within-subject non-MTC gait cycle characteristics of 15 older adults (mean 73.1 years) and 15 young controls (mean 26.1 years). Participants performed the following tasks on a motorized treadmill: preferred speed walking, dual task walking (carrying a glass of water) and a dual-task speed-matched control. Toe position-time coordinates were acquired using a 3 dimensional motion capture system. When MTC was present, toe height at MTC (MTC height ) was extracted. The proportion of non-MTC gait cycles was computed for the age groups and individuals. For non-MTC gait cycles an 'indicative' toe height at the individual's average swing phase time (MTC time ) for observed MTC cycles was averaged across multiple non-MTC gait cycles. In preferred-speed walking Young demonstrated 2.9% non-MTC gait cycles and Older 18.7%. In constrained walking conditions both groups increased non-MTC gait cycles and some older adults revealed over 90%, confirming non-MTC gait cycles as an ageing-related phenomenon in lower limb trajectory control. For all participants median indicative toe-height on non-MTC gait cycles was greater than median MTC height . This result suggests that eliminating the biomechanically hazardous MTC event by adopting more of the higher-clearance non-MTC gait cycles, is adaptive in reducing the likelihood of toe-ground contact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gait variability and basal ganglia disorders: stride-to-stride variations of gait cycle timing in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Firtion, R.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The basal ganglia are thought to play an important role in regulating motor programs involved in gait and in the fluidity and sequencing of movement. We postulated that the ability to maintain a steady gait, with low stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing and its subphases, would be diminished with both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). To test this hypothesis, we obtained quantitative measures of stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing in subjects with PD (n = 15), HD (n = 20), and disease-free controls (n = 16). All measures of gait variability were significantly increased in PD and HD. In subjects with PD and HD, gait variability measures were two and three times that observed in control subjects, respectively. The degree of gait variability correlated with disease severity. In contrast, gait speed was significantly lower in PD, but not in HD, and average gait cycle duration and the time spent in many subphases of the gait cycle were similar in control subjects, HD subjects, and PD subjects. These findings are consistent with a differential control of gait variability, speed, and average gait cycle timing that may have implications for understanding the role of the basal ganglia in locomotor control and for quantitatively assessing gait in clinical settings.

  12. Extraction of human gait signatures: an inverse kinematic approach using Groebner basis theory applied to gait cycle analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barki, Anum; Kendricks, Kimberly; Tuttle, Ronald F.; Bunker, David J.; Borel, Christoph C.

    2013-05-01

    This research highlights the results obtained from applying the method of inverse kinematics, using Groebner basis theory, to the human gait cycle to extract and identify lower extremity gait signatures. The increased threat from suicide bombers and the force protection issues of today have motivated a team at Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) to research pattern recognition in the human gait cycle. The purpose of this research is to identify gait signatures of human subjects and distinguish between subjects carrying a load to those subjects without a load. These signatures were investigated via a model of the lower extremities based on motion capture observations, in particular, foot placement and the joint angles for subjects affected by carrying extra load on the body. The human gait cycle was captured and analyzed using a developed toolkit consisting of an inverse kinematic motion model of the lower extremity and a graphical user interface. Hip, knee, and ankle angles were analyzed to identify gait angle variance and range of motion. Female subjects exhibited the most knee angle variance and produced a proportional correlation between knee flexion and load carriage.

  13. Biomechanics of normal and pathological gait: implications for understanding human locomotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, D A

    1989-12-01

    The biomechanical (kinetic) analysis of human gait reveals the integrated and detailed motor patterns that are essential in pinpointing the abnormal patterns in pathological gait. In a similar manner, these motor patterns (moments, powers, and EMGs) can be used to identify synergies and to validate theories of CNS control. Based on kinetic and EMG patterns for a wide range of normal subjects and cadences, evidence is presented that both supports and negates the central pattern generator theory of locomotion. Adaptive motor patterns that are evident in peripheral gait pathologies reinforce a strong peripheral rather than a central control. Finally, a three-component subtask theory of human gait is presented and is supported by reference to the motor patterns seen in a normal gait. The identified subtasks are (a) support (against collapse during stance); (b) dynamic balance of the upper body, also during stance; and (c) feedforward control of the foot trajectory to achieve safe ground clearance and a gentle heel contact.

  14. Implementation An image processing technique for video motion analysis during the gait cycle canine

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, G.; Hernández, J. O.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays the analyses of human movement, more specifically of the gait have ceased to be a priority for our species. Technological advances and implementations engineering have joined to obtain data and information regarding the gait cycle in another animal species. The aim of this paper is to analyze the canine gait in order to get results that describe the behavior of the limbs during the gait cycle. The research was performed by: 1. Dog training, where it is developed the step of adaptation and trust; 2. Filming gait cycle; 3. Data acquisition, in order to obtain values that describe the motion cycle canine and 4. Results, obtaining the kinematics variables involved in the march. Which are essential to determine the behavior of the limbs, as well as for the development of prosthetic or orthotic. This project was carried out with conventional equipment and using computational tools easily accessible.

  15. Altering length and velocity feedback during a neuro-musculoskeletal simulation of normal gait contributes to hemiparetic gait characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Karen; De Groote, Friedl; Aerts, Wouter; De Schutter, Joris; Duysens, Jacques; Jonkers, Ilse

    2014-04-30

    Spasticity is an important complication after stroke, especially in the anti-gravity muscles, i.e. lower limb extensors. However the contribution of hyperexcitable muscle spindle reflex loops to gait impairments after stroke is often disputed. In this study a neuro-musculoskeletal model was developed to investigate the contribution of an increased length and velocity feedback and altered reflex modulation patterns to hemiparetic gait deficits. A musculoskeletal model was extended with a muscle spindle model providing real-time length and velocity feedback of gastrocnemius, soleus, vasti and rectus femoris during a forward dynamic simulation (neural control model). By using a healthy subject's base muscle excitations, in combination with increased feedback gains and altered reflex modulation patterns, the effect on kinematics was simulated. A foot-ground contact model was added to account for the interaction effect between the changed kinematics and the ground. The qualitative effect i.e. the directional effect and the specific gait phases where the effect is present, on the joint kinematics was then compared with hemiparetic gait deviations reported in the literature. Our results show that increased feedback in combination with altered reflex modulation patterns of soleus, vasti and rectus femoris muscle can contribute to excessive ankle plantarflexion/inadequate dorsiflexion, knee hyperextension/inadequate flexion and increased hip extension/inadequate flexion during dedicated gait cycle phases. Increased feedback of gastrocnemius can also contribute to excessive plantarflexion/inadequate dorsiflexion, however in combination with excessive knee and hip flexion. Increased length/velocity feedback can therefore contribute to two types of gait deviations, which are both in accordance with previously reported gait deviations in hemiparetic patients. Furthermore altered modulation patterns, in particular the reduced suppression of the muscle spindle feedback during

  16. Simulating the effect of muscle weakness and contracture on neuromuscular control of normal gait in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aaron S; Carty, Christopher P; Modenese, Luca; Barber, Lee A; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2018-03-01

    Altered neural control of movement and musculoskeletal deficiencies are common in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), with muscle weakness and contracture commonly experienced. Both neural and musculoskeletal deficiencies are likely to contribute to abnormal gait, such as equinus gait (toe-walking), in children with SCP. However, it is not known whether the musculoskeletal deficiencies prevent normal gait or if neural control could be altered to achieve normal gait. This study examined the effect of simulated muscle weakness and contracture of the major plantarflexor/dorsiflexor muscles on the neuromuscular requirements for achieving normal walking gait in children. Initial muscle-driven simulations of walking with normal musculoskeletal properties by typically developing children were undertaken. Additional simulations with altered musculoskeletal properties were then undertaken; with muscle weakness and contracture simulated by reducing the maximum isometric force and tendon slack length, respectively, of selected muscles. Muscle activations and forces required across all simulations were then compared via waveform analysis. Maintenance of normal gait appeared robust to muscle weakness in isolation, with increased activation of weakened muscles the major compensatory strategy. With muscle contracture, reduced activation of the plantarflexors was required across the mid-portion of stance suggesting a greater contribution from passive forces. Increased activation and force during swing was also required from the tibialis anterior to counteract the increased passive forces from the simulated dorsiflexor muscle contracture. Improvements in plantarflexor and dorsiflexor motor function and muscle strength, concomitant with reductions in plantarflexor muscle stiffness may target the deficits associated with SCP that limit normal gait. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gait in normal pressure hydrocephalus: characteristics and effects of the CSF tap test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Krause Martinez de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH, described by Hakim and Adams in 1965, is characterized by gait apraxia, urinary incontinence, and dementia. It is associated with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and ventricular dilation that cannot be attributed to cerebral atrophy. Objectives: To evaluate gait characteristics in patients with idiopathic NPH and investigate the effect of the CSF tap test (CSF-TT on gait. Methods: Twenty-five patients diagnosed with probable idiopathic NPH were submitted to the CSF-TT. The procedure aimed to achieve changes in gait parameters. Results: Fifteen gait parameters were assessed before and after the CSF-TT. Five showed a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.05: walking speed (p < 0.001, cadence (p < 0.001, step length (p < 0.001, en bloc turning (p = 0.001, and step height (p = 0.004. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that gait speed was the most responsive parameter to the CSF-TT, followed by cadence, step length, en bloc turning, and step height.

  18. Mechanical Information of Plantar Fascia during Normal Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yaodong; Li, Zhiyong

    The plantar fascia is an important foot tissue in stabilizing the longitudinal arch of human foot. Direct measurement to monitor the mechanical situation of plantar fascia at human locomotion is difficult. The purpose of this study was to construct a three-dimensional finite element model of the foot to calculate the internal stress/strain value of plantar fascia during different stage of gait. The simulated stress distribution of plantar fascia was the lowest at heel-strike, which concentrated on the medial side of calcaneal tubercle. The peak stress of plantar fascia was appeared at push-off, and the value is more than 5 times of the heel-strike position. Current FE model was able to explore the plantar fascia tension trend at the main sub-phases of foot. More detailed fascia model and intrinsic muscle forces could be developed in the further study.

  19. Real-Time Gait Cycle Parameter Recognition Using a Wearable Accelerometry System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ming Lu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a wearable accelerometry system for real-time gait cycle parameter recognition. Using a tri-axial accelerometer, the wearable motion detector is a single waist-mounted device to measure trunk accelerations during walking. Several gait cycle parameters, including cadence, step regularity, stride regularity and step symmetry can be estimated in real-time by using autocorrelation procedure. For validation purposes, five Parkinson’s disease (PD patients and five young healthy adults were recruited in an experiment. The gait cycle parameters among the two subject groups of different mobility can be quantified and distinguished by the system. Practical considerations and limitations for implementing the autocorrelation procedure in such a real-time system are also discussed. This study can be extended to the future attempts in real-time detection of disabling gaits, such as festinating or freezing of gait in PD patients. Ambulatory rehabilitation, gait assessment and personal telecare for people with gait disorders are also possible applications.

  20. Screw-Home Movement of the Tibiofemoral Joint during Normal Gait: Three-Dimensional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Yong; Kim, Kap Jung; Yang, Dae Suk; Jeung, Sang Wook; Choi, Han Gyeol; Choy, Won Sik

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the screw-home movement at the tibiofemoral joint during normal gait by utilizing the 3-dimensional motion capture technique. Fifteen young males and fifteen young females (total 60 knee joints) who had no history of musculoskeletal disease or a particular gait problem were included in this study. Two more markers were attached to the subject in addition to the Helen-Hayes marker set. Thus, two virtual planes, femoral coronal plane (P f ) and tibial coronal plane (P t ), were created by Skeletal Builder software. This study measured the 3-dimensional knee joint movement in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes of these two virtual planes (P f and P t ) during normal gait. With respect to kinematics and kinetics, both males and females showed normal adult gait patterns, and the mean difference in the temporal gait parameters was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In the transverse plane, the screw-home movement occurred as expected during the pre-swing phase and the late-swing phase at an angle of about 17°. However, the tibia rotated externally with respect to the femur, rather than internally, while the knee joint started to flex during the loading response (paradoxical screw-home movement), and the angle was 6°. Paradoxical screw-home movement may be an important mechanism that provides stability to the knee joint during the remaining stance phase. Obtaining the kinematic values of the knee joint during gait can be useful in diagnosing and treating the pathological knee joints.

  1. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  2. Effect of visual biofeedback cycling training on gait in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochsprung, A; Granja Domínguez, A; Magni, E; Escudero Uribe, S; Moreno García, A

    2017-09-06

    Gait alterations are present in a high percentage of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). They appear from early stages of the disease and can limit patients' capacity to perform basic activities of daily living, affecting their quality of life. Visual biofeedback cycling training appears to be a useful tool in treating these impairments. This study aims to evaluate the short-term effect of visual biofeedback cycling training on gait in patients with MS. A total of 61 patients with mild to moderate MS were randomly assigned to a control group and an intervention group. The intervention group received visual biofeedback cycling training (MOTOmed viva2 system) once per week for 3 months, and a home exercise program. The control group only received the home exercise program. Both groups were evaluated using the GAITRite ® Walkway gait assessment system before the intervention, during the first month of the programme, and after the intervention. In the intervention group, the analysis revealed statistically significant differences between Functional Ambulation Profile (FAP) scores before and during the intervention (P=.014), and before and after the intervention (P=.002). A statistically significant improvement was observed in step length in the intervention group between pre- and post-intervention scores (P=.001) and between first-month and post-intervention scores (P=.004). Visual biofeedback cycling training improved specific gait parameters in the short term and appears to be a therapeutic option for gait retraining in patients with MS. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Gait-Cycle-Driven Transmission Power Control Scheme for a Wireless Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Weilin; Li, Ye

    2018-05-01

    In a wireless body area network (WBAN), walking movements can result in rapid channel fluctuations, which severely degrade the performance of transmission power control (TPC) schemes. On the other hand, these channel fluctuations are often periodic and are time-synchronized with the user's gait cycle, since they are all driven from the walking movements. In this paper, we propose a novel gait-cycle-driven transmission power control (G-TPC) for a WBAN. The proposed G-TPC scheme reinforces the existing TPC scheme by exploiting the periodic channel fluctuation in the walking scenario. In the proposed scheme, the user's gait cycle information acquired by an accelerometer is used as beacons for arranging the transmissions at the time points with the ideal channel state. The specific transmission power is then determined by using received signal strength indication (RSSI). An experiment was conducted to evaluate the energy efficiency and reliability of the proposed G-TPC based on a CC2420 platform. The results reveal that compared to the original RSSI/link-quality-indication-based TPC, G-TPC reduces energy consumption by 25% on the sensor node and reduce the packet loss rate by 65%.

  4. Design, simulation and modelling of auxiliary exoskeleton to improve human gait cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkani, O; Maleki, A; Jamshidi, N

    2017-03-01

    Exoskeleton is a walking assistance device that improves human gait cycle through providing auxiliary force and transferring physical load to the stronger muscles. This device takes the natural state of organ and follows its natural movement. Exoskeleton functions as an auxiliary device to help those with disabilities in hip and knee such as devotees, elderly farmers and agricultural machinery operators who suffer from knee complications. In this research, an exoskeleton designed with two screw jacks at knee and hip joints. To simulate extension and flexion movements of the leg joints, bearings were used at the end of hip and knee joints. The generated torque and motion angles of these joints obtained as well as the displacement curves of screw jacks in the gait cycle. Then, the human gait cycle was simulated in stance and swing phases and the obtained torque curves were compared. The results indicated that they followed the natural circle of the generated torque in joints with a little difference from each other. The maximum displacement obtained 4 and 6 cm in hip and knee joints jack respectively. The maximum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in foot contact phase. Also the minimum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in toe off and heel off phases respectively.

  5. Bipedal gait model for precise gait recognition and optimal triggering in foot drop stimulator: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Faraz; Salcic, Zoran; Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Hu, Aiguo Patrick

    2018-03-10

    Electrical stimulators are often prescribed to correct foot drop walking. However, commercial foot drop stimulators trigger inappropriately under certain non-gait scenarios. Past researches addressed this limitation by defining stimulation control based on automaton of a gait cycle executed by foot drop of affected limb/foot only. Since gait is a collaborative activity of both feet, this research highlights the role of normal foot for robust gait detection and stimulation triggering. A novel bipedal gait model is proposed where gait cycle is realized as an automaton based on concurrent gait sub-phases (states) from each foot. The input for state transition is fused information from feet-worn pressure and inertial sensors. Thereafter, a bipedal gait model-based stimulation control algorithm is developed. As a feasibility study, bipedal gait model and stimulation control are evaluated in real-time simulation manner on normal and simulated foot drop gait measurements from 16 able-bodied participants with three speed variations, under inappropriate triggering scenarios and with foot drop rehabilitation exercises. Also, the stimulation control employed in commercial foot drop stimulators and single foot gait-based foot drop stimulators are compared alongside. Gait detection accuracy (98.9%) and precise triggering under all investigations prove bipedal gait model reliability. This infers that gait detection leveraging bipedal periodicity is a promising strategy to rectify prevalent stimulation triggering deficiencies in commercial foot drop stimulators. Graphical abstract Bipedal information-based gait recognition and stimulation triggering.

  6. Cycle-to-cycle control of swing phase of paraplegic gait induced by surface electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, H.M.; Franken, H.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Baardman, G.; Redmeijer, R.A.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Parameterised swing phase of gait in paraplegics was obtained using surface electrical stimulation of the hip flexors, hamstrings and quadriceps; the hip flexors were stimulated to obtain a desired hip angle range, the hamstrings to provide foot clearance in the forward swing, and the quadriceps to

  7. EMG normalization method based on grade 3 of manual muscle testing: Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks and application to gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabard-Fougère, Anne; Rose-Dulcina, Kevin; Pittet, Vincent; Dayer, Romain; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Armand, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is an important parameter in Clinical Gait Analysis (CGA), and is generally interpreted with timing of activation. EMG amplitude comparisons between individuals, muscles or days need normalization. There is no consensus on existing methods. The gold standard, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), is not adapted to pathological populations because patients are often unable to perform an MVIC. The normalization method inspired by the isometric grade 3 of manual muscle testing (isoMMT3), which is the ability of a muscle to maintain a position against gravity, could be an interesting alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the within- and between-day reliability of the isoMMT3 EMG normalizing method during gait compared with the conventional MVIC method. Lower limb muscles EMG (gluteus medius, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus) were recorded bilaterally in nine healthy participants (five males, aged 29.7±6.2years, BMI 22.7±3.3kgm -2 ) giving a total of 18 independent legs. Three repeated measurements of the isoMMT3 and MVIC exercises were performed with an EMG recording. EMG amplitude of the muscles during gait was normalized by these two methods. This protocol was repeated one week later. Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks were similar for isoMMT3 and MVIC methods. Within- and between-day reliability of gait EMG normalized by isoMMT3 was higher than with MVIC normalization. These results indicate that EMG normalization using isoMMT3 is a reliable method with no special equipment needed and will support CGA interpretation. The next step will be to evaluate this method in pathological populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Normal ovarian cycle in endo vaginal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, F.; Dualde, D.; Labrador, T.; Morales, F.J.; Vidal, P.; Gordo, G.

    1995-01-01

    The changing morphology of the endometrium and ovaries during the menstrual cycle can be viewed with great richness of image using high frequency (5-6-7.5 Mhz) probes in endo vaginal ultrasound. The radiological findings associated with the menstrual cycle are reviewed in terms of four phases (follicular, preovulatory, ovulatory and luteal) and a study is made of the changes that can lead to different morphologies, some of which, especially those of the corpus luteus, are peculiar. The need to be familiar with these changes in order to avoid confusing them with pathological signs is pointed out. (Author)

  9. Real-Time Classification of Patients with Balance Disorders vs. Normal Subjects Using a Low-Cost Small Wireless Wearable Gait Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Teja Nukala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis using wearable wireless sensors can be an economical, convenient and effective way to provide diagnostic and clinical information for various health-related issues. In this work, our custom designed low-cost wireless gait analysis sensor that contains a basic inertial measurement unit (IMU was used to collect the gait data for four patients diagnosed with balance disorders and additionally three normal subjects, each performing the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI tests while wearing the custom wireless gait analysis sensor (WGAS. The small WGAS includes a tri-axial accelerometer integrated circuit (IC, two gyroscopes ICs and a Texas Instruments (TI MSP430 microcontroller and is worn by each subject at the T4 position during the DGI tests. The raw gait data are wirelessly transmitted from the WGAS to a near-by PC for real-time gait data collection and analysis. In order to perform successful classification of patients vs. normal subjects, we used several different classification algorithms, such as the back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN, support vector machine (SVM, k-nearest neighbors (KNN and binary decision trees (BDT, based on features extracted from the raw gait data of the gyroscopes and accelerometers. When the range was used as the input feature, the overall classification accuracy obtained is 100% with BP-ANN, 98% with SVM, 96% with KNN and 94% using BDT. Similar high classification accuracy results were also achieved when the standard deviation or other values were used as input features to these classifiers. These results show that gait data collected from our very low-cost wearable wireless gait sensor can effectively differentiate patients with balance disorders from normal subjects in real time using various classifiers, the success of which may eventually lead to accurate and objective diagnosis of abnormal human gaits and their underlying etiologies in the future, as more patient data are being collected.

  10. Prediction of medial and lateral contact force of the knee joint during normal and turning gait after total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purevsuren, Tserenchimed; Dorj, Ariunzaya; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2016-04-01

    The computational modeling approach has commonly been used to predict knee joint contact forces, muscle forces, and ligament loads during activities of daily living. Knowledge of these forces has several potential applications, for example, within design of equipment to protect the knee joint from injury and to plan adequate rehabilitation protocols, although clinical applications of computational models are still evolving and one of the limiting factors is model validation. The objective of this study was to extend previous modeling technique and to improve the validity of the model prediction using publicly available data set of the fifth "Grand Challenge Competition to Predict In Vivo Knee Loads." A two-stage modeling approach, which combines conventional inverse dynamic analysis (the first stage) with a multi-body subject-specific lower limb model (the second stage), was used to calculate medial and lateral compartment contact forces. The validation was performed by direct comparison of model predictions and experimental measurement of medial and lateral compartment contact forces during normal and turning gait. The model predictions of both medial and lateral contact forces showed strong correlations with experimental measurements in normal gait (r = 0.75 and 0.71) and in turning gait trials (r = 0.86 and 0.72), even though the current technique over-estimated medial compartment contact forces in swing phase. The correlation coefficient, Sprague and Geers metrics, and root mean squared error indicated that the lateral contact forces were predicted better than medial contact forces in comparison with the experimental measurements during both normal and turning gait trials. © IMechE 2016.

  11. Differences in center of pressure trajectory between normal and steppage gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Nima; Rostami, Mostafa; Najarian, Siamak; Menhaj, Mohammad Bagher; Saadatnia, Mohammad; Salami, Firooz

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This pilot study aimed to assess the differences in center of pressure trajectory in neuropathic patients with steppage gait. Steppage gait has previously been evaluated by several biomechanical methods, but plantar pressure distribution has been much less studied. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in center of pressure trajectory using a force plate. METHODS: The steppage gait group was selected from the patients using drop foot brace (25 male) and the control group was selected from Isfahan university students (20 male). They walked at self- selected speed at a mean of ten trials (+2) to collect the center of pressure using a force plate. Center of pressure patterns were categorized into four patterns based on the center of pressure displacement magnitude (spatial features) through time (temporal features) when the longitudinal axis of the insole was plotted as the Y- axis and the transverse axis of the insole as X- axis during stance phase. RESULTS: The horizontal angle measured from center of pressure linear regression was positive in the control group (4.6 ± 2.4) (p < 0.005), but negative in the patient group (- 2.3 ± 1.6) (p < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The finding of this research measured center of pressure trajectory in steppage gait over time, which is useful for designing better shoe sole and also orthopaedic device and better understanding of stability in patients with drop foot. PMID:21526056

  12. Differences in center of pressure trajectory between normal and steppage gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Jamshidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This pilot study aimed to assess the differences in center of pressure trajectory in neuropathic patients with steppage gait. Steppage gait has previously been evaluated by several biomechanical methods, but plantar pressure distribution has been much less studied. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in center of pressure tra-jectory using a force plate. Methods: The steppage gait group was selected from the patients using drop foot brace (25 male and the control group was selected from Isfahan university students (20 male. They walked at self- selected speed at a mean of ten tri-als (+2 to collect the center of pressure using a force plate. Center of pressure patterns were categorized into four pat-terns based on the center of pressure displacement magnitude (spatial features through time (temporal features when the longitudinal axis of the insole was plotted as the Y- axis and the transverse axis of the insole as X- axis during stance phase. Results: The horizontal angle measured from center of pressure linear regression was positive in the control group (4.6 ± 2.4 (p < 0.005, but negative in the patient group (- 2.3 ± 1.6 (p < 0.005. Conclusions: The finding of this research measured center of pressure trajectory in steppage gait over time, which is useful for designing better shoe sole and also orthopaedic device and better understanding of stability in patients with drop foot.

  13. Gait and Balance Measures Can Identify Change From a Cerebrospinal Fluid Tap Test in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ryan; Marquez, Jodie; Osmotherly, Peter

    2018-04-25

    To identify in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) undergoing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT) for consideration of a ventricular peritoneal (VP) shunt: (1) gait and balance measures, which identify symptom change; (2) differences present between pre- and post-CSF TT scores between patients classified as responders and nonresponder; (3) ability of patients with iNPH to accurately quantify change in their gait and balance symptoms from a CSF TT. Prospective observational study. Post-CSF TT assessment was completed 2-4 hours post. Tertiary referral neurological and neurosurgical hospital. Patients (N=74) with iNPH receiving a 30 mL CSF TT for consideration of a VP shunt. Patients underwent a battery of gait and balance measures pre- and post-CSF TT and indicated their perceived change on a global rating of change (GRC). Patients deemed to improve and offered VP shunt insertion by a neurologist or neurosurgeon were labeled responders. Performance oriented mobility assessment (Tinetti), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), timed Up and Go (TUG), 10-meter walk test (10MWT), GRC. Forty patients were classified responders, 34 nonresponders. Significant differences were identified for responders: Tinetti (3.88 points), TUG (3.98 seconds), 10MWT (0.08 m/sec), and BBS (5.29 points). Significant differences were found for nonresponders for the Tinetti (0.91 points) and BBS (2.06 points). Change scores for responders and nonresponders were significantly different for all tests between responders and nonresponders. GRC scores for gait (+2 for responders, 0 for nonresponders) and balance (+2.5 for responders, 0 for nonresponders) were both significantly different. The Tinetti, BBS, and TUG can identify change in patients undergoing a CSF TT for iNPH. Patients appear to be able to accurately identify if change has occurred. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A mechanized gait trainer for restoration of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D

    2000-01-01

    The newly developed gait trainer allows wheel-chair-bound subjects the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstressing therapists. The device simulates the phases of gait, supports the subjects according to their abilities, and controls the center of mass (CoM) in the vertical and horizontal directions. The patterns of sagittal lower limb joint kinematics and of muscle activation for a normal subject were similar when using the mechanized trainer and when walking on a treadmill. A non-ambulatory hemiparetic subject required little help from one therapist on the gait trainer, while two therapists were required to support treadmill walking. Gait movements on the trainer were highly symmetrical, impact free, and less spastic. The vertical displacement of the CoM was bi-phasic instead of mono-phasic during each gait cycle on the new device. Two cases of non-ambulatory patients, who regained their walking ability after 4 weeks of daily training on the gait trainer, are reported.

  15. Effect of arm cycling on gait of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zeinab A. Hussein

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt ... Methods: Forty-eight hemiplegic cerebral palsy children participated in this study ... training exercise, while the control group received gait training ...

  16. An intermittent control model of flexible human gait using a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable limit cycle dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chunjiang; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Morasso, Pietro; Nomura, Taishin

    2014-12-06

    Stability of human gait is the ability to maintain upright posture during walking against external perturbations. It is a complex process determined by a number of cross-related factors, including gait trajectory, joint impedance and neural control strategies. Here, we consider a control strategy that can achieve stable steady-state periodic gait while maintaining joint flexibility with the lowest possible joint impedance. To this end, we carried out a simulation study of a heel-toe footed biped model with hip, knee and ankle joints and a heavy head-arms-trunk element, working in the sagittal plane. For simplicity, the model assumes a periodic desired joint angle trajectory and joint torques generated by a set of feed-forward and proportional-derivative feedback controllers, whereby the joint impedance is parametrized by the feedback gains. We could show that a desired steady-state gait accompanied by the desired joint angle trajectory can be established as a stable limit cycle (LC) for the feedback controller with an appropriate set of large feedback gains. Moreover, as the feedback gains are decreased for lowering the joint stiffness, stability of the LC is lost only in a few dimensions, while leaving the remaining large number of dimensions quite stable: this means that the LC becomes saddle-type, with a low-dimensional unstable manifold and a high-dimensional stable manifold. Remarkably, the unstable manifold remains of low dimensionality even when the feedback gains are decreased far below the instability point. We then developed an intermittent neural feedback controller that is activated only for short periods of time at an optimal phase of each gait stride. We characterized the robustness of this design by showing that it can better stabilize the unstable LC with small feedback gains, leading to a flexible gait, and in particular we demonstrated that such an intermittent controller performs better if it drives the state point to the stable manifold, rather

  17. Energy Cost and Gait Efficiency of Below-Knee Amputee and Normal Subject with Similar Physical Parameters & Quality of Life: A Comparative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Biswas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the comparative analysis of energy cost and gait efficiency between a below knee (BK amputee and a reference subject (without amputation. It also attempted to indicate the specific feature responsible for a controlled gait with optimum energy cost for BK amputees. Selection criteria of the subjects were similar physical parameters and quality of life studied with WHOQOL-100 quality of life assessment. A Cosmed® k4 b2 Respiratory Analyzer system was used for the measurement of Oxygen Uptake (VO2, Energy Expenditure per minute (EE and Heart Rate (HR. Gait efficiency (p < 0.0002 was found higher for BK amputee than normal subject. The therapeutic activities and mainly walking rhythm contributed to improve the mobility & balance. This ensures the optimum time & co-ordination of movements and hence improves the gait efficiency for the BK amputee. Comparison with control group was performed to validate the data.

  18. Too much or too little step width variability is associated with a fall history in older persons who walk at or near normal gait speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Anne B

    2005-07-01

    significant in individuals who walked Conclusion Extreme (either too little or too much step width variability is associated with falls in the past year in older persons who walk at or near normal gait speed and not in older persons who walk slowly (

  19. A Wearable Gait Phase Detection System Based on Force Myography Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianta Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Quantitative evaluation of gait parameters can provide useful information for constructing individuals’ gait profile, diagnosing gait abnormalities, and better planning of rehabilitation schemes to restore normal gait pattern. Objective determination of gait phases in a gait cycle is a key requirement in gait analysis applications; (2 Methods: In this study, the feasibility of using a force myography-based technique for a wearable gait phase detection system is explored. In this regard, a force myography band is developed and tested with nine participants walking on a treadmill. The collected force myography data are first examined sample-by-sample and classified into four phases using Linear Discriminant Analysis. The gait phase events are then detected from these classified samples using a set of supervisory rules; (3 Results: The results show that the force myography band can correctly detect more than 99.9% of gait phases with zero insertions and only four deletions over 12,965 gait phase segments. The average temporal error of gait phase detection is 55.2 ms, which translates into 2.1% error with respect to the corresponding labelled stride duration; (4 Conclusions: This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of force myography techniques as viable solutions in developing wearable gait phase detection systems.

  20. Smartphone App–Based Assessment of Gait During Normal and Dual-Task Walking: Demonstration of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wanting; Zhu, Hao; Harrison, Rachel; Lo, On-Yee; Lipsitz, Lewis; Travison, Thomas; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Zhou, Junhong

    2018-01-01

    Background Walking is a complex cognitive motor task that is commonly completed while performing another task such as talking or making decisions. Gait assessments performed under normal and “dual-task” walking conditions thus provide important insights into health. Such assessments, however, are limited primarily to laboratory-based settings. Objective The objective of our study was to create and test a smartphone-based assessment of normal and dual-task walking for use in nonlaboratory settings. Methods We created an iPhone app that used the phone’s motion sensors to record movements during walking under normal conditions and while performing a serial-subtraction dual task, with the phone placed in the user’s pants pocket. The app provided the user with multimedia instructions before and during the assessment. Acquired data were automatically uploaded to a cloud-based server for offline analyses. A total of 14 healthy adults completed 2 laboratory visits separated by 1 week. On each visit, they used the app to complete three 45-second trials each of normal and dual-task walking. Kinematic data were collected with the app and a gold-standard–instrumented GAITRite mat. Participants also used the app to complete normal and dual-task walking trials within their homes on 3 separate days. Within laboratory-based trials, GAITRite-derived heel strikes and toe-offs of the phone-side leg aligned with smartphone acceleration extrema, following filtering and rotation to the earth coordinate system. We derived stride times—a clinically meaningful metric of locomotor control—from GAITRite and app data, for all strides occurring over the GAITRite mat. We calculated stride times and the dual-task cost to the average stride time (ie, percentage change from normal to dual-task conditions) from both measurement devices. We calculated similar metrics from home-based app data. For these trials, periods of potential turning were identified via custom-developed algorithms

  1. Development of an advanced mechanised gait trainer, controlling movement of the centre of mass, for restoring gait in non-ambulant subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Sarkodie-Gyan, T; Uhlenbrock, D

    1999-01-01

    The study aimed at further development of a mechanised gait trainer which would allow non-ambulant people to practice a gait-like motion repeatedly. To simulate normal gait, discrete stance and swing phases, lasting 60% and 40% of the gait cycle respectively, and the control of the movement of the centre of mass were required. A complex gear system provided the gait-like movement of two foot plates with a ratio of 60% to 40% between the stance and swing phases. A controlled propulsion system adjusted its output according to patient's efforts. Two eccenters on the central gear controlled phase-adjusted the vertical and horizontal position of the centre of mass. The patterns of sagittal lower limb joint kinematics and of muscle activation of a normal subject were similar when using the mechanised trainer and when walking on a treadmill. A non-ambulatory hemiparetic subject required little help from one therapist on the gait trainer, while two therapists supported treadmill walking. Gait movements on the trainer were highly symmetrical, impact-free, and less spastic. The weight-bearing muscles were activated in a similar fashion during both conditions. The vertical displacement of the centre of mass was bi-instead of mono-phasic during each gait cycle on the new device. In conclusion, the gait trainer allowed wheelchair-bound subjects the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstraining therapists.

  2. CSF tapping also improves mental imagery of gait in normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Bruno; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stéphane; Assal, Frédéric; Allali, Gilles

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to compare the changes of Timed Up and Go (TUG) and its imagined version (iTUG) after CSF tapping between patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and its mimics. TUG and iTUG were performed before and 24 h after CSF tapping in 117 patients (75.8 ± 6.9 years; 35% female) with suspicion of iNPH (68 iNPH and 49 mimics). Mental imagery of locomotion was modified after CSF tapping in iNPH patients, but not in the mimics.

  3. An integrated gait rehabilitation training based on Functional Electrical Stimulation cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in complete spinal cord injury patients: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, S; Battini, E; Rustici, A; Stampacchia, G

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an integrated gait rehabilitation training based on Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in a group of seven complete spinal cord injury patients on spasticity and patient-robot interaction. They underwent a robot-assisted rehabilitation training based on two phases: n=20 sessions of FES-cycling followed by n= 20 sessions of robot-assisted gait training based on an overground robotic exoskeleton. The following clinical outcome measures were used: Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) on spasticity, Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS), Spinal Cord Independence Measure Scale (SCIM), NRS on pain and International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Data Set (ISCI). Clinical outcome measures were assessed before (T0) after (T1) the FES-cycling training and after (T2) the powered overground gait training. The ability to walk when using exoskeleton was assessed by means of 10 Meter Walk Test (10MWT), 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go test (TUG), standing time, walking time and number of steps. Statistically significant changes were found on the MAS score, NRS-spasticity, 6MWT, TUG, standing time and number of steps. The preliminary results of this study show that an integrated gait rehabilitation training based on FES-cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in complete SCI patients can provide a significant reduction of spasticity and improvements in terms of patient-robot interaction.

  4. Freeze-all cycle for all normal responders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Guimarães, Fernando; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the freeze-all strategy in subgroups of normal responders, to assess whether this strategy is beneficial regardless of ovarian response, and to evaluate the possibility of implementing an individualized embryo transfer (iET) based on ovarian response. This was an observational, cohort study performed in a private IVF center. A total of 938 IVF cycles were included in this study. The patients were submitted to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol and a cleavage-stage day 3 embryo transfer. We performed a comparison of outcomes between the fresh embryo transfer (n = 523) and the freeze-all cycles (n = 415). The analysis was performed in two subgroups of patients based on the number of retrieved oocytes: Group 1 (4-9 oocytes) and Group 2 (10-15 oocytes). In Group 1 (4-9 retrieved oocytes), the implantation rates (IR) were 17.9 and 20.5% (P = 0.259) in the fresh and freeze-all group, respectively; the ongoing pregnancy rates (OPR) were 31 and 33% (P = 0.577) in the fresh and freeze-all group, respectively. In Group 2 (10-15 oocytes), the IR were 22.1 and 30.1% (P = 0.028) and the OPR were 34 and 47% (P = 0.021) in the fresh and freeze-all groups, respectively. Although the freeze-all policy may be related to better in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in normal responders, these potential advantages decrease with worsening ovarian response. Patients with poorer ovarian response do not benefit from the freeze-all strategy.

  5. Smartphone App-Based Assessment of Gait During Normal and Dual-Task Walking: Demonstration of Validity and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Brad; Yu, Wanting; Zhu, Hao; Harrison, Rachel; Lo, On-Yee; Lipsitz, Lewis; Travison, Thomas; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Zhou, Junhong

    2018-01-30

    Walking is a complex cognitive motor task that is commonly completed while performing another task such as talking or making decisions. Gait assessments performed under normal and "dual-task" walking conditions thus provide important insights into health. Such assessments, however, are limited primarily to laboratory-based settings. The objective of our study was to create and test a smartphone-based assessment of normal and dual-task walking for use in nonlaboratory settings. We created an iPhone app that used the phone's motion sensors to record movements during walking under normal conditions and while performing a serial-subtraction dual task, with the phone placed in the user's pants pocket. The app provided the user with multimedia instructions before and during the assessment. Acquired data were automatically uploaded to a cloud-based server for offline analyses. A total of 14 healthy adults completed 2 laboratory visits separated by 1 week. On each visit, they used the app to complete three 45-second trials each of normal and dual-task walking. Kinematic data were collected with the app and a gold-standard-instrumented GAITRite mat. Participants also used the app to complete normal and dual-task walking trials within their homes on 3 separate days. Within laboratory-based trials, GAITRite-derived heel strikes and toe-offs of the phone-side leg aligned with smartphone acceleration extrema, following filtering and rotation to the earth coordinate system. We derived stride times-a clinically meaningful metric of locomotor control-from GAITRite and app data, for all strides occurring over the GAITRite mat. We calculated stride times and the dual-task cost to the average stride time (ie, percentage change from normal to dual-task conditions) from both measurement devices. We calculated similar metrics from home-based app data. For these trials, periods of potential turning were identified via custom-developed algorithms and omitted from stride-time analyses

  6. Mechanical energy profiles of the combined ankle-foot system in normal gait: insights for prosthetic designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z; Stanhope, Steven J

    2013-09-01

    Over the last half-century, the field of prosthetic engineering has continuously evolved with much attention being dedicated to restoring the mechanical energy properties of ankle joint musculatures during gait. However, the contributions of 'distal foot structures' (e.g., foot muscles, plantar soft tissue) have been overlooked. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the total mechanical energy profiles (e.g., power, work, and work-ratio) of the natural ankle-foot system (NAFS) by combining the contributions of the ankle joint and all distal foot structures during stance in level-ground steady state walking across various speeds (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 statures/s). The results from eleven healthy subjects walking barefoot indicated ankle joint and distal foot structures generally performed opposing roles: the ankle joint performed net positive work that systematically increased its energy generation with faster walking speeds, while the distal foot performed net negative work that systematically increased its energy absorption with faster walking speeds. Accounting for these simultaneous effects, the combined ankle-foot system exhibited increased work-ratios with faster walking. Most notably, the work-ratio was not significantly greater than 1.0 during the normal walking speed of 0.8 statures/s. Therefore, a prosthetic design that strategically exploits passive-dynamic properties (e.g., elastic energy storage and return) has the potential to replicate the mechanical energy profiles of the NAFS during level-ground steady-state walking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Computational Modelling of Patella Femoral Kinematics During Gait Cycle and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Raman

    2016-06-01

    The effect of loading and boundary conditions on patellar mechanics is significant due to the complications arising in patella femoral joints during total knee replacements. To understand the patellar mechanics with respect to loading and motion, a computational model representing the patella femoral joint was developed and validated against experimental results. The computational model was created in IDEAS NX and simulated in MSC ADAMS/VIEW software. The results obtained in the form of internal external rotations and anterior posterior displacements for a new and experimentally simulated specimen for patella femoral joint under standard gait condition were compared with experimental measurements performed on the Leeds ProSim knee simulator. A good overall agreement between the computational prediction and the experimental data was obtained for patella femoral kinematics. Good agreement between the model and the past studies was observed when the ligament load was removed and the medial lateral displacement was constrained. The model is sensitive to ±5 % change in kinematics, frictional, force and stiffness coefficients and insensitive to time step.

  8. A biofeedback cycling training to improve locomotion: a case series study based on gait pattern classification of 153 chronic stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The restoration of walking ability is the main goal of post-stroke lower limb rehabilitation and different studies suggest that pedaling may have a positive effect on locomotion. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of a biofeedback pedaling treatment and its effects on cycling and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. A case series study was designed and participants were recruited based on a gait pattern classification of a population of 153 chronic stroke patients. Methods In order to optimize participants selection, a k-means cluster analysis was performed to subgroup homogenous gait patterns in terms of gait speed and symmetry. The training consisted of a 2-week treatment of 6 sessions. A visual biofeedback helped the subjects in maintaining a symmetrical contribution of the two legs during pedaling. Participants were assessed before, after training and at follow-up visits (one week after treatment). Outcome measures were the unbalance during a pedaling test, and the temporal, spatial, and symmetry parameters during gait analysis. Results and discussion Three clusters, mainly differing in terms of gait speed, were identified and participants, representative of each cluster, were selected. An intra-subject statistical analysis (ANOVA) showed that all patients significantly decreased the pedaling unbalance after treatment and maintained significant improvements with respect to baseline at follow-up. The 2-week treatment induced some modifications in the gait pattern of two patients: one, the most impaired, significantly improved mean velocity and increased gait symmetry; the other one reduced significantly the over-compensation of the healthy limb. No benefits were produced in the gait of the last subject who maintained her slow but almost symmetrical pattern. Thus, this study might suggest that the treatment can be beneficial for patients having a very asymmetrical and inefficient gait and for those that overuse the healthy leg

  9. A biofeedback cycling training to improve locomotion: a case series study based on gait pattern classification of 153 chronic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molteni Franco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The restoration of walking ability is the main goal of post-stroke lower limb rehabilitation and different studies suggest that pedaling may have a positive effect on locomotion. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of a biofeedback pedaling treatment and its effects on cycling and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. A case series study was designed and participants were recruited based on a gait pattern classification of a population of 153 chronic stroke patients. Methods In order to optimize participants selection, a k-means cluster analysis was performed to subgroup homogenous gait patterns in terms of gait speed and symmetry. The training consisted of a 2-week treatment of 6 sessions. A visual biofeedback helped the subjects in maintaining a symmetrical contribution of the two legs during pedaling. Participants were assessed before, after training and at follow-up visits (one week after treatment. Outcome measures were the unbalance during a pedaling test, and the temporal, spatial, and symmetry parameters during gait analysis. Results and discussion Three clusters, mainly differing in terms of gait speed, were identified and participants, representative of each cluster, were selected. An intra-subject statistical analysis (ANOVA showed that all patients significantly decreased the pedaling unbalance after treatment and maintained significant improvements with respect to baseline at follow-up. The 2-week treatment induced some modifications in the gait pattern of two patients: one, the most impaired, significantly improved mean velocity and increased gait symmetry; the other one reduced significantly the over-compensation of the healthy limb. No benefits were produced in the gait of the last subject who maintained her slow but almost symmetrical pattern. Thus, this study might suggest that the treatment can be beneficial for patients having a very asymmetrical and inefficient gait and for those

  10. Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor during the normal menstrual cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumanto, YH; Hospers, GAP; Sluiter, WJ; Dam, WA; Meijer, C; Mulder, NH

    2004-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cycle-related variations in circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) levels would increase the metastatic potential at specific times during the menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods: VEGF levels in serum and whole blood

  11. Serum prolactin profiles of normal human conception cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adejuwon, C A [Ibadan Univ. (Nigeria). Coll. of Medicine; Faundes, Anibal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Segal, S J [Rockefeller Foundation, New York (USA); Alvarez-Sanchez, Francisco [Hospital Moscoso Puello, Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). Dept. of Obstet. and Gynaecol.

    1984-06-01

    Commencing on day 10 of the menstrual cycle through onset of subsequent menses, or confirmation of pregnancy, daily sera collected from 15 women planning pregnancy were analyzed by radioimmunoassays (RIA) for prolactin (hPRL), estradiol-17..beta.. and luteinizing hormone (hLH). Two of the observed subjects became pregnant in the single cycles studied. The profiles of these hormones during the early gestation following spontaneous ovulation were established. No distinct midcycle peaks of hPEL were observed in either subject. Enormous spikes were observed in daily prolactin values, with wide variations between subjects.

  12. Haemostatic variables during normal menstrual cycle A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, H. Marieke; Kemperman, Ramses F. J.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Mulder, Andre B.; Meijer, Karina

    For a number of haemostatic factors menstrual cycle variation has been studied. Such variation could have clinical implications for the timing of haemostatic testing in women. It was our objective to systematically review the literature about evidence for timing of haemostatic testing during

  13. Inter-Trial Gait Variability Reduction Using Continous Curve Registration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadeghi, H

    2001-01-01

    Timing in peak gait values shifts slightly between gait trials. When gait data are averaged, some of the standard deviation can be associated to this inter-trial variability unless normalization is carried out beforehand...

  14. New Lower-Limb Gait Asymmetry Indices Based on a Depth Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Auvinet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various asymmetry indices have been proposed to compare the spatiotemporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters of lower limbs during the gait cycle. However, these indices rely on gait measurement systems that are costly and generally require manual examination, calibration procedures and the precise placement of sensors/markers on the body of the patient. Methods: To overcome these issues, this paper proposes a new asymmetry index, which uses an inexpensive, easy-to-use and markerless depth camera (Microsoft Kinect™ output. This asymmetry index directly uses depth images provided by the Kinect™ without requiring joint localization. It is based on the longitudinal spatial difference between lower-limb movements during the gait cycle. To evaluate the relevance of this index, fifteen healthy subjects were tested on a treadmill walking normally and then via an artificially-induced gait asymmetry with a thick sole placed under one shoe. The gait movement was simultaneously recorded using a Kinect™ placed in front of the subject and a motion capture system. Results: The proposed longitudinal index distinguished asymmetrical gait (p < 0.001, while other symmetry indices based on spatiotemporal gait parameters failed using such Kinect™ skeleton measurements. Moreover, the correlation coefficient between this index measured by Kinect™ and the ground truth of this index measured by motion capture is 0.968. Conclusion: This gait asymmetry index measured with a Kinect™ is low cost, easy to use and is a promising development for clinical gait analysis.

  15. New lower-limb gait asymmetry indices based on a depth camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, Edouard; Multon, Franck; Meunier, Jean

    2015-02-24

    Various asymmetry indices have been proposed to compare the spatiotemporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters of lower limbs during the gait cycle. However, these indices rely on gait measurement systems that are costly and generally require manual examination, calibration procedures and the precise placement of sensors/markers on the body of the patient. To overcome these issues, this paper proposes a new asymmetry index, which uses an inexpensive, easy-to-use and markerless depth camera (Microsoft Kinect™) output. This asymmetry index directly uses depth images provided by the Kinect™ without requiring joint localization. It is based on the longitudinal spatial difference between lower-limb movements during the gait cycle. To evaluate the relevance of this index, fifteen healthy subjects were tested on a treadmill walking normally and then via an artificially-induced gait asymmetry with a thick sole placed under one shoe. The gait movement was simultaneously recorded using a Kinect™ placed in front of the subject and a motion capture system. The proposed longitudinal index distinguished asymmetrical gait (p indices based on spatiotemporal gait parameters failed using such Kinect™ skeleton measurements. Moreover, the correlation coefficient between this index measured by Kinect™ and the ground truth of this index measured by motion capture is 0.968. This gait asymmetry index measured with a Kinect™ is low cost, easy to use and is a promising development for clinical gait analysis.

  16. Failure of normal development of central drive to ankle dorsiflexors relates to gait deficits in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tue Hvass; Farmer, Simon F; Kliim-Due, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Neurophysiological markers of the central control of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP) are used to assess developmental response to therapy. Here we measure the central common drive to a leg muscle in children with CP. We recorded EMGs from the Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle of 40 children...... children tended to strengthen with age, although compared to the control subjects it was slightly weaker. For CP subjects' of all ages the most affected TA muscle common drive was markedly reduced compared both to their least affected muscle and to controls. These differences between the least and most...

  17. Quantitative Gait Analysis in Patients with Huntington’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Jong Pyo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Gait disturbance is the main factor contributing to a negative impact on quality of life in patients with Huntington’s disease (HD. Understanding gait features in patients with HD is essential for planning a successful gait strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate temporospatial gait parameters in patients with HD compared with healthy controls. Methods We investigated 7 patients with HD. Diagnosis was confirmed by genetic analysis, and patients were evaluated with the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. Gait features were assessed with a gait analyzer. We compared the results of patients with HD to those of 7 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Results Step length and stride length were decreased and base of support was increased in the HD group compared to the control group. In addition, coefficients of variability for step and stride length were increased in the HD group. The HD group showed slower walking velocity, an increased stance/swing phase in the gait cycle and a decreased proportion of single support time compared to the control group. Cadence did not differ significantly between groups. Among the UHDRS subscores, total motor score and total behavior score were positively correlated with step length, and total behavior score was positively correlated with walking velocity in patients with HD. Conclusion Increased variability in step and stride length, slower walking velocity, increased stance phase, and decreased swing phase and single support time with preserved cadence suggest that HD gait patterns are slow, ataxic and ineffective. This study suggests that quantitative gait analysis is needed to assess gait problems in HD.

  18. Analysis of spatial temporal plantar pressure pattern during gait in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Ryuhei; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Akazawa, Jun; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo; Akazawa, Kenzo

    2008-01-01

    Spatial temporal plantar pressure patterns measured with sheet-shaped pressure sensor were investigated to extract features of gait in Parkinson's disease. Both six subjects of Parkinson's disease (PD) and elderly fourteen normal control subjects were asked to execute usual walking on the pressure sensor sheets. Candidate features were step length, step time, gait velocity and transition of center of pressure to foot axis direction. The step length and gait velocity were smaller in PD subjects than those in normal subjects. Time of step cycle in three PD subjects were longer than that in normal subjects while the times of other PD subjects were similar to those of control subjects. The length from heel contact to toe off within one footprint was small in the subjects with short step length. Such possibility was indicated that Parkinson's disease in gait could be separated from normal subjects by these features.

  19. Neuromorphic walking gait control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Hepp, Klaus; Douglas, Rodney J

    2006-03-01

    We present a neuromorphic pattern generator for controlling the walking gaits of four-legged robots which is inspired by central pattern generators found in the nervous system and which is implemented as a very large scale integrated (VLSI) chip. The chip contains oscillator circuits that mimic the output of motor neurons in a strongly simplified way. We show that four coupled oscillators can produce rhythmic patterns with phase relationships that are appropriate to generate all four-legged animal walking gaits. These phase relationships together with frequency and duty cycle of the oscillators determine the walking behavior of a robot driven by the chip, and they depend on a small set of stationary bias voltages. We give analytic expressions for these dependencies. This chip reduces the complex, dynamic inter-leg control problem associated with walking gait generation to the problem of setting a few stationary parameters. It provides a compact and low power solution for walking gait control in robots.

  20. Gait outcome following outpatient physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept in people post stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Sheila; Ashburn, Ann; Baxter, David

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the gait cycle of patients with hemiplegia before and after a period of outpatient physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept. Nine patients, at least 6 weeks post stroke and recently discharged from a stroke unit, were measured before and after a period of outpatient physiotherapy (mean duration = 17.4 weeks). Therapy was documented using a treatment checklist for each patient. The primary outcome measures were a number of gait variables related to the therapists' treatment hypothesis, recorded during the gait cycle using the CODA motion analysis system. Other secondary outcome measures were the Motor Assessment Scale, Modified Ashworth Scale, subtests of the Sodring Motor Evaluation Scale, the Step test, a 10-m walk test, the Barthel Index and the London Handicap Score. Recovery of more normal gait patterns in the gait cycle (using motion analysis) did not occur. Significant changes in temporal parameters (loading response, single support time) for both legs, in one kinematic (dorsiflexion during stance) and one kinetic variable on the unaffected side (hip flexor moment), and most of the clinical measures of impairment, activity and participation (with the exception of the Modified Ashworth Scale and the 10-m walk) were noted. Study findings did not support the hypothesis that the Bobath approach restored more normal movement patterns to the gait cycle. Further research is required to investigate the treatment techniques that are effective at improving walking ability in people after stroke.

  1. Relaxation time of normal breast tissues. Changes with age and variations during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, K.I.; Majurin, M.L.; Komu, M.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of age on the relaxation times of normal breast parenchyma and its surrounding fatty tissue were evaluated, and the variations during a normal menstrual cycle were analyzed using an ultra low field 0.02 T imager. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers aged 21 to 59 years were examined to determine T1 and T2 relaxation times, and 8 of these volunteers were studied once weekly during one menstrual cycle. The only significant trend was an increase in the T2 of breast parenchyma with increasing age. During the menstrual cycle there was a slight but insignificant (p=0.10) increase in T1 of the breast parenchyma values during the latter half of the menstrual cycle, and a corresponding increase in T2 values between the 2nd and 3rd weeks of the menstrual cycle, which was significant. (orig.)

  2. Relaxation time of normal breast tissues. Changes with age and variations during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, K.I. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Majurin, M.L. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Komu, M. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1994-05-01

    The influence of age on the relaxation times of normal breast parenchyma and its surrounding fatty tissue were evaluated, and the variations during a normal menstrual cycle were analyzed using an ultra low field 0.02 T imager. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers aged 21 to 59 years were examined to determine T1 and T2 relaxation times, and 8 of these volunteers were studied once weekly during one menstrual cycle. The only significant trend was an increase in the T2 of breast parenchyma with increasing age. During the menstrual cycle there was a slight but insignificant (p=0.10) increase in T1 of the breast parenchyma values during the latter half of the menstrual cycle, and a corresponding increase in T2 values between the 2nd and 3rd weeks of the menstrual cycle, which was significant. (orig.).

  3. [Impact on the gait time cycle of ischemic stroke in the treatment with yin-yang respiratory reinforcing and reducing needling technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tian, Fu-Ling; Liu, Guo-Rong; Zheng, De-Song; Chen, Jin-Ming; Ma, Shu-Riang; Cui, Jian-Mei; Wang, Hong-Bin; Li, Xue-Qing

    2014-03-01

    To compare the difference in the efficacy on gait time cycle of ischemic stroke between yin-yang respiratory reinforcing and reducing needling technique (yin-yang needling) and the conventional acupuncture. Sixty cases of ischemic stroke were randomized into a conventional acupuncture group and a yin-yang needling group, 30 cases in each one. The basic treatment (the control of blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid, the intravenous drops of ginkgo leaf extract and dipyridamole injection and vinpocetine injection) were applied in the two groups. Additionally, in the conventional acupuncture group, the acupoints of the Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming [Biguan (ST 31), Liangqiu (ST 34), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37), Xiajuxu (ST 39), etc.] were selected and stimulated with the even needling technique. In the yin-yang needling group, the acupoints of yin meridians such as Zuwuli (LR 10), Xuehai (SP 10), Yinlingquan (SP 9) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6), etc. and the acupoints of yang meridians such as Biguan (ST 31), Liangqiu (ST 34) and Yanglingquan (GB 34), etc. were selected. The reducing manipulation of respiratory reinforcing and reducing technique was applied to the acupoints of yin meridians and the reinforcing manipulation was applied to the acupoints of yang meridians. The kinematics time parameters were determined and compared before and 4 weeks after treatment. After treatment, the differences in the gait cycle, the phase time of standing (%), the phase time of single support (%), the phase time of unilateral sway (%) on the affected (healthy) foot and phase time of double support (%) were significant as compared with those before treatment in the patients of the two groups (all P yin-yang needling group were improved much obviously after treatment as compared with those in the conventional acupuncture group. The differences in support phase time (%), single support phase time (%) and sway phase time (%) were significant between the affected limb and

  4. Caffeine as a repair inhibitor and its action on the normal cell cycle in protozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eades, M.; Calkins, J.; Wheeler, J.

    1987-01-01

    Caffeine has been demonstrated to inhibit repair of ionizing radiation damage, UV, and chemical DNA damage. The mechanism of caffeine action is not completely established at the present time but it has been clearly demonstrated that excision repair is inhibited in prokaryotes. The levels of caffeine which inhibit DNA repair are well tolerated by unirradiated organisms but radiation might impose an extra stress which would cause the irradiated organism to die from the normal caffeine sensitive function. The authors have tested synchronized protozoans at various times in the growth cycle for caffeine sensitivity. They infer sensitivity by the measured disruption of the normal growth cycle induced by a pulse treatment with lethal levels of caffeine. Some parts (G1) of the cell cycle show little sensitivity while late cycle (late S) may be quite sensitive. The relationship of cyclic caffeine sensitivity to repair inhibition is not obvious

  5. A Comparative Evaluation of Gait between Children with Autism and Typically Developing Matched Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet S. Dufek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports suggest children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD ambulate differently than peers with typical development (TD. Little empirical evidence supports these reports. Children with ASD exhibit delayed motor skills, and it is important to determine whether or not motor movement deficits exist during walking. The purpose of the study was to perform a comprehensive lower-extremity gait analysis between children (aged 5–12 years with ASD and age- and gender-matched-samples with TD. Gait parameters were normalized to 101 data points and the gait cycle was divided into seven sub-phases. The Model Statistic procedure was used to test for statistical significance between matched-pairs throughout the entire gait cycle for each parameter. When collapsed across all participants, children with ASD exhibited large numbers of significant differences (p < 0.05 throughout the gait cycle in hip, knee, and ankle joint positions as well as vertical and anterior/posterior ground reaction forces. Children with ASD exhibited unique differences throughout the gait cycle, which supports current literature on the heterogeneity of the disorder. The present work supports recent findings that motor movement differences may be a core symptom of ASD. Thus, individuals may benefit from therapeutic movement interventions that follow precision medicine guidelines by accounting for individual characteristics, given the unique movement differences observed.

  6. Effects of walking speed on asymmetry and bilateral coordination of gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnik, Meir; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Zeev, Aviva; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffery M.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating the bilateral coordination of gait in humans are largely unknown. Our objective was to study how bilateral coordination changes as a result of gait speed modifications during over ground walking. 15 young adults wore force sensitive insoles that measured vertical forces used to determine the timing of the gait cycle events under three walking conditions (i.e., usual-walking, fast and slow). Ground reaction force impact (GRFI) associated with heel-strikes was also quantified, representing the potential contribution of sensory feedback to the regulation of gait. Gait asymmetry (GA) was quantified based on the differences between right and left swing times and the bilateral coordination of gait was assessed using the phase coordination index (PCI), a metric that quantifies the consistency and accuracy of the anti-phase stepping pattern. GA was preserved in the three different gait speeds. PCI was higher (reduced coordination) in the slow gait condition, compared to usual-walking (3.51% vs. 2.47%, respectively, p=0.002), but was not significantly affected in the fast condition. GRFI values were lower in the slow walking as compared to usual-walking and higher in the fast walking condition (pgait related changes in PCI were not associated with the slowed gait related changes in GRFI. The present findings suggest that left-right anti-phase stepping is similar in normal and fast walking, but altered during slowed walking. This behavior might reflect a relative increase in attention resources required to regulate a slow gait speed, consistent with the possibility that cortical function and supraspinal input influences the bilateral coordination of gait. PMID:23680424

  7. Respiratory functions in asthmatic and normal women during different phases of menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, D.B.; Sandhu, P.K.; Dhillon, S.; Arora, A.

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cycle is an integral part of life of women. There is widespread agreement that changes in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone associated with menstrual cycle also affect different systems of the body besides reproductive system. Levels of oestrogen and progesterone are maximum in the secretory phase and minimum just before the menstruation .Bronchial asthma is one of the commonest chronic respiratory diseases. Premenstrual worsening of asthma symptoms has been reported to affect 33-40% of asthmatic women. This exacerbation of asthma symptoms has been correlated with the oestrogen and progesterone levels. The association between menstrual cycle and lung functions in normal females has also been recognised. The pathophysiology of this process is still not proved. The purpose of our study was to confirm the probable effects of the female hormones on lung functions in normal and asthmatic women in different phases of menstrual cycle and to compare them. Methods: The study was done on 40 normal and 40 asthmatic females in the age group of 15-45 years. Pulmonary function tests were done in three phases of menstrual cycle i.e. follicular, secretory and menstrual in all the subjects. Results: The mean value of lung functions, i.e., FVC, FEV, PEFR, FEF25-75%, FEF 200-1200 were significantly lower in asthmatic females than normal ones (p<0.01) in all three phases. The lung functions of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic females in secretory phase were significantly higher than in menstrual phase (p<0.005). The PFTs in menstrual phase were even lower than the follicular phase (p<0.04). Conclusion: Respiratory parameters of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic women in reproductive age group show significant variation in different phases of menstrual cycle. The smooth muscle relaxant effect of progesterone and probably oestrogen might have contributed to it. The lung function parameters in asthmatics were of lower value compared to normal women. (author)

  8. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  9. Relationships of Stroke Patients’ Gait Parameters with Fear of Falling

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jin; Yoo, Ingyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of gait parameters with fear of falling in stroke survivors. [Subjects] In total, 12 patients with stroke participated. [Methods] The subjects performed on a Biodex Gait Trainer 2 for 5 min to evaluate characteristic gait parameters. The kinematic gait parameters measured were gait speed, step cycle, step length, and time on each foot (step symmetry). All the subjects also completed a fall anxiety survey. [Results] Correlations...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHOD AND U.S. NORMALIZATION DATABASE FOR LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY METRICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normalization is an optional step within Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) that may be used to assist in the interpretation of life cycle inventory data as well as, life cycle impact assessment results. Normalization transforms the magnitude of LCI and LCIA results into relati...

  11. Apparent diffusion coefficient values of the normal uterus: Interindividual variations during menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsili, A.C.; Argyropoulou, M.I.; Tzarouchi, L.; Dalkalitsis, N.; Koliopoulos, G.; Paraskevaidis, E.; Tsampoulas, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes of the normal uterine zones among reproductive women during the menstrual cycle. Methods: The study included 101 women of reproductive age, each with regular cycle and normal endometrium/myometrium, as proved on histopathology or MR imaging examination. Diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging was performed along the axial plane, using a single shot, multi-slice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 800 s/mm 2 . The mean and standard deviation of the ADC values of normal endometrium/myometrium were calculated for menstrual, proliferative and secretory phase. Analysis of variance followed by the least significant difference test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The ADC values of the endometrium were different in the three phases of the menstrual cycle (menstrual phase: 1.25 ± 0.27; proliferative phase: 1.39 ± 0.20; secretory phase: 1.50 ± 0.18) (F: 9.64, p: 0.00). Statistical significant difference was observed among all groups (p 0.05). Conclusions: A wide variation of ADC values of normal endometrium and myometrium is observed during different phases of the menstrual cycle.

  12. Energy Expenditure of Trotting Gait Under Different Gait Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-Bao; Gao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Robots driven by batteries are clean, quiet, and can work indoors or in space. However, the battery endurance is a great problem. A new gait parameter design energy saving strategy to extend the working hours of the quadruped robot is proposed. A dynamic model of the robot is established to estimate and analyze the energy expenditures during trotting. Given a trotting speed, optimal stride frequency and stride length can minimize the energy expenditure. However, the relationship between the speed and the optimal gait parameters is nonlinear, which is difficult for practical application. Therefore, a simplified gait parameter design method for energy saving is proposed. A critical trotting speed of the quadruped robot is found and can be used to decide the gait parameters. When the robot is travelling lower than this speed, it is better to keep a constant stride length and change the cycle period. When the robot is travelling higher than this speed, it is better to keep a constant cycle period and change the stride length. Simulations and experiments on the quadruped robot show that by using the proposed gait parameter design approach, the energy expenditure can be reduced by about 54% compared with the 100 mm stride length under 500 mm/s speed. In general, an energy expenditure model based on the gait parameter of the quadruped robot is built and the trotting gait parameters design approach for energy saving is proposed.

  13. Apparent diffusion coefficient values of the normal uterus: Interindividual variations during menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsili, A.C., E-mail: a_tsili@yahoo.gr [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, M.I., E-mail: margyrop@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece); Tzarouchi, L., E-mail: ltzar@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece); Dalkalitsis, N., E-mail: ndalkal@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece); Koliopoulos, G., E-mail: georgekoliopoulos@yahoo.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece); Paraskevaidis, E., E-mail: eparaske@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece); Tsampoulas, K., E-mail: ctsampou@uoi.gr [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital of Ioannina (Greece)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: To assess the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes of the normal uterine zones among reproductive women during the menstrual cycle. Methods: The study included 101 women of reproductive age, each with regular cycle and normal endometrium/myometrium, as proved on histopathology or MR imaging examination. Diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging was performed along the axial plane, using a single shot, multi-slice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}. The mean and standard deviation of the ADC values of normal endometrium/myometrium were calculated for menstrual, proliferative and secretory phase. Analysis of variance followed by the least significant difference test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The ADC values of the endometrium were different in the three phases of the menstrual cycle (menstrual phase: 1.25 {+-} 0.27; proliferative phase: 1.39 {+-} 0.20; secretory phase: 1.50 {+-} 0.18) (F: 9.64, p: 0.00). Statistical significant difference was observed among all groups (p < 0.05). The ADC values of the normal myometrium were different in the three phases of the menstrual cycle (menstrual phase: 1.91 {+-} 0.35; proliferative phase: 1.72 {+-} 0.27; secretory phase: 1.87 {+-} 0.28) (F: 3.60, p: 0.03). Statistical significant difference was observed between menstrual and proliferative phase and between proliferative and secretory phase (p < 0.05). No significant difference was noted between menstrual and secretory phase (p > 0.05). Conclusions: A wide variation of ADC values of normal endometrium and myometrium is observed during different phases of the menstrual cycle.

  14. Chewing cycles in 4- and 5-year-old normal children: an index of eating efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J L; Niman, C W; Gisel, E G

    1984-03-01

    Eating movements in the preschool child undergo change between the ages of 2 and 5 years. There is a lack of objective clinical data from normal children against which eating movements of feeding-impaired children can be compared. In this study, chewing movements were measured to complement tongue movements described in an earlier study. The movements were monitored in 40 children: 20 were four years old and 20 were five years old. Each group had ten boys and ten girls. Chewing movements were measured by time (sec), number of cycles, and a time/cycle ratio. A chewing cycle was defined as an upward and downward movement of the chin. Total time from the moment food was placed in the mouth until the final swallow occurred was divided by the number of cycles counted for the same period. Age and sex did not affect time, cycles, or the time/cycle ratio. However, the measures were strongly affected by the type of food eaten. These findings suggest that the texture of food strongly influences both the number of chewing cycles performed and the time used for chewing. The occupational therapist administering eating evaluations to children should carefully choose the foods offered for initial evaluations and use the same food consistently during re-evaluations.

  15. Characterizing cycle-to-cycle variations of the shedding cycle in the turbulent wake of a normal flat plate using generalized phase averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzi, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Quasi-periodic vortex shedding in the turbulent wake of a thin-flat plate placed normal to a uniform stream at Reynolds number of 6700 is investigated based on Particle Image Velocimetry experiments. The wake structure and vortex formation are characterized using a generalized phase average (GPA), a refinement of the triple decomposition of Reynolds and Hussain (1970) incorporating elements of mean-field theory (Stuart, 1958). The resulting analysis highlights the importance of cycle-to-cycle variations in characterizing vortex formation, wake topology and the residual turbulent Reynolds Stresses. For example, it is shown that during high-amplitude cycles vorticity is strongly concentrated within the well-organized shed vortices, whereas during low-amplitude cycles the shed vortices are highly distorted resulting in significant modulation of the shedding frequency. It is found that high-amplitude cycles contribute more to the coherent Reynolds stress field while the low-amplitude cycles contribute to the residual stress field. It is further shown that traditional phase-averaging techniques lead to an over-estimation of the residual stress field. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  16. Changes in glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans of normal breast and fibroadenoma during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Cilene Rebouças; de Arimatéa dos Santos Junior, José; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto; Michelacci, Yara M

    2012-07-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumor in young women, and its growth and metabolism may be under hormonal control. In the present paper we described the proteoglycan (PG) composition and synthesis rate of normal breast and fibroadenoma during the menstrual cycle. Samples of fibroadenoma and adjacent normal breast tissue were obtained at surgery. PGs were characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis and enzymatic degradation with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) lyases, and immunolocalized by confocal microscopy. To assess the synthesis rate, PGs were metabolic labeled by 35S-sulfate. The concentration of PGs in normal breast was higher during the secretory phase. Fibroadenoma contained and synthesized more PGs than their paired controls, but the PG concentrations varied less with the menstrual cycle and, in contrast to normal tissue, peaked in the proliferative phase. The main mammary GAGs are heparan sulfate (HS, 71%-74%) and dermatan sulfate (DS, 26%-29%). The concentrations of both increased in fibroadenoma, but DS increased more, becoming 35%-37% of total. The DS chains contained more β-d-glucuronic acid (IdoUA/GlcUA ratios were >10 in normal breast and 2-7 in fibroadenoma). The 35S-sulfate incorporation rate revealed that the in vitro synthesis rate of DS was higher than HS. Decorin was present in both tissues, while versican was found only in fibroadenoma. In normal breast, the PG concentration varied with the menstrual cycle. It was increased in fibroadenoma, especially DS. PGs are increased in fibroadenoma, but their concentrations may be less sensitive to hormonal control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Muscle Activation during Gait in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Juliette; Lempereur, Mathieu; Vuillerot, Carole; Tiffreau, Vincent; Peudenier, Sylviane; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Pereon, Yann; Leboeuf, Fabien; Delporte, Ludovic; Delpierre, Yannick; Gross, Raphaël; Brochard, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in muscle activity during gait in children with Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Dynamic surface electromyography recordings (EMGs) of 16 children with DMD and pathological gait were compared with those of 15 control children. The activity of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), medial hamstrings (HS), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius soleus (GAS) muscles was recorded and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The overall muscle activity in the children with DMD was significantly different from that of the control group. Percentage activation amplitudes of RF, HS and TA were greater throughout the gait cycle in the children with DMD and the timing of GAS activity differed from the control children. Significantly greater muscle coactivation was found in the children with DMD. There were no significant differences between sides. Since the motor command is normal in DMD, the hyper-activity and co-contractions likely compensate for gait instability and muscle weakness, however may have negative consequences on the muscles and may increase the energy cost of gait. Simple rehabilitative strategies such as targeted physical therapies may improve stability and thus the pattern of muscle activity.

  18. Muscle Activation during Gait in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Ropars

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in muscle activity during gait in children with Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD. Dynamic surface electromyography recordings (EMGs of 16 children with DMD and pathological gait were compared with those of 15 control children. The activity of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus lateralis (VL, medial hamstrings (HS, tibialis anterior (TA and gastrocnemius soleus (GAS muscles was recorded and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The overall muscle activity in the children with DMD was significantly different from that of the control group. Percentage activation amplitudes of RF, HS and TA were greater throughout the gait cycle in the children with DMD and the timing of GAS activity differed from the control children. Significantly greater muscle coactivation was found in the children with DMD. There were no significant differences between sides. Since the motor command is normal in DMD, the hyper-activity and co-contractions likely compensate for gait instability and muscle weakness, however may have negative consequences on the muscles and may increase the energy cost of gait. Simple rehabilitative strategies such as targeted physical therapies may improve stability and thus the pattern of muscle activity.

  19. Assessment of serum HE4 levels throughout the normal menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard G; Plante, Beth; Hartnett, Erin; Mitchel, Jessica; Raker, Christine A; Vitek, Wendy; Eklund, Elizabeth; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn

    2017-07-01

    Human epididymis protein 4 is a serum biomarker to aid in differentiating benign and malignant disease in women with a pelvic mass. Interpretation of human epididymis protein 4 results relies on robust normative data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether human epididymis protein 4 levels are variable in women during the normal menstrual cycle. Healthy women, 18-45 years old, with regular menstrual cycles were recruited from community gynecologic practices in Rhode Island. Women consented to enroll and to participate by the donation of blood and urine samples at 5 specific times over the course of each cycle. Levels of reproductive hormones and human epididymis protein 4 were determined. Data were analyzed with the use of linear regression after log transformation. Among 74 enrolled cycles, 53 women had confirmed ovulation during the menstrual cycle and completed all 5 sample collections. Levels of estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone displayed the expected menstrual cycle patterns. Levels of human epididymis protein 4 in serum were relatively stable across the menstrual cycle, except for a small ovulatory (median, 37.0 pM) increase. Levels of human epididymis protein 4 in urine, after correction for creatinine, displayed the same pattern of secretion observed in serum. Serum human epididymis protein 4 levels are relatively stable across the menstrual cycle of reproductive-aged women and can be determined on any day to evaluate risk of ovarian malignancy. A slight increase is expected at ovulation; but even with this higher human epididymis protein 4 level, results are well within the healthy reference range for women (<120 pM). Levels of human epididymis protein 4 in urine warrant further investigation for use in clinical practice as a simple and convenient sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationships of stroke patients' gait parameters with fear of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin; Yoo, Ingyu

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of gait parameters with fear of falling in stroke survivors. [Subjects] In total, 12 patients with stroke participated. [Methods] The subjects performed on a Biodex Gait Trainer 2 for 5 min to evaluate characteristic gait parameters. The kinematic gait parameters measured were gait speed, step cycle, step length, and time on each foot (step symmetry). All the subjects also completed a fall anxiety survey. [Results] Correlations between gait parameters and fear of falling scores were calculated. There was a moderate degree of correlation between fear of falling scores and the step cycle item of gait parameters. [Conclusions] According to our results, the step cycle gait parameter may be related to increased fall anxiety.

  1. The influence of the Re-Link Trainer on gait symmetry in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sarah; Wiedemann, Lukas; Stinear, Cathy; Stinear, James; McDaid, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Walking function post-stroke is characterized by asymmetries in gait cycle parameters and joint kinematics. The Re-Link Trainer is designed to provide kinematic constraint to the paretic lower limb, to guide a physiologically normal and symmetrical gait pattern. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the immediate influence of the Re-Link Trainer on measures of gait symmetry in healthy adults. Participants demonstrated a significantly lower cadence and a 62% reduction in walking speed in the Re-Link Trainer compared to normal walking. The step length ratio had a significant increase from 1.0 during normal walking to 2.5 when walking in the Re-Link Trainer. The results from this pilot study suggest in its current iteration the Re-Link Trainer imposes an asymmetrical constraint on lower limb kinematics.

  2. MMSET is dynamically regulated during cell-cycle progression and promotes normal DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Debra L; Zhang, Haoxing; Ham, Hyoungjun; Pei, Huadong; Lee, SeungBaek; Kim, JungJin; Billadeau, Daniel D; Lou, Zhenkun

    2016-01-01

    The timely and precise duplication of cellular DNA is essential for maintaining genome integrity and is thus tightly-regulated. During mitosis and G1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) binds to future replication origins, coordinating with multiple factors to load the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex onto future replication origins as part of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC). The pre-RC machinery, in turn, remains inactive until the subsequent S phase when it is required for replication fork formation, thereby initiating DNA replication. Multiple myeloma SET domain-containing protein (MMSET, a.k.a. WHSC1, NSD2) is a histone methyltransferase that is frequently overexpressed in aggressive cancers and is essential for normal human development. Several studies have suggested a role for MMSET in cell-cycle regulation; however, whether MMSET is itself regulated during cell-cycle progression has not been examined. In this study, we report that MMSET is degraded during S phase in a cullin-ring ligase 4-Cdt2 (CRL4(Cdt2)) and proteasome-dependent manner. Notably, we also report defects in DNA replication and a decreased association of pre-RC factors with chromatin in MMSET-depleted cells. Taken together, our results suggest a dynamic regulation of MMSET levels throughout the cell cycle, and further characterize the role of MMSET in DNA replication and cell-cycle progression.

  3. Assessment of changes in gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal objectives of arthroplasty are relief of pain and enhancement of range of motion. Currently, postoperative pain and functional capacity are assessed largely on the basis of subjective evaluation scores. Because of the lack of control inherent in this method it is often difficult to interpret data presented by different observers in the critical evaluation of surgical method, new components and modes of rehabilitation. Gait analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method to assess functional outcome. This study was undertaken in an effort to evaluate the gait characteristics of patients who underwent arthroplasty, using an Ultraflex gait analyzer. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the assessment of gait and weight-bearing pattern of both hips in patients who underwent total hip replacement and its comparison with an age and sex-matched control group. Twenty subjects of total arthroplasty group having unilateral involvement, operated by posterior approach at our institution with a minimum six-month postoperative period were selected. Control group was age and sex-matched, randomly selected from the general population. Gait analysis was done using Ultraflex gait analyzer. Gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces assessment was done by measuring the gait cycle properties, step time parameters and VGRF variables. Data of affected limb was compared with unaffected limb as well as control group to assess the weight-bearing pattern. Statistical analysis was done by′t′ test. Results: Frequency is reduced and gait cycle duration increased in total arthroplasty group as compared with control. Step time parameters including Step time, Stance time and Single support time are significantly reduced ( P value < .05 while Double support time and Single swing time are significantly increased ( P value < .05 in the THR group. Forces over each sensor are increased more on the unaffected limb of the THR group as compared to

  4. Genetic Dissociation of Glycolysis and the TCA Cycle Affects Neither Normal nor Neoplastic Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Laura E; Kulkarni, Sucheta; Wang, Huabo; Lu, Jie; Dolezal, James M; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Patel, Mulchand S; Deshpande, Rahul; Alencastro, Frances; Wendell, Stacy G; Goetzman, Eric S; Duncan, Andrew W; Prochownik, Edward V

    2017-11-01

    Rapidly proliferating cells increase glycolysis at the expense of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) to generate sufficient levels of glycolytic intermediates for use as anabolic substrates. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a critical mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes pyruvate's conversion to acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), thereby connecting these two pathways in response to complex energetic, enzymatic, and metabolic cues. Here we utilized a mouse model of hepatocyte-specific PDC inactivation to determine the need for this metabolic link during normal hepatocyte regeneration and malignant transformation. In PDC "knockout" (KO) animals, the long-term regenerative potential of hepatocytes was unimpaired, and growth of aggressive experimental hepatoblastomas was only modestly slowed in the face of 80%-90% reductions in AcCoA and significant alterations in the levels of key tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and amino acids. Overall, oxphos activity in KO livers and hepatoblastoma was comparable with that of control counterparts, with evidence that metabolic substrate abnormalities were compensated for by increased mitochondrial mass. These findings demonstrate that the biochemical link between glycolysis and the TCA cycle can be completely severed without affecting normal or neoplastic proliferation, even under the most demanding circumstances. Cancer Res; 77(21); 5795-807. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Interrater reliability of videotaped observational gait-analysis assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastlack, M E; Arvidson, J; Snyder-Mackler, L; Danoff, J V; McGarvey, C L

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of videotaped observational gait-analysis (VOGA) assessments. Fifty-four licensed physical therapists with varying amounts of clinical experience served as raters. Three patients with rheumatoid arthritis who demonstrated an abnormal gait pattern served as subjects for the videotape. The raters analyzed each patient's most severely involved knee during the four subphases of stance for the kinematic variables of knee flexion and genu valgum. Raters were asked to determine whether these variables were inadequate, normal, or excessive. The temporospatial variables analyzed throughout the entire gait cycle were cadence, step length, stride length, stance time, and step width. Generalized kappa coefficients ranged from .11 to .52. Intraclass correlation coefficients (2,1) and (3,1) were slightly higher. Our results indicate that physical therapists' VOGA assessments are only slightly to moderately reliable and that improved interrater reliability of the assessments of physical therapists utilizing this technique is needed. Our data suggest that there is a need for greater standardization of gait-analysis training.

  6. Analysis of gait in rats with olivocerebellar lesions and ability of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist varenicline to attenuate impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C S; Philpot, R M; Engberg, M E; Johns, B E; Wecker, L

    2015-09-15

    Studies have demonstrated that administration of the neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist varenicline to rats with olivocerebellar lesions attenuates balance deficits on a rotorod and balance beam, but the effects of this drug on gait deficits have not been investigated. To accomplish this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to walk on a motorized treadmill at 25 and 35 cm/s and baseline performance determined; both temporal and spatial gait parameters were analyzed. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the key components of gait, and the cumulative gait index (CGI) was calculated, representing deviations from prototypical gait patterns. Subsequently, animals either remained as non-lesioned controls or received injections of 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP)/nicotinamide to destroy the climbing fibers innervating Purkinje cells. The gait of the non-lesioned group was assessed weekly to monitor changes in the normal population, while the gait of the lesioned group was assessed 1 week following 3-AP administration, and weekly following the daily administration of saline or varenicline (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0mg free base/kg) for 2 weeks. Non-lesioned animals exhibited a 60-70% increased CGI over time due to increases in temporal gait measures, whereas lesioned animals exhibited a nearly 3-fold increased CGI as a consequence of increases in spatial measures. Following 2 weeks of treatment with the highest dose of varenicline (3.0mg free base/kg), the swing duration of lesioned animals normalized, and stride duration, stride length and step angle in this population did not differ from the non-lesioned population. Thus, varenicline enabled animals to compensate for their impairments and rectify the timing of the gait cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunocontraception in wild horses (Equus caballus extends reproductive cycling beyond the normal breeding season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M V Nuñez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the physiological effects of immunocontraceptive treatment with porcine zona pellucida (PZP have been well studied, little is known about PZP's effects on the scheduling of reproductive cycling. Recent behavioral research has suggested that recipients of PZP extend the receptive breeding period into what is normally the non-breeding season. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine if this is the case, we compiled foaling data from wild horses (Equus caballus living on Shackleford Banks, North Carolina for 4 years pre- and 8 years post-contraception management with PZP (pre-contraception, n = 65 births from 45 mares; post-contraception, n = 97 births from 46 mares. Gestation lasts approximately 11-12 months in wild horses, placing conception at approximately 11.5 months prior to birth. Since the contraception program began in January 2000, foaling has occurred over a significantly broader range than it had before the contraception program. Foaling in PZP recipients (n = 45 births from 27 mares has consistently occurred over a broader range than has foaling in non-recipients (n = 52 births from 19 mares. In addition, current recipients of PZP foaled later in the year than did prior recipient and non-recipient mares. Females receiving more consecutive PZP applications gave birth later in the season than did females receiving fewer applications. Finally, the efficacy of PZP declined with increasing consecutive applications before reaching 100% after five consecutive applications. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For a gregarious species such as the horse, the extension of reproductive cycling into the fall months has important social consequences, including decreased group stability and the extension of male reproductive behavior. In addition, reproductive cycling into the fall months could have long-term effects on foal survivorship. Managers should consider these factors before enacting immunocontraceptive programs in new

  8. Effect of anaerobic bout using wingate cycle ergometer on pressure pain threshold in normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Dabholkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Published studies reveal that incremental graded and short term anaerobic exercise lead to an increase in beta-endorphin levels, the extent correlating with the lactate concentration. Beta- endorphin can be released into the circulation from the pituitary gland or can project into areas of the brain through nerve fibers. Exercise of sufficient intensity and duration has been demonstrated to increase circulating Beta-endorphin levels. Thus, our study investigates the effect of anaerobic activity on pressure pain threshold (PPT in normal individuals. Materials and Methods: Normal individuals (N = 30 between the age group of 20-30 years were recruited for this study. The subjects performed an anaerobic bout on Monark Wingate cycle egometer. A pre and post assessment of PPT was evaluated. Data Analysis: Graphpad Instat 3 software program was used for statistical analysis. A paired't' test was done to analyse the level of statistical significance between the pre and post PPT. Results: Study revealed that post anaerobic bout there was statistical significant difference between pre and post PPT in quadriceps, Mean 14.41,95% CI[12.95,15.87], Mean 16.73,95% CI[15.06,18.40] & (P value 0.0411 and gastrocnemius,Mean 13.56, 95% CI[12.18,14.93], Mean 15.55,95% CI[13.94,17.16] & (P value <0.0001. Conclusion: The study emphasizes the influence of pain modulation after an anaerobic bout.

  9. Early presentation of gait impairment in Wolfram Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickett Kristen A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classically characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities, Wolfram syndrome (WFS is also associated with atypical brainstem and cerebellar findings in the first decade of life. As such, we hypothesized that gait differences between individuals with WFS and typically developing (TD individuals may be detectable across the course of the disease. Methods Gait was assessed for 13 individuals with WFS (min 6.4 yrs, max 25.8 yrs and 29 age-matched, typically developing individuals (min 5.6 yrs, max 28.5 yrs using a GAITRite ® walkway system. Velocity, cadence, step length, base of support and double support time were compared between groups. Results Across all tasks, individuals with WFS walked slower (p = 0.03, took shorter (p ≤ 0.001 and wider (p ≤ 0.001 steps and spent a greater proportion of the gait cycle in double support (p = 0.03 compared to TD individuals. Cadence did not differ between groups (p = 0.62. Across all tasks, age was significantly correlated with cadence and double support time in the TD group but only double support time was correlated with age in the WFS group and only during preferred pace forward (rs= 0.564, p = 0.045 and dual task forward walking (rs= 0.720, p = 0.006 tasks. Individuals with WFS also had a greater number of missteps during tandem walking (p ≤ 0.001. Within the WFS group, spatiotemporal measures of gait did not correlate with measures of visual acuity. Balance measures negatively correlated with normalized gait velocity during fast forward walking (rs = −0.59, p = 0.03 and percent of gait cycle in double support during backward walking (rs = −0.64, p = 0.03. Conclusions Quantifiable gait impairments can be detected in individuals with WFS earlier than previous clinical observations suggested. These impairments are not fully accounted for by the visual or balance deficits

  10. Early presentation of gait impairment in Wolfram Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Kristen A; Duncan, Ryan P; Hoekel, James; Marshall, Bess; Hershey, Tamara; Earhart, Gammon M

    2012-12-08

    Classically characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities, Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is also associated with atypical brainstem and cerebellar findings in the first decade of life. As such, we hypothesized that gait differences between individuals with WFS and typically developing (TD) individuals may be detectable across the course of the disease. Gait was assessed for 13 individuals with WFS (min 6.4 yrs, max 25.8 yrs) and 29 age-matched, typically developing individuals (min 5.6 yrs, max 28.5 yrs) using a GAITRite ® walkway system. Velocity, cadence, step length, base of support and double support time were compared between groups. Across all tasks, individuals with WFS walked slower (p = 0.03), took shorter (p ≤ 0.001) and wider (p ≤ 0.001) steps and spent a greater proportion of the gait cycle in double support (p = 0.03) compared to TD individuals. Cadence did not differ between groups (p = 0.62). Across all tasks, age was significantly correlated with cadence and double support time in the TD group but only double support time was correlated with age in the WFS group and only during preferred pace forward (rs = 0.564, p = 0.045) and dual task forward walking (rs = 0.720, p = 0.006) tasks. Individuals with WFS also had a greater number of missteps during tandem walking (p ≤ 0.001). Within the WFS group, spatiotemporal measures of gait did not correlate with measures of visual acuity. Balance measures negatively correlated with normalized gait velocity during fast forward walking (rs = -0.59, p = 0.03) and percent of gait cycle in double support during backward walking (rs = -0.64, p = 0.03). Quantifiable gait impairments can be detected in individuals with WFS earlier than previous clinical observations suggested. These impairments are not fully accounted for by the visual or balance deficits associated with WFS, and may be a reflection of early cerebellar and

  11. Flexible Piezoelectric Sensor-Based Gait Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most motion recognition research has required tight-fitting suits for precise sensing. However, tight-suit systems have difficulty adapting to real applications, because people normally wear loose clothes. In this paper, we propose a gait recognition system with flexible piezoelectric sensors in loose clothing. The gait recognition system does not directly sense lower-body angles. It does, however, detect the transition between standing and walking. Specifically, we use the signals from the flexible sensors attached to the knee and hip parts on loose pants. We detect the periodic motion component using the discrete time Fourier series from the signal during walking. We adapt the gait detection method to a real-time patient motion and posture monitoring system. In the monitoring system, the gait recognition operates well. Finally, we test the gait recognition system with 10 subjects, for which the proposed system successfully detects walking with a success rate over 93 %.

  12. Gait and Function in Class III Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking, more specifically gait, is an essential component of daily living. Walking is a very different activity for individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI of 40 or more (Class III obesity compared with those who are overweight or obese with a BMI between 26–35. Yet all obesity weight classes receive the same physical activity guidelines and recommendations. This observational study examined the components of function and disability in a group with Class III obesity and a group that is overweight or has Class I obesity. Significant differences were found between the groups in the areas of gait, body size, health condition, and activity capacity and participation. The Timed Up and Go test, gait velocity, hip circumference, and stance width appear to be most predictive of activity capacity as observed during gait assessment. The findings indicate that Class III-related gait is pathologic and not a normal adaptation.

  13. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait

    OpenAIRE

    Cimolin, Veronica; Vismara, Luca; Galli, Manuela; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP). Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA), in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP ...

  14. An analysis of trunk kinematics and gait parameters in people with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnil W. Titus

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: This pilot study found significant asymmetry in trunk motion between the affected and unaffected sides that varied across the gait cycle. This suggests the trunk may need to be targeted in clinical gait retraining post-stroke.

  15. Transfer of nuclides from the water phase to the sediments during normal and extraordinary hydrological cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Atucha I and Atucha II nuclear power plants are located on the right margin of the Parana de las Palmas river. This river belongs to the Cuenca del Plata, whose 1982-1983 hydrologic cycle registered the greatest freshets of the century. Works and studies previously fixed had to be altered and investigations were adapted to the possibilities and the particular hydric conditions verified. Considerations on the transfer of nuclides between water and sediments are presented. The floods reduce the water-sediments contact time on the bed of the river. In outer areas, the waters labelled by the nuclear power plant effluent discharge favor the infiltration in alluvial soils, as well as the exchange with the sediments. The investigations carried out for the phase near to the discharge of liquid effluents (related to the critical group) made possible to prove the characteristics of the path of the liquid wastes released, the distribution coefficient and the fixation or penetrability of some nuclides in soils of the floody valley. In this manner, a balance of radioactive nuclides incorporated to soils and sediments from the neighbourhood of Atucha and the water-course of Parana de las Palmas river is obtained. The presence of 60 Co and 137 Cs in the floody soils on the right margin of this river was detected and measured during the greatest flood of the century. On the other hand, 144 Ce, 51 Cr, 106 Ru and 90 Sr have not been detected. The detection of artificial radioisotopes turns out to be impossible in normal hydrological years, even in the sorroundings of the nuclear power plant or the critical group (from the point of view of the surface waters, The Fishing Club, 3 km down stream). (M.E.L.) [es

  16. The differential radiological impact of plutonium recycle in the light-water reactor fuel cycle: effluent discharges during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Guetat, P.; Jones, J.A.; Kelly, G.N.; Legrand, J.; White, I.F.

    1980-01-01

    The radiological impact of a light-water reactor fuel cycle utilizing enriched uranium fuel may be altered by the recycle of plutonium. Differences in impact may arise during various operations in the fuel cycle: those which arise from effluents discharged during normal operation of the various installations comprising the fuel cycle are evaluated in this study. The differential radiological impact on the population of the European Communities (EC) of effluents discharged during the recycling of 10 tonnes of fissile plutonium metal is evaluated. The contributions from each stage of the fuel cycle, i.e. fuel fabrication, reactor operation and fuel reprocessing and conversion, are identified. Separate consideration is given to airborne and liquid effluents and account is taken of a wide range of environmental conditions, representative of the EC, in estimating the radiological impact. The recycle of plutonium is estimated to result in a reduction in the radiological impact from effluents of about 30% of that when using enriched uranium fuel

  17. A comparison of cytokine responses during prolonged cycling in normal and hot environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila M Cosio-Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ludmila M Cosio-Lima, Bhargav V Desai, Petra B Schuler, Lesley Keck, Logan ScheelerDepartment of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, USAPurpose: Components of immune function are affected by physical activity in an adverse environment. The purpose of this study was to compare plasma differences in inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6, in addition to the stress hormone cortisol, during prolonged cycling under normal and hot environmental conditions in elite cyclists.Methods and design: Six trained elite male cyclists (27 ± 8 years; 75.5 ± 4 kg; maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 66 ± 6 mL/kg/min, mean ± SD. The cyclists biked for 2.5 h at their prescribed 60% maximum exercise workload (Wmax or 75% VO2max either in an environmental chamber set at 15°C and 40% relative humidity (NEUTRAL or at 35°C and 40% relative humidity (HOT. The cyclists were given 4 mL of water/kg body weight every 15 min under both conditions.Results: Total cortisol concentrations were elevated (P < 0.05 immediately postexercise and 12 h postexercise in both the NEUTRAL and HOT conditions. TNF-α concentrations were only significantly (P = 0.045 elevated postexercise in HOT conditions. During the HOT conditions, a significant (P = 0.006 and 0.007, respectively difference in IL-6 was seen immediately after and 12 h postexercise. During the NEUTRAL condition, IL-6 was only significantly elevated postexercise (P < 0.05.Conclusions: Heat exposure during a long bout of exercise is sufficient to elicit stress response in elite cyclists. However, the degree of release of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines might be related to several factors that include the athlete’s fitness level, hydration status, exercise intensity, and length of exposure to hot environments.Keywords: cytokines, inflammation, heat, exercise, performance 

  18. A method to simulate motor control strategies to recover from perturbations: application to a stumble recovery during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner-Cordero, Arturo; Ackermann, Marko; de Lima Freitas, Mateus

    2011-01-01

    Perturbations during human gait such as a trip or a slip can result in a fall, especially among frail populations such as the elderly. In order to recover from a trip or a stumble during gait, humans perform different types of recovery strategies. It is very useful to uncover the mechanisms of the recovery to improve training methods for populations at risk of falling. Moreover, human recovery strategies could be applied to implement controllers for bipedal robot walker, as an application of biomimetic design. A biomechanical model of the response to a trip during gait might uncover the control mechanisms underlying the different recovery strategies and the adaptation of the responses found during the execution of successive perturbation trials. This paper introduces a model of stumble in the multibody system framework. This model is used to assess different feedforward strategies to recover from a trip. First of all, normal gait patterns for the musculoskeletal system model are obtained by solving an optimal control problem. Secondly, the reference gait is perturbed by the application of forces on the swinging foot in different ways: as an instantaneous inelastic collision of the foot with an obstacle, as an impulsive horizontal force or using a force curve measured experimentally during gait perturbation experiments. The influence of the type of perturbation, the timing of the collision with respect to the gait cycle, as well as of the coefficient of restitution was investigated previously. Finally, in order to test the effects of different muscle excitation levels on the initial phases of the recovery response, several muscle excitations were added to selected muscles of the legs, thus providing a simulation of the recovery reactions. These results pave the way for future analysis and modeling of the control mechanisms of gait.

  19. Neuromuscular adjustments of gait associated with unstable conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; d'Avella, A.; Serrao, M.; Ranavolo, A.; Draicchio, F.; Cappellini, G.; Casali, C.; Lacquaniti, F.

    2015-01-01

    A compact description of coordinated muscle activity is provided by the factorization of electromyographic (EMG) signals. With the use of this approach, it has consistently been shown that multimuscle activity during human locomotion can be accounted for by four to five modules, each one comprised of a basic pattern timed at a different phase of gait cycle and the weighting coefficients of synergistic muscle activations. These modules are flexible, in so far as the timing of patterns and the amplitude of weightings can change as a function of gait speed and mode. Here we consider the adjustments of the locomotor modules related to unstable walking conditions. We compared three different conditions, i.e., locomotion of healthy subjects on slippery ground (SL) and on narrow beam (NB) and of cerebellar ataxic (CA) patients on normal ground. Motor modules were computed from the EMG signals of 12 muscles of the right lower limb using non-negative matrix factorization. The unstable gait of SL, NB, and CA showed significant changes compared with controls in the stride length, stride width, range of angular motion, and trunk oscillations. In most subjects of all three unstable conditions, >70% of the overall variation of EMG waveforms was accounted for by four modules that were characterized by a widening of muscle activity patterns. This suggests that the nervous system adopts the strategy of prolonging the duration of basic muscle activity patterns to cope with unstable conditions resulting from either slippery ground, reduced support surface, or pathology. PMID:26378199

  20. Feature selection gait-based gender classification under different circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Azhin; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a gender classification based on human gait features and investigates the problem of two variations: clothing (wearing coats) and carrying bag condition as addition to the normal gait sequence. The feature vectors in the proposed system are constructed after applying wavelet transform. Three different sets of feature are proposed in this method. First, Spatio-temporal distance that is dealing with the distance of different parts of the human body (like feet, knees, hand, Human Height and shoulder) during one gait cycle. The second and third feature sets are constructed from approximation and non-approximation coefficient of human body respectively. To extract these two sets of feature we divided the human body into two parts, upper and lower body part, based on the golden ratio proportion. In this paper, we have adopted a statistical method for constructing the feature vector from the above sets. The dimension of the constructed feature vector is reduced based on the Fisher score as a feature selection method to optimize their discriminating significance. Finally k-Nearest Neighbor is applied as a classification method. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is providing more realistic scenario and relatively better performance compared with the existing approaches.

  1. Changes in ultrasound shear wave elastography properties of normal breast during menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, P; Skórzewska, A; Opala, T

    2011-01-01

    Elastography is a novel technique capable of noninvasively assessing the elastic properties of breast tissue. Because the risk factors for breast cancer include hormonal status and proliferation, the aim of our study was to estimate the intensity of sonoelastographic changes during the menstrual cycle. Eight women aged 20-23 years with regular menstrual cycles underwent B-mode sonography and sonoelastography (ShearWave on Aixplorer, France) on days 3, 10, 17 and 24. Mean values of glandular and fat tissue elasticity did not change statistically significantly during the menstrual cycle as well as glandular to fat tissue ratio. During almost the whole cycle differences between outer and inner quadrants in glandular and fat tissue were statistically significant. The lowest values of elasticity occurred on the 10th day and the highest on the 24th of the menstrual cycle. There were statistically significant differences in elasticity between inner and outer quadrants of both breasts close to day 3 and 17 of the menstrual cycle.

  2. The Required Coefficient of Friction for evaluating gait alterations in people with Multiple Sclerosis during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Ilaria; Galli, Manuela; Kleiner, Ana Francisca Rozin; Corona, Federica; Coghe, Giancarlo; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Loi, Andrea; Crisafulli, Antonio; Cocco, Eleonora; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Pau, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Required Coefficient of Friction (RCOF) is one of the most critical gait parameters associated to the occurrence of slipping in individuals affected by neurological disorders characterized by balance impairments. This study aims to calculate RCOF in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) on the basis of three-dimensional Gait Analysis (GA) data. This study enrolls 22 people with MS (pwMS) who were characterized by an Expanded Disability Status Score in the range 1.5-6 and 10 healthy controls (HC). All participants underwent to three-dimensional GA from which we extracted kinematic and kinetic data (i.e. the Ground Reaction Forces, GRF, and joint moments and powers in the sagittal plane). RCOF was calculated as the ratio of the shear to normal GRF components during the stance phase of gait cycle, and normalized by the walking velocity. Thus, the following variables were extracted: first peak (named P1COF), valley (named V1COF), and second peak (named P2COF) in RCOF curve; also computating the maximum ankle dorsi-plantarflexion moment (MOMmax) and the maximum ankle joint power (PWRmax). Our data revealed that P2COF results are significantly lower in pwMS when compared to HC (p=0.043; Z=-2.025). In pwMS, the study found a moderate, positive correlation between V1COF and MOMmax (r=0.558; pFriction during mid stance and push off phases is critically important to determine whether the frictional capabilities of foot/floor interface are sufficient to prevent slips in pwMS. The impaired ankle moment in MS group causes increased P2COF in comparison to HC, increasing the risk of slipping in the critical phase of transmission of the developed forces to kinematic chain. Also, the correlation analysis among RCOF values and kinetic variables describe the interplay between V1COF and MOMmax: the higher V1COF is, the higher is MOMmax; and the different correlation the study found between COF and kinetic parameters in MS and HC group highlightes the different gait patterns of the two

  3. Senescence-associated microRNAs target cell cycle regulatory genes in normal human lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markopoulos, Georgios S; Roupakia, Eugenia; Tokamani, Maria; Vartholomatos, George; Tzavaras, Theodore; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Fackelmayer, Frank O; Sandaltzopoulos, Raphael; Polytarchou, Christos; Kolettas, Evangelos

    2017-10-01

    Senescence recapitulates the ageing process at the cell level. A senescent cell stops dividing and exits the cell cycle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) acting as master regulators of transcription, have been implicated in senescence. In the current study we investigated and compared the expression of miRNAs in young versus senescent human fibroblasts (HDFs), and analysed the role of mRNAs expressed in replicative senescent HFL-1 HDFs. Cell cycle analysis confirmed that HDFs accumulated in G 1 /S cell cycle phase. Nanostring analysis of isolated miRNAs from young and senescent HFL-1 showed that a distinct set of 15 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in senescent cells including hsa-let-7d-5p, hsa-let-7e-5p, hsa-miR-23a-3p, hsa-miR-34a-5p, hsa-miR-122-5p, hsa-miR-125a-3p, hsa-miR-125a-5p, hsa-miR-125b-5p, hsa-miR-181a-5p, hsa-miR-221-3p, hsa-miR-222-3p, hsa-miR-503-5p, hsa-miR-574-3p, hsa-miR-574-5p and hsa-miR-4454. Importantly, pathway analysis of miRNA target genes down-regulated during replicative senescence in a public RNA-seq data set revealed a significant high number of genes regulating cell cycle progression, both G 1 /S and G 2 /M cell cycle phase transitions and telomere maintenance. The reduced expression of selected miRNA targets, upon replicative and oxidative-stress induced senescence, such as the cell cycle effectors E2F1, CcnE, Cdc6, CcnB1 and Cdc25C was verified at the protein and/or RNA levels. Induction of G1/S cell cycle phase arrest and down-regulation of cell cycle effectors correlated with the up-regulation of miR-221 upon both replicative and oxidative stress-induced senescence. Transient expression of miR-221/222 in HDFs promoted the accumulation of HDFs in G1/S cell cycle phase. We propose that miRNAs up-regulated during replicative senescence may act in concert to induce cell cycle phase arrest and telomere erosion, establishing a senescent phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Real-time feedback of dynamic foot pressure index for gait training of toe-walking children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fang; Ren, Weiyan; Fan, Xiaoya; Chen, Wei; Li, Shuyu; Li, Deyu; Wang, Yu; Fan, Yubo

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether and how real-time feedback of dynamic foot pressure index (DFPI) could be used to correct toe-walking gait in spastic diplegic children with dynamic equinus. Thirteen spastic diplegic children with dynamic equinus were asked to wear a monitoring device to record their ambulation during daily gait, conventional training gait, and feedback training gait. Parameters based on their DFPI and stride duration were compared among the three test conditions. The results with feedback training were significantly better for all DFPI parameters in comparison to patients' daily gait and showed significant improvements in DFPI for toe-walking gait and percentage of normal gait in comparison to conventional training methods. Moreover, stride duration under two training gaits was longer than patient's daily gait, but there was no significant difference between the two training gaits. Although the stride duration for the two training gaits was similar, gait training with real-time feedback of DFPI did produce noticeably superior results by increasing heel-loading impulse of toe-walking gait and percentage of normal gait in comparison to convention training methods. However, its effectiveness was still impacted by the motion limitations of diplegic children. Implications for Rehabilitation The DFPI-based gait training feedback system introduced in this study was shown to be more effective at toe-walking gait rehabilitation training over conventional training methods. The feedback system accomplished superior improvement in correcting toe-walking gait, but its effectiveness in an increasing heel-loading impulse in normal gait was still limited by the motion limitations of diplegic children. Stride duration of normal gait and toe-walking gait was similar under conventional and feedback gait training.

  5. Influence of Velocity on Variability in Gait Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    the concurrence of joint angles throughout a gait cycle at three different velocities (3.0, 4.5, 6.0 km/h). Six datasets at each velocity were collected from 16 men. A variability range VR throughout the gait cycle at each velocity for each joint angle for each person was calculated. The joint angles at each...... velocity were compared pairwise, and whenever this showed values within the VR of this velocity, the case was positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, phases with high and low concurrences were located; peak concurrence was observed at mid-stance phase. Striving for the same velocity...

  6. Variability and Similarity of Gait as Evaluated by Joint Angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    . Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within...... this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can...

  7. The changes of 18F-FDG uptake and ADC value of the normal endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seko, Ayumi; Kanasaki, Shuzou; Kitahara, Sawako; Murata, Kiyoshi; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Hayashida, Kohei; Sakashita, Yoko; Hamanaka, Yasuyo

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the normal endometrium of reproductive age using positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and Diffusion-weighted MR imaging. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value were classified according to the menstrual cycle. On PET/CT, FDG uptake was significant high at the menstrual and ovulatory phase. On diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), ADC value was significant low at the menstrual phase. (author)

  8. Vision-based gait impairment analysis for aided diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortells, Javier; Herrero-Ezquerro, María Trinidad; Mollineda, Ramón A

    2018-02-12

    Gait is a firsthand reflection of health condition. This belief has inspired recent research efforts to automate the analysis of pathological gait, in order to assist physicians in decision-making. However, most of these efforts rely on gait descriptions which are difficult to understand by humans, or on sensing technologies hardly available in ambulatory services. This paper proposes a number of semantic and normalized gait features computed from a single video acquired by a low-cost sensor. Far from being conventional spatio-temporal descriptors, features are aimed at quantifying gait impairment, such as gait asymmetry from several perspectives or falling risk. They were designed to be invariant to frame rate and image size, allowing cross-platform comparisons. Experiments were formulated in terms of two databases. A well-known general-purpose gait dataset is used to establish normal references for features, while a new database, introduced in this work, provides samples under eight different walking styles: one normal and seven impaired patterns. A number of statistical studies were carried out to prove the sensitivity of features at measuring the expected pathologies, providing enough evidence about their accuracy. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract reflecting main contributions of the manuscript: at the top, a robust, semantic and easy-to-interpret feature set to describe impaired gait patterns; at the bottom, a new dataset consisting of video-recordings of a number of volunteers simulating different patterns of pathological gait, where features were statistically assessed.

  9. Analysis of gait using a treadmill and a Time-of-flight camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    We present a system that analyzes human gait using a treadmill and a Time-of-flight camera. The camera provides spatial data with local intensity measures of the scene, and data are collected over several gait cycles. These data are then used to model and analyze the gait. For each frame...

  10. Endometrial blood flow measured by xenon 133 clearance in women with normal menstrual cycles and dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, I.S.; McCarron, G.; Hutton, B.; Macey, D.

    1987-01-01

    Endometrial blood flow was measured through the menstrual cycle in nonpregnant women (28 studies of 17 women with normal menstrual cycles and 32 studies of 20 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding) with use of a clearance technique in which 100 to 400 microCi of the gamma-emitting isotope, xenon 133 in saline solution was instilled into the uterine cavity. The mean (+/- SEM) endometrial blood flow in normal cycles was 27.7 +/- 2.6 ml/100 gm/min, with a significant elevation in the middle to late follicular phase, followed by a substantial fall and a secondary slow luteal phase rise that was maintained until the onset of menstruation. There was a significant correlation between plasma estradiol levels and endometrial blood flow in the follicular but not the luteal phase. Blood flow patterns in women with ovulatory dysfunctional bleeding were similar to normal, except for a significantly lower middle follicular rate. Women with anovulatory dysfunctional bleeding exhibited exceedingly variable flow rates

  11. Endometrial blood flow measured by xenon 133 clearance in women with normal menstrual cycles and dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, I.S.; McCarron, G.; Hutton, B.; Macey, D.

    1987-01-01

    Endometrial blood flow was measured through the menstrual cycle in nonpregnant women (28 studies of 17 women with normal menstrual cycles and 32 studies of 20 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding) with use of a clearance technique in which 100 to 400 microCi of the gamma-emitting isotope, xenon 133 in saline solution was instilled into the uterine cavity. The mean (+/- SEM) endometrial blood flow in normal cycles was 27.7 +/- 2.6 ml/100 gm/min, with a significant elevation in the middle to late follicular phase, followed by a substantial fall and a secondary slow luteal phase rise that was maintained until the onset of menstruation. There was a significant correlation between plasma estradiol levels and endometrial blood flow in the follicular but not the luteal phase. Blood flow patterns in women with ovulatory dysfunctional bleeding were similar to normal, except for a significantly lower middle follicular rate. Women with anovulatory dysfunctional bleeding exhibited exceedingly variable flow rates.

  12. Normal levels of plasma FSH and LH in the menstrual cycle as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemgruber, I.; Pinto, J.C.M.; Linhares, E.; Granafer, A.

    1981-01-01

    The biological methods were not able to establish adequately the separate determination of FSH and LH. The introduction of radioimmunoassay had allowed the identification of plasma FSH and LH for the purpose of routine clinical use. The utilization of commercial kits, however, obliges each laboratory to have normal levels of his own. Such is the finality of this work, studying samples from 200 normal women, hospitalized for surgical reasons and having not any endocrinological problem. (author) [pt

  13. N-acetylcysteine normalizes the urea cycle and DNA repair in cells from patients with Batten disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June-Bum; Lim, Nary; Kim, Sung-Jo; Heo, Tae-Hwe

    2012-12-01

    Batten disease is an inherited disorder characterized by early onset neurodegeneration due to the mutation of the CLN3 gene. The function of the CLN3 protein is not clear, but an association with oxidative stress has been proposed. Oxidative stress and DNA damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidants are of interest because of their therapeutic potential for treating neurodegenerative diseases. We tested whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known antioxidant, improves the pathology of cells from patients with Batten disease. At first, the expression levels of urea cycle components and DNA repair enzymes were compared between Batten disease cells and normal cells. We used both mRNA expression levels and Western blot analysis. We found that carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1, an enzyme involved in the urea cycle, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 and DNA polymerase beta, enzymes involved in DNA repair, were expressed at higher levels in Batten disease cells than in normal cells. The treatment of Batten disease cells with NAC for 48 h attenuated activities of the urea cycle and of DNA repair, as indicated by the substantially decreased expression levels of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 and DNA polymerase beta proteins compared with untreated Batten cells. NAC may serve in alleviating the burden of urea cycle and DNA repair processes in Batten disease cells. We propose that NAC may have beneficial effects in patients with Batten disease. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Estrogens regulate the expression of NHERF1 in normal colon during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Troncoso, Mariana; Guiñazu, Elina; Valdez, Susana R; Fanelli, Mariel A; Ciocca, Daniel R; Kreimann, Erica L

    2010-12-01

    In breast cancer cell lines, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulator factor 1 (NHERF1) gene is regulated at the transcriptional level by estrogens, the protein expression levels correlate with the presence of estrogen receptors and the effect is blocked by anti-estrogens. However, there is limited information regarding the regulation of NHERF1 by estrogens in normal colon tissue. The NHERF1 protein has an important role in the maintenance of the intestine ultrastructure. NHERF1-deficient mice showed defects in the intestinal microvilli as well as molecular alterations in brush border membrane proteins. Here, we have studied the expression of NHERF1 in normal rat colon and uterus during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats. We found that NHERF1 expression in rat colon during the estral cycle is modified by estrogen levels: higher expression of NHERF1 was observed during the proestrous and estrous stages and lower expression in diestrous 1 when estrogen levels decreased. In uterus, NHERF1 was expressed in the apical region of the luminal epithelium and glands in all stages of the estral cycle, and in both colon and uterus, the expression was independent of the proliferation status. Our results show that NHERF1 expression is regulated by estrogens in colon during the rat estral cycle.

  15. Cell cycle perturbations induced by Cisplatin in normal and tumor transformed cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Vladislav; Mazzini, G.; Lisá, Věra; Ferrari, C.; Malík, Radek; Šedo, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2001), s. 23-29 ISSN 1212-3137 Grant - others:GA UK(XC) 58/1999/C; LF UK(XC) 206019-2-"Oncology" Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cell cycle * cisplatin * DNA content Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology

  16. Asymmetry in gait pattern following tibial shaft fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Læssøe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the high number of studies evaluating the outcomes following tibial shaft fractures, the literature lacks studies including objective assessment of patients' recovery regarding gait pattern. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether gait patterns at 6 and 12...... months post-operatively following intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture are different compared with a healthy reference population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study design was a prospective cohort study. The primary outcome measurement was the gait patterns at 6 and 12 months post......-operatively measured with a 6-metre-long pressure-sensitive mat. The mat registers footprints and present gait speed, cadence as well as temporal and spatial parameters of the gait cycle. Gait patterns were compared to a healthy reference population. RESULTS: 49 patients were included with a mean age of 43.1 years (18...

  17. Gait performance of children and adolescents with sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Renato de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) may exhibit balance disorders, which can compromise the gait performance of this population. Compare the gait performance of normal hearing (NH) children and those with SNHL, considering the sex and age range of the sample, and analyze gait performance according to degrees of hearing loss and etiological factors in the latter group. This is a cross-sectional study that assessed 96 students, 48 NH and 48 with SNHL, aged between 7 and 18 years. The Brazilian version of the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) was used to analyze gait and the Mann-Whitney test for statistical analysis. The group with SNHL obtained lower average gait performance compared to NH subjects (p=0.000). This was also observed when the children were grouped by sex female and male (p=0.000). The same difference occurred when the children were stratified by age group: 7-18 years (p=0.000). The group with severe and profound hearing loss exhibited worse gait performance than those with mild and moderate loss (p=0.048) and children with prematurity as an etiological factor demonstrated the worst gait performance. The children with SNHL showed worse gait performance compared to NH of the same sex and age group. Those with severe and profound hearing loss and prematurity as an etiological factor demonstrated the worst gait performances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Summary of Off-Normal Events in US Fuel Cycle Facilities for AFCI Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. J. Piet; S. O. Sheetz; D. H. McGuire; W. B. Boore

    2005-09-01

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for facilities comprising the fission reactor fuel cycle, with the exception of reactor operations. This report includes mines, mills, conversion plants, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication plants, transportation of fuel materials between these centers, and waste storage facilities. Some of the facilities discussed are no longer operating; others continue to produce fuel for the commercial fission power plant industry. Some of the facilities discussed have been part of the military’s nuclear effort; these are included when the processes used are similar to those used for commercial nuclear power. When reading compilations of incidents and accidents, after repeated entries it is natural to form an opinion that there exists nothing but accidents. For this reason, production or throughput values are described when available. These adverse operating experiences are compiled to support the design and decisions needed for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The AFCI is to weigh options for a new fission reactor fuel cycle that is efficient, safe, and productive for US energy security.

  19. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davrondzhon Gafurov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  20. Effect of normal and tumor factors on different phases of cell populations cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, A M; García, A L; Errecalde, A L; Badrán, A F

    1999-12-01

    In the present experiments we studied the effect of extracts from intact liver (LE), ES2 tumor extract (TE), plasmas from intact mice (PI), and from tumor bearing animals (PT) on different phases of hepatocytes and renocytes cell cycles. C3HS 28-day-old male mice, standardized for periodicity analysis, were injected at 16:00 hours and killed every 4 hours during a circadian cycle at 20:00/04; 00:00/08; 04:00/12; 08:00/16; 12:00/20 and 16:00/24 (time of day/hours post treatment). Colchicine (2 microg/g) was injected 4 hours before killing them. Samples of livers and kidneys were processed for histology and mitotic index determinations. The results were expressed as colchicine arrested metaphases per 1000 nuclei. The TE, LE and PI had a promoting effect on the mitotic activity of hepatocytes during the first 12 hours post treatment. During the subsequent 12 hours, not only these treatments but also the PI had an inhibiting effect on the mitotic activity of the same cell population. Also the TE and the PT had a promoting effect on the mitotic activity of the renocytes during the first 12 hours while the effect of all treatments showed a clear inhibition of the mitotic activity studied during the last 12 hours. Taking into account the time elapsed between the injections and the measurements made in these light-dark synchronized animals, we conclude that the increase in mitotic index observed in those tissues stemmed from a reinitiation of cell-cycle traverse in a subpopulation of G2-arrested, noncycling cells.

  1. Altered vision destabilizes gait in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Hesseberg, Karin; Sletvold, Olav

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of dim light and four experimentally induced changes in vision on gait speed and footfall and trunk parameters in older persons walking on level ground. Using a quasi-experimental design, gait characteristics were assessed in full light, dim light, and in dim light combined with manipulations resulting in reduced depth vision, double vision, blurred vision, and tunnel vision, respectively. A convenience sample of 24 home-dwelling older women and men (mean age 78.5 years, SD 3.4) with normal vision for their age and able to walk at least 10 m without assistance participated. Outcome measures were gait speed and spatial and temporal parameters of footfall and trunk acceleration, derived from an electronic gait mat and accelerometers. Dim light alone had no effect. Vision manipulations combined with dim light had effect on most footfall parameters but few trunk parameters. The largest effects were found regarding double and tunnel vision. Men increased and women decreased gait speed following manipulations (p=0.017), with gender differences also in stride velocity variability (p=0.017) and inter-stride medio-lateral trunk acceleration variability (p=0.014). Gender effects were related to differences in body height and physical functioning. Results indicate that visual problems lead to a more cautious and unstable gait pattern even under relatively simple conditions. This points to the importance of assessing vision in older persons and correcting visual impairments where possible.

  2. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase deficiency influences normal cell cycle progression and apoptosis in trabecular meshwork cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Liao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To clarify how the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3 make effect on outflow facility through the trabecular meshwork (TM. METHODS: Inhibition of NOS3 gene expression in human TM cells were conducted by three siRNAs. Then the mRNA and protein levels of NOS3 in siRNA-treated and negative control (NC cells were determined, still were the collagen, type IV, alpha 1 (COL4A1 and fibronectin 1 by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, NOS3 concentrations in culture supernatant fluids of TM cells were measured. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis analysis were performed using flow cytometry. RESULTS: The mRNA level of NOS3 was decreased by three different siRNA interference, similar results were obtained not only of the relative levels of NOS3 protein, but also the expression levels of COL4A1 and fibronectin 1. The number of cells in S phase was decreased, while contrary result was obtained in G2 phase. The number of apoptotic cells in siRNA-treated groups were significant increased compared to the NC samples. CONCLUSION: Abnormal NOS3 expression can make effects on the proteins levels of extracellular matrix component (e.g. fibronectin 1 and COL4A1. Reduced NOS3 restrains the TM cell cycle progression at the G2/M-phase transition and induced cell apoptosis.

  3. Comparison of plantar pressure distribution in subjects with normal and flat feet during gait DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n4p290

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Felipe Nazario

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possible relationship between loss of the normal medial longitudinal arch measured by the height of the navicular bone in a static situation and variables related to plantar pressure distribution measured in a dynamic situation. Eleven men (21 ± 3 years, 74 ± 10 kg and 175 ± 4 cm participated in the study. The Novel Emed-AT System was used for the acquisition of plantar pressure distribution data (peak pressure, mean pressure, contact area, and relative load at a sampling rate of 50 Hz. The navicular drop test proposed by Brody (1982 was used to assess the height of the navicular bone for classification of the subjects. The results were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test, with the level of significance set at p ≤ 0.05. Differences were observed between the two groups in the mid-foot region for all variables studied, with the observation of higher mean values in subjects with flat feet. There were also significant differences in contact area, relative load, peak pressure, and mean pressure between groups. The present study demonstrates the importance of paying attention to subjects with flat feet because changes in plantar pressure distribution are associated with discomfort and injuries.

  4. The levels of adipokines in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, normal-weight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wyskida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: The aim of this study was to assess the plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 levels in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, healthy, normal-weight women. Methods: The study involved 52 young, healthy, normal-weight women. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and levels of plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 in addition to serum FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, androgens, SHBG and insulin concentrations were measured during a morning in fasting state three times: between days 2–4, days 12–14 and days 24–26 of the menstrual cycle. Results: Plasma adiponectin, omentin-1, resistin and visfatin/NAMPT, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 concentrations were stable during the menstrual cycle, while leptin and vaspin levels were significantly higher in both the midcycle and the luteal phases than those in the follicular phase. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that changes in leptin and vaspin levels between the follicular and the luteal phase are strongly related to changes in total testosterone levels. Conclusions: Our results revealed stable levels of adipokines during the phases of the physiological menstrual cycle, except for leptin and vaspin, which showed increased levels in both the midcycle and the luteal phases. This effect was significantly associated with changes in the secretion of testosterone, 17-OH progesterone and insulin in the luteal phase.

  5. The central masturbation fantasy in heterosexual males across the life cycle: masturbation fantasies across the normality-pathology spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2012-10-01

    Moses Laufer described the central masturbation fantasy as an essentially adolescent phenomenon that leads to the final sexual organization. In this paper the central masturbation fantasy, formulated during the preoedipal and oedipal years, consolidated in adolescence, and in a process of continuous evolution across the life cycle, is considered an essential concept for understanding sexuality in heterosexual males. Sex and aggression, as posited in Freud's dual theory of the drives, are core components of all masturbation fantasies, across the diagnostic spectrum, from the most normal/neurotic to the most criminally bizarre. Clinical examples illustrate both points. The tendency among clinicians, particularly clinical associates, to avoid analyzing all aspects of masturbation is discussed.

  6. A robotic exoskeleton to treat crouch gait from cerebral palsy: Initial kinematic and neuromuscular evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Zachary F; Damiano, Diane L; Bulea, Thomas C

    2016-08-01

    A robotic exoskeleton was designed for individuals with crouch gait caused by cerebral palsy with the intent to supplement existing muscle function during walking. The aim of this study was to evaluate how powered knee extension assistance provided during stance and swing phases of the gait cycle affect knee kinematics, and knee flexor and extensor muscle activity. Muscle activity and kinematic data were collected from four individuals with crouch gait from cerebral palsy during their normal walking condition and while walking with the exoskeleton under stance, swing, and stance & swing assistance. The exoskeleton was effective in reducing crouch by an average of 13.8° in three of the four participants when assistance was provided during the stance phase; assistance during the swing phase alone was ineffective. Peak knee extensor activity was maintained for all of the conditions during the stance and swing phases. Integrated (i.e. area under the curve) knee extensor activity decreased in two of the subjects indicating a more well-modulated activation pattern. Modest increases in peak and integrated antagonist knee flexor activity were exhibited in all participants; the subject without kinematic improvement had the greatest increase. While the exoskeleton was well tolerated, additional training with a focus on reducing knee flexor activity may lead to further improvements in crouch gait reduction.

  7. Drosophila Sld5 is essential for normal cell cycle progression and maintenance of genomic integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouge, Catherine A. [Department of Biology, East Carolina University East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Christensen, Tim W., E-mail: christensent@ecu.edu [Department of Biology, East Carolina University East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States)

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Drosophila Sld5 interacts with Psf1, PPsf2, and Mcm10. {yields} Haploinsufficiency of Sld5 leads to M-phase delay and genomic instability. {yields} Sld5 is also required for normal S phase progression. -- Abstract: Essential for the normal functioning of a cell is the maintenance of genomic integrity. Failure in this process is often catastrophic for the organism, leading to cell death or mis-proliferation. Central to genomic integrity is the faithful replication of DNA during S phase. The GINS complex has recently come to light as a critical player in DNA replication through stabilization of MCM2-7 and Cdc45 as a member of the CMG complex which is likely responsible for the processivity of helicase activity during S phase. The GINS complex is made up of 4 members in a 1:1:1:1 ratio: Psf1, Psf2, Psf3, And Sld5. Here we present the first analysis of the function of the Sld5 subunit in a multicellular organism. We show that Drosophila Sld5 interacts with Psf1, Psf2, and Mcm10 and that mutations in Sld5 lead to M and S phase delays with chromosomes exhibiting hallmarks of genomic instability.

  8. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...

  9. Differences in the Tongue Features of Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients and Controls over a Normal Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between tongue features and the existence of menstrual pain and to provide basic information regarding the changes in tongue features during a menstrual cycle. Methods. This study was conducted at the Kyung Hee University Medical Center. Forty-eight eligible participants aged 20 to 29 years were enrolled and assigned to two groups according to their visual analogue scale (VAS scores. Group A included 24 females suffering from primary dysmenorrhea (PD caused by qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome with VAS ≥ 4. In contrast, Group B included 24 females with few premenstrual symptoms and VAS < 4. All participants completed four visits (menses-follicular-luteal-menses phases, and the tongue images were taken by using a computerized tongue image analysis system (CTIS. Results. The results revealed that the tongue coating color value and the tongue coating thickness in the PD group during the menstrual phase were significantly lower than those of the control group (P=0.031 and P=0.029, resp.. Conclusions. These results suggest that the tongue features obtained from the CTIS may serve as a supplementary means for the differentiation of syndromes and the evaluation of therapeutic effect and prognosis in PD. Trial Registration. This trial was registered with Clinical Research Information Service, registration number KCT0001604, registered on 27 August 2015.

  10. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fantozzi

    Full Text Available Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23° and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9° at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13° in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7° and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°. The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered

  11. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Borra, Davide; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk) was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23°) and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9°) at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13°) in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7°) and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°). The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered modifications in the

  12. Quantitative Balance and Gait Measurement in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer Diseases: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Selva Ganapathy; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Bharath, Srikala; Shankar, Ravi Girikamatha

    2017-01-01

    Alzhiemers disease and Frontotemporal dementia are common neurodegenerative dementias with a wide prevalence. Falls are a common cause of morbidity in these patients. Identifying subclinical involvement of these parameters might serve as a tool in differential analysis of these distinct parameters involved in these conditions and also help in planning preventive strategies to prevent falls. Eight patients in age and gender matched patients in each group were compared with normal controls. Standardizes methods of gait and balance aseesment were done in all persons. Results revealed subclinical involvement of gait and balancesin all groups specially during divided attention. The parameters were significantly more affected in patients. Patients with AD and FTD had involement of over all ambulation index balance more affected in AD patients FTD patients showed step cycle, stride length abnormalities. There is balance and gait involvement in normal ageing as well as patients with AD and FTD. The pattern of involvement in AD correlates with WHERE pathway involvement and FTD with frontal subcortical circuits involvement. Identification the differential patterns of involvement in subclinical stage might help to differentiate normal ageing and the different types of cortical dementias. This could serve as an additional biomarker and also assist in initiating appropriate training methods to prevent future falls.

  13. Relationships between the luteinizing hormone surge and other characteristics of the menstrual cycle in normally ovulating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Ana; Bailly, Sébastien; Mariani, Aude; Ecochard, René

    2013-01-01

    To describe the LH surge variants in ovulating women and analyze their relationship with the day of ovulation and other hormone levels. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort observational study. Eight natural family planning clinics. Normally fertile women (n = 107) over 283 cycles. Women collected daily first morning urine, charted basal body temperature and cervical mucus discharge, and underwent serial ovarian ultrasound. Urinary LH, FSH, estrone-3-glucuronide (E3G), pregnanediol-3α-glucuronide (PDG), and day of ovulation by ultrasound (US-DO). Individual LH surges were extremely variable in configuration, amplitude, and duration. The study also showed that LH surges marked by several peaks were associated with statistically significant smaller follicle sizes before rupture and lower LH level on the day of ovulation. LH surges lasting >3 days after ovulation were associated with a lower E3G before ovulation, a smaller corpus luteum 2 days after ovulation, and a lower PDG value during the first 4 days after ovulation. In clinical practice, LH profiles should be compared with the range of profiles observed in normally fertile cycles, not with the mean profile. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gait Phase Recognition for Lower-Limb Exoskeleton with Only Joint Angular Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Du-Xin; Wu, Xinyu; Du, Wenbin; Wang, Can; Xu, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Gait phase is widely used for gait trajectory generation, gait control and gait evaluation on lower-limb exoskeletons. So far, a variety of methods have been developed to identify the gait phase for lower-limb exoskeletons. Angular sensors on lower-limb exoskeletons are essential for joint closed-loop controlling; however, other types of sensors, such as plantar pressure, attitude or inertial measurement unit, are not indispensable.Therefore, to make full use of existing sensors, we propose a novel gait phase recognition method for lower-limb exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors. The method consists of two procedures. Firstly, the gait deviation distances during walking are calculated and classified by Fisher’s linear discriminant method, and one gait cycle is divided into eight gait phases. The validity of the classification results is also verified based on large gait samples. Secondly, we build a gait phase recognition model based on multilayer perceptron and train it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result of cross-validation shows that the model has a 94.45% average correct rate of set (CRS) and an 87.22% average correct rate of phase (CRP) on the testing set, and it can predict the gait phase accurately. The novel method avoids installing additional sensors on the exoskeleton or human body and simplifies the sensory system of the lower-limb exoskeleton. PMID:27690023

  15. Gait Phase Recognition for Lower-Limb Exoskeleton with Only Joint Angular Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du-Xin Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gait phase is widely used for gait trajectory generation, gait control and gait evaluation on lower-limb exoskeletons. So far, a variety of methods have been developed to identify the gait phase for lower-limb exoskeletons. Angular sensors on lower-limb exoskeletons are essential for joint closed-loop controlling; however, other types of sensors, such as plantar pressure, attitude or inertial measurement unit, are not indispensable.Therefore, to make full use of existing sensors, we propose a novel gait phase recognition method for lower-limb exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors. The method consists of two procedures. Firstly, the gait deviation distances during walking are calculated and classified by Fisher’s linear discriminant method, and one gait cycle is divided into eight gait phases. The validity of the classification results is also verified based on large gait samples. Secondly, we build a gait phase recognition model based on multilayer perceptron and train it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result of cross-validation shows that the model has a 94.45% average correct rate of set (CRS and an 87.22% average correct rate of phase (CRP on the testing set, and it can predict the gait phase accurately. The novel method avoids installing additional sensors on the exoskeleton or human body and simplifies the sensory system of the lower-limb exoskeleton.

  16. Office management of gait disorders in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Robert

    2011-07-01

    To provide family physicians with an approach to office management of gait disorders in the elderly. Ovid MEDLINE was searched from 1950 to July 2010 using subject headings for gait or neurologic gait disorders combined with physical examination. Articles specific to family practice or family physicians were selected. Relevant review articles and original research were used when appropriate and applicable to the elderly. Gait and balance disorders in the elderly are difficult to recognize and diagnose in the family practice setting because they initially present with subtle undifferentiated manifestations, and because causes are usually multifactorial, with multiple diseases developing simultaneously. To further complicate the issue, these manifestations can be camouflaged in elderly patients by the physiologic changes associated with normal aging. A classification of gait disorders based on sensorimotor levels can be useful in the approach to management of this problem. Gait disorders in patients presenting to family physicians in the primary care setting are often related to joint and skeletal problems (lowest-level disturbances), as opposed to patients referred to neurology specialty clinics with sensory ataxia, myelopathy, multiple strokes, and parkinsonism (lowest-, middle-, and highest-level disturbances). The difficulty in diagnosing gait disorders stems from the challenge of addressing early undifferentiated disease caused by multiple disease processes involving all sensorimotor levels. Patients might present with a nonspecific "cautious" gait that is simply an adaptation of the body to disease limitations. This cautious gait has a mildly flexed posture with reduced arm swing and a broadening of the base of support. This article reviews the focused history (including medication review), practical physical examination, investigations, and treatments that are key to office management of gait disorders. Family physicians will find it helpful to classify gait

  17. The Effects on Kinematics and Muscle Activity of Walking in a Robotic Gait Trainer During Zero-Force Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; Veneman, Jan F; Ekkelenkamp, Ralf; Buurke, Jaap H; van der Helm, Frans C T; van der Kooij, Herman

    2008-08-01

    "Assist as needed" control algorithms promote activity of patients during robotic gait training. Implementing these requires a free walking mode of a device, as unassisted motions should not be hindered. The goal of this study was to assess the normality of walking in the free walking mode of the LOPES gait trainer, an 8 degrees-of-freedom lightweight impedance controlled exoskeleton. Kinematics, gait parameters and muscle activity of walking in a free walking mode in the device were compared with those of walking freely on a treadmill. Average values and variability of the spatio-temporal gait variables showed no or small (relative to cycle-to-cycle variability) changes and the kinematics showed a significant and relevant decrease in knee angle range only. Muscles involved in push off showed a small decrease, whereas muscles involved in acceleration and deceleration of the swing leg showed an increase of their activity. Timing of the activity was mainly unaffected. Most of the observed differences could be ascribed to the inertia of the exoskeleton. Overall, walking with the LOPES resembled free walking, although this required several adaptations in muscle activity. These adaptations are such that we expect that Assist as Needed training can be implemented in LOPES.

  18. Gait disorder as a predictor of spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether gait dysfunction is a predictor of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice. Methods A total of 100 12-month-old male mice that had no obvious abnormal motor ability and whose Morris water maze performances were not significantly different from those of two-month-old male mice were selected for the study. The selected aged mice were then divided into abnormal or normal gait groups according to the results from the quantitative gait assessment. Gaits of aged mice were defined as abnormal when the values of quantitative gait parameters were two standard deviations (SD lower or higher than those of 2-month-old male mice. Gait parameters included stride length, variability of stride length, base of support, cadence, and average speed. After nine months, mice exhibiting severe spatial learning and memory impairment were separated from mice with mild or no cognitive dysfunction. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in the abnormal and normal gait groups was tested by a chi-square test and the correlation between gait dysfunction and decline in cognitive function was tested using a diagnostic test. Results The 12-month-old aged mice were divided into a normal gait group (n = 75 and an abnormal gait group (n = 25. Nine months later, three mice in the normal gait group and two mice in the abnormal gait group had died. The remaining mice were subjected to the Morris water maze again, and 17 out of 23 mice in the abnormal gait group had developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment, including six with stride length deficits, 15 with coefficient of variation (CV in stride length, two with base of support (BOS deficits, five with cadence dysfunction, and six with average speed deficits. In contrast, only 15 out of 72 mice in the normal gait group developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment was

  19. Tracheal sound parameters of respiratory cycle phases show differences between flow-limited and normal breathing during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkas, A; Huupponen, E; Virkkala, J; Saastamoinen, A; Rauhala, E; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S-L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop new computational parameters to examine the characteristics of respiratory cycle phases from the tracheal breathing sound signal during sleep. Tracheal sound data from 14 patients (10 males and 4 females) were examined. From each patient, a 10 min long section of normal and a 10 min section of flow-limited breathing during sleep were analysed. The computationally determined proportional durations of the respiratory phases were first investigated. Moreover, the phase durations and breathing sound amplitude levels were used to calculate the area under the breathing sound envelope signal during inspiration and expiration phases. An inspiratory sound index was then developed to provide the percentage of this type of area during the inspiratory phase with respect to the combined area of inspiratory and expiratory phases. The proportional duration of the inspiratory phase showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing and inspiratory pause displayed an opposite difference. The inspiratory sound index showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing. The presented novel computational parameters could contribute to the examination of sleep-disordered breathing or as a screening tool

  20. Effect of arm swing strategy on local dynamic stability of human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Wittink, Harriet; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-02-01

    Falling causes long term disability and can even lead to death. Most falls occur during gait. Therefore improving gait stability might be beneficial for people at risk of falling. Recently arm swing has been shown to influence gait stability. However at present it remains unknown which mode of arm swing creates the most stable gait. To examine how different modes of arm swing affect gait stability. Ten healthy young male subjects volunteered for this study. All subjects walked with four different arm swing instructions at seven different gait speeds. The Xsens motion capture suit was used to capture gait kinematics. Basic gait parameters, variability and stability measures were calculated. We found an increased stability in the medio-lateral direction with excessive arm swing in comparison to normal arm swing at all gait speeds. Moreover, excessive arm swing increased stability in the anterior-posterior and vertical direction at low gait speeds. Ipsilateral and inphase arm swing did not differ compared to a normal arm swing. Excessive arm swing is a promising gait manipulation to improve local dynamic stability. For excessive arm swing in the ML direction there appears to be converging evidence. The effect of excessive arm swing on more clinically relevant groups like the more fall prone elderly or stroke survivors is worth further investigating. Excessive arm swing significantly increases local dynamic stability of human gait. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A perceptual map for gait symmetry quantification and pathology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moevus, Antoine; Mignotte, Max; de Guise, Jacques A; Meunier, Jean

    2015-10-29

    The gait movement is an essential process of the human activity and the result of collaborative interactions between the neurological, articular and musculoskeletal systems, working efficiently together. This explains why gait analysis is important and increasingly used nowadays for the diagnosis of many different types (neurological, muscular, orthopedic, etc.) of diseases. This paper introduces a novel method to quickly visualize the different parts of the body related to an asymmetric movement in the human gait of a patient for daily clinical usage. The proposed gait analysis algorithm relies on the fact that the healthy walk has (temporally shift-invariant) symmetry properties in the coronal plane. The goal is to provide an inexpensive and easy-to-use method, exploiting an affordable consumer depth sensor, the Kinect, to measure the gait asymmetry and display results in a perceptual way. We propose a multi-dimensional scaling mapping using a temporally shift invariant distance, allowing us to efficiently visualize (in terms of perceptual color difference) the asymmetric body parts of the gait cycle of a subject. We also propose an index computed from this map and which quantifies locally and globally the degree of asymmetry. The proposed index is proved to be statistically significant and this new, inexpensive, marker-less, non-invasive, easy to set up, gait analysis system offers a readable and flexible tool for clinicians to analyze gait characteristics and to provide a fast diagnostic. This system, which estimates a perceptual color map providing a quick overview of asymmetry existing in the gait cycle of a subject, can be easily exploited for disease progression, recovery cues from post-operative surgery (e.g., to check the healing process or the effect of a treatment or a prosthesis) or might be used for other pathologies where gait asymmetry might be a symptom.

  2. Gait Recognition Based on Outermost Contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Liu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gait recognition aims to identify people by the way they walk. In this paper, a simple but e ective gait recognition method based on Outermost Contour is proposed. For each gait image sequence, an adaptive silhouette extraction algorithm is firstly used to segment the frames of the sequence and a series of postprocessing is applied to obtain the normalized silhouette images with less noise. Then a novel feature extraction method based on Outermost Contour is performed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA is adopted to reduce the dimensionality of the distance signals derived from the Outermost Contours of silhouette images. Then Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA is used to optimize the separability of gait features belonging to di erent classes. Nearest Neighbor (NN classifier and Nearest Neighbor classifier with respect to class Exemplars (ENN are used to classify the final feature vectors produced by MDA. In order to verify the e ectiveness and robustness of our feature extraction algorithm, we also use two other classifiers: Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN and Support Vector Machine (SVM for recognition. Experimental results on a gait database of 100 people show that the accuracy of using MDA, BPNN and SVM can achieve 97.67%, 94.33% and 94.67%, respectively.

  3. Individual levels of plasma alpha 2-antiplasmin and alpha 2-macroglobulin during the normal menstrual cycle and in women on oral contraceptives low in oestrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1983-01-01

    Determinations of alpha 2-antiplasmin and alpha 2-macroglobulin were made in plasma samples collected during one normal or hormone induced cycle in 15 normal women and 11 women using oral contraceptives containing 30 micrograms ethinyl oestradiol and 150 micrograms levo-norgestrel. The immediate ...

  4. Effect of irradiation on cell cycle, cell death and expression of its related proteins in normal human oral keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Mi Ae; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Oh, Sung Ook; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Sul Mi; Jeon, In Seong

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the radiosensitivity of the normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK), and the effect of irradiation on cell cycle and protein expression. To evaluate the radiosensitivity of NHOK, the number of colonies and cells were counted after irradiation and the SF2 (survival fraction as 2 Gy) value, and the cell survival curve fitted on a linear-quadratic model were obtained. LDH analysis was carried out to evaluate the necrosis of NHOK at 1, 2,3, and 4 days after 2, 10, and 20 Gy irradiation. Cell cycle arrest and the induction of apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry at 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after 2, 10, and 20 Gy irradiation. Finally, proteins related cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were analysed by Western blot. The number of survival cell was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The cell survival curve showed SF2, α, and β values to be 0.568, 0.209, and 0.020 respectively. At 20 Gy irradiated cells showed higher optical density than the control group. After irradiation, apoptosis was not observed but G2 arrest was observed in the NHOK cells. 1 day after 10 Gy irradiation, the expression of p53 remained unchanged, the p21 WAF1/Cip1 increased and the mdm2 decreased. The expression of bax, bcl-2, cyclin B1, and cyclin D remained unchanged. These results indicate that NHOK responds to irradiation by G2 arrest, which is possibly mediated by the expression of p21 WAF1/Cip1 , and that cell necrosis occurs by high dose irradiation.

  5. Evaluation of a musculoskeletal model with prosthetic knee through six experimental gait trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Mohammad; Stylianou, Antonis P; Guess, Trent M

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge of the forces acting on musculoskeletal joint tissues during movement benefits tissue engineering, artificial joint replacement, and our understanding of ligament and cartilage injury. Computational models can be used to predict these internal forces, but musculoskeletal models that simultaneously calculate muscle force and the resulting loading on joint structures are rare. This study used publicly available gait, skeletal geometry, and instrumented prosthetic knee loading data [1] to evaluate muscle driven forward dynamics simulations of walking. Inputs to the simulation were measured kinematics and outputs included muscle, ground reaction, ligament, and joint contact forces. A full body musculoskeletal model with subject specific lower extremity geometries was developed in the multibody framework. A compliant contact was defined between the prosthetic femoral component and tibia insert geometries. Ligament structures were modeled with a nonlinear force-strain relationship. The model included 45 muscles on the right lower leg. During forward dynamics simulations a feedback control scheme calculated muscle forces using the error signal between the current muscle lengths and the lengths recorded during inverse kinematics simulations. Predicted tibio-femoral contact force, ground reaction forces, and muscle forces were compared to experimental measurements for six different gait trials using three different gait types (normal, trunk sway, and medial thrust). The mean average deviation (MAD) and root mean square deviation (RMSD) over one gait cycle are reported. The muscle driven forward dynamics simulations were computationally efficient and consistently reproduced the inverse kinematics motion. The forward simulations also predicted total knee contact forces (166Nphysiological motor control patterns during gait. Consequently, the simulations did not accurately predict medial/lateral tibio-femoral force distribution and muscle activation timing. Copyright

  6. INFLUENCE OF MODERATE TRAINING ON GAIT AND WORK CAPACITY OF FIBROMYALGIA PATIENTS: A PRELIMINARY FIELD STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pierrynowski

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This field study examined the influence of moderate intensity training on gait patterns and work capacity of individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS. FS is a chronic condition of unknown etiology, characterized by muscle tenderness, pain and stiffness and often accompanied by depression and fatigue which seems to occur primarily in middle aged females. There is no known cure for FS but treatment often includes a prescription of mild exercise. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of mild exercise on work capacity and gait patterns in FS patients. Participants were 14 females (age 47.0± 7.6 y who participated in a 10 wk community based aerobic, strength and stretching program designed for FS individuals. Subjects were evaluated pre- and post-program and at a 2 month follow up. Work capacity was estimated by a sub-maximal PWC 170 cycle ergometer test and a Borg perceived exertion scale. Gait was assessed using OptoTrack three dimensional kinematics with 16 channel analogue data acquisition system. Trunk flexibility was also assessed. No significant change in estimated work capacity or flexibility was seen between pre- post- and follow up times. Nevertheless, a significant increase in self selected walking speed (p < 0.05 and a trend toward a more normal gait pattern that was sustained in the follow up testing was noted. We had previously also reported a significant improvement in muscle pain and other fibromyalgia symptoms in this population consequent to the training program. It was concluded that mild exercise training that does not influence work capacity or trunk flexibility can nevertheless positively influence gait mechanics and fibromyalgia symptoms in female FS patients

  7. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications. PMID:22438763

  8. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutian Feng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications.

  9. Gait rehabilitation machines based on programmable footplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Henning; Werner, Cordula; Bernhardt, Rolf; Hesse, Stefan; Krüger, Jörg

    2007-02-09

    Gait restoration is an integral part of rehabilitation of brain lesioned patients. Modern concepts favour a task-specific repetitive approach, i.e. who wants to regain walking has to walk, while tone-inhibiting and gait preparatory manoeuvres had dominated therapy before. Following the first mobilization out of the bed, the wheelchair-bound patient should have the possibility to practise complex gait cycles as soon as possible. Steps in this direction were treadmill training with partial body weight support and most recently gait machines enabling the repetitive training of even surface gait and even of stair climbing. With treadmill training harness-secured and partially relieved wheelchair-mobilised patients could practise up to 1000 steps per session for the first time. Controlled trials in stroke and SCI patients, however, failed to show a superior result when compared to walking exercise on the floor. Most likely explanation was the effort for the therapists, e.g. manually setting the paretic limbs during the swing phase resulting in a too little gait intensity. The next steps were gait machines, either consisting of a powered exoskeleton and a treadmill (Lokomat, AutoAmbulator) or an electromechanical solution with the harness secured patient placed on movable foot plates (Gait Trainer GT I). For the latter, a large multi-centre trial with 155 non-ambulatory stroke patients (DEGAS) revealed a superior gait ability and competence in basic activities of living in the experimental group. The HapticWalker continued the end effector concept of movable foot plates, now fully programmable and equipped with 6 DOF force sensors. This device for the first time enables training of arbitrary walking situations, hence not only the simulation of floor walking but also for example of stair climbing and perturbations. Locomotor therapy is a fascinating new tool in rehabilitation, which is in line with modern principles of motor relearning promoting a task-specific repetitive

  10. Gait rehabilitation machines based on programmable footplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhardt Rolf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait restoration is an integral part of rehabilitation of brain lesioned patients. Modern concepts favour a task-specific repetitive approach, i.e. who wants to regain walking has to walk, while tone-inhibiting and gait preparatory manoeuvres had dominated therapy before. Following the first mobilization out of the bed, the wheelchair-bound patient should have the possibility to practise complex gait cycles as soon as possible. Steps in this direction were treadmill training with partial body weight support and most recently gait machines enabling the repetitive training of even surface gait and even of stair climbing. Results With treadmill training harness-secured and partially relieved wheelchair-mobilised patients could practise up to 1000 steps per session for the first time. Controlled trials in stroke and SCI patients, however, failed to show a superior result when compared to walking exercise on the floor. Most likely explanation was the effort for the therapists, e.g. manually setting the paretic limbs during the swing phase resulting in a too little gait intensity. The next steps were gait machines, either consisting of a powered exoskeleton and a treadmill (Lokomat, AutoAmbulator or an electromechanical solution with the harness secured patient placed on movable foot plates (Gait Trainer GT I. For the latter, a large multi-centre trial with 155 non-ambulatory stroke patients (DEGAS revealed a superior gait ability and competence in basic activities of living in the experimental group. The HapticWalker continued the end effector concept of movable foot plates, now fully programmable and equipped with 6 DOF force sensors. This device for the first time enables training of arbitrary walking situations, hence not only the simulation of floor walking but also for example of stair climbing and perturbations. Conclusion Locomotor therapy is a fascinating new tool in rehabilitation, which is in line with modern principles

  11. A human quadrupedal gait following poliomyelitis: From the Dercum-Muybridge collaboration (1885).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-03-01

    Beginning in the late 1870s, before the invention of movie cameras or projectors, pioneering English American photographer Eadweard Muybridge photographed iconic image sequences of people and animals in motion using arrays of sequentially triggered single-image cameras. In 1885, Philadelphia neurologist Francis Dercum initiated a collaborative relationship with Muybridge at the University of Pennsylvania to photograph sequential images of patients with various neurologic disorders of movement, including an acquired pathologic quadrupedal gait in a young boy that developed as a consequence of poliomyelitis. This pathologic human quadrupedal gait was compared with other quadrupedal gaits filmed by Muybridge, including a toddler girl and an adult woman crawling on hands and knees, an adult woman bear crawling on hands and feet, and a baboon walking. All of the human quadrupedal gaits were lateral sequence gaits, whereas the baboon's walking gait was a diagonal sequence gait. Modern studies have confirmed the nonpathologic quadrupedal gait sequences of humans and nonhuman primates. Despite Dercum's assertion to the contrary, the limb placement pattern of the boy with a pathologic quadrupedal gait after poliomyelitis was not the typical gait of a primate quadruped, but rather was the typical gait sequence for normal human developmental and volitional quadrupedal gaits. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Gait and its assessment in psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Richard D.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2010-01-01

    Gait reflects all levels of nervous system function. In psychiatry, gait disturbances reflecting cortical and subcortical dysfunction are often seen. Observing spontaneous gait, sometimes augmented by a few brief tests, can be highly informative. The authors briefly review the neuroanatomy of gait, review gait abnormalities seen in psychiatric and neurologic disorders, and describe the assessment of gait.

  13. Plasma melatonin circadian rhythms during the menstrual cycle and after light therapy in premenstrual dysphoric disorder and normal control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, B L; Berga, S L; Mostofi, N; Klauber, M R; Resnick, A

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this study was to replicate and extend previous work in which the authors observed lower, shorter, and advanced nocturnal melatonin secretion patterns in premenstrually depressed patients compared to those in healthy control women. The authors also sought to test the hypothesis that the therapeutic effect of bright light in patients was associated with corrective effects on the phase, duration, and amplitude of melatonin rhythms. In 21 subjects with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and 11 normal control (NC) subjects, the authors measured the circadian profile of melatonin during follicular and luteal menstrual cycle phases and after 1 week of light therapy administered daily, in a randomized crossover design. During three separate luteal phases, the treatments were either (1) bright (> 2,500 lux) white morning (AM; 06:30 to 08:30 h), (2) bright white evening (PM; 19:00 to 21:00 h), or (3) dim (compressed, and area under the curve, amplitude, and mean levels were decreased. In NC subjects, melatonin rhythms did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. After AM light in PMDD subjects, onset and offset times were advanced and both duration and midpoint concentration were decreased as compared to RED light. After PM light in PMDD subjects, onset and offset times were delayed, midpoint concentration was increased, and duration was decreased as compared to RED light. By contrast, after light therapy in NC subjects, duration did not change; onset, offset, and midpoint concentration changed as they did in PMDD subjects. When the magnitude of advance and delay phase shifts in onset versus offset time with AM, PM, or RED light were compared, the authors found that in PMDD subjects light shifted offset time more than onset time and that AM light had a greater effect on shifting melatonin offset time (measured the following night in RED light), whereas PM light had a greater effect in shifting melatonin onset time. These findings replicate the

  14. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  15. How to measure responses of the knee to lateral perturbations during gait? A proof-of-principle for quantification of knee instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Noort, Josien C; Sloot, Lizeth H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Harlaar, Jaap

    2017-08-16

    Knee instability is a major problem in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury or knee osteoarthritis. A valid and clinically meaningful measure for functional knee instability is lacking. The concept of the gait sensitivity norm, the normalized perturbation response of a walking system to external perturbations, could be a sensible way to quantify knee instability. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of this concept for measurement of knee responses, using controlled external perturbations during walking in healthy subjects. Nine young healthy participants walked on a treadmill, while three dimensional kinematics were measured. Sudden lateral translations of the treadmill were applied at five different intensities during stance. Right knee kinematic responses and spatio-temporal parameters were tracked for the perturbed stride and following four cycles, to calculate perturbation response and gait sensitivity norm values (i.e. response/perturbation) in various ways. The perturbation response values in terms of knee flexion and abduction increased with perturbation intensity and decreased with an increased number of steps after perturbation. For flexion and ab/adduction during midswing, the gait sensitivity norm values were shown to be constant over perturbation intensities, demonstrating the potential of the gait sensitivity norm as a robust measure of knee responses to perturbations. These results show the feasibility of using the gait sensitivity norm concept for certain gait indicators based on kinematics of the knee, as a measure of responses during perturbed gait. The current findings in healthy subjects could serve as reference-data to quantify pathological knee instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinematic analysis quantifies gait abnormalities associated with lameness in broiler chickens and identifies evolutionary gait differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Caplen

    Full Text Available This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10 would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12 and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult. Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated

  17. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with , the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (, , repeated measure analysis of variance or from (, resp., t-tests. The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  18. Preliminary Assessment of a Compliant Gait Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Manuel; Sanz-Merodio, Daniel; Garcia, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Current commercial wearable gait exoskeletons contain joints with stiff actuators that cannot adapt to unpredictable environments. These actuators consume a significant amount of energy, and their stiffness may not be appropriate for safe human-machine interactions. Adjustable compliant actuators are being designed and implemented because of their ability to minimize large forces due to shocks, to safely interact with the user, and to store and release energy in passive elastic elements. Introduction of such compliant actuation in gait exoskeletons, however, has been limited by the larger power-to-weight and volume ratio requirement. This article presents a preliminary assessment of the first compliant exoskeleton for children. Compliant actuation systems developed by our research group were integrated into the ATLAS exoskeleton prototype. The resulting device is a compliant exoskeleton, the ATLAS-C prototype. The exoskeleton is coupled with a special standing frame to provide balance while allowing a semi-natural gait. Experiments show that when comparing the behavior of the joints under different stiffness conditions, the inherent compliance of the implemented actuators showed natural adaptability during the gait cycle and in regions of shock absorption. Torque tracking of the joint is achieved, identifying the areas of loading response. The implementation of a state machine in the control of knee motion allowed reutilization of the stored energy during deflection at the end of the support phase to partially propel the leg and achieve a more natural and free swing.

  19. Gait adjustments in obstacle crossing, gait initiation and gait termination after a recent lower limb amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Aline H.; van Keeken, Helco G.; Schoppen, Tanneke; Hof, At L.; Otten, Bert; Halbertsma, Jan P. K.; Postema, Klaas

    Objective: To describe the adjustments in gait characteristics of obstacle crossing, gait initiation and gait termination that occur in subjects with a recent lower limb amputation during the rehabilitation process. Design: Prospective and descriptive study. Subjects: Fourteen subjects with a recent

  20. The Novel Quantitative Technique for Assessment of Gait Symmetry Using Advanced Statistical Learning Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianning Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate identification of gait asymmetry is very beneficial to the assessment of at-risk gait in the clinical applications. This paper investigated the application of classification method based on statistical learning algorithm to quantify gait symmetry based on the assumption that the degree of intrinsic change in dynamical system of gait is associated with the different statistical distributions between gait variables from left-right side of lower limbs; that is, the discrimination of small difference of similarity between lower limbs is considered the reorganization of their different probability distribution. The kinetic gait data of 60 participants were recorded using a strain gauge force platform during normal walking. The classification method is designed based on advanced statistical learning algorithm such as support vector machine algorithm for binary classification and is adopted to quantitatively evaluate gait symmetry. The experiment results showed that the proposed method could capture more intrinsic dynamic information hidden in gait variables and recognize the right-left gait patterns with superior generalization performance. Moreover, our proposed techniques could identify the small significant difference between lower limbs when compared to the traditional symmetry index method for gait. The proposed algorithm would become an effective tool for early identification of the elderly gait asymmetry in the clinical diagnosis.

  1. The novel quantitative technique for assessment of gait symmetry using advanced statistical learning algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianning; Wu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The accurate identification of gait asymmetry is very beneficial to the assessment of at-risk gait in the clinical applications. This paper investigated the application of classification method based on statistical learning algorithm to quantify gait symmetry based on the assumption that the degree of intrinsic change in dynamical system of gait is associated with the different statistical distributions between gait variables from left-right side of lower limbs; that is, the discrimination of small difference of similarity between lower limbs is considered the reorganization of their different probability distribution. The kinetic gait data of 60 participants were recorded using a strain gauge force platform during normal walking. The classification method is designed based on advanced statistical learning algorithm such as support vector machine algorithm for binary classification and is adopted to quantitatively evaluate gait symmetry. The experiment results showed that the proposed method could capture more intrinsic dynamic information hidden in gait variables and recognize the right-left gait patterns with superior generalization performance. Moreover, our proposed techniques could identify the small significant difference between lower limbs when compared to the traditional symmetry index method for gait. The proposed algorithm would become an effective tool for early identification of the elderly gait asymmetry in the clinical diagnosis.

  2. Adaptive changes in spatiotemporal gait characteristics in women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Janusz W; Opala-Berdzik, Agnieszka; Plewa, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal gait cycle characteristics were assessed at early (P1), and late (P2) pregnancy, as well as at 2 months (PP1) and 6 months (PP2) postpartum. A substantial decrease in walking speed was observed throughout the pregnancy, with the slowest speed (1±0.2m/s) being during the third trimester. Walking at slower velocity resulted in complex adaptive adjustments to their spatiotemporal gait pattern, including a shorter step length and an increased duration of both their stance and double-support phases. Duration of the swing phase remained the least susceptible to changes. Habitual walking velocity (1.13±0.2m/s) and the optimal gait pattern were fully recovered 6 months after childbirth. Documented here adaptive changes in the preferred gait pattern seem to result mainly from the altered body anthropometry leading to temporary balance impairments. All the observed changes within stride cycle aimed to improve gait safety by focusing on its dynamic stability. The pregnant women preferred to walk at a slower velocity which allowed them to spend more time in double-support compared with their habitual pattern. Such changes provided pregnant women with a safer and more tentative ambulation that reduced the single-support period and, hence, the possibility of instability. As pregnancy progressed a significant increase in stance width and a decrease in step length was observed. Both factors allow also for gait stability improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Can biomechanical variables predict improvement in crouch gait?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jennifer L.; Delp, Scott L.; Schwartz, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Many patients respond positively to treatments for crouch gait, yet surgical outcomes are inconsistent and unpredictable. In this study, we developed a multivariable regression model to determine if biomechanical variables and other subject characteristics measured during a physical exam and gait analysis can predict which subjects with crouch gait will demonstrate improved knee kinematics on a follow-up gait analysis. We formulated the model and tested its performance by retrospectively analyzing 353 limbs of subjects who walked with crouch gait. The regression model was able to predict which subjects would demonstrate ‘improved’ and ‘unimproved’ knee kinematics with over 70% accuracy, and was able to explain approximately 49% of the variance in subjects’ change in knee flexion between gait analyses. We found that improvement in stance phase knee flexion was positively associated with three variables that were drawn from knowledge about the biomechanical contributors to crouch gait: i) adequate hamstrings lengths and velocities, possibly achieved via hamstrings lengthening surgery, ii) normal tibial torsion, possibly achieved via tibial derotation osteotomy, and iii) sufficient muscle strength. PMID:21616666

  4. The effect of uphill and downhill walking on gait parameters: A self-paced treadmill study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimel-Naor, Shani; Gottlieb, Amihai; Plotnik, Meir

    2017-07-26

    It has been shown that gait parameters vary systematically with the slope of the surface when walking uphill (UH) or downhill (DH) (Andriacchi et al., 1977; Crowe et al., 1996; Kawamura et al., 1991; Kirtley et al., 1985; McIntosh et al., 2006; Sun et al., 1996). However, gait trials performed on inclined surfaces have been subject to certain technical limitations including using fixed speed treadmills (TMs) or, alternatively, sampling only a few gait cycles on inclined ramps. Further, prior work has not analyzed upper body kinematics. This study aims to investigate effects of slope on gait parameters using a self-paced TM (SPTM) which facilitates more natural walking, including measuring upper body kinematics and gait coordination parameters. Gait of 11 young healthy participants was sampled during walking in steady state speed. Measurements were made at slopes of +10°, 0° and -10°. Force plates and a motion capture system were used to reconstruct twenty spatiotemporal gait parameters. For validation, previously described parameters were compared with the literature, and novel parameters measuring upper body kinematics and bilateral gait coordination were also analyzed. Results showed that most lower and upper body gait parameters were affected by walking slope angle. Specifically, UH walking had a higher impact on gait kinematics than DH walking. However, gait coordination parameters were not affected by walking slope, suggesting that gait asymmetry, left-right coordination and gait variability are robust characteristics of walking. The findings of the study are discussed in reference to a potential combined effect of slope and gait speed. Follow-up studies are needed to explore the relative effects of each of these factors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Modified hMG stimulated: an effective option in endometrial preparation for frozen-thawed embryo transfer in patients with normal menstrual cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pinxiu; Wei, Lihong; Li, Xinlin; Lin, Zhong

    2018-04-20

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of modified human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) stimulated, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), natural cycling and letrozole ovulation induction during endometrial preparation for frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) in patients with normal menstrual cycles. This retrospective analysis included a total of 5070 cycles of patients with normal menstrual patterns who underwent FET between October 2009 and September 2015. The patients were divided into four groups according to the method of endometrial preparation for FET: 1838 cycles were natural, 1666 underwent HRT, 340 underwent letrozole ovulation induction and 1226 underwent modified hMG stimulated. Reproduction-related clinical outcomes in the four groups were compared. The clinical pregnancy rates and live birth rates of patients in the modified hMG stimulated group were significantly higher than that in the other groups p .05). Modified hMG stimulated resulted in a higher pregnancy rate compared to the other treatment groups. Therefore, modified hMG stimulated may be an effective option in endometrial preparation for FET in patients with normal menstrual cycles.

  6. One- and multi-segment foot models lead to opposite results on ankle joint kinematics during gait: Implications for clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothrat, Claude; Authier, Guillaume; Viehweger, Elke; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume

    2015-06-01

    Biomechanical models representing the foot as a single rigid segment are commonly used in clinical or sport evaluations. However, neglecting internal foot movements could lead to significant inaccuracies on ankle joint kinematics. The present study proposed an assessment of 3D ankle kinematic outputs using two distinct biomechanical models and their application in the clinical flat foot case. Results of the Plug in Gait (one segment foot model) and the Oxford Foot Model (multisegment foot model) were compared for normal children (9 participants) and flat feet children (9 participants). Repeated measures of Analysis of Variance have been performed to assess the Foot model and Group effects on ankle joint kinematics. Significant differences were observed between the two models for each group all along the gait cycle. In particular for the flat feet group, opposite results between the Oxford Foot Model and the Plug in Gait were revealed at heelstrike, with the Plug in Gait showing a 4.7° ankle dorsal flexion and 2.7° varus where the Oxford Foot Model showed a 4.8° ankle plantar flexion and 1.6° valgus. Ankle joint kinematics of the flat feet group was more affected by foot modeling than normal group. Foot modeling appeared to have a strong influence on resulting ankle kinematics. Moreover, our findings showed that this influence could vary depending on the population. Studies involving ankle joint kinematic assessment should take foot modeling with caution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-center clinical evaluation of the Access AMH assay to determine AMH levels in reproductive age women during normal menstrual cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Clarisa R; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Prewitt, Maureen; Chamberlin, Janna S; Lofaro, Lori R; Jones, Kristin L; Clendenin, Marta; Manzanera, Katherine E; Broyles, Dennis L

    2018-03-14

    AMH is widely used for assessing ovarian reserve, and it is particularly convenient, because it is thought to have minimal variability throughout the menstrual cycle. However, studies assessing the stability of AMH over the menstrual cycle have been conflicting. The purpose of this study is to determine whether AMH levels vary across the normal menstrual cycle. A multi-center, prospective cohort study conducted at three US centers. Fifty females with regular menstrual cycles aged 18-45 underwent serial venipuncture every 3-5 days starting in the early follicular phase and lasting up to 10 collections. AMH was tested using the Access 2 immunoassay system. Age-adjusted mixed-effect models utilizing data from 384 samples from 50 subjects demonstrated a within subject standard deviation of 0.81 (95% CI 0.75-0.88) with a coefficient of variation of 23.8% across the menstrual cycle and between subject standard deviation of 2.56 (95% CI 2.13-3.21) with a coefficient of variation of 75.1%. Intra-class correlation (ICC) of AMH across the menstrual cycle was 0.91. Overall, AMH levels, using the automated Access AMH assay, appear to be relatively stable across the menstrual cycle. Fluctuations, if any, appear to be small, and therefore, clinicians may advise patients to have AMH levels drawn at any time in the cycle.

  8. Gait Analysis of Symptomatic Flatfoot in Children: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Yong; Shin, Hyuck Soo; Ko, Jun Hyuck; Cha, Yong Han; Ahn, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Jae Yeon

    2017-09-01

    Flatfoot deformity is a lever arm disease that incurs kinetic inefficiency during gait. The purpose of this study was to measure the degree of kinetic inefficiency by comparing the gait analysis data of a flatfoot group with a normal control group. The patient group consisted of 26 children (21 males and 5 females) with symptomatic flatfoot. They were examined with gait analysis between May 2005 and February 2014. Exclusion criteria were patients with secondary flatfoot caused by neuromuscular disorders, tarsal coalition, vertical talus, or others. Patients' mean age was 9.5 years (range, 7 to 13 years). The gait analysis data of the study group and the normal control group were compared. The mean vertical ground reaction force (GRF) in the push-off phase was 0.99 for the patient group and 1.15 for the control group ( p push-off phase was 0.89 for the patient group and 1.27 for the control group ( p push-off phase was 1.38 for the patient group and 2.52 for the control group ( p push-off phase during gait. Symptomatic flatfeet had a moment inefficiency of 30% and power inefficiency of 45% during gait compared to feet with preserved medial longitudinal arches.

  9. Gait analysis in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Vismara, Luca; Vimercati, Sara Laura; Precilios, Helmer; Cattani, Laila; Fabris De Souza, Shirley; Petroni, Maria Letizia; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2013-09-13

    Anorexia (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) are two common eating disorders, which appear to share some reduced motor capacities, such as a reduced balance. The presence and the extent of other motor disorders have not been investigated in a comprehensive way. The aim of this study was to quantify gait pattern in AN and BN individuals in order to ascertain possible differences from the normality range and provide novel data for developing some evidence-based rehabilitation strategies. Nineteen AN patients (age 30.16+9.73) and 20 BN patients (age 26.8+8.41) were assessed with quantitative 3D computerized Gait Analysis. Results were compared with a group of healthy controls (CG; 30.7+5.6). AN and BN patients were characterized by different gait strategies compared to CG. Spatio-temporal parameters indicated shorter step length, with AN showing the shortest values. AN walked slower than BN and CG. As for kinematics, AN and BN showed a nonphysiologic pattern at pelvis and hip level on the sagittal and frontal plane, with BN yielding the most abnormal values. Both AN and BN patients were characterized by high ankle plantar flexion capacity at toe-off when compared to CG. As for ankle kinetics, both AN and BN showed physiologic patterns. Stiffness at hip level was close to CG in both pathologic groups; at the ankle level, stiffness was significantly decreased in both groups, with AN displaying lower values. Both AN and BN were characterized by an altered gait pattern compared to CG. Biomechanical differences were evident mainly at pelvis and hip level. Loss of lean mass may lead to musculoskeletal adaptation, ultimately causing alterations in the gait pattern.

  10. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the cell cycle in normal and UV-sensitive cell lines with reference to the nature of the defect in xeroderma pigmentosum variant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imray, P.; Mangan, T.; Saul, A.; Kidson, C.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of the distribution of cells through the phases of the cell cycle by DNA flow cytofluorimetry has been utilized to investigate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on cell-cycle progression in normal and UV-sensitive lymphoblastoid cell lines. In time-course studies only slight perturbation of DNA distribution was seen in normal cells, or UV-sensitive familial melanoma (FM) lines in the 48 h following irradiation. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XPA) excision-deficient cells showed a large increase in the proportion of cells in S phase 16-40 h post-irradiation. XP variant (XPV) cells were blocked in G 1 and S phases with the complete absence of cells with G 2 DNA content 16-28 h after irradiation. By 48 h post-irradiation the DNA distribution of XPA and XPV cells had returned to that of an unirradiated control. When colcemid was added to the cultures immediately after irradiation to prevent mitotic cells dividing and re-entering the cell cycle, progression through the first cycle after irradiation was followed. UV irradiation did not affect the rate of movement of cells out of G 1 into S phase in normal, FM or XPA cells. The proportion of cells in S phase was increased in UV-irradiated cultures in these cell types and the number of cells entering the G 2 +M compartment was reduced. (orig./AJ)

  11. Life cycle assessment in wastewater treatment: : Influence of site-oriented normalization factors, life cycle impact assessment methods, and weighting methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Shunwen; Wang, Xiuheng; Zhang, X.; Zhao, Xinyue; Ren, N

    2017-01-01

    This present study aims to analyze the differences in results of different site-directional life cycle assessment
    (LCA) methods applied in the field of wastewater treatment. Site-generic methods were employed and
    compared with China-specific methods on a full-scale wastewater treatment case.

  12. Estimation of Temporal Gait Parameters Using a Wearable Microphone-Sensor-Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most existing wearable gait analysis methods focus on the analysis of data obtained from inertial sensors. This paper proposes a novel, low-cost, wireless and wearable gait analysis system which uses microphone sensors to collect footstep sound signals during walking. This is the first time a microphone sensor is used as a wearable gait analysis device as far as we know. Based on this system, a gait analysis algorithm for estimating the temporal parameters of gait is presented. The algorithm fully uses the fusion of two feet footstep sound signals and includes three stages: footstep detection, heel-strike event and toe-on event detection, and calculation of gait temporal parameters. Experimental results show that with a total of 240 data sequences and 1732 steps collected using three different gait data collection strategies from 15 healthy subjects, the proposed system achieves an average 0.955 F1-measure for footstep detection, an average 94.52% accuracy rate for heel-strike detection and 94.25% accuracy rate for toe-on detection. Using these detection results, nine temporal related gait parameters are calculated and these parameters are consistent with their corresponding normal gait temporal parameters and labeled data calculation results. The results verify the effectiveness of our proposed system and algorithm for temporal gait parameter estimation.

  13. Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    modules to train individuals to distinguish gait deviations (trunk motion and lower-limb motion). Each of these modules help trainers improve their...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0870 TITLE: Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Karim Abdel-Malek CONTRACTING...study is to produce a computer-based Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool to aid in the training of clinicians at military treatment facilities

  14. Age-related decline of gait variability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Support for the maturational delay hypothesis in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicolo, Olivia; Grob, Alexander; Lemola, Sakari; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska

    2016-02-01

    Previous findings showed a tendency toward higher gait variability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to controls. This study examined whether gait variability in children with ADHD eventually approaches normality with increasing age (delay hypothesis) or whether these gait alterations represent a persistent deviation from typical development (deviation hypothesis). This cross-sectional study compared 30 children with ADHD (25 boys; Mage=10 years 11 months, range 8-13 years; n=21 off medication, n=9 without medication) to 28 controls (25 boys; Mage=10 years 10 months, range 8-13 years). Gait parameters (i.e. velocity and variability in stride length and stride time) were assessed using an electronic walkway system (GAITRite) while children walked at their own pace. Children with ADHD walked with significantly higher variability in stride time compared to controls. Age was negatively associated with gait variability in children with ADHD such that children with higher age walked with lower variability, whereas in controls there was no such association. Children with ADHD displayed a less regular gait pattern than controls, indicated by their higher variability in stride time. The age-dependent decrease of gait variability in children with ADHD showed that gait performance became more regular with age and converged toward that of typically developing children. These results may reflect a maturational delay rather than a persistent deviation of gait regularity among children with ADHD compared to typically developing children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of Gait Ignition Failure with Ropinirole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis N. Cohen-Oram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gait ignition failure (GIF is a syndrome characterized by hesitation or inability to initiate gait from a static position. It may occur in a variety of conditions, including normal pressure hydrocephalus, subcortical vascular disease, parkinsonian syndromes and a variety of focal lesions. Previous information on the treatment of GIF has been primarily anecdotal, but there have been a few reports of response to dopamine agonists. We report a 63-year-old man with anoxic encephalopathy who developed GIF nine years after the initial anoxic insult. The patient’s GIF responded robustly, albeit transiently, to ropinirole. MRI was unrevealing, but a positron emission tomography scan showed hypometabolism in the deep frontal ACA/MCA watershed area; this may have disconnected the basal ganglia from the motor cortex and/or interrupted dopaminergic mesocortical transmission. Our understanding of the pathophysiology and the treatment of GIF remains limited, but there may be at least a limited therapeutic role for dopamine agonists.

  16. Gait Analysis Study of Runner Using Force Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans do regular physical activities such as running. Gait is forward  propulsion of the human body using lower extremities as a thrust. Humans gait pattern is characterized by their limbs movement in terms of velocity, ground reaction force, work, kinetic energy and potential energy cycle . Human gait analysis is used to assess, to plan, and to deliver the treatment for individuals based on the conditions that affect their ability to move. Gait analysis is commonly used in running sport to improve the efficiency of athletes in running and to identify problems related to their posture or movement. The aim of this research is to do running gait analysis study of human, using force plate which equipped by track board. The benefit of this study is to provide information, ideas and new perspectives about running and its prevention over an injury. The main method that will be discussed in this study is system design of gait analysis with specific setting, hardware and software, in order to acquire data(s.

  17. FreeWalker: a smart insole for longitudinal gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baitong; Rajput, Kuldeep Singh; Tam, Wing-Kin; Tung, Anthony K H; Yang, Zhi

    2015-08-01

    Gait analysis is an important diagnostic measure to investigate the pattern of walking. Traditional gait analysis is generally carried out in a gait lab, with equipped force and body tracking sensors, which needs a trained medical professional to interpret the results. This procedure is tedious, expensive, and unreliable and makes it difficult to track the progress across multiple visits. In this paper, we present a smart insole called FreeWalker, which provides quantitative gait analysis outside the confinement of traditional lab, at low- cost. The insole consists of eight pressure sensors and two motion tracking sensors, i.e. 3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope. This enables measurement of under-foot pressure distribution and motion sequences in real-time. The insole is enabled with onboard SD card as well as wireless data transmission, which help in continuous gait-cycle analysis. The data is then sent to a gateway, for analysis and interpretation of data, using a user interface where gait features are graphically displayed. We also present validation result of a subject's left foot, who was asked to perform a specific task. Experiment results show that we could achieve a data-sampling rate of over 1 KHz, transmitting data up to a distance of 20 meter and maintain a battery life of around 24 hours. Taking advantage of these features, FreeWalker can be used in various applications, like medical diagnosis, rehabilitation, sports and entertainment.

  18. Fusion of gait and fingerprint for user authentication on mobile devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Mohammad; Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    A new multi-modal biometric authentication approach using gait signals and fingerprint images as biometric traits is proposed. The individual comparison scores derived from the gait and fingers are normalized using four methods (min-max, z-score, median absolute deviation, tangent hyperbolic...

  19. Involvement of the corticospinal tract in the control of human gait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Grey, Michael James; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2011-01-01

    to rehabilitation therapy, which will enhance gait ability and recovery in patients with lesions to the central nervous system (CNS). We review evidence for the involvement of the primary motor cortex and the CST during normal and perturbed walking and during gait adaptation. We will also discuss knowledge...

  20. Gait and electromyographic analysis of patients recovering after limb-saving surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, E; Mulder, T; Schreuder, HWB; Veth, RPH; Duysens, J

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Control of gait after limb-saving surgery. Design. Case series study. Background. At the moment little is known about adaptations in patients' gait after limb-saving surgery. Methods. Nineteen patients who underwent limb-saving surgery at least 1 yr earlier and 10 normal subjects were

  1. Balzac and human gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2015-05-01

    People have been interested in movement analysis in general, and gait analysis in particular, since ancient times. Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen, Leonardo da Vinci and Honoré de Balzac all used observation to analyse the gait of human beings. The purpose of this study is to compare Honoré de Balzac's writings with a scientific analysis of human gait. Honoré de Balzac's Theory of walking and other works by that author referring to gait. Honoré de Balzac had an interest in gait analysis, as demonstrated by his descriptions of characters which often include references to their way of walking. He also wrote a treatise entitled Theory of walking (Théorie de la demarche) in which he employed his keen observation skills to define gait using a literary style. He stated that the walking process is divided into phases and listed the factors that influence gait, such as personality, mood, height, weight, profession and social class, and also provided a description of the correct way of walking. Balzac considered gait analysis to be very important and this is reflected in both his character descriptions and Theory of walking, his analytical observation of gait. In our own technology-dominated times, this serves as a reminder of the importance of observation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Gait Selection and Transition of Passivity-Based Bipeds with Adaptable Ankle Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Stable bipedal walking is one of the most important components of humanoid robot design, which can help us better understand natural human walking. In this paper, to study gait selection and gait transition of efficient bipedal walking, we proposed a dynamic bipedal walking model with an upper body, flat feet and compliant joints. The model can achieve stable cyclic motion with different walking gaits. The hip actuation and ankle stiffness behavior of the model are quite similar to those of human normal walking. In simulation, we studied the influence of hip actuation and ankle stiffness on walking performance of each gait. The effects of ankle stiffness on gait selection are also analyzed. Gait transition is realized by adjusting ankle stiffness during walking.

  3. Apparent diffusion coefficient of breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue in diffusion-weighted imaging: the effects of menstrual cycle and menopausal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin You; Suh, Hie Bum; Kang, Hyun Jung; Shin, Jong Ki; Choo, Ki Seok; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Seok Won; Jung, Young Lae; Bae, Young Tae

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospectively whether the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of both breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue vary with the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and informed consent was obtained from each participant. Fifty-seven women (29 premenopausal, 28 postmenopausal) with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent diffusion-weighted imaging twice (interval 12-20 days) before surgery. Two radiologists independently measured ADC of breast cancer and normal contralateral breast tissue, and we quantified the differences according to the phases of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. With normal fibroglandular tissue, ADC was significantly lower in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women (P = 0.035). In premenopausal women, ADC did not differ significantly between proliferative and secretory phases in either breast cancer or normal fibroglandular tissue (P = 0.969 and P = 0.519, respectively). In postmenopausal women, no significant differences were found between ADCs measured at different time intervals in either breast cancer or normal fibroglandular tissue (P = 0.948 and P = 0.961, respectively). The within-subject variability of the ADC measurements was quantified using the coefficient of variation (CV) and was small: the mean CVs of tumor ADC were 2.90 % (premenopausal) and 3.43 % (postmenopausal), and those of fibroglandular tissue ADC were 4.37 % (premenopausal) and 2.55 % (postmenopausal). Both intra- and interobserver agreements were excellent for ADC measurements, with intraclass correlation coefficients in the range of 0.834-0.974. In conclusion, the measured ADCs of breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue were not affected significantly by menstrual cycle, and the measurements were highly reproducible both within and between observers.

  4. Gait Implications of Visual Field Damage from Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Swenor, Bonnielin K; Friedman, David S; West, Sheila K; Gitlin, Laura N; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate fall-relevant gait features in older glaucoma patients. The GAITRite Electronic Walkway was used to define fall-related gait parameters in 239 patients with suspected or manifest glaucoma under normal usual-pace walking conditions and while carrying a cup or tray. Multiple linear regression models assessed the association between gait parameters and integrated visual field (IVF) sensitivity after controlling for age, race, sex, medications, and comorbid illness. Under normal walking conditions, worse IVF sensitivity was associated with a wider base of support (β = 0.60 cm/5 dB IVF sensitivity decrement, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12-1.09, P = 0.016). Worse IVF sensitivity was not associated with slower gait speed, shorter step or stride length, or greater left-right drift under normal walking conditions ( P > 0.05 for all), but was during cup and/or tray carrying conditions ( P < 0.05 for all). Worse IVF sensitivity was positively associated with greater stride-to-stride variability in step length, stride length, and stride velocity ( P < 0.005 for all). Inferior and superior IVF sensitivity demonstrated associations with each of the above gait parameters as well, though these associations were consistently similar to, or weaker than, the associations noted for overall IVF sensitivity. Glaucoma severity was associated with several gait parameters predictive of higher fall risk in prior studies, particularly measures of stride-to-stride variability. Gait may be useful in identifying glaucoma patients at higher risk of falls, and in designing and testing interventions to prevent falls in this high-risk group. These findings could serve to inform the development of the interventions for falls prevention in glaucoma patients.

  5. Model Predictive Control-based gait pattern generation for wearable exoskeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Letian; van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; van der Kooij, Herman

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for controlling wearable exoskeletons that do not need predefined joint trajectories. Instead, it only needs basic gait descriptors such as step length, swing duration, and walking speed. End point Model Predictive Control (MPC) is used to generate the online joint trajectories based on these gait parameters. Real-time ability and control performance of the method during the swing phase of gait cycle is studied in this paper. Experiments are performed by helping a human subject swing his leg with different patterns in the LOPES gait trainer. Results show that the method is able to assist subjects to make steps with different step length and step duration without predefined joint trajectories and is fast enough for real-time implementation. Future study of the method will focus on controlling the exoskeletons in the entire gait cycle. © 2011 IEEE

  6. Flexed-knee gait in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, C; Ge, J; Hager, S; Haumont, T; Lennon, N; Niiler, T; Hulbert, R; Miller, F

    2018-04-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of adolescents with cerebral palsy who have undergone single-event multilevel surgery for a flexed-knee gait, followed into young adulthood using 3D motion analysis. Patients and Methods A total of 59 young adults with spastic cerebral palsy, with a mean age of 26 years (sd 3), were enrolled into the study in which their gait was compared with an evaluation that had taken place a mean of 12 years (sd 2) previously. At their visits during adolescence, the children walked with excessive flexion of the knee at initial contact and surgical or therapeutic interventions were not controlled between visits. Results Based on the change in flexed-knee gait over approximately ten years, improvements were seen in increased Gait Deviation Index (p gait (p = 0.007) suggested a mild decline in function. Quality-of-life measures showed that these patients fell within normal limits compared with typical young adults in areas other than physical function. Conclusion While some small significant changes were noted, little clinically significant change was seen in function and gait, with gross motor function maintained between adolescence and young adulthood. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:549-56.

  7. Clinical Gait Evaluation of Patients with Lumbar Spine Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Yan, Song-Hua; Wang, Sha-Sha; Lester, D Kevin; Zeng, Ji-Zhou; Miao, Jun; Zhang, Kuan

    2018-02-01

    The third generation Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA3, MiniSun, CA) has been developed for clinical gait evaluation, and this study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of IDEEA3 for the gait measurement of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited to compare gait cycle, cadence, step length, velocity, and number of steps between a motion analysis system and a high-speed video camera. Twenty hospitalized LSS patients were recruited for the comparison of the five parameters between the IDEEA3 and GoPro camera. Paired t-test, intraclass correlation coefficient, concordance correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman plots were used for the data analysis. The ratios of GoPro camera results to motion analysis system results, and the ratios of IDEEA3 results to GoPro camera results were all around 1.00. All P-values of paired t-tests for gait cycle, cadence, step length, and velocity were greater than 0.05, while all the ICC and CCC results were above 0.950 with P GoPro camera are highly consistent with the measurements with the motion analysis system. The measurements for IDEEA3 are consistent with those for the GoPro camera. IDEEA3 can be effectively used in the gait measurement of LSS patients. © 2018 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Martine M; Mulder, Mascha C Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L; van der Woude, Luc H; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2011-10-01

    To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. Clinical experimental study. University Medical Centre. Nineteen stroke patients (12 males; mean age 55 years (standard deviation (SD) 10 years); mean time post onset 3.6 months (SD 1.4 months)) with a spastic paresis of the lower extremity. Functional mobility was assessed with the timed up and go test, walking speed and gait characteristics were measured with clinical gait analysis and performed with and without a verbal dual task. Patient satisfaction was determined with a questionnaire. Walking with the high orthopaedic shoe resulted in improved functional mobility (22%; pshoes. The dual task interfered with functional mobility during walking. The interference was equally big for normal shoes as for the orthopaedic shoe. Patients evaluated walking with the high orthopaedic shoe as an improvement (psafety, walking distance and walking speed. In the early recovery phase after stroke, when regaining walking ability, a temporary high orthopaedic shoe can improve hemiplegic gait, even with dual task interference. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Accuracy and reliability of observational gait analysis data: judgments of push-off in gait after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Jennifer L; Goldie, Patricia A; Greenwood, Kenneth M; Olney, Sandra J

    2003-02-01

    Physical therapists routinely observe gait in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of observational assessments of push-off in gait after stroke. Eighteen physical therapists and 11 subjects with hemiplegia following a stroke participated in the study. Measurements of ankle power generation were obtained from subjects following stroke using a gait analysis system. Concurrent videotaped gait performances were observed by the physical therapists on 2 occasions. Ankle power generation at push-off was scored as either normal or abnormal using two 11-point rating scales. These observational ratings were correlated with the measurements of peak ankle power generation. A high correlation was obtained between the observational ratings and the measurements of ankle power generation (mean Pearson r=.84). Interobserver reliability was moderately high (mean intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC (2,1)]=.76). Intraobserver reliability also was high, with a mean ICC (2,1) of.89 obtained. Physical therapists were able to make accurate and reliable judgments of push-off in videotaped gait of subjects following stroke using observational assessment. Further research is indicated to explore the accuracy and reliability of data obtained with observational gait analysis as it occurs in clinical practice.

  10. Gait pattern recognition in cerebral palsy patients using neural network modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, J.; Gibbs, S.; Abboud, R.; Anand, S.

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of gait data obtained from modern 3D gait analysis is a challenging and time consuming task. The aim of this study was to create neural network models which can recognise the gait patterns from pre- and post-treatment and the normal ones. Neural network is a method which works on the principle of learning from experience and then uses the obtained knowledge to predict the unknown. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with cerebral palsy were recruited as subjects whose gait was analysed in pre- and post-treatment. A group of twenty-six normal subjects also participated in this study as control group. All subjects gait was analysed using Vicon Nexus to obtain the gait parameters and kinetic and kinematic parameters of hip, knee and ankle joints in three planes of both limbs. The gait data was used as input to create neural network models. A total of approximately 300 trials were split into 70% and 30% to train and test the models, respectively. Different models were built using different parameters. The gait was categorised as three patterns, i.e., normal, pre- and post-treatments. Result: The results showed that the models using all parameters or using the joint angles and moments could predict the gait patterns with approximately 95% accuracy. Some of the models e.g., the models using joint power and moments, had lower rate in recognition of gait patterns with approximately 70-90% successful ratio. Conclusion: Neural network model can be used in clinical practice to recognise the gait pattern for cerebral palsy patients. (author)

  11. Trunk lean gait decreases multi-segmental coordination in the vertical direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Kazuki; Anan, Masaya; Sawada, Tomonori; Tanimoto, Kenji; Takeda, Takuya; Ogata, Yuta; Takahashi, Makoto; Kito, Nobuhiro; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] The strategy of trunk lean gait to reduce external knee adduction moment (KAM) may affect multi-segmental synergy control of center of mass (COM) displacement. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis is an evaluation index to understand motor variability. The purpose of this study was to investigate how motor variability is affected by using UCM analysis on adjustment of the trunk lean angle. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy young adults walked at their preferred speed under two conditions: normal and trunk lean gait. UCM analysis was performed with respect to the COM displacement during the stance phase. The KAM data were analyzed at the points of the first KAM peak during the stance phase. [Results] The KAM during trunk lean gait was smaller than during normal gait. Despite a greater segmental configuration variance with respect to mediolateral COM displacement during trunk lean gait, the synergy index was not significantly different between the two conditions. The synergy index with respect to vertical COM displacement during trunk lean gait was smaller than that during normal gait. [Conclusion] These results suggest that trunk lean gait is effective in reducing KAM; however, it may decrease multi-segmental movement coordination of COM control in the vertical direction.

  12. Tic-induced gait dysfunction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasano, A.; Ruzicka, E.; Bloem, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many neurological disorders impair gait, but only a few of them are episodic or paroxysmal, the most important ones being freezing of gait and paroxysmal dyskinesias. METHODS: We describe 4 patients with tic disorders (3 with Tourette syndrome, and 1 with a tic disorder secondary to

  13. Gait analysis in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter K; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Recordings from video surveillance systems are used as evidence from crime scenes. It would be useful to perform comparisons between disguised perpetrators and suspects based on their gait. We applied functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge to analyze the gait of perpetrators, as record...

  14. Superficial ovarian cortex vascularization is inversely related to the follicle reserve in normal cycling ovaries and is increased in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rosas, F; Gaytán, M; Morales, C; Gómez, R; Gaytán, F

    2009-05-01

    The superficial ovarian cortex constitutes the micro-environment where resting and early growing follicles reside. As small follicles do not possess an independent capillary network, both their survival and early growth depend on their proximity to the cortical vessels. Little is known about the possible changes in superficial ovarian cortex vascularization in normal women throughout reproductive life or in pathological conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) involving abnormal early follicle growth. We studied the vascularization of the superficial and deep cortical stroma (DCS) in normal cycling ovaries from 21 to 50 years of age and in infertile women with PCOS. We used archival ovarian samples and specific CD34 immunostaining to determine blood vessel density and to analyse correlation with age and with the ovarian follicle reserve. Normal cycling ovaries showed an age-related increase in the superficial cortical stroma vascularization that was inversely correlated with the density of small (primordial and primary) follicles. In contrast, blood vessel density in the DCS significantly decreased in women aged >or=40 years. Ovaries from PCOS showed a 2-fold increase in blood vessel density in both superficial cortical stroma and DCS with respect to age-matched controls. The increased vascularization of the superficial cortical stroma in normal ovaries in relation to age and in ovaries from PCOS could have profound effects on cortical metabolic rate, primordial follicle survival/activation and early follicle growth, and may underline changes in follicle dynamics in mid-aged women and in PCOS.

  15. Gait parameter control timing with dynamic manual contact or visual cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peter; Werner, William

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the timing of gait parameter changes (stride length, peak toe velocity, and double-, single-support, and complete step duration) to control gait speed. Eleven healthy participants adjusted their gait speed on a treadmill to maintain a constant distance between them and a fore-aft oscillating cue (a place on a conveyor belt surface). The experimental design balanced conditions of cue modality (vision: eyes-open; manual contact: eyes-closed while touching the cue); treadmill speed (0.2, 0.4, 0.85, and 1.3 m/s); and cue motion (none, ±10 cm at 0.09, 0.11, and 0.18 Hz). Correlation analyses revealed a number of temporal relationships between gait parameters and cue speed. The results suggest that neural control ranged from feedforward to feedback. Specifically, step length preceded cue velocity during double-support duration suggesting anticipatory control. Peak toe velocity nearly coincided with its most-correlated cue velocity during single-support duration. The toe-off concluding step and double-support durations followed their most-correlated cue velocity, suggesting feedback control. Cue-tracking accuracy and cue velocity correlations with timing parameters were higher with the manual contact cue than visual cue. The cue/gait timing relationships generalized across cue modalities, albeit with greater delays of step-cycle events relative to manual contact cue velocity. We conclude that individual kinematic parameters of gait are controlled to achieve a desired velocity at different specific times during the gait cycle. The overall timing pattern of instantaneous cue velocities associated with different gait parameters is conserved across cues that afford different performance accuracies. This timing pattern may be temporally shifted to optimize control. Different cue/gait parameter latencies in our nonadaptation paradigm provide general-case evidence of the independent control of gait parameters previously demonstrated in gait adaptation paradigms

  16. Gait parameter control timing with dynamic manual contact or visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Ely; Shi, Peter; Werner, William

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the timing of gait parameter changes (stride length, peak toe velocity, and double-, single-support, and complete step duration) to control gait speed. Eleven healthy participants adjusted their gait speed on a treadmill to maintain a constant distance between them and a fore-aft oscillating cue (a place on a conveyor belt surface). The experimental design balanced conditions of cue modality (vision: eyes-open; manual contact: eyes-closed while touching the cue); treadmill speed (0.2, 0.4, 0.85, and 1.3 m/s); and cue motion (none, ±10 cm at 0.09, 0.11, and 0.18 Hz). Correlation analyses revealed a number of temporal relationships between gait parameters and cue speed. The results suggest that neural control ranged from feedforward to feedback. Specifically, step length preceded cue velocity during double-support duration suggesting anticipatory control. Peak toe velocity nearly coincided with its most-correlated cue velocity during single-support duration. The toe-off concluding step and double-support durations followed their most-correlated cue velocity, suggesting feedback control. Cue-tracking accuracy and cue velocity correlations with timing parameters were higher with the manual contact cue than visual cue. The cue/gait timing relationships generalized across cue modalities, albeit with greater delays of step-cycle events relative to manual contact cue velocity. We conclude that individual kinematic parameters of gait are controlled to achieve a desired velocity at different specific times during the gait cycle. The overall timing pattern of instantaneous cue velocities associated with different gait parameters is conserved across cues that afford different performance accuracies. This timing pattern may be temporally shifted to optimize control. Different cue/gait parameter latencies in our nonadaptation paradigm provide general-case evidence of the independent control of gait parameters previously demonstrated in gait adaptation paradigms

  17. Gait Correlation Analysis Based Human Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human gait identification aims to identify people by a sequence of walking images. Comparing with fingerprint or iris based identification, the most important advantage of gait identification is that it can be done at a distance. In this paper, silhouette correlation analysis based human identification approach is proposed. By background subtracting algorithm, the moving silhouette figure can be extracted from the walking images sequence. Every pixel in the silhouette has three dimensions: horizontal axis (x, vertical axis (y, and temporal axis (t. By moving every pixel in the silhouette image along these three dimensions, we can get a new silhouette. The correlation result between the original silhouette and the new one can be used as the raw feature of human gait. Discrete Fourier transform is used to extract features from this correlation result. Then, these features are normalized to minimize the affection of noise. Primary component analysis method is used to reduce the features’ dimensions. Experiment based on CASIA database shows that this method has an encouraging recognition performance.

  18. A method to standardize gait and balance variables for gait velocity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    Many gait and balance variables depend on gait velocity, which seriously hinders the interpretation of gait and balance data derived from walks at different velocities. However, as far as we know there is no widely accepted method to correct for effects of gait velocity on other gait and balance

  19. An Ambulatory Method of Identifying Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Gait Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Patterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of inertial sensors to characterize pathological gait has traditionally been based on the calculation of temporal and spatial gait variables from inertial sensor data. This approach has proved successful in the identification of gait deviations in populations where substantial differences from normal gait patterns exist; such as in Parkinsonian gait. However, it is not currently clear if this approach could identify more subtle gait deviations, such as those associated with musculoskeletal injury. This study investigates whether additional analysis of inertial sensor data, based on quantification of gyroscope features of interest, would provide further discriminant capability in this regard. The tested cohort consisted of a group of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R females and a group of non-injured female controls, each performed ten walking trials. Gait performance was measured simultaneously using inertial sensors and an optoelectronic marker based system. The ACL-R group displayed kinematic and kinetic deviations from the control group, but no temporal or spatial deviations. This study demonstrates that quantification of gyroscope features can successfully identify changes associated with ACL-R gait, which was not possible using spatial or temporal variables. This finding may also have a role in other clinical applications where small gait deviations exist.

  20. A study of the passive gait of a compass-like biped robot: Symmetry and chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, A.; Espiau, B.; Thuilot, B.

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this work is a systematic study of the passive gait of a compass-like planar, biped robot on inclined slopes. The robot is kinematically equivalent to a double pendulum, possessing two kneeless legs with point masses and a third point mass at the hip joint. Three parameters, namely, the ground-slope angle and the normalized mass and length of the robot describe its gait. The authors show that in response to a continuous change in any one of its parameters, the symmetric and steady stable gait of the unpowered robot gradually evolves through a regime of bifurcations characterized by progressively complicated asymmetric gaits, eventually arriving at an apparently chaotic gait where not two steps are identical. The robot can maintain this gait indefinitely. A necessary (but not sufficient) condition for the stability of such gaits is the contraction of the phase-fluid volume. For this frictionless robot, the volume contraction, which the authors compute, is caused by the dissipative effects of the ground-impact model. In the chaotic regime, the fractal dimension of the robot's strange attractor (2.07) compared to its state-space dimension (4) also reveals strong contraction. The authors present a novel graphical technique based on the first return map that compactly captures the entire evolution of the gait, from symmetry to chaos. Additional passive dissipative elements in the robot joint results in a significant improvement in the stability and the versatility of the gait, and provide a rich repertoire for simple controls laws

  1. Fixating the pelvis in the horizontal plane affects gait characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneman, J.F.; Menger, Jasper; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2008-01-01

    In assistive devices for neuro-rehabilitation, natural human motions are partly restricted by the device. This may affect the normality of walking during training. This research determines effects on gait of fixating the pelvis translations in the horizontal plane during treadmill walking. Direct

  2. Analyzing Gait Using a Time-of-Flight Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm is created, which performs human gait analysis using spatial data and amplitude images from a Time-of-flight camera. For each frame in a sequence the camera supplies cartesian coordinates in space for every pixel. By using an articulated model the subject pose is estimated in the depth...... map in each frame. The pose estimation is based on likelihood, contrast in the amplitude image, smoothness and a shape prior used to solve a Markov random field. Based on the pose estimates, and the prior that movement is locally smooth, a sequential model is created, and a gait analysis is done...... on this model. The output data are: Speed, Cadence (steps per minute), Step length, Stride length (stride being two consecutive steps also known as a gait cycle), and Range of motion (angles of joints). The created system produces good output data of the described output parameters and requires no user...

  3. Gait, mobility, and falls in older people

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwind, Yves Josef

    2012-01-01

    My doctoral thesis contributes to the understanding of gait, mobility, and falls in older people. All presented projects investigated the most prominent and sensitive markers for fall-related gait changes, that is gait velocity and gait variability. Based on the measurement of these spatio-temporal gait parameters, particularly when using a change-sensitive dual task paradigm, it is possible to make conclusions regarding walking, balance, activities of daily living, and falls in o...

  4. Capability of 2 gait measures for detecting response to gait training in stroke survivors: Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool and the Tinetti Gait Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, Janice; Daly, Janis J; Roenigk, Kristen L; Butler, Kristi; Burdsall, Richard; Holcomb, John P

    2012-01-01

    To characterize the performance of 2 observational gait measures, the Tinetti Gait Scale (TGS) and the Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool (G.A.I.T.), in identifying improvement in gait in response to gait training. In secondary analysis from a larger study of multimodal gait training for stroke survivors, we measured gait at pre-, mid-, and posttreatment according to G.A.I.T. and TGS, assessing their capability to capture recovery of coordinated gait components. Large medical center. Cohort of stroke survivors (N=44) greater than 6 months after stroke. All subjects received 48 sessions of a multimodal gait-training protocol. Treatment consisted of 1.5 hours per session, 4 sessions per week for 12 weeks, receiving these 3 treatment aspects: (1) coordination exercise, (2) body weight-supported treadmill training, and (3) overground gait training, with 46% of subjects receiving functional electrical stimulation. All subjects were evaluated with the G.A.I.T. and TGS before and after completing the 48-session intervention. An additional evaluation was performed at midtreatment (after session 24). For the total subject sample, there were significant pre-/post-, pre-/mid-, and mid-/posttreatment gains for both the G.A.I.T. and the TGS. According to the G.A.I.T., 40 subjects (91%) showed improved scores, 2 (4%) no change, and 2 (4%) a worsening score. According to the TGS, only 26 subjects (59%) showed improved scores, 16 (36%) no change, and 1 (2%) a worsening score. For 1 treatment group of chronic stroke survivors, the TGS failed to identify a significant treatment response to gait training, whereas the G.A.I.T. measure was successful. The G.A.I.T. is more sensitive than the TGS for individual patients and group treatment response in identifying recovery of volitional control of gait components in response to gait training. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of foot load during ballet dancers' gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazkova, Marketa; Tepla, Lucie; Svoboda, Zdenek; Janura, Miroslav; Cieslarová, Miloslava

    2014-01-01

    Ballet is an art that puts extreme demands on the dancer's musculoskeletal system and therefore significantly affects motor behavior of the dancers. The aim of our research was to compare plantar pressure distribution during stance phase of gait between a group of professional ballet dancers and non-dancers. Thirteen professional dancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 24.1 ± 3.8 years) and 13 nondancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 26.1 ± 5.3 years) participated in this study. Foot pressure analysis during gait was collected using a 2 m pressure plate. The participants were instructed to walk across the platform at a self-selected pace barefoot. Three gait cycles were necessary for the data analysis. The results revealed higher (p < 0.05) pressure peaks in medial edge of forefoot during gait for dancers in comparison with nondancers. Furthermore, differences in total foot loading and foot loading duration of rearfoot was higher (p < 0.05) in dancers as well. We can attribute these differences to long-term and intensive dancing exercises that can change the dancer's gait stereotype.

  6. Statically vs dynamically balanced gait: Analysis of a robotic exoskeleton compared with a human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbareschi, Giulia; Richards, Rosie; Thornton, Matt; Carlson, Tom; Holloway, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In recent years exoskeletons able to replicate human gait have begun to attract growing popularity for both assistive and rehabilitative purposes. Although wearable robots often need the use of external support in order to maintain stability, the REX exoskeleton by REX Bionics is able to self-balance through the whole cycle. However this statically balanced gait presents important differences with the dynamically balanced gait of human subjects. This paper will examine kinematic and kinetic differences between the gait analysis performed on a subject wearing the REX exoskeleton and human gait analysis data as presented in literature. We will also provide an insight on the impact that these differences can have for both rehabilitative and assistive applications.

  7. Probing the effect of human normal sperm morphology rate on cycle outcomes and assisted reproductive methods selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available Sperm morphology is the best predictor of fertilization potential, and the critical predictive information for supporting assisted reproductive methods selection. Given its important predictive value and the declining reality of semen quality in recent years, the threshold of normal sperm morphology rate (NSMR is being constantly corrected and controversial, from the 4th edition (14% to the 5th version (4%. We retrospectively analyzed 4756 cases of infertility patients treated with conventional-IVF(c-IVF or ICSI, which were divided into three groups according to NSMR: ≥14%, 4%-14% and <4%. Here, we demonstrate that, with decrease in NSMR(≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, in the c-IVF group, the rate of fertilization, normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, multi-pregnancy and birth weight of twins gradually decreased significantly (P<0.05, while the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (p<0.01 and implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, live birth rate, sex ratio, and birth weight(Singleton showed no significant change. In the ICSI group, with decrease in NSMR (≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, high-quality embryo rate, multi-pregnancy rate and birth weight of twins were gradually decreased significantly (p<0.05, while other parameters had no significant difference. Considering the clinical assisted methods selection, in the NFMR ≥14% group, normal fertilization rate of c-IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group (P<0.05, in the 4%-14% group, birth weight (twins of c-IVF were significantly higher than the ICSI group, in the <4% group, miscarriage of IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group. Therefore, we conclude that NSMR is positively related to embryo reproductive potential, and when NSMR<4% (5th edition, ICSI should be considered first, while the NSMR≥4%, c-IVF assisted reproduction might be preferred.

  8. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli Manuela

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP. Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA, in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP (OLG; age: 40.5 ± 10.1 years; BMI: 42.39 ± 5.47 Kg/m2, 10 obese females (OG; age: 33.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI: 39.26 ± 2.39 Kg/m2 and 10 healthy female subjects (CG; age: 33.4 ± 9.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 3.2 Kg/m2, were enrolled in this study and assessed with video recording and GA. Results and Discussion OLG showed longer stance duration and shorter step length when compared to OG and CG. They also had a low pelvis and hip ROM on the frontal plane, a low knee flexion in the swing phase and knee range of motion, a low dorsiflexion in stance and swing as compared to OG. No statistically significant differences were found in ankle power generation at push-off between OLG and OG, which appeared lower if compared to CG. At hip level, both OLG and OG exhibited high power generation levels during stance, with OLG showing the highest values. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the association of obesity and LBP affects more the gait pattern than obesity alone. OLG were in fact characterised by an altered knee and ankle strategy during gait as compared to OG and CG. These elements may help optimizing rehabilitation planning and treatment in these patients.

  9. Normal and malignant epithelial cells with stem-like properties have an extended G2 cell cycle phase that is associated with apoptotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biddle Adrian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subsets of cells with stem-like properties have been previously isolated from human epithelial cancers and their resistance to apoptosis-inducing stimuli has been related to carcinoma recurrence and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents of cells with stem-like properties in both normal and malignant human epithelia. Methods Cells isolated from fresh human head and neck carcinomas (n = 11, cell lines derived from head and neck, prostate and breast human carcinomas (n = 7, and from normal human oral mucosa (n = 5, were exposed to various apoptosis-inducing stimuli (UV, Tumour Necrosis Factor, Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Neocarzinostatin. Flow cytometry for CD44 and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA expression, colony morphology, tumour sphere formation and rapid adherence assays were used to identify the subset of cells with stem-like properties. Apoptosis, cell cycle and expression of various cell cycle checkpoint proteins were assessed (Western Blot, qPCR. The role of G2-checkpoint regulators Chk1 and Chk2 was investigated by use of debromohymenialdisine (DBH and siRNA. Results In both cancer biopsies and carcinoma cell lines a subset of CD44high cells showed increased clonogenicity, a significantly lower rate of apoptosis, and a significantly higher proportion of cells in the G2-phase of the cell cycle. An inverse correlation between the percentage of cells in G2-phase and the rate of apoptosis was found. Pulse-chase with iododeoxyuridine (IdU demonstrated that CD44high carcinoma cells spent longer time in G2, even in un-treated controls. These cells expressed higher levels of G2 checkpoint proteins, and their release from G2 with BDH or Chk1 siRNA increased their rate of apoptosis. Low passage cultures of normal keratinocytes were also found to contain a subset of CD44high cells showing increased clonogenicity, and a similar pattern of G2-block

  10. Normal and malignant epithelial cells with stem-like properties have an extended G2 cell cycle phase that is associated with apoptotic resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Lisa J; Costea, Daniela Elena; Gammon, Luke; Fazil, Bilal; Biddle, Adrian; Mackenzie, Ian C

    2010-01-01

    Subsets of cells with stem-like properties have been previously isolated from human epithelial cancers and their resistance to apoptosis-inducing stimuli has been related to carcinoma recurrence and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents of cells with stem-like properties in both normal and malignant human epithelia. Cells isolated from fresh human head and neck carcinomas (n = 11), cell lines derived from head and neck, prostate and breast human carcinomas (n = 7), and from normal human oral mucosa (n = 5), were exposed to various apoptosis-inducing stimuli (UV, Tumour Necrosis Factor, Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Neocarzinostatin). Flow cytometry for CD44 and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA) expression, colony morphology, tumour sphere formation and rapid adherence assays were used to identify the subset of cells with stem-like properties. Apoptosis, cell cycle and expression of various cell cycle checkpoint proteins were assessed (Western Blot, qPCR). The role of G2-checkpoint regulators Chk1 and Chk2 was investigated by use of debromohymenialdisine (DBH) and siRNA. In both cancer biopsies and carcinoma cell lines a subset of CD44 high cells showed increased clonogenicity, a significantly lower rate of apoptosis, and a significantly higher proportion of cells in the G2-phase of the cell cycle. An inverse correlation between the percentage of cells in G2-phase and the rate of apoptosis was found. Pulse-chase with iododeoxyuridine (IdU) demonstrated that CD44 high carcinoma cells spent longer time in G2, even in un-treated controls. These cells expressed higher levels of G2 checkpoint proteins, and their release from G2 with BDH or Chk1 siRNA increased their rate of apoptosis. Low passage cultures of normal keratinocytes were also found to contain a subset of CD44 high cells showing increased clonogenicity, and a similar pattern of G2-block associated with apoptotic resistance. These data

  11. Gait Deviation Index, Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical...... to good reliability with ICCs of 0.4–0.7. The agreement for the GDI and the logarithmically transformed GPS, in terms of the standard error of measurement as a percentage of the grand mean (SEM%) varied from 4.1 to 6.7%, whilst the smallest detectable change in percent (SDC%) ranged from 11.3 to 18...

  12. Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Lertratanakul, A.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Peterson, A. L.; Kaliton, D.; Goldberger, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder marked by loss of motoneurons. We hypothesized that subjects with ALS would have an altered gait rhythm, with an increase in both the magnitude of the stride-to-stride fluctuations and perturbations in the fluctuation dynamics. To test for this locomotor instability, we quantitatively compared the gait rhythm of subjects with ALS with that of normal controls and with that of subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), pathologies of the basal ganglia. Subjects walked for 5 min at their usual pace wearing an ankle-worn recorder that enabled determination of the duration of each stride and of stride-to-stride fluctuations. We found that the gait of patients with ALS is less steady and more temporally disorganized compared with that of healthy controls. In addition, advanced ALS, HD, and PD were associated with certain common, as well as apparently distinct, features of altered stride dynamics. Thus stride-to-stride control of gait rhythm is apparently compromised with ALS. Moreover, a matrix of markers based on gait dynamics may be useful in characterizing certain pathologies of motor control and, possibly, in quantitatively monitoring disease progression and evaluating therapeutic interventions.

  13. Validity and repeatability of inertial measurement units for measuring gait parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Edward P; Kalyanaraman, Tarun; Adamczyk, Peter G; Claflin, Edward S; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2017-06-01

    Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are small wearable sensors that have tremendous potential to be applied to clinical gait analysis. They allow objective evaluation of gait and movement disorders outside the clinic and research laboratory, and permit evaluation on large numbers of steps. However, repeatability and validity data of these systems are sparse for gait metrics. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and between-day repeatability of spatiotemporal metrics (gait speed, stance percent, swing percent, gait cycle time, stride length, cadence, and step duration) as measured with the APDM Opal IMUs and Mobility Lab system. We collected data on 39 healthy subjects. Subjects were tested over two days while walking on a standard treadmill, split-belt treadmill, or overground, with IMUs placed in two locations: both feet and both ankles. The spatiotemporal measurements taken with the IMU system were validated against data from an instrumented treadmill, or using standard clinical procedures. Repeatability and minimally detectable change (MDC) of the system was calculated between days. IMUs displayed high to moderate validity when measuring most of the gait metrics tested. Additionally, these measurements appear to be repeatable when used on the treadmill and overground. The foot configuration of the IMUs appeared to better measure gait parameters; however, both the foot and ankle configurations demonstrated good repeatability. In conclusion, the IMU system in this study appears to be both accurate and repeatable for measuring spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of gait symmetry during over-ground walking in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jeffrey D; Harry, John R; Hickman, Robbin A; Dufek, Janet S

    2017-06-01

    Gait symmetry is utilized as an indicator of neurologic function. Healthy gait often exhibits minimal asymmetries, while pathological gait exhibits exaggerated asymmetries. The purpose of this study was to examine symmetry of mechanical gait parameters during over-ground walking in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained from 10 children (aged 5-12 years) with ASD. The Model Statistic procedure (α=0.05) was used to compare gait related parameters between limbs. Analysis revealed children with ASD exhibit significant lower extremity joint position and ground reaction force asymmetries throughout the gait cycle. The observed asymmetries were unique for each subject. These data do not support previous research relative to gait symmetry in children with ASD. Many individuals with ASD do not receive physical therapy interventions, however, precision medicine based interventions emphasizing lower extremity asymmetries may improve gait function and improve performance during activities of daily living. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-Dimensional Trunk and Lower Limbs Characteristics during Gait in Patients with Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirek, Elzbieta; Filip, Magdalena; Chwała, Wiesław; Banaszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Rudzinska-Bar, Monika; Szymura, Jadwiga; Pasiut, Szymon; Szczudlik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A number of studies on gait disturbances have been conducted, however, no clear pattern of gait disorders was described. The aim of the study was to characterize the gait pattern in HD patients by conducting analysis of mean angular movement changes the lower limb joints and trunk (kinematics parameters). Methods: The study group consisted of 30 patients with HD (17 women and 13 men). The reference data include the results of 30 healthy subjects (17 women and 13 men). Registration of gait with the Vicon 250 system was performed using passive markers attached to specific anthropometric points directly on the skin, based on the Golem biomechanical model (Oxford Metrics Ltd.). The research group and the control group were tested once. Results: Statistically significant ( p patients were observed in: insufficient plantar flexion during Loading Response and Pre-swing phases; insufficient flexion of the knee joint during Initial Swing and Mid Swing phases; excessive flexion of the hip in Terminal Stance and Pre-swing phases and over-normative forward inclination of the trunk in all gait phases. It should be noted that the group of patients with HD obtained, for all the mean angular movement changes higher standard deviation. Conclusion: A characteristic gait disorder common to all patients with HD occurring throughout the whole duration of the gait cycle is a pathological anterior tilt of the trunk. The results will significantly contribute to programming physiotherapy for people with HD, aimed at stabilizing the trunk in a position of extension during gait.

  16. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Human gait Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srimonti eDutta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available IIn this paper multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis is used to study the human gait time series for normal and diseased sets. It is observed that long range correlation is primarily responsible for the origin of multifractality. The study reveals that the degree of multifractality is more for normal set compared to diseased set. However the method fails to distinguish between the two diseased sets.

  17. Improved kinect-based spatiotemporal and kinematic treadmill gait assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltoukhy, Moataz; Oh, Jeonghoon; Kuenze, Christopher; Signorile, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    A cost-effective, clinician friendly gait assessment tool that can automatically track patients' anatomical landmarks can provide practitioners with important information that is useful in prescribing rehabilitative and preventive therapies. This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Microsoft Kinect v2 as a potential inexpensive gait analysis tool. Ten healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.3 and 1.6m·s -1 , as spatiotemporal parameters and kinematics were extracted concurrently using the Kinect and three-dimensional motion analysis. Spatiotemporal measures included step length and width, step and stride times, vertical and mediolateral pelvis motion, and foot swing velocity. Kinematic outcomes included hip, knee, and ankle joint angles in the sagittal plane. The absolute agreement and relative consistency between the two systems were assessed using interclass correlations coefficients (ICC2,1), while reproducibility between systems was established using Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient (rc). Comparison of ensemble curves and associated 90% confidence intervals (CI90) of the hip, knee, and ankle joint angles were performed to investigate if the Kinect sensor could consistently and accurately assess lower extremity joint motion throughout the gait cycle. Results showed that the Kinect v2 sensor has the potential to be an effective clinical assessment tool for sagittal plane knee and hip joint kinematics, as well as some spatiotemporal temporal variables including pelvis displacement and step characteristics during the gait cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Microsoft Kinect-Based Point-of-Care Gait Assessment Framework for Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Farnood; Trojan, Daria A; Kovecses, Jozsef; Haddad, Wassim M; Gholami, Behnood

    2017-09-01

    Gait impairment is a prevalent and important difficulty for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a common neurological disorder. An easy to use tool to objectively evaluate gait in MS patients in a clinical setting can assist clinicians to perform an objective assessment. The overall objective of this study is to develop a framework to quantify gait abnormalities in MS patients using the Microsoft Kinect for the Windows sensor; an inexpensive, easy to use, portable camera. Specifically, we aim to evaluate its feasibility for utilization in a clinical setting, assess its reliability, evaluate the validity of gait indices obtained, and evaluate a novel set of gait indices based on the concept of dynamic time warping. In this study, ten ambulatory MS patients, and ten age and sex-matched normal controls were studied at one session in a clinical setting with gait assessment using a Kinect camera. The expanded disability status scale (EDSS) clinical ambulation score was calculated for the MS subjects, and patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis walking scale (MSWS). Based on this study, we established the potential feasibility of using a Microsoft Kinect camera in a clinical setting. Seven out of the eight gait indices obtained using the proposed method were reliable with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.61 to 0.99. All eight MS gait indices were significantly different from those of the controls (p-values less than 0.05). Finally, seven out of the eight MS gait indices were correlated with the objective and subjective gait measures (Pearson's correlation coefficients greater than 0.40). This study shows that the Kinect camera is an easy to use tool to assess gait in MS patients in a clinical setting.

  19. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  20. A mechanized gait trainer for restoring gait in nonambulatory subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D; Werner, C; Bardeleben, A

    2000-09-01

    To construct an advanced mechanized gait trainer to enable patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement without overstraining therapists. DEVICE: Prototype gait trainer that simulates the phases of gait (by generating a ratio of 40% to 60% between swing and stance phases), supports the subjects according to their ability (lifts the foot during swing phase), and controls the center of mass in the vertical and horizontal directions. Two nonambulatory, hemiparetic patients who regained their walking ability after 4 weeks of daily training on the gait trainer, a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old man, both of whom had a first-time ischemic stroke. Four weeks of training, five times a week, each session 20 minutes long. Functional ambulation category (FAC, levels 0-5) to assess gait ability and ground level walking velocity. Rivermead motor assessment score (RMAS, 0-13) to assess gross motor function. Patient 1: At the end of treatment, she was able to walk independently on level ground with use of a walking stick. Her walking velocity had improved from .29m/sec to .59m/sec. Her RMAS score increased from 4 to 10, meaning she could walk at least 40 meters outside, pick up objects from floor, and climb stairs independently. Patient 2: At end of 4-week training, he could walk independently on even surfaces (FAC level 4), using an ankle-foot orthosis and a walking stick. His walking velocity improved from .14m/sec to .63m/sec. His RMAS increased from 3 to 10. The gait trainer enabled severely affected patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement. Future studies may elucidate its value in gait rehabilitation of nonambulatory subjects.

  1. Symmetry Analysis of Gait between Left and Right Limb Using Cross-Fuzzy Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the investigation of gait symmetry problem by using cross-fuzzy entropy (C-FuzzyEn, which is a recently proposed cross entropy that has many merits as compared to the frequently used cross sample entropy (C-SampleEn. First, we used several simulation signals to test its performance regarding the relative consistency and dependence on data length. Second, the gait time series of the left and right stride interval were used to calculate the C-FuzzyEn values for gait symmetry analysis. Besides the statistical analysis, we also realized a support vector machine (SVM classifier to perform the classification of normal and abnormal gaits. The gait dataset consists of 15 patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD and 16 control (CO subjects. The results show that the C-FuzzyEn values of the PD patients’ gait are significantly higher than that of the CO subjects with a p value of less than 10-5, and the best classification performance evaluated by a leave-one-out (LOO cross-validation method is an accuracy of 96.77%. Such encouraging results imply that the C-FuzzyEn-based gait symmetry measure appears as a suitable tool for analyzing abnormal gaits.

  2. Real-Time Knee Adduction Moment Feedback for Gait Retraining Through Visual and Tactile Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Wheeler, Jason W.; Shull, Pete B.; Besier, Thor F.

    2011-01-01

    The external knee adduction moment (KAM) measured during gait is an indicator of tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis progression and various strategies have been proposed to lower it. Gait retraining has been shown to be an effective, noninvasive approach for lowering the KAM. We present a new gait retraining approach in which the KAM is fed back to subjects in real-time during ambulation. A study was conducted in which 16 healthy subjects learned to alter gait patterns to lower the KAM through visual or tactile (vibration) feedback. Participants converged on a comfortable gait in just a few minutes by using the feedback to iterate on various kinematic modifications. All subjects adopted altered gait patterns with lower KAM compared with normal ambulation (average reduction of 20.7%). Tactile and visual feedbacks were equally effective for real-time training, although subjects using tactile feedback took longer to converge on an acceptable gait. This study shows that real-time feedback of the KAM can greatly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of subject-specific gait retraining compared with conventional methods. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  3. [Development of a gait trainer with regulated servo-drive for rehabilitation of locomotor disabled patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, D; Sarkodie-Gyan, T; Reiter, F; Konrad, M; Hesse, S

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new gait trainer for the rehabilitation of non-ambulatory patients. For the simulation of the gait phase, we used a commercially available fitness trainer (Fast Track) with two foot plates moving in an alternating fashion and connected to a servo-controlled propulsion system providing the necessary support for the movement depending on the patient's impairment level. To compensate deficient equilibrium reflexes, the patient was suspended in a harness capable of supporting some of his/her weight. Video analysis of gait and the kinesiological EMG were used to assess the pattern of movement and the corresponding muscle activity, which were then evaluated in healthy subjects, spinal cord injured and stroke patients and compared with walking on the flat or on a treadmill. Walking on the gait trainer was characterised by a symmetrical, sinusoidal movement of lower amplitude than in normal gait. The EMG showed a low activity of the tibialis anterior muscle, while the antigravity muscles were clearly activated by the gait trainer during the stance phase. In summary, the new gait trainer generates a symmetrical gait-like movement, promoting weight acceptance in the stance phase, which is important for the restoration of walking ability.

  4. View-invariant gait recognition method by three-dimensional convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Weiwei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Shunli

    2018-01-01

    Gait as an important biometric feature can identify a human at a long distance. View change is one of the most challenging factors for gait recognition. To address the cross view issues in gait recognition, we propose a view-invariant gait recognition method by three-dimensional (3-D) convolutional neural network. First, 3-D convolutional neural network (3DCNN) is introduced to learn view-invariant feature, which can capture the spatial information and temporal information simultaneously on normalized silhouette sequences. Second, a network training method based on cross-domain transfer learning is proposed to solve the problem of the limited gait training samples. We choose the C3D as the basic model, which is pretrained on the Sports-1M and then fine-tune C3D model to adapt gait recognition. In the recognition stage, we use the fine-tuned model to extract gait features and use Euclidean distance to measure the similarity of gait sequences. Sufficient experiments are carried out on the CASIA-B dataset and the experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms many other methods.

  5. The effect of three different types of walking aids on spatio-temporal gait parameters in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härdi, Irene; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Gschwind, Yves J; Kressig, Reto W

    2014-04-01

    Gait and balance impairments lead to falls and injuries in older people. Walking aids are meant to increase gait safety and prevent falls, yet little is known about how their use alters gait parameters. This study aimed to quantify gait in older adults during walking without and with different walking aids and to compare gait parameters to matched controls. This retrospective study included 65 older (≥60 years) community dwellers who used a cane, crutch or walker and 195 independently mobile-matched controls. Spatio-temporal gait parameters were measured with an electronic walkway system during normal walking. When walking unaided or aided, walking aid users had significantly worse gait than matched controls. Significant differences between the walking aid groups were found for stride time variability (cane vs. walker) in walking unaided only. Gait performances significantly improved when assessed with vs. without the walking aid for the cane (increased stride time and length, decreased cadence and stride length variability), crutch (increased stride time and length, decreased cadence, stride length variability and double support) and walker (increased gait speed and stride length, decreased base of support and double support) users. Gait in older adults who use a walking aid is more irregular and unstable than gait in independently mobile older adults. Walking aid users have better gait when using their walking aid than when walking without it. The changes in gait were different for the different types of walking aids used. These study results may help better understand gait in older adults and differentiate between pathological gait changes and compensatory gait changes due to the use of a walking aid.

  6. Clinical gait evaluation of patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Liu, Yancheng; Yan, Songhua; Cao, Guanglei; Wang, Shasha; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

    2017-10-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is the most common osteoarthritis in lower limbs, and gait measurement is important to evaluate walking function of KOA patients before and after treatment. The third generation Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA3) is a portable gait analysis system to evaluate gaits. This study is to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of IDEEA3 for gait measurement of KOA patients. Meanwhile, gait differences between KOA patients and healthy subjects are examined. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited for measurement comparison of gait cycle (GC), cadence, step length, velocity and step counts between a motion analysis system and a high-speed camera (GoPro Hero3). Twenty-three KOA patients were recruited for measurement comparison of former five parameters between GoPro Hero3 and IDEEA3. Paired t-test, Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC) and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were used for data analysis. All p-values of paired t-tests for GC, cadence, step length and velocity were greater than 0.05 while all CCC and ICC results were above 0.95. The measurements of GC, cadence, step length, velocity and step counts by motion analysis system are highly consistent with the measurements by GoPro Hero3. The measurements of former parameters by GoPro Hero3 are not statistically different from the measurements by IDEEA3. IDEEA3 can be effectively used for the measurement of GC, cadence, step length, velocity and step counts in KOA patients. The KOA patients walk with longer GC, lower cadence, shorter step length and slower speed compared with healthy subjects in natural speed with flat shoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of novel tubing gait on neuromuscular imbalance in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon Kyum; Lee, Dong Ryul; Kim, Do Hyun; Lee, Jae Jin; You, Sung Joshua Hyun; Yi, Chung Hwi; Jeon, Hye Seon

    2014-01-01

    Gait impairments from a neuromuscular imbalance are crucial issues in cerebral palsy. The purpose of our study was to compare the effects of the assistive tubing gait (ATG) and assistive-resistive tubing gait (ARTG) on improving the vasti and hamstring muscle imbalance during the initial contact to mid-stance phases in individuals with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Fourteen age-matched individuals including seven normal individuals (11.7 years) and seven individuals with CP (12.9 years) were recruited. All participants underwent electromyography (EMG) measurement of the unilateral vasti and hamstring muscle activity during the three gait training conditions of no-tubing gait (NTG), ATG, and ARTG. A statistical one-way repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine differences in the vasti and hamstring activity, the vasti/hamstring ratio, and the knee joint angle across the three gait training conditions for each group. The initial vasti and hamstring muscle imbalance in CP was significantly improved by applying the ARTG compared with the ATG. The vasti/hamstring ratio during the ARTG was compatible with the ratio value obtained from the NTG of normal individuals. The knee joint angle in CP was not improved in this short-term intervention. The ARTG proportionately increased the vasti activation and reciprocally inhibited the hamstring activity, subsequently improving the neuromuscular imbalance associated with the flexed-knee gait in individuals with spastic diplegic CP.

  8. GaitKeeper: A System for Measuring Canine Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassim Ladha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is understood gait has the potential to be used as a window into neurodegenerative disorders, identify markers of subclinical pathology, inform diagnostic algorithms of disease progression and measure the efficacy of interventions. Dogs’ gaits are frequently assessed in a veterinary setting to detect signs of lameness. Despite this, a reliable, affordable and objective method to assess lameness in dogs is lacking. Most described canine lameness assessments are subjective, unvalidated and at high risk of bias. This means reliable, early detection of canine gait abnormalities is challenging, which may have detrimental implications for dogs’ welfare. In this paper, we draw from approaches and technologies used in human movement science and describe a system for objectively measuring temporal gait characteristics in dogs (step-time, swing-time, stance-time. Asymmetries and variabilities in these characteristics are of known clinical significance when assessing lameness but presently may only be assessed on coarse scales or under highly instrumented environments. The system consists an inertial measurement unit, containing a 3-axis accelerometer and gyroscope coupled with a standardized walking course. The measurement unit is attached to each leg of the dog under assessment before it is walked around the course. The data by the measurement unit is then processed to identify steps and subsequently, micro-gait characteristics. This method has been tested on a cohort of 19 healthy dogs of various breeds ranging in height from 34.2 cm to 84.9 cm. We report the system as capable of making precise step delineations with detections of initial and final contact times of foot-to-floor to a mean precision of 0.011 s and 0.048 s, respectively. Results are based on analysis of 12,678 foot falls and we report a sensitivity, positive predictive value and F-score of 0.81, 0.83 and 0.82 respectively. To investigate the effect of gait on system performance

  9. Immediate effects of a single session of robot-assisted gait training using Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) for cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Mayumi; Mataki, Yuki; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Takahashi, Kazushi; Enomoto, Keiko; Sano, Kumiko; Mizukami, Masafumi; Tomita, Kazuhide; Ohguro, Haruka; Iwasaki, Nobuaki

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) using Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL, CYBERDYNE) was previously reported beneficial for stroke and spinal cord injury patients. Here, we investigate the immediate effect of a single session of RAGT using HAL on gait function for cerebral palsy (CP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients (average age: 16.2 ± 7.3 years) with CP received a single session of RAGT using HAL. Gait speed, step length, cadence, single-leg support per gait cycle, hip and knee joint angle in stance, and swing phase per gait cycle were assessed before, during, and immediately after HAL intervention. [Results] Compared to baseline values, single-leg support per gait cycle (64.5 ± 15.8% to 69.3 ± 12.1%), hip extension angle in mid-stance (149.2 ± 19.0° to 155.5 ± 20.1°), and knee extension angle in mid-stance (137.6 ± 20.2° to 143.1 ± 19.5°) were significantly increased immediately after intervention. Further, the knee flexion angle in mid-swing was significantly decreased immediately after treatment (112.0 ± 15.5° to 105.2 ± 17.1°). Hip flexion angle in mid-swing also decreased following intervention (137.2 ± 14.6° to 129.7 ± 16.6°), but not significantly. Conversely, gait speed, step length, and cadence were unchanged after intervention. [Conclusion] A single-time RAGT with HAL improved single-leg support per gait cycle and hip and knee joint angle during gait, therapeutically improving gait function in CP patients.

  10. Statistical Parametric Mapping to Identify Differences between Consensus-Based Joint Patterns during Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Papageorgiou, Eirini; Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; De Laet, Tinne

    2017-01-01

    Experts recently identified 49 joint motion patterns in children with cerebral palsy during a Delphi consensus study. Pattern definitions were therefore the result of subjective expert opinion. The present study aims to provide objective, quantitative data supporting the identification of these consensus-based patterns. To do so, statistical parametric mapping was used to compare the mean kinematic waveforms of 154 trials of typically developing children (n = 56) to the mean kinematic waveforms of 1719 trials of children with cerebral palsy (n = 356), which were classified following the classification rules of the Delphi study. Three hypotheses stated that: (a) joint motion patterns with 'no or minor gait deviations' (n = 11 patterns) do not differ significantly from the gait pattern of typically developing children; (b) all other pathological joint motion patterns (n = 38 patterns) differ from typically developing gait and the locations of difference within the gait cycle, highlighted by statistical parametric mapping, concur with the consensus-based classification rules. (c) all joint motion patterns at the level of each joint (n = 49 patterns) differ from each other during at least one phase of the gait cycle. Results showed that: (a) ten patterns with 'no or minor gait deviations' differed somewhat unexpectedly from typically developing gait, but these differences were generally small (≤3°); (b) all other joint motion patterns (n = 38) differed from typically developing gait and the significant locations within the gait cycle that were indicated by the statistical analyses, coincided well with the classification rules; (c) joint motion patterns at the level of each joint significantly differed from each other, apart from two sagittal plane pelvic patterns. In addition to these results, for several joints, statistical analyses indicated other significant areas during the gait cycle that were not included in the pattern definitions of the consensus study

  11. Three-Dimensional Trunk and Lower Limbs Characteristics during Gait in Patients with Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Mirek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A number of studies on gait disturbances have been conducted, however, no clear pattern of gait disorders was described. The aim of the study was to characterize the gait pattern in HD patients by conducting analysis of mean angular movement changes the lower limb joints and trunk (kinematics parameters.Methods: The study group consisted of 30 patients with HD (17 women and 13 men. The reference data include the results of 30 healthy subjects (17 women and 13 men. Registration of gait with the Vicon 250 system was performed using passive markers attached to specific anthropometric points directly on the skin, based on the Golem biomechanical model (Oxford Metrics Ltd.. The research group and the control group were tested once.Results: Statistically significant (p < 0.05 angular changes in gait cycle for HD patients were observed in: insufficient plantar flexion during Loading Response and Pre-swing phases; insufficient flexion of the knee joint during Initial Swing and Mid Swing phases; excessive flexion of the hip in Terminal Stance and Pre-swing phases and over-normative forward inclination of the trunk in all gait phases. It should be noted that the group of patients with HD obtained, for all the mean angular movement changes higher standard deviation.Conclusion: A characteristic gait disorder common to all patients with HD occurring throughout the whole duration of the gait cycle is a pathological anterior tilt of the trunk. The results will significantly contribute to programming physiotherapy for people with HD, aimed at stabilizing the trunk in a position of extension during gait.

  12. Inertial Sensor-Based Robust Gait Analysis in Non-Hospital Settings for Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Tunca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The gold standards for gait analysis are instrumented walkways and marker-based motion capture systems, which require costly infrastructure and are only available in hospitals and specialized gait clinics. Even though the completeness and the accuracy of these systems are unquestionable, a mobile and pervasive gait analysis alternative suitable for non-hospital settings is a clinical necessity. Using inertial sensors for gait analysis has been well explored in the literature with promising results. However, the majority of the existing work does not consider realistic conditions where data collection and sensor placement imperfections are imminent. Moreover, some of the underlying assumptions of the existing work are not compatible with pathological gait, decreasing the accuracy. To overcome these challenges, we propose a foot-mounted inertial sensor-based gait analysis system that extends the well-established zero-velocity update and Kalman filtering methodology. Our system copes with various cases of data collection difficulties and relaxes some of the assumptions invalid for pathological gait (e.g., the assumption of observing a heel strike during a gait cycle. The system is able to extract a rich set of standard gait metrics, including stride length, cadence, cycle time, stance time, swing time, stance ratio, speed, maximum/minimum clearance and turning rate. We validated the spatio-temporal accuracy of the proposed system by comparing the stride length and swing time output with an IR depth-camera-based reference system on a dataset comprised of 22 subjects. Furthermore, to highlight the clinical applicability of the system, we present a clinical discussion of the extracted metrics on a disjoint dataset of 17 subjects with various neurological conditions.

  13. Multiple gait parameters derived from iPod accelerometry predict age-related gait changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Nienke; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claude

    Introduction Normative data of how natural aging affects gait can serve as a frame of reference for changes in gait dynamics due to pathologies. Therefore, the present study aims (1) to identify gait variables sensitive to age-related changes in gait over the adult life span using the iPod and (2)

  14. Gait patterns in Prader-Willi and Down syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertini Giorgio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prader-Willi (PWS and Down Syndrome (DS are two genetic disorders characterised by some common clinical and functional features. A quantitative description and comparison of their patterns would contribute to a deeper understanding of the determinants of motor disability in these two syndromes. The aim of this study was to measure gait pattern in PWS and DS in order to provide data for developing evidence-based deficit-specific or common rehabilitation strategies. Methods 19 PWS patients (17.7-40 yr and 21 DS patients (18-39 yr were evaluated with an optoelectronic system and force platforms for measuring kinematic and kinetic parameters during walking. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of normal-weight controls (Control Group: CG; 33.4 + 9.6 yr. Results and Discussion The results show that PWS and DS are characterised by different gait strategies. Spatio-temporal parameters indicated a cautious, abnormal gait in both groups, but DS walked with a less stable strategy than PWS. As for kinematics, DS showed a significantly reduced hip and knee flexion, especially at initial contact and ankle range of motion than PWS. DS were characterised by lower ranges of motion (p Conclusions Our data show that DS walk with a less physiological gait pattern than PWS. Based on our results, PWS and DS patients need targeted rehabilitation and exercise prescription. Common to both groups is the aim to improve hypotonia, muscle strength and motor control during gait. In DS, improving pelvis and hip range of motion should represent a major specific goal to optimize gait pattern.

  15. Gait analysis in demented subjects: Interests and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Beauchet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Olivier Beauchet1, Gilles Allali2, Gilles Berrut3, Caroline Hommet4, Véronique Dubost5, Frédéric Assal21Department of Geriatrics, Angers University Hospital, France; 2Department of Neurology, Geneva University Hospital, France; 3Department of Geriatrics, Nantes University Hospital, France; 4Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Tours University Hospital, France; 5Department of Geriatrics, Dijon University Hospital, FranceAbstract: Gait disorders are more prevalent in dementia than in normal aging and are related to the severity of cognitive decline. Dementia-related gait changes (DRGC mainly include decrease in walking speed provoked by a decrease in stride length and an increase in support phase. More recently, dual-task related changes in gait were found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and non-Alzheimer dementia, even at an early stage. An increase in stride-to-stride variability while usual walking and dual-tasking has been shown to be more specific and sensitive than any change in mean value in subjects with dementia. Those data show that DRGC are not only associated to motor disorders but also to problem with central processing of information and highlight that dysfunction of temporal and frontal lobe may in part explain gait impairment among demented subjects. Gait assessment, and more particularly dual-task analysis, is therefore crucial in early diagnosis of dementia and/or related syndromes in the elderly. Moreover, dual-task disturbances could be a specific marker of falling at a pre-dementia stage.Keywords: gait, prediction of dementia, risk of falling, older adult

  16. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentration is not a predictive factor in IVF outcomes before the first cycle of GnRH agonist administration in women with normal ovarian reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kunicki

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine whether serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS concentration and the models incorporating it could help clinicians to predict IVF outcomes in women with normal ovarian reserve undergoing their first long protocol.We performed a retrospective analysis of 459 women undergoing cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI for the first time in a long GnRH agonist protocol.Embryo transfer was performed in 407 women (88.7%. The fertilisation rate was 78.6%. The clinical pregnancy rate was 44.8% per started cycle and 50.6% per embryo transfer. Our univariate model revealed that the best predictors of clinical pregnancy were the number of mature oocytes, the number of embryos transferred and the number of good quality embryos, account for the clinical parameters that reflect ovarian reserve the best being AMH level and AFC. DHEAS did not predict clinical pregnancy (OR 1.001, 95% CI, 0.999-1.004. After adjusting for the number of embryos transferred and class of embryos in a multivariate model, the best predictors were age (OR 0.918, 95% CI, 0.867-0.972 and AFC (OR 1.022, 95% CI, 0.992-1.053. Serum DHEAS levels were positively correlated with AFC (r = 0.098, P<0.039 and testosterone levels (r = 0.371, P<0.001, as well as the number of mature oocytes (r = 0.109, P<0.019; serum DHEAS levels were negatively correlated with age (r = -0.220, P<0.001, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, (r = -0.116, P<0.015 and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, (r = -0.193, P<0.001.DHEAS concentration (in addition to the known factors of ovarian reserve does not predict clinical pregnancy in women with normal ovarian reserve who are undergoing ICSI.

  17. Diffusion weighted imaging of the normal breast: reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and variation with menstrual cycle and menopausal status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flynn, Elizabeth A.M.; Morgan, Veronica A.; Giles, Sharon L. [Cancer Research UK and ESPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Clinical Magnetic Resonance Group, Surrey (United Kingdom); deSouza, Nandita M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Clinical Magnetic Resonance Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    To establish the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in normal fibroglandular breast tissue and to assess variation in ADC values with phase of the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Thirty-one volunteers (13 premenopausal, 18 postmenopausal) underwent magnetic resonance twice (interval 11-22 days) using diffusion-weighted MRI. ADC{sub total} and a perfusion-insensitive ADC{sub high} (omitting b = 0) were calculated. Reproducibility and inter-observer variability of mean ADC values were assessed. The difference in mean ADC values between the two phases of the menstrual cycle and the postmenopausal breast were evaluated. ADC{sub total} and ADC{sub high} showed good reproducibility (r% = 17.6, 22.4). ADC{sub high} showed very good inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.83). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.93 and 0.91. Mean ADC values were significantly lower in the postmenopausal breast (ADC{sub total} 1.46 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, ADC{sub high} 1.33 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) compared with the premenopausal breast (ADC{sub total} 1.84 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, ADC{sub high} 1.77 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; both P < 0.001). No significant difference was seen in ADC values in relation to menstrual cycle (ADC{sub total} P = 0.2, ADC{sub high} P = 0.24) or between postmenopausal women taking or not taking oestrogen supplements (ADC{sub total} P = 0.6, ADC{sub high} P = 0.46). ADC values in fibroglandular breast tissue are reproducible. Lower ADC values within the postmenopausal breast may reduce diffusion-weighted contrast and have implications for accurately detecting tumours. (orig.)

  18. Music and metronome cues produce different effects on gait spatiotemporal measures but not gait variability in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Joanne E; Webster, Kate E; Hill, Keith

    2013-02-01

    Rhythmic auditory cues including music and metronome beats have been used, sometimes interchangeably, to improve disordered gait arising from a range of clinical conditions. There has been limited investigation into whether there are optimal cue types. Different cue types have produced inconsistent effects across groups which differed in both age and clinical condition. The possible effect of normal ageing on response to different cue types has not been reported for gait. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of both rhythmic music and metronome cues on gait spatiotemporal measures (including variability) in healthy older people. Twelve women and seven men (>65 years) walked on an instrumented walkway at comfortable pace and then in time to each of rhythmic music and metronome cues at comfortable pace stepping frequency. Music but not metronome cues produced a significant increase in group mean gait velocity of 4.6 cm/s, due mostly to a significant increase in group mean stride length of 3.1cm. Both cue types produced a significant but small increase in cadence of 1 step/min. Mean spatio-temporal variability was low at baseline and did not increase with either cue type suggesting cues did not disrupt gait timing. Study findings suggest music and metronome cues may not be used interchangeably and cue type as well as frequency should be considered when evaluating effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait. Further work is required to determine whether optimal cue types and frequencies to improve walking in different clinical groups can be identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gait Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…

  20. Adaptive control of dynamic balance in human gait on a split-belt treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurke, Tom J W; Lamoth, Claudine J C; Vervoort, Danique; van der Woude, Lucas H V; den Otter, Rob

    2018-05-17

    Human bipedal gait is inherently unstable and staying upright requires adaptive control of dynamic balance. Little is known about adaptive control of dynamic balance in reaction to long-term, continuous perturbations. We examined how dynamic balance control adapts to a continuous perturbation in gait, by letting people walk faster with one leg than the other on a treadmill with two belts (i.e. split-belt walking). In addition, we assessed whether changes in mediolateral dynamic balance control coincide with changes in energy use during split-belt adaptation. In nine minutes of split-belt gait, mediolateral margins of stability and mediolateral foot roll-off changed during adaptation to the imposed gait asymmetry, especially on the fast side, and returned to baseline during washout. Interestingly, no changes in mediolateral foot placement (i.e. step width) were found during split-belt adaptation. Furthermore, the initial margin of stability and subsequent mediolateral foot roll-off were strongly coupled to maintain mediolateral dynamic balance throughout the gait cycle. Consistent with previous results net metabolic power was reduced during split-belt adaptation, but changes in mediolateral dynamic balance control were not correlated with the reduction of net metabolic power during split-belt adaptation. Overall, this study has shown that a complementary mechanism of relative foot positioning and mediolateral foot roll-off adapts to continuously imposed gait asymmetry to maintain dynamic balance in human bipedal gait. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Motor coordination during gait after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Leporace

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the state of art about motor coordination during gait in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury. Searches were carried out, limited from 1980 to 2010, in various databases with keywords related to motor coordination, gait and ACL injury. From the analysis of titles and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria 24 studies were initially selected and, after reading the abstract, eight studies remained in the final analysis. ACL deficient patients tend to have a more rigid and less variable gait, while injured patients with ACL reconstruction have less rigid and more variable gait with respect to healthy individuals. The overall results suggest the existence of differences in motor coordination between the segments with intact and those with injured knee, regardless of ligament reconstruction. ACL injured patients present aspects related to the impairment of the capability to adapt the gait pattern to different environmental conditions, possibly leading to premature knee degeneration. However, the techniques used for biomechanical gait data processing are limited with respect to obtaining information that leads to the development of intervention strategies aimed at the rehabilitation of that injury, since it is not possible to identify the location within the gait cycle where the differences could be explained.

  2. Normal Hematopoietic Progenitor Subsets Have Distinct Reactive Oxygen Species, BCL2 and Cell-Cycle Profiles That Are Decoupled from Maturation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Khan

    Full Text Available In acute myeloid leukemia (AML quiescence and low oxidative state, linked to BCL2 mitochondrial regulation, endow leukemic stem cells (LSC with treatment-resistance. LSC in CD34+ and more mature CD34- AML have heterogeneous immunophenotypes overlapping with normal stem/progenitor cells (SPC but may be differentiated by functional markers. We therefore investigated the oxidative/reactive oxygen species (ROS profile, its relationship with cell-cycle/BCL2 for normal SPC, and whether altered in AML and myelodysplasia (MDS. In control BM (n = 24, ROS levels were highest in granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMP and CD34- myeloid precursors but megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors had equivalent levels to CD34+CD38low immature-SPC although they were ki67high. BCL2 upregulation was specific to GMPs. This profile was also observed for CD34+SPC in MDS-without-excess-blasts (MDS-noEB, n = 12. Erythroid CD34- precursors were, however, abnormally ROS-high in MDS-noEB, potentially linking oxidative stress to cell loss. In pre-treatment AML (n = 93 and MDS-with-excess-blasts (MDS-RAEB (n = 14, immunophenotypic mature-SPC had similar ROS levels to co-existing immature-SPC. However ROS levels varied between AMLs; Flt3ITD+/NPM1wild-type CD34+SPC had higher ROS than NPM1mutated CD34+ or CD34- SPC. An aberrant ki67lowBCL2high immunophenotype was observed in CD34+AML (most prominent in Flt3ITD AMLs but also in CD34- AMLs and MDS-RAEB, suggesting a shared redox/pro-survival adaptation. Some patients had BCL2 overexpression in CD34+ ROS-high as well as ROS-low fractions which may be indicative of poor early response to standard chemotherapy. Thus normal SPC subsets have distinct ROS, cell-cycle, BCL2 profiles that in AML /MDS-RAEB are decoupled from maturation. The combined profile of these functional properties in AML subpopulations may be relevant to differential treatment resistance.

  3. Gait characteristics after gait-oriented rehabilitation in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurala, Sinikka H; Titianova, Ekaterina B; Mateev, Plamen; Pitkänen, Kauko; Sivenius, Juhani; Tarkka, Ina M

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effects of rehabilitation in thirty-seven ambulatory patients with chronic stroke during three weeks in-patient rehabilitation period. In the intervention group, each patient received 75 min physiotherapy daily every workday including 20 minutes in the electromechanical gait trainer with body-weight support (BWS). In the control group, each patient participated in 45 min conventional physiotherapy daily. Motor ability was assessed with the first five items of the Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS1-5) and ten meters walking speed. Spatio-temporal gait characteristics were recorded with an electrical walkway. The MMAS1-5 (pgait characteristics improved only in the intervention group, as seen in increased Functional Ambulation Profile score (p=0.023), velocity (p=0.023), the step lengths (affected side, p=0.011, non-affected side p=0.040), the stride lengths (p=0.018, p=0.006) and decreased step-time differential (p=0.043). Furthermore, all gait characteristics and other motor abilities remained in the discharge level at the six months in the intervention group. It appears that BWS training gives a long-lasting benefit in gait qualities even in chronic stroke patients.

  4. Why is walker-assisted gait metabolically expensive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Jonathon R; Kram, Rodger

    2011-06-01

    Walker-assisted gait is reported to be ∼200% more metabolically expensive than normal bipedal walking. However, previous studies compared different walking speeds. Here, we compared the metabolic power consumption and basic stride temporal-spatial parameters for 10 young, healthy adults walking without assistance and using 2-wheeled (2W), 4-wheeled (4W) and 4-footed (4F) walker devices, all at the same speed, 0.30m/s. We also measured the metabolic power demand for walking without any assistive device using a step-to gait at 0.30m/s, walking normally at 1.25m/s, and for repeated lifting of the 4F walker mimicking the lifting pattern used during 4F walker-assisted gait. Similar to previous studies, we found that the cost per distance walked was 217% greater with a 4F walker at 0.30m/s compared to unassisted, bipedal walking at 1.25m/s. Compared at the same speed, 0.30m/s, using a 4F walker was still 82%, 74%, and 55% energetically more expensive than walking unassisted, with a 4W walker and a 2W walker respectively. The sum of the metabolic cost of step-to walking plus the cost of lifting itself was equivalent to the cost of walking with a 4F walker. Thus, we deduce that the high cost of 4F walker assisted gait is due to three factors: the slow walking speed, the step-to gait pattern and the repeated lifting of the walker. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of velocity on variability in gait kinematics: implications for recognition in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjaer, Tine; Lynnerup, Niels; Simonsen, Erik B

    2014-09-01

    Closed circuit television (CCTV) footage is often available from crime scenes and may be used to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, the footage comprises incomplete gait cycles at different velocities, making gait pattern identification from crimes difficult. This study investigated the concurrence of joint angles throughout a gait cycle at three different velocities (3.0, 4.5, 6.0 km/h). Six datasets at each velocity were collected from 16 men. A variability range VR throughout the gait cycle at each velocity for each joint angle for each person was calculated. The joint angles at each velocity were compared pairwise, and whenever this showed values within the VR of this velocity, the case was positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, phases with high and low concurrences were located; peak concurrence was observed at mid-stance phase. Striving for the same velocity for the suspect and perpetrator is recommended. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Comparing electro- and mechano-myographic muscle activation patterns in self-paced pediatric gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewa, Katherine; Samadani, Ali; Chau, Tom

    2017-10-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is the standard modality for measuring muscle activity. However, the convenience and availability of low-cost accelerometer-based wearables makes mechanomyography (MMG) an increasingly attractive alternative modality for clinical applications. Literature to date has demonstrated a strong association between EMG and MMG temporal alignment in isometric and isokinetic contractions. However, the EMG-MMG relationship has not been studied in gait. In this study, the concurrence of EMG- and MMG-detected contractions in the tibialis anterior, lateral gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris muscles were investigated in children during self-paced gait. Furthermore, the distribution of signal power over the gait cycle was statistically compared between EMG-MMG modalities. With EMG as the reference, muscular contractions were detected based on MMG with balanced accuracies between 88 and 94% for all muscles except the gastrocnemius. MMG signal power differed from that of EMG during certain phases of the gait cycle in all muscles except the biceps femoris. These timing and power distribution differences between the two modalities may in part be related to muscle fascicle length changes that are unique to muscle motion during gait. Our findings suggest that the relationship between EMG and MMG appears to be more complex during gait than in isometric and isokinetic contractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between anterior pelvic tilt and gait, balance in patient with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Kim, Seong-Gil; Shin, Young-Jun; Choi, Eun-Hong; Choe, Yu-Won

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study is to find out the association between anterior pelvic tilt and gait and balance in chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen chronic stroke patients were included in this study. A palpation meter was employed to measure the anterior inclination of the pelvis. A GAITRite system automates measuring temporal and spatial gait parameters. A 10-Meter Walk test was used to measure gait speed. The Timed Up and Go test was used to measure the dynamic balance ability and gait ability of the participants. A BioRescue was used to assess balance by measuring the moving distance and area of the center of pressure. [Results] There were significant negative correlations between pelvic anterior tilt and velocity, step length, and stride. There were significant positive correlations between velocity and cadence, step length, and stride length. There were significant negative correlations between velocity and cycle time, H-H base, TUG, and 10MWT. There was significant negative correlation between cadence and cycle time and H-H base. [Conclusion] This study showed a negative correlation between pelvic anterior tilt and gait function including gait speed and step length.

  8. Treadmill sideways gait training with visual blocking for patients with brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tea-Woo; Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify the effect of sideways treadmill training with and without visual blocking on the balance and gait function of patients with brain lesions. [Subjects] Twenty-four stroke and traumatic brain injury subjects participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: an experimental group (12 subjects) and a control group (12 subjects). [Methods] Each group executed a treadmill training session for 20 minutes, three times a week, for 6 weeks. The sideways gait training on the treadmill was performed with visual blocking by the experimental group and with normal vision by the control group. A Biodex Gait Trainer 2 was used to assess the gait function. It was used to measure walking speed, walking distance, step length, and stance time on each foot. The Five-Times-Sit-To-Stand test (FTSST) and Timed Up and Go test (TUG) were used as balance measures. [Results] The sideways gait training with visual blocking group showed significantly improved walking speed, walking distance, step length, and stance time on each foot after training; FTSST and TUG times also significantly improved after training in the experimental group. Compared to the control group, the experimental group showed significant increases in stance time on each foot. [Conclusion] Sideways gait training on a treadmill with visual blocking performed by patients with brain lesions significantly improved their balance and gait function.

  9. Invariant Classification of Gait Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    . Input silhouettes are matched to the database using the Hungarian method. A classifier is defined based on the dissimilarity between the input silhouettes and the gait actions of the database. The overall recognition rate is 88.2% on a large and diverse test set. The recognition rate is better than...

  10. Gait pattern alteration by functional sensory substitution in healthy subjects and in diabetic subjects with peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S C; Helm, P A; Lavery, L A

    1997-08-01

    To evaluate the ability of diabetic and nondiabetic individuals to learn to use a lower extremity sensory substitution device to cue gait pattern changes. Case-control study. Gait laboratory. Thirty diabetic persons and 20 age- and education-matched nondiabetic controls responded to advertisements for study participation. Participants walked on a treadmill at three speeds (1, 2, and 2.5mph) with auditory sensory feedback to cue ground contact greater than 80% duration of baseline. The variables measured included gait cycle (steps per minute) and number of times per minute that any step during a trial exceeded 80% duration of ground contacted compared with a measured baseline step length for each speed. Persons in both groups were able to rapidly and significantly alter their gait patterns in response to signals from the sensory substitution device, by changing their gait cycles (nondiabetic group, F(17,124) = 5.27, p gait cycle modification and error reduction among both groups. The nondiabetic group learned to use the device significantly more quickly than the diabetic group during the slow (1mph, t = 3.57, p gait trainer malfunction occurred during the study. Diabetic persons with neuropathy effectively used lower extremity sensory substitution, and the technology is now available to manufacture a durable, effective lower extremity sensory substitution system.

  11. An electromechanical gait trainer for restoration of gait in hemiparetic stroke patients: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Werner, C; Uhlenbrock, D; von Frankenberg, S; Bardeleben, A; Brandl-Hesse, B

    2001-01-01

    Modern concepts of gait rehabilitation after stroke favor a task-specific repetitive approach. In practice, the required physical effort of the therapists limits the realization of this approach. Therefore, a mechanized gait trainer enabling nonambulatory patients to have the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstraining therapists was constructed. This preliminary study investigated whether an additional 4-week daily therapy on the gait trainer could improve gait ability in 14 chronic wheelchair-bound hemiparetic subjects. The 4 weeks of physiotherapy and gait-trainer therapy resulted in a relevant improvement of gait ability in all subjects. Velocity, cadence, and stride length improved significantly (p gait trainer seems feasible as an adjunctive tool in gait rehabilitation after stroke; further studies are needed.

  12. Speed-Dependent Modulation of the Locomotor Behavior in Adult Mice Reveals Attractor and Transitional Gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Maxime; Josset, Nicolas; Roussel, Marie; Couraud, Sébastien; Bretzner, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Locomotion results from an interplay between biomechanical constraints of the muscles attached to the skeleton and the neuronal circuits controlling and coordinating muscle activities. Quadrupeds exhibit a wide range of locomotor gaits. Given our advances in the genetic identification of spinal and supraspinal circuits important to locomotion in the mouse, it is now important to get a better understanding of the full repertoire of gaits in the freely walking mouse. To assess this range, young adult C57BL/6J mice were trained to walk and run on a treadmill at different locomotor speeds. Instead of using the classical paradigm defining gaits according to their footfall pattern, we combined the inter-limb coupling and the duty cycle of the stance phase, thus identifying several types of gaits: lateral walk, trot, out-of-phase walk, rotary gallop, transverse gallop, hop, half-bound, and full-bound. Out-of-phase walk, trot, and full-bound were robust and appeared to function as attractor gaits (i.e., a state to which the network flows and stabilizes) at low, intermediate, and high speeds respectively. In contrast, lateral walk, hop, transverse gallop, rotary gallop, and half-bound were more transient and therefore considered transitional gaits (i.e., a labile state of the network from which it flows to the attractor state). Surprisingly, lateral walk was less frequently observed. Using graph analysis, we demonstrated that transitions between gaits were predictable, not random. In summary, the wild-type mouse exhibits a wider repertoire of locomotor gaits than expected. Future locomotor studies should benefit from this paradigm in assessing transgenic mice or wild-type mice with neurotraumatic injury or neurodegenerative disease affecting gait.

  13. Rhythmic dynamics and synchronization via dimensionality reduction: application to human gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Reliable characterization of locomotor dynamics of human walking is vital to understanding the neuromuscular control of human locomotion and disease diagnosis. However, the inherent oscillation and ubiquity of noise in such non-strictly periodic signals pose great challenges to current methodologies. To this end, we exploit the state-of-the-art technology in pattern recognition and, specifically, dimensionality reduction techniques, and propose to reconstruct and characterize the dynamics accurately on the cycle scale of the signal. This is achieved by deriving a low-dimensional representation of the cycles through global optimization, which effectively preserves the topology of the cycles that are embedded in a high-dimensional Euclidian space. Our approach demonstrates a clear advantage in capturing the intrinsic dynamics and probing the subtle synchronization patterns from uni/bivariate oscillatory signals over traditional methods. Application to human gait data for healthy subjects and diabetics reveals a significant difference in the dynamics of ankle movements and ankle-knee coordination, but not in knee movements. These results indicate that the impaired sensory feedback from the feet due to diabetes does not influence the knee movement in general, and that normal human walking is not critically dependent on the feedback from the peripheral nervous system.

  14. Diffusion weighted imaging of the normal breast: reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and variation with menstrual cycle and menopausal status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Flynn, Elizabeth A.M.; Morgan, Veronica A.; Giles, Sharon L.; de Souza, Nandita M.

    2012-01-01

    To establish the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in normal fibroglandular breast tissue and to assess variation in ADC values with phase of the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Thirty-one volunteers (13 premenopausal, 18 postmenopausal) underwent magnetic resonance twice (interval 11-22 days) using diffusion-weighted MRI. ADC total and a perfusion-insensitive ADC high (omitting b = 0) were calculated. Reproducibility and inter-observer variability of mean ADC values were assessed. The difference in mean ADC values between the two phases of the menstrual cycle and the postmenopausal breast were evaluated. ADC total and ADC high showed good reproducibility (r% = 17.6, 22.4). ADC high showed very good inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.83). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.93 and 0.91. Mean ADC values were significantly lower in the postmenopausal breast (ADC total 1.46 ± 0.3 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC high 1.33 ± 0.3 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) compared with the premenopausal breast (ADC total 1.84 ± 0.26 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC high 1.77 ± 0.26 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s; both P total P = 0.2, ADC high P = 0.24) or between postmenopausal women taking or not taking oestrogen supplements (ADC total P = 0.6, ADC high P = 0.46). ADC values in fibroglandular breast tissue are reproducible. Lower ADC values within the postmenopausal breast may reduce diffusion-weighted contrast and have implications for accurately detecting tumours. (orig.)

  15. The interest of gait markers in the identification of subgroups among fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, Bernard; Chaleil, Denis; Cabane, Jean; Dumolard, Anne; Hatron, Pierre; Juvin, Robert; Lanteri-Minet, Michel; Mainguy, Yves; Negre-Pages, Laurence; Pillard, Fabien; Riviere, Daniel; Maugars, Yves-Michel

    2011-11-11

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a heterogeneous syndrome and its classification into subgroups calls for broad-based discussion. FM subgrouping, which aims to adapt treatment according to different subgroups, relies in part, on psychological and cognitive dysfunctions. Since motor control of gait is closely related to cognitive function, we hypothesized that gait markers could be of interest in the identification of FM patients' subgroups. This controlled study aimed at characterizing gait disorders in FM, and subgrouping FM patients according to gait markers such as stride frequency (SF), stride regularity (SR), and cranio-caudal power (CCP) which measures kinesia. A multicentre, observational open trial enrolled patients with primary FM (44.1 ± 8.1 y), and matched controls (44.1 ± 7.3 y). Outcome measurements and gait analyses were available for 52 pairs. A 3-step statistical analysis was carried out. A preliminary single blind analysis using k-means cluster was performed as an initial validation of gait markers. Then in order to quantify FM patients according to psychometric and gait variables an open descriptive analysis comparing patients and controls were made, and correlations between gait variables and main outcomes were calculated. Finally using cluster analysis, we described subgroups for each gait variable and looked for significant differences in self-reported assessments. SF was the most discriminating gait variable (73% of patients and controls). SF, SR, and CCP were different between patients and controls. There was a non-significant association between SF, FIQ and physical components from Short-Form 36 (p = 0.06). SR was correlated to FIQ (p = 0.01) and catastrophizing (p = 0.05) while CCP was correlated to pain (p = 0.01). The SF cluster identified 3 subgroups with a particular one characterized by normal SF, low pain, high activity and hyperkinesia. The SR cluster identified 2 distinct subgroups: the one with a reduced SR was distinguished by high FIQ

  16. The interest of gait markers in the identification of subgroups among fibromyalgia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auvinet Bernard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is a heterogeneous syndrome and its classification into subgroups calls for broad-based discussion. FM subgrouping, which aims to adapt treatment according to different subgroups, relies in part, on psychological and cognitive dysfunctions. Since motor control of gait is closely related to cognitive function, we hypothesized that gait markers could be of interest in the identification of FM patients' subgroups. This controlled study aimed at characterizing gait disorders in FM, and subgrouping FM patients according to gait markers such as stride frequency (SF, stride regularity (SR, and cranio-caudal power (CCP which measures kinesia. Methods A multicentre, observational open trial enrolled patients with primary FM (44.1 ± 8.1 y, and matched controls (44.1 ± 7.3 y. Outcome measurements and gait analyses were available for 52 pairs. A 3-step statistical analysis was carried out. A preliminary single blind analysis using k-means cluster was performed as an initial validation of gait markers. Then in order to quantify FM patients according to psychometric and gait variables an open descriptive analysis comparing patients and controls were made, and correlations between gait variables and main outcomes were calculated. Finally using cluster analysis, we described subgroups for each gait variable and looked for significant differences in self-reported assessments. Results SF was the most discriminating gait variable (73% of patients and controls. SF, SR, and CCP were different between patients and controls. There was a non-significant association between SF, FIQ and physical components from Short-Form 36 (p = 0.06. SR was correlated to FIQ (p = 0.01 and catastrophizing (p = 0.05 while CCP was correlated to pain (p = 0.01. The SF cluster identified 3 subgroups with a particular one characterized by normal SF, low pain, high activity and hyperkinesia. The SR cluster identified 2 distinct subgroups: the one with a

  17. The interest of gait markers in the identification of subgroups among fibromyalgia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a heterogeneous syndrome and its classification into subgroups calls for broad-based discussion. FM subgrouping, which aims to adapt treatment according to different subgroups, relies in part, on psychological and cognitive dysfunctions. Since motor control of gait is closely related to cognitive function, we hypothesized that gait markers could be of interest in the identification of FM patients' subgroups. This controlled study aimed at characterizing gait disorders in FM, and subgrouping FM patients according to gait markers such as stride frequency (SF), stride regularity (SR), and cranio-caudal power (CCP) which measures kinesia. Methods A multicentre, observational open trial enrolled patients with primary FM (44.1 ± 8.1 y), and matched controls (44.1 ± 7.3 y). Outcome measurements and gait analyses were available for 52 pairs. A 3-step statistical analysis was carried out. A preliminary single blind analysis using k-means cluster was performed as an initial validation of gait markers. Then in order to quantify FM patients according to psychometric and gait variables an open descriptive analysis comparing patients and controls were made, and correlations between gait variables and main outcomes were calculated. Finally using cluster analysis, we described subgroups for each gait variable and looked for significant differences in self-reported assessments. Results SF was the most discriminating gait variable (73% of patients and controls). SF, SR, and CCP were different between patients and controls. There was a non-significant association between SF, FIQ and physical components from Short-Form 36 (p = 0.06). SR was correlated to FIQ (p = 0.01) and catastrophizing (p = 0.05) while CCP was correlated to pain (p = 0.01). The SF cluster identified 3 subgroups with a particular one characterized by normal SF, low pain, high activity and hyperkinesia. The SR cluster identified 2 distinct subgroups: the one with a reduced SR was

  18. The link between weight shift asymmetry and gait disturbances in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szopa A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrzej Szopa,1 Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa,2 Anetta Lasek-Bal,3 Amadeusz Żak3 1Department of Physiotherapy, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences in Katowice, 3Department of Neurology, Professor Leszek Giec Upper Silesian Medical Centre, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland Introduction: While the asymmetry of body posture and the asymmetrical nature of hemiparetic gait in poststroke (PS patients are well documented, the role of weight shift asymmetry in gait disorders after stroke remains unclear. Objective: We examined the association of weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA between paretic and nonparetic lower limbs during quiet standing with the degree of deviation of hemiplegic gait from normal gait evaluated by the Gillette Gait Index (GGI incorporating 16 distinct clinically important kinematic and temporal parameters in chronic PS patients.Participants and methods: Twenty-two ambulatory patients with chronic stroke aged between 50 and 75 years were included in this study. Fourteen patients had hemiparesis on the nondominant side and 8 on the dominant side. The mean time PS was 2 years and 6 months. The reference group consisted of 22 students from the University of the Third Age presenting no neurological disorders. The examination consisted of posturographic weight-bearing (WB distribution and 3-dimensional gait analyses.Results: A significant positive relationship between WBA and GGI was revealed. Moreover, we observed a significant negative association between WBA and paretic step length and walking speed. With regard to kinematic data, the range of motion of knee flexion and peak dorsiflexion in the swing phase of the paretic leg were significantly negatively associated with WBA.Conclusion: Although further research is needed to determine a causal link between postural control asymmetry and gait disturbance in hemiplegics, our findings support the inclusion of WB measurements between paretic and

  19. Computational intelligence in gait research: a perspective on current applications and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel T H; Begg, Rezaul K; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2009-09-01

    Our mobility is an important daily requirement so much so that any disruption to it severely degrades our perceived quality of life. Studies in gait and human movement sciences, therefore, play a significant role in maintaining the well-being of our mobility. Current gait analysis involves numerous interdependent gait parameters that are difficult to adequately interpret due to the large volume of recorded data and lengthy assessment times in gait laboratories. A proposed solution to these problems is computational intelligence (CI), which is an emerging paradigm in biomedical engineering most notably in pathology detection and prosthesis design. The integration of CI technology in gait systems facilitates studies in disorders caused by lower limb defects, cerebral disorders, and aging effects by learning data relationships through a combination of signal processing and machine learning techniques. Learning paradigms, such as supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and fuzzy and evolutionary algorithms, provide advanced modeling capabilities for biomechanical systems that in the past have relied heavily on statistical analysis. CI offers the ability to investigate nonlinear data relationships, enhance data interpretation, design more efficient diagnostic methods, and extrapolate model functionality. These are envisioned to result in more cost-effective, efficient, and easy-to-use systems, which would address global shortages in medical personnel and rising medical costs. This paper surveys current signal processing and CI methodologies followed by gait applications ranging from normal gait studies and disorder detection to artificial gait simulation. We review recent systems focusing on the existing challenges and issues involved in making them successful. We also examine new research in sensor technologies for gait that could be combined with these intelligent systems to develop more effective healthcare solutions.

  20. Human Gait Recognition Based on Multiview Gait Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaxi Huang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing gait recognition methods rely on a single view, usually the side view, of the walking person. This paper investigates the case in which several views are available for gait recognition. It is shown that each view has unequal discrimination power and, therefore, should have unequal contribution in the recognition process. In order to exploit the availability of multiple views, several methods for the combination of the results that are obtained from the individual views are tested and evaluated. A novel approach for the combination of the results from several views is also proposed based on the relative importance of each view. The proposed approach generates superior results, compared to those obtained by using individual views or by using multiple views that are combined using other combination methods.

  1. Gait variability and motor control in people with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C; Dalsgaard, Helle; Simonsen, Erik B; Petersen, Nicolas C; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2015-10-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease that impairs walking ability and function. We compared the temporal gait variability and motor control in people with knee OA with healthy controls. The purpose was to test the hypothesis that the temporal gait variability would reflect a more stereotypic pattern in people with knee OA compared with healthy age-matched subjects. To assess the gait variability the temporal structure of the ankle and knee joint kinematics was quantified by the largest Lyapunov exponent and the stride time fluctuations were quantified by sample entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis. The motor control was assessed by the soleus (SO) Hoffmann (H)-reflex modulation and muscle co-activation during walking. The results showed no statistically significant mean group differences in any of the gait variability measures or muscle co-activation levels. The SO H-reflex amplitude was significantly higher in the knee OA group around heel strike when compared with the controls. The mean group difference in the H-reflex in the initial part of the stance phase (control-knee OA) was -6.6% Mmax (95% CI: -10.4 to -2.7, p=0.041). The present OA group reported relatively small impact of their disease. These results suggest that the OA group in general sustained a normal gait pattern with natural variability but with suggestions of facilitated SO H-reflex in the swing to stance phase transition. We speculate that the difference in SO H-reflex modulation reflects that the OA group increased the excitability of the soleus stretch reflex as a preparatory mechanism to avoid sudden collapse of the knee joint which is not uncommon in knee OA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biofeedback for robotic gait rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Gery

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development and increasing acceptance of rehabilitation robots as well as advances in technology allow new forms of therapy for patients with neurological disorders. Robot-assisted gait therapy can increase the training duration and the intensity for the patients while reducing the physical strain for the therapist. Optimal training effects during gait therapy generally depend on appropriate feedback about performance. Compared to manual treadmill therapy, there is a loss of physical interaction between therapist and patient with robotic gait retraining. Thus, it is difficult for the therapist to assess the necessary feedback and instructions. The aim of this study was to define a biofeedback system for a gait training robot and test its usability in subjects without neurological disorders. Methods To provide an overview of biofeedback and motivation methods applied in gait rehabilitation, previous publications and results from our own research are reviewed. A biofeedback method is presented showing how a rehabilitation robot can assess the patients' performance and deliver augmented feedback. For validation, three subjects without neurological disorders walked in a rehabilitation robot for treadmill training. Several training parameters, such as body weight support and treadmill speed, were varied to assess the robustness of the biofeedback calculation to confounding factors. Results The biofeedback values correlated well with the different activity levels of the subjects. Changes in body weight support and treadmill velocity had a minor effect on the biofeedback values. The synchronization of the robot and the treadmill affected the biofeedback values describing the stance phase. Conclusion Robot-aided assessment and feedback can extend and improve robot-aided training devices. The presented method estimates the patients' gait performance with the use of the robot's existing sensors, and displays the resulting biofeedback

  3. Control of the motion of the body's center of mass in relation to the center of pressure during high-heeled gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hui-Lien; Lu, Tung-Wu; Liu, Ming-Wei

    2013-07-01

    High-heeled shoes are associated with instability and falling, leading to injuries such as fracture and ankle sprain. Knowledge of the motion of the body's center of mass (COM) with respect to the center of pressure (COP) during high-heeled gait may offer insights into the balance control strategies and provide a basis for approaches that minimize the risk of falling and associated adverse effects. The study aimed to investigate the influence of the base and height of the heels on the COM motion in terms of COM-COP inclination angles (IA) and the rate of change of IA (RCIA). Fifteen females who regularly wear high heels walked barefoot and with narrow-heeled shoes with three heel heights (3.9cm, 6.3cm and 7.3cm) while kinematic and ground reaction force data were measured and used to calculate the COM and COP, as well as the temporal-distance parameters. The reduced base of the heels was found to be the primary factor for the reduced normalized walking speed and the reduced frontal IA throughout the gait cycle. This was achieved mainly through the control of the RCIA during double-leg stance (DLS). The heel heights affected mainly the peak RCIA during DLS, which were not big enough to affect the IA. These results suggest young adults adopt a conservative strategy for balance control during narrow-heeled gait. The results will serve as baseline data for future evaluation of patients and/or older adults during narrow-heeled gait with the aim of reducing the risk of falling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Two Different Cognitive Tests on Gait Parameters during Dual Tasks in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper aims to evaluate the influence of two different demanding cognitive tasks on gait parameters using BTS SMART system analysis. Patients and Methods. The study comprised 53 postmenopausal women aged 64.5 ± 6.7 years (range: 47–79. For every subject, gait analysis using a BTS SMART system was performed in a dual-task study design under three conditions: (I while walking only (single task, (II walking while performing a simultaneous simple cognitive task (SCT (dual task, and (III walking while performing a simultaneous complex cognitive task (CCT (dual task. Time-space parameters of gait pertaining to the length of a single support phase, double support phase, gait speed, step length, step width, and leg swing speed were analyzed. Results. Performance of cognitive tests during gait resulted in a statistically significant prolongation of the left (by 7% and right (by 7% foot gait cycle, shortening of the length of steps made with the right extremity (by 4%, reduction of speed of swings made with the left (by 11% and right (by 8% extremity, and reduction in gait speed (by 6%. Conclusions. Performance of cognitive tests during gait changes its individual pattern in relation to the level of the difficulty of the task.

  5. Effects of 12-week supervised treadmill training on spatio-temporal gait parameters in patients with claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konik, Anita; Kuklewicz, Stanisław; Rosłoniec, Ewelina; Zając, Marcin; Spannbauer, Anna; Nowobilski, Roman; Mika, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate selected temporal and spatial gait parameters in patients with intermittent claudication after completion of 12-week supervised treadmill walking training. The study included 36 patients (26 males and 10 females) aged: mean 64 (SD 7.7) with intermittent claudication. All patients were tested on treadmill (Gait Trainer, Biodex). Before the programme and after its completion, the following gait biomechanical parameters were tested: step length (cm), step cycle (cycle/s), leg support time (%), coefficient of step variation (%) as well as pain-free walking time (PFWT) and maximal walking time (MWT) were measured. Training was conducted in accordance with the current TASC II guidelines. After 12 weeks of training, patients showed significant change in gait biomechanics consisting in decreased frequency of step cycle (p gait was more regular, which was expressed via statistically significant decrease of coefficient of variation (p 0.05). Twelve-week treadmill walking training programme may lead to significant improvement of temporal and spatial gait parameters in patients with intermittent claudication. Twelve-week treadmill walking training programme may lead to significant improvement of pain-free walking time and maximum walking time in patients with intermittent claudication.

  6. Reflex control of robotic gait using human walking data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Macleod

    Full Text Available Control of human walking is not thoroughly understood, which has implications in developing suitable strategies for the retraining of a functional gait following neurological injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI. Bipedal robots allow us to investigate simple elements of the complex nervous system to quantify their contribution to motor control. RunBot is a bipedal robot which operates through reflexes without using central pattern generators or trajectory planning algorithms. Ground contact information from the feet is used to activate motors in the legs, generating a gait cycle visually similar to that of humans. Rather than developing a more complicated biologically realistic neural system to control the robot's stepping, we have instead further simplified our model by measuring the correlation between heel contact and leg muscle activity (EMG in human subjects during walking and from this data created filter functions transferring the sensory data into motor actions. Adaptive filtering was used to identify the unknown transfer functions which translate the contact information into muscle activation signals. Our results show a causal relationship between ground contact information from the heel and EMG, which allows us to create a minimal, linear, analogue control system for controlling walking. The derived transfer functions were applied to RunBot II as a proof of concept. The gait cycle produced was stable and controlled, which is a positive indication that the transfer functions have potential for use in the control of assistive devices for the retraining of an efficient and effective gait with potential applications in SCI rehabilitation.

  7. Spatiotemporal organization of alpha-motoneuron activity in the human spinal cord during different gaits and gait transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Y P; Cappellini, G; Poppele, R E; Lacquaniti, F

    2008-06-01

    Here we studied the spatiotemporal organization of motoneuron (MN) activity during different human gaits. We recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity patterns in 32 ipsilateral limb and trunk muscles from normal subjects while running and walking on a treadmill (3-12 km/h). In addition, we recorded backward walking and skipping, a distinct human gait that comprises the features of both walking and running. We mapped the recorded EMG activity patterns onto the spinal cord in approximate rostrocaudal locations of the MN pools. The activation of MNs tends to occur in bursts and be segregated by spinal segment in a gait-specific manner. In particular, sacral and cervical activation timings were clearly gait-dependent. Swing-related activity constituted an appreciable fraction (> 30%) of the total MN activity of leg muscles. Locomoting at non-preferred speeds (running and walking at 5 and 9 km/h, respectively) showed clear differences relative to preferred speeds. Running at low speeds was characterized by wider sacral activation. Walking at high non-preferred speeds was accompanied by an 'atypical' locus of activation in the upper lumbar spinal cord during late stance and by a drastically increased activation of lumbosacral segments. The latter findings suggest that the optimal speed of gait transitions may be related to an optimal intensity of the total MN activity, in addition to other factors previously described. The results overall support the idea of flexibility and adaptability of spatiotemporal activity in the spinal circuitry with constraints on the temporal functional connectivity of hypothetical pulsatile burst generators.

  8. A longitudinal study on dual-tasking effects on gait: cognitive change predicts gait variance in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K MacAulay

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological abilities have found to explain a large proportion of variance in objective measures of walking gait that predict both dementia and falling within the elderly. However, to this date there has been little research on the interplay between changes in these neuropsychological processes and walking gait overtime. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate intra-individual changes in neurocognitive test performance and gait step time at two-time points across a one-year span. Neuropsychological test scores from 440 elderly individuals deemed cognitively normal at Year One were analyzed via repeated measures t-tests to assess for decline in cognitive performance at Year Two. 34 of these 440 individuals neuropsychological test performance significantly declined at Year Two; whereas the "non-decliners" displayed improved memory, working memory, attention/processing speed test performance. Neuropsychological test scores were also submitted to factor analysis at both time points for data reduction purposes and to assess the factor stability overtime. Results at Year One yielded a three-factor solution: Language/Memory, Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Working Memory. Year Two's test scores also generated a three-factor solution (Working Memory, Language/Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Memory. Notably, language measures loaded on Executive Attention/Processing Speed rather than on the Memory factor at Year Two. Hierarchal multiple regression revealed that both Executive Attention/Processing Speed and sex significantly predicted variance in dual task step time at both time points. Remarkably, in the "decliners", the magnitude of the contribution of the neuropsychological characteristics to gait variance significantly increased at Year Two. In summary, this study provides longitudinal evidence of the dynamic relationship between intra-individual cognitive change and its influence on dual task gait

  9. IMU-Based Gait Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Multi-Sensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Dehzangi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread usage of wearable sensors such as in smart watches has provided continuous access to valuable user generated data such as human motion that could be used to identify an individual based on his/her motion patterns such as, gait. Several methods have been suggested to extract various heuristic and high-level features from gait motion data to identify discriminative gait signatures and distinguish the target individual from others. However, the manual and hand crafted feature extraction is error prone and subjective. Furthermore, the motion data collected from inertial sensors have complex structure and the detachment between manual feature extraction module and the predictive learning models might limit the generalization capabilities. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for human gait identification using time-frequency (TF expansion of human gait cycles in order to capture joint 2 dimensional (2D spectral and temporal patterns of gait cycles. Then, we design a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN learning to extract discriminative features from the 2D expanded gait cycles and jointly optimize the identification model and the spectro-temporal features in a discriminative fashion. We collect raw motion data from five inertial sensors placed at the chest, lower-back, right hand wrist, right knee, and right ankle of each human subject synchronously in order to investigate the impact of sensor location on the gait identification performance. We then present two methods for early (input level and late (decision score level multi-sensor fusion to improve the gait identification generalization performance. We specifically propose the minimum error score fusion (MESF method that discriminatively learns the linear fusion weights of individual DCNN scores at the decision level by minimizing the error rate on the training data in an iterative manner. 10 subjects participated in this study and hence, the problem is a 10-class

  10. Assessment of stability during gait in patients with spinal deformity-A preliminary analysis using the dynamic stability margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Anne-Laure; Lugade, Vipul; Bernhardt, Kathie; Larson, A Noelle; Kaufman, Kenton

    2017-06-01

    Daily living activities are dynamic, requiring spinal motion through space. Current assessment of spinal deformities is based on static measurements from full-spine standing radiographs. Tools to assess dynamic stability during gait might be useful to enhance the standard evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate gait dynamic imbalance in patients with spinal deformity using the dynamic stability margin (DSM). Twelve normal subjects and 17 patients with spinal deformity were prospectively recruited. A kinematic 3D gait analysis was performed for the control group (CG) and the spinal deformity group (SDG). The DSM (distance between the extrapolated center of mass and the base of support) and time-distance parameters were calculated for the right and left side during gait. The relationship between DSM and step length was assessed using three variables: gait stability, symmetry, and consistency. Variables' accuracy was validated by a discriminant analysis. Patients with spinal deformity exhibited gait instability according to the DSM (0.25m versus 0.31m) with decreased velocity (1.1ms -1 versus 1.3ms -1 ) and decreased step length (0.32m versus 0.38m). According to the discriminant analysis, gait stability was the more accurate variable (area under the curve AUC=0.98) followed by gait symmetry and consistency. However, gait consistency showed 100% of specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of precision. The DSM showed that patients with spinal malalignment exhibit decreased gait stability, symmetry, and consistency besides gait time-distance parameter changes. Additional work is required to determine how to apply the DSM for preoperative and postoperative spinal deformity management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. [Experimental research of gaits based on young plantar pressure test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingyun; Tan, Shili; Yu, Hongliu; Shen, Lixing; Zhuang, Jianhai; Wang, Jinwu

    2014-10-01

    The present paper is to study the center line of the plantar pressure of normal young people, and to find the relation between center line of the plantar pressure and gait stability and balance. The paper gives the testing principle and calculating methods for geometric center of plantar pressure distribution and the center of pressure due to the techniques of footprint frame. The calculating formulas in both x direction and y direction are also deduced in the paper. In the experiments carried out in our laboratory, the gait parameters of 131 young subjects walking as usual speed were acquired, and 14 young subjects of the total were specially analyzed. We then provided reference data for the walking gait database of young people, including time parameters, space parameters and plantar pressure parameters. We also obtained the line of geometry center and pressure center under the foot. We found that the differences existed in normal people's geometric center line and the pressure center line. The center of pressure trajectory revealed foot movement stability. The length and lateral changes of the center line of the plantar pressure could be applied to analysis of the plantar pressure of all kinds of people. The results in this paper are useful in clinical foot disease diagnosis and evaluation of surgical effect.

  12. Harmony as a convergence attractor that minimizes the energy expenditure and variability in physiological gait and the loss of harmony in cerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, Mariano; Chini, Giorgia; Iosa, Marco; Casali, Carlo; Morone, Giovanni; Conte, Carmela; Bini, Fabiano; Marinozzi, Franco; Coppola, Gianluca; Pierelli, Francesco; Draicchio, Francesco; Ranavolo, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    The harmony of the human gait was recently found to be related to the golden ratio value (ϕ). The ratio between the duration of the stance and that of the swing phases of a gait cycle was in fact found to be close to ϕ, which implies that, because of the fractal property of autosimilarity of that number, the gait ratios stride/stance, stance/swing, swing/double support, were not significantly different from one another. We studied a group of patients with cerebellar ataxia to investigate how the differences between their gait ratios and the golden ratio are related to efficiency and stability of their gait, assessed by energy expenditure and stride-to-stride variability, respectively. The gait of 28 patients who were affected by degenerative cerebellar ataxia and of 28 healthy controls was studied using a stereophotogrammetric system. The above mentioned gait ratios, the energy expenditure estimated using the pelvis reconstructed method and the gait variability in terms of the stride length were computed, and their relationships were analyzed. Matching procedures have also been used to avoid multicollinearity biases. The gait ratio values of the patients were farther from the controls (and hence from ϕ), even in speed matched conditions (P=0.011, Cohen's D=0.76), but not when the variability and energy expenditure were matched between the two groups (Cohen's D=0.49). In patients with cerebellar ataxia, the farther the stance-swing ratio was from ϕ, the larger the total mechanical work (R 2 adj =0.64). Further, a significant positive correlation was observed between the difference of the gait ratio from the golden ratio and the severity of the disease (R=0.421, P=0.026). Harmony of gait appears to be a benchmark of physiological gait leading to physiological energy recovery and gait reliability. Neurorehabilitation of patients with ataxia might benefit from the restoration of harmony of their locomotor patterns. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Chen, Janini; Freitag, Fernanda; Valente, Debora; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Voos, Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do n...

  14. Performance analysis for gait in camera networks

    OpenAIRE

    Michela Goffredo; Imed Bouchrika; John Carter; Mark Nixon

    2008-01-01

    This paper deploys gait analysis for subject identification in multi-camera surveillance scenarios. We present a new method for viewpoint independent markerless gait analysis that does not require camera calibration and works with a wide range of directions of walking. These properties make the proposed method particularly suitable for gait identification in real surveillance scenarios where people and their behaviour need to be tracked across a set of cameras. Tests on 300 synthetic and real...

  15. Walking pattern classification and walking distance estimation algorithms using gait phase information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Shing; Lin, Che-Wei; Yang, Ya-Ting C; Ho, Yu-Jen

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a walking pattern classification and a walking distance estimation algorithm using gait phase information. A gait phase information retrieval algorithm was developed to analyze the duration of the phases in a gait cycle (i.e., stance, push-off, swing, and heel-strike phases). Based on the gait phase information, a decision tree based on the relations between gait phases was constructed for classifying three different walking patterns (level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs). Gait phase information was also used for developing a walking distance estimation algorithm. The walking distance estimation algorithm consists of the processes of step count and step length estimation. The proposed walking pattern classification and walking distance estimation algorithm have been validated by a series of experiments. The accuracy of the proposed walking pattern classification was 98.87%, 95.45%, and 95.00% for level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed walking distance estimation algorithm was 96.42% over a walking distance.

  16. Gait unsteadiness and fall risk in two affective disorders: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chung-Kang

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In older adults, depression has been associated with increased fall risk, but the reasons for this link are not fully clear. Given parallels between major depression and Parkinson's disease, we hypothesized that major depression and related affective disorders would be associated with impairment in the ability to regulate the stride-to-stride fluctuations in gait cycle timing. Methods We measured stride-to-stride fluctuations of patients with two forms of mood disorders, unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar disorder, and compared their gait to that of a healthy control group. The primary outcomes were two measures of gait unsteadiness that have been associated with fall risk: stride time variability and swing time variability. Results Compared to the control group, the two patient groups tended to walk more slowly and with decreased swing time and increased stride time. However, none of these differences was statistically significant. Compared to the control group, swing time variability was significantly larger in the subjects with bipolar disorder (p Conclusions Patients with MDD and patients with bipolar disorder display gait unsteadiness. This perturbation in gait may provide a mechanistic link connecting depression and falls. The present findings also suggest the possibility that measurement of variability of gait may provide a readily quantifiable objective approach to monitoring depression and related affective disorders.

  17. Gait-related cerebral alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, A.H.; Leunissen, H.P.; Bakker, M.; Overeem, S.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.

    2011-01-01

    Freezing of gait is a common, debilitating feature of Parkinson’s disease. We have studied gait planning in patients with freezing of gait, using motor imagery of walking in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging. This approach exploits the large neural overlap that exists between

  18. Gait-related cerebral alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, A.H.; Leunissen, I.; Bakker, M.; Overeem, S.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.

    2011-01-01

    Freezing of gait is a common, debilitating feature of Parkinson's disease. We have studied gait planning in patients with freezing of gait, using motor imagery of walking in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging. This approach exploits the large neural overlap that exists between

  19. Altered sensitivity of system A amino acid transport to ouabain in normal and transformed C3H-10T1/2 cells during the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leister, K.J.; Schenerman, M.A.; Racker, E.

    1989-01-01

    Quiescent C3H-10T1/2 mouse fibroblasts that have not undergone any type of stress have a relatively low rate of 2-aminoisobutyrate (Aib) uptake by means of system A, which is primarily energized by the transmembrane Na + chemical gradient potential. System A activity in these cells is not sensitive to ouabain or proton ionophores. In contrast, methylcholanthrene-transformed and cofluent C3H-10T1/2 cells treated with ouabain utilize the membrane potential generated by the Na + , K + -ATPase pump to drive Aib transport by means of system A as shown by the sensitivity of transport activity to ouabain and proton ionophores. Since glucose is present during the assay, the proton ionophores do not affect the availability of ATP, as indicated by the undiminished uptake of 86 Rb + by the Na + , K + -ATPase pump. As cells progress through the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, they show an increased system A activity prior to entry into the S phase, which is also dependent on the electrogenicity of the Na + , K + -ATPase pump. There appears to be in all these cases a qualitative shift in the bioenergetic mechanism for the uptake of Aib as well as a marked quantitative increase in Aib uptake. The high activity after ouabain treatment was sustained in the transformed cells after removal of the ouabain, whereas in the confluent 10T1/2 cells the rate of uptake decayed rapidly, suggesting a difference in the mode of regulation. The authors conclude that transformed cells and normal cells in late G 1 or under stress make use of the membrane potential generated by the Na + , K + -ATPase pump to drive amino acid uptake by means of system A

  20. Gait recognition based on integral outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guan; Fang, Lv

    2017-02-01

    Biometric identification technology replaces traditional security technology, which has become a trend, and gait recognition also has become a hot spot of research because its feature is difficult to imitate and theft. This paper presents a gait recognition system based on integral outline of human body. The system has three important aspects: the preprocessing of gait image, feature extraction and classification. Finally, using a method of polling to evaluate the performance of the system, and summarizing the problems existing in the gait recognition and the direction of development in the future.

  1. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD. Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do not improve gait and posture in PD.

  2. Effect of Duration of Disease on Gait Parameters in Parkinson’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygün Özşahin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Posture and gait disturbances are major components which cause functional disability in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Three dimensional gait and motion analysis systems provide quantitative data of gait. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to correlate between duration of disease and gait parameters of Parkinson patients during the on-phase. METHODS: We investigated temporospatial and kinematics variables of gait in 23 subjects with PD as measured in the on-phase of their medication cycle using motion analysis. We evaluated the correlation between all gait parameters and Gait and Balance Scale (GABS, unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale (UPDRS total-motor scores, Hoehn&Yahr (H&Y stages and duration of the disease. RESULTS: We found positive correlation between cadance and duration of disease. Patients had negative correlation between stride time and duration of disease. And also there was positive correlation between UPDRS total score and duration of disease. CONCLUSION: Increasing of cadance and decreasing of stride time exhibited by PD subjects is a compensatory mechanism for the difficulty in regulating stride lenght. It was reported that stride lenght control mediate by basal ganglia. Scaling of lower limb amplitude during locomotion can be controlled by higher levels of the Central Nervous System. Patients tend to increase pelvic rotation to keep their center of mass stabilised because of shortness of stride lenght. We thought that reduction pelvic and hip ROMs in coronal plane are impaired muscles of leg in the swing phase. These findings possibly indicate that shortness of stride lenght with the progression of disease is related to cortical centers. Three dimentional analysis systems provide detailed gait examination in PD patients to assess of progression and efficacy for therapies. Also, this method will guide us to explain physiopathologic mechanisms of PD

  3. Rotational gait patterns in children and adolescents following tension band plating of idiopathic genua valga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Sebastian; Kranzl, Andreas; Hahne, Julia; Ganger, Rudolf

    2017-08-01

    Literature suggests that children and adolescents with idiopathic genua valga present with considerable gait deviations in frontal and transverse planes, including altered frontal knee moments, reduced external knee rotation, and increased external hip rotation. This study aimed to evaluate gait parameters in these patients after surgical correction using tension band plating (TBP). We prospectively evaluated 24 consecutive, skeletally immature patients, who received full-length standing radiographs and three-dimensional gait analysis before and after correction, and compared the results observed to a group of 11 typically developing peers. Prior to TBP the cohort showed significantly decreased (worse) internal frontal knee moments compared to the control group. After axis correction the mean and maximum knee moments changed significantly into normalized knee moments (p gait. In addition, the effect of transverse plane changes on knee moments in patients with restored, straight limb axis was calculated. Hence, patients with restored alignment but persistence of decreased external knee rotation demonstrated significantly greater knee moments than those without rotational abnormalities (p = 0.001). This study found that frontal knee moments during gait normalized in children with idiopathic genua valga after surgery. However, decreased external knee rotation and increased external hip rotation during gait persisted in the study cohort. Despite radiological correction, decreased external rotation during gait was associated with increases in medial knee loading. Surgical correction for children with genua valga but normal knee moments may be detrimental, due to redistribution of dynamic knee loading into the opposite joint compartment. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1617-1624, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Disorders of balance and gait in essential tremor are associated with midline tremor and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskovcová, Martina; Ulmanová, Olga; Sprdlík, Otakar; Sieger, Tomáš; Nováková, Jana; Jech, Robert; Růžička, Evžen

    2013-02-01

    Disorders of balance and gait have been observed in patients with essential tremor (ET), but their association with tremor severity remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate postural instability and gait changes in ET patients and to investigate their relationship to tremor characteristics with regard to cerebellar dysfunction as a possible common pathogenetic mechanism in ET. Thirty ET patients (8F, mean (SD) age 55.8 (17.8), range 19-81 years) and 25 normal controls (7F, 53.0 (17.7), 19-81) were tested with the scales of Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB), and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). Posturography and gait were assessed using a Footscan® system. Tremor was evaluated by the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale (TRS) and accelerometry in five upper limb positions. A mean (SD) TRS sum score of 27.0 (13.2) corresponded to mild to moderate tremor severity in most patients. In comparison with controls, ET subjects exhibited lower tandem gait velocity (0.21 vs. 0.26 m/s, P = 0.028), more missteps (0.57 vs. 0.12, P = 0.039), and increased postural sway in tandem stance (sway area 301.1 vs. 202.9 mm(2), P = 0.045). In normal gait, step width increased with the midline tremor subscore of TRS (Pearson r = 0.60, P = 0.046). Moreover, significant correlations were found between age and quantitative measures of normal and tandem gait in ET patients but not in controls. ABC, FAB, and ICARS scores did not significantly differ between patients and controls. In conclusion, gait and balance alterations in ET patients occur even without subjective complaints. Their relationship with midline tremor and dependence on age suggest a connection with cerebellar dysfunction.

  5. Gait performance and foot pressure distribution during wearable robot-assisted gait in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Hyun; Lee, Hwang-Jae; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Byung-Ok; Lee, Jusuk; Kim, Jeonghun; Ryu, Gyu-Ha; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-11-28

    A robotic exoskeleton device is an intelligent system designed to improve gait performance and quality of life for the wearer. Robotic technology has developed rapidly in recent years, and several robot-assisted gait devices were developed to enhance gait function and activities of daily living in elderly adults and patients with gait disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of the Gait-enhancing Mechatronic System (GEMS), a new wearable robotic hip-assist device developed by Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd., Korea, on gait performance and foot pressure distribution in elderly adults. Thirty elderly adults who had no neurological or musculoskeletal abnormalities affecting gait participated in this study. A three-dimensional (3D) motion capture system, surface electromyography and the F-Scan system were used to collect data on spatiotemporal gait parameters, muscle activity and foot pressure distribution under three conditions: free gait without robot assistance (FG), robot-assisted gait with zero torque (RAG-Z) and robot-assisted gait (RAG). We found increased gait speed, cadence, stride length and single support time in the RAG condition. Reduced rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius muscle activity throughout the terminal stance phase and reduced effort of the medial gastrocnemius muscle throughout the pre-swing phase were also observed in the RAG condition. In addition, walking with the assistance of GEMS resulted in a significant increase in foot pressure distribution, specifically in maximum force and peak pressure of the total foot, medial masks, anterior masks and posterior masks. The results of the present study reveal that GEMS may present an alternative way of restoring age-related changes in gait such as gait instability with muscle weakness, reduced step force and lower foot pressure in elderly adults. In addition, GEMS improved gait performance by improving push-off power and walking speed and reducing muscle activity in the lower

  6. Effects of sex and obesity on gait biomechanics before and six months after total knee arthroplasty: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, K L; Sosdian, L; Hinman, R S; Wrigley, T V; Kasza, J; Dowsey, M; Choong, P; Bennell, K L

    2018-03-01

    Gait biomechanics, sex, and obesity can contribute to suboptimal outcomes from primary total knee arthroplasty. The aims of this study were to i) determine if sex and/or obesity influence the amount of change in gait biomechanics from pre-surgery to six months post-surgery and; ii) assess if gait returns to normal in men and women. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 43 patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty for knee osteoarthritis (pre- and six months post-operative) and 40 asymptomatic controls. Mixed linear regression models were fit to assess which factors influenced change in gait biomechanics within the arthroplasty cohort, and interaction terms were included to assess if biomechanics returned to normal following surgery. Male peak knee adduction moment (p biomechanics after arthroplasty. Men retained abnormal gait patterns after surgery, whilst women did not. Further research should determine the long-term implications of gait abnormalities seen in men after arthroplasty. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. First signs of elderly gait for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Wiszomirska, Ida; Błażkiewicz, Michalina; Wychowański, Michał; Wit, Andrzej

    2017-06-27

    The aims of this study have been twofold: to attempt to reduce the number of spatiotemporal parameters used for describing gait through the factor analysis and component analysis; and to explore the critical age of decline for other gait parameters for healthy women. A total of 106 women (aged ≥ 40 years old (N = 76) and ≤ 31 years old (N = 30)) were evaluated using a pressure-sensitive mat (Zebris Medical System, Tübingen, Germany) for collecting spatiotemporal gait parameters. The factor analysis identified 2 factors - labelled Time and Rhythm - that accounted for 72% of the variation in significant free-gait parameters; the principal component analysis identified 4 of these parameters that permit full clinical evaluation of gait quality. No difference was found between the groups in terms of the values of parameters reflecting the temporal nature of gait (Rhythm), namely step time, stride time and cadence, whereas significant differences were found for total double support phase (p gait, we selected 3 parameters: total double support, stride time and velocity. We concluded that the women taking part in the experiment manifested significant signs of senile gait after the age of 60 years old, with the first symptoms thereof already manifesting themselves after 50 years of age. We show that among 26 spatiotemporal parameters that may be used for characterizing gait, at least a half of them may be omitted in the assessment of gait correctness; a finding that may be useful in clinical practice. The finding that the onset of senile gait occurs in the case of women after the age of 60 years old, in turn, may be useful in evaluating the ability for performing types of physical work that mainly require ambulation. Med Pr 2017;68(4):441-448. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Validation of 24-hour ambulatory gait assessment in Parkinson's disease with simultaneous video observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilda Valentina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting in motor disturbances that can impact normal gait. Although PD initially responds well to pharmacological treatment, as the disease progresses efficacy often fluctuates over the course of the day, and clinical management would benefit from long-term objective measures of gait. We have previously described a small device worn on the shank that uses acceleration and angular velocity sensors to calculate stride length and identify freezing of gait in PD patients. In this study we extend validation of the gait monitor to 24-h using simultaneous video observation of PD patients. Methods A sleep laboratory was adapted to perform 24-hr video monitoring of patients while wearing the device. Continuous video monitoring of a sleep lab, hallway, kitchen and conference room was performed using a 4-camera security system and recorded to hard disk. Subjects (3 wore the gait monitor on the left shank (just above the ankle for a 24-h period beginning around 5 pm in the evening. Accuracy of stride length measures were assessed at the beginning and end of the 24-h epoch. Two independent observers rated the video logs to identify when subjects were walking or lying down. Results The mean error in stride length at the start of recording was 0.05 m (SD 0 and at the conclusion of the 24 h epoch was 0.06 m (SD 0.026. There was full agreement between observer coding of the video logs and the output from the gait monitor software; that is, for every video observation of the subject walking there was a corresponding pulse in the monitor data that indicated gait. Conclusions The accuracy of ambulatory stride length measurement was maintained over the 24-h period, and there was 100% agreement between the autonomous detection of locomotion by the gait monitor and video observation.

  9. The Combined Effects of Body Weight Support and Gait Speed on Gait Related Muscle Activity: A Comparison between Walking in the Lokomat Exoskeleton and Regular Treadmill Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kammen, Klaske; Boonstra, Annemarijke; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen; den Otter, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background For the development of specialized training protocols for robot assisted gait training, it is important to understand how the use of exoskeletons alters locomotor task demands, and how the nature and magnitude of these changes depend on training parameters. Therefore, the present study assessed the combined effects of gait speed and body weight support (BWS) on muscle activity, and compared these between treadmill walking and walking in the Lokomat exoskeleton. Methods Ten healthy participants walked on a treadmill and in the Lokomat, with varying levels of BWS (0% and 50% of the participants’ body weight) and gait speed (0.8, 1.8, and 2.8 km/h), while temporal step characteristics and muscle activity from Erector Spinae, Gluteus Medius, Vastus Lateralis, Biceps Femoris, Gastrocnemius Medialis, and Tibialis Anterior muscles were recorded. Results The temporal structure of the stepping pattern was altered when participants walked in the Lokomat or when BWS was provided (i.e. the relative duration of the double support phase was reduced, and the single support phase prolonged), but these differences normalized as gait speed increased. Alternations in muscle activity were characterized by complex interactions between walking conditions and training parameters: Differences between treadmill walking and walking in the exoskeleton were most prominent at low gait speeds, and speed effects were attenuated when BWS was provided. Conclusion Walking in the Lokomat exoskeleton without movement guidance alters the temporal step regulation and the neuromuscular control of walking, although the nature and magnitude of these effects depend on complex interactions with gait speed and BWS. If normative neuromuscular control of gait is targeted during training, it is recommended that very low speeds and high levels of BWS should be avoided when possible. PMID:25226302

  10. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denti Paolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate

  11. Machine learning techniques for gait biometric recognition using the ground reaction force

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, James Eric; Woungang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on how machine learning techniques can be used to analyze and make use of one particular category of behavioral biometrics known as the gait biometric. A comprehensive Ground Reaction Force (GRF)-based Gait Biometrics Recognition framework is proposed and validated by experiments. In addition, an in-depth analysis of existing recognition techniques that are best suited for performing footstep GRF-based person recognition is also proposed, as well as a comparison of feature extractors, normalizers, and classifiers configurations that were never directly compared with one another in any previous GRF recognition research. Finally, a detailed theoretical overview of many existing machine learning techniques is presented, leading to a proposal of two novel data processing techniques developed specifically for the purpose of gait biometric recognition using GRF. This book · introduces novel machine-learning-based temporal normalization techniques · bridges research gaps concerning the effect of ...

  12. Shotgun approaches to gait analysis : insights & limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Ronald G.; Wezenberg, Daphne; IJmker, Trienke; Houdijk, Han; Beek, Peter J.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identifying features for gait classification is a formidable problem. The number of candidate measures is legion. This calls for proper, objective criteria when ranking their relevance. Methods: Following a shotgun approach we determined a plenitude of kinematic and physiological gait

  13. [Subjective Gait Stability in the Elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Theresa; Lampe, Jasmin; Michalk, Katrin; Röder, Lotte; Munsch, Karoline; Marquardt, Jonas

    2017-07-10

    It can be assumed that the feeling of gait stability or gait instability in the elderly may be independent of a possible fear of falling or a history of falling when walking. Up to now, there has been a lack of spatiotemporal gait parameters for older people who subjectively feel secure when walking. The aim of the study is to analyse the distribution of various gait parameters for older people who subjectively feel secure when walking. In a cross-sectional study, the gait parameters stride time, step time, stride length, step length, double support, single support, and walking speed were measured using a Vicon three-dimensional motion capture system (Plug-In Gait Lower-Body Marker Set) in 31 healthy people aged 65 years and older (mean age 72 ± 3.54 years) who subjectively feel secure when walking. There was a homogeneous distribution in the gait parameters examined, with no abnormalities. The mean values have a low variance with narrow confidence intervals. This study provides evidence that people who subjectively feel secure when walking demonstrate similarly objective gait parameters..

  14. Gait analysis by high school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, A.; van Dongen, C.

    2008-01-01

    Human walking is a complicated motion. Movement scientists have developed various research methods to study gait. This article describes how a high school student collected and analysed high quality gait data in much the same way that movement scientists do, via the recording and measurement of

  15. Outcomes following kinesthetic feedback for gait training in a direct access environment: a case report on social wellness in relation to gait impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blievernicht, Jessica; Sullivan, Kate; Erickson, Mark R

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe the outcomes following the use of kinesthetic feedback as a primary intervention strategy for gait training. The plan of care for this 22-year-old female addressed the patient's social wellness goal of "walking more normally," using motor learning principles. At initial examination, the patient demonstrated asymmetries for gait kinematics between the left and right lower extremity (analyzed using video motion analysis), pattern of force distribution at the foot, and activation of specific lower extremity muscles (as measured by surface electromyography). Interventions for this patient consisted of neuromuscular and body awareness training, with an emphasis on kinesthetic feedback. Weekly sessions lasted 30-60 minutes over 4 weeks. The patient was prescribed a home program of walking 30-60 minutes three times/week at a comfortable pace while concentrating on gait correction through kinesthetic awareness of specific deviations. Following intervention, the patient's gait improved across all objective measures. She reported receiving positive comments from others regarding improved gait and a twofold increase in her walking confidence. Outcomes support a broadened scope of practice that incorporates previously unreported integration of a patient's social wellness goals into patient management.

  16. Noisy interlimb coordination can be a main cause of freezing of gait in patients with little to no parkinsonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Tanahashi

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease is associated with several factors, including interlimb incoordination and impaired gait cycle regulation. Gait analysis in patients with Parkinson's disease is confounded by parkinsonian symptoms such as rigidity. To understand the mechanisms underlying freezing of gait, we compared gait patterns during straight walking between 9 patients with freezing of gait but little to no parkinsonism (freezing patients and 11 patients with Parkinson's disease (non-freezing patients. Wireless sensors were used to detect foot contact and toe-off events, and the step phase of each foot contact was calculated by defining one stride cycle of the other leg as 360°. Phase-resetting analysis was performed, whereby the relation between the step phase of one leg and the subsequent phase change in the following step of the other leg was quantified using regression analysis. A small slope of the regression line indicates a forceful correction (phase reset at every step of the deviation of step phase from the equilibrium phase, usually at around 180°. The slope of this relation was smaller in freezing patients than in non-freezing patients, but the slope exhibited larger step-to-step variability. This indicates that freezing patients executed a forceful but noisy correction of the deviation of step phase, whereas non-freezing patients made a gradual correction of the deviation. Moreover, freezing patients tended to show more variable step phase and stride time than non-freezing patients. Dynamics of a model of two coupled oscillators interacting through a phase resetting mechanism were examined, and indicated that the deterioration of phase reset by noise provoked variability in step phase and stride time. That is, interlimb coordination can affect regulation of the gait cycle. These results suggest that noisy interlimb coordination, which probably caused forceful corrections of step phase deviation, can be a

  17. A gait stability investigation into FES-assisted paraplegic walking based on the walker tipping index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Dong; Bai, Yanru; Liu, Xiuyun; Qi, Hongzhi; Cheng, Longlong; Wan, Baikun; Hu, Yong; Wong, Yatwa; Luk, Keith D K; Leong, John C Y

    2009-12-01

    The gait outcome measures used in clinical trials of paraplegic locomotor training determine the effectiveness of improved walking function assisted by the functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. Focused on kinematic, kinetic or physiological changes of paraplegic patients, traditional methods cannot quantify the walking stability or identify the unstable factors of gait in real time. Up until now, the published studies on dynamic gait stability for the effective use of FES have been limited. In this paper, the walker tipping index (WTI) was used to analyze and process gait stability in FES-assisted paraplegic walking. The main instrument was a specialized walker dynamometer system based on a multi-channel strain-gauge bridge network fixed on the frame of the walker. This system collected force information for the handle reaction vector between the patient's upper extremities and the walker during the walking process; the information was then converted into walker tipping index data, which is an evaluation indicator of the patient's walking stability. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of WTI in gait analysis, a preliminary clinical trial was conducted with seven paraplegic patients who were undergoing FES-assisted walking training and seven normal control subjects. The gait stability levels were quantified for these patients under different stimulation patterns and controls under normal walking with knee-immobilization through WTI analysis. The results showed that the walking stability in the FES-assisted paraplegic group was worse than that in the control subject group, with the primary concern being in the anterior-posterior plane. This new technique is practical for distinguishing useful gait information from the viewpoint of stability, and may be further applied in FES-assisted paraplegic walking rehabilitation.

  18. A gait stability investigation into FES-assisted paraplegic walking based on the walker tipping index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Dong; Bai, Yanru; Liu, Xiuyun; Qi, Hongzhi; Cheng, Longlong; Wan, Baikun; Hu, Yong; Wong, Yatwa; Luk, Keith D. K.; Leong, John C. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The gait outcome measures used in clinical trials of paraplegic locomotor training determine the effectiveness of improved walking function assisted by the functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. Focused on kinematic, kinetic or physiological changes of paraplegic patients, traditional methods cannot quantify the walking stability or identify the unstable factors of gait in real time. Up until now, the published studies on dynamic gait stability for the effective use of FES have been limited. In this paper, the walker tipping index (WTI) was used to analyze and process gait stability in FES-assisted paraplegic walking. The main instrument was a specialized walker dynamometer system based on a multi-channel strain-gauge bridge network fixed on the frame of the walker. This system collected force information for the handle reaction vector between the patient's upper extremities and the walker during the walking process; the information was then converted into walker tipping index data, which is an evaluation indicator of the patient's walking stability. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of WTI in gait analysis, a preliminary clinical trial was conducted with seven paraplegic patients who were undergoing FES-assisted walking training and seven normal control subjects. The gait stability levels were quantified for these patients under different stimulation patterns and controls under normal walking with knee-immobilization through WTI analysis. The results showed that the walking stability in the FES-assisted paraplegic group was worse than that in the control subject group, with the primary concern being in the anterior-posterior plane. This new technique is practical for distinguishing useful gait information from the viewpoint of stability, and may be further applied in FES-assisted paraplegic walking rehabilitation.

  19. Transitions between three swimming gaits in Paramecium escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Amandine; Fisch, Cathy; Combettes, Laurent; Dupuis-Williams, Pascale; Baroud, Charles N

    2011-05-03

    Paramecium and other protists are able to swim at velocities reaching several times their body size per second by beating their cilia in an organized fashion. The cilia beat in an asymmetric stroke, which breaks the time reversal symmetry of small scale flows. Here we show that Paramecium uses three different swimming gaits to escape from an aggression, applied in the form of a focused laser heating. For a weak aggression, normal swimming is sufficient and produces a steady swimming velocity. As the heating amplitude is increased, a higher acceleration and faster swimming are achieved through synchronized beating of the cilia, which begin by producing oscillating swimming velocities and later give way to the usual gait. Finally, escape from a life-threatening aggression is achieved by a "jumping" gait, which does not rely on the cilia but is achieved through the explosive release of a group of trichocysts in the direction of the hot spot. Measurements through high-speed video explain the role of trichocysts in defending against aggressions while showing unexpected transitions in the swimming of microorganisms. These measurements also demonstrate that Paramecium optimizes its escape pattern by taking advantage of its inertia.

  20. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI, AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition.

  1. Physiotherapy Effects in Gait Speed in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Klejda; Kola, Irena; Dhamaj, Fregen; Shpata, Vjollca; Zallari, Kiri

    2018-03-15

    Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative disease, known as the most common cause of difficulty walking in older adults and subsequently is associated with slow walking. Also one of the main symptoms is a degenerative and mechanics type of pain. Pain is very noticeable while walking in rugged terrain, during ascent and descent of stairs, when changing from sitting to standing position as well as staying in one position for a long time. Many studies have shown that the strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle can affect gait, by improving or weakening it. Kinesio Tape is a physiotherapeutic technique, which reduces pain and increases muscular strength by irritating the skin receptors. The aims of this study was first to verify if the application of Kinesio Tape on quadriceps femoris muscle increases gait speed in patients with knee osteoarthritis and secondly if applying Kinesio Tape on quadriceps femoris muscle reduces pain while walking. Seventy-four patients with primary knee osteoarthritis, aged 50 - 73 years, participated in this study. Firstly we observed the change of gait speed, while walking for 10 meters at normal speed for each patient, before, one day and three days after the application of Kinesio Tape on quadriceps femoris muscle, with the help of the 10 - meter walk test. Secondly, we observed the change of pain, while walking for 10 meters at normal speed for each patient, before, one day and three days after the application, with the help of Numerical Pain Rating Scale - NRS. Our results indicated that there was a significant increase in gait speed while walking for 10 meters one day and also three days after application of Kinesio Tape on quadriceps femoris muscle. Also, there was a significant reduction of pain level 1 and 3 days after application of Kinesio Tape, compared to the level of pain before its application. Our results indicated that there was a significant decrease in pain and increase of gait speed while walking for 10 meters

  2. Comparison of the Classifier Oriented Gait Score and the Gait Profile Score based on imitated gait impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Josef; Kröll, Josef; Schwameder, Hermann

    2017-06-01

    Common summary measures of gait quality such as the Gait Profile Score (GPS) are based on the principle of measuring a distance from the mean pattern of a healthy reference group in a gait pattern vector space. The recently introduced Classifier Oriented Gait Score (COGS) is a pathology specific score that measures this distance in a unique direction, which is indicated by a linear classifier. This approach has potentially improved the discriminatory power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns but does not incorporate a profile of interpretable sub-scores like the GPS. The main aims of this study were to extend the COGS by decomposing it into interpretable sub-scores as realized in the GPS and to compare the discriminative power of the GPS and COGS. Two types of gait impairments were imitated to enable a high level of control of the gait patterns. Imitated impairments were realized by restricting knee extension and inducing leg length discrepancy. The results showed increased discriminatory power of the COGS for differentiating diverse levels of impairment. Comparison of the GPS and COGS sub-scores and their ability to indicate changes in specific variables supports the validity of both scores. The COGS is an overall measure of gait quality with increased power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns and might be well suited for tracing the effect of a therapeutic treatment over time. The newly introduced sub-scores improved the interpretability of the COGS, which is helpful for practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased lower limb muscle coactivation reduces gait performance and increases metabolic cost in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Martina; Ranavolo, Alberto; Conforto, Silvia; Martino, Giovanni; Draicchio, Francesco; Conte, Carmela; Varrecchia, Tiwana; Bini, Fabiano; Casali, Carlo; Pierelli, Francesco; Serrao, Mariano

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the lower limb muscle coactivation and its relationship with muscles spasticity, gait performance, and metabolic cost in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis. Kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic and energetic parameters of 23 patients and 23 controls were evaluated by computerized gait analysis system. We computed ankle and knee antagonist muscle coactivation indexes throughout the gait cycle and during the subphases of gait. Energy consumption and energy recovery were measured as well. In addition to the correlation analysis between coactivation indexes and clinical variables, correlations between coactivation indexes and time-distance, kinematic, kinetic, and energetic parameters were estimated. Increased coactivity indexes of both knee and ankle muscles throughout the gait cycle and during the subphases of gait were observed in patients compared with controls. Energetic parameters were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Both knee and ankle muscle coactivation indexes were positively correlated with knee and ankle spasticity (Ashworth score), respectively. Knee and ankle muscle coactivation indexes were both positively correlated with energy consumption and both negatively correlated with energy recovery. Positive correlations between the Ashworth score and lower limb muscle coactivation suggest that abnormal lower limb muscle coactivation in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis reflects a primary deficit linked to lower limb spasticity. Furthermore, these abnormalities influence the energetic mechanisms during walking. Identifying excessive muscle coactivation may be helpful in individuating the rehabilitative treatments and designing specific orthosis to restrain spasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Automated extraction and validation of children's gait parameters with the Kinect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiian, Saeid; Pergami, Paola; Guffey, Keegan; Mancinelli, Corrie A; Doretto, Gianfranco

    2015-12-02

    Gait analysis for therapy regimen prescription and monitoring requires patients to physically access clinics with specialized equipment. The timely availability of such infrastructure at the right frequency is especially important for small children. Besides being very costly, this is a challenge for many children living in rural areas. This is why this work develops a low-cost, portable, and automated approach for in-home gait analysis, based on the Microsoft Kinect. A robust and efficient method for extracting gait parameters is introduced, which copes with the high variability of noisy Kinect skeleton tracking data experienced across the population of young children. This is achieved by temporally segmenting the data with an approach based on coupling a probabilistic matching of stride template models, learned offline, with the estimation of their global and local temporal scaling. A preliminary study conducted on healthy children between 2 and 4 years of age is performed to analyze the accuracy, precision, repeatability, and concurrent validity of the proposed method against the GAITRite when measuring several spatial and temporal children's gait parameters. The method has excellent accuracy and good precision, with segmenting temporal sequences of body joint locations into stride and step cycles. Also, the spatial and temporal gait parameters, estimated automatically, exhibit good concurrent validity with those provided by the GAITRite, as well as very good repeatability. In particular, on a range of nine gait parameters, the relative and absolute agreements were found to be good and excellent, and the overall agreements were found to be good and moderate. This work enables and validates the automated use of the Kinect for children's gait analysis in healthy subjects. In particular, the approach makes a step forward towards developing a low-cost, portable, parent-operated in-home tool for clinicians assisting young children.

  5. Plantar Pressure During Gait in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique

    2016-11-01

    During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women, and 23 healthy nonpregnant women (control group) performed gait trials on an electronic walkway at preferred speeds. The results for the three groups were compared using analysis of variance. During pregnancy, peak pressure and contact area decreased for the forefoot and rearfoot. These parameters increased significantly for the midfoot. The gait strategy seemed to be lateralization of gait with an increased contact area of the lateral midfoot and both reduced pressure and a later peak time on the medial forefoot. In the postpartum group, footprint parameters were modified compared with the pregnant group, indicating a trend toward partial return to control values, although differences persisted between the postpartum and control groups. Pregnant women had altered plantar pressures during gait. These findings could define a specific pattern of gait footprints in late pregnancy because plantar pressures had characteristics that could maintain a stable and safe gait.

  6. Balance and gait in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Talcott, Joel B; Toennessen, Finn Egil

    2003-05-01

    Tests of postural stability have provided some evidence of a link between deficits in gross motor skills and developmental dyslexia. The ordinal-level scales used previously, however, have limited measurement sensitivity, and no studies have investigated motor performance during walking in participants with dyslexia. The purpose of this study was to investigate if continuous-scaled measures of standing balance and gait could discriminate between groups of impaired and normal readers when investigators were blind to group membership during testing. Children with dyslexia ( n=22) and controls ( n=18), aged 10-12 years, performed walking tests at four different speeds (slow-preferred-fast-very fast) on an even and an uneven surface, and tests of unperturbed and perturbed body sway during standing. Body movements were registered by a triaxial accelerometer over the lower trunk, and measures of reaction time, body sway, walking speed, step length and cadence were calculated. Results were controlled for gender differences. Tests of standing balance with eyes closed did not discriminate between groups. All unperturbed standing tests with eyes open showed significant group differences ( Pwalking speed during very fast walking on both flat and uneven surface was > or =0.2 m/s ( Pwalking speed ( Pwalking speed as well as cadence at a normalised speed discriminated better between groups when subjects were walking on an uneven surface compared to a flat floor. Continuous-scaled walking tests performed in field settings may be suitable for motor skill assessment as a component of a screening tool for developmental dyslexia.

  7. Gait variability: methods, modeling and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausdorff Jeffrey M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of gait variability, the stride-to-stride fluctuations in walking, offers a complementary way of quantifying locomotion and its changes with aging and disease as well as a means of monitoring the effects of therapeutic interventions and rehabilitation. Previous work has suggested that measures of gait variability may be more closely related to falls, a serious consequence of many gait disorders, than are measures based on the mean values of other walking parameters. The Current JNER series presents nine reports on the results of recent investigations into gait variability. One novel method for collecting unconstrained, ambulatory data is reviewed, and a primer on analysis methods is presented along with a heuristic approach to summarizing variability measures. In addition, the first studies of gait variability in animal models of neurodegenerative disease are described, as is a mathematical model of human walking that characterizes certain complex (multifractal features of the motor control's pattern generator. Another investigation demonstrates that, whereas both healthy older controls and patients with a higher-level gait disorder walk more slowly in reduced lighting, only the latter's stride variability increases. Studies of the effects of dual tasks suggest that the regulation of the stride-to-stride fluctuations in stride width and stride time may be influenced by attention loading and may require cognitive input. Finally, a report of gait variability in over 500 subjects, probably the largest study of this kind, suggests how step width variability may relate to fall risk. Together, these studies provide new insights into the factors that regulate the stride-to-stride fluctuations in walking and pave the way for expanded research into the control of gait and the practical application of measures of gait variability in the clinical setting.

  8. Self-perceived gait stability modulates the effect of daily life gait quality on prospective falls in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, R H A; Hoozemans, M J M; van Dieën, J H; Pijnappels, M

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality of gait during daily life activities and perceived gait stability are both independent risk factors for future falls in older adults. RESEARCH QUESTION: We investigated whether perceived gait stability modulates the association between gait quality and falling in older adults.

  9. Gait variability measurements in lumbar spinal stenosis patients: part B. Preoperative versus postoperative gait variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, N C; Christakis, D G; Tzagarakis, G N; Chlouverakis, G I; Kampanis, N A; Stergiopoulos, K N; Katonis, P G

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the gait variability of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients and to evaluate its postoperative progression. The hypothesis was that LSS patients' preoperative gait variability in the frequency domain was higher than the corresponding postoperative. A tri-axial accelerometer sensor was used for the gait measurement and a spectral differential entropy algorithm was used to measure the gait variability. Twelve subjects with LSS were measured before and after surgery. Preoperative measurements were performed 2 days before surgery. Postoperative measurements were performed 6 and 12 months after surgery. Preoperative gait variability was higher than the corresponding postoperative. Also, in most cases, gait variability appeared to decrease throughout the year

  10. The association between premature plantarflexor muscle activity, muscle strength, and equinus gait in patients with various pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Katrin; Romkes, Jacqueline; Brunner, Reinald

    2013-09-01

    This study provides an overview on the association between premature plantarflexor muscle activity (PPF), muscle strength, and equinus gait in patients with various pathologies. The purpose was to evaluate whether muscular weakness and biomechanical alterations are aetiological factors for PPF during walking, independent of the underlying pathology. In a retrospective design, 716 patients from our clinical database with 46 different pathologies (orthopaedic and neurologic) were evaluated. Gait analysis data of the patients included kinematics, kinetics, electromyographic activity (EMG) data, and manual muscle strength testing. All patients were clustered three times. First, patients were grouped according to their primary pathology. Second, all patients were again clustered, this time according to their impaired joints. Third, groups of patients with normal EMG or PPF, and equinus or normal foot contact were formed to evaluate the association between PPF and equinus gait. The patient groups derived by the first two cluster methods were further subdivided into patients with normal or reduced muscle strength. Additionally, the phi correlation coefficient was calculated between PPF and equinus gait. Independent of the clustering, PPF was present in all patient groups. Weak patients revealed PPF more frequently. The correlations of PPF and equinus gait were lower than expected, due to patients with normal EMG during loading response and equinus. These patients, however, showed higher gastrocnemius activity prior to foot strike together with lower peak tibialis anterior muscle activity in loading response. Patients with PPF and a normal foot contact possibly apply the plantarflexion-knee extension couple during loading response. While increased gastrocnemius activity around foot strike seems essential for equinus gait, premature gastrocnemius activity does not necessarily produce an equinus gait. We conclude that premature gastrocnemius activity is strongly associated

  11. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nikaido, Yasutaka; Jono, Yasutomo; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the...

  12. Changes in gait patterns induced by rhythmic auditory stimulation for adolescents with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Ji; Shin, Yoon-Kyum; Yoo, Ga Eul; Chong, Hyun Ju; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2016-12-01

    The effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on gait in adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) were investigated. A total of 14 adolescents with ABI were initially recruited, and 12 were included in the final analysis (n = 6 each). They were randomly assigned to the experimental (RAS) or the control (conventional gait training) groups. The experimental group received gait training with RAS three times a week for 4 weeks. For both groups, spatiotemporal parameters and kinematic data, such as dynamic motions of joints on three-dimensional planes during a gait cycle and the range of motion in each joint, were collected. Significant group differences in pre-post changes were observed in cadence, walking velocity, and step time, indicating that there were greater improvements in those parameters in the RAS group compared with the control group. Significant increases in hip and knee motions in the sagittal plane were also observed in the RAS group. The changes in kinematic data significantly differed between groups, particularly from terminal stance to mid-swing phase. An increase of both spatiotemporal parameters and corresponding kinematic changes of hip and knee joints after RAS protocol indicates that the use of rhythmic cueing may change gait patterns in adolescents with ABI. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. An accelerometry-based comparison of 2 robotic assistive devices for treadmill training of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Saremi, Kaveh; Marehbian, Jon; Bussel, Bernard; Dobkin, Bruce H

    2008-01-01

    Two commercial robotic devices, the Gait Trainer (GT) and the Lokomat (LOKO), assist task-oriented practice of walking. The gait patterns induced by these motor-driven devices have not been characterized and compared. A healthy participant chose the most comfortable gait pattern on each device and for treadmill (TM) walking at 1, 2 (maximum for the GT), and 3 km/h and over ground at similar speeds. A system of accelerometers on the thighs and feet allowed the calculation of spatiotemporal features and accelerations during the gait cycle. At the 1 and 2 km/h speed settings, single-limb stance times were prolonged on the devices compared with overground walking. Differences on the LOKO were decreased by adjusting the hip and knee angles and step length. At the 3 km/h setting, the LOKO approximated the participant's overground parameters. Irregular accelerations and decelerations from toe-off to heel contact were induced by the devices, especially at slower speeds. The LOKO and GT impose mechanical constraints that may alter leg accelerations-decelerations during stance and swing phases, as well as stance duration, especially at their slower speed settings, that are not found during TM and overground walking. The potential impact of these perturbations on training to improve gait needs further study.

  14. Measuring Gait Quality in Parkinson’s Disease through Real-Time Gait Phase Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Mileti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring gait quality in daily activities through wearable sensors has the potential to improve medical assessment in Parkinson’s Disease (PD. In this study, four gait partitioning methods, two based on thresholds and two based on a machine learning approach, considering the four-phase model, were compared. The methods were tested on 26 PD patients, both in OFF and ON levodopa conditions, and 11 healthy subjects, during walking tasks. All subjects were equipped with inertial sensors placed on feet. Force resistive sensors were used to assess reference time sequence of gait phases. Goodness Index (G was evaluated to assess accuracy in gait phases estimation. A novel synthetic index called Gait Phase Quality Index (GPQI was proposed for gait quality assessment. Results revealed optimum performance (G < 0.25 for three tested methods and good performance (0.25 < G < 0.70 for one threshold method. The GPQI resulted significantly higher in PD patients than in healthy subjects, showing a moderate correlation with clinical scales score. Furthermore, in patients with severe gait impairment, GPQI was found higher in OFF than in ON state. Our results unveil the possibility of monitoring gait quality in PD through real-time gait partitioning based on wearable sensors.

  15. Use of hippotherapy in gait training for hemiparetic post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinotti, Fernanda; Correia, Nilzete; Christofoletti, Gustavo; Borges, Guilherme

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the hippotherapy influence on gait training in post-stroke hemiparetic individuals. The study was constituted of 20 individuals divided into two groups. Group A performed the conventional treatment while group B the conventional treatment along with hippotherapy during 16 weeks. The patients were evaluated by using the Functional Ambulation Category Scale, Fugl-Meyer Scale, only the lower limbs and balance sub items, Berg Balance Scale, and functional assessment of gait (cadence) in the beginning and end of the treatment. Significant improvements were observed in the experimental group including motor impairment in lower limbs (p=0.004), balance, over time (p=0.007) but a significant trend between groups (p=0.056). The gait independence, cadence and speed were not significantly in both groups (p=0.93, 0.69 and 0.44). Hippotherapy associated with conventional physical therapy demonstrates a positive influence in gait training, besides bringing the patients' gait standard closer to normality than the control group.

  16. Human gait recognition by pyramid of HOG feature on silhouette images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Park, Jeanrok; Man, Hong

    2013-03-01

    As a uncommon biometric modality, human gait recognition has a great advantage of identify people at a distance without high resolution images. It has attracted much attention in recent years, especially in the fields of computer vision and remote sensing. In this paper, we propose a human gait recognition framework that consists of a reliable background subtraction method followed by the pyramid of Histogram of Gradient (pHOG) feature extraction on the silhouette image, and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based classifier. Through background subtraction, the silhouette of human gait in each frame is extracted and normalized from the raw video sequence. After removing the shadow and noise in each region of interest (ROI), pHOG feature is computed on the silhouettes images. Then the pHOG features of each gait class will be used to train a corresponding HMM. In the test stage, pHOG feature will be extracted from each test sequence and used to calculate the posterior probability toward each trained HMM model. Experimental results on the CASIA Gait Dataset B1 demonstrate that with our proposed method can achieve very competitive recognition rate.

  17. Metronome cueing of walking reduces gait variability after a cerebellar stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lindsey Wright

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar stroke typically results in increased variability during walking. Previous research has suggested that auditory-cueing reduces excessive variability in conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and post-stroke hemiparesis. The aim of this case report was to investigate whether the use of a metronome cue during walking could reduce excessive variability in gait parameters after a cerebellar stroke. An elderly female with a history of cerebellar stroke and recurrent falling undertook 3 standard gait trials and 3 gait trials with an auditory metronome. A Vicon system was used to collect 3-D marker trajectory data. The coefficient of variation was calculated for temporal and spatial gait parameters. Standard deviations of the joint angles were calculated and used to give a measure of joint kinematic variability. Step time, stance time and double support time variability were reduced with metronome cueing. Variability in the sagittal hip, knee and ankle angles were reduced to normal values when walking to the metronome. In summary, metronome cueing resulted in a decrease in variability for step, stance and double support times and joint kinematics. Further research is needed to establish whether a metronome may be useful in gait rehabilitation after cerebellar stroke, and whether this leads to a decreased risk of falling.

  18. Metronome Cueing of Walking Reduces Gait Variability after a Cerebellar Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rachel L; Bevins, Joseph W; Pratt, David; Sackley, Catherine M; Wing, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar stroke typically results in increased variability during walking. Previous research has suggested that auditory cueing reduces excessive variability in conditions such as Parkinson's disease and post-stroke hemiparesis. The aim of this case report was to investigate whether the use of a metronome cue during walking could reduce excessive variability in gait parameters after a cerebellar stroke. An elderly female with a history of cerebellar stroke and recurrent falling undertook three standard gait trials and three gait trials with an auditory metronome. A Vicon system was used to collect 3-D marker trajectory data. The coefficient of variation was calculated for temporal and spatial gait parameters. SDs of the joint angles were calculated and used to give a measure of joint kinematic variability. Step time, stance time, and double support time variability were reduced with metronome cueing. Variability in the sagittal hip, knee, and ankle angles were reduced to normal values when walking to the metronome. In summary, metronome cueing resulted in a decrease in variability for step, stance, and double support times and joint kinematics. Further research is needed to establish whether a metronome may be useful in gait rehabilitation after cerebellar stroke and whether this leads to a decreased risk of falling.

  19. Use of hippotherapy in gait training for hemiparetic post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Beinotti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hippotherapy influence on gait training in post-stroke hemiparetic individuals. METHOD: The study was constituted of 20 individuals divided into two groups. Group A performed the conventional treatment while group B the conventional treatment along with hippotherapy during 16 weeks. The patients were evaluated by using the Functional Ambulation Category Scale, Fugl-Meyer Scale, only the lower limbs and balance sub items, Berg Balance Scale, and functional assessment of gait (cadence in the beginning and end of the treatment. RESULTS: Significant improvements were observed in the experimental group including motor impairment in lower limbs (p=0.004, balance, over time (p=0.007 but a significant trend between groups (p=0.056. The gait independence, cadence and speed were not significantly in both groups (p=0.93, 0.69 and 0.44. CONCLUSION: Hippotherapy associated with conventional physical therapy demonstrates a positive influence in gait training, besides bringing the patients' gait standard closer to normality than the control group.

  20. Effects of physiotherapy treatment on knee osteoarthritis gait data using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Nathaly; Mezghani, Neila; Turcot, Katia; Hagemeister, Nicola; Boivin, Karine; de Guise, Jacques A

    2011-03-01

    Interpreting gait data is challenging due to intersubject variability observed in the gait pattern of both normal and pathological populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of using principal component analysis for grouping knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients' gait data in more homogeneous groups when studying the effect of a physiotherapy treatment. Three-dimensional (3D) knee kinematic and kinetic data were recorded during the gait of 29 participants diagnosed with knee OA before and after they received 12 weeks of physiotherapy treatment. Principal component analysis was applied to extract groups of knee flexion/extension, adduction/abduction and internal/external rotation angle and moment data. The treatment's effect on parameters of interest was assessed using paired t-tests performed before and after grouping the knee kinematic data. Increased quadriceps and hamstring strength was observed following treatment (Pphysiotherapy on gait mechanics of knee osteoarthritis patients may be masked or underestimated if kinematic data are not separated into more homogeneous groups when performing pre- and post-treatment comparisons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detecting Gait Asymmetry with Wearable Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    by overuse. Common overuse injuries include stress fractures , tendinitis, bursitis, fasciitis, and medial tibial stress syndrome (shin splints) [11...magnitude feature values for subject 1 are shown in (a), before and after repetitive stress injury. Magnitude and pattern features are plotted in...Dudziñski, A. Lees, M. Lake, and M. Wychowañski, “Adjustments in gait symmetry with walking speed in trans-femoral and trans- tibial amputees,” Gait

  2. Kinematic gait analyses in healthy Golden Retrievers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Gabriela C.A.; Cardoso, Mariana Trés; Gaiad, Thais P.; Brolio, Marina P.; Oliveira, Vanessa C.; Assis Neto, Antonio; Martins, Daniele S.; Ambrósio, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female,...

  3. Predictive Simulations of Neuromuscular Coordination and Joint-Contact Loading in Human Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chung; Walter, Jonathan P; Pandy, Marcus G

    2018-04-18

    We implemented direct collocation on a full-body neuromusculoskeletal model to calculate muscle forces, ground reaction forces and knee contact loading simultaneously for one cycle of human gait. A data-tracking collocation problem was solved for walking at the normal speed to establish the practicality of incorporating a 3D model of articular contact and a model of foot-ground interaction explicitly in a dynamic optimization simulation. The data-tracking solution then was used as an initial guess to solve predictive collocation problems, where novel patterns of movement were generated for walking at slow and fast speeds, independent of experimental data. The data-tracking solutions accurately reproduced joint motion, ground forces and knee contact loads measured for two total knee arthroplasty patients walking at their preferred speeds. RMS errors in joint kinematics were joint kinematics, ground forces, knee contact loads and muscle activation patterns measured for slow and fast walking. The results demonstrate the feasibility of performing computationally-efficient, predictive, dynamic optimization simulations of movement using full-body, muscle-actuated models with realistic representations of joint function.

  4. A Comparison of the Physiology and Mechanics of Exercise in LBNP and Upright Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, W. L.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Chang, D.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Bone, muscular strength, aerobic capacity, and normal fluid pressure gradients within the body are lost during bed rest and spaceflight. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) exercise may create musculoskeletal and cardiovascular strains equal to a greater than those experienced on Earth and elucidate some of the mechanisms for maintaining bone integrity. LBNP exercise simulates gravity during supine posture by using negative pressure to pull subjects inward against a treadmill generating footward forces and increasing transmural pressures. Footward forces are generated which equal the product of the pressure differential and the cross-sectional area of the LBNP waist seal. Subjects lie supine within the chamber with their legs suspended from one another via cuffs, bungee cords, and pulleys, such that each leg acts as a counterweight to the other leg during the gait cycle. The subjects then walk or run on a treadmill which is positioned vertically within the chamber. Supine orientation allows only footward force production due to the negative pressure within the chamber. The purpose of this study was to determine if the kinematics, kinetics, and metabolic rate during supine walking and slow running on a vertical treadmill within LBNP are similar to those on a treadmill in 1-g environment in an upright posture.

  5. Gait adaptations to awareness and experience of a slip when walking on a cross-slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Daniel; Domone, Sarah; Heller, Ben; Hendra, Timothy; Mawson, Susan; Wheat, Jon

    2015-10-01

    Falls that occur as a result of a slip are one of the leading causes of injuries, particularly in the elderly population. Previous studies have focused on slips that occur on a flat surface. Slips on a laterally sloping surface are important and may be related to different mechanisms of balance recovery. This type of slip might result in different gait adaptations to those previously described on a flat surface, but these adaptations have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess whether, when walking on a cross-slope, young adults adapted their gait when made aware of a potential slip, and having experienced a slip. Gait parameters were compared for three conditions--(1) Normal walking; (2) Walking after being made aware of a potential slip (participants were told that a slip may occur); (3) Walking after experiencing a slip (Participants had already experienced at least one slip induced using a soapy contaminant). Gait parameters were only analysed for trials in which there was no slippery contaminant present on the walkway. Stride length and walking velocity were significantly reduced, and stance duration was significantly greater in the awareness and experience conditions compared to normal walking, with no significant differences in any gait parameters between the awareness and experience conditions. In addition, 46.7% of the slip trials resulted in a fall. This is higher than reported for slips induced on a flat surface, suggesting slips on a cross-slope are more hazardous. This would help explain the more cautious gait patterns observed in both the awareness and experience conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The "butterfly diagram": A gait marker for neurological and cerebellar impairment in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Frid, Lior

    2015-11-15

    People with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) frequently experience walking and balance impairments. In our previous report, we demonstrated that spatio-temporal gait parameters, collected by the Zebris FDM-T instrumented treadmill (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany), serve as valid markers of neurological impairment in the MS population. In the current study, we focused on a unique outcome statistic of the instrumented treadmill, the "butterfly" diagram which reflects the variability of the center of pressure trajectory during walking. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the relationship between parameters related to the gait butterfly diagram and the level of neurological impairment in PwMS. Specifically we examined whether the gait butterfly parameters can differentiate between MS patients with normal cerebellar function and those suffering from ataxia. Demographic, neurological and gait parameters were collected from 341 PwMS, 213 women, aged 42.3 (S.D.=13.8). MS participants with ataxia demonstrated higher scores relating to the butterfly gait variability parameters compared to PwMS with normal or slightly abnormal cerebellar function. According to the results of the binary regression analysis, gait variability in the ant-post direction was found to explain 18.1% of the variance related to cerebellar function; R(2)=0.181, χ(2)(1)=67.852, P<0.001. Measurements derived from the butterfly diagram are proper estimators for important neurological functions in PwMS and should be considered in order to improve diagnosis and assessment of the MS population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gait analysis in a pre- and post-ischemic stroke biomedical pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein, Kylee Jo; Platt, Simon R; Holmes, Shannon P; Dove, C Robert; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Kent, Marc; Stice, Steven L; Hill, William D; Hess, David C; West, Franklin D

    2014-02-10

    Severity of neural injury including stroke in human patients, as well as recovery from injury, can be assessed through changes in gait patterns of affected individuals. Similar quantification of motor function deficits has been measured in rodent animal models of such injuries. However, due to differences in fundamental structure of human and rodent brains, there is a need to develop a large animal model to facilitate treatment development for neurological conditions. Porcine brain structure is similar to that of humans, and therefore the pig may make a more clinically relevant animal model. The current study was undertaken to determine key gait characteristics in normal biomedical miniature pigs and dynamic changes that occur post-neural injury in a porcine middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion ischemic stroke model. Yucatan miniature pigs were trained to walk through a semi-circular track and were recorded with high speed cameras to detect changes in key gait parameters. Analysis of normal pigs showed overall symmetry in hindlimb swing and stance times, forelimb stance time, along with step length, step velocity, and maximum hoof height on both fore and hindlimbs. A subset of pigs were again recorded at 7, 5 and 3 days prior to MCA occlusion and then at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 30 days following surgery. MRI analysis showed that MCA occlusion resulted in significant infarction. Gait analysis indicated that stroke resulted in notable asymmetries in both temporal and spatial variables. Pigs exhibited lower maximum front hoof height on the paretic side, as well as shorter swing time and longer stance time on the paretic hindlimb. These results support that gait analysis of stroke injury is a highly sensitive detection method for changes in gait parameters in pig. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gait Partitioning Methods: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborri, Juri; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments. PMID:26751449

  9. Gait Disorders In Patients After Polytrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakušonoka Ruta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the gait of patients after polytrauma is important, as it indicates the ability of patients to the previous activities and work. The aim of our study was to evaluate the gait of patients with lower limb injuries in the medium-term after polytrauma. Three-dimensional instrumental gait analysis was performed in 26 polytrauma patients (16 women and 10 men; mean age 38.6 years, 14 to 41 months after the trauma. Spatio-temporal parameters, motions in pelvis and lower extremities joints in sagittal plane and vertical load ground reaction force were analysed. Gait parameters in polytrauma patients were compared with a healthy control group. Polytrauma patients in the injured side had decreased step length, cadence, hip extension, maximum knee flexion, vertical load ground reaction force, and increased stance time and pelvic anterior tilt; in the uninjured side they had decreased step length, cadence, maximum knee flexion, vertical load ground reaction force and increased stance time (p < 0.05. The use of the three-dimensional instrumental gait analysis in the evaluation of polytrauma patients with lower limb injuries consequences makes it possible to identify the gait disorders not only in the injured, but also in the uninjured side.

  10. Gait Partitioning Methods: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Taborri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments.

  11. Gait parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena Prado Teles Fregonesi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that results in sensorimotor alterations. These changes affect balance and walking and predispose affected patients to falls. The aim of this review was to identify studies in the recent literature that assess gait parameters and aspects involved in walking. The MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS and PEDro databases were searched using the following combination of keywords: diabetic neuropathies x gait; diabetes mellitus x gait, and diabetic foot x gait. After the application of selection criteria, 15 articles were retrieved, summarized, discussed, and are included in this review. Diabetic neuropathy was found to lead to deficits in step amplitude, gait velocity and gait cadence on flat surfaces, without sudden changes in direction or stops, and to balance and coordination deficits on inclined and uneven terrain. Diabetic neuropathies also increase plantar pressure rates and lead to difficulties in the terminal stance phase and pre-swing phase due to changes in triceps surae activation. Thus, the next initial contact occurs in an inadequate manner, with the forefoot and without absorption of shocks.

  12. A novel approach to gait synchronization and transition for reconfigurable walking platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nansai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Legged robots based on one degree-of-freedom reconfigurable planar leg mechanisms, that are capable of generating multiple useful gaits, are highly desired due to the possibility of handling environments and tasks of high complexity while maintaining simple control schemes. An essential consideration in these reconfigurable legged robots is to attain stability in motion, at rest as well as while transforming from one configuration to another with the minimum number of legs as long as the full range of their walking patterns, resulting from the different gait cycles of their legs, is achieved. To this end, in this paper, we present a method for the generation of input joint trajectories to properly synchronize the movement of quadruped robots with reconfigurable legs. The approach is exemplified in a four-legged robot with reconfigurable Jansen legs capable of generating up to six useful different gait cycles. The proposed technique is validated through simulated results that show the platform׳s stability across its six feasible walking patterns and during gait transition phases, thus considerably extending the capabilities of the non-reconfigurable design.

  13. Development of a novel virtual reality gait intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Anna E; Foreman, Matthew H; Engsberg, Jack R

    2017-02-01

    Improving gait speed and kinematics can be a time consuming and tiresome process. We hypothesize that incorporating virtual reality videogame play into variable improvement goals will improve levels of enjoyment and motivation and lead to improved gait performance. To develop a feasible, engaging, VR gait intervention for improving gait variables. Completing this investigation involved four steps: 1) identify gait variables that could be manipulated to improve gait speed and kinematics using the Microsoft Kinect and free software, 2) identify free internet videogames that could successfully manipulate the chosen gait variables, 3) experimentally evaluate the ability of the videogames and software to manipulate the gait variables, and 4) evaluate the enjoyment and motivation from a small sample of persons without disability. The Kinect sensor was able to detect stride length, cadence, and joint angles. FAAST software was able to identify predetermined gait variable thresholds and use the thresholds to play free online videogames. Videogames that involved continuous pressing of a keyboard key were found to be most appropriate for manipulating the gait variables. Five participants without disability evaluated the effectiveness for modifying the gait variables and enjoyment and motivation during play. Participants were able to modify gait variables to permit successful videogame play. Motivation and enjoyment were high. A clinically feasible and engaging virtual intervention for improving gait speed and kinematics has been developed and initially tested. It may provide an engaging avenue for achieving thousands of repetitions necessary for neural plastic changes and improved gait. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-surgical management of a pediatric "intoed" gait pattern - a systematic review of the current best evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Hayley; Kumar, Saravana

    2012-01-01

    An intoed gait pattern is one of the most common referrals for children to an orthopedic consultation. Parental concern as to the aesthetics of the child's gait pattern and/or its symptomatic nature will primarily drive these referrals during a child's early developmental years. Whilst some of these referrals prove to be the result of a normal growth variant, some children will present with a symptomatic intoed gait pattern. Various treatments, both conservative and surgical, have been proposed including: braces, wedges, stretches and exercises, shoe modifications, and surgical procedures. However, which treatments are effective and justified in the management of this condition is not clear within the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to therefore identify and critique the best available evidence for the non-surgical management of an intoed gait pattern in a pediatric population. A systematic review was conducted of which only experimental studies investigating a management option for an intoeing gait pattern were included. Studies needed to be written in English, pertaining to a human pediatric population, and published within a peer reviewed journal. Electronic databases were searched: Ovid (Medline), EMBASE, AMED, PubMed, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library. The National Health and Medical Research Council's designation of levels of hierarchy and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme cohort studies critical appraisal tool were used. Five level IV studies were found. The studies were of varied quality and with mixed results. Gait plates, physiologic/standardized shoes, and orthotic devices (with gate plate extension) were shown to produce a statistically significant improvement to an intoed gait pattern. Shoe wedges, torqheels, and a leather counter splint were not able to reduce an intoed gait pattern. There is limited evidence to inform the non-surgical management of a pediatric intoed gait pattern. The body of evidence that does exist

  15. Kinematic analysis of the gait of adult sheep during treadmill locomotion: Parameter values, allowable total error, and potential for use in evaluating spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safayi, Sina; Jeffery, Nick D; Shivapour, Sara K; Zamanighomi, Mahdi; Zylstra, Tyler J; Bratsch-Prince, Joshua; Wilson, Saul; Reddy, Chandan G; Fredericks, Douglas C; Gillies, George T; Howard, Matthew A

    2015-11-15

    We are developing a novel intradural spinal cord (SC) stimulator designed to improve the treatment of intractable pain and the sequelae of SC injury. In-vivo ovine models of neuropathic pain and moderate SC injury are being implemented for pre-clinical evaluations of this device, to be carried out via gait analysis before and after induction of the relevant condition. We extend previous studies on other quadrupeds to extract the three-dimensional kinematics of the limbs over the gait cycle of sheep walking on a treadmill. Quantitative measures of thoracic and pelvic limb movements were obtained from 17 animals. We calculated the total-error values to define the analytical performance of our motion capture system for these kinematic variables. The post- vs. pre-injury time delay between contralateral thoracic and pelvic-limb steps for normal and SC-injured sheep increased by ~24s over 100 steps. The pelvic limb hoof velocity during swing phase decreased, while range of pelvic hoof elevation and distance between lateral pelvic hoof placements increased after SC injury. The kinematics measures in a single SC-injured sheep can be objectively defined as changed from the corresponding pre-injury values, implying utility of this method to assess new neuromodulation strategies for specific deficits exhibited by an individual. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. LOPES: Selective control of gait functions during the gait rehabilitation of CVA patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, R.; Veneman, J.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2005-01-01

    LOPES aims for an active role of the patient by selective and partial support of gait functions during robotic treadmill training sessions. Virtual model control (VMC) was applied to the robot as an intuitive method for translating current treadmill gait rehabilitation therapy programs into robotic

  17. Is Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease a Result of Multiple Gait Impairments? Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnik, Meir; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Several gait impairments have been associated with freezing of gait (FOG) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These include deteriorations in rhythm control, gait symmetry, bilateral coordination of gait, dynamic postural control and step scaling. We suggest that these seemingly independent gait features may have mutual interactions which, during certain circumstances, jointly drive the predisposed locomotion system into a FOG episode. This new theoretical framework is illustrated by the evaluation of the potential relationships between the so-called “sequence effect”, that is, impairments in step scaling, and gait asymmetry just prior to FOG. We further discuss what factors influence gait control to maintain functional gait. “Triggers”, for example, such as attention shifts or trajectory transitions, may precede FOG. We propose distinct categories of interventions and describe examples of existing work that support this idea: (a) interventions which aim to maintain a good level of locomotion control especially with respect to aspects related to FOG; (b) those that aim at avoiding FOG “triggers”; and (c) those that merely aim to escape from FOG once it occurs. The proposed theoretical framework sets the stage for testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms that lead to FOG and may also lead to new treatment ideas. PMID:22288021

  18. Evidence of end-effector based gait machines in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Schattat, N; Mehrholz, J; Werner, C

    2013-01-01

    A task-specific repetitive approach in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion is well accepted nowadays. To ease the therapists' and patients' physical effort, the past two decades have seen the introduction of gait machines to intensify the amount of gait practice. Two principles have emerged, an exoskeleton- and an endeffector-based approach. Both systems share the harness and the body weight support. With the end-effector-based devices, the patients' feet are positioned on two foot plates, whose movements simulate stance and swing phase. This article provides an overview on the end-effector based machine's effectiveness regarding the restoration of gait. For the electromechanical gait trainer GT I, a meta analysis identified nine controlled trials (RCT) in stroke subjects (n = 568) and were analyzed to detect differences between end-effector-based locomotion + physiotherapy and physiotherapy alone. Patients practising with the machine effected in a superior gait ability (210 out of 319 patients, 65.8% vs. 96 out of 249 patients, 38.6%, respectively, Z = 2.29, p = 0.020), due to a larger training intensity. Only single RCTs have been reported for other devices and etiologies. The introduction of end-effector based gait machines has opened a new succesful chapter in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion.

  19. Speeding up or slowing down?: Gait adaptations to preserve gait stability in response to balance perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, L.; Houdijk, J.H.P.; Steenbrink, F.; van der Wurff, P.; Beek, P.J.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    It has frequently been proposed that lowering walking speed is a strategy to enhance gait stability and to decrease the probability of falling. However, previous studies have not been able to establish a clear relation between walking speed and gait stability. We investigated whether people do

  20. Blindfolded Balance Training in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Sensory-Motor Strategy to Improve the Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tramontano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Recent evidence suggested that the use of treadmill training may improve gait parameters. Visual deprivation could engage alternative sensory strategies to control dynamic equilibrium and stabilize gait based on vestibulospinal reflexes (VSR. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a blindfolded balance training (BBT in the improvement of stride phase percentage reliable gait parameters in patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD compared to patients treated with standard physical therapy (PT. Methods. Thirty PD patients were randomized in two groups of 15 patients, one group treated with BBT during two weeks and another group treated with standard PT during eight weeks. We evaluated gait parameters before and after BBT and PT interventions, in terms of double stance, swing, and stance phase percentage. Results. BBT induced an improvement of double stance phase as revealed (decreased percentage of double stance phase during the gait cycle in comparison to PT. The other gait parameters swing and stance phase did not differ between the two groups. Discussion. These results support the introduction of complementary rehabilitative strategies based on sensory-motor stimulation in the traditional PD patient’s rehabilitation. Further studies are needed to investigate the neurophysiological circuits and mechanism underlying clinical and motor modifications.

  1. Cognitive and motor dual task gait training improve dual task gait performance after stroke - A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Ci; Yang, Yea-Ru; Tsai, Yun-An; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2017-06-22

    This study investigated effects of cognitive and motor dual task gait training on dual task gait performance in stroke. Participants (n = 28) were randomly assigned to cognitive dual task gait training (CDTT), motor dual task gait training (MDTT), or conventional physical therapy (CPT) group. Participants in CDTT or MDTT group practiced the cognitive or motor tasks respectively during walking. Participants in CPT group received strengthening, balance, and gait training. The intervention was 30 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks. Three test conditions to evaluate the training effects were single walking, walking while performing cognitive task (serial subtraction), and walking while performing motor task (tray-carrying). Parameters included gait speed, dual task cost of gait speed (DTC-speed), cadence, stride time, and stride length. After CDTT, cognitive-motor dual task gait performance (stride length and DTC-speed) was improved (p = 0.021; p = 0.015). After MDTT, motor dual task gait performance (gait speed, stride length, and DTC-speed) was improved (p = 0.008; p = 0.008; p = 0.008 respectively). It seems that CDTT improved cognitive dual task gait performance and MDTT improved motor dual task gait performance although such improvements did not reach significant group difference. Therefore, different types of dual task gait training can be adopted to enhance different dual task gait performance in stroke.

  2. Effects of emotionally charged auditory stimulation on gait performance in the elderly: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, John-Ross; Raghavan, Preeti; McCrery, J R; Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Verghese, Joe

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a novel divided attention task-walking under auditory constraints-on gait performance in older adults and to determine whether this effect was moderated by cognitive status. Validation cohort. General community. Ambulatory older adults without dementia (N=104). Not applicable. In this pilot study, we evaluated walking under auditory constraints in 104 older adults who completed 3 pairs of walking trials on a gait mat under 1 of 3 randomly assigned conditions: 1 pair without auditory stimulation and 2 pairs with emotionally charged auditory stimulation with happy or sad sounds. The mean age of subjects was 80.6±4.9 years, and 63% (n=66) were women. The mean velocity during normal walking was 97.9±20.6cm/s, and the mean cadence was 105.1±9.9 steps/min. The effect of walking under auditory constraints on gait characteristics was analyzed using a 2-factorial analysis of variance with a 1-between factor (cognitively intact and minimal cognitive impairment groups) and a 1-within factor (type of auditory stimuli). In both happy and sad auditory stimulation trials, cognitively intact older adults (n=96) showed an average increase of 2.68cm/s in gait velocity (F1.86,191.71=3.99; P=.02) and an average increase of 2.41 steps/min in cadence (F1.75,180.42=10.12; Pactivities of daily living accounted for these differences. Our results provide preliminary evidence of the differentiating effect of emotionally charged auditory stimuli on gait performance in older individuals with minimal cognitive impairment compared with those without minimal cognitive impairment. A divided attention task using emotionally charged auditory stimuli might be able to elicit compensatory improvement in gait performance in cognitively intact older individuals, but lead to decompensation in those with minimal cognitive impairment. Further investigation is needed to compare gait performance under this task to gait on other dual-task paradigms and to separately examine the

  3. Unstable gait due to spasticity of the rectus femoris: gait analysis and motor nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; Leboeuf, F; Rémy-Néris, O; Perrouin-Verbe, B

    2012-12-01

    We present the case of a 54 year-old man presenting with a right Brown-Séquard plus syndrome (BSPS) after a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury. After being operated on with selective tibial neurotomy and triceps surae lengthening because of a right spastic equinus foot, he developed a gait disorder at high speed. The patient complained about an instability of the right knee. Observational gait analysis exhibited an oscillating, flexion/extension motion of the right knee during stance, which was confirmed by gait analysis. Dynamic electromyographic recordings exhibited a clonus of the right rectus femoris (RF) during stance. The spastic activity of the RF and the abnormal knee motion totally reversed after a motor nerve block of the RF, as well as after botulinum toxin type A injection into the RF. We emphasize that complex, spastic gait disorders can benefit from a comprehensive assessment including gait analysis and nerve blocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Gait analysis following treadmill training with body weight support versus conventional physical therapy: a prospective randomized controlled single blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucareli, P R; Lima, M O; Lima, F P S; de Almeida, J G; Brech, G C; D'Andréa Greve, J M

    2011-09-01

    Single-blind randomized, controlled clinical study. To evaluate, using kinematic gait analysis, the results obtained from gait training on a treadmill with body weight support versus those obtained with conventional gait training and physiotherapy. Thirty patients with sequelae from traumatic incomplete spinal cord injuries at least 12 months earlier; patients were able to walk and were classified according to motor function as ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) impairment scale C or D. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 15 patients by the drawing of opaque envelopes: group A (weight support) and group B (conventional). After an initial assessment, both groups underwent 30 sessions of gait training. Sessions occurred twice a week, lasted for 30 min each and continued for four months. All of the patients were evaluated by a single blinded examiner using movement analysis to measure angular and linear kinematic gait parameters. Six patients (three from group A and three from group B) were excluded because they attended fewer than 85% of the training sessions. There were no statistically significant differences in intra-group comparisons among the spatial-temporal variables in group B. In group A, the following significant differences in the studied spatial-temporal variables were observed: increases in velocity, distance, cadence, step length, swing phase and gait cycle duration, in addition to a reduction in stance phase. There were also no significant differences in intra-group comparisons among the angular variables in group B. However, group A achieved significant improvements in maximum hip extension and plantar flexion during stance. Gait training with body weight support was more effective than conventional physiotherapy for improving the spatial-temporal and kinematic gait parameters among patients with incomplete spinal cord injuries.

  5. A Validated Smartphone-Based Assessment of Gait and Gait Variability in Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Ellis

    Full Text Available A well-established connection exists between increased gait variability and greater fall likelihood in Parkinson's disease (PD; however, a portable, validated means of quantifying gait variability (and testing the efficacy of any intervention remains lacking. Furthermore, although rhythmic auditory cueing continues to receive attention as a promising gait therapy for PD, its widespread delivery remains bottlenecked. The present paper describes a smartphone-based mobile application ("SmartMOVE" to address both needs.The accuracy of smartphone-based gait analysis (utilizing the smartphone's built-in tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope to calculate successive step times and step lengths was validated against two heel contact-based measurement devices: heel-mounted footswitch sensors (to capture step times and an instrumented pressure sensor mat (to capture step lengths. 12 PD patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls walked along a 26-m path during self-paced and metronome-cued conditions, with all three devices recording simultaneously.Four outcome measures of gait and gait variability were calculated. Mixed-factorial analysis of variance revealed several instances in which between-group differences (e.g., increased gait variability in PD patients relative to healthy controls yielded medium-to-large effect sizes (eta-squared values, and cueing-mediated changes (e.g., decreased gait variability when PD patients walked with auditory cues yielded small-to-medium effect sizes-while at the same time, device-related measurement error yielded small-to-negligible effect sizes.These findings highlight specific opportunities for smartphone-based gait analysis to serve as an alternative to conventional gait analysis methods (e.g., footswitch systems or sensor-embedded walkways, particularly when those methods are cost-prohibitive, cumbersome, or inconvenient.

  6. Limbic and Basal Ganglia Neuroanatomical Correlates of Gait and Executive Function: Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Intact Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ellen L; Kelly, Valerie E; Weaver, Kurt E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; McCurry, Susan M; Pike, Kenneth C; Grabowski, Thomas J; Teri, Linda

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal cognition and to examine limbic and basal ganglia neural correlates of gait and executive function in older adults without dementia. This was a cross-sectional study of 46 community-dwelling older adults, ages 70-95 yrs, with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 23) and normal cognition (n = 23). Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to attain volumetric measures of limbic and basal ganglia structures. Quantitative motion analysis was used to measure spatiotemporal parameters of gait. The Trail Making Test was used to assess executive function. During fast-paced walking, older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrated significantly slower gait speed and shorter stride length compared with older adults with normal cognition. Stride length was positively correlated with hippocampal, anterior cingulate, and nucleus accumbens volumes (P function was positively correlated with hippocampal, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate volumes (P older adults with normal cognition, those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrated slower gait speed and shorter stride length, during fast-paced walking, and lower executive function. Hippocampal and anterior cingulate volumes demonstrated moderate positive correlation with both gait and executive function, after adjusting for age. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) discuss gait performance and cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment versus normal cognition, (2) discuss neurocorrelates of gait and executive function in older adults without dementia, and (3) recognize the importance of assessing gait speed and cognitive function in the clinical management of older

  7. The effects of various visual conditions on the gait cycle in children with different level of motor coordination-a pilot study. [Cómo afectan diferentes condiciones visuales a la marcha en niños con diferente nivel de coordinación motriz- un studio piloto].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Palomo-Nieto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vision and the visual control of movement have been addressed in the literature related to motor control. Many studies have demonstrated that children with low motor competence in comparison to their typically developing peers may rely more heavily on vision to perform movements. The aim of the study was to highlight the effects of different visual conditions on motor performance during walking in children with different levels of motor coordination. Participants (n=8, Mean age = 8.5±.5 years were divided into typical development (TD and low motor coordination (LMC group. They were asked to walk along a 10-meter walkway provided by Optojump-Next instrument that was placed in a portable construction (15 x 3 x 2.5m. This construction was surrounded by dark blue fibers in which all participants perceived the same visual information. They walked in a self-selected speed under four visual conditions: full vision (FV, limited vision 150 ms (LV-150, limited vision 100 ms (LV-100 and non-vision (NV. For visual occlusion during walking in LV-150 and LV-100, participants were equipped with Plato Goggles that opened for 150 and 100 ms, respectively, within each 2 sec. Data were analyzed in a two-way mixed between-within ANOVA including 2 (groups: TD vs. LMC x 4 (visual condition: FV, LV-150, LV-100 & NV with repeated-measures on the last factor (p≤.05. Results indicated that TD children walked faster and with longer strides than LMC children in which these parameters can influence on different periods of gait cycle including stance and swing phases. Also, perceiving visual information for 150 ms in comparison to 100 ms while walking was enough for similar performance in FV condition. The present findings highlight underlying parameters of gait cycle for walking in TD compared to LMC children are different. Resumen La importancia de la visión y del control visual en el movimiento es un asunto ampliamente abordado y tratado en la

  8. Study on Gait Efficiency and Energy Cost of Below Knee Amputees After Therapeutic Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Biswas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An earlier research advocated that a below knee amputee (BK with conventional trans-tibial prosthesis attains higher gait efficiency at lower energy cost with therapeutic practices of proper time and co-ordination in compare to normal subjects of similar physical parameters and quality of life. The present study focused on comparative analysis of energy cost and gait efficiency between a group of below knee amputees and a control group (normal subjects without amputation to indicate the consistency of the earlier findings. The subjects were selected with similar physical parameters and quality of life. Oxygen Uptake (VO2 and Heart Rate (HR were measured by Cosmed® k4 b2 analyzer system. Gait efficiency (p < 0.0001 was found higher with lower energy cost for BK amputees after therapeutic practices than control group. The therapeutic activities contributed to efficient gait pattern for amputees ensuring proper time and co-ordination with balance in consistence to the earlier research.

  9. Gait re-education based on the Bobath concept in two patients with hemiplegia following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, S

    2001-03-01

    This case report describes the use of gait re-education based on the Bobath concept to measure the changes that occurred in the gait of 2 patients with hemiplegia who were undergoing outpatient physical therapy. One patient ("NM"), a 65-year-old woman, was referred for physical therapy 6 weeks following a right cerebrovascular accident. She attended 30 therapy sessions over a 15-week period. The other patient ("SA"), a 71-year-old woman, was referred for physical therapy 7 weeks following a left cerebrovascular accident. She attended 28 therapy sessions over a 19-week period. Clinical indexes of impairment and disability and 3-dimensional gait data were obtained at the start of treatment and at discharge. Therapy was based on the Bobath concept. At discharge, NM demonstrated improvements in her hip and knee movements, reduced tone, and improved mobility. At discharge, SA demonstrated improved mobility. During gait, both patients demonstrated more normal movement patterns at the level of the pelvis, the knee, and the ankle in the sagittal plane. SA also demonstrated an improvement in hip extension. These cases demonstrate that recovery of more normal movement patterns and functional ability can be achieved following a cardiovascular accident and provide insight into the clinical decision making of experienced practitioners using Bobath's concept.

  10. Acute and Chronic Effect of Acoustic and Visual Cues on Gait Training in Parkinson’s Disease: A Randomized, Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto De Icco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this randomized controlled study we analyse and compare the acute and chronic effects of visual and acoustic cues on gait performance in Parkinson’s Disease (PD. We enrolled 46 patients with idiopathic PD who were assigned to 3 different modalities of gait training: (1 use of acoustic cues, (2 use of visual cues, or (3 overground training without cues. All patients were tested with kinematic analysis of gait at baseline (T0, at the end of the 4-week rehabilitation programme (T1, and 3 months later (T2. Regarding the acute effect, acoustic cues increased stride length and stride duration, while visual cues reduced the number of strides and normalized the stride/stance distribution but also reduced gait speed. As regards the chronic effect of cues, we recorded an improvement in some gait parameters in all 3 groups of patients: all 3 types of training improved gait speed; visual cues also normalized the stance/swing ratio, acoustic cues reduced the number of strides and increased stride length, and overground training improved stride length. The changes were not retained at T2 in any of the experimental groups. Our findings support and characterize the usefulness of cueing strategies in the rehabilitation of gait in PD.

  11. Prediction of human gait trajectories during the SSP using a neuromusculoskeletal modeling: A challenge for parametric optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed, Mohammadali Rahmati; Mostafa, Rostami; Borhan, Beigzadeh

    2018-04-27

    The parametric optimization techniques have been widely employed to predict human gait trajectories; however, their applications to reveal the other aspects of gait are questionable. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not the gait prediction model is able to justify the movement trajectories for the higher average velocities. A planar, seven-segment model with sixteen muscle groups was used to represent human neuro-musculoskeletal dynamics. At first, the joint angles, ground reaction forces (GRFs) and muscle activations were predicted and validated for normal average velocity (1.55 m/s) in the single support phase (SSP) by minimizing energy expenditure, which is subject to the non-linear constraints of the gait. The unconstrained system dynamics of extended inverse dynamics (USDEID) approach was used to estimate muscle activations. Then by scaling time and applying the same procedure, the movement trajectories were predicted for higher average velocities (from 2.07 m/s to 4.07 m/s) and compared to the pattern of movement with fast walking speed. The comparison indicated a high level of compatibility between the experimental and predicted results, except for the vertical position of the center of gravity (COG). It was concluded that the gait prediction model can be effectively used to predict gait trajectories for higher average velocities.

  12. Dual-task and electrophysiological markers of executive cognitive processing in older adult gait and fall-risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Walshe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of cognition is becoming increasingly central to our understanding of the complexity of walking gait. Here, we report two experiments which investigated the cognitive and neural processes underlying older adult gait and fall-risk. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task paradigm in young and older adults, to assess the relative effects of higher-level executive function tasks (n-Back, Serial Subtraction and visuo-spatial Clock task in comparison to non-executive distracter tasks (motor response task and alphabet recitation on gait. All dual-tasks elicited changes in gait for both young and older adults, relative to baseline walking. Significantly greater dual-task costs were observed for the executive tasks in the older adult group, as hypothesized. Experiment 2 compared normal walking gait, seated cognitive performances and concurrent event-related brain potentials (ERPs in healthy young and older adults, to older adult fallers. No significant differences in cognitive performances were found between fallers and non-fallers. However, a clear P3a peak was evident on the Stroop task for older non-fallers, which was notably absent in older fallers. This may be indicative of the presence of some cortically-based compensatory process in this group, contributing to their reduced risk of falling. We argue that executive functions play a prominent role in walking and gait, but the role of higher cognition as a predictor of fall-risk needs further investigation.

  13. Comparative study of two materials for dynamic hip screw during fall and gait loading: titanium alloy and stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Nooshin S; Blicblau, Aaron S; Singh, Manmohan

    2011-11-01

    Internal fixation with dynamic hip screw is a choice of treatment for hip fractures to stabilize a femoral fracture. Choosing the proper implant and its material has a great effect on the healing process and failure prevention. The purpose of this analysis was to assess biomechanical behavior of dynamic hip screw with two different materials implanted in the femur during fall and gait. A 3D finite element model of an intact femur and a 3D implant within the same femur were developed. A finite element analysis was carried out to establish the effect of load conditions and implant material properties on biomechanical behavior of the dynamic hip screw after internal fixation. Two load configurations are chosen: one simulating the stance phase of the normal gait cycle, and the other replicating a low-energy fall. The implanted femur was investigated with two different materials for the dynamic hip screw: stainless steel and titanium alloy. During stance, more stress is placed on the implanted femur compared with the intact femur. During a fall, the implanted femur is in a greater state of stress, which mostly occurs inside the dynamic hip screw. Titanium alloy decreases stress levels by an average of 40% compared with stainless steel. However, deformation is slightly reduced with a stainless steel dynamic hip screw during both load cases. After internal fixation, dynamic hip screw generates greater stresses within the implanted femur compared with the intact femur under the same loading conditions. A titanium alloy implant appears to undergo less stress from a low-energy fall compared with stainless steel and can be considered the preferred implant material. The critical parts of the dynamic hip screw are the forth distal screw and the plate.

  14. Effects of continuous triiodothyronine infusion on the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the normal immature swine heart under extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Priddy, Colleen M O'Kelly; Ledee, Dolena R; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy; Olson, Aaron K; Portman, Michael A

    2014-04-15

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is frequently used in infants with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. ECMO also suppresses circulating triiodothyronine (T3) levels and modifies myocardial metabolism. We assessed the hypothesis that T3 supplementation reverses ECMO-induced metabolic abnormalities in the immature heart. Twenty-two male Yorkshire pigs (age: 25-38 days) with ECMO received [2-(13)C]lactate, [2,4,6,8-(13)C4]octanoate (medium-chain fatty acid), and [U-(13)C]long-chain fatty acids as metabolic tracers either systemically (totally physiological intracoronary concentration) or directly into the coronary artery (high substrate concentration) for the last 60 min of each protocol. NMR analysis of left ventricular tissue determined the fractional contribution of these substrates to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fifty percent of the pigs in each group received intravenous T3 supplement (bolus at 0.6 μg/kg and then continuous infusion at 0.2 μg·kg(-1)·h(-1)) during ECMO. Under both substrate loading conditions, T3 significantly increased the fractional contribution of lactate with a marginal increase in the fractional contribution of octanoate. Both T3 and high substrate provision increased the myocardial energy status, as indexed by phosphocreatine concentration/ATP concentration. In conclusion, T3 supplementation promoted lactate metabolism to the tricarboxylic acid cycle during ECMO, suggesting that T3 releases the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Manipulation of substrate utilization by T3 may be used therapeutically during ECMO to improve the resting energy state and facilitate weaning.

  15. Gait Recognition Using Image Self-Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraz BenAbdelkader

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Gait is one of the few biometrics that can be measured at a distance, and is hence useful for passive surveillance as well as biometric applications. Gait recognition research is still at its infancy, however, and we have yet to solve the fundamental issue of finding gait features which at once have sufficient discrimination power and can be extracted robustly and accurately from low-resolution video. This paper describes a novel gait recognition technique based on the image self-similarity of a walking person. We contend that the similarity plot encodes a projection of gait dynamics. It is also correspondence-free, robust to segmentation noise, and works well with low-resolution video. The method is tested on multiple data sets of varying sizes and degrees of difficulty. Performance is best for fronto-parallel viewpoints, whereby a recognition rate of 98% is achieved for a data set of 6 people, and 70% for a data set of 54 people.

  16. Gait Characteristics in Adolescents With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Frid, Lior; Menascu, Shay

    2017-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a progressive autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. A presentation of multiple sclerosis before age18 years has traditionally been thought to be rare. However, during the past decade, more cases have been reported. We examined gait characteristics in 24 adolescents with multiple sclerosis (12 girls, 12 boys). Mean disease duration was 20.4 (S.D. = 24.9) months and mean age was 15.5 (S.D. = 1.1) years. The mean expanded disability status scale score was 1.7 (S.D. = 0.7) indicating minimal disability. Outcomes were compared with gait and the gait variability index value of healthy age-matched adolescents. Adolescents with multiple sclerosis walked slower with a wider base of support compared with age-matched healthy control subjects. Moreover, the gait variability index was lower in the multiple sclerosis group compared with the values in the healthy adolescents: 85.4 (S.D. = 8.1) versus 96.5 (S.D. = 7.4). We present gait parameters of adolescents with multiple sclerosis. From a clinical standpoint, our data could improve management of walking dysfunction in this relatively young population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Robot-Crawler: Statically Balanced Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statically balanced walking technique for a robot-crawler. The gait design and the control of the robot crawler aim to achieve stability while walking. This statically balanced gait has to be designed in a different fashion to a wheeled robot, as there are discrete changes in the support of the robot when its legs are lifted or placed on the ground. The stability of the robot depends on how the legs are positioned relative to the body and also on the sequence and timing with which the legs are lifted and placed. In order to reduce the risk of stability loss while walking, a measure for the robot stability (so-called stability margin is typically used in the gait and motion planning. In this paper different biological behaviours of four-legged animals are studied and mapped on a quad-legrobot-crawler. Experiments were carried out on the forward walking gaits of lizards and horses. Based on these results, the stability margins of different gaits are discussed and compared.

  18. Development and decline of upright gait stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eIosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Upright gait is a peculiar characteristic of humans that requires the ability to manage upper body dynamic balance while walking, despite the perturbations that are generated by movements of the lower limbs. Most of the studies on upright gait stability have compared young adults and the elderly to determine the effects of aging. In other studies the comparison was between healthy subjects and patients to examine specific pathologies. Fewer researches have also investigated the development of upright gait stability in children.This review discusses these studies in order to provide an overview of this relevant aspect of human locomotion. A clear trend from development to decline of upright gait stability has been depicted across the entire lifespan, from toddlers at first steps to elderly. In old individuals, even if healthy, the deterioration of skeletal muscle, combined with sensorial and cognitive performance, reduces the ability to maintain an upright trunk during walking, increasing the instability and the risk of falls. Further, the pathological causes of altered development or of a sudden loss of gait stability, as well as the environmental influence are investigated. The last part of this review is focused on the control of upper body accelerations during walking, a particularly interesting topic for the recent development of low-cost wearable accelerometers.

  19. Effects of Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue on Stiff-Knee Gait in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Delouf, Eric; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between neuromuscular fatigue and locomotion has never been investigated in hemiparetic patients despite the fact that, in the clinical context, patients report to be more spastic or stiffer after walking a long distance or after a rehabilitation session. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quadriceps muscle fatigue on the biomechanical gait parameters of patients with a stiff-knee gait (SKG). Thirteen patients and eleven healthy controls performed one gait analysis before a protocol of isokinetic quadriceps fatigue and two after (immediately after and after 10 minutes of rest). Spatiotemporal parameters, sagittal knee and hip kinematics, rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity were analyzed. The results showed that quadriceps muscle weakness, produced by repetitive concentric contractions of the knee extensors, induced an improvement of spatiotemporal parameters for patients and healthy subjects. For the patient group, the increase in gait velocity and step length was associated with i) an increase of sagittal hip and knee flexion during the swing phase, ii) an increase of the maximal normalized length of the RF and VL and of the maximal VL lengthening velocity during the pre-swing and swing phases, and iii) a decrease in EMG activity of the RF muscle during the initial pre-swing phase and during the latter 2/3 of the initial swing phase. These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue did not alter the gait of patients with hemiparesis walking with a SKG and that neuromuscular fatigue may play the same functional role as an anti-spastic treatment such as botulinum toxin-A injection. Strength training of knee extensors, although commonly performed in rehabilitation, does not seem to be a priority to improve gait of these patients. PMID:24718087

  20. Skeletal and Clinical Effects of Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    robotic exoskeletons to enable gait in individuals with a complete spinal cord injury, the health benefits of exoskeleton -assisted gait have not been...for the use of robotic exoskeletons to enable gait in individuals with a complete spinal cord injury, clinical teams are not provided with...appropriate tools to estimate or predict potential health benefits (e.g. bone health) associated with exoskeleton -assisted gait. What was the impact on other

  1. Deterioration of gait and balance over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study investig......Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study...... relevance: given the increasing use of neuroimaging, incidental white matter pathology is common; being able to delineate natural trajectories of balance and gait function given ARWMC may improve patient advice and help optimize allocation of care....

  2. Kinematics gait disorder in men with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Jimenez, Jose M; Soto-Hermoso, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the kinematics disorder of gait in men with fibromyalgia. We studied 12 male with fibromyalgia and 14 healthy men. Each participant of the study walked five trials along a 18.6-m walkway. Fibromyalgia patients completed a Spanish version of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Significant differences between fibromyalgia and control groups were found in velocity, stride length, and cadence. Gait parameters of men affected by fibromyalgia were impaired when compared to those of healthy group due to bradykinesia. According to previous studies to assess gait variables in female patients, the male with fibromyalgia also showed lower values of velocity, cadence, and stride length than healthy group but not reported significant differences in swing, stance, single, or double support phase.

  3. Gait disorders in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, Bernard; Bileckot, Richard; Alix, Anne-Sophie; Chaleil, Denis; Barrey, Eric

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare gait in patients with fibromyalgia and in matched controls. Measurements must be obtained in patients with fibromyalgia, as the evaluation scales for this disorder are semi-quantitative. We used a patented gait analysis system (Locometrix Centaure Metrix, France) developed by the French National Institute for Agricultural Research. Relaxed walking was evaluated in 14 women (mean age 50+/-5 years; mean height 162+/-5 cm; and mean body weight 68+/-13 kg) meeting American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia and in 14 controls matched on sex, age, height, and body weight. Gait during stable walking was severely altered in the patients. Walking speed was significantly diminished (Pfibromyalgia.

  4. Quantifying gait patterns in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Mónica; Atehortúa, Angélica; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is constituted by a set of motor symptoms, namely tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, which are usually described but not quantified. This work proposes an objective characterization of PD gait patterns by approximating the single stance phase a single grounded pendulum. This model estimates the force generated by the gait during the single support from gait data. This force describes the motion pattern for different stages of the disease. The model was validated using recorded videos of 8 young control subjects, 10 old control subjects and 10 subjects with Parkinson's disease in different stages. The estimated force showed differences among stages of Parkinson disease, observing a decrease of the estimated force for the advanced stages of this illness.

  5. Gait characteristics in women's safety shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kanako; Abe, Kaoru

    2017-11-01

    Although workers in Japan are required to wear safety footwear, there is concern about occupational accidents that occur when wearing safety shoes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of wearing hardsoled safety shoes on both spatiotemporal gait characteristics and the muscle activity in the lower extremities. Seventeen young women participated in this study. A 5-m gait trial and a surface electromyography trial were conducted while the women walked in either safety shoes or sports shoes. Paired t-tests were performed to analyze the differences in gait characteristics when walking in the two different pairs of shoes. Walking in safety shoes was associated with a significant increase in vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and tibialis anterior activity. This increased muscle activity in the lower extremities is likely compensating for the lower flexibility of the safety shoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DeepGait: A Learning Deep Convolutional Representation for View-Invariant Gait Recognition Using Joint Bayesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human gait, as a soft biometric, helps to recognize people through their walking. To further improve the recognition performance, we propose a novel video sensor-based gait representation, DeepGait, using deep convolutional features and introduce Joint Bayesian to model view variance. DeepGait is generated by using a pre-trained “very deep” network “D-Net” (VGG-D without any fine-tuning. For non-view setting, DeepGait outperforms hand-crafted representations (e.g., Gait Energy Image, Frequency-Domain Feature and Gait Flow Image, etc.. Furthermore, for cross-view setting, 256-dimensional DeepGait after PCA significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the OU-ISR large population (OULP dataset. The OULP dataset, which includes 4007 subjects, makes our result reliable in a statistically reliable way.

  7. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraoka Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the start tone, the condition of initiating gait with the non-preferred leg indicated by the start tone, and the condition of initiating gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. These findings fail to support the view that the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The lateral displacement of the center of pressure in the period in which shifting the center of pressure to the initial swing phase before initiating gait with the left leg indicated by the external cue was significantly larger than that when initiating gait with the right leg indicated by the external cue, and significantly larger than that when initiating gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. Weight shift to the initial swing side during APA during gait initiation was found to be asymmetrical when choosing the leg in response to an external cue

  8. Quantitative Gait Measurement With Pulse-Doppler Radar for Passive In-Home Gait Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the ot...

  9. Basal ganglia and gait control: apomorphine administration and internal pallidum stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, R; Peppe, A; Stratta, F; Angelini, D; Zago, M; Stanzione, P; Lacquaniti, F

    1999-05-01

    Gait coordination was analyzed (four-camera 100 Hz ELITE system) in two groups of idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) patients. Five patients underwent continuous infusion of apomorphine and were recorded in two different sessions (APO OFF and APO ON) in the same day. Three patients with a previous chronic electrode implantation in both internal globi pallidi (GPi) were recorded in the same experimental session with the electrodes on and off (STIM ON and STIM OFF). The orientation of both the trunk and the lower-limb segments was described with respect to the vertical in the sagittal plane. Lower-limb inter-segmental coordination was evaluated by analyzing the co-variation between thigh, shank, and foot elevation angles by means of orthogonal planar regression. At least 30 gait cycles per experimental condition were processed. We found that the trunk was bent forward in STIM OFF, whereas it was better aligned with the vertical in STIM ON in both PD groups. The legs never fully extended during the gait cycle in STIM OFF, whereas they extended before heel strike in STIM ON. The multisegmental coordination of the lower limb changed almost in parallel with the changes in trunk orientation. In STIM OFF, both the shape and the spatial orientation of the planar gait loops (thigh angle vs. shank angle vs. foot angle) differed from those of physiological locomotion, whereas in STIM ON the gait loop tended to resume features closer to the control. Switching the electrodes on and off in patients with GPi electrodes resulted in quasi-parallel changes of the trunk inclination and of the planar gait loop. The bulk of the data suggest that the basal-ganglia circuitry may be relevant in locomotion by providing an appropriate spatio-temporal framework for the control of posture and movement in a gravity-based body-centered frame of reference. Pallido-thalamic and/or pallido-mesencephalic pathways may influence the timing of the inter-segmental coordination for gait.

  10. A Pilot Study on Gait Kinematics of Old Women with Bound Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot binding has a long and influential history in China. Little is known about biomechanical changes in gait caused by bound foot. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in lower limb kinematics between old women with bound feet and normal feet during walking. Six old women subjects (three with bound feet and three controls with normal feet volunteered to participate in this study. Video data were recorded with a high speed video camera and analysed in the SIMI motion analysis software. Compared to normal controls, bound feet subjects had faster gait cadence with shorter stride length as well as smaller ankle and knee range of motion (ROM. During preswing phase, ankle remained to be dorsiflexion for bound foot subjects. The data from bound foot group also demonstrated that toe vertical displacement increased continuously during whole swing phase without a minimum toe clearance (MTC. The findings indicate that older women with bound feet exhibit significant differences in gait pattern compared to those with normal feet, which is characterised by disappeared propulsion/push-off and reduced mobility of lower limb segments.

  11. Gait asymmetry detection in older adults using a light ear-worn sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atallah, L; Lo, B; Yang, G-Z; Wiik, A; Cobb, J P; Amis, A A

    2014-01-01

    Measuring gait asymmetry is an important feature when characterizing functional imbalance between limbs. This could be due to pathologies, such as osteoarthritis, stroke, or associated with the effects of surgeries such as hip arthroplasty. Generally, the study of asymmetry or imbalance has required the use of a gait lab or force plates, which could be expensive and difficult to use in home settings. This work validates the use of a light weight ear sensor (7.4 g) with an instrumented treadmill for 64 subjects (age (60.04 (15.36)) including healthy subjects (14) as well as subjects who had been treated for hip (17), knee-replacement surgery (21) and knee osteoarthritis (12). Subjects performed treadmill walking at several speeds on flat surfaces, inclines and declines. Accelerometer data from the ear sensor were segmented into consecutive steps and temporal features were extracted. The measures of gait cycle time and step-period asymmetry obtained from the ear sensor matched well those of the treadmill for flat surfaces, inclines and declines. The key implication of the study is that the proposed method could replace expensive equipment for monitoring temporal gait features in clinics as well as free-living environments, which is important for monitoring rehabilitation after surgery and the progress of diseases affecting limb imbalance. (note)

  12. Efficacy of an Electromechanical Gait Trainer Poststroke in Singapore: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Joyce; Culpan, Jane; Menon, Edward

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the longer-term effects of electromechanical gait trainers (GTs) combined with conventional physiotherapy on health status, function, and ambulation in people with subacute stroke in comparison with conventional physiotherapy given alone. Randomized controlled trial with intention-to-treat analysis. Community hospital in Singapore. Nonambulant individuals (N=106) recruited approximately 1 month poststroke. Both groups received 45 minutes of physiotherapy 6 times per week for 8 weeks as follows: the GT group received 20 minutes of GT training and 5 minutes of stance/gait training in contrast with 25 minutes of stance/gait training for the control group. Both groups completed 10 minutes of standing and 10 minutes of cycling. The primary outcome was the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC). Secondary outcomes were the Barthel Index (BI), gait speed and endurance, and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS). Measures were taken at baseline and 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 weeks. Generalized linear model analysis showed significant improvement over time (independent of group) for the FAC, BI, and SIS physical and participation subscales. However, no significant group × time or group differences were observed for any of the outcome variables after generalized linear model analysis. The use of GTs combined with conventional physiotherapy can be as effective as conventional physiotherapy applied alone for people with subacute stroke. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Video Analysis of Human Gait and Posture to Determine Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lee

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of digital image processing techniques to the detection of neurological disorder. Visual information extracted from the postures and movements of a human gait cycle can be used by an experienced neurologist to determine the mental health of the person. However, the current visual assessment of diagnosing neurological disorder is based very much on subjective observation, and hence the accuracy of diagnosis heavily relies on experience. Other diagnostic techniques employed involve the use of imaging systems which can only be operated under highly constructed environment. A prototype has been developed in this work that is able to capture the subject's gait on video in a relatively simple setup, and from which to process the selected frames of the gait in a computer. Based on the static visual features such as swing distances and joint angles of human limbs, the system identifies patients with Parkinsonism from the test subjects. To our knowledge, it is the first time swing distances are utilized and identified as an effective means for characterizing human gait. The experimental results have shown a promising potential in medical application to assist the clinicians in diagnosing Parkinsonism.

  14. Gait characteristics of individuals with multiple sclerosis before and after a 6-month aerobic training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M M; Mulcare, J A; King, D L; Mathews, T; Gupta, S C; Glaser, R M

    1999-07-01

    Individuals who have multiple sclerosis (MS) typically experience problems with physical activities such as walking, resulting from the combined effects of skeletal muscle weakness, sensory disturbances, spasticity, gait ataxia, and reduction in aerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to determine whether a 6-mo exercise program designed for aerobic conditioning might also affect gait abnormalities in individuals with MS. Subjects included 18 individuals with MS who presented a range of disability. Passive range of motion (PROM) in the lower limbs was measured and gait analyzed before and after exercise conditioning. Three-dimensional kinematics, ground reaction forces (GRF), and electromyographic information were acquired as subjects walked at self-selected velocities. Hip PROM increased following conditioning. Mean walking velocity, cadence, and posterior shear GRF (push-off force) decreased. During walking, maximum ankle dorsiflexion decreased and ankle plantarflexion increased. Total knee flexion/extension range during the walking cycle decreased slightly as did maximum hip extension. Results suggest this 6-mo training program had minimal effect on gait abnormalities.

  15. Gait Analysis by Multi Video Sequence Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Juhl, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The project presented in this article aims to develop software so that close-range photogrammetry with sufficient accuracy can be used to point out the most frequent foot mal positions and monitor the effect of the traditional treatment. The project is carried out as a cooperation between...... and the calcaneus angle during gait. In the introductory phase of the project the task has been to select, purchase and draw up hardware, select and purchase software concerning video streaming and to develop special software concerning automated registration of the position of the foot during gait by Multi Video...

  16. Periodic gaits for the CMU Ambler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Suren N.; Mahalingam, Swaminathan

    1992-02-01

    The configuration of the Carnegie-Mellon University Ambler, a six-legged autonomous walking vehicle for exploring Mars, enables the recovery of a trailing leg past the leading leg to reduce the energy expenditure in terrain interactions. In this article, gaits developed for this unprecedented configuration are described. A stability criterion has been developed that ensures stability of the vehicle in the event of failure of any one of the supporting legs. Periodic gaits developed for the Ambler utilize the Ambler's unique abilities and continuously satisfy the stability criterion.

  17. Person identification by gait analysis and photogrammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Vedel, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Surveillance images from a bank robbery were analyzed and compared with images of a suspect. Based on general bodily features, gait and anthropometric measurements, we were able to conclude that one of the perpetrators showed strong resemblance to the suspect. Both exhibited a gait characterized...... by hyperextension of the leg joints, and bodily measurements did not differ by more than 6 mm on average. The latter was quantified by photogrammetry: i.e., measuring by using images of the perpetrator as captured by surveillance cameras. Using the computer software Photomodeler Pro, synchronous images from...

  18. Effects of different frequencies of rhythmic auditory cueing on the stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Ye, Miao; Li, Desheng

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different frequencies of rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC) on stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females. The findings of this study might be used as clinical guidance of physical therapy for choosing the suitable frequency of RAC. [Subjects] Thirteen healthy young females were recruited in this study. [Methods] Ten meters walking tests were measured in all subjects under 4 conditions with each repeated 3 times and a 3-min seated rest period between repetitions. Subjects first walked as usual and then were asked to listen carefully to the rhythm of a metronome and walk with 3 kinds of RAC (90%, 100%, and 110% of the mean cadence). The three frequencies (90%, 100%, and 110%) of RAC were randomly assigned. Gait speed, stride length, and cadence were calculated, and a statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS (version 17.0) computer package. [Results] The gait speed and cadence of 90% RAC walking showed significant decreases compared with normal walking and 100% and 110% RAC walking. The stride length, cadence, and gait speed of 110% RAC walking showed significant increases compared with normal walking and 90% and 100% RAC walking. [Conclusion] Our results showed that 110% RAC was the best of the 3 cueing frequencies for improvement of stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females.

  19. Effects of unilateral real-time biofeedback on propulsive forces during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Christopher; Kesar, Trisha M

    2017-06-06

    In individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis, reduced push-off force generation in the paretic leg negatively impacts walking function. Gait training interventions that increase paretic push-off can improve walking function in individuals with neurologic impairment. During normal locomotion, push-off forces are modulated with variations in gait speed and slope. However, it is unknown whether able-bodied individuals can selectively modulate push-off forces from one leg in response to biofeedback. Here, in a group of young, neurologically-unimpaired individuals, we determined the effects of a real-time visual and auditory biofeedback gait training paradigm aimed at unilaterally increasing anteriorly-directed ground reaction force (AGRF) in the targeted leg. Ground reaction force data during were collected from 7 able-bodied individuals as they walked at a self-selected pace on a dual-belt treadmill instrumented with force platforms. During 11-min of gait training, study participants were provided real-time AGRF biofeedback encouraging a 20-30% increase in peak AGRF generated by their right (targeted) leg compared to their baseline (pre-training) AGRF. AGRF data were collected before, during, and after the biofeedback training period, as well as during two retention tests performed without biofeedback and after standing breaks. Compared to AGRFs generated during the pre-training gait trials, participants demonstrated a significantly greater AGRF in the targeted leg during and immediately after training, indicating that biofeedback training was successful at inducing increased AGRF production in the targeted leg. Additionally, participants continued to demonstrate greater AGRF production in the targeted leg after two standing breaks, showing short-term recall of the gait pattern learned during the biofeedback training. No significant effects of training were observed on the AGRF in the non-targeted limb, showing the specificity of the effects of biofeedback toward the

  20. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhardt, Martine M.; Mulder, Mascha C. Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L.; van der Woude, Luc H.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. Design: Clinical experimental

  1. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhardt, Martine M; Mulder, Mascha C Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L; van der Woude, Lucas; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. DESIGN: Clinical experimental

  2. Robotic Pectoral Fin Thrust Vectoring Using Weighted Gait Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Palmisano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method was devised to vector propulsion of a robotic pectoral fin by means of actively controlling fin surface curvature. Separate flapping fin gaits were designed to maximize thrust for each of three different thrust vectors: forward, reverse, and lift. By using weighted combinations of these three pre-determined main gaits, new intermediate hybrid gaits for any desired propulsion vector can be created with smooth transitioning between these gaits. This weighted gait combination (WGC method is applicable to other difficult-to-model actuators. Both 3D unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD and experimental results are presented.

  3. Walking while performing working memory tasks changes the prefrontal cortex hemodynamic activations and gait kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-I Brandon Lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIncreasing evidence suggests that walking while performing a concurrent task negatively influences gait performance. However, it remains unclear how higher-level cognitive processes and coordination of limb movements are altered in challenging walking environments. This study investigated the influence of cognitive task complexity and walking road condition on the neutral correlates of executive function and postural control in dual-task walking. MethodsTwenty-four healthy young adults completed a series of overground walks with three walking road conditions (wide, narrow, with obstacles with and without the concurrent n-back working memory tasks of two complexity levels (1-back and 3-back. Prefrontal brain activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used simultaneously to measure gait performance and lower-extremity kinematics. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed to examine the differences between the conditions. ResultsIn comparison with standing still, participants showed lower n-back task accuracy while walking, with the worst performance from the road with obstacles. Spatiotemporal gait parameters, lower-extremity joint movements, and the relative changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO concentration levels were all significantly different across the task complexity and walking path conditions. While dual-tasking participants were found to flex their hips and knees less, leading to a slower gait speed, longer stride time, shorter step length, and greater gait variability than during normal walking. For narrow-road walking, smaller ankle dorsiflexion and larger hip flexion were observed, along with a reduced gait speed. Obstacle negotiation was mainly characterized by increased gait variability than other conditions. HbO levels appeared to be lower during dual-task walking than normal walking. Compared to wide and obstacle conditions, walking on

  4. Quantification and recognition of parkinsonian gait from monocular video imaging using kernel-based principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Wei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The computer-aided identification of specific gait patterns is an important issue in the assessment of Parkinson's disease (PD. In this study, a computer vision-based gait analysis approach is developed to assist the clinical assessments of PD with kernel-based principal component analysis (KPCA. Method Twelve PD patients and twelve healthy adults with no neurological history or motor disorders within the past six months were recruited and separated according to their "Non-PD", "Drug-On", and "Drug-Off" states. The participants were asked to wear light-colored clothing and perform three walking trials through a corridor decorated with a navy curtain at their natural pace. The participants' gait performance during the steady-state walking period was captured by a digital camera for gait analysis. The collected walking image frames were then transformed into binary silhouettes for noise reduction and compression. Using the developed KPCA-based method, the features within the binary silhouettes can be extracted to quantitatively determine the gait cycle time, stride length, walking velocity, and cadence. Results and Discussion The KPCA-based method uses a feature-extraction approach, which was verified to be more effective than traditional image area and principal component analysis (PCA approaches in classifying "Non-PD" controls and "Drug-Off/On" PD patients. Encouragingly, this method has a high accuracy rate, 80.51%, for recognizing different gaits. Quantitative gait parameters are obtained, and the power spectrums of the patients' gaits are analyzed. We show that that the slow and irregular actions of PD patients during walking tend to transfer some of the power from the main lobe frequency to a lower frequency band. Our results indicate the feasibility of using gait performance to evaluate the motor function of patients with PD. Conclusion This KPCA-based method requires only a digital camera and a decorated corridor setup

  5. [Calf circumference and its association with gait speed in elderly participants at Peruvian Naval Medical Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Villegas, Gregory Mishell; Runzer Colmenares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calf circumference and gait speed in elderly patients 65 years or older at Geriatric day clinic at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. We assessed 139 participants, 65 years or older at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval including calf circumference, gait speed and Short Physical Performance Battery. With bivariate analyses and logistic regression model we search for association between variables. The age mean was 79.37 years old (SD: 8.71). 59.71% were male, the 30.97% had a slow walking speed and the mean calf circumference was 33.42cm (SD: 5.61). After a bivariate analysis, we found a calf circumference mean of 30.35cm (SD: 3.74) in the slow speed group and, in normal gait group, a mean of 33.51cm (SD: 3.26) with significantly differences. We used logistic regression to analyze association with slow gait speed, founding statistically significant results adjusting model by disability and age. Low calf circumference is associated with slow speed walk in population over 65 years old. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  6. Improving Sensitivity to Detect Mild Cognitive Impairment: Cognitive Load Dual-Task Gait Speed Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAulay, Rebecca K; Wagner, Mark T; Szeles, Dana; Milano, Nicholas J

    2017-07-01

    Longitudinal research indicates that cognitive load dual-task gait assessment is predictive of cognitive decline and thus might provide a sensitive measure to screen for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, research among older adults being clinically evaluated for cognitive concerns, a defining feature of MCI, is lacking. The present study investigated the effect of performing a cognitive task on normal walking speed in patients presenting to a memory clinic with cognitive complaints. Sixty-one patients with a mean age of 68 years underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical interview, and gait speed (simple- and dual-task conditions) assessments. Thirty-four of the 61 patients met criteria for MCI. Repeated measure analyses of covariance revealed that greater age and MCI both significantly associated with slower gait speed, pscognitive dual task within a clinically representative population. Cognitive load dual-task gait assessment may provide a cost efficient and sensitive measure to detect older adults at high risk of a dementia disorder. (JINS, 2017, 23, 493-501).

  7. The effects on Kinematics and Muscle Activity of Walking in a Robotic Gait Trainer During Zero-Force Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Veneman, J.F.; Ekkelenkamp, R.; Buurke, Jaap; van der Helm, F.C.T.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2008-01-01

    “Assist as needed” control algorithms promote activity of patients during robotic gait training. Implementing these requires a free walking mode of a device, as unassisted motions should not be hindered. The goal of this study was to assess the normality of walking in the free walking mode of the

  8. Reliable Gait Recognition Using 3D Reconstructions and Random Forests - An Anthropometric Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandau, Martin; Heimbürger, Rikke V.; Jensen, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    reliable recognition. Sixteen participants performed normal walking where 3D reconstructions were obtained continually. Segment lengths and kinematics from the extremities were manually extracted by eight expert observers. The results showed that all the participants were recognized, assuming the same...... expert annotated the data. Recognition based on data annotated by different experts was less reliable achieving 72.6% correct recognitions as some parameters were heavily affected by interobserver variability. This study verified that 3D reconstructions are feasible for forensic gait analysis...

  9. Real time biometric surveillance with gait recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Subasish; Swain, Anisha; Das, Manaswini; Mohanty, Subhadarshini

    2018-04-01

    Bio metric surveillance has become indispensable for every system in the recent years. The contribution of bio metric authentication, identification, and screening purposes are widely used in various domains for preventing unauthorized access. A large amount of data needs to be updated, segregated and safeguarded from malicious software and misuse. Bio metrics is the intrinsic characteristics of each individual. Recently fingerprints, iris, passwords, unique keys, and cards are commonly used for authentication purposes. These methods have various issues related to security and confidentiality. These systems are not yet automated to provide the safety and security. The gait recognition system is the alternative for overcoming the drawbacks of the recent bio metric based authentication systems. Gait recognition is newer as it hasn't been implemented in the real-world scenario so far. This is an un-intrusive system that requires no knowledge or co-operation of the subject. Gait is a unique behavioral characteristic of every human being which is hard to imitate. The walking style of an individual teamed with the orientation of joints in the skeletal structure and inclinations between them imparts the unique characteristic. A person can alter one's own external appearance but not skeletal structure. These are real-time, automatic systems that can even process low-resolution images and video frames. In this paper, we have proposed a gait recognition system and compared the performance with conventional bio metric identification systems.

  10. The Practicalities of Assessing Freezing of Gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, C.; Mallia, E.; Debu, B.; Bloem, B.R.; Ferraye, M.U.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a mysterious, complex and debilitating phenomenon in Parkinson's disease. Adequate assessment is a pre-requisite for managing FOG, as well as for assigning participants in FOG research. The episodic nature of FOG, as well as its multiple clinical expressions

  11. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Takakusaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture- gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture- gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  12. Proprioceptive perturbations of stability during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duysens, J.; Beerepoot, V.P.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Weerdesteyn, V.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Through recent studies, the role of proprioceptors in reactions to perturbations during gait has been finally somewhat better understood. The input from spindle afferents has been investigated with tendon taps, vibration and other forms of muscle stretches, including some resembling natural

  13. The coupled effects of crouch gait and patella alta on tibiofemoral and patellofemoral cartilage loading in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Scott C E; Thelen, Darryl G; Smith, Colin R; Novacheck, Tom F; Schwartz, Michael H; Lenhart, Rachel L

    2018-02-01

    Elevated tibiofemoral and patellofemoral loading in children who exhibit crouch gait may contribute to skeletal deformities, pain, and cessation of walking ability. Surgical procedures used to treat crouch frequently correct knee extensor insufficiency by advancing the patella. However, there is little quantitative understanding of how the magnitudes of crouch and patellofemoral correction affect cartilage loading in gait. We used a computational musculoskeletal model to simulate the gait of twenty typically developing children and fifteen cerebral palsy patients who exhibited mild, moderate, and severe crouch. For each walking posture, we assessed the influence of patella alta and baja on tibiofemoral and patellofemoral cartilage contact. Tibiofemoral and patellofemoral contact pressures during the stance phase of normal gait averaged 2.2 and 1.0 MPa. Crouch gait increased pressure in both the tibofemoral (2.6-4.3 MPa) and patellofemoral (1.8-3.3 MPa) joints, while also shifting tibiofemoral contact to the posterior tibial plateau. For extended-knee postures, normal patellar positions (Insall-Salvatti ratio 0.8-1.2) concentrated contact on the middle third of the patellar cartilage. However, in flexed knee postures, both normal and baja patellar positions shifted pressure toward the superior edge of the patella. Moving the patella into alta restored pressure to the middle region of the patellar cartilage as crouch increased. This work illustrates the potential to dramatically reduce tibiofemoral and patellofemoral cartilage loading by surgically correcting crouch gait, and highlights the interaction between patella position and knee posture in modulating the location of patellar contact during functional activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of conventional overground gait training and a gait trainer with partial body weight support on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of both conventional overground gait training (CGT) and a gait trainer with partial body weight support (GTBWS) on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients with hemiparesis following chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were alternately assigned to one of two treatment groups, and both groups underwent CGT and GTBWS. [Results] The functional ambulation classification on the affected side improved signifi...

  15. Influence of different degrees of bilateral emulated contractures at the triceps surae on gait kinematics: The difference between gastrocnemius and soleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, M; Bonnefoy-Mazure, A; De Coulon, G; Cheze, L; Armand, S

    2017-10-01

    Ankle plantarflexion contracture results from a permanent shortening of the muscle-tendon complex. It often leads to gait alterations. The objective of this study was to compare the kinematic adaptations of different degrees of contractures and between isolated bilateral gastrocnemius and soleus emulated contractures using an exoskeleton. Eight combinations of contractures were emulated bilaterally on 10 asymptomatic participants using an exoskeleton that was able to emulate different degrees of contracture of gastrocnemius (biarticular muscle) and soleus (monoarticular muscle), corresponding at 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30° ankle plantarflexion contracture (knee-flexed and knee-extended). Range of motion was limited by ropes attached for soleus on heel and below the knee and for gastrocnemius on heel and above the knee. A gait analysis session was performed to evaluate the effect of these different emulated contractures on the Gait Profile Score, walking speed and gait kinematics. Gastrocnemius and soleus contractures influence gait kinematics, with an increase of the Gait Profile Score. Significant differences were found in the kinematics of the ankles, knees and hips. Contractures of soleus cause a more important decrease in the range of motion at the ankle than the same degree of gastrocnemius contractures. Gastrocnemius contractures cause greater knee flexion (during the stance phase) and hip flexion (during all the gait cycle) than the same level of soleus contractures. These results can support the interpretation of the Clinical Gait Analysis data by providing a better understanding of the effect of isolate contracture of soleus and gastrocnemius on gait kinematics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of moderate training on gait and work capacity of fibromyalgia patients: a preliminary field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiidus, Peter M; Pierrynowski, Michael; Dawson, Kimberley A

    2002-12-01

    This field study examined the influence of moderate intensity training on gait patterns and work capacity of individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS). FS is a chronic condition of unknown etiology, characterized by muscle tenderness, pain and stiffness and often accompanied by depression and fatigue which seems to occur primarily in middle aged females. There is no known cure for FS but treatment often includes a prescription of mild exercise. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of mild exercise on work capacity and gait patterns in FS patients. Participants were 14 females (age 47.0 ± 7.6 y) who participated in a 10 wk community based aerobic, strength and stretching program designed for FS individuals. Subjects were evaluated pre- and post-program and at a 2 month follow up. Work capacity was estimated by a sub-maximal PWC 170 cycle ergometer test and a Borg perceived exertion scale. Gait was assessed using OptoTrack three dimensional kinematics with 16 channel analogue data acquisition system. Trunk flexibility was also assessed. No significant change in estimated work capacity or flexibility was seen between pre- post- and follow up times. Nevertheless, a significant increase in self selected walking speed (p gait pattern that was sustained in the follow up testing was noted. We had previously also reported a significant improvement in muscle pain and other fibromyalgia symptoms in this population consequent to the training program. It was concluded that mild exercise training that does not influence work capacity or trunk flexibility can nevertheless positively influence gait mechanics and fibromyalgia symptoms in female FS patients.

  17. Six degree-of-freedom knee joint kinematics in obese individuals with knee pain during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Sheng; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Felson, David T; Li, Guoan; Lewis, Cara L

    2017-01-01

    Knee joint pain is a common symptom in obese individuals and walking is often prescribed as part of management programs. Past studies in obese individuals have focused on standing alignment and kinematics in the sagittal and coronal planes. Investigation of 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF) knee joint kinematics during standing and gait is important to thoroughly understand knee function in obese individuals with knee pain. This study aimed to investigate the 6DOF knee joint kinematics in standing and during gait in obese patients using a validated fluoroscopic imaging system. Ten individuals with obesity and knee pain were recruited. While standing, the knee was in 7.4±6.3°of hyperextension, 2.8±3.3° of abduction and 5.6±7.3° of external rotation. The femoral center was located 0.7±3.1mm anterior and 5.1±1.5mm medial to the tibial center. During treadmill gait, the sagittal plane motion, i.e., flexion/extension and anterior-posterior translation, showed a clear pattern. Specifically, obese individuals with knee pain maintained the knee in more flexion and more anterior tibial translation during most of the stance phase of the gait cycle and had a reduced total range of knee flexion when compared to a healthy non-obese group. In conclusion, obese individuals with knee pain used hyperextension knee posture while standing, but maintained the knee in more flexion during gait with reduced overall range of motion in the 6DOF analysis.

  18. A Surgical Model of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis With Histological and Gait Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Talal; Mitchell, Reed; Bhasin, Priya; Schon, Lew; Zhang, Zijun

    2016-07-01

    Posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is secondary to an array of joint injuries. Animal models are useful tools for addressing the uniqueness of PTOA progression in each type of joint injury and developing strategies for PTOA prevention and treatment. Intra-articular fracture induces PTOA pathology. Descriptive laboratory study. Through a parapatellar incision, the medial tibial plateau was exposed in the left knees of 8 Sprague-Dawley rats. Osteotomy at the midpoint between the tibial crest and the outermost portion of the medial tibial plateau, including the covering articular cartilage, was performed using a surgical blade. The fractured medial tibial plateau was fixed with 2 needles transversely. The fractured knees were not immobilized. Before and after surgery, rat gait was recorded. Rats were sacrificed at week 8, and their knees were harvested for histology. After intra-articular fracture, the affected limbs altered gait from baseline (week 0). In the first 2 weeks, the gait of the operated limbs featured a reduced paw print intensity and stride length but increased maximal contact and stance time. Reduction of maximal and mean print area and duty cycle (the percentage of stance phase in a step) was present from week 1 to week 5. Only print length was reduced in weeks 7 and 8. At week 8, histology of the operated knees demonstrated osteoarthritic pathology. The severity of the PTOA pathology did not correlate with the changes of print length at week 8. Intra-articular fracture of the medial tibial plateau effectively induced PTOA in rat knees. During PTOA development, the injured limbs demonstrated characteristic gait. Intra-articular fracture represents severe joint injury and associates with a high rate of PTOA. This animal model, with histologic and gait validations, can be useful for future studies of PTOA prevention and early diagnosis.

  19. Scaling of avian bipedal locomotion reveals independent effects of body mass and leg posture on gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Monica A; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra

    2018-05-22

    Birds provide an interesting opportunity to study the relationships between body size, limb morphology and bipedal locomotor function. Birds are ecologically diverse and span a large range of body size and limb proportions, yet all use their hindlimbs for bipedal terrestrial locomotion, for at least some part of their life history. Here, we review the scaling of avian striding bipedal gaits to explore how body mass and leg morphology influence walking and running. We collate literature data from 21 species, spanning a 2500× range in body mass from painted quail to ostriches. Using dynamic similarity theory to interpret scaling trends, we find evidence for independent effects of body mass, leg length and leg posture on gait. We find no evidence for scaling of duty factor with body size, suggesting that vertical forces scale with dynamic similarity. However, at dynamically similar speeds, large birds use relatively shorter stride lengths and higher stride frequencies compared with small birds. We also find that birds with long legs for their mass, such as the white stork and red-legged seriema, use longer strides and lower swing frequencies, consistent with the influence of high limb inertia on gait. We discuss the observed scaling of avian bipedal gait in relation to mechanical demands for force, work and power relative to muscle actuator capacity, muscle activation costs related to leg cycling frequency, and considerations of stability and agility. Many opportunities remain for future work to investigate how morphology influences gait dynamics among birds specialized for different habitats and locomotor behaviors. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. ABDOMINAL DRAWING IN MANEUVER: EFFECT ON GAIT PARAMETERS AND PAIN REDUCTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramasivan Mani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Back pain is the common musculoskeletal condition with a high prevalence of up to 80% among the general and work force population at some times in their lives.Muscular injury, fatigue, or facet or disc degeneration can compromise the stabilizing effects resulting in shearing forces that cause pain.Abdominal drawing in maneuver is used to facilitate the re-education of neuromuscular control mechanisms provided by local stabilizing muscles. Objective of the study is to measure the gait parameters and pain control before and after abdominal drawing in maneuver in patient with chronic mechanical low back pain. Methods: Total number of 30 consecutive patients and they were divided into two groups by purposive sampling. Group A is subjects with low back pain and Group B is subjects without low back pain. Outcome measures were average step cycle, average step length, coefficient of variation, time on each foot, Ambulation index measured with Biodex gait trainer. Pain is measured with Revised-Oswestry low back pain questionnaire. Results: Significant difference between gait parameters were observed in both low back pain group and the group without low back pain group with abdominal drawing in maneuver and the changes without abdominal drawing in maneuver was minimal. There was no significant difference found between both groups with or without abdominal drawing in maneuver. Conclusion: Gait parameters and Pain control can be improved by training with abdominal drawing in maneuver thereby it reduces pain and improves gait symmetry in subjects with low back pain.

  1. The effects of aquatic trunk exercise on gait and muscle activity in stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activity and gait function following aquatic trunk exercise in hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study's participants included thirteen hemiplegic patients (ten males and three females). The aquatic therapy consisted of administering concentrative aquatic therapy for four weeks in a therapeutic pool. Gait parameters were measured using a gait analysis system adjusted to each subject's comfortable walking speed. Electromyographic signals were measured for the rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique, and erector spine of each patients. [Results] The pre- and post-training performances of the transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique were compared statistically. There was no statistical difference between the patients' pre- and post-training values of maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, but the external abdominal oblique values tended to improve. Furthermore, gait factors improved significantly in terms of walking speeds, walking cycles, affected-side stance phases, affected-stride lengths, and stance-phase symmetry indices, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the trunk exercise during aquatic therapy may in part contribute to clinically relevant improvements in muscle activities and gait parameters.

  2. Automated Gait Analysis Through Hues and Areas (AGATHA): a method to characterize the spatiotemporal pattern of rat gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloefkorn, Heidi E.; Pettengill, Travis R.; Turner, Sara M. F.; Streeter, Kristi A.; Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J.; Fuller, David D.; Allen, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    While rodent gait analysis can quantify the behavioral consequences of disease, significant methodological differences exist between analysis platforms and little validation has been performed to understand or mitigate these sources of variance. By providing the algorithms used to quantify gait, open-source gait analysis software can be validated and used to explore methodological differences. Our group is introducing, for the first time, a fully-automated, open-source method for the characterization of rodent spatiotemporal gait patterns, termed Automated Gait Analysis Through Hues and Areas (AGATHA). This study describes how AGATHA identifies gait events, validates AGATHA relative to manual digitization methods, and utilizes AGATHA to detect gait compensations in orthopaedic and spinal cord injury models. To validate AGATHA against manual digitization, results from videos of rodent gait, recorded at 1000 frames per second (fps), were compared. To assess one common source of variance (the effects of video frame rate), these 1000 fps videos were re-sampled to mimic several lower fps and compared again. While spatial variables were indistinguishable between AGATHA and manual digitization, low video frame rates resulted in temporal errors for both methods. At frame rates over 125 fps, AGATHA achieved a comparable accuracy and precision to manual digitization for all gait variables. Moreover, AGATHA detected unique gait changes in each injury model. These data demonstrate AGATHA is an accurate and precise platform for the analysis of rodent spatiotemporal gait patterns. PMID:27554674

  3. Spinal fusion limits upper body range of motion during gait without inducing compensatory mechanisms in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holewijn, R M; Kingma, I; de Kleuver, M; Schimmel, J J P; Keijsers, N L W

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies show a limited alteration of gait at normal walking speed after spinal fusion surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), despite the presumed essential role of spinal mobility during gait. This study analyses how spinal fusion affects gait at more challenging walking speeds. More specifically, we investigated whether thoracic-pelvic rotations are reduced to a larger extent at higher gait speeds and whether compensatory mechanisms above and below the stiffened spine are present. 18 AIS patients underwent gait analysis at increasing walking speeds (0.45 to 2.22m/s) before and after spinal fusion. The range of motion (ROM) of the upper (thorax, thoracic-pelvic and pelvis) and lower body (hip, knee and ankle) was determined in all three planes. Spatiotemporal parameters of interest were stride length and cadence. Spinal fusion diminished transverse plane thoracic-pelvic ROM and this difference was more explicit at higher walking speeds. Transversal pelvis ROM was also decreased but this effect was not affected by speed. Lower body ROM, step length and cadence remained unaffected. Despite the reduction of upper body ROM after spine surgery during high speed gait, no altered spatiotemporal parameters or increased compensatory ROM above or below the fusion (i.e. in the shoulder girdle or lower extremities) was identified. Thus, it remains unclear how patients can cope so well with such major surgery. Future studies should focus on analyzing the kinematics of individual spinal levels above and below the fusion during gait to investigate possible compensatory mechanisms within the spine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  5. Automatic Setting Procedure for Exoskeleton-Assisted Overground Gait: Proof of Concept on Stroke Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gandolla

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke-related locomotor impairments are often associated with abnormal timing and intensity of recruitment of the affected and non-affected lower limb muscles. Restoring the proper lower limbs muscles activation is a key factor to facilitate recovery of gait capacity and performance, and to reduce maladaptive plasticity. Ekso is a wearable powered exoskeleton robot able to support over-ground gait training. The user controls the exoskeleton by triggering each single step during the gait cycle. The fine-tuning of the exoskeleton control system is crucial—it is set according to the residual functional abilities of the patient, and it needs to ensure lower limbs powered gait to be the most physiological as possible. This work focuses on the definition of an automatic calibration procedure able to detect the best Ekso setting for each patient. EMG activity has been recorded from Tibialis Anterior, Soleus, Rectus Femoris, and Semitendinosus muscles in a group of 7 healthy controls and 13 neurological patients. EMG signals have been processed so to obtain muscles activation patterns. The mean muscular activation pattern derived from the controls cohort has been set as reference. The developed automatic calibration procedure requires the patient to perform overground walking trials supported by the exoskeleton while changing parameters setting. The Gait Metric index is calculated for each trial, where the closer the performance is to the normative muscular activation pattern, in terms of both relative amplitude and timing, the higher the Gait Metric index is. The trial with the best Gait Metric index corresponds to the best parameters set. It has to be noted that the automatic computational calibration procedure is based on the same number of overground walking trials, and the same experimental set-up as in the current manual calibration procedure. The proposed approach allows supporting the rehabilitation team in the setting procedure. It has been

  6. Automatic Setting Procedure for Exoskeleton-Assisted Overground Gait: Proof of Concept on Stroke Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolla, Marta; Guanziroli, Eleonora; D'Angelo, Andrea; Cannaviello, Giovanni; Molteni, Franco; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Stroke-related locomotor impairments are often associated with abnormal timing and intensity of recruitment of the affected and non-affected lower limb muscles. Restoring the proper lower limbs muscles activation is a key factor to facilitate recovery of gait capacity and performance, and to reduce maladaptive plasticity. Ekso is a wearable powered exoskeleton robot able to support over-ground gait training. The user controls the exoskeleton by triggering each single step during the gait cycle. The fine-tuning of the exoskeleton control system is crucial-it is set according to the residual functional abilities of the patient, and it needs to ensure lower limbs powered gait to be the most physiological as possible. This work focuses on the definition of an automatic calibration procedure able to detect the best Ekso setting for each patient. EMG activity has been recorded from Tibialis Anterior, Soleus, Rectus Femoris, and Semitendinosus muscles in a group of 7 healthy controls and 13 neurological patients. EMG signals have been processed so to obtain muscles activation patterns. The mean muscular activation pattern derived from the controls cohort has been set as reference. The developed automatic calibration procedure requires the patient to perform overground walking trials supported by the exoskeleton while changing parameters setting. The Gait Metric index is calculated for each trial, where the closer the performance is to the normative muscular activation pattern, in terms of both relative amplitude and timing, the higher the Gait Metric index is. The trial with the best Gait Metric index corresponds to the best parameters set. It has to be noted that the automatic computational calibration procedure is based on the same number of overground walking trials, and the same experimental set-up as in the current manual calibration procedure. The proposed approach allows supporting the rehabilitation team in the setting procedure. It has been demonstrated to be

  7. Automatic Setting Procedure for Exoskeleton-Assisted Overground Gait: Proof of Concept on Stroke Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolla, Marta; Guanziroli, Eleonora; D'Angelo, Andrea; Cannaviello, Giovanni; Molteni, Franco; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Stroke-related locomotor impairments are often associated with abnormal timing and intensity of recruitment of the affected and non-affected lower limb muscles. Restoring the proper lower limbs muscles activation is a key factor to facilitate recovery of gait capacity and performance, and to reduce maladaptive plasticity. Ekso is a wearable powered exoskeleton robot able to support over-ground gait training. The user controls the exoskeleton by triggering each single step during the gait cycle. The fine-tuning of the exoskeleton control system is crucial—it is set according to the residual functional abilities of the patient, and it needs to ensure lower limbs powered gait to be the most physiological as possible. This work focuses on the definition of an automatic calibration procedure able to detect the best Ekso setting for each patient. EMG activity has been recorded from Tibialis Anterior, Soleus, Rectus Femoris, and Semitendinosus muscles in a group of 7 healthy controls and 13 neurological patients. EMG signals have been processed so to obtain muscles activation patterns. The mean muscular activation pattern derived from the controls cohort has been set as reference. The developed automatic calibration procedure requires the patient to perform overground walking trials supported by the exoskeleton while changing parameters setting. The Gait Metric index is calculated for each trial, where the closer the performance is to the normative muscular activation pattern, in terms of both relative amplitude and timing, the higher the Gait Metric index is. The trial with the best Gait Metric index corresponds to the best parameters set. It has to be noted that the automatic computational calibration procedure is based on the same number of overground walking trials, and the same experimental set-up as in the current manual calibration procedure. The proposed approach allows supporting the rehabilitation team in the setting procedure. It has been demonstrated to be

  8. Gait and Cognition in Parkinson’s Disease: Cognitive Impairment Is Inadequately Reflected by Gait Performance during Dual Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Gaßner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCognitive and gait deficits are common symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Motor-cognitive dual tasks (DTs are used to explore the interplay between gait and cognition. However, it is unclear if DT gait performance is indicative for cognitive impairment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if cognitive deficits are reflected by DT costs of spatiotemporal gait parameters.MethodsCognitive function, single task (ST and DT gait performance were investigated in 67 PD patients. Cognition was assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA followed by a standardized, sensor-based gait test and the identical gait test while subtracting serial 3’s. Cognitive impairment was defined by a MoCA score <26. DT costs in gait parameters [(DT − ST/ST × 100] were calculated as a measure of DT effect on gait. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between MoCA performance and gait parameters. In a linear regression model, DT gait costs and clinical confounders (age, gender, disease duration, motor impairment, medication, and depression were correlated to cognitive performance. In a subgroup analysis, we compared matched groups of cognitively impaired and unimpaired PD patients regarding differences in ST, DT, and DT gait costs.ResultsCorrelation analysis revealed weak correlations between MoCA score and DT costs of gait parameters (r/rSp ≤ 0.3. DT costs of stride length, swing time variability, and maximum toe clearance (|r/rSp| > 0.2 were included in a regression analysis. The parameters only explain 8% of the cognitive variance. In combination with clinical confounders, regression analysis showed that these gait parameters explained 30% of MoCA performance. Group comparison revealed strong DT effects within both groups (large effect sizes, but significant between-group effects in DT gait costs were not observed.ConclusionThese findings suggest that DT gait performance is not indicative

  9. Effect of Cue Timing and Modality on Gait Initiation in Parkinson Disease With Freezing of Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chiahao; Amundsen Huffmaster, Sommer L; Tuite, Paul J; Vachon, Jacqueline M; MacKinnon, Colum D

    2017-07-01

    To examine the effects of cue timing, across 3 sensory modalities, on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during gait initiation in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Observational study. Biomechanics research laboratory. Individuals with idiopathic PD (N=25; 11 with freezing of gait [FOG]) were studied in the off-medication state (12-h overnight withdrawal). Gait initiation was tested without cueing (self-initiated) and with 3 cue timing protocols: fixed delay (3s), random delay (4-12s), and countdown (3-2-1-go, 1-s intervals) across 3 sensory modalities (acoustic, visual, and vibrotactile). The incidence and spatiotemporal characteristics of APAs during gait initiation were analyzed, including vertical ground reaction forces and center of pressure. All cue timings and modalities increased the incidence and amplitude of APAs compared with self-initiated stepping. Acoustic and visual cues, but not vibrotactile stimulation, improved the timing of APAs. Fixed delay or countdown timing protocols were more effective at decreasing APA durations than random delay cues. Cue-evoked improvements in APA timing, but not amplitude, correlated with the level of impairment during self-initiated gait. Cues did not improve the late push-off phase in the FOG group. External cueing improves gait initiation in PD regardless of cue timing, modality, or clinical phenotype (with and without FOG). Acoustic or visual cueing with predictive timing provided the greatest improvements in gait initiation; therefore, these protocols may provide the best outcomes when applied by caregivers or devices. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does patella lowering improve crouch gait in cerebral palsy? Comparative retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desailly, E; Thévenin-Lemoine, C; Khouri, N

    2017-09-01

    Patella lowering aims to improve quadriceps function as a means of correcting crouch gait in patients with cerebral palsy. Few studies have assessed the effects of patella lowering as a component of multilevel surgery. Including patella lowering into the components of multilevel surgery is beneficial in patients with crouch gait and patella alta. In 12 lower limbs with patella alta (Caton-Deschamps index>1.4) in 41 children with cerebral palsy, patella lowering was performed, without distal femoral extension osteotomy or hamstring release. Among limbs with similar surgical procedures (e.g., hamstring lengthening, rectus femoris transfer) except for patella lowering, controls were selected retrospectively by matching on a propensity score for patella lowering. The propensity score was computed based on preoperative knee flexion contracture, knee extension lag, and minimum knee flexion at mid-stance. Clinical and 3D kinematic data were compared between the two groups. The improvement in minimum knee flexion at mid-stance was significantly greater in the group with patellar lowering (-24°±12°vs. -12°±7°). The Gait Deviation Index improved similarly in the two groups. Knee flexion contracture improved only in the group with patellar lowering. Extension lag did not improve in either group. Peak knee flexion during the swing phase remained unchanged in both groups. Patellar lowering is effective in diminishing minimum knee flexion at mid-stance in patients with patella alta and crouch gait due to cerebral palsy. Patellar lowering has not adverse effects on gait. These findings cannot be assumed to apply to patients with normal patellar height. IV (retrospective study). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Correlations among measures of knee stiffness, gait performance and complaints in individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatis, Carol A; Wolff, Edward F; Lockard, Margery A; Michener, Lori A; Robbins, Steven J

    2013-03-01

    Stiffness is a common complaint in individuals with knee osteoarthritis and is a component of the osteoarthritis diagnosis. Yet the relationship between stiffness and function is poorly understood and methods to quantify stiffness are limited. Using a cross-sectional observational design with 66 subjects with knee osteoarthritis, stiffness and damping coefficients were calculated from a relaxed knee oscillation procedure. Gait parameters were measured using an electronic walkway. Self-reported pain, stiffness, and function were measured with the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index. Correlation and Alexander's normalized-t approximation analyses were used to assess associations among the variables. Subset analysis was performed on subjects with and without tibiofemoral joint crepitus. Slight to moderate correlations existed between stiffness and damping coefficients and most gait parameters ((| r |=0.30-0.56; PMcMaster Osteoarthritis Index scores and all gait parameters (| r |=0.35-0.62; Pcoefficient was only slightly associated with patient-rated Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index stiffness subscale scores. Subset analysis revealed significant correlations that differed between those with and without crepitus. These findings suggest that laboratory measured stiffness and damping coefficients, Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index scores and gait-related measurements assess different aspects related to movement in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Stiffness and damping coefficients may offer the ability to explain gait changes in the knee that are independent of a person's perceptions particularly in the early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Guidelines for Assessment of Gait and Reference Values for Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Older Adults: The Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortiums Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Beauchet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gait disorders, a highly prevalent condition in older adults, are associated with several adverse health consequences. Gait analysis allows qualitative and quantitative assessments of gait that improves the understanding of mechanisms of gait disorders and the choice of interventions. This manuscript aims (1 to give consensus guidance for clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls in older adults aged 65 years and over, and (2 to provide reference values for spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded footfalls in healthy older adults free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities.Methods: International experts working in a network of two different consortiums (i.e., Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortium participated in this initiative. First, they identified items of standardized information following the usual procedure of formulation of consensus findings. Second, they merged databases including spatiotemporal gait assessments with GAITRite® system and clinical information from the “Gait, cOgnitiOn & Decline” (GOOD initiative and the Generation 100 (Gen 100 study. Only healthy—free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities (i.e., ≤ 3 therapeutics taken daily—participants aged 65 and older were selected. Age, sex, body mass index, mean values, and coefficients of variation (CoV of gait parameters were used for the analyses.Results: Standardized systematic assessment of three categories of items, which were demographics and clinical information, and gait characteristics (clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls, were selected for the proposed guidelines. Two complementary sets of items were distinguished: a minimal data set and a full data set. In addition, a total of 954 participants (mean age 72.8 ± 4.8 years, 45.8% women were recruited to establish the reference values. Performance of spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded

  13. Gait parameters are differently affected by concurrent smartphone-based activities with scaled levels of cognitive effort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Caramia

    Full Text Available The widespread and pervasive use of smartphones for sending messages, calling, and entertainment purposes, mainly among young adults, is often accompanied by the concurrent execution of other tasks. Recent studies have analyzed how texting, reading or calling while walking-in some specific conditions-might significantly influence gait parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of different smartphone activities on walking, evaluating the variations of several gait parameters. 10 young healthy students (all smartphone proficient users were instructed to text chat (with two different levels of cognitive load, call, surf on a social network or play with a math game while walking in a real-life outdoor setting. Each of these activities is characterized by a different cognitive load. Using an inertial measurement unit on the lower trunk, spatio-temporal gait parameters, together with regularity, symmetry and smoothness parameters, were extracted and grouped for comparison among normal walking and different dual task demands. An overall significant effect of task type on the aforementioned parameters group was observed. The alterations in gait parameters vary as a function of cognitive effort. In particular, stride frequency, step length and gait speed show a decrement, while step time increases as a function of cognitive effort. Smoothness, regularity and symmetry parameters are significantly altered for specific dual task conditions, mainly along the mediolateral direction. These results may lead to a better understanding of the possible risks related to walking and concurrent smartphone use.

  14. Analysis and Classification of Stride Patterns Associated with Children Development Using Gait Signal Dynamics Parameters and Ensemble Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring stride variability and dynamics in children is useful for the quantitative study of gait maturation and neuromotor development in childhood and adolescence. In this paper, we computed the sample entropy (SampEn and average stride interval (ASI parameters to quantify the stride series of 50 gender-matched children participants in three age groups. We also normalized the SampEn and ASI values by leg length and body mass for each participant, respectively. Results show that the original and normalized SampEn values consistently decrease over the significance level of the Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.01 in children of 3–14 years old, which indicates the stride irregularity has been significantly ameliorated with the body growth. The original and normalized ASI values are also significantly changing when comparing between any two groups of young (aged 3–5 years, middle (aged 6–8 years, and elder (aged 10–14 years children. Such results suggest that healthy children may better modulate their gait cadence rhythm with the development of their musculoskeletal and neurological systems. In addition, the AdaBoost.M2 and Bagging algorithms were used to effectively distinguish the children’s gait patterns. These ensemble learning algorithms both provided excellent gait classification results in terms of overall accuracy (≥90%, recall (≥0.8, and precision (≥0.8077.

  15. Association of Dual-Task Gait With Incident Dementia in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Gait and Brain Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel M; Sarquis-Adamson, Yanina; Speechley, Mark; Borrie, Michael J; Hachinski, Vladimir C; Wells, Jennie; Riccio, Patricia M; Schapira, Marcelo; Sejdic, Ervin; Camicioli, Richard M; Bartha, Robert; McIlroy, William E; Muir-Hunter, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Gait performance is affected by neurodegeneration in aging and has the potential to be used as a clinical marker for progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. A dual-task gait test evaluating the cognitive-motor interface may predict dementia progression in older adults with MCI. To determine whether a dual-task gait test is associated with incident dementia in MCI. The Gait and Brain Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults that enrolled 112 older adults with MCI. Participants were followed up for 6 years, with biannual visits including neurologic, cognitive, and gait assessments. Data were collected from July 2007 to March 2016. Incident all-cause dementia was the main outcome measure, and single- and dual-task gait velocity and dual-task gait costs were the independent variables. A neuropsychological test battery was used to assess cognition. Gait velocity was recorded under single-task and 3 separate dual-task conditions using an electronic walkway. Dual-task gait cost was defined as the percentage change between single- and dual-task gait velocities: ([single-task gait velocity - dual-task gait velocity]/ single-task gait velocity) × 100. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between risk of progression to dementia and the independent variables, adjusted for age, sex, education, comorbidities, and cognition. Among 112 study participants with MCI, mean (SD) age was 76.6 (6.9) years, 55 were women (49.1%), and 27 progressed to dementia (24.1%), with an incidence rate of 121 per 1000 person-years. Slow single-task gait velocity (gait cost while counting backward (HR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.57-9.15; P = .003) and naming animals (HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.04-5.59; P = .04) were associated with dementia progression (incidence rate, 155 per 1000 person-years). The models remained robust after adjusting by baseline cognition except for dual-task gait cost when dichotomized. Dual

  16. Menstrual Cycle: What's Normal, What's Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercising. Eating disorders — such as anorexia nervosa — extreme weight loss and increased physical activity can disrupt menstruation. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with this common endocrine system disorder ...

  17. Can we improve gait skills in chronic hemiplegics? A randomised control trial with gait trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, D; Laíns, J; Pereira, A; Nunes, R; Caldas, J; Amaral, C; Pires, S; Costa, A; Alves, P; Moreira, M; Garrido, N; Loureiro, L

    2007-12-01

    Partial body weight support (PBWS) is an accepted treatment for hemiplegic patients. The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of gait trainer with conventional treatment on the gait management after stroke. Forty chronic post-stroke hemiplegics were part of a prospective research. Inclusion criteria were: first ever stroke in a chronic stage with stabilised motor deficits; age >18 and gait trainer, for the same period of time and frequency. Assessment tools: Motricity Index (MI); Toulouse Motor Scale (TMS); modified Ashworth Spasticity Scale (mASS); Berg Balance Scale (BBS); Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI); Fugl-Meyer Stroke Scale (F-MSS); Functional Ambulation Category (FAC); Barthel Index (BI); 10 meters, time up and go (TUG), 6 minutes, and step tests. EG and CG did the assessments before treatment (T(0)), right after treatment (T(1)), and on follow-up, 3 months later (T(2)). CG and EG were homogenous in all the variables at T(0). CG and EG showed improvement in almost all the assessment scales after treatment, although only some with relevant differences. EG showed statistically relevant improvement on T(1) and on T(2) in several of the assessment tools, whereas CG only showed statistically significant improvement after T(1) and only in some of the assessment tools. Both groups of chronic hemiplegic patients improved after either PBWS with gait trainer or Bobath treatment. Only subjects undergoing PBWS with gait trainer maintained functional gain after 3 months.

  18. Intra-individual gait pattern variability in specific situations: Implications for forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Oliver; Dillinger, Steffen; Marschall, Franz

    2016-07-01

    In this study, inter- and intra-individual gait pattern differences are examined in various gait situations by means of phase diagrams of the extremity angles (cyclograms). 8 test subjects walked along a walking distance of 6m under different conditions three times each: barefoot, wearing sneakers, wearing combat boots, after muscular fatigue, and wearing a full-face motorcycle helmet restricting vision. The joint angles of foot, knee, and hip were recorded in the sagittal plane. The coupling of movements was represented by time-adjusted cyclograms, and the inter- and intra-individual differences were captured by calculating the similarity between different gait patterns. Gait pattern variability was often greater between the defined test situations than between the individual test subjects. The results have been interpreted considering neurophysiological regulation mechanisms. Footwear, masking, and fatigue were interpreted as disturbance parameters, each being a cause for gait pattern variability and complicating the inference of identity of persons in video recordings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hardware Development and Locomotion Control Strategy for an Over-Ground Gait Trainer: NaTUre-Gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trieu Phat; Low, Kin Huat; Qu, Xingda; Lim, Hup Boon; Hoon, Kay Hiang

    2014-01-01

    Therapist-assisted body weight supported (TABWS) gait rehabilitation was introduced two decades ago. The benefit of TABWS in functional recovery of walking in spinal cord injury and stroke patients has been demonstrated and reported. However, shortage of therapists, labor-intensiveness, and short duration of training are some limitations of this approach. To overcome these deficiencies, robotic-assisted gait rehabilitation systems have been suggested. These systems have gained attentions from researchers and clinical practitioner in recent years. To achieve the same objective, an over-ground gait rehabilitation system, NaTUre-gaits, was developed at the Nanyang Technological University. The design was based on a clinical approach to provide four main features, which are pelvic motion, body weight support, over-ground walking experience, and lower limb assistance. These features can be achieved by three main modules of NaTUre-gaits: 1) pelvic assistance mechanism, mobile platform, and robotic orthosis. Predefined gait patterns are required for a robotic assisted system to follow. In this paper, the gait pattern planning for NaTUre-gaits was accomplished by an individual-specific gait pattern prediction model. The model generates gait patterns that resemble natural gait patterns of the targeted subjects. The features of NaTUre-gaits have been demonstrated by walking trials with several subjects. The trials have been evaluated by therapists and doctors. The results show that 10-m walking trial with a reduction in manpower. The task-specific repetitive training approach and natural walking gait patterns were also successfully achieved.

  20. Neglected Alkaptonuric Patient Presenting with Steppage Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Mirzashahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Even though intervertebral disc degeneration can be found in the natural course of alkaptonuria, detection of the disease by black disc color change in a patient without any other presentation of alkaptonuria is an exceptionally rare condition. We have reported a very rare case of alkaptonuria presented with low back pain and steppage gait in a 51-year-old male with a complaint of chronic low-back pain and steppage gait who was operated on for prolapsed lumbar disc herniation. Intraoperatively his lumbar disk was discovered to be black. The alkaptonuria diagnosis was considered after histopathological examination of the black disc material and elevated urinary concentration of homogentisic acid confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this presentation has not been reported previously in literature.

  1. Novel actuation design of a gait trainer with shadow leg approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleman, Jos; Meuleman, Jos; van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; van der Kooij, Herman

    2013-06-01

    Robotic gait training has developed since the end of the 20(th) century, yet there is much room for improvement in the design of the robots. With the conventional exoskeleton structures, donning of patients in a gait trainer usually is a cumbersome process due to the need of joint alignments and normal walking is often hindered due to obstructed arm swing. Our goal was to design a gait training robots that overcomes these limitations. We propose a novel design in which these drawbacks are reduced to a great amount. By using a parallel structure behind the patient (shadow leg) that is connected to the patient joints with rods, little alignment is needed, the area lateral to the hip is left free, and thus arm swing is not obstructed. The construction is lightweight, because the actuators are mounted on a fixed base and the transmission of power is executed with light weight rods. An end stop in the shadow leg prevents hyper extension of the patient's knee. The relationship between motor displacement and human joint rotations is nonlinear. In this paper we derive the nonlinear relationships between motors and patient joints and verify these. calculations with a measurement. The device has been built, now tests with subjects are required to assess if subjects can indeed walk normally in the robot.

  2. Plantar pressure during gait in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Background: During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Methods: Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpa...

  3. Non-surgical management of a pediatric “intoed” gait pattern – a systematic review of the current best evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uden H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hayley Uden1, Saravana Kumar21Podiatry Department, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 2Post Doctoral Senior Research Fellow, International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaBackground: An intoed gait pattern is one of the most common referrals for children to an orthopedic consultation. Parental concern as to the aesthetics of the child’s gait pattern and/or its symptomatic nature will primarily drive these referrals during a child’s early developmental years. Whilst some of these referrals prove to be the result of a normal growth variant, some children will present with a symptomatic intoed gait pattern. Various treatments, both conservative and surgical, have been proposed including: braces, wedges, stretches and exercises, shoe modifications, and surgical procedures. However, which treatments are effective and justified in the management of this condition is not clear within the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to therefore identify and critique the best available evidence for the non-surgical management of an intoed gait pattern in a pediatric population.Method: A systematic review was conducted of which only experimental studies investigating a management option for an intoeing gait pattern were included. Studies needed to be written in English, pertaining to a human pediatric population, and published within a peer reviewed journal. Electronic databases were searched: Ovid (Medline, EMBASE, AMED, PubMed, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library. The National Health and Medical Research Council’s designation of levels of hierarchy and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme cohort studies critical appraisal tool were used.Results: Five level IV studies were found. The studies were of varied quality and with mixed results. Gait plates, physiologic/standardized shoes, and orthotic devices (with gate plate extension

  4. Effects of conventional overground gait training and a gait trainer with partial body weight support on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of both conventional overground gait training (CGT) and a gait trainer with partial body weight support (GTBWS) on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients with hemiparesis following chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were alternately assigned to one of two treatment groups, and both groups underwent CGT and GTBWS. [Results] The functional ambulation classification on the affected side improved significantly in the CGT and GTBWS groups. Walking speed also improved significantly in both groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the GTBWS in company with CGT may be, in part, an effective method of gait training for restoring gait ability in patients after a stroke.

  5. Quantifying stimulus-response rehabilitation protocols by auditory feedback in Parkinson's disease gait pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Gustavo; Atehortúa, Angélica; Iregui, Marcela; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    External auditory cues stimulate motor related areas of the brain, activating motor ways parallel to the basal ganglia circuits and providing a temporary pattern for gait. In effect, patients may re-learn motor skills mediated by compensatory neuroplasticity mechanisms. However, long term functional gains are dependent on the nature of the pathology, follow-up is usually limited and reinforcement by healthcare professionals is crucial. Aiming to cope with these challenges, several researches and device implementations provide auditory or visual stimulation to improve Parkinsonian gait pattern, inside and outside clinical scenarios. The current work presents a semiautomated strategy for spatio-temporal feature extraction to study the relations between auditory temporal stimulation and spatiotemporal gait response. A protocol for auditory stimulation was built to evaluate the integrability of the strategy in the clinic practice. The method was evaluated in transversal measurement with an exploratory group of people with Parkinson's (n = 12 in stage 1, 2 and 3) and control subjects (n =6). The result showed a strong linear relation between auditory stimulation and cadence response in control subjects (R=0.98 +/-0.008) and PD subject in stage 2 (R=0.95 +/-0.03) and stage 3 (R=0.89 +/-0.05). Normalized step length showed a variable response between low and high gait velocity (0.2> R >0.97). The correlation between normalized mean velocity and stimulus was strong in all PD stage 2 (R>0.96) PD stage 3 (R>0.84) and controls (R>0.91) for all experimental conditions. Among participants, the largest variation from baseline was found in PD subject in stage 3 (53.61 +/-39.2 step/min, 0.12 +/- 0.06 in step length and 0.33 +/- 0.16 in mean velocity). In this group these values were higher than the own baseline. These variations are related with direct effect of metronome frequency on cadence and velocity. The variation of step length involves different regulation strategies and

  6. Gait Recognition and Walking Exercise Intensity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shing Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular patients consult doctors for advice regarding regular exercise, whereas obese patients must self-manage their weight. Because a system for permanently monitoring and tracking patients’ exercise intensities and workouts is necessary, a system for recognizing gait and estimating walking exercise intensity was proposed. For gait recognition analysis, αβ filters were used to improve the recognition of athletic attitude. Furthermore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD was used to filter the noise of patients’ attitude to acquire the Fourier transform energy spectrum. Linear discriminant analysis was then applied to this energy spectrum for training and recognition. When the gait or motion was recognized, the walking exercise intensity was estimated. In addition, this study addressed the correlation between inertia and exercise intensity by using the residual function of the EMD and quadratic approximation to filter the effect of the baseline drift integral of the acceleration sensor. The increase in the determination coefficient of the regression equation from 0.55 to 0.81 proved that the accuracy of the method for estimating walking exercise intensity proposed by Kurihara was improved in this study.

  7. Evaluating alternative gait strategies using evolutionary robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, William I; Dennis, Louise A; W -J, Wang; Crompton, Robin H

    2004-05-01

    Evolutionary robotics is a branch of artificial intelligence concerned with the automatic generation of autonomous robots. Usually the form of the robot is predefined and various computational techniques are used to control the machine's behaviour. One aspect is the spontaneous generation of walking in legged robots and this can be used to investigate the mechanical requirements for efficient walking in bipeds. This paper demonstrates a bipedal simulator that spontaneously generates walking and running gaits. The model can be customized to represent a range of hominoid morphologies and used to predict performance parameters such as preferred speed and metabolic energy cost. Because it does not require any motion capture data it is particularly suitable for investigating locomotion in fossil animals. The predictions for modern humans are highly accurate in terms of energy cost for a given speed and thus the values predicted for other bipeds are likely to be good estimates. To illustrate this the cost of transport is calculated for Australopithecus afarensis. The model allows the degree of maximum extension at the knee to be varied causing the model to adopt walking gaits varying from chimpanzee-like to human-like. The energy costs associated with these gait choices can thus be calculated and this information used to evaluate possible locomotor strategies in early hominids.

  8. Comparison between treadmill training with rhythmic auditory stimulation and ground walking with rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait ability in chronic stroke patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin; Park, So-yeon; Kim, Yong-wook; Woo, Youngkeun

    2015-01-01

    Generally, treadmill training is very effective intervention, and rhythmic auditory stimulation is designed to feedback during gait training in stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the gait abilities in chronic stroke patients following either treadmill walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation (TRAS) or over ground walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation (ORAS). Nineteen subjects were divided into two groups: a TRAS group (9 subjects) and an ORAS group (10 subjects). Temporal and spatial gait parameters and motor recovery ability were measured before and after the training period. Gait ability was measured by the Biodex Gait trainer treadmill system, Timed up and go test (TUG), 6 meter walking distance (6MWD) and Functional gait assessment (FGA). After the training periods, the TRAS group showed a significant improvement in walking speed, step cycle, step length of the unaffected limb, coefficient of variation, 6MWD, and, FGA when compared to the ORAS group (p <  0.05). Treadmill walking training during the rhythmic auditory stimulation may be useful for rehabilitation of patients with chronic stroke.

  9. Clinical feasibility of gait training with a robotic exoskeleton (WPAL) in an individual with both incomplete cervical and complete thoracic spinal cord injury: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shigeo; Koyama, Soichiro; Saitoh, Eiichi; Hirano, Satoshi; Yatsuya, Kanan; Tsunoda, Tetsuya; Katoh, Masaki; Gotoh, Takeshi; Furumoto, Ayako

    2017-01-01

    Patients with tetraplegia can achieve independent gait with lateral-type powered exoskeletons; it is unclear whether medial-type powered exoskeletons allow for this. To investigate gait training with a medial-type powered exoskeleton wearable power-assist locomotor (WPAL) in an individual with incomplete cervical (C5) and complete thoracic (T12) spinal cord injury (SCI). The 60-session program was investigated retrospectively using medical records. Upon completion, gait performance was examined using three-dimensional motion analyses and surface electromyography (EMG) of the upper limbs. The subject achieved independent gait with WPAL and a walker in 12 sessions. He continuously extended his right elbow; his left elbow periodically flexed/extended. His pelvic inclination was larger than the trunk inclination during single-leg stance. EMG activity was increased in the left deltoid muscles during ipsilateral foot-contact. The right anterior and medial deltoid muscle EMG activity increased just after foot-off for each leg, as did the right biceps activity. Continuous activity was observed in the left triceps throughout the gait cycle; activity was unclear in the right triceps. These results suggest the importance of upper limb residual motor function, and may be useful in extending the range of clinical applications for robotic gait rehabilitation in patients with SCI.

  10. Effect of interactive cognitive motor training on gait and balance among older adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ching-Chiu; Chiu, Huei-Ling; Liu, Doresses; Chan, Pi-Tuan; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Chen, Ruey; Niu, Shu-Fen; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2018-06-01

    Aging is a normal degenerative process that results in a decline in the gait and balance performance of older adults. Interactive cognitive motor training is an intervention that integrates cognitive and motor tasks to promote individuals' physical and cognitive fall risk factors. However, the additive effects of the interactive cognitive motor training on objective quantitative data and comprehensive descriptions of gait and balance warrants further investigation. To investigate the effect of interactive cognitive motor training on older adults' gait and balance from immediate to long-term time points. A double-blind randomized control trial. Four senior service centers and community service centers in Taiwan. 62 older adults who met the inclusion criteria. The study participants were older adults without cognitive impairment, and they were randomly allocated to the experimental group or active control group. In both groups, older adults participated in three sessions of 30-min training per week for a total of 8 weeks, with the total number of training sessions being 24. The primary outcome was gait performance, which was measured using objective and subjective indicators. iWALK was used as an objective indicator to measure pace and dynamic stability; the Functional Gait Assessment was employed as a subjective indicator. The secondary outcome was balance performance, which was measured using iSWAY. A generalized estimating equation was used to identify whether the results of the two groups differ after receiving different intervention measures; the results were obtained from immediate to long-term posttests. Stride length in the pace category of the experimental group improved significantly in immediate posttest (p = 0.01), 3-month follow-up (p = 0.01), and 6-month follow-up (p = 0.04). The range of motion of the leg exhibited significant improvement in immediate posttest (p = 0.04) and 3-month follow-up (p = 0.04). The Functional Gait

  11. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  12. A Combined Cognitive Stimulation and Physical Exercise Programme (MINDVital) in Early Dementia: Differential Effects on Single- and Dual-Task Gait Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Laura; Lim, Wee Shiong; Chan, Mark; Ali, Noorhazlina; Chong, Mei Sian

    2016-01-01

    Gait disorders are common in early dementia, with particularly pronounced dual-task deficits, contributing to the increased fall risk and mobility decline associated with cognitive impairment. This study examines the effects of a combined cognitive stimulation and physical exercise programme (MINDVital) on gait performance under single- and dual-task conditions in older adults with mild dementia. Thirty-nine patients with early dementia participated in a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme comprising both physical exercise and cognitive stimulation. The programme was conducted in 8-week cycles with participants attending once weekly, and all participants completed 2 successive cycles. Cognitive, functional performance and behavioural symptoms were assessed at baseline and at the end of each 8-week cycle. Gait speed was examined under both single- (Timed Up and Go and 6-metre walk tests) and dual-task (animal category and serial counting) conditions. A random effects model was performed for the independent effect of MINDVital on the primary outcome variable of gait speed under dual-task conditions. The mean age of patients enroled in the rehabilitation programme was 79 ± 6.2 years; 25 (64.1%) had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia, and 26 (66.7%) were receiving a cognitive enhancer therapy. There was a significant improvement in cognitive performance [random effects coefficient (standard error) = 0.90 (0.31), p = 0.003] and gait speed under both dual-task situations [animal category: random effects coefficient = 0.04 (0.02), p = 0.039; serial counting: random effects coefficient = 0.05 (0.02), p = 0.013], with reduced dual-task cost for gait speed [serial counting: random effects coefficient = -4.05 (2.35), p = 0.086] following successive MINDVital cycles. No significant improvement in single-task gait speed was observed. Improved cognitive performance over time was a significant determinant of changes in dual-task gait speed [random effects coefficients

  13. A Robotic Exoskeleton for Treatment of Crouch Gait in Children With Cerebral Palsy: Design and Initial Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Zachary F; Damiano, Diane L; Park, Hyung-Soon; Gravunder, Andrew J; Bulea, Thomas C

    2017-06-01

    Crouch gait, a pathological pattern of walking characterized by excessive knee flexion, is one of the most common gait disorders observed in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Effective treatment of crouch during childhood is critical to maintain mobility into adulthood, yet current interventions do not adequately alleviate crouch in most individuals. Powered exoskeletons provide an untapped opportunity for intervention. The multiple contributors to crouch, including spasticity, contracture, muscle weakness, and poor motor control make design and control of such devices challenging in this population. To our knowledge, no evidence exists regarding the feasibility or efficacy of utilizing motorized assistance to alleviate knee flexion in crouch gait. Here, we present the design of and first results from a powered exoskeleton for extension assistance as a treatment for crouch gait in children with CP. Our exoskeleton, based on the architecture of a knee-ankle-foot orthosis, is lightweight (3.2 kg) and modular. On board sensors enable knee extension assistance to be provided during distinct phases of the gait cycle. We tested our device on one six-year-old male participant with spastic diplegia from CP. Our results show that the powered exoskeleton improved knee extension during stance by 18.1° while total knee range of motion improved 21.0°. Importantly, we observed no significant decrease in knee extensor muscle activity, indicating the user did not rely solely on the exoskeleton to extend the limb. These results establish the initial feasibility of robotic exoskeletons for treatment of crouch and provide impetus for continued investigation of these devices with the aim of deployment for long term gait training in this population.

  14. Self-perceived gait stability modulates the effect of daily life gait quality on prospective falls in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijer, R H A; Hoozemans, M J M; van Dieën, J H; Pijnappels, M

    2018-05-01

    Quality of gait during daily life activities and perceived gait stability are both independent risk factors for future falls in older adults. We investigated whether perceived gait stability modulates the association between gait quality and falling in older adults. In this prospective cohort study, we used one-week daily-life trunk acceleration data of 272 adults over 65 years of age. Sample entropy (SE) of the 3D acceleration signals was calculated to quantify daily life gait quality. To quantify perceived gait stability, the level of concern about falling was assessed using the Falls Efficacy Scale international (FES-I) questionnaire and step length, estimated from the accelerometer data. A fall calendar was used to record fall incidence during a six-month follow up period. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association between falling and SE, step length or FES-I score, and their interactions. High (i.e., poor) SE in vertical direction was significantly associated with falling. FES-I scores significantly modulated this association, whereas step length did not. Subgroup analyses based on FES-I scores showed that high SE in the vertical direction was a risk factor for falls only in older adults who had a high (i.e. poor) FES-I score. In conclusion, perceived gait stability modulates the association between gait quality and falls in older adults such that an association between gait quality and falling is only present when perceived gait stability is poor. The results of the present study indicate that the effectiveness of interventions for fall prevention, aimed at improving gait quality, may be affected by a modulating effect of perceived gait stability. Results indicate that interventions to reduce falls in older adults might sort most effectiveness in populations with both a poor physiological and psychological status. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Three-dimensional gait analysis of patients with osteonecrosis of femoral head before and after treatments with vascularized greater trochanter bone flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Daping; Zhao, Dewei

    2011-03-01

    To provide the objective basis for the evaluation of the operative results of vascularized greater trochanter bone flap in treating osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) by three-dimensional gait analysis. Between March 2006 and March 2007, 35 patients with ONFH were treated with vascularized greater trochanter bone flap, and gait analysis was made by using three-dimensional gait analysis system before operation and at 1, 2 years after operation. There were 23 males and 12 females, aged 21-52 years (mean, 35.2 years), including 8 cases of steroid-induced, 7 cases of traumatic, 6 cases of alcoholic, and 14 cases of idiopathic ONFH. The left side was involved in 15 cases, and right side in 20 cases. According to Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) classification, all patients were diagnosed as having femoral-head necrosis at stage III. Preoperative Harris hip functional score (HHS) was 56.2 +/- 5.6. The disease duration was 1.5-18.6 years (mean, 5.2 years). All incisions healed at stage I without early postoperative complications of deep vein thrombosis and infections of incision. Thirty-five patients were followed up 2-3 years with an average of 2.5 years. At 2 years after operation, the HHS score was 85.8 +/- 4.1, showing significant difference when compared with the preoperative score (t = 23.200, P = 0.000). Before operation, patients showed a hip muscles gait, short gait, reduce pain gait, and the pathological gaits significantly improved at 1 year after operation. At 1 year and 2 years after operation, step frequency, pace, step length and hip flexion, hip extension, knee flexion, ankle flexion were significantly improved (P petronas wave appeared at swing phase; the preoperative situation was three normal phase waves. These results suggest that three-dimensional gait analysis before and after vascularized greater trochanter for ONFH can evaluate precisely hip vitodynamics variation.

  16. Differential associations between dual-task walking abilities and usual gait patterns in healthy older adults-Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung-Uk; Jerome, Gerald J; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Studenski, Stephanie; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2018-04-27

    It is well established that facing a cognitive challenge while carrying out a motor task interferes with the motor task performance, and in general the ability of handling a dual-task declines progressively with aging. However, the reasons for this decline have not been fully elucidated. Understanding the association between usual-walking gait patterns and dual-task walking performance may provide new insights into the mechanisms that lead to gait deterioration in normal aging and its link to motor and cognitive function. Our aim was to assess usual gait parameters in kinematics and kinetics to understand how these parameters are related with a specific task in dual-task walking. We hypothesized that difficulty in dual-task walking would be associated with gait deteriorations as reflected in range of motion and mechanical work expenditure. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the gait of 383 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (68% of whom successfully completed the dual-task walk, 21% failed the motor task, and 11% failed the cognitive task). Compared to successful performers, participants who failed the single motor task had slower gait speed, shorter stride length, higher cadence, and lower range of motion in the knee and ankle joints (p task while walking had longer double support time (p = 0.003), and greater knee absorptive mechanical work (p = 0. 001) and lower ankle generative mechanical work (p task walking may be useful for monitoring subtle and diverse gait deteriorations in aging and possibly for designing interventions for maintaining and regaining proper gait patterns in older adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative gait measurement with pulse-Doppler radar for passive in-home gait assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%-18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment.

  18. Progressive numbness of distal limbs for two years, unsteady gait for two months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun MA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old female was admitted to our department, complaining of progressive numbness of distal limbs for two years and unsteady gait for two months. “Peripheral neuropathy” was the presumed diagnosis. She has suffered dry mouth for months. Neurological examination revealed proximal upper muscle strength was normal and distal was 5-/5 while muscle strength in lower limbs was normal. Tendon reflexes in all limbs were reduced, and superficial sensation as well as deep sensation in all limbs was also diminished. Deep sensation below T8-10 was diminished. Romberg’s test was positive with negative pathological reflex. Several sensory nerves action potentials (SNAPs were diminished or absent with normal compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs. Cervical MRI showed hyperintensities in the dorsal column. Serum anti-Ro/SSA antibody was positive. Tear break-up time was abnormal in either eye (5s, normal range>10s; the rate of saliva production declined 0.02 ml/min (> 1.50 ml/15 min; parotid gland contrast sialography was abnormal; lip biopsy was positive with focal lymphocytic sialadenitis with focus score ≥1. The patient was diagnosed as primary Sjogren's syndrome and sensory neuronopathy. She received oral prednisone in dose of 1mg/(kg·d for four weeks, then reduce the dosage with 5mg/w to 0.50mg/ (kg·d. Later she reduced the dosage with 2.5mg/per week. At the same time, she got cyclophosphamide (100mg every other day and hydroxychloroquine (0.20g twice a day. Numbness of limbs and unsteady gait were improved when the patient was discharged. Two month later, during the follow-up, the patient’ gait was slightly improved, but the numbness still existed. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.11.016

  19. Gait disorders in the elderly and dual task gait analysis: a new approach for identifying motor phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, Bernard; Touzard, Claude; Montestruc, François; Delafond, Arnaud; Goeb, Vincent

    2017-01-31

    Gait disorders and gait analysis under single and dual-task conditions are topics of great interest, but very few studies have looked for the relevance of gait analysis under dual-task conditions in elderly people on the basis of a clinical approach. An observational study including 103 patients (mean age 76.3 ± 7.2, women 56%) suffering from gait disorders or memory impairment was conducted. Gait analysis under dual-task conditions was carried out for all patients. Brain MRI was performed in the absence of contra-indications. Three main gait variables were measured: walking speed, stride frequency, and stride regularity. For each gait variable, the dual task cost was computed and a quartile analysis was obtained. Nonparametric tests were used for all the comparisons (Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher or Chi 2 tests). Four clinical subgroups were identified: gait instability (45%), recurrent falls (29%), memory impairment (18%), and cautious gait (8%). The biomechanical severity of these subgroups was ordered according to walking speed and stride regularity under both conditions, from least to most serious as follows: memory impairment, gait instability, recurrent falls, cautious gait (p < 0.01 for walking speed, p = 0.05 for stride regularity). According to the established diagnoses of gait disorders, 5 main pathological subgroups were identified (musculoskeletal diseases (n = 11), vestibular diseases (n = 6), mild cognitive impairment (n = 24), central nervous system pathologies, (n = 51), and without diagnosis (n = 8)). The dual task cost for walking speed, stride frequency and stride regularity were different among these subgroups (p < 0.01). The subgroups mild cognitive impairment and central nervous system pathologies both showed together a higher dual task cost for each variable compared to the other subgroups combined (p = 0.01). The quartile analysis of dual task cost for stride frequency and stride regularity

  20. Spatio-temporal gait disorder and gait fatigue index in a six-minute walk test in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Jimenez, Jose; Latorre-Roman, Pedro; Santos-Campos, Maria; Orantes-Gonzalez, Eva; Soto-Hermoso, Victor M

    2016-03-01

    Gait disorders in fibromyalgia patients affect several gait parameters and different muscle recruitment patterns. The aim of this study was to assess the gait differences observed during a six-minute walk test between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Forty-eight women with fibromyalgia and 15 healthy women were evaluated. Fibromyalgia patients met the American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia selected of an ambulatory care. Both patients and controls had a negative history of musculoskeletal disease, neurological disorders, and gait abnormalities. The 15 controls were healthy women matched to the patients in age, height and body weight. Spatio-temporal gait variables and the rate of perceived exertion during the six-minute walk test (all subjects) and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (fibromyalgia subjects) were evaluated. All walking sets on the GaitRITE were collected and the gait variables were selected at three stages during the six-minute walk test: two sets at the beginning, two sets at 3 min and two sets at the end of the test. In addition, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was used for the fibromyalgia patients. Fibromyalgia patients showed a significant decrease in all spatio-temporal gait variables at each of the three stages and had a lower walk distance covered in the six-minute walk test and higher rate of perceived exertion. No correlations were found between the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and gait variables. The fibromyalgia and control subjects showed lower gait fatigue indices between the middle and last stages. Gait analysis during a six-minute walk test is a good tool to assess the fatigue and physical symptoms of patients with fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How innate is locomotion in precocial animals? A study on the early development of spatio-temporal gait variables and gait symmetry in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Hole, Charlotte; Goyens, Jana; Prims, Sara; Fransen, Erik; Ayuso Hernando, Miriam; Van Cruchten, Steven; Aerts, Peter; Van Ginneken, Chris

    2017-08-01

    Locomotion is one of the most important ecological functions in animals. Precocial animals, such as pigs, are capable of independent locomotion shortly after birth. This raises the question whether coordinated movement patterns and the underlying muscular control in these animals is fully innate or whether there still exists a rapid maturation. We addressed this question by studying gait development in neonatal pigs through the analysis of spatio-temporal gait characteristics during locomotion at self-selected speed. To this end, we made video recordings of piglets walking along a corridor at several time points (from 0 h to 96 h). After digitization of the footfalls, we analysed self-selected speed and spatio-temporal characteristics (e.g. stride and step lengths, stride frequency and duty factor) to study dynamic similarity, intralimb coordination and interlimb coordination. To assess the variability of the gait pattern, left-right asymmetry was studied. To distinguish neuromotor maturation from effects caused by growth, both absolute and normalized data (according to the dynamic similarity concept) were included in the analysis. All normalized spatio-temporal variables reached stable values within 4 h of birth, with most of them showing little change after the age of 2 h. Most asymmetry indices showed stable values, hovering around 10%, within 8 h of birth. These results indicate that coordinated movement patterns are not entirely innate, but that a rapid neuromotor maturation, potentially also the result of the rearrangement or recombination of existing motor modules, takes place in these precocial animals. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Freezing of gait: moving forward on a mysterious clinical phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nutt, J.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Giladi, N.; Hallett, M.; Horak, F.B.; Nieuwboer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FoG) is a unique and disabling clinical phenomenon characterised by brief episodes of inability to step or by extremely short steps that typically occur on initiating gait or on turning while walking. Patients with FoG, which is a feature of parkinsonian syndromes, show variability

  3. Day-to-day reliability of gait characteristics in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter Christian; Nielsen, Louise R; Madsen, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    day-to-day reliability of the gait pattern parameters observed in rats during treadmill walking. The results of the present study may serve as a reference material that can help future intervention studies on rat gait characteristics both with respect to the selection of outcome measures...

  4. Gait characteristics of hemiparetic stroke survivors in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of severe handicap. Deficiencies in walking may present significant challenges to mobility, resulting in abnormal and inefficient gait patterns in stroke survivors. This study compared the gait characteristics of hemiparetic stroke survivors and those of healthy individuals and determined the ...

  5. Inertial Sensor-Based Gait Recognition: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprager, Sebastijan; Juric, Matjaz B.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), inertial sensors have become widely used in the research of wearable gait analysis due to several factors, such as being easy-to-use and low-cost. Considering the fact that each individual has a unique way of walking, inertial sensors can be applied to the problem of gait recognition where assessed gait can be interpreted as a biometric trait. Thus, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has a great potential to play an important role in many security-related applications. Since inertial sensors are included in smart devices that are nowadays present at every step, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has become very attractive and emerging field of research that has provided many interesting discoveries recently. This paper provides a thorough and systematic review of current state-of-the-art in this field of research. Review procedure has revealed that the latest advanced inertial sensor-based gait recognition approaches are able to sufficiently recognise the users when relying on inertial data obtained during gait by single commercially available smart device in controlled circumstances, including fixed placement and small variations in gait. Furthermore, these approaches have also revealed considerable breakthrough by realistic use in uncontrolled circumstances, showing great potential for their further development and wide applicability. PMID:26340634

  6. Measuring medial longitudinal arch deformation during gait. A reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Christiansen, Ditte; Jensen, Anne Kathrine Bendrup

    2012-01-01

    during gait and to compare this method with a static measure and a 2D dynamic method. Fifty-two feet (26 healthy male participants) were tested twice 4-9 days apart in a biomechanical gait analysis laboratory using a 3D three-marker foot model, a 2D video-based model for the measurement of MLAD during...

  7. Test-retest reliability of trunk accelerometric gait analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Moe-Nilssen, R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of a trunk accelerometric gait analysis in healthy subjects. Accelerations were measured during walking using a triaxial accelerometer mounted on the lumbar spine of the subjects. Six men and 14 women (mean age 35.2; range 18...... a definite potential in clinical gait analysis....

  8. Neurological gait disorders in elderly people: clinical approach and classification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, A.H.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Giladi, N.; Bloem, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    Gait disorders are common and often devastating companions of ageing, leading to reductions in quality of life and increased mortality. Here, we present a clinically oriented approach to neurological gait disorders in the elderly population. We also draw attention to several exciting scientific

  9. Pregnancy-related changes in center of pressure during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipe, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Physical and hormonal modifications occuring during the pregnancy, can lead to an increase in postural instability and to a higher risk of falls during gait. The first objective was to describe the center of pressure (COP) during late pregnancy at different gait velocity. Comparison of nulliparous women with postpartum women were conducted in order to investigate the effects of pregnancy. The second objective was to analyse COP variability between pregnant and non-pregnant women in order to investigate the effects of pregnancy on gait variability. Fifty-eight pregnant women in the last four months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women and twenty-three healthy non-pregnant women performed gait trials at three different speeds: preferred, slow and fast. In the last four months of pregnancy gait velocity decreased. During the pregnancy, gait velocity decreased by 22%, stopover time increased by 6-12%, COP excursion XY decreased by 5% and COP velocity decreased by 16% and 20% along the anteroposterior and transverse axes, respectively. After delivery, gait velocity increased by 3% but remained a lower compared to non-pregnant women (-12%). Intra-individual variability was greater for non-pregnant than pregnant women. COP parameters were influenced by pregnancy. This suggests that pregnant women establish very specific and individual strategies with the aim of maintaining stability during gait.

  10. Functional electrical stimulation of the triceps surae during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaghan, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Every year stroke affects approximately 15 million people worldwide. It is the leading cause of disability in the western world. Gait relearning has high priority for stroke survivors. One of the most commonly treated effects of stroke gait is drop-foot (the inability to raise the toes during the

  11. Gait Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Assessment and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hao Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gait disorder, a major cause of morbidity in the elderly population, is one of the cardinal features of Parkinson's disease. Owing to the characteristics of these gaits varying widely from festination to freezing of gait, analysis can be hardly identified in the clinical setting. Instrumented gait analysis has been widely used in a traditional gait laboratory. Recently, wireless monitoring systems have become highly informative by allowing long-term data collection in a variety of environments outside the labs. The quantitative analysis of gait patterns is probably the first step to a successful management of an individual patient. The presence of abnormal gait usually indicates advanced stages of disease and is often associated with cognitive impairment, falls, and injuries. Besides pharmacological and surgical treatments, parkinsonian gait can benefit from a variety of interventions. Assistive devices prevent patients from falls, and cueing strategies help them decrease episodes of freezing. Therefore, a multidisciplinary team approach to the optimal management is essential for an elderly patient with Parkinson's disease.

  12. Gait analysis of adults with generalised joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Tegner, Heidi; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of adults with Generalised Joint Hypermobility experience symptoms such as pain and joint instability, which is likely to influence their gait pattern. Accordingly, the purpose of the present project was to perform a biomechanical gait analysis on a group of patients...

  13. Gait analysis after successful mobile bearing total ankle replacement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, H.C.; van Middelkoop, M.; Houdijk, J.H.P.; Nelissen, R.G.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The effect of total ankle replacement on gait is not fully known in terms of joint kinematics, ground reaction force, and activity of the muscles of the lower leg. Methods: A comparative gait study was done in 10 patients after uneventful unilateral mobile-bearing total ankle replacement

  14. Apraxia of gait- or apraxia of postural transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Marian L; Curtze, Carolin; Nutt, John G

    2018-02-19

    "Apraxia of gait" is not a useful concept and freezing of gait should also not be considered an apraxia. The concept of apraxia may, however, be applied to distortions of postural transitions that can accompany fronto-parietal lesions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gait Coordination After Stroke: Benefits of Acoustically Paced Treadmill Walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Lamoth, C.J.C.; Kwakkel, G.; van Wieringen, P.C.W.; Beek, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Gait coordination often is compromised after stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acoustically paced treadmill walking as a method for improving gait coordination in people after stroke. Participants: Ten people after stroke volunteered for the

  16. Gait coordination after stroke: benefits of acoustically paced treadmill walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Lamoth, C.J.; Kwakkel, G.; Wieringen, P.C. van; Beek, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gait coordination often is compromised after stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acoustically paced treadmill walking as a method for improving gait coordination in people after stroke. PARTICIPANTS: Ten people after stroke volunteered for the

  17. Is adult gait less susceptible than paediatric gait to hip joint centre regression equation error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, D; Hosking, J; O'Brien, T

    2016-03-01

    Hip joint centre (HJC) regression equation error during paediatric gait has recently been shown to have clinical significance. In relation to adult gait, it has been inferred that comparable errors with children in absolute HJC position may in fact result in less significant kinematic and kinetic error. This study investigated the clinical agreement of three commonly used regression equation sets (Bell et al., Davis et al. and Orthotrak) for adult subjects against the equations of Harrington et al. The relationship between HJC position error and subject size was also investigated for the Davis et al. set. Full 3-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 12 healthy adult subjects with data for each set compared to Harrington et al. The Gait Profile Score, Gait Variable Score and GDI-kinetic were used to assess clinical significance while differences in HJC position between the Davis and Harrington sets were compared to leg length and subject height using regression analysis. A number of statistically significant differences were present in absolute HJC position. However, all sets fell below the clinically significant thresholds (GPS <1.6°, GDI-Kinetic <3.6 points). Linear regression revealed a statistically significant relationship for both increasing leg length and increasing subject height with decreasing error in anterior/posterior and superior/inferior directions. Results confirm a negligible clinical error for adult subjects suggesting that any of the examined sets could be used interchangeably. Decreasing error with both increasing leg length and increasing subject height suggests that the Davis set should be used cautiously on smaller subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-related changes in spatiotemporal characteristics of gait accompany ongoing lower limb linear growth in late childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Sherwood, Richard J; Duren, Dana L

    2013-05-01

    Walking gait is generally held to reach maturity, including walking at adult-like velocities, by 7-8 years of age. Lower limb length, however, is a major determinant of gait, and continues to increase until 13-15 years of age. This study used a sample from the Fels Longitudinal Study (ages 8-30 years) to test the hypothesis that walking with adult-like velocity on immature lower limbs results in the retention of immature gait characteristics during late childhood and early adolescence. There was no relationship between walking velocity and age in this sample, whereas the lower limb continued to grow, reaching maturity at 13.2 years in females and 15.6 years in males. Piecewise linear mixed models regression analysis revealed significant age-related trends in normalized cadence, initial double support time, single support time, base of support, and normalized step length in both sexes. Each trend reached its own, variable-specific age at maturity, after which the gait variables' relationships with age reached plateaus and did not differ significantly from zero. Offsets in ages at maturity occurred among the gait variables, and between the gait variables and lower limb length. The sexes also differed in their patterns of maturation. Generally, however, immature walkers of both sexes took more frequent and relatively longer steps than did mature walkers. These results support the hypothesis that maturational changes in gait accompany ongoing lower limb growth, with implications for diagnosing, preventing, and treating movement-related disorders and injuries during late childhood and early adolescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Using gastrocnemius sEMG and plasma α-synuclein for the prediction of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is a complicated gait disturbance in Parkinson's disease (PD and a relevant subclinical predictor algorithm is lacking. The main purpose of this study is to explore the potential value of surface electromyograph (sEMG and plasma α-synuclein levels as predictors of the FOG seen in PD. 21 PD patients and 15 normal controls were recruited. Motor function was evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS and Freezing of gait questionnaire (FOG-Q. Simultaneously, gait analysis was also performed using VICON capture system in PD patients and sEMG data was recorded as well. Total plasma α-synuclein was quantitatively assessed by Luminex assay in all participants. Recruited PD patients were classified into two groups: PD patients with FOG (PD+FOG and without FOG (PD-FOG, based on clinical manifestation, the results of the FOG-Q and VICON capture system. PD+FOG patients displayed higher FOG-Q scores, decreased walking speed, smaller step length, smaller stride length and prolonged double support time compared to the PD-FOG in the gait trial. sEMG data indicated that gastrocnemius activity in PD+FOG patients was significantly reduced compared to PD-FOG patients. In addition, plasma α-synuclein levels were significantly decreased in the PD+FOG group compared to control group; however, no significant difference was found between the PD+FOG and PD-FOG groups. Our study revealed that gastrocnemius sEMG could be used to evaluate freezing gait in PD patients, while plasma α-synuclein might discriminate freezing of gait in PD patients from normal control, though no difference was found between the PD+FOG and PD-FOG groups.

  20. Gait and physical impairments in patients with acute ankle sprains who did not receive physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Ilona M; Ziltener, Jean-Luc; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stéphane; Allet, Lara

    2015-01-01

    To assess ankle function 4 weeks after conservative management and to examine the correlation of function with gait. A prospective comparison study. Thirty patients with grade I or II acute ankle sprains were followed up after 4 weeks of conservative management not involving physical therapy. Participants underwent a clinical assessment and had to walk at a normal self-selected walking speed. Their results were compared with the data of 15 healthy subjects. Participants' joint swelling, muscle strength, passive mobility, and pain were assessed. In addition, patients' temporal-spatial, kinematic, and kinetic gait data were measured while walking. Muscle strength and passive mobility were significantly reduced on the injured side compared with the noninjured side (P ankle sprains showed slower walking speed, shorter step length, shorter single support time, reduced and delayed maximum plantar flexion, decreased maximum power, and decreased maximum moment (P ankle sprain, patients who did not receive physical therapy showed physical impairments of the ankle that were correlated with gait parameters. These findings might help fine-tune rehabilitation protocols. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gait analysis of young male patients diagnosed with primary bladder neck obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Camerota, Tommaso Ciro; Pisu, Stefano; Ciprandi, Daniela; Sforza, Chiarella

    2017-08-01

    Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) represents an inappropriate or inadequate relaxation of the bladder neck during micturition. Based on the observation of an increased rate of postural imbalances in male patients with PBNO, we hypothesized a possible role of an unbalanced biomechanics of the pelvis on urethral sphincters activity. Our aim was to identify kinematic imbalances, usually disregarded in PBNO patients, and which could eventually be involved in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Seven male adult patients