International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, M.; Tsuruoka, C.; Uchihori, Y.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.
2003-01-01
Full text: At a time when manned space exploration is more a reality with the planned the International Space Station (ISS) underway, the potential exposure of crews in a spacecraft to chronic low-dose radiations in the field of low-flux galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and the subsequent biological effects have become one of the major concerns of space science. We have studied both in vitro life span and genomic instability in cellular effects in normal human skin fibroblasts irradiated with chronic low-dose radiations in heavy-ion radiation field. Cells were cultured in a CO2 incubator, which was set in the irradiation room for the biological study of heavy ions in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), and irradiated with scattered radiations produced from heavy ions. Absorbed dose measured using a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) and a Si-semiconductor detector was to be around 1.4 mGy per day when operating the HIMAC machine for biological experiments. The total population doubling number (tPDN) of low-dose irradiated cells was significantly smaller (79-93%) than that of unirradiated cells. The results indicate that the life span of the cell population shortens by irradiating with low-dose scattered radiations in the heavy-ion irradiation field. Genomic instability in cellular responses was examined to measure either cell killing or mutation induction in low-dose accumulated cells after exposing to X-ray challenging doses. The results showed that there was no enhanced effect on cell killing between low-dose accumulated and unirradiated cells after exposing to defined challenging doses of 200kV X rays. On the contrary, the mutation frequency on hprt locus of low-dose accumulated cells was much higher than that of unirradiated cells. The results suggested that genomic instability was induced in mutagenesis by the chronic low-dose irradiations in heavy-ion radiation field
Plasma instabilities in high electric fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morawetz, K.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
1994-01-01
expression is derived for the nonequilibrium dielectric function epsilon(K, omega). For certain values of momenta K and frequency omega, Imepsilon(K, omega) becomes negative, implying a plasma instability. This new instability exists only for strong electric fields, underlining its nonequilibrium origin....
Plasmon instability under four external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, R.B.; Fonseca, A.L.A.; Nunes, O.A.C.
1998-01-01
The plasmon instability in a laboratory produced plasma in the presence of four external fields, namely two laser fields, one strong magnetic field and one static electric field, is discussed. The method of unitary transformations is used to transform the problem of electron motion under the four external fields to that of an electron in the presence only of crossed electric and magnetic fields. A kinetic equation for the plasmon population is derived from which the damping (amplification) rate is calculated. We found that the joint action of the four fields results in a relatively larger amplification rate for some values of the static electric field in contrast to the case where no electric field is present. It was also found that the plasmon growth rate favors plasmon wave vectors in an extremely narrow band i.e., the plasmon instability in four external fields is a very selective mechanism for plasmon excitation. (author)
Instability in the magnetic field penetration in type II superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, Isaías G. de
2015-01-01
Under the view of the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau theory we have investigated the penetration of the magnetic field in the type II superconductors. We show that the single vortices, situated along the borderline, between the normal region channel and the superconducting region, can escape to regions still empty of vortices. We show that the origin of this process is the repulsive nature of vortex–vortex interaction, in addition to the non-homogeneous distribution of the vortices along the normal region channel. Using London theory we explain the extra gain of kinetic energy by the vortices situated along this borderline. - Highlights: • TDGL is used to study the magnetic field penetration in type II superconductors. • Instability process is found during the magnetic field penetration. • Vortices along the front of the normal region escape to superconducting region. • We explain the extra-gain of kinetic energy by vortices along the borderline
Alfven instability and micromagnetic islands in a plasma with sheared magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, J.; Kaw, P.; Chen, L.
1977-07-01
The normal mode equation for coupled drift and Alfven waves in a finite-β nonuniform plasma with a sheared magnetic field is solved, in the slab geometry, to investigate the instability of slow Alfven waves. It is shown, that, besides having an appreciable growth rate, the instability also produces microscopic ''tearing'' of the rational surfaces which has important implications for anomalous transport
Vacuum instability in scalar field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKane, A.J.
1978-09-01
Scalar field theories with an interaction of the form gphisup(N) have no stable vacuum state for some range of values of their coupling constant, g. This thesis reports calculations of vacuum instability in such theories. Using the idea that the tunnelling out of the vacuum state is described by the instanton solutions of the theory, the imaginary part of the vertex functions is calculated for the massless theory in the one-loop approximation, near the dimension dsub(c) = 2N/N-2, where the theory is just renormalisable. The calculation differs from previous treatments in that dimensional regularisation is used to control the ultra-violet divergences of the theory. In this way previous analytic calculations in conformally invariant field theories are extended to the case where the theory is almost conformally invariant, since it is now defined in dsub(c) - epsilon dimensions (epsilon > 0). (author)
Rotational instabilities in field reversed configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santiago, M.A.M.; Tsui, K.H.; Ponciano, B.M.B.; Sakanaka, P.H.
1988-01-01
The rotational instability (n = 2 toroidal mode) in field reversed configurations (FRC) using the ideal MHD equations in cylindrical geometry is studied. These equations are solved using a realistic densite profile, and the influence of some plasma parameters on the growth rate is analysed. The model shows good qualitative results. The growth rate increases rapidly as rotational frequency goes up and the mode m = 2 dominates over the m = 1 mode. With the variation of the density profile, it is observed that the growth rate decreases as the density dip at the center fills up. Calculated value ranges from 1/2 to 1/7 of the rotational frequency Ω whereas the measured value is around Ω/50. The developed analysis is valid for larger machines. The influence of the plasma resistivity on the mode stabilization is also analysed. The resistivity, which is the fundamental factor in the formation of compact torus, tends to decrease the growth rate. (author) [pt
Instabilities constraint and relativistic mean field parametrization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sulaksono, A.; Kasmudin; Buervenich, T.J.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Maruhn, J.A.
2011-01-01
Two parameter sets (Set 1 and Set 2) of the standard relativistic mean field (RMF) model plus additional vector isoscalar nonlinear term, which are constrained by a set of criteria 20 determined by symmetric nuclear matter stabilities at high densities due to longitudinal and transversal particle–hole excitation modes are investigated. In the latter parameter set, δ meson and isoscalar as well as isovector tensor contributions are included. The effects in selected finite nuclei and nuclear matter properties predicted by both parameter sets are systematically studied and compared with the ones predicted by well-known RMF parameter sets. The vector isoscalar nonlinear term addition and instability constraints have reasonably good effects in the high-density properties of the isoscalar sector of nuclear matter and certain finite nuclei properties. However, even though the δ meson and isovector tensor are included, the incompatibility with the constraints from some experimental data in certain nuclear properties at saturation point and the excessive stiffness of the isovector nuclear matter equation of state at high densities as well as the incorrect isotonic trend in binding the energies of finite nuclei are still encountered. It is shown that the problem may be remedied if we introduce additional nonlinear terms not only in the isovector but also in the isoscalar vectors. (author)
Instability in relativistic mean-field theories of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friman, B.L.; Henning, P.A.
1988-01-01
We investigate the stability of the nuclear matter ground state with respect to small-perturbations of the meson fields in relativistic mean-field theories. The popular σ-ω model is shown to have an instability at about twice the nuclear density, which gives rise to a new ground state with periodic spin alignment. Taking into account the contributions of the Dirac sea properly, this instability vanishes. Consequences for relativistic heavy-ion-collisions are discussed briefly. (orig.)
Instability in relativistic mean-field theories of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friman, B.L.; Henning, P.A.
1988-01-01
We investigate the stability of the nuclear matter ground state with respect to small perturbations of the meson fields in relativistic mean-field theories. The popular σ-ω model is shown to have an instability at about twice the nuclear density, which gives rise to a new ground state with periodic spin alignment. Taking into account the contributions of the Dirac sea properly, this instability vanishes. Consequences for relativistic heavy-ion collisions are discussed briefly. (orig.)
Impact of magnetic fields on the R-mode instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezzolla, L.
2001-01-01
The instability of r-mode oscillations in rapidly rotating neutron stars has attracted attention as a potential mechanism for producing high frequency, almost periodic gravitational waves. The analyses carried out so far have shown the existence of the instability and have considered damping by shear and bulk viscosity, as well as the interaction with a solid star crust. However, the magnetohydrodynamic coupling of the modes with a stellar magnetic field, which is likely to be present, has not been fully investigated yet. Here we discuss the relevance of a magnetic field, its modifications under the action of the r-mode instability, and how the interaction between r-mode oscillations and a magnetic field might limit the onset and duration of the instability. (author)
Vacuum instability in a random electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krive, I.V.; Pastur, L.A.
1984-01-01
The reaction of the vacuum on an intense spatially homogeneous random electric field is investigated. It is shown that a stochastic electric field always causes a breakdown of the boson vacuum, and the number of pairs of particles which are created by the electric field increases exponentially in time. For the choice of potential field in the form of a dichotomic random process we find in explicit form the dependence of the average number of pairs of particles on the time of the action of the source of the stochastic field. For the fermion vacuum the average number of pairs of particles which are created by the field in the lowest order of perturbation theory in the amplitude of the random field is independent of time
Magnetic field dynamos and magnetically triggered flow instabilities
Stefani, F.; Albrecht, T.; Arlt, R.; Christen, M.; Gailitis, A.; Gellert, M.; Giesecke, A.; Goepfert, O.; Herault, J.; Kirillov, O. N.; Mamatsashvili, G.; Priede, J.; Rüdiger, G.; Seilmayer, M.; Tilgner, A.; Vogt, T.
2017-07-01
The project A2 of the LIMTECH Alliance aimed at a better understanding of those magnetohydrodynamic instabilities that are relevant for the generation and the action of cosmic magnetic fields. These comprise the hydromagnetic dynamo effect and various magnetically triggered flow instabilities, such as the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability. The project was intended to support the experimental capabilities to become available in the framework of the DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN). An associated starting grant was focused on the dimensioning of a liquid metal experiment on the newly found magnetic destabilization of rotating flows with positive shear. In this survey paper, the main results of these two projects are summarized.
Effect of magnetic field on the Rayleigh Taylor instability of rotating and stratified plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, PK; Tiwari, Anita; Argal, Shraddha
2017-01-01
In the present study the effect of magnetic field and rotation have been carried out on the Rayleigh Taylor instability of conducting and rotating plasma, which is assumed to be incompressible and confined between two rigid planes z = 0 and z = h. The dispersion relation of the problem is obtained by solving the basic MHD equations of the problem with the help normal mode technique and appropriate boundary conditions. The dispersion relation of the medium is analysed and the effect of magnetic field and angular velocity (rotation effect) have been examined on the growth rate of Rayleigh Taylor instability. It is found that the magnetic field and angular velocity (rotation effect) have stabilizing influence on the Rayleigh Taylor instability. (paper)
Resistive instabilities and field line reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, R.B.
1980-05-01
A review is given of the linear theory of reconnection for a plane current layer. The three basic modes are the Rippling Mode, the Gravitational Interchange Mode, and the Tearing Mode. A derivation is given of the magnetic field energy which provides the driving force for the tearing mode. The necessary concepts for the analysis of tearing modes in cylindrical geometry are introduced. The equations governing tearing mode evolution in a tokamak are expanded to lowest order in the inverse aspect ratio. The tearing mode in a toroidal device is closely related to the ideal magnetohydrodynamic kink mode, and this relationship is stressed in the derivations of the linear growth rates for modes with poloidal model number m > 2 and for the quite different m = 1 mode. The nonlinear theory of tearing mode development and the implications of this theory for the understanding of toroidal magnetic confinement devices is reviewed
Mean field instabilities in dissipative heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna; Catania Univ.; Di Torro, M.; Catania Univ.
1995-01-01
We discuss new reaction mechanisms that may occur in semi-peripheral heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. In particular we focus on the dynamics of the overlapping zone, showing the development of neck instabilities, coupled with the possibility of an increasing amount amount of dynamical fluctuations. In a very selected beam energy range between 40 and 70 MeV/u we observe an important interplay between stochastic nucleon exchange and the random nature of nucleon-nucleon collisions. Expected consequences are intermediate mass fragment emissions from the neck region and large variances in the projectile-like and target-like observables. The crucial importance of a time matching between the growth of mean field instabilities and the separation of the interacting system is stressed. Some hints towards the observation of relatively large instability effects in deep inelastic collisions at lower energy are finally suggested. (authors). 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
Electric field induced instabilities in free emulsion films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tchoukov, P.; Dabros, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada); Mostowfi, F. [Schlumberger DBR Technology Center, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Panchev, N. [Champion Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Czarnecki, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering
2009-07-01
This presentation reported on a study that investigated the mechanism of electric field-induced breakdown of free emulsion films. Instability patterns were observed on the plane of a water-oil-water film following electric polarization. The length-scales of the instabilities were measured by analyzing images immediately after applying the electric field. Linear stability analysis was used to calculate the theoretical dominant wavelengths. The calculated values were found to be in good agreement with measured values. The films were formed in a thin film apparatus modified so that the oil film separated 2 aqueous phase compartments, each in contact with a platinum electrode. This enabled the measurement of disjoining pressure while applying the electric field to the film. It was concluded that breakdown of thin films induced by electric field has many applications, including electrostatic de-emulsification/desalination of crude oil and emulsion stability measurements. It was concluded that electroporation and dielectric breakdown may be responsible for electric field-induced breakdown. This study also presented evidence of an increase in electric field-induced instabilities in emulsion films resulting in rupture. tabs., figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendry, Jolyon H.
2001-01-01
Purpose: Induced genomic instability generally refers to a type of damage which is transmissible down cell generations, and which results in a persistently enhanced frequency of de novo mutations, chromosomal abnormalities or lethality in a significant fraction of the descendant cell population. The potential contribution of induced genomic instability to tumour and normal tissue response, and second tumours, after radiotherapy, is explored. Results: The phenomenon of spontaneous genomic instability is well known in some rare genetic diseases (e.g. Gorlin's syndrome), and there is evidence in such cases that it can lead to a greater propensity for carcinogenesis (with shortened latency) which is enhanced after irradiation. It is unclear what role induced genomic instability plays in the response of normal individuals, but persistent chromosomal instability has been detected in vivo in lymphocytes and keratinocytes from irradiated normal individuals. Such induced genomic instability might play some role in tumour response in a subset of tumours with specific defects in damage response genes, but again its contribution to radiocurability in the majority of cancer patients is unclear. In normal tissues, genomic instability induced in wild-type cells leading to delayed cell death might contribute to more severe or prolonged early reactions as a consequence of increased cell loss, a longer time required for recovery, and greater residual injury. In tumours, induced genomic instability reflected in delayed reductions in clonogenic capacity might contribute to the radiosensitivity of primary tumours, and also to a lower incidence, longer latency and slower growth rate of recurrences and metastases. Conclusions: The evidence which is reviewed shows that there is little information at present to support these propositions, but what exists is consistent with their expectations. Also, it is not yet clear to what extent mutations associated with genomic instability
Detection of genomic instability in normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to 238Pu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kennedy, C.H.; Fukushima, N.H.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F.
1994-01-01
Alpha particle-emitting radon daughters constitute a risk for development of lung cancer in humans. The development of this disease involves multiple genetic alterations. These changes and the time course they follow are not yet defined despite numerous in vitro endeavors to transform human lung cells with various physical or chemical agents. However, genomic instability, characterized both by structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations and by elevated rates of point mutations, is a common feature of tumor cells. Further, both types of genomic instability have been reported in the noncancerous progeny of normal murine hemopoietic cells exposed in vitro to α-particles. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if genomic instability is also a prominent feature of normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to α-particle irradiation from the decay of inhaled radon daughters
Hydromagnetic instabilities and magnetic field amplification in core collapse supernovae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cerda-Duran, P; Obergaulinger, M; Mueller, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-st. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aloy, M A; Font, J A, E-mail: cerda@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)
2011-09-22
Some of the most violent events in the universe, the gamma ray burst, could be related to the gravitational collapse of massive stellar cores. The recent association of long GRBs to some class of type Ic supernova seems to support this view. In such scenario fast rotation, strong magnetic fields and general relativistic effects are key ingredients. It is thus important to understand the mechanism that amplifies the magnetic field under that conditions. I present global simulations of the magneto-rotational collapse of stellar cores in general relativity and semi-global simulations of hydromagnetic instabilities under core collapse conditions. I discuss effect of the magneto-rotational instability and the magnetic field amplification during the collapse, the uncertainties in this process and the dynamical effects in the supernova explosion.
Reclosing of field lines and disruptive instability in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadomtsev, B.B.
The mechanism of field line reclosing is proposed as the most natural explanation of disruptive instability in tokamaks. This mechanism adequately accounts for the internal disruptive instability, assuming that only mode m = 1 develops. It is extended to the presence of two or several modes. When there is a large number of allowed modes, one can speak of free reclosing, which leads to a force-free magnetic field in a diffusion discharge. In a tokamak, B/sub Z/ much greater than B/sub theta/, free reclosing leads to a uniform distribution of the current over the column cross section and to ejection of part of the poloidal flux beyond the confines of the diaphragm. It may be stated that the disruptive instability in a tokamak is an MHD activity that flares up for a short time and is permanently present in a diffusion column. The geometry of magnetic surfaces during reclosing has been analyzed, and qualitative arguments are given to show that disruptive instability begins to develop as a result of the interaction of the mode m = 2 with the inner mode m = 1
Reclosing of field lines and disruptive instability in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kadomtsev, B. B.
1976-07-01
The mechanism of field line reclosing is proposed as the most natural explanation of disruptive instability in tokamaks. This mechanism adequately accounts for the internal disruptive instability, assuming that only mode m = 1 develops. It is extended to the presence of two or several modes. When there is a large number of allowed modes, one can speak of free reclosing, which leads to a force-free magnetic field in a diffusion discharge. In a tokamak, B/sub Z/ much greater than B/sub theta/, free reclosing leads to a uniform distribution of the current over the column cross section and to ejection of part of the poloidal flux beyond the confines of the diaphragm. It may be stated that the disruptive instability in a tokamak is an MHD activity that flares up for a short time and is permanently present in a diffusion column. The geometry of magnetic surfaces during reclosing has been analyzed, and qualitative arguments are given to show that disruptive instability begins to develop as a result of the interaction of the mode m = 2 with the inner mode m = 1.
Normal gravity field in relativistic geodesy
Kopeikin, Sergei; Vlasov, Igor; Han, Wen-Biao
2018-02-01
Modern geodesy is subject to a dramatic change from the Newtonian paradigm to Einstein's theory of general relativity. This is motivated by the ongoing advance in development of quantum sensors for applications in geodesy including quantum gravimeters and gradientometers, atomic clocks and fiber optics for making ultra-precise measurements of the geoid and multipolar structure of the Earth's gravitational field. At the same time, very long baseline interferometry, satellite laser ranging, and global navigation satellite systems have achieved an unprecedented level of accuracy in measuring 3-d coordinates of the reference points of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame and the world height system. The main geodetic reference standard to which gravimetric measurements of the of Earth's gravitational field are referred is a normal gravity field represented in the Newtonian gravity by the field of a uniformly rotating, homogeneous Maclaurin ellipsoid of which mass and quadrupole momentum are equal to the total mass and (tide-free) quadrupole moment of Earth's gravitational field. The present paper extends the concept of the normal gravity field from the Newtonian theory to the realm of general relativity. We focus our attention on the calculation of the post-Newtonian approximation of the normal field that is sufficient for current and near-future practical applications. We show that in general relativity the level surface of homogeneous and uniformly rotating fluid is no longer described by the Maclaurin ellipsoid in the most general case but represents an axisymmetric spheroid of the fourth order with respect to the geodetic Cartesian coordinates. At the same time, admitting a post-Newtonian inhomogeneity of the mass density in the form of concentric elliptical shells allows one to preserve the level surface of the fluid as an exact ellipsoid of rotation. We parametrize the mass density distribution and the level surface with two parameters which are
SATURATION OF MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY THROUGH MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebrahimi, F.; Prager, S. C.; Schnack, D. D.
2009-01-01
The saturation mechanism of magnetorotational instability (MRI) is examined through analytical quasi-linear theory and through nonlinear computation of a single mode in a rotating disk. We find that large-scale magnetic field is generated through the α-effect (the correlated product of velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) and causes the MRI mode to saturate. If the large-scale plasma flow is allowed to evolve, the mode can also saturate through its flow relaxation. In astrophysical plasmas, for which the flow cannot relax because of gravitational constraints, the mode saturates through field generation only.
Normal equivariant forms of vector fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez Bringas, F.
1992-07-01
We prove a theorem of linearization of type Siegel and a theorem of normal forms of type Poincare-Dulac for germs of holomorphic vector fields in the origin of C 2 , Γ -equivariants, where Γ is a finite subgroup of GL (2,C). (author). 5 refs
Nonlinear analysis of generalized cross-field current instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, P.H.; Lui, A.T.Y.
1993-01-01
Analysis of the generalized cross-field current instability is carried out in which cross-field drift of both the ions and electrons and their temperatures are permitted to vary in time. The unstable mode under consideration is the electromagnetic generalization of the classical modified-two-stream instability. The generalized instability is made of the modified-two-stream and ion-Weibel modes. The relative importance of the features associated with the ion-Weibel mode and those of the modified-two-stream mode is assessed. Specific applications are made to the Earth's neutral sheet prior to substorm onset and to the Earth's bow shock. The numerical solution indicates that the ion-Weibel mode dominates in the Earth's neutral sheet environment. In contrast, the situation for the bow shock is dominated by the modified-two-stream mode. Notable differences are found between the present calculation and previous results on ion-Weibel mode which restrict the analysis to only parallel propagating waves. However, in the case of Earth's bow shock for which the ion-Weibel mode plays no important role, the inclusion of the electromagnetic ion response is found to differ little from the previous results which treats ions responding only to the electrostatic component of the excited waves
The transverse field Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in magnetohydrodynamics
Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi; Pullin, D. I.; Gehre, R. M.
2014-01-01
The magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated for the case where the initial magnetic field is unperturbed and aligned with the mean interface location. For this initial condition, the magnetic field lines penetrate the perturbed density interface, forbidding a tangential velocity jump and therefore the presence of a vortex sheet. Through simulation, we find that the vorticity distribution present on the interface immediately after the shock acceleration breaks up into waves traveling parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field, which transport the vorticity. The interference of these waves as they propagate causes the perturbation amplitude of the interface to oscillate in time. This interface behavior is accurately predicted over a broad range of parameters by an incompressible linearized model derived presently by solving the corresponding impulse driven, linearized initial value problem. Our use of an equilibrium initial condition results in interface motion produced solely by the impulsive acceleration. Nonlinear compressible simulations are used to investigate the behavior of the transverse field magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, and the performance of the incompressible model, over a range of shock strengths, magnetic field strengths, perturbation amplitudes and Atwood numbers.
The transverse field Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in magnetohydrodynamics
Wheatley, V.
2014-01-10
The magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated for the case where the initial magnetic field is unperturbed and aligned with the mean interface location. For this initial condition, the magnetic field lines penetrate the perturbed density interface, forbidding a tangential velocity jump and therefore the presence of a vortex sheet. Through simulation, we find that the vorticity distribution present on the interface immediately after the shock acceleration breaks up into waves traveling parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field, which transport the vorticity. The interference of these waves as they propagate causes the perturbation amplitude of the interface to oscillate in time. This interface behavior is accurately predicted over a broad range of parameters by an incompressible linearized model derived presently by solving the corresponding impulse driven, linearized initial value problem. Our use of an equilibrium initial condition results in interface motion produced solely by the impulsive acceleration. Nonlinear compressible simulations are used to investigate the behavior of the transverse field magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, and the performance of the incompressible model, over a range of shock strengths, magnetic field strengths, perturbation amplitudes and Atwood numbers.
Non ideal instabilities in field reversed O-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santiago, M.A.M.; Gomes, A.S.
1987-01-01
Rotational instabilities and resistive tearing modes are the most striking modes observed in high temperature θ-pinches with zero orversed bias field. The configurations which have the effect of a rigid rotation of the plasma column are studied. Some recent experimental data indicate that an m=2 mode appears after the rotation reaches a critical value. It is shown that the growth rate of the m=2 mode may be greater than that of the m=1 resistive kink mode, depending on the experimental conditions. The result are applied to several experimental data in the literature. (author) [pt
Field-induced magnetic instability within a superconducting condensate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mazzone, Daniel Gabriel; Raymond, Stephane; Gavilano, Jorge Luis
2017-01-01
The application of magnetic fields, chemical substitution, or hydrostatic pressure to strongly correlated electron materials can stabilize electronic phases with different organizational principles. We present evidence for a fieldinduced quantum phase transition, in superconducting Nd0.05Ce0.95Co...... that the magnetic instability is not magnetically driven, and we propose that it is driven by a modification of superconducting condensate at H*.......In5, that separates two antiferromagnetic phases with identical magnetic symmetry. At zero field, we find a spin-density wave that is suppressed at the critical field mu H-0* = 8 T. For H > H*, a spin-density phase emerges and shares many properties with the Q phase in CeCoIn5. These results suggest...
Long-wave theory for a new convective instability with exponential growth normal to the wall.
Healey, J J
2005-05-15
A linear stability theory is presented for the boundary-layer flow produced by an infinite disc rotating at constant angular velocity in otherwise undisturbed fluid. The theory is developed in the limit of long waves and when the effects of viscosity on the waves can be neglected. This is the parameter regime recently identified by the author in a numerical stability investigation where a curious new type of instability was found in which disturbances propagate and grow exponentially in the direction normal to the disc, (i.e. the growth takes place in a region of zero mean shear). The theory describes the mechanisms controlling the instability, the role and location of critical points, and presents a saddle-point analysis describing the large-time evolution of a wave packet in frames of reference moving normal to the disc. The theory also shows that the previously obtained numerical solutions for numerically large wavelengths do indeed lie in the asymptotic long-wave regime, and so the behaviour and mechanisms described here may apply to a number of cross-flow instability problems.
Normal velocity freeze-out of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability when a rarefaction is reflected
Wouchuk, J. G.; Sano, T.
2015-02-01
The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) develops when a shock front hits a rippled contact surface separating two different fluids. After the incident shock refraction, a transmitted shock is always formed and another shock or a rarefaction is reflected back. The pressure-entropy-vorticity fields generated by the rippled wave fronts are responsible for the generation of hydrodynamic perturbations in both fluids. In linear theory, the contact surface ripple reaches an asymptotic normal velocity which is dependent on the incident shock Mach number, fluids density ratio, and compressibilities. It was speculated in the past about the possibility of getting a zero value for the asymptotic normal velocity, a phenomenon that was called "freeze-out" [G. Fraley, Phys. Fluids 29, 376 (1986), 10.1063/1.865722; K. Mikaelian, Phys. Fluids 6, 356 (1994), 10.1063/1.868091, A. L. Velikovich et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 592 (2001), 10.1063/1.1335829]. In a previous paper, freeze-out was studied for the case when a shock is reflected at the contact surface [J. G. Wouchuk and K. Nishihara, Phys. Rev. E 70, 026305 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevE.70.026305]. In this work the freeze-out of the RMI is studied for the case in which a rarefaction is reflected back. Two different regimes are found: nearly equal preshock densities at the interface at any shock intensity, and very large density difference for strong shocks. The contour curves that relate shock Mach number and preshock density ratio are obtained in both regimes for fluids with equal and different compressibilities. An analysis of the temporal evolution of different cases of freeze-out is shown. It is seen that the freeze-out is the result of the interaction between the unstable interface and the rippled wave fronts. As a general and qualitative criterion to look for freeze-out situations, it is seen that a necessary condition for freeze-out is the same orientation for the tangential velocities generated at each side of the contact
Instabilities in the flow past localized magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beltran, Alberto; Cuevas, Sergio; Smolentsev, Sergey
2007-01-01
The flow in a shallow layer of an electrically conducting fluid past a localized magnetic field is analyzed numerically. The field occupies only a small fraction of the total flow domain and resemblances the magnetic field created by a permanent magnet located close to the fluid layer. Two different physical cases are considered. In the first one, the fluid layer is free from externally injected electric currents, therefore, only induced currents are present. In the second case, an external electric current is injected to the fluid layer, transversally to the main flow direction. It is shown that the Lorentz force created by the interaction of the electric currents with the non-uniform magnetic field acts as an obstacle for the flow and creates different flow patterns similar to those observed in the flow past bluff bodies. A quasi-two-dimensional model that takes into account the existence of the bottom wall through a linear Hartmann-Rayleigh friction term is considered. When inertial and magnetic forces are strong enough, the wake formed behind the zone of high magnetic field is destabilized and a periodic vortex shedding similar to the classical von Karman street is found. The effect of Hartmann-Rayleigh friction in the emergence of the instability is analyzed
Genomic instability induced by 60Co γ ray radiation in normal human liver cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gen Xiaohua; Guo Xianhua; Zuo Yahui; Wang Xiaoli; Wang Zhongwen
2007-01-01
Objective: To explore the genomic instability induced by 60 Co γ rays. Methods: The cloning efficiency and micronucleus efficiency of normal human liver cell irradiated by 60 Co γ rays were detected, and the method of single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was carried out to measure DNA chains damage. The fast-growing cells were divided into different dose-groups and then irradiated by 60 Co γ rays. After 40 populations doubling, the progenies were secondly irradiated with 2 Gy 60 Co γ rays. Results: The cloning efficiency decreased with the increase of doses after the initial irradiation. After the survival cells were given second irradiation, both results of SCGE and micronucleus frequency showed that the second damage was correlated with the original irradiation doses. Conclusions: 60 Co γ rays can not only induce the immediate biological effects in liver cells, but also lead to the genomic instability in the descendants that leads to an enhanced frequency of genetic changes occurring among the progeny of the original irradiated cell. The expanding effect of second event helps to study the genomic instability. (authors)
Bias temperature instability in tunnel field-effect transistors
Mizubayashi, Wataru; Mori, Takahiro; Fukuda, Koichi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Morita, Yukinori; Migita, Shinji; Ota, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yongxun; O'uchi, Shinichi; Tsukada, Junichi; Yamauchi, Hiromi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Masahara, Meishoku; Endo, Kazuhiko
2017-04-01
We systematically investigated the bias temperature instability (BTI) of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs). The positive BTI and negative BTI mechanisms in TFETs are the same as those in metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs (MOSFETs). In TFETs, although traps are generated in high-k gate dielectrics by the bias stress and/or the interface state is degraded at the interfacial layer/channel interface, the threshold voltage (V th) shift due to BTI degradation is caused by the traps and/or the degradation of the interface state locating the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) region near the source/gate edge. The BTI lifetime in n- and p-type TFETs is improved by applying a drain bias corresponding to the operation conditions.
Normalization at the field level: fractional counting of citations
Leydesdorff, Loet; Opthof, Tobias
2010-01-01
Van Raan et al. (2010; arXiv:1003.2113) have proposed a new indicator (MNCS) for field normalization. Since field normalization is also used in the Leiden Rankings of universities, we elaborate our critique of journal normalization in Opthof & Leydesdorff (2010; arXiv:1002.2769) in this rejoinder concerning field normalization. Fractional citation counting thoroughly solves the issue of normalization for differences in citation behavior among fields. This indicator can also be used to obtain ...
Shape and fission instabilities of ferrofluids in non-uniform magnetic fields
Vieu, Thibault; Walter, Clément
2018-04-01
We study static distributions of ferrofluid submitted to non-uniform magnetic fields. We show how the normal-field instability is modified in the presence of a weak magnetic field gradient. Then we consider a ferrofluid droplet and show how the gradient affects its shape. A rich phase transitions phenomenology is found. We also investigate the creation of droplets by successive splits when a magnet is vertically approached from below and derive theoretical expressions which are solved numerically to obtain the number of droplets and their aspect ratio as function of the field configuration. A quantitative comparison is performed with previous experimental results, as well as with our own experiments, and yields good agreement with the theoretical modeling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, P.K.; Tiwari, Anita; Argal, Shraddha; Chhajlani, R.K.
2013-01-01
This paper is devoted to an investigation of Quantum effects and magnetic field effects on the Rayleigh Taylor instability of two superposed incompressible fluids in bounded porous medium. The Quantum magneto hydrodynamic equations are solved by using normal mode method and a dispersion relation is obtained. The dispersion relation is derived for the case where plasma is bounded by two rigid planes z = 0 and z = h. The Rayleigh Taylor instability growth rate and stability condition of the medium is discussed in the presence of quantum effect, magnetic field, porosity and permeability. It is found that the magnetic field and medium porosity have stabilizing influence while permeability has destabilizing influence on the Rayleigh Taylor instability. (author)
Dhiman, Joginder Singh; Sharma, Rajni
2017-12-01
The effects of nonuniform rotation and magnetic field on the instability of a self gravitating infinitely extending axisymmetric cylinder of viscoelastic ferromagnetic medium have been studied using the Generalised Hydrodynamic (GH) model. The non-uniform magnetic field and rotation are acting along the axial direction of the cylinder and the propagation of the wave is considered along the radial direction, while the ferrofluid magnetization is taken collinear with the magnetic field. A general dispersion relation representing magnetization, magnetic permeability and viscoelastic relaxation time parameters is obtained using the normal mode analysis method in the linearized perturbation equation system. Jeans criteria which represent the onset of instability of self gravitating medium are obtained under the limits; when the medium behaves like a viscous liquid (strongly coupled limit) and a Newtonian liquid (weakly coupled limit). The effects of various parameters on the Jeans instability criteria and on the growth rate of self gravitating viscoelastic ferromagnetic medium have been discussed. It is found that the magnetic polarizability due to ferromagnetization of medium marginalizes the effect of non-uniform magnetic field on the Jeans instability, whereas the viscoelasticity of the medium has the usual stabilizing effect on the instability of the system. Further, it is found that the cylindrical geometry is more stable than the Cartesian one. The variation of growth rate against the wave number and radial distance has been depicted graphically.
Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi; Pullin, D. I.
2015-01-01
The effects of seed magnetic fields on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability driven by converging cylindrical and spherical implosions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics are investigated. Two different seed field configurations at various strengths are applied over a cylindrical or spherical density interface which has a single-dominant-mode perturbation. The shocks that excite the instability are generated with appropriate Riemann problems in a numerical formulation and the effect of the seed field on the growth rate and symmetry of the perturbations on the density interface is examined. We find reduced perturbation growth for both field configurations and all tested strengths. The extent of growth suppression increases with seed field strength but varies with the angle of the field to interface. The seed field configuration does not significantly affect extent of suppression of the instability, allowing it to be chosen to minimize its effect on implosion distortion. However, stronger seed fields are required in three dimensions to suppress the instability effectively.
Mostert, W.
2015-10-06
The effects of seed magnetic fields on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability driven by converging cylindrical and spherical implosions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics are investigated. Two different seed field configurations at various strengths are applied over a cylindrical or spherical density interface which has a single-dominant-mode perturbation. The shocks that excite the instability are generated with appropriate Riemann problems in a numerical formulation and the effect of the seed field on the growth rate and symmetry of the perturbations on the density interface is examined. We find reduced perturbation growth for both field configurations and all tested strengths. The extent of growth suppression increases with seed field strength but varies with the angle of the field to interface. The seed field configuration does not significantly affect extent of suppression of the instability, allowing it to be chosen to minimize its effect on implosion distortion. However, stronger seed fields are required in three dimensions to suppress the instability effectively.
The magnetized electron-acoustic instability driven by a warm, field-aligned electron beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sooklal, A.; Mace, R.L.
2004-01-01
The electron-acoustic instability in a magnetized plasma having three electron components, one of which is a field-aligned beam of intermediate temperature, is investigated. When the plasma frequency of the cool electrons exceeds the electron gyrofrequency, the electron-acoustic instability 'bifurcates' at sufficiently large propagation angles with respect to the magnetic field to yield an obliquely propagating, low-frequency electron-acoustic instability and a higher frequency cyclotron-sound instability. Each of these instabilities retains certain wave features of its progenitor, the quasiparallel electron-acoustic instability, but displays also new magnetic qualities through its dependence on the electron gyrofrequency. The obliquely propagating electron-acoustic instability requires a lower threshold beam speed for its excitation than does the cyclotron-sound instability, and for low to intermediate beam speeds has the higher maximum growth rate. When the plasma is sufficiently strongly magnetized that the plasma frequency of the cool electrons is less than the electron gyrofrequency, the only instability in the electron-acoustic frequency range is the strongly magnetized electron-acoustic instability. Its growth rate and real frequency exhibit a monotonic decrease with wave propagation angle and it grows at small to intermediate wave numbers where its parallel phase speed is approximately constant. The relevance of the results to the interpretation of cusp auroral hiss and auroral broadband electrostatic noise is briefly discussed
Parametric instabilities in an electron beam-plasma system: magnetic field effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gell, Y.; Levush, B.; Nakach, R.
1981-09-01
The effects of a magnetic field on the excitation of low-frequency parametric instabilities in a beam-plasma system are considered. The dispersion relation of the three-dimensional beamless configuration, is analytically evaluated for an electrostatic pump wave having a finite wave-vector parallel to the magnetic field. The results of this analysis serve as a guide to the numerical study of the stability of the involved system including the beam. As for the one-dimensional case, one finds that two low-frequency electrostatic instability branches having different growth rates may exist simultaneously. The effects of the magnetic field on these instabilities could be summarized as follows: the small growth rate instability is negligibly small when the electron gyrofrequency is about equal to the pump wave frequency. This instability is magnetic field independent for high enough values of the field. When the plasma electron Debye length is greater than the beam electron Debye length, a large growth rate instability is excited and appears to be weakly dependent on the magnetic field, while the two instability branches are quite sensitive to change of the magnetic field, when the two Debye lengths are equal. Other characteristics of this system are also discussed
Self-consistent normal ordering of gauge field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruehl, W.
1987-01-01
Mean-field theories with a real action of unconstrained fields can be self-consistently normal ordered. This leads to a considerable improvement over standard mean-field theory. This concept is applied to lattice gauge theories. First an appropriate real action mean-field theory is constructed. The equations determining the Gaussian kernel necessary for self-consistent normal ordering of this mean-field theory are derived. (author). 4 refs
Proton migration mechanism for the instability of organic field-effect transistors
Sharma, A.; Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Kemerink, M.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Bobbert, P.A.
2009-01-01
During prolonged application of a gate bias, organic field-effect transistors show an instability involving a gradual shift of the threshold voltage toward the applied gate bias voltage. We propose a model for this instability in p-type transistors with a silicon-dioxide gate dielectric, based on
Low-frequency instabilities of a warm plasma in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, D.F.; Hollweg, J.V.
1977-01-01
The marginal stability of a plasma carrying current along the static magnetic field with isotropic Maxwellian ions and isotropic Maxwellian electrons drifting relative to the ions is investigated. The complete electromagnetic dispersion relation is studied using numerical techniques; the electron sums are restricted to three terms which limits the analysis to frequencies much less than the electron gyro-frequency, but includes frequencies somewhat above the ion gyro-frequency. A 'kink-like' instability and an instability of the Alfven mode are found to have the lowest threshold drift velocities in most cases. In fact the threshold drift for the kink-like instability can be significantly less than the ion thermal speed. Electrostatic and electromagnetic ion-cyclotron instabilities are also found as well as the electro-static ion-acoustic instability. No instability of the fast magnetosonic mode was found. The stability analysis provides only threshold drift velocities and gives no information about growth rates. (author)
Wiebel instability of microwave gas discharge in strong linear and circular pulsed fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shokri, B.; Ghorbanalilu, M.
2004-01-01
Being much weaker than the atomic fields, the gas breakdown produced by high-power pulsed microwave fields is investigated in the nonrelativistic case. The distribution function of the electrons produced by the interaction with intense linearly and circularly polarized microwave fields is obtained and it is shown that it is in a nonequilibrium state and anisotropic. The discharge mechanism for the gas atoms is governed by electron-impact avalanche ionization. By analyzing the instability of the system and by finding its growth rate, it is shown that the instability which is governed by the anisotropic property of the distribution function is Wiebel instability
Low-frequency instabilities of electron-hole plasmas in crossed fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, W.; Kirchesch, P.
1978-01-01
Using local point-contact probes, we observed two types of low-frequency instabilities in n-InSb at 85 K if the samples were exposed to crossed fields. One is a local density instability with threshold frequencies of f = 1 ... 20 Mc, the other a more turbulent current instability. The threshold values of U 0 and B for the onset of these instabilities and the dependence of their amplitudes on the fields have been measured. If a rectangular semiconductor slab is placed in crossed fields, regions of high electric field strength at opposite edges of the contacts are caused by the distortion of the Hall field, giving rise to the generation of electron-hole plasmas by impact ionization. These plasmas are the sources of the observed instabilities. This is especially evident in the case of the local density instability, which originates at the anode high field corner. Several possible reasons for the development of the instabilities are discussed. (orig.) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)
2013-10-15
The filamentation instability triggered when two counter streaming plasma shells overlap appears to be the main mechanism by which collisionless shocks are generated. It has been known for long that a flow aligned magnetic field can completely suppress this instability. In a recent paper [Phys. Plasmas 18, 080706 (2011)], it was demonstrated in two dimensions that for the case of two cold, symmetric, relativistically colliding shells, such cancellation cannot occur if the field is not perfectly aligned. Here, this result is extended to the case of two asymmetric shells. The filamentation instability appears therefore as an increasingly robust mechanism to generate shocks.
Role of electric fields in the MHD evolution of the kink instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapenta, Giovanni; Skender, Marina
2017-01-01
Here, the discovery of electrostatic fields playing a crucial role in establishing plasma motion in the flux conversion and dynamo processes in reversed field pinches is revisited. In order to further elucidate the role of the electrostatic fields, a flux rope configuration susceptible to the kink instability is numerically studied with anMHDcode. Simulated nonlinear evolution of the kink instability is found to confirm the crucial role of the electrostatic fields. Anew insight is gained on the special function of the electrostatic fields: they lead the plasma towards the reconnection site at the mode resonant surface. Without this step the plasma column could not relax to its nonlinear state, since no other agent is present to perform this role. While the inductive field generated directly by the kink instability is the dominant flow driver, the electrostatic field is found to allow the motion in the vicinity of the reconnection region.
Effects of magnetic field, sheared flow and ablative velocity on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, D.; Zhang, W.L.; Wu, Z.W.
2005-01-01
It is found that magnetic field has a stabilization effect whereas the sheared flow has a destabilization effect on the RT instability in the presence of sharp interface. RT instability only occurs in the long wave region and can be completely suppressed if the stabilizing effect of magnetic field dominates. The RT instability increases with wave number and flow shear, and acts much like a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability when destabilizing effect of sheared flow dominates. It is shown that both of ablation velocity and magnetic filed have stabilization effect on RT instability in the presence of continued interface. The stabilization effect of magnetic field takes place for whole waveband and becomes more significant for the short wavelength. The RT instability can be completely suppressed by the cooperated effect of magnetic field and ablation velocity so that the ICF target shell may be unnecessary to be accelerated to very high speed. The growth rate decreases as the density scale length increases. The stabilization effect of magnetic field is more significant for the short density scale length. (author)
The instability of molecules in laser field and isotope separation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, K.
1981-01-01
In the present paper the nonlinear differential equation describing the selective decomposition of a molecule as an unimolecular reaction has be deduced from the usual time dependent semi-classical Schroedinger equation. The selective conditions for the instability of a molecule are discussed. The thresholds of the required laser intensities for ICl and HCl diatomic molecules are estimated respectively, where on type of isotope molecules ought to be decomposed for hundred per cent in a laser pulse for different pulse widths. And possibly selective decomposition of the molecule without permanent dipole moment by Raman process is also discussed briefly. (orig.)
Flow instability in laminar jet flames driven by alternating current electric fields
Kim, Gyeong Taek
2016-10-13
The effect of electric fields on the instability of laminar nonpremixed jet flames was investigated experimentally by applying the alternating current (AC) to a jet nozzle. We aimed to elucidate the origin of the occurrence of twin-lifted jet flames in laminar jet flow configurations, which occurred when AC electric fields were applied. The results indicated that a twin-lifted jet flame originated from cold jet instability, caused by interactions between negative ions in the jet flow via electron attachment as O +e→O when AC electric fields were applied. This was confirmed by conducting systematic, parametric experiment, which included changing gaseous component in jets and applying different polarity of direct current (DC) to the nozzle. Using two deflection plates installed in parallel with the jet stream, we found that only negative DC on the nozzle could charge oxygen molecules negatively. Meanwhile, the cold jet instability occurred only for oxygen-containing jets. A shedding frequency of jet stream due to AC driven instability showed a good correlation with applied AC frequency exhibiting a frequency doubling. However, for the applied AC frequencies over 80Hz, the jet did not respond to the AC, indicating an existence of a minimum flow induction time in a dynamic response of negative ions to external AC fields. Detailed regime of the instability in terms of jet velocity, AC voltage and frequency was presented and discussed. Hypothesized mechanism to explain the instability was also proposed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labakanta Mandal; Banerjee, R.; Roy, S.; Khan, M.; Gupta, M.R.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. In an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) situation, laser driven ablation front of an imploding capsule is subjected to the fluid instabilities like Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. In this case dense core is compressed and accelerated by low density ablating plasma. During this process laser driven shocks interact the interface and hence it becomes unstable due to the formation of nonlinear structure like bubble and spike. The nonlinear structure is called bubble if the lighter fluid pushes inside the heavier fluid and spike, if opposite takes place. R-M instability causes non-uniform compression of ICF fuel pellets and needs to be mitigated. Scientists and researchers are much more interested on RM instability both from theoretical and experimental points of view. In this article, we have presented the analytical expression for the growth rate and velocity for the nonlinear structures due to the effect of magnetic field of fluid using potential flow model. The magnetic field is assumed to be parallel to the plane of two fluid interfaces. If the magnetic field is restricted only to either side of interface the R-M instability can be stabilized or destabilized depending on whether the magnetic pressure on the interface opposes the instability driving shock pressure or acts in the same direction. An interesting result is that if both the fluids are magnetized, interface as well as velocity of bubble and spike will show oscillating stabilization and R-M instability is mitigated. All analytical results are also supported by numerical results. Numerically it is seen that magnetic field above certain minimum value reduces the instability for compression the target in ICF.
Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi
2017-01-01
We present numerical simulations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics showing suppression of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical implosions in the presence of an octahedrally symmetric magnetic field. This field configuration is of interest owing to its high degree of spherical symmetry in comparison with previously considered dihedrally symmetric fields. The simulations indicate that the octahedral field suppresses the instability comparably to the other previously considered candidate fields for light-heavy interface accelerations while retaining a highly symmetric underlying flow even at high field strengths. With this field, there is a reduction in the root-mean-square perturbation amplitude of up to approximately 50% at representative time under the strongest field tested while maintaining a homogeneous suppression pattern compared to the other candidate fields.
Mostert, W.
2017-01-27
We present numerical simulations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics showing suppression of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical implosions in the presence of an octahedrally symmetric magnetic field. This field configuration is of interest owing to its high degree of spherical symmetry in comparison with previously considered dihedrally symmetric fields. The simulations indicate that the octahedral field suppresses the instability comparably to the other previously considered candidate fields for light-heavy interface accelerations while retaining a highly symmetric underlying flow even at high field strengths. With this field, there is a reduction in the root-mean-square perturbation amplitude of up to approximately 50% at representative time under the strongest field tested while maintaining a homogeneous suppression pattern compared to the other candidate fields.
Yim, Ji-Hye; Yun, Jung Mi; Kim, Ji Young; Nam, Seon Young; Kim, Cha Soon
2017-11-01
Low-dose radiation has various biological effects such as adaptive responses, low-dose hypersensitivity, as well as beneficial effects. However, little is known about the particular proteins involved in these effects. Here, we sought to identify low-dose radiation-responsive phosphoproteins in normal fibroblast cells. We assessed genomic instability and proliferation of fibroblast cells after γ-irradiation by γ-H2AX foci and micronucleus formation analyses and BrdU incorporation assay, respectively. We screened fibroblast cells 8 h after low-dose (0.05 Gy) γ-irradiation using Phospho Explorer Antibody Microarray and validated two differentially expressed phosphoproteins using Western blotting. Cell proliferation proceeded normally in the absence of genomic instability after low-dose γ-irradiation. Phospho antibody microarray analysis and Western blotting revealed increased expression of two phosphoproteins, phospho-NFκB (Ser536) and phospho-P70S6K (Ser418), 8 h after low-dose radiation. Our findings suggest that low-dose radiation of normal fibroblast cells activates the expression of phospho-NFκB (Ser536) and phospho-P70S6K (Ser418) in the absence of genomic instability. Therefore, these proteins may be involved in DNA damage repair processes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buenemann, D
1963-03-15
Some aspects of the theory of longitudinal and transversal waves in a collisionless nonrelativistic plasma are treated. A dispersion relation for multicomponent plasmas is derived from the linearized Boltzmann-Vlasov equation using the full set of Maxwell's equations without an external field. The velocity distributions of the plasma streams are assumed to be Maxwellian. For the particular case of two counterstreaming plasmas it is shown that there exists transversal instabilities for all counterstreaming velocities whereas the well known two stream instabilities only exist for velocities greater than a critical velocity. Exact solutions for the onset of the instabilities can be given. This kind of instability may occur for any nonisotropic velocity distribution in a collisionless plasma. (auth)
Effect of magnetic field on Rayleigh-Taylor instability of two superposed fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, P K; Tiwari, Anita; Chhajlani, R K
2012-01-01
The effect of two dimensional magnetic field on the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability in an incompressible plasma is investigated to include simultaneously the effects of suspended particles and the porosity of the medium. The relevant linearized perturbation equations have been solved. The explicit expression of the linear growth rate is obtained in the presence of fixed boundary conditions. A stability criterion for the medium is derived and discussed the Rayleigh Taylor instabilities in different configurations. It is found that the basic Rayleigh-Taylor instability condition is modified by the presence of magnetic field, suspended particles and porosity of the medium. In case of an unstable R-T configuration, the magnetic field has a stabilizing effect on the system. It is also found that the growth rate of an unstable R-T mode decreases with increasing relaxation frequency thereby showing a stabilizing influence on the R-T configuration.
Mean fields and self consistent normal ordering of lattice spin and gauge field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruehl, W.
1986-01-01
Classical Heisenberg spin models on lattices possess mean field theories that are well defined real field theories on finite lattices. These mean field theories can be self consistently normal ordered. This leads to a considerable improvement over standard mean field theory. This concept is carried over to lattice gauge theories. We construct first an appropriate real mean field theory. The equations determining the Gaussian kernel necessary for self-consistent normal ordering of this mean field theory are derived. (orig.)
Cross-field dust acoustic instability in a dusty negative ion plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, M
2010-01-01
A cross-field dust acoustic instability in a dusty negative ion plasma in a magnetic field is studied using kinetic theory. The instability is driven by the ExB drifts of the ions. It is assumed that the negative ions are much heavier than the positive ions, and that the dust is negatively charged. The case where the positive ions and electrons are magnetized, the negative ions are marginally unmagnetized, and the dust is unmagnetized is considered. The focus is on a situation where Doppler resonances near harmonics of the positive ion gyrofrequency can affect the spectrum of unstable dust acoustic waves. Application to possible laboratory experimental parameters is discussed.
Ruediger, Guenther; Gellert, Marcus; Schultz, Manfred; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Stefani, Frank; Gundrum, Thomas; Seilmayer, Martin; Gerbeth, Gunter
2012-01-01
Many astrophysical phenomena (such as the slow rotation of neutron stars or the rigid rotation of the solar core) can be explained by the action of the Tayler instability of toroidal magnetic fields in the radiative zones of stars. In order to place the theory of this instability on a safe fundament it has been realized in a laboratory experiment measuring the critical field strength, the growth rates as well as the shape of the supercritical modes. A strong electrical current flows through a...
Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a rotating magnetic field
Duan, Shuchao; Xie, Weiping; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding
2018-04-01
In this paper, we analyze theoretically the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a rotating magnetic field. Slab configurations of finite thickness are treated both with and without using the Wenzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. Regardless of the slab thickness, the directional rotation of the driving magnetic field contributes to suppressing these instabilities. The two factors of the finite thickness and directional rotation of the magnetic field cooperate to enhance suppression, with the finite thickness playing a role only when the orientation of the magnetic field is time varying. The suppression becomes stronger as the driving magnetic field rotates faster, and all modes are suppressed, in contrast to the case of a non-rotating magnetic field, for which the vertical mode cannot be suppressed. This implies that the dynamically alternate configuration of a Theta-pinch and a Z-pinch may be applicable to the concept of Theta-Z liner inertial fusion.
Development of Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the presence of magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Manoranjan; Mandal, Labakanta; Banerjee, Rahul; Roy, Sourav; Gupta, M.R.
2011-01-01
Fluid instabilities like Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T), Richtmyer-Meshkov (R-M) and Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability can occur in a wide range of physical phenomenon from astrophysical context to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Using Layzer's potential flow model, we derive the analytical expressions of growth rate of bubble and spike for ideal magnetized fluid in R-T and R-M cases. In the presence of transverse magnetic field, the R-M and R-T instabilities are suppressed or enhanced depending on the direction of magnetic pressure and hydrodynamic pressure. Again the interface of two fluid may oscillate if both the fluids are conducting. However, it is observed that the magnetic field has no effect in linear case.
Thermal instabilities in the edge region of reversed-field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goedert, J.; Mondt, J.P.
1984-04-01
Thermal stability of the edge region of reversed-field pinch configurations is analyzed within the context of a two-fluid model. Two major sources of instability are identified in combination with a parallel electric field: either an electron temperature gradient and/or a density gradient that leads to rapid growth (of several to many ohmic heating rates) over a region of several millimeters around the mode-rational surfaces in the edge region. The basic signature of both instabilities is electrostatic. In the case of the density gradient mode, the signature relies on the effects of electron compressibility, whereas the temperature gradient mode can be identified as the current-convective instability by taking the limit of zero diamagnetic drift, density gradient, thermal force, drift heat flux, and electron compressibility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arons, J.; Lea, S.M.
1976-01-01
We describe the results of a linearized hydromagnetic stability analysis of the magnetopause of an accreting neutron star. The magnetosphere is assumed to be slowly rotating, and the plasma just outside of the magnetopause is assumed to be weakly magnetized. The plasma layer is assumed to be bounded above by a shock wave, and to be thin compared with the radius of the magnetosphere. Under these circumstances, the growing modes are shown to be localized in the direction parallel to the zero-order magnetic field. The structure of the modes is still similar to the flute mode, however. The growth rate at each magnetic latitude is lambda given by γ 2 =g/sub n/kα/sub eff/(lambda) tanh [kz/sub s/(lambda)] where g/sub n/ is the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration normal to the surface, kapprox. =vertical-barmvertical-bar/R (lambda)cos lambda, vertical-barmvertical-bar is the azimuthal mode number, R (lambda) is the radius of the magnetosphere, z/sub s/ is the height of the shock above the magnetopause, and α/sub eff/(lambda) <1 is the effective Atwood number which embodies the stabilizing effects of favorable curvature and magnetic tension. We calculate α/sub eff/(lambda), and also discuss the stabilizing effects of viscosity and of aligned flow parallel to the magnetopause
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prajapati, R.P.
2013-01-01
The Jeans instability of self-gravitating dusty plasma with polarization force is investigated considering the effects of magnetic field, dust temperature and radiative condensation. The condition of Jeans instability and expression of critical Jeans wave number are obtained which depend upon polarization force and dust temperature but these are unaffected by the presence of magnetic field. The radiative heat-loss functions also modify the Jeans condition of instability and expression of critical Jeans wave number. It is observed that the polarization force and ratio of radiative heat-loss functions have destabilizing while magnetic field and dust temperature have stabilizing influence on the growth rate of Jeans instability.
Wormhole solutions with a complex ghost scalar field and their instability
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta
2018-01-01
We study compact configurations with a nontrivial wormholelike spacetime topology supported by a complex ghost scalar field with a quartic self-interaction. For this case, we obtain regular asymptotically flat equilibrium solutions possessing reflection symmetry. We then show their instability with respect to linear radial perturbations.
Flow instability in laminar jet flames driven by alternating current electric fields
Kim, Gyeong Taek; Park, Daegeun; Cha, Min; Park, Jeong; Chung, Suk-Ho
2016-01-01
The effect of electric fields on the instability of laminar nonpremixed jet flames was investigated experimentally by applying the alternating current (AC) to a jet nozzle. We aimed to elucidate the origin of the occurrence of twin-lifted jet flames
Low-field Instabilities in Nb$_{3}$Sn Multifilamentary Wires the Possible Role of Unreacted Nb
Devred, A; Celentano, G; Fabbricatore, P; Ferdeghini, C; Greco, M; Gambardella, U
2007-01-01
We report an experimental study aiming to demonstrate the not negligible role of unreacted Nb on the magnetic instabilities in superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn multifilamentary wires, observable through partial flux jumps at magnetic field values below 0.5 T. The analysed wires were recently developed for use as dipoles required in future high-energy proton accelerators and are based on powder-in-tube technology. We studied both unreacted (only involving Nb filaments) and reacted wires, finding flux jump instabilities in both cases when performing magnetic measurements. The results can be interpreted on the basis of the critical state model and are coherent with the intrinsic stability criterion.
Superradiant Instability and Backreaction of Massive Vector Fields around Kerr Black Holes.
East, William E; Pretorius, Frans
2017-07-28
We study the growth and saturation of the superradiant instability of a complex, massive vector (Proca) field as it extracts energy and angular momentum from a spinning black hole, using numerical solutions of the full Einstein-Proca equations. We concentrate on a rapidly spinning black hole (a=0.99) and the dominant m=1 azimuthal mode of the Proca field, with real and imaginary components of the field chosen to yield an axisymmetric stress-energy tensor and, hence, spacetime. We find that in excess of 9% of the black hole's mass can be transferred into the field. In all cases studied, the superradiant instability smoothly saturates when the black hole's horizon frequency decreases to match the frequency of the Proca cloud that spontaneously forms around the black hole.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falceta-Gonçalves, D. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Kowal, G. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000, São Paulo, SP 03828-000 (Brazil)
2015-07-20
In this work we report on a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of the magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that (i) amplification of the magnetic field was efficient in firehose-unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror-unstable models; (ii) the growth rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo; and (iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales and pressure anisotropy is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pressure anisotropies—driven naturally in a turbulent collisionless medium, e.g., the intergalactic medium, could efficiently amplify the magnetic field in the early universe (post-recombination era), previous to the collapse of the first large-scale gravitational structures. This mechanism, though fast for the small-scale fields (∼kpc scales), is unable to provide relatively strong magnetic fields at large scales. Other mechanisms that were not accounted for here (e.g., collisional turbulence once instabilities are quenched, velocity shear, or gravitationally induced inflows of gas into galaxies and clusters) could operate afterward to build up large-scale coherent field structures in the long time evolution.
Riquelme, Mario; Quataert, Eliot; Verscharen, Daniel
2018-02-01
We use particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a collisionless, electron–ion plasma with a decreasing background magnetic field, {\\boldsymbol{B}}, to study the effect of velocity-space instabilities on the viscous heating and thermal conduction of the plasma. If | {\\boldsymbol{B}}| decreases, the adiabatic invariance of the magnetic moment gives rise to pressure anisotropies with {p}| | ,j> {p}\\perp ,j ({p}| | ,j and {p}\\perp ,j represent the pressure of species j (electron or ion) parallel and perpendicular to B ). Linear theory indicates that, for sufficiently large anisotropies, different velocity-space instabilities can be triggered. These instabilities in principle have the ability to pitch-angle scatter the particles, limiting the growth of the anisotropies. Our simulations focus on the nonlinear, saturated regime of the instabilities. This is done through the permanent decrease of | {\\boldsymbol{B}}| by an imposed plasma shear. We show that, in the regime 2≲ {β }j≲ 20 ({β }j\\equiv 8π {p}j/| {\\boldsymbol{B}}{| }2), the saturated ion and electron pressure anisotropies are controlled by the combined effect of the oblique ion firehose and the fast magnetosonic/whistler instabilities. These instabilities grow preferentially on the scale of the ion Larmor radius, and make {{Δ }}{p}e/{p}| | ,e≈ {{Δ }}{p}i/{p}| | ,i (where {{Δ }}{p}j={p}\\perp ,j-{p}| | ,j). We also quantify the thermal conduction of the plasma by directly calculating the mean free path of electrons, {λ }e, along the mean magnetic field, finding that {λ }e depends strongly on whether | {\\boldsymbol{B}}| decreases or increases. Our results can be applied in studies of low-collisionality plasmas such as the solar wind, the intracluster medium, and some accretion disks around black holes.
Three-dimensional simulation of the electromagnetic ion/ion beam instability: cross field diffusion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Kucharek
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In a system with at least one ignorable spatial dimension charged particles moving in fluctuating fields are tied to the magnetic field lines. Thus, in one-and two-dimensional simulations cross-field diffusion is inhibited and important physics may be lost. We have investigated cross-field diffusion in self-consistent 3-D magnetic turbulence by fully 3-dimensional hybrid simulation (macro-particle ions, massless electron fluid. The turbulence is generated by the electromagnetic ion/ion beam instability. A cold, low density, ion beam with a high velocity stream relative to the background plasma excites the right-hand resonant instability. Such ion beams may be important in the region of the Earth's foreshock. The field turbulence scatters the beam ions parallel as well as perpendicular to the magnetic field. We have determined the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficient for the beam ions in the turbulent wave field. The result compares favourably well (within a factor 2 with hard-sphere scattering theory for the cross-field diffusion coefficient. The cross-field diffusion coefficient is larger than that obtained in a static field with a Kolmogorov type spectrum and similar total fluctuation power. This is attributed to the resonant behaviour of the particles in the fluctuating field.
Mutual-friction induced instability of normal-fluid vortex tubes in superfluid helium-4
Kivotides, Demosthenes
2018-06-01
It is shown that, as a result of its interactions with superfluid vorticity, a normal-fluid vortex tube in helium-4 becomes unstable and disintegrates. The superfluid vorticity acquires only a small (few percents of normal-fluid tube strength) polarization, whilst expanding in a front-like manner in the intervortex space of the normal-fluid, forming a dense, unstructured tangle in the process. The accompanied energy spectra scalings offer a structural explanation of analogous scalings in fully developed finite-temperature superfluid turbulence. A macroscopic mutual-friction model incorporating these findings is proposed.
Vector condensate and AdS soliton instability induced by a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Li; Li, Li-Fang; Wu, You
2014-01-01
We continue to study the holographic p-wave superconductor model in the Einstein-Maxwell-complex vector field theory with a non-minimal coupling between the complex vector field and the Maxwell field. In this paper we work in the AdS soliton background which describes a conformal field theory in the confined phase and focus on the probe approximation. We find that an applied magnetic field can lead to the condensate of the vector field and the AdS soliton instability. As a result, a vortex lattice structure forms in the spatial directions perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. As a comparison, we also discuss the vector condensate in the Einstein-SU(2) Yang-Mills theory and find that in the setup of the present paper, the Einstein-Maxwell-complex vector field model is a generalization of the SU(2) model in the sense that the vector field has a general mass and gyromagnetic ratio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andropov, V.G.; Sinkevich, O.A.
1983-01-01
It is shown that the ionization front which moves through a gas along a magnetic field in a combined electrical field, which lies in the plane of the front, may be unstable, as a result of the development of an ionization instability in the plasma behind the front. The criterion of instability of the ionization front does not greatly differ from the criterion of instability of an infinite plasma. The ionization front in the magnetic field is stable only in an electrical field of circular polarization or in a combined field in which the direct and alternating electrical fields are orthogonal and the Joule heat liberation from them is equal. The generation of sound is possible in a magnetized plasma in an alternating electrical field orthogonal to a magnetic due to the parametric acoustical instability at the frequency of the external electrical field. 8 refs
Smoothing and instability with magnetic field in a non-uniformly laser-irradiated planar target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, A.R.; Epperlein, E.M.
1986-01-01
Calculations are presented of the magneto-hydrodynamic response of a planar target to non-uniformities in energy deposition by a laser. The amplitude of the non-uniformities are assumed small and the equations are linearised in small perturbations about the solution for steady planar ablation driven by uniform laser energy deposition. The grad(n)xgrad(T) magnetic field source is included, along with Nernst convection and the Righi-Leduc heat flow. The magnetic field is shown to give a small increase in smoothing. A source term for magnetic field is included to simulate the effects of the Weibel instability. The instability is not strong enough to overcome the smoothing processes under the present assumptions. (author)
Bakhsh, Abeer
2017-11-17
We investigate the linear stability of both positive and negative Atwood ratio interfaces accelerated either by a fast magnetosonic or hydrodynamic shock in cylindrical geometry. For the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) case, we examine the role of an initial seed azimuthal magnetic field on the growth rate of the perturbation. In the absence of a magnetic field, the Richtmyer-Meshkov growth is followed by an exponentially increasing growth associated with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In the MHD case, the growth rate of the instability reduces in proportion to the strength of the applied magnetic field. The suppression mechanism is associated with the interference of two waves running parallel and anti-parallel to the interface that transport of vorticity and cause the growth rate to oscillate in time with nearly a zero mean value.
Bakhsh, Abeer; Samtaney, Ravindra
2017-01-01
We investigate the linear stability of both positive and negative Atwood ratio interfaces accelerated either by a fast magnetosonic or hydrodynamic shock in cylindrical geometry. For the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) case, we examine the role of an initial seed azimuthal magnetic field on the growth rate of the perturbation. In the absence of a magnetic field, the Richtmyer-Meshkov growth is followed by an exponentially increasing growth associated with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In the MHD case, the growth rate of the instability reduces in proportion to the strength of the applied magnetic field. The suppression mechanism is associated with the interference of two waves running parallel and anti-parallel to the interface that transport of vorticity and cause the growth rate to oscillate in time with nearly a zero mean value.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Girka, I. O.; Girka, V. O.; Sydora, R. D.; Thumm, M.
2016-01-01
The influence of non-monochromaticity of an external alternating electric field on excitation of TM eigenmodes at harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency is considered here. These TM-modes propagate along the plasma interface in a metal waveguide. An external static constant magnetic field is oriented perpendicularly to the plasma interface. The problem is solved theoretically using the kinetic Vlasov-Boltzmann equation for description of plasma particles motion and the Maxwell equations for description of the electromagnetic mode fields. The external alternating electric field is supposed to be a superposition of two waves, whose amplitudes are different and their frequencies correlate as 2:1. An infinite set of equations for electric field harmonics of these modes is derived with the aid of nonlinear boundary conditions. This set is solved using the wave packet approach consisting of the main harmonic frequency and two nearest satellite temporal harmonics. Analytical studies of the obtained set of equations allow one to find two different regimes of parametric instability, namely, enhancement and suppression of the instability. Numerical analysis of the instability is carried out for the three first electron cyclotron harmonics.
Normalized noise power spectrum of full field digital mammography system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norriza Mohd Isa; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan
2009-01-01
A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality. (Author)
Normalized Noise Power Spectrum of Full Field Digital Mammography System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isa, Norriza Mohd; Wan Hassan, Wan Muhamad Saridan
2010-01-01
A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bret, A., E-mail: antoineclaude.bret@uclm.es [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)
2014-02-15
The filamentation (Weibel) instability plays a key role in the formation of collisionless shocks which are thought to produce Gamma-Ray-Bursts and High-Energy-Cosmic-Rays in astrophysical environments. While it has been known for long that a flow-aligned magnetic field can completely quench the instability, it was recently proved in 2D that in the cold regime, such cancelation is possible if and only if the field is perfectly aligned. Here, this result is finally extended to a 3D geometry. Calculations are conducted for symmetric and asymmetric counter-streaming relativistic plasma shells. 2D results are retrieved in 3D: the instability can never be completely canceled for an oblique magnetic field. In addition, the maximum growth-rate is always larger for wave vectors lying in the plan defined by the flow and the oblique field. On the one hand, this bears consequences on the orientation of the generated filaments. On the other hand, it certifies 2D simulations of the problem can be performed without missing the most unstable filamentation modes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dixit, S.K.; Azif, Z.A.; Gwal, A.K.
1994-01-01
The characteristics of the growth rate of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) instability is investigated in a mixture of cold species of ions and warm proton in the presence of weak parallel static electric field. An attempt has been made to explain the excitation of EMIC waves through linear wave-particle (W-P) interaction in the equatorial magnetospheric region. The proton cyclotron instability is modified in presence of weak parallel electric field and the growth rate is computed for equatorial magnetospheric plasma parameters. The results of theoretical investigations of the growth rate are used to explain the excitation mechanism of extremely low frequency/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) waves as observed by satellites. (author). 29 refs., 4 figs
Plasma wave instability and amplification of terahertz radiation in field-effect-transistor arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, V V; Tsymbalov, G M; Shur, M S
2008-01-01
We show that the strong amplification of terahertz radiation takes place in an array of field-effect transistors at small DC drain currents due to hydrodynamic plasmon instability of the collective plasmon mode. Planar designs compatible with standard integrated circuit fabrication processes and strong coupling of terahertz radiation to plasmon modes in FET arrays make such arrays very attractive for potential applications in solid-state terahertz amplifiers and emitters
Suppression of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability in the Presence of a Magnetic Field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravi Samtaney
2003-01-01
We present numerical evidence from two dimensional simulations that the growth of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is suppressed in the presence of a magnetic field. A bifurcation occurs during the refraction of the incident shock on the density interface which transports baroclinically generated vorticity away from the interface to a pair of slow or intermediate magnetosonic shocks. Consequently, the density interface is devoid of vorticity and its growth and associated mixing is completely suppressed
Cross-Field Current Instabilities in Thin Ionization Layers and the Enhanced Aurora
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, Jay R.; Okuda, Hideo
2008-01-01
Nearly half of the time, auroral displays exhibit thin, bright layers known as 'enhanced aurora'. There is a substantial body of evidence that connects these displays with thin, dense, heavy ion layers in the E-region. Based on the spectral characteristics of the enhanced layers, it is believed that they result when wave-particle interaction heats ambient electrons to energies at or just above the 17 eV ionization energy of N2. While there are several possible instabilities that could produce suprathermal electrons in thin layers, there has been no clear theoretical investigation which examines in detail how wave instabilities in the thin ionization layers could develop and produce the suprathermal electrons. We examine instabilities which would occur in thin, dense, heavy ion layers using extensive analytical analysis combined with particle simulations. We analyze a cross field current instability that is found to be strongly unstable in the heavy ion layers. Electrostatic simulations show that substantial heating of the ambient electrons occurs with energization at or above the N2 ionization energy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kohri, Kazunori [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Matsui, Hiroki, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: matshiro@post.kek.jp [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)
2017-08-01
In this work, we investigated the electroweak vacuum instability during or after inflation. In the inflationary Universe, i.e., de Sitter space, the vacuum field fluctuations < δ φ {sup 2} > enlarge in proportion to the Hubble scale H {sup 2}. Therefore, the large inflationary vacuum fluctuations of the Higgs field < δ φ {sup 2} > are potentially catastrophic to trigger the vacuum transition to the negative-energy Planck-scale vacuum state and cause an immediate collapse of the Universe. However, the vacuum field fluctuations < δ φ {sup 2} >, i.e., the vacuum expectation values have an ultraviolet divergence, and therefore a renormalization is necessary to estimate the physical effects of the vacuum transition. Thus, in this paper, we revisit the electroweak vacuum instability from the perspective of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved space-time, and discuss the dynamical behavior of the homogeneous Higgs field φ determined by the effective potential V {sub eff}( φ ) in curved space-time and the renormalized vacuum fluctuations < δ φ {sup 2} >{sub ren} via adiabatic regularization and point-splitting regularization. We simply suppose that the Higgs field only couples the gravity via the non-minimal Higgs-gravity coupling ξ(μ). In this scenario, the electroweak vacuum stability is inevitably threatened by the dynamical behavior of the homogeneous Higgs field φ, or the formations of AdS domains or bubbles unless the Hubble scale is small enough H < Λ {sub I} .
A simplified numerical analysis of helical instabilities of arcs in axial magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong Ye; Lu Wenyan; Liu Jinyuan; Zheng Shu; Gong Jiquan
2002-01-01
The energy equations were simplified by the correct electrostatic ordering under electrostatic approximation. The effects of the external axial magnetic field, the current profiles and arc currents on the helical instabilities of arcs were studied by using numerical method. In the presence of the external magnetic field, numerical results show that when the current profile of an arc column is the uniform distribution, the short wavelength perturbation can be stabilized by positive direction magnetic field, whereas the long wavelength perturbation can be stabilized by reverse magnetic field. When the current profile of an arc column has a parabolic distribution, in the short wavelength perturbation case, the effect of positive direction magnetic field on the arc stability is very small. However, its stabilizing effect is enhanced for the long wavelength perturbation. The intermediate and long wavelength perturbations can also be stabilized by reverse magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhajlenko, V.S.; Stepanov, K.N.
1981-01-01
Ion cyclotron instability saturation is considered in terms of the turbulence theory when there is a beam of heavy ions with large thermal longitudinal velocity spread. The instability excitation is due to a cyclotron interaction with ions of the beam under the anomalous Doppler effect. The instability is shown to be saturated due to an induced plasma ion scattering of ion cyclotron waves when the beam ion charge number Zsub(b) is approximately 1. Decay processes, wave scattering by virtual wave polarization clouds and resonance broadening due to random walk of plasma ions in turbulent instability fields appear to be unimportant. For Zsub(b)>>1 the induced wave scattering by the beam ions is the main process determining the nonlinear stage of the instability. Estimates are given for the oscillation energy density in the instability saturation state and for the turbulent heating rate of plasma and beam ions [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, P.K.; Bharuthram, R.; Schlickeiser, R.
2004-01-01
It is shown that the dispersive Shukla mode [P.K. Shukla, Phys. Lett. A 316, 238 (2003)] can become unstable in the presence of equilibrium density and magnetic field inhomogeneities in a dusty plasma. A new dispersion relation for our nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma is derived and analyzed to show the modification of the Shukla mode frequency and its amplification due to combined action of the plasma density and magnetic field gradients. The present instability may account for the origin of low-frequency electromagnetic turbulence in molecular clouds and in cometary plasmas
Self-Field Effects in Magneto-Thermal Instabilities for Nb-Sn Strands
Bordini, B; Fehér, S; Rossi, L; Zlobin, A V
2008-01-01
Recent advancements in the critical current density (Jc) of Nb$_{3}$Sn conductors, coupled with a large effective filament size, have drawn attention to the problem of magnetothermal instabilities. At low magnetic fields, the quench current of such high Jc Nb$_{3}$Sn strands is significantly lower than their critical current because of the above-mentioned instabilities. An adiabatic model to calculate the minimum current at which a strand can quench due to magneto-thermal instabilities is developed. The model is based on an 'integral' approach already used elsewhere [1]. The main difference with respect to the previous model is the addition of the self-field effect that allows to describe premature quenches of non-magnetized Nb$_{3}$Sn strands and to better calculate the quench current of strongly magnetized strands. The model is in good agreement with experimental results at 4.2 K obtained at Fermilab using virgin Modified Jelly Roll (MJR) strands with a low Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the stabilizin...
A nonlinear scenario for development of vortex layer instability in gravity field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncharov, V. P.
2007-01-01
A Hamiltonian version of contour dynamics is formulated for models of constant-vorticity plane flows with interfaces. The proposed approach is used as a framework for a nonlinear scenario for instability development. Localized vortex blobs are analyzed as structural elements of a strongly perturbed wall layer of a vorticity-carrying fluid with free boundary in gravity field. Gravity and vorticity effects on the geometry and velocity of vortex structures are examined. It is shown that compactly supported nonlinear solutions (compactons) are candidates for the role of particle-like vortex structures in models of flow breakdown. An analysis of the instability mechanism demonstrates the possibility of a self-similar collapse. It is found that the vortex shape stabilizes at the final stage of the collapse, while the vortex sheet strength on its boundary increases as (t 0 - t) -1 , where t 0 is the collapse time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimachkov, D.A., E-mail: klimachkovdmitry@gmail.com [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997 (Russian Federation); Petrosyan, A.S. [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 9 Institutskyi per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation)
2017-01-15
This article deals with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of a thin rotating layer of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field. We use the shallow water approximation to describe thin rotating plasma layer with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field. The MHD shallow water equations with external vertical magnetic field are revised by supplementing them with the equations that are consequences of the magnetic field divergence-free conditions and reveal the existence of third component of the magnetic field in such approximation providing its relation with the horizontal magnetic field. It is shown that the presence of a vertical magnetic field significantly changes the dynamics of the wave processes in astrophysical plasma compared to the neutral fluid and plasma layer in a toroidal magnetic field. The equations for the nonlinear wave packets interactions are derived using the asymptotic multiscale method. The equations for three magneto-Poincare waves interactions, for three magnetostrophic waves interactions, for the interactions of two magneto-Poincare waves and for one magnetostrophic wave and two magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave interactions are obtained. The existence of parametric decay and parametric amplifications is predicted. We found following four types of parametric decay instabilities: magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare wave and one magnetostrophic wave, magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave. Following mechanisms of parametric amplifications are found: parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave amplification in magnetostrophic wave presence and magnetostrophic wave amplification in magneto-Poincare wave presence. The instabilities growth rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merezhkin, V.G.
1978-01-01
The structure and dynamics of disturbances of a poloidal field during the development of the breakaway instability in the Tokamak-6 are investigated. The behaviour of the symmetric and dipole field component, and the peculiarities of the structure of screw disturbances in a minor and major breakaways are analyzed. It was established that the structure of screw disturbances in minor breakaways is unchangeable and that the rearrangement in major breakaways is of a discrete nature. The relationship between the symmetric and screw components of disturbances of the poloidal field at the forward front of the disturbance increase was revealed. Data on the increments, scales and structure of screw disturbances, the ratios between the symmetric and screw components of field disturbances, and also on the magnitude of energy losses in typical breakaways are given
Modulational instability for an induced field in the far-wake region of a space vehicle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao Jingjing; Deng Qian; Qu Wen
2012-01-01
The behavior of the induced field and the generation of density cavitons in the far-wake region (|k 0 | → 0) of a space vehicle can be described by a set of nonlinear coupling equations. Modulational instability of the induced field is investigated on the basis of the nonlinear equations. The results show that the induced field is modulationally unstable and will collapse into spatial localized structures; meanwhile, density cavitons will be generated. The characteristic scale and the maximum growth rate of the induced field depend not only on the angle between the amplitude of pump waves E 0 and the perturbation wave vector k, but also on the energy density of pump waves |E 0 | 2 . (paper)
Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for a bounded plasma flow in a longitudinal magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burinskaya, T. M.; Shevelev, M. M.; Rauch, J.-L.
2011-01-01
Kelvin-Helmholtz MHD instability in a plane three-layer plasma is investigated. A general dispersion relation for the case of arbitrarily orientated magnetic fields and flow velocities in the layers is derived, and its solutions for a bounded plasma flow in a longitudinal magnetic field are studied numerically. Analysis of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for different ion acoustic velocities shows that perturbations with wavelengths on the order of or longer than the flow thickness can grow in an arbitrary direction even at a zero temperature. Oscillations excited at small angles with respect to the magnetic field exist in a limited range of wavenumbers even without allowance for the finite width of the transition region between the flow and the ambient plasma. It is shown that, in a low-temperature plasma, solutions resulting in kink-like deformations of the plasma flow grow at a higher rate than those resulting in quasi-symmetric (sausage-like) deformations. The transverse structure of oscillatory-damped eigenmodes in a low-temperature plasma is analyzed. The results obtained are used to explain mechanisms for the excitation of ultra-low-frequency long-wavelength oscillations propagating along the magnetic field in the plasma sheet boundary layer of the Earth’s magnetotail penetrated by fast plasma flows.
Subcritical saturation of the magnetorotational instability through mean magnetic field generation
Xie, Jin-Han; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar
2018-03-01
The magnetorotational instability is widely believed to be responsible for outward angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion discs. The efficiency of this transport depends on the amplitude of this instability in the saturated state. We employ an asymptotic expansion based on an explicit, astrophysically motivated time-scale separation between the orbital period, Alfvén crossing time and viscous or resistive dissipation time-scales, originally proposed by Knobloch and Julien, to formulate a semi-analytical description of the saturated state in an incompressible disc. In our approach a Keplerian shear flow is maintained by the central mass but the instability saturates via the generation of a mean vertical magnetic field. The theory assumes that the time-averaged angular momentum flux and the radial magnetic flux are constant and determines both self-consistently. The results predict that, depending on parameters, steady saturation may be supercritical or subcritical, and in the latter case that the upper (lower) solution branch is always stable (unstable). The angular momentum flux is always outward, consistent with the presence of accretion, and for fixed wavenumber peaks in the subcritical regime. The limit of infinite Reynolds number at large but finite magnetic Reynolds number is also discussed.
Ohdachi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Sakakibara, Satoru; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Hayato; Ming, Tingfeng; Du, Xiaodi; LHD Expriment Group Team
2014-10-01
In the Large Helical Device (LHD), the plasma is surrounded by the so-called magnetic stochastic region, where the Kolmogorov length of the magnetic field lines is very short, from several tens of meters and to thousands meters. Finite pressure gradient are formed in this region and MHD instabilities localized in this region is observed since the edge region of the LHD is always unstable against the pressure driven mode. Therefore, the saturation level of the instabilities is the key issue in order to evaluate the risk of this kind of MHD instabilities. The saturation level depends on the pressure gradient and on the magnetic Reynolds number; there results are similar to the MHD mode in the closed magnetic surface region. The saturation level in the stochastic region is affected also by the stocasticity itself. Parameter dependence of the saturation level of the MHD activities in the region is discussed in detail. It is supported by NIFS budget code ULPP021, 028 and is also partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 26249144, by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program NSFC: No. 11261140328.
Simultaneous density-field visualization and PIV of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability
Prestridge, Katherine; Rightley, Paul; Benjamin, Robert; Kurnit, Norman; Boxx, Isaac; Vorobieff, Peter
1999-11-01
We describe a highly-detailed experimental characterization of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. A vertical curtain of heavy gas (SF_6) flows into the test section of an air-filled, horizontal shock tube, and the instability evolves after the passage of a Mach 1.2 shock past the curtain. The evolution of the curtain is visualized by seeding the SF6 with small (d ≈ 0.5 μm) glycol/water droplets using a modified theatrical fog generator. Because the event lasts only 1 ms and the initial conditions vary from test to test, rapid and high-resolution (both spatial and temporal) data acquisition is required in order to characterize the initial and dynamic conditions for each experimental event. A customized, frequency-doubled, burst mode Nd:YAG laser and a commercial single-pulse laser are used for the implementation of simultaneous density-field imaging and PIV diagnostics. We have provided data about flow scaling and mixing through image analysis, and PIV data gives us further quantitative physical insight into the evolution of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability.
Malmberg, J.-A.; Brunsell, P. R.
2002-01-01
Observations of resistive wall instabilities and tearing mode dynamics in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell (τw=6 ms) reversed field pinch are described. A nonresonant mode (m=1,n=-10) with the same handedness as the internal field grows nearly exponentially with an average growth time of about 2.6 ms (less than 1/2 of the shell time) consistent with linear stability theory. The externally nonresonant unstable modes (m=1,n>0), predicted by linear stability theory, are observed to have only low amplitudes (in the normal low-Θ operation mode of the device). The radial field of the dominant internally resonant tearing modes (m=1,n=-15 to n=-12) remain low due to spontaneous fast mode rotation, corresponding to angular phase velocities up to 280 krad/s. Phase aligned mode structures are observed to rotate toroidally with an average angular velocity of 40 krad/s, in the opposite direction of the plasma current. Toward the end of the discharge, the radial field of the internally resonant modes grows as the modes slow down and become wall-locked, in agreement with nonlinear computations. Fast rotation of the internally resonant modes has been observed only recently and is attributed to a change of the front-end system (vacuum vessel, shell, and TF coil) of the device.
Analysis of rainfall-induced slope instability using a field of local factor of safety
Lu, Ning; Şener-Kaya, Başak; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.
2012-01-01
Slope-stability analyses are mostly conducted by identifying or assuming a potential failure surface and assessing the factor of safety (FS) of that surface. This approach of assigning a single FS to a potentially unstable slope provides little insight on where the failure initiates or the ultimate geometry and location of a landslide rupture surface. We describe a method to quantify a scalar field of FS based on the concept of the Coulomb stress and the shift in the state of stress toward failure that results from rainfall infiltration. The FS at each point within a hillslope is called the local factor of safety (LFS) and is defined as the ratio of the Coulomb stress at the current state of stress to the Coulomb stress of the potential failure state under the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. Comparative assessment with limit-equilibrium and hybrid finite element limit-equilibrium methods show that the proposed LFS is consistent with these approaches and yields additional insight into the geometry and location of the potential failure surface and how instability may initiate and evolve with changes in pore water conditions. Quantitative assessments applying the new LFS field method to slopes under infiltration conditions demonstrate that the LFS has the potential to overcome several major limitations in the classical FS methodologies such as the shape of the failure surface and the inherent underestimation of slope instability. Comparison with infinite-slope methods, including a recent extension to variably saturated conditions, shows further enhancement in assessing shallow landslide occurrence using the LFS methodology. Although we use only a linear elastic solution for the state of stress with no post-failure analysis that require more sophisticated elastoplastic or other theories, the LFS provides a new means to quantify the potential instability zones in hillslopes under variably saturated conditions using stress-field based methods.
Non-linear instability of DIII-D to error fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La Haye, R.J.; Scoville, J.T.
1991-10-01
Otherwise stable DIII-D discharges can become nonlinearly unstable to locked modes and disrupt when subjected to resonant m = 2, n = 1 error field caused by irregular poloidal field coils, i.e. intrinsic field errors. Instability is observed in DIII-D when the magnitude of the radial component of the m = 2, n = 1 error field with respect to the toroidal field is B r21 /B T of about 1.7 x 10 -4 . The locked modes triggered by an external error field are aligned with the static error field and the plasma fluid rotation ceases as a result of the growth of the mode. The triggered locked modes are the precursors of the subsequent plasma disruption. The use of an ''n = 1 coil'' to partially cancel intrinsic errors, or to increase them, results in a significantly expanded, or reduced, stable operating parameter space. Precise error field measurements have allowed the design of an improved correction coil for DIII-D, the ''C-coil'', which could further cancel error fields and help to avoid disruptive locked modes. 6 refs., 4 figs
Influence of a magnetic field on the Taylor instability in magnetic fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vislovich, A.N.
1986-01-01
The influence of a magnetic field on the stability of Couette flow between rotating cylinders is investigated in the narrow gap approximation. The governing mechanism of the instability is the classical Taylor mechanism. It was shown that rotation of the outer cylinder in the same direction as the inner does not result in a qualitative change in the structure of the theshold perturbations. When the cylinders rotate in different directions in an ordinary fluid, the Taylor vortices develop in the domain of the gap between the inner cylinder and the fluid layer for which v 0 = 0
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilman, Peter A., E-mail: gilman@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)
2017-06-20
We present results from an MHD model for baroclinic instability in the solar tachocline that includes rotation, effective gravity, and toroidal field that vary continuously with height. We solve the perturbation equations using a shooting method. Without toroidal fields but with an effective gravity declining linearly from a maximum at the bottom to much smaller values at the top, we find instability at all latitudes except at the poles, at the equator, and where the vertical rotation gradient vanishes (32.°3) for longitude wavenumbers m from 1 to >10. High latitudes are much more unstable than low latitudes, but both have e -folding times that are much shorter than a sunspot cycle. The higher the m and the steeper the decline in effective gravity, the closer the unstable mode peak to the top boundary, where the energy available to drive instability is greatest. The effect of the toroidal field is always stabilizing, shrinking the latitude ranges of instability as the toroidal field is increased. The larger the toroidal field, the smaller the longitudinal wavenumber of the most unstable disturbance. All latitudes become stable for a toroidal field exceeding about 4 kG. The results imply that baroclinic instability should occur in the tachocline at latitudes where the toroidal field is weak or is changing sign, but not where the field is strong.
Super-Gaussian transport theory and the field-generating thermal instability in laser–plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bissell, J J; Ridgers, C P; Kingham, R J
2013-01-01
Inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) heating is known to distort the electron distribution function in laser–plasmas from a Gaussian towards a super-Gaussian, thereby modifying the equations of classical transport theory (Ridgers et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 092311). Here we explore these modified equations, demonstrating that super-Gaussian effects both suppress traditional transport processes, while simultaneously introducing new effects, such as isothermal (anomalous Nernst) magnetic field advection up gradients in the electron number density n e , which we associate with a novel heat-flow q n ∝∇n e . Suppression of classical phenomena is shown to be most pronounced in the limit of low Hall-parameter χ, in which case the Nernst effect is reduced by a factor of five, the ∇T e × ∇n e field generation mechanism by ∼30% (where T e is the electron temperature), and the diffusive and Righi–Leduc heat-flows by ∼80 and ∼90% respectively. The new isothermal field advection phenomenon and associated density-gradient driven heat-flux q n are checked against kinetic simulation using the Vlasov–Fokker–Planck code impact, and interpreted in relation to the underlying super-Gaussian distribution through simplified kinetic analysis. Given such strong inhibition of transport at low χ, we consider the impact of IB on the seeding and evolution of magnetic fields (in otherwise un-magnetized conditions) by examining the well-known field-generating thermal instability in the light of super-Gaussian transport theory (Tidman and Shanny 1974 Phys. Fluids 12 1207). Estimates based on conditions in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraum suggest that super-Gaussian effects can reduce the growth-rate of the instability by ≳80%. This result may be important for ICF experiments, since by increasing the strength of IB heating it would appear possible to inhibit the spontaneous generation of large magnetic fields. (paper)
Super-Gaussian transport theory and the field-generating thermal instability in laser-plasmas
Bissell, J. J.; Ridgers, C. P.; Kingham, R. J.
2013-02-01
Inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) heating is known to distort the electron distribution function in laser-plasmas from a Gaussian towards a super-Gaussian, thereby modifying the equations of classical transport theory (Ridgers et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 092311). Here we explore these modified equations, demonstrating that super-Gaussian effects both suppress traditional transport processes, while simultaneously introducing new effects, such as isothermal (anomalous Nernst) magnetic field advection up gradients in the electron number density ne, which we associate with a novel heat-flow qn∝∇ne. Suppression of classical phenomena is shown to be most pronounced in the limit of low Hall-parameter χ, in which case the Nernst effect is reduced by a factor of five, the ∇Te × ∇ne field generation mechanism by ˜30% (where Te is the electron temperature), and the diffusive and Righi-Leduc heat-flows by ˜80 and ˜90% respectively. The new isothermal field advection phenomenon and associated density-gradient driven heat-flux qn are checked against kinetic simulation using the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code impact, and interpreted in relation to the underlying super-Gaussian distribution through simplified kinetic analysis. Given such strong inhibition of transport at low χ, we consider the impact of IB on the seeding and evolution of magnetic fields (in otherwise un-magnetized conditions) by examining the well-known field-generating thermal instability in the light of super-Gaussian transport theory (Tidman and Shanny 1974 Phys. Fluids 12 1207). Estimates based on conditions in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraum suggest that super-Gaussian effects can reduce the growth-rate of the instability by ≳80%. This result may be important for ICF experiments, since by increasing the strength of IB heating it would appear possible to inhibit the spontaneous generation of large magnetic fields.
Quantized normal matrices: some exact results and collective field formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feinberg, Joshua
2005-01-01
We formulate and study a class of U(N)-invariant quantum mechanical models of large normal matrices with arbitrary rotation-invariant matrix potentials. We concentrate on the U(N) singlet sector of these models. In the particular case of quadratic matrix potential, the singlet sector can be mapped by a similarity transformation onto the two-dimensional Calogero-Marchioro-Sutherland model at specific couplings. For this quadratic case we were able to solve the N-body Schrodinger equation and obtain infinite sets of singlet eigenstates of the matrix model with given total angular momentum. Our main object in this paper is to study the singlet sector in the collective field formalism, in the large-N limit. We obtain in this framework the ground state eigenvalue distribution and ground state energy for an arbitrary potential, and outline briefly the way to compute bona-fide quantum phase transitions in this class of models. As explicit examples, we analyze the models with quadratic and quartic potentials. In the quartic case, we also touch upon the disk-annulus quantum phase transition. In order to make our presentation self-contained, we also discuss, in a manner which is somewhat complementary to standard expositions, the theory of point canonical transformations in quantum mechanics for systems whose configuration space is endowed with non-Euclidean metric, which is the basis for constructing the collective field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Weiling; Peduto, Anthony J.; Aguiar, Rodrigo O.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L.
2007-01-01
To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross anatomic appearance of the scaphocapitate (SC) ligament and triquetrohamocapitate (THC) ligament, which are the radial and ulnar limbs of the composite arcuate ligament, a critical volar midcarpal stabilizing ligament. T1 spin-echo and 3D gradient-echo MR imaging in the standard, coronal oblique, and axial oblique planes were performed both before and following midcarpal arthrography in seven cadaveric wrists. The seven specimens were then sectioned in selected planes to optimally visualize the SC and THC ligaments. These specimens were analyzed and correlated with their corresponding MR images. The SC and THC ligaments can be visualized in MR images as structures of low signal intensity that form an inverted ''V'' joining the proximal and distal carpal rows. The entire ligamentous complex is best visualized with coronal and axial oblique MR imaging but can also be seen in standard imaging planes. SC and THC ligaments together form the arcuate ligament of the wrist. Their function is crucial to the normal functioning of the wrist. Palmar midcarpal instability (PMCI) is a resulting condition when abnormalities of these ligaments occur. Dedicated MR imaging in the coronal and axial imaging planes can be performed in patients suspected of having PCMI. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Weiling [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Sharp-Grossmont Hospital, Department of Radiology, La Mesa, CA (United States); Peduto, Anthony J. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Westmead Hospital and Western Clinical School of Sydney University, Department of Radiology, Sydney (Australia); Aguiar, Rodrigo O.C. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janerio (Brazil); Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)
2007-07-15
To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross anatomic appearance of the scaphocapitate (SC) ligament and triquetrohamocapitate (THC) ligament, which are the radial and ulnar limbs of the composite arcuate ligament, a critical volar midcarpal stabilizing ligament. T1 spin-echo and 3D gradient-echo MR imaging in the standard, coronal oblique, and axial oblique planes were performed both before and following midcarpal arthrography in seven cadaveric wrists. The seven specimens were then sectioned in selected planes to optimally visualize the SC and THC ligaments. These specimens were analyzed and correlated with their corresponding MR images. The SC and THC ligaments can be visualized in MR images as structures of low signal intensity that form an inverted ''V'' joining the proximal and distal carpal rows. The entire ligamentous complex is best visualized with coronal and axial oblique MR imaging but can also be seen in standard imaging planes. SC and THC ligaments together form the arcuate ligament of the wrist. Their function is crucial to the normal functioning of the wrist. Palmar midcarpal instability (PMCI) is a resulting condition when abnormalities of these ligaments occur. Dedicated MR imaging in the coronal and axial imaging planes can be performed in patients suspected of having PCMI. (orig.)
Kreyer, Christiane; Pleschberger, Sabine
2014-10-01
Family caregivers play a key role in palliative home care for persons with advanced cancer. Although research has shown numerous burdens and strains of family caregiving, there is a lack of family-oriented support strategies in palliative home care. Little is known about family caregivers' self-management in this context so far. Qualitative research provides insight into families' perspectives of the transition to and management of palliative care at home and can be used as a starting point. The aim of the study was to increase knowledge of family caregivers' self-management in palliative home care by synthesizing evidence from qualitative research. Based on a systematic review of literature a meta-synthesis was conducted following the approach of Noblit and Hare (1988). A total of 13 qualitative studies from six countries, published from 2002 onward, formed the basis for an interpretative synthesis. Caring for a person with advanced cancer at the end of life at home is characterized by an instable transition process in which families are 'struggling for normal'. Six different family self-management strategies to deal with this were identified: acknowledging the transition, restructuring everyday life, maintaining balance in family relationships, taking responsibility for care, using social support, and acquiring caring-skills. Self-management strategies may provide a key for supporting family caregivers in palliative home care by focusing on resources and problem solving skills of families.
Kirichok, A. V.; Kuklin, V. M.; Pryimak, A. V.; Zagorodny, A. G.
2015-09-01
The development of one-dimensional parametric instabilities of intense long plasma waves is considered in terms of the so-called hybrid models, with electrons being treated as a fluid and ions being regarded as particles. The analysis is performed for both cases when the average plasma field energy is lower (Zakharov's hybrid model—ZHM) or greater (Silin's hybrid model—SHM) than the plasma thermal energy. The efficiency of energy transfer to ions and to ion perturbations under the development of the instability is considered for various values of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The energy of low-frequency oscillations (ion-sound waves) is found to be much lower than the final ion kinetic energy. We also discuss the influence of the changes in the damping rate of the high-frequency (HF) field on the instability development. The decrease of the absorption of the HF field inhibits the HF field burnout within plasma density cavities and gives rise to the broadening of the HF spectrum. At the same time, the ion velocity distribution tends to the normal distribution in both ZHM and SHM.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirichok, A. V., E-mail: sandyrcs@gmail.com; Kuklin, V. M.; Pryimak, A. V. [Institute for High Technologies, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4 Svobody Sq., Kharkiv 61022 (Ukraine); Zagorodny, A. G. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 14-b, Metrolohichna str., Kiev 03680 (Ukraine)
2015-09-15
The development of one-dimensional parametric instabilities of intense long plasma waves is considered in terms of the so-called hybrid models, with electrons being treated as a fluid and ions being regarded as particles. The analysis is performed for both cases when the average plasma field energy is lower (Zakharov's hybrid model—ZHM) or greater (Silin's hybrid model—SHM) than the plasma thermal energy. The efficiency of energy transfer to ions and to ion perturbations under the development of the instability is considered for various values of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The energy of low-frequency oscillations (ion-sound waves) is found to be much lower than the final ion kinetic energy. We also discuss the influence of the changes in the damping rate of the high-frequency (HF) field on the instability development. The decrease of the absorption of the HF field inhibits the HF field burnout within plasma density cavities and gives rise to the broadening of the HF spectrum. At the same time, the ion velocity distribution tends to the normal distribution in both ZHM and SHM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axisa, F.; Villard, B.; Antunes, J.
1989-01-01
During the last decade several researchers, investigated fluidelastic instability in tube arrays by restricting the problem to a single degree of freedom system. This is a very attractive idea because of obvious theoretical and experimental simplifications. Nevertheless, it has still to be clarified how far such results can be applied to fully flexible arrays. This paper is presenting a few experimental data obtained on a rigid normal square array subjected to uniform air-water cross flows, at various homogeneous void fractions α H from O to 1. Fluidelastic instability was clearly observed in air and in water. However instability was progressively vanishing in two-phase flow, when α H was increased. Such a result is contrasting with those obtained on fully flexible arrays
McMahon, Laura W.; Zhang, Pan; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Lefferts, Joel A.; Lambert, Muriel W.
2009-01-01
Nonerythroid α-spectrin (αIISp) is a structural protein involved in repair of DNA interstrand cross-links and is deficient in cells from patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), which are defective in ability to repair cross-links. In order to further demonstrate the importance of the role that αIISp plays in normal human cells and in the repair defect in FA, αIISp was knocked down in normal cells using siRNA. Depletion of αIISp in normal cells by siRNA resulted in chromosomal instability and cellu...
The effect of magnetic field on instabilities of heat transfer from an obstacle in a channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rashidi, S.; Esfahani, J.A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents forced convective heat transfer in a channel with a built-in square obstacle. The governing equations with the boundary conditions are solved using a finite volume method. The computations were done for a fixed blockage ratio (S=1/8) at Pr=0.71, and Reynolds (Re) and Stuart (N) numbers ranging from 1 to 250 and 0 to 10, respectively. The results are presented to show the effect of the channel walls and streamwise magnetic field at different Reynolds numbers on forced convection heat transfer from a square cylinder. A correlation is obtained for Nusselt number, in which the effect of a magnetic field is taken into account. The obtained results revealed that the existence of channel walls decreases the effects of magnetic field on Nusselt number. It also showed that by increasing Stuart number the thickness of thermal boundary layer increases and the convective heat transfer decreases. - Highlights: • The magnetic field is used to control the instabilities of heat transfer. • The thickness of thermal boundary layer increases by increasing Stuart number. • Unsteadiness in temperature field increases with increase in Reynolds number. • Time-averaged Nusselt number decreases with increase in Stuart number. • The Lorentz forces are much denser near the surface of the obstacle
Magnetization, Low Field Instability and Quench of RHQT Nb(3)Al Strands
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamada, R.; Wake, M.; Kikuchi, A.; Velev, V.; /Fermilab
2009-01-01
Since 2005, we made and tested three RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al strands, one with Nb matrix and two with Ta matrix, which are fully stabilized with Cu electroplating. We observed anomalously large magnetization curves extending beyond 1 to 1.5 Tesla with the F1 Nb matrix strand at 4.2 K, when we measured its magnetization with a balanced coil magnetometer. This problem was eliminated with the Ta matrix strands operating at 4.2 K. But with these strands a similar but smaller anomalous magnetization was observed at 1.9 K. We studied these phenomena with FEM. With the F1 Nb matrix strand, it is explained that at low external field, inter-filamentary coupling currents in the outer layers of sub-elements create a shielding effect. It reduces the inside field, keeps the inside Nb matrix superconductive, and stands against a higher outside field beyond the Hc of Nb. At an even higher external field, the superconductivity of the whole Nb matrix collapses and releases a large amount of energy, which may cause a big quench. Depending on the size of the energy in the strand or the cable, a magnet could quench, causing the low field instability. Some attempt to analyze the anomaly with FEM is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyanovsky, D.; Holman, R.; Hutasoit, Jimmy A.
2009-01-01
Motivated by slow-roll inflationary cosmology we study a scalar unparticle weakly coupled to a Higgs field in the broken symmetry phase. The mixing between the unparticle and the Higgs field results in a seesaw type matrix and the mixing angles feature a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect as a consequence of the unparticle field being noncanonical. We find two (MSW) resonances for small and large spacelike momenta. The unparticlelike mode features a nearly flat potential with spinodal instabilities and a large expectation value. An effective potential for the unparticlelike field is generated from the Higgs potential, but with couplings suppressed by a large power of the small seesaw ratio. The dispersion relation for the Higgs-like mode features an imaginary part even at ''tree level'' as a consequence of the fact that the unparticle field describes a multiparticle continuum. Mixed unparticle-Higgs propagators reveal the possibility of oscillations, albeit with short coherence lengths. The results are generalized to the case in which the unparticle features a mass gap, in which case a low energy MSW resonance may occur for lightlike momenta depending on the scales. Unparticle-Higgs mixing leads to an effective unparticle potential of the new-inflation form. Slow-roll variables are suppressed by seesaw ratios and the anomalous dimensions and favor a red spectrum of scalar perturbations consistent with cosmic microwave background data.
Boyanovsky, D.; Holman, R.; Hutasoit, Jimmy A.
2009-04-01
Motivated by slow-roll inflationary cosmology we study a scalar unparticle weakly coupled to a Higgs field in the broken symmetry phase. The mixing between the unparticle and the Higgs field results in a seesaw type matrix and the mixing angles feature a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect as a consequence of the unparticle field being noncanonical. We find two (MSW) resonances for small and large spacelike momenta. The unparticlelike mode features a nearly flat potential with spinodal instabilities and a large expectation value. An effective potential for the unparticlelike field is generated from the Higgs potential, but with couplings suppressed by a large power of the small seesaw ratio. The dispersion relation for the Higgs-like mode features an imaginary part even at “tree level” as a consequence of the fact that the unparticle field describes a multiparticle continuum. Mixed unparticle-Higgs propagators reveal the possibility of oscillations, albeit with short coherence lengths. The results are generalized to the case in which the unparticle features a mass gap, in which case a low energy MSW resonance may occur for lightlike momenta depending on the scales. Unparticle-Higgs mixing leads to an effective unparticle potential of the new-inflation form. Slow-roll variables are suppressed by seesaw ratios and the anomalous dimensions and favor a red spectrum of scalar perturbations consistent with cosmic microwave background data.
Yoon, Sung Hwan
2017-10-12
According to previous theory, pulsating propagation in a premixed flame only appears when the reduced Lewis number, β(Le-1), is larger than a critical value (Sivashinsky criterion: 4(1 +3) ≈ 11), where β represents the Zel\\'dovich number (for general premixed flames, β ≈ 10), which requires Lewis number Le > 2.1. However, few experimental observation have been reported because the critical reduced Lewis number for the onset of pulsating instability is beyond what can be reached in experiments. Furthermore, the coupling with the unavoidable hydrodynamic instability limits the observation of pure pulsating instabilities in flames. Here, we describe a novel method to observe the pulsating instability. We utilize a thermoacoustic field caused by interaction between heat release and acoustic pressure fluctuations of the downward-propagating premixed flames in a tube to enhance conductive heat loss at the tube wall and radiative heat loss at the open end of the tube due to extended flame residence time by diminished flame surface area, i.e., flat flame. The thermoacoustic field allowed pure observation of the pulsating motion since the primary acoustic force suppressed the intrinsic hydrodynamic instability resulting from thermal expansion. By employing this method, we have provided new experimental observations of the pulsating instability for premixed flames. The Lewis number (i.e., Le ≈ 1.86) was less than the critical value suggested previously.
Profile relaxation and tilt instability in a field-reversed configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtani, H.; Horiuchi, R.; Sato, T.
2003-01-01
The profile relaxation from a magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) profile to a kinetic equilibrium in field-reversed configurations (FRCs) is investigated by two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation. The radial oscillation takes place in order to relax an excess energy in the MHD profile, and the system spontaneously relaxes toward a kinetic equilibrium. In this kinetic equilibrium, the hollow electron current profile is realized as a result of the combined effects of the single particle orbits and the ion finite Larmor radius, and the ion current profile becomes peaked due to the effect of the ion meandering motion. Three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle simulation is also performed to study the stability of these kinetic equilibrium against the tilt mode. The growth rate of the tilt instability is reduced by the kinetic effects. It is found that the stabilization effect of tilt mode becomes much distinct when the current density changes from the peaked profile to the hollow one. (author)
Profile relaxation and tilt instability in a field-reversed configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtani, H.; Horiuchi, R.; Sato, T.
2002-10-01
The profile relaxation from a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) profile to a kinetic equilibrium in field-reversed configurations (FRCs) is investigated by two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation. The radial oscillation takes place in order to relax an excess energy in the MHD profile, and the system spontaneously relaxes toward a kinetic equilibrium. In this kinetic equilibrium, the hollow electron current profile is realized as a result of the combined effects of the single particle orbits and the ion finite Larmor radius, and the ion current profile becomes peaked due to the effect of the ion meandering motion. Three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle simulation is also performed to study the stability of these kinetic equilibrium against the tilt mode. The growth rate of the tilt instability is reduced by the kinetic effects. It is found that the stabilization effect of tilt mode becomes much distinct when the current density changes from the peaked profile to the hollow one. (author)
Profile relaxation and tilt instability in a field-reversed configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtani, H.; Horiuchi, R.; Sato, T.
2002-01-01
The profile relaxation from a magnetichydrodynamic (MHD) profile to a kinetic equilibrium in field-reversed configurations (FRCs) in investigated by two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation. The radial oscillation takes place in order to relax an excess energy in the MHD profile, and the system spontaneously relaxes toward a kinetic equilibrium. In this kinetic equilibrium, the hollow electron current profile is realized as a result of the combined effects of the single particle orbits and the ion finite Larmor radius, and the ion current profile becomes peaked due to the effect of the ion meandering motion. Three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle simulations is also performed to study the stability of these kinetic equilibrium against the tilt mode. The growth rate of the tilt instability is reduced by the kinetic is effects. It is found that the stabilization effect of tilt mode becomes much distinct when the current density changes from the peaked profile to the hollow one. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogasawara, Masatada; Takita, Masami.
1981-08-01
Spontaneous magnetic fields due to the temperature gradient nabla T 0 produced by a focussed laser beam on one point of a pellet are taken into account in deriving the dispersion relation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Growth rate γ decreases with time. Density fluctuation with wavelength shorter than 1.5(R/L sub(T)) x (n sub(s)/n 0 )sup(1/2) μm is remarkably stabilized, where R, L sub(T), n sub(s) and n 0 are the radius of a pellet, L sub(T)sup(-1) = + nabla T 0 /T 0 + , number densities of solid and the pellet. Validity condition of the theory is γt 0 >> 1 or in another form R >> L, where t 0 is the time of thermal expansion of a pellet and L -1 = + nabla n 0 /n 0 + . (author)
Active feedback stabilization of the flute instability in a mirror machine using field-aligned coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lifshitz, A.; Be'ery, I.; Fisher, A.; Ron, A.; Fruchtman, A.
2012-01-01
A plasma confined in linear mirror machines is unstable even at low β, mainly because of the flute instability. One possible way to stabilize the plasma is to use active feedback to correct the plasma shape in real time. The theoretically investigated apparatus consists of feedback coils aligned with the magnetic field, immersed in a cold plasma around the hot core. When the current through the feedback coils changes, the plasma moves to conserve the magnetic flux via compressional Alfvén waves. An analytical model is used to find a robust feedback algorithm with zero residual currents. It is shown that due to the plasma's rotation, maximal stability is obtained with a large phase angle between the perturbations' modes and the feedback integral-like term. Finally, a two-dimensional MHD simulation implementing the above algorithm in fact shows stabilization of the plasma with zero residual currents. (paper)
Plasma-column instabilities in a reversed-field pinch without a shell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmid, P.G.
1988-01-01
Plasma column instabilities in a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) without a shell were investigated in the Colorado Reversatron RFP. The Reversatron RFP (aspect ration R/a = 50 cm/8cm) is a toroidal plasma containment device consisting of a vacuum chamber, a thick conducting shell, modular shells, magnetic field producing coils and diagnostics to characterize the plasma. RFP discharges were set up in the Reversatron in three different experimental configurations: with a thick conducting shell, with a modular shell and with no shell. In two of the configurations, a shell enclosed the plasma column to provide some plasma stability. A vertical magnetic field provided equilibrium in experiments without a shell. Data from discharges without a shell indicated that the plasma duration was greatly reduced and the plasma resistance increased compared to the discharges with a thick shell. Plasma position probes indicated large plasma centriod displacements corresponding to a n = 1 and a n = 3 kink coincident with the peak of the plasma current and the start of a discharge termination phase. The modular shell lengthened the discharge duration and lowered the plasma resistance to values intermediate between the plasma with a thick shell and the plasma with no shell. The modular shell suppressed the large plasma column displacements observed in the RFP plasma without a shell.
Plasma-column instabilities in a reversed-field pinch without a shell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmid, P.G.
1988-01-01
Plasma column instabilities in a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) without a shell were investigated in the Colorado Reversatron RFP. The Reversatron RFP (aspect ration R/a = 50 cm/8cm) is a toroidal plasma containment device consisting of a vacuum chamber, a thick conducting shell, modular shells, magnetic field producing coils and diagnostics to characterize the plasma. RFP discharges were set up in the Reversatron in three different experimental configurations: with a thick conducting shell, with a modular shell and with no shell. In two of the configurations, a shell enclosed the plasma column to provide some plasma stability. A vertical magnetic field provided equilibrium in experiments without a shell. Data from discharges without a shell indicated that the plasma duration was greatly reduced and the plasma resistance increased compared to the discharges with a thick shell. Plasma position probes indicated large plasma centriod displacements corresponding to a n = 1 and a n = 3 kink coincident with the peak of the plasma current and the start of a discharge termination phase. The modular shell lengthened the discharge duration and lowered the plasma resistance to values intermediate between the plasma with a thick shell and the plasma with no shell. The modular shell suppressed the large plasma column displacements observed in the RFP plasma without a shell
Jung, Haesun; Choi, Sungju; Jang, Jun Tae; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Lee, Yongwoo; Rhee, Jihyun; Ahn, Geumho; Yu, Hye Ri; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Kim, Dae Hwan
2018-02-01
We propose a universal model for bias-stress (BS)-induced instability in the inkjet-printed carbon nanotube (CNT) networks used in field-effect transistors (FETs). By combining two experimental methods, i.e., a comparison between air and vacuum BS tests and interface trap extraction, BS instability is explained regardless of either the BS polarity or ambient condition, using a single platform constituted by four key factors: OH- adsorption/desorption followed by a change in carrier concentration, electron concentration in CNT channel corroborated with H2O/O2 molecules in ambient, charge trapping/detrapping, and interface trap generation. Under negative BS (NBS), the negative threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) is dominated by OH- desorption, which is followed by hole trapping in the interface and/or gate insulator. Under positive BS (PBS), the positive ΔVT is dominated by OH- adsorption, which is followed by electron trapping in the interface and/or gate insulator. This instability is compensated by interface trap extraction; PBS instability is slightly more complicated than NBS instability. Furthermore, our model is verified using device simulation, which gives insights on how much each mechanism contributes to BS instability. Our result is potentially useful for the design of highly stable CNT-based flexible circuits in the Internet of Things wearable healthcare era.
Instability in an amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O field effect transistor upon water exposure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Bhupendra K; Ahn, Jong-Hyun
2016-01-01
The instability of an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) field effect transistor is investigated upon water treatment. Electrical characteristics are measured before, immediately after and a few days after water treatment in ambient as well as in vacuum conditions. It is observed that after a few days of water exposure an IGZO field effect transistor (FET) shows relatively more stable behaviour as compared to before exposure. Transfer characteristics are found to shift negatively after immediate water exposure and in vacuum. More interestingly, after water exposure the off current is found to decrease by 1–2 orders of magnitude and remains stable even after 15 d of water exposure in ambient as well as in vacuum, whereas the on current more or less remains the same. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study is carried out to investigate the qualitative and quantitative analysis of IGZO upon water exposure. The changes in the FET parameters are evaluated and attributed to the formation of excess oxygen vacancies and changes in the electronic structure of the IGZO bulk channel and at the IGZO/SiO 2 interface, which can further lead to the formation of subgap states. An attempt is made to distinguish which parameters of the FET are affected by the changes in the electronic structure of the IGZO bulk channel and at the IGZO/SiO 2 interface separately. (paper)
The Onset of Magnetic Reconnection: Tearing Instability in Current Sheets with a Guide Field
Daldorff, L. K. S.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Knizhnik, K. J.
2016-12-01
Magnetic reconnection is fundamental to many solar phenomena, ranging from coronal heating, to jets, to flares and CMEs. A poorly understood yet crucial aspect of reconnection is that it does not occur until magnetic stresses have built to sufficiently high levels for significant energy release. If reconnection were to happen too soon, coronal heating would be weak and flares would be small. As part of our program to study the onset conditions for magnetic reconnection, we have investigated the instability of current sheets to tearing. Surprisingly little work has been done on this problem for sheets that include a guide field, i.e., for which the field rotates by less than 180 degrees. This is the most common situation on the Sun. We present numerical 3D resistive MHD simulations of several sheets and show how the behaviour depends on the shear angle (rotation). We compare our results to the predictions of linear theory and discuss the nonlinear evolution in terms of plasmoid formation and the interaction of different oblique tearing modes. The relevance to the Sun is explained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wrobel, P.; Jacak, L.
1988-01-01
It is shown theoretically that the superconducting transition in the framework of RVB mean field treatment in nearly half-filled band Hubbard model is substantially influenced by spin density wave instability. The reasonable SDW and SC ordering phase diagram for doped La 2 CuO 4 compounds is found
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wijffels, Mathieu; Krijnen, Pieta; Schipper, Inger [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Surgery-Trauma Surgery, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Stomp, Wouter; Reijnierse, Monique [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands)
2016-11-15
The diagnosis of distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability is clinically challenging. Computed tomography (CT) may aid in the diagnosis, but the reliability and normal variation for DRUJ translation on CT have not been established in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate inter- and intraobserver agreement and normal ranges of CT scoring methods for determination of DRUJ translation in both posttraumatic and uninjured wrists. Patients with a conservatively treated, unilateral distal radius fracture were included. CT scans of both wrists were evaluated independently, by two readers using the radioulnar line method, subluxation ratio method, epicenter method and radioulnar ratio method. The inter- and intraobserver agreement was assessed and normal values were determined based on the uninjured wrists. Ninety-two wrist CTs (mean age: 56.5 years, SD: 17.0, mean follow-up 4.2 years, SD: 0.5) were evaluated. Interobserver agreement was best for the epicenter method [ICC = 0.73, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.79]. Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect for the radioulnar line method (ICC = 0.82, 95 % CI 0.77-0.87). Each method showed a wide normal range for normal DRUJ translation. Normal range for the epicenter method is -0.35 to -0.06 in pronation and -0.11 to 0.19 in supination. DRUJ translation on CT in pro- and supination can be reliably evaluated in both normal and posttraumatic wrists, however with large normal variation. The epicenter method seems the most reliable. Scanning of both wrists might be helpful to prevent the radiological overdiagnosis of instability. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McMahon, Laura W.; Zhang Pan; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Lefferts, Joel A.; Lambert, Muriel W.
2009-01-01
Nonerythroid α-spectrin (αIISp) is a structural protein involved in repair of DNA interstrand cross-links and is deficient in cells from patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), which are defective in ability to repair cross-links. In order to further demonstrate the importance of the role that αIISp plays in normal human cells and in the repair defect in FA, αIISp was knocked down in normal cells using siRNA. Depletion of αIISp in normal cells by siRNA resulted in chromosomal instability and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-linking agents. An increased number of chromosomal aberrations were observed and, following treatment with a DNA interstrand cross-linking agent, mitomycin C, cells showed decreased cell growth and survival and decreased formation of damage-induced αIISp and XPF nuclear foci. Thus depletion of αIISp in normal cells leads to a number of defects observed in FA cells, such as chromosome instability and a deficiency in cross-link repair.
Self-field instabilities in high-$J_{c}$ Nb$_{3}$Sn strands the effect of copper RRR
Bordini, B
2009-01-01
High critical current density (Jc) Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor is the best candidate for next generation high field (> 10 T) accelerator magnets. Although very promising, state of the art high-Jc Nb$_{3}$Sn strands suffer of magneto-thermal instabilities that can severely limit the strand performance. Recently it has been shown that at 1.9 K the self field instability is the dominating mechanism that limits the performance of strands with a low (<10) Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the stabilizing copper. At CERN several state of the art high–Jc Nb$_{3}$Sn wires have been tested at 4.2 K and 1.9 K to study the effects on strand self-field instability of: RRR and strand impregnation with stycast. To study the effect of the RRR value on magneto-thermal instabilities, a new 2-D finite element model was also developed at CERN. This model simulates the whole development of the flux jump in the strand cross section also taking into account the heat and current diffusion in the stabilizing copper. In this paper th...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milic, B.S.; Gajic, D.Z.
1994-01-01
Quasi-perpendicular electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (QPEMIC) modes and instabilities are studied, on the ground of linear theory of perturbations and kinetic equations with BGK collision integrals, in weakly ionized, low-β and moderately non-isothermal plasmas placed in non-parallel electric and magnetic fields. The magnetization is assumed to be sufficiently high to cut off the perpendicular steady-state current. Special attention is given to evaluation of magnitudes of the threshold drifts required for the onset of instabilities. It is found that these drifts are smaller than those for the corresponding quasi-perpendicular electrostatic ion-cyclotron (QPESIC) instabilities studied previously for the same type of plasmas. Both QPEMIC and QPESIC threshold drifts exhibit the same behavioural pattern if the order of harmonic, magnetization, non-isothermality or the angle between the fields are varied. An increase of the angle between the fields lowers the threshold drifts, which means that the presence of u perpendicular to (or E perpendicular to ) facilitates the excitation of both QPEMIC and QPESIC instabilities. The QPEMIC threshold drifts are found to depend on the overall gas pressure, and to decrease as the pressure is lowered, which is a feature not found in the QPESIC case. The discrepancies between the QPEMIC and QPESIC threshold drifts increase if the pressure decreases, or if magnetization, degree of ionization or ion charge number increase. (orig.)
Yu, Fengyi; Wei, Yanhong
2018-05-01
The effects of surface tension anisotropy and welding parameters on initial instability dynamics during gas tungsten arc welding of an Al-alloy are investigated by a quantitative phase-field model. The results show that the surface tension anisotropy and welding parameters affect the initial instability dynamics in different ways during welding. The surface tension anisotropy does not influence the solute diffusion process but does affect the stability of the solid/liquid interface during solidification. The welding parameters affect the initial instability dynamics by varying the growth rate and thermal gradient. The incubation time decreases, and the initial wavelength remains stable as the welding speed increases. When welding power increases, the incubation time increases and the initial wavelength slightly increases. Experiments were performed for the same set of welding parameters used in modeling, and the results of the experiments and simulations were in good agreement.
Ribal, A.; Stiassnie, M.; Babanin, A.; Young, I.
2012-04-01
The instability of two-dimensional wave-fields and its subsequent evolution in time are studied by means of the Alber equation for narrow-banded random surface-waves in deep water subject to inhomogeneous disturbances. A linear partial differential equation (PDE) is obtained after applying an inhomogeneous disturbance to the Alber's equation and based on the solution of this PDE, the instability of the ocean wave surface is studied for a JONSWAP spectrum, which is a realistic ocean spectrum with variable directional spreading and steepness. The steepness of the JONSWAP spectrum depends on γ and α which are the peak-enhancement factor and energy scale of the spectrum respectively and it is found that instability depends on the directional spreading, α and γ. Specifically, if the instability stops due to the directional spreading, increase of the steepness by increasing α or γ can reactivate it. This result is in qualitative agreement with the recent large-scale experiment and new theoretical results. In the instability area of α-γ plane, a long-time evolution has been simulated by integrating Alber's equation numerically and recurrent evolution is obtained which is the stochastic counterpart of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence obtained for the cubic Schrödinger equation.
The effect of tangled magnetic fields on instabilities in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thornton, A J; Kirk, A; Harrison, J R; Chapman, I T; Cahyna, P; Nardon, E
2014-01-01
The high pressure gradients in the edge of a tokamak plasma can lead to the formation of explosive plasma instabilities known as edge localised modes (ELMs). The control of ELMs is an important requirement for the next generation of fusion devices such as ITER. Experiments performed on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham have shown that the application of non-axisymetric resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can be used to mitigate ELMs. During the application of the RMPs, clear structures are observed in visible- light imaging of the X-point region. These lobes, or tangles, have been observed for the first time and their appearance is correlated with the mitigation of ELMs. Tangle formation is seen to be associated with the RMPs penetrating the plasma and may be important in explaining why the ELM frequency increases during ELM mitigation. Whilst the number and location of the tangles can be explained by vacuum magnetic field modelling, obtaining the correct radial extent of the tangles requires the plasma response to be taken into account
Microbunching instability in a chicane: Two-dimensional mean field treatment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriele Bassi
2009-08-01
Full Text Available We study the microbunching instability in a bunch compressor by a parallel code with some improved numerical algorithms. The two-dimensional charge/current distribution is represented by a Fourier series, with coefficients determined through Monte Carlo sampling over an ensemble of tracked points. This gives a globally smooth distribution with low noise. The field equations are solved accurately in the lab frame using retarded potentials and a novel choice of integration variables that eliminates singularities. We apply the scheme with parameters for the first bunch compressor system of FERMI@Elettra, with emphasis on the amplification of a perturbation at a particular wavelength and the associated longitudinal bunch spectrum. Gain curves are in rough agreement with those of the linearized Vlasov system at intermediate wavelengths, but show some deviation at the smallest wavelengths treated and show the breakdown of a coasting beam assumption at long wavelengths. The linearized Vlasov system is discussed in some detail. A new 2D integral equation is derived which reduces to a well-known 1D integral equation in the coasting beam case.
Ghost instabilities of cosmological models with vector fields nonminimally coupled to the curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Himmetoglu, Burak; Peloso, Marco; Contaldi, Carlo R.
2009-01-01
We prove that many cosmological models characterized by vectors nonminimally coupled to the curvature (such as the Turner-Widrow mechanism for the production of magnetic fields during inflation, and models of vector inflation or vector curvaton) contain ghosts. The ghosts are associated with the longitudinal vector polarization present in these models and are found from studying the sign of the eigenvalues of the kinetic matrix for the physical perturbations. Ghosts introduce two main problems: (1) they make the theories ill defined at the quantum level in the high energy/subhorizon regime (and create serious problems for finding a well-behaved UV completion), and (2) they create an instability already at the linearized level. This happens because the eigenvalue corresponding to the ghost crosses zero during the cosmological evolution. At this point the linearized equations for the perturbations become singular (we show that this happens for all the models mentioned above). We explicitly solve the equations in the simplest cases of a vector without a vacuum expectation value in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry, and of a vector with a vacuum expectation value plus a cosmological constant, and we show that indeed the solutions of the linearized equations diverge when these equations become singular.
Energetic-particle-driven instabilities and induced fast-ion transport in a reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J.; Sarff, J. S.; Liu, D.
2014-01-01
Multiple bursty energetic-particle (EP) driven modes with fishbone-like structure are observed during 1 MW tangential neutral-beam injection in a reversed field pinch (RFP) device. The distinguishing features of the RFP, including large magnetic shear (tending to add stability) and weak toroidal magnetic field (leading to stronger drive), provide a complementary environment to tokamak and stellarator configurations for exploring basic understanding of EP instabilities. Detailed measurements of the EP mode characteristics and temporal-spatial dynamics reveal their influence on fast ion transport. Density fluctuations exhibit a dynamically evolving, inboard-outboard asymmetric spatial structure that peaks in the core where fast ions reside. The measured mode frequencies are close to the computed shear Alfvén frequency, a feature consistent with continuum modes destabilized by strong drive. The frequency pattern of the dominant mode depends on the fast-ion species. Multiple frequencies occur with deuterium fast ions compared to single frequency for hydrogen fast ions. Furthermore, as the safety factor (q) decreases, the toroidal mode number of the dominant EP mode transits from n=5 to n=6 while retaining the same poloidal mode number m=1. The transition occurs when the m=1, n=5 wave-particle resonance condition cannot be satisfied as the fast-ion safety factor (q fi ) decreases. The fast-ion temporal dynamics, measured by a neutral particle analyzer, resemble a classical predator-prey relaxation oscillation. It contains a slow-growth phase arising from the beam fueling followed by a rapid drop when the EP modes peak, indicating that the fluctuation-induced transport maintains a stiff fast-ion density profile. The inferred transport rate is strongly enhanced with the onset of multiple EP modes
Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K
2011-01-01
Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-β3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers α-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047
Study of the internal structure, instabilities, and magnetic fields in the dense Z-pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ivanov, Vladimir V. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)
2016-08-17
Z-pinches are sources of hot dense plasma which generates powerful x-ray bursts and can been applied to various areas of high-energy-density physics (HEDP). The 26-MA Z machine is at the forefront of many of these applications, but important aspects of HEDP have been studied on generators at the 1 MA current level. Recent development of laser diagnostics and upgrade of the Leopard laser at Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) give new opportunities for the dense Z-pinch study. The goal of this project is the investigation of the internal structure of the stagnated Z pinch including sub-mm and micron-scale instabilities, plasma dynamics, magnetic fields, and hot spots formation and initiation. New plasma diagnostics will be developed for this project. A 3D structure and instabilities of the pinch will be compared with 3D MHD and spectroscopic modeling and theoretical analysis. The structure and dynamics of stagnated Z pinches has been studied with x-ray self-radiation diagnostics which derive a temperature map of the pinch with a spatial resolution of 70-150 µm. The regular laser diagnostics at 532 nm does not penetrate in the dense pinch due to strong absorption and refraction in trailing plasma. Recent experiments at NTF showed that shadowgraphy at the UV wavelength of 266 nm unfolds a fine structure of the stagnated Z-pinch with unprecedented detail. We propose to develop laser UV diagnostics for Z pinches with a spatial resolution <5 μm to study the small-scale plasma structures, implement two-frame shadowgraphy/interferometry, and develop methods for investigation of strong magnetic fields. New diagnostics will help to understand better basic physical processes in Z pinches. A 3D internal structure of the pinch and characteristic instabilities will be studied in wire arrays with different configurations and compared with 3D MHD simulations and analytical models. Mechanisms of “enhanced heating” of Z-pinch plasma will be studied. Fast dynamics of stagnated
Study of the internal structure, instabilities, and magnetic fields in the dense Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, Vladimir V.
2016-01-01
Z-pinches are sources of hot dense plasma which generates powerful x-ray bursts and can been applied to various areas of high-energy-density physics (HEDP). The 26-MA Z machine is at the forefront of many of these applications, but important aspects of HEDP have been studied on generators at the 1 MA current level. Recent development of laser diagnostics and upgrade of the Leopard laser at Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) give new opportunities for the dense Z-pinch study. The goal of this project is the investigation of the internal structure of the stagnated Z pinch including sub-mm and micron-scale instabilities, plasma dynamics, magnetic fields, and hot spots formation and initiation. New plasma diagnostics will be developed for this project. A 3D structure and instabilities of the pinch will be compared with 3D MHD and spectroscopic modeling and theoretical analysis. The structure and dynamics of stagnated Z pinches has been studied with x-ray self-radiation diagnostics which derive a temperature map of the pinch with a spatial resolution of 70-150 µm. The regular laser diagnostics at 532 nm does not penetrate in the dense pinch due to strong absorption and refraction in trailing plasma. Recent experiments at NTF showed that shadowgraphy at the UV wavelength of 266 nm unfolds a fine structure of the stagnated Z-pinch with unprecedented detail. We propose to develop laser UV diagnostics for Z pinches with a spatial resolution 20 MG, suggested in micropinches, Cotton-Mouton and cutoff diagnostics will be applied. A picosecond optical Kerr shutter will be tested to increase a sensitivity of UV methods for application at multi-MA Z pinches. The proposal is based on the experimental capability of NTF. The Zebra generator produces 1-1.7 MA Z-pinches with electron plasma density of 10"2"0-10"2"1cm"-"3, electron temperature of 0.5-1 keV, and magnetic fields >10 MG. The Leopard laser was upgraded to energy of 90-J at 0.8 ns. This regime will be used for laser initiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bashtovoi, V., E-mail: bashv@rambler.ru [Belarussian National Technical University, 65 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Reks, A. [Belarussian National Technical University, 65 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Baev, A. [Institute of Applied Physics of NAS of Belarus, 16 Akademicheskaya str., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Mansoor, Al-Jhaish Taha Malik [Belarussian National Technical University, 65 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220013 (Belarus)
2017-06-01
Theoretical and experimental results on deformation and disintegration on parts (topological instability) of semi-bounded magnetic fluid drop placed on horizontal plate in the presence of gravity and vertical external uniform magnetic field, and the influence of acoustic wave on these processes, as well as an experimental results of acoustic fountain on free surface of magnetic fluid are presented. The role of individual mechanisms leading to disintegration is analyzed, and analytical relationships and experimental dependences for critical parameters are established.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalashnikov, V.K.; Sanochkin, Y.V.
1982-01-01
The stability of a discharge with a closed Hall-current circuit and a distributed electric field is analyzed with respect to long-wave, low-frequency perturbations propagating in the electric drift direction (''low-frequency'' here is with respect to the ion transit time). The analysis is carried out in the linear theory. A dispersion relation derived in the first approximation of the Bubnov--Galerkin method is analyzed numerically. The instability which is found requires a threshold to be attained, which occurs when the neutral density exceeds a certain critical value. An increase in the magnetic field, in contrast, has a stabilizing effect. The instability is oscillatory and develops over wavelengths lying in a finite interval which depends on the dimensions of the device, the magnetic field, and the gas pressure. The wave phase velocity is of order √V/sub i//M, where V/sub i/ is the ionization potential and M is the ion mass. The calculated oscillation frequencies and propagation velocities for the perturbations agree satisfactorily with experimental data. The wave structure is analyzed, and the nature of the instability is determined. Perturbations with an elevated plasma density move in the electric drift direction and correspond to an ionization wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avara, Mark J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Bogdanović, Tamara
2013-01-01
The role played by magnetic fields in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters is complex. The weakly collisional nature of the ICM leads to thermal conduction that is channeled along field lines. This anisotropic heat conduction profoundly changes the instabilities of the ICM atmosphere, with convective stabilities being driven by temperature gradients of either sign. Here, we employ the Athena magnetohydrodynamic code to investigate the local non-linear behavior of the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI) relevant in the cores of cooling-core clusters where the temperature increases with radius. We study a grid of two-dimensional simulations that span a large range of initial magnetic field strengths and numerical resolutions. For very weak initial fields, we recover the previously known result that the HBI wraps the field in the horizontal direction, thereby shutting off the heat flux. However, we find that simulations that begin with intermediate initial field strengths have a qualitatively different behavior, forming HBI-stable filaments that resist field-line wrapping and enable sustained vertical conductive heat flux at a level of 10%-25% of the Spitzer value. While astrophysical conclusions regarding the role of conduction in cooling cores require detailed global models, our local study proves that systems dominated by the HBI do not necessarily quench the conductive heat flux
The retest distribution of the visual field summary index mean deviation is close to normal.
Anderson, Andrew J; Cheng, Allan C Y; Lau, Samantha; Le-Pham, Anne; Liu, Victor; Rahman, Farahnaz
2016-09-01
When modelling optimum strategies for how best to determine visual field progression in glaucoma, it is commonly assumed that the summary index mean deviation (MD) is normally distributed on repeated testing. Here we tested whether this assumption is correct. We obtained 42 reliable 24-2 Humphrey Field Analyzer SITA standard visual fields from one eye of each of five healthy young observers, with the first two fields excluded from analysis. Previous work has shown that although MD variability is higher in glaucoma, the shape of the MD distribution is similar to that found in normal visual fields. A Shapiro-Wilks test determined any deviation from normality. Kurtosis values for the distributions were also calculated. Data from each observer passed the Shapiro-Wilks normality test. Bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals for kurtosis encompassed the value for a normal distribution in four of five observers. When examined with quantile-quantile plots, distributions were close to normal and showed no consistent deviations across observers. The retest distribution of MD is not significantly different from normal in healthy observers, and so is likely also normally distributed - or nearly so - in those with glaucoma. Our results increase our confidence in the results of influential modelling studies where a normal distribution for MD was assumed. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. B. Cosgrove
2007-07-01
Full Text Available The generic equilibrium configuration of the nighttime midlatitude ionosphere consists of an F layer held up against gravity by winds and/or electric fields, and a sporadic E (Es layer located by a sheared wind field, which experiences the same electric fields as the F layer. This configuration is subject to two large-scale (e.g. >10 km "layer instabilities": one of the F layer known as the Perkins instability, and another of the Es layer which has been called the Es layer instability. Electric fields on scales larger than (about 10 km map very efficiently between the Es and F layers, and the two instabilities have a similar geometry, allowing them to interact with one another. As shown through a linear growth rate analysis, the two most important parameters governing the interaction are the relative horizontal velocity between the Es and F layers, and the integrated conductivity ratio ΣH/ΣPF, where ΣH and ΣPF are the field line integrated Hall conductivity of the Es layer, and the field line integrated Pedersen conductivity of the F layer, respectively. For both large and small relative velocities the growth rate was found to be more than double that of the Perkins instability alone, when ΣHΣPF=1.8. However, the characteristic eigenmode varies considerably with relative velocity, and different nonlinear behavior is expected in these two cases. As a follow up to the linear growth rate analysis, we explore in this article the nonlinear evolution of the unstable coupled system subject to a 200 km wavelength initial perturbation of the F layer, using a two-dimensional numerical solution of the two-fluid equations, as a function of relative horizontal velocity and ΣHΣPF. We find that when ΣHΣPF⪝0.5 the Perkins instability is able to control the dynamics and modulate the F layer altitude in 2 to 3 h time. However, the electric fields remain small until the altitude modulation is extremely large, and even then they are not large enough to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levy, Y.
2012-01-01
In the context of inertial confinement fusion we investigate effects of magnetic fields on the development in the linear regime of two hydrodynamic instabilities: Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using ideal magnetohydrodynamics and ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in both acceleration and deceleration stages. Direct numerical simulations with a linear perturbation code enable us to confirm the stabilizing effect of the component of the magnetic field along the perturbations wave vector. The amplitude doesn't grow linearly in time but experiences oscillations instead. The compressibility taken into account in the code does not affect predictions given by an already existing impulsive and incompressible model. As far as Rayleigh-Taylor instability is concerned we study the effects of self-generated magnetic fields that arise from the development of the instability itself. In the acceleration stage we perform two dimensional simulations in planar geometry. We show that magnetic fields of about 1 T can be generated and that the instability growth transits more rapidly into nonlinear growth with the enhancement of the development of the third harmonic. We also propose an adaptation of an existing model that aims at studying thermal conductivity anisotropy effects, to take into account the effects of the self-generated magnetic fields on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate. Finally, in the deceleration stage, we perform two dimensional simulations in cylindrical geometry that take into account self-generation of magnetic fields due to the instability development. It reveals magnetic fields of about several thousands of Teslas that are not strong enough though to affect the instability behavior. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuritsyn, A.; Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A. F.; Miller, M. C.; Mirnov, V. V.; Prager, S. C.; Sarff, J. S.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.
2009-01-01
In this paper measurements of momentum and current transport caused by current driven tearing instability are reported. The measurements are done in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch [R. N. Dexter, D. W. Kerst, T. W. Lovell, S. C. Prager, and J. C. Sprott, Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] in a regime with repetitive bursts of tearing instability causing magnetic field reconnection. It is established that the plasma parallel momentum profile flattens during these reconnection events: The flow decreases in the core and increases at the edge. The momentum relaxation phenomenon is similar in nature to the well established relaxation of the parallel electrical current and could be a general feature of self-organized systems. The measured fluctuation-induced Maxwell and Reynolds stresses, which govern the dynamics of plasma flow, are large and almost balance each other such that their difference is approximately equal to the rate of change of plasma momentum. The Hall dynamo, which is directly related to the Maxwell stress, drives the parallel current profile relaxation at resonant surfaces at the reconnection events. These results qualitatively agree with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. It is plausible that current-driven instabilities can be responsible for momentum transport in other laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.
Electron surfing acceleration by the electron two-stream instability in a weak magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dieckmann, M E; Shukla, P K
2006-01-01
The thermalization of relativistically flowing colliding plasmas is not well understood. The transition layer, in which both plasmas interact and thermalize, is wide and highly structured and the instabilities in this layer may yield non-thermal particle distributions and shock-less energy dissipation. The objective in this work is to explore the ability of an electron two-stream instability for thermalizing a plasma beam that moves at the mildly relativistic speed 0.3c through weakly magnetized plasma and to identify the resulting particle distributions. It is demonstrated here with particle-in-cell simulations that the electron two-stream instability leads to waves that propagate within a wide angular range relative to the flow velocity. The waves are thus not planar, as required for efficient electron surfing acceleration (ESA). The short lifetime of the waves implies, however, only weak modifications of the ESA by the oblique modes, since the waves are sufficiently homogeneous. The ion (proton) beams are not modulated, which would be required to extract some of their energy. The instability can thus heat the electrons significantly, but it fails to accelerate them to relativistic energies and it cannot form a shock layer by thermalizing the protons, at least not for the system and the resolved timescales considered here
Electron surfing acceleration by the electron two-stream instability in a weak magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dieckmann, M E; Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2006-10-15
The thermalization of relativistically flowing colliding plasmas is not well understood. The transition layer, in which both plasmas interact and thermalize, is wide and highly structured and the instabilities in this layer may yield non-thermal particle distributions and shock-less energy dissipation. The objective in this work is to explore the ability of an electron two-stream instability for thermalizing a plasma beam that moves at the mildly relativistic speed 0.3c through weakly magnetized plasma and to identify the resulting particle distributions. It is demonstrated here with particle-in-cell simulations that the electron two-stream instability leads to waves that propagate within a wide angular range relative to the flow velocity. The waves are thus not planar, as required for efficient electron surfing acceleration (ESA). The short lifetime of the waves implies, however, only weak modifications of the ESA by the oblique modes, since the waves are sufficiently homogeneous. The ion (proton) beams are not modulated, which would be required to extract some of their energy. The instability can thus heat the electrons significantly, but it fails to accelerate them to relativistic energies and it cannot form a shock layer by thermalizing the protons, at least not for the system and the resolved timescales considered here.
Analysis of the instability growth rate during the jet– background interaction in a magnetic field
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Horký, Miroslav; Kulhánek, P.
2013-01-01
Roč. 13, č. 6 (2013), s. 687-694 ISSN 1674-4527 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD205/09/H033 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : plasmas * numerical methods * instabilities * turbulence * waves * MHD Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.516, year: 2013
Instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailovsky, A.B.
1983-01-01
The plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field causes a wide class of instabilities which are called instabilities of an inhomogeneous plasma or gradient instabilities. The instabilities that can be studied in the approximation of a magnetic field with parallel straight field lines are treated first, followed by a discussion of the influence of shear on these instabilities. The instabilities of a weakly inhomogeneous plasma with the Maxwellian velocity distribution of particles caused by the density and temperature gradients are often called drift instabilities, and the corresponding types of perturbations are the drift waves. An elementary theory of drift instabilities is presented, based on the simplest equations of motion of particles in the field of low-frequency and long-wavelength perturbations. Following that is a more complete theory of inhomogeneous collisionless plasma instabilities which uses the permittivity tensor and, in the case of electrostatic perturbations, the scalar of permittivity. The results are used to study the instabilities of a strongly inhomogeneous plasma. The instabilities of a plasma in crossed fields are discussed and the electromagnetic instabilities of plasma with finite and high pressure are described. (Auth.)
van Beurden, M.C.; Setija, Irwan
2017-01-01
We present two adapted formulations, one tailored to isotropic media and one for general anisotropic media, of the normal vector field framework previously introduced to improve convergence near arbitrarily shaped material interfaces in spectral simulation methods for periodic scattering geometries.
Two-dimensional electrodynamic structure of the normal glow discharge in an axial magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Surzhikov, S. T., E-mail: surg@ipmnet.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Problems in Mechanics (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
Results are presented from numerical simulations of an axisymmetric normal glow discharge in molecular hydrogen and molecular nitrogen in an axial magnetic field. The charged particle densities and averaged azimuthal rotation velocities of electrons and ions are studied as functions of the gas pressure in the range of 1–5 Torr, electric field strength in the range of 100–600 V/cm, and magnetic field in the range of 0.01–0.3 T. It is found that the axial magnetic field does not disturb the normal current density law.
Normal forms of invariant vector fields under a finite group action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez Bringas, F.
1992-07-01
Let Γ be a finite subgroup of GL(n,C). This subgroup acts on the space of germs of holomorphic vector fields vanishing at the origin in C n . We prove a theorem of invariant conjugation to a normal form and linearization for the subspace of invariant elements and we give a description of these normal forms in dimension n=2. (author)
Field-induced magnetic instability and quantum criticality in the antiferromagnet CeCu2Ge2.
Liu, Yi; Xie, Donghua; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhu, Kangwei; Yang, Ruilong
2016-01-13
The magnetic quantum criticality in strongly correlated electron systems has been considered to be closely related with the occurrence of unconventional superconductivity. Control parameters such as magnetic field, pressure or chemical doping are frequently used to externally tune the quantum phase transition for a deeper understanding. Here we report the research of a field-induced quantum phase transition using conventional bulk physical property measurements in the archetypal antiferromagnet CeCu2Ge2, which becomes superconductive under a pressure of about 10 GPa with Tc ~ 0.64 K. We offer strong evidence that short-range dynamic correlations start appearing above a magnetic field of about 5 T. Our demonstrations of the magnetic instability and the field-induced quantum phase transition are crucial for the quantum criticality, which may open a new route in experimental investigations of the quantum phase transition in heavy-fermion systems.
Liu, Rong; Chen, Xue; Ding, Zijing
2018-01-01
We consider the motion of a gravity-driven flow down a vertical fiber subjected to a radial electric field. This flow exhibits rich dynamics including the formation of droplets, or beads, driven by a Rayleigh-Plateau mechanism modified by the presence of gravity as well as the Maxwell stress at the interface. A spatiotemporal stability analysis is performed to investigate the effect of electric field on the absolute-convective instability (AI-CI) characteristics. We performed a numerical simulation on the nonlinear evolution of the film to examine the transition from CI to AI regime. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with the spatiotemporal stability analysis. The blowup behavior of nonlinear simulation predicts the formation of touchdown singularity of the interface due to the effect of electric field. We try to connect the blowup behavior with the AI-CI characteristics. It is found that the singularities mainly occur in the AI regime. The results indicate that the film may have a tendency to form very sharp tips due to the enhancement of the absolute instability induced by the electric field. We perform a theoretical analysis to study the behaviors of the singularities. The results show that there exists a self-similarity between the temporal and spatial distances from the singularities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ojeda S, J.; Morales S, J.; Chavez M, C.
2009-10-01
This work intends a model using the code Relap5/Mod 3.2, for the instability study in normal operation of a natural circulation reactor type ESBWR. A conceptual analysis is considered because all the information was obtained of the open literature, and some of reactor operation or dimension (not available) parameters were approached. As starting point was took the pattern developed for reactor type BWR, denominated Browns Ferry and changes were focused in elimination of bonds of forced recirculation, in modification of operation parameters, dimensions and own control parameters, according to internal code structure. Additionally the nodalization outline is described analyzing for separate the four fundamental areas employees in peculiar geometry of natural circulation reactor. Comparative analysis of results of stability behavior obtained with those reported in the open literature were made, by part of commercial reactor designer ESBWR. (Author)
Effects of Toroidal Magnetic Fields on the Thermal Instability of Thin ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
With this assumption, we obtain a general thermal instability criterion for magne- tized thin disks, i.e.,. = 2 − 5βgas − 4(1 + n)βmag − 6 fadv. + 8 fadvβgas + (8 + 4n) fadvβmag > 0, where βgas, βmag and fadv are the ratio of gas pressure to total pressure, the ratio of magnetic pressure to total pressure, and the advection factor ...
Effects of three-mode field interactions in laser instabilities and in beat-frequency spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herdow, S.T.
1982-01-01
Population pulsations are fluctuations in the population difference (of a two level system) due to the presence of two or more coherent waves interfering in the medium. In this work, the author shows that population pulsations generated by three waves, a central wave and two mode-locked sidebands, are responsible for both the multiwavelength and the single-wavelength instabilities of single-mode lasers containing homgeneously-broadened media. The role of the population pulsations in establishing these instabilities, however, diminish as the central mode is detuned away from the atomic resonance frequency. For homogeneously-broadened lasers, the author finds two regions of single-wavelength instability. The first is at line center, for which population pulsations are solely responsible, and the second is off line center where the unsaturated medium provides the required gain and anomalous dispersion. For the case of inhomogeneously-broadened lasers, the author shows that population pulsations significantly increase the instability range over that predicted by Casperson for single-mode bad-cavity lasers. Both the unidirectional ring and the standing-wave cavities are treated. The Fourier expansion technique, used in this work, for treating three-frequency operation in saturation spectroscopy is shown to be equivalent (in appropriate limits) to the linear stability analysis in laser theory and optical bistability. The author also shows, in single-sideband saturation spectroscopy, that for long interaction lengths propagation effects can significantly influence the absorption and dispersion coefficients of the medium. Finally, the author shows that under certain conditions the pronounced splitting effects of the population pulsations develop into regions of intense absorption
Linear response in stochastic mean-field theories and the onset of instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colonna, M.; Chomaz, Ph.
1993-01-01
The small amplitude response of stochastic one-body theories, such as the Boltzmann-Langevin approach is studied. Whereas the two-time correlation function only describes the propagation of fluctuations initially present, the equal-time correlation function is related to the source of stochasticity. For stable systems it yields the Einstein relation, while for unstable systems it determines the growth of the instabilities. These features are illustrated for unstable nuclear matter in two dimensions. (author) 14 refs.; 5 figs
Foldover, quasi-periodicity, spin-wave instabilities in ultra-thin films subject to RF fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Aquino, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Napoli ' Federico II' , Naples I-80125 (Italy)]. E-mail: mdaquino@unina.it; Bertotti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), I-10135 Turin (Italy); Serpico, C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Napoli ' Federico II' , Naples I-80125 (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [ECE Department and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bonin, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), I-10135 Turin (Italy); Guida, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Napoli ' Federico II' , Naples I-80125 (Italy)
2007-09-15
We study magnetization dynamics in a uniaxial ultra-thin ferromagnetic disk subject to spatially uniform microwave external fields. The rotational invariance of the system is such that the only admissible spatially uniform steady states are periodic (P-modes) and quasi-periodic (Q-modes) modes. The stability of P-modes versus spatially uniform and nonuniform perturbations is studied by using spin-wave analysis and the instability diagram for all possible P-modes is computed. The predictions of the spin-wave analysis are compared with micromagnetic simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itagaki, H.; Inomoto, M. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Asai, T.; Takahashi, Ts. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)
2014-03-15
Active control of destructive rotational instability in a high-beta field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was demonstrated by using double-sided plasmoid injection technique. The elliptical deformation of the FRC's cross section was mitigated as a result of substantial suppression of spontaneous spin-up by the plasmoid injection. It was found that the injected plasmoid provided better stability against the rotational mode, suggesting that the compensation of the FRC's decaying magnetic flux might help to suppress its spin-up.
A Note on the First Integrals of Vector Fields with Integrating Factors and Normalizers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaume Llibre
2012-06-01
Full Text Available We prove a sufficient condition for the existence of explicit first integrals for vector fields which admit an integrating factor. This theorem recovers and extends previous results in the literature on the integrability of vector fields which are volume preserving and possess nontrivial normalizers. Our approach is geometric and coordinate-free and hence it works on any smooth orientable manifold.
Waltman, Ludo; Yan, Erjia; van Eck, Nees Jan
2011-10-01
Two commonly used ideas in the development of citation-based research performance indicators are the idea of normalizing citation counts based on a field classification scheme and the idea of recursive citation weighing (like in PageRank-inspired indicators). We combine these two ideas in a single indicator, referred to as the recursive mean normalized citation score indicator, and we study the validity of this indicator. Our empirical analysis shows that the proposed indicator is highly sensitive to the field classification scheme that is used. The indicator also has a strong tendency to reinforce biases caused by the classification scheme. Based on these observations, we advise against the use of indicators in which the idea of normalization based on a field classification scheme and the idea of recursive citation weighing are combined.
Combined tangential-normal vector elements for computing electric and magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sachdev, S.; Cendes, Z.J.
1993-01-01
A direct method for computing electric and magnetic fields in two dimensions is developed. This method determines both the fields and fluxes directly from Maxwell's curl and divergence equations without introducing potential functions. This allows both the curl and the divergence of the field to be set independently in all elements. The technique is based on a new type of vector finite element that simultaneously interpolates to the tangential component of the electric or the magnetic field and the normal component of the electric or magnetic flux. Continuity conditions are imposed across element edges simply by setting like variables to be the same across element edges. This guarantees the continuity of the field and flux at the mid-point of each edge and that for all edges the average value of the tangential component of the field and of the normal component of the flux is identical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colucci, S.; Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.; Harney, J.; Gamble, S.; Arrand, J.
1997-01-01
We have previously shown that primary explant cultures of human urothelium exposed to low doses of gamma radiation subsequently exhibit a high level of stable P53 but it was not clear from those studies whether this protein stabilisation occurred through epigenetic events or as a result of mutation. In these experiments, primary urothelium cultures from five different patients were exposed to 0.5 and 5 Gy γ- radiation from a 60 Cobalt source and allowed to grow for 7- 10 division cycles to allow development of any radiation-induced, non lethal changes in the urothelial cells. C-myc, Bcl-2, and stable P53 protein expression was found to be elevated in cultures following both radiation doses. Following 0.5 Gy exposure, the cultures also developed multiple distinct 'foci' of rapidly-dividing cells which strongly over-expressed P53. These grew on a background of morphologically normal cells. When such foci were selectively analysed for their p53 mutation status by PCR-SSCPE, there was evidence that they contained cells which had developed changes to thr p53 gene post-irradiation. These changes appeared to occur more frequently in focal cells than in cells of normal morphological appearance in the same culture. DNA sequence analysis of the p53 gene in 0.5 Gy-induced foci displayed frame shift mutations in some cases. These results may have mechanistic importance given the controversy regarding low-dose radiation effects and p53-related genomic instability. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Z.R.; Guo, S.C.
2011-01-01
The cylindrical MHD model integrated with a feedback system is applied to the study of resistive wall mode (RWM) in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. The model takes into account the compressibility, longitudinal flow, viscosity and resistive wall with a finite thickness. The study, via both analytical and numerical analyses, provides a physical understanding on the following subjects: firstly, on the nature of the instability spectrum of the RWM observed in RFP plasmas; specifically, the growth rates of the two groups of the RWMs (internally non-resonant and externally non-resonant) have opposite dependence on the variation of the field reversal. Secondly, on the response of the unstable plasmas to the feedback control in RFPs, the mode behaviour in plasmas under the feedback is clarified and discussed in detail. Finally, the linear solutions of time evolution of RWM instability in various feedback scenarios are given. The effects of the wall proximity, the sensor location and the system response time are discussed, respectively.
Sadeghi-Goughari, Moslem; Jeon, Soo; Kwon, Hyock-Ju
2018-04-01
CNT (Carbon nanotube)-based fluidic systems hold a great potential for emerging medical applications such as drug delivery for cancer therapy. CNTs can be used to deliver anticancer drugs into a target site under a magnetic field guidance. One of the critical issues in designing such systems is how to avoid the vibration induced by the fluid flow, which is undesirable and may even promote the structural instability. The main objective of the present research is to develop a fluid structure interaction (FSI) model to investigate the flutter instability of a cantilevered CNT induced by a magnetic fluid flow under a longitudinal magnetic field. The CNT is assumed to be embedded in a viscoelastic matrix to consider the effect of biological medium around it. To obtain a dynamical model for the system, the Navier-Stokes theory of magnetic-fluid flow is coupled to the Euler-Bernoulli beam model for CNT. The small size effects of the magnetic fluid and CNT are considered through the small scale parameters including Knudsen number (Kn) and the nonlocal parameter. Then, the extended Galerkin's method is applied to solve the FSI governing equations, and to derive the stability diagrams of the system. Results show how the magnetic properties of the fluid flow have an effect on improving the stability of the cantilevered CNT by increasing the flutter velocity.
Hypercapnic normalization of BOLD fMRI: comparison across field strengths and pulse sequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cohen, Eric R.; Rostrup, Egill; Sidaros, Karam
2004-01-01
to be more accurately localized and quantified based on changes in venous blood oxygenation alone. The normalized BOLD signal induced by the motor task was consistent across different magnetic fields and pulse sequences, and corresponded well with cerebral blood flow measurements. Our data suggest...... size, as well as experimental, such as pulse sequence and static magnetic field strength (B(0)). Thus, it is difficult to compare task-induced fMRI signals across subjects, field strengths, and pulse sequences. This problem can be overcome by normalizing the neural activity-induced BOLD fMRI response...... for global stimulation, subjects breathed a 5% CO(2) gas mixture. Under all conditions, voxels containing primarily large veins and those containing primarily active tissue (i.e., capillaries and small veins) showed distinguishable behavior after hypercapnic normalization. This allowed functional activity...
Nonlinear 2D convection and enhanced cross-field plasma transport near the MHD instability threshold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pastukhov, V.P.; Chudin, N.V.
2003-01-01
Results of theoretical study and computer simulations of nonlinear 2D convection induced by a convective MHD instability near its threshold in FRC-like non-paraxial magnetic confinement system are presented. An appropriate closed set of weakly nonideal reduced MHD equations is derived to describe the self-consistent plasma dynamics. It is shown that the convection forms nonlinear large scale stochastic vortices (convective cells), which tend to restore and to maintain the marginally stable pressure pro e and result in an essentially nonlocal enhanced heat transport. A large amount of data on the structure of the nascent convective flows is obtained and analyzed. The computer simulations of long time plasma evolutions demonstrate such features of the resulting anomalous transport as pro e consistency, L-H transition, external transport barrier, pinch of impurities, etc. (author)
A new normalization method based on electrical field lines for electrical capacitance tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, L F; Wang, H X
2009-01-01
Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is considered to be one of the most promising process tomography techniques. The image reconstruction for ECT is an inverse problem to find the spatially distributed permittivities in a pipe. Usually, the capacitance measurements obtained from the ECT system are normalized at the high and low permittivity for image reconstruction. The parallel normalization model is commonly used during the normalization process, which assumes the distribution of materials in parallel. Thus, the normalized capacitance is a linear function of measured capacitance. A recently used model is a series normalization model which results in the normalized capacitance as a nonlinear function of measured capacitance. The newest presented model is based on electrical field centre lines (EFCL), and is a mixture of two normalization models. The multi-threshold method of this model is presented in this paper. The sensitivity matrices based on different normalization models were obtained, and image reconstruction was carried out accordingly. Simulation results indicate that reconstructed images with higher quality can be obtained based on the presented model
Green's functions for a graphene sheet and quantum dot in a normal magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horing, Norman J Morgenstern; Liu, S Y
2009-01-01
This paper is concerned with the derivation of the retarded Green's function for a two-dimensional graphene layer in a perpendicular magnetic field in two explicit, analytic forms, which we employ in obtaining a closed-form solution for the Green's function of a tightly confined magnetized graphene quantum dot. The dot is represented by a δ (2) (r)-potential well and the system is subject to Landau quantization in the normal magnetic field
Lombardi, G.; Van Alphen, W.; Klimin, S. N.; Tempere, J.
2017-09-01
In the present article the snake instability mechanism for dark solitons in superfluid Fermi gases is studied in the context of a recently developed effective field theory [S. N. Klimin et al., Eur. Phys. J. B 88, 122 (2015), 10.1140/epjb/e2015-60213-4]. This theoretical treatment has proven to be suitable to study stable dark solitons in quasi-one-dimensional setups across the BEC-BCS crossover. In this paper the nodal plane of the stable soliton solution is perturbed by adding a transverse modulation. The numerical solution of the system of coupled nonlinear differential equations describing the amplitude of the perturbation leads to an estimate of the growth rate and characteristic length scale of the instability, which are calculated for a wide range of interaction regimes and compared to other theoretical predictions. The behavior of the maximum transverse size that the atomic cloud can have in order to preserve the stability is described across the BEC-BCS crossover. The analysis of the effects of spin imbalance on this critical length reveals a stabilization of the soliton with increasing imbalance and therefore provides the experimental community with a method to achieve the realization of stable solitons in real three-dimensional configurations, without reducing the system dimensionality.
Electron cyclotron maser instability (ECMI in strong magnetic guide field reconnection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The ECMI model of electromagnetic radiation from electron holes is shown to be applicable to spontaneous magnetic reconnection. We apply it to reconnection in strong current-aligned magnetic guide fields. Such guide fields participate only passively in reconnection, which occurs in the antiparallel components to both sides of the guide-field-aligned current sheets with current carried by kinetic Alfvén waves. Reconnection generates long (the order of hundreds of electron inertial scales electron exhaust regions at the reconnection site X point, which are extended perpendicular to the current and the guide fields. Exhausts contain a strongly density-depleted hot electron component and have properties similar to electron holes. Exhaust electron momentum space distributions are highly deformed, exhibiting steep gradients transverse to both the reconnecting and guide fields. Such properties suggest application of the ECMI mechanism with the fundamental ECMI X-mode emission beneath the nonrelativistic guide field cyclotron frequency in localized source regions. An outline of the mechanism and its prospects is given. Potential applications are the kilometric radiation (AKR in auroral physics, solar radio emissions during flares, planetary emissions and astrophysical scenarios (radiation from stars and compact objects involving the presence of strong magnetic fields and field-aligned currents. Drift of the exhausts along the guide field maps the local field and plasma properties. Escape of radiation from the exhaust and radiation source region still poses a problem. The mechanism can be studied in 2-D particle simulations of strong guide field reconnection which favours 2-D, mapping the deformation of the electron distribution perpendicular to the guide field, and using it in the numerical calculation of the ECMI growth rate. The mechanism suggests also that reconnection in general may become a source of the ECMI with or without guide fields. This is
Electron cyclotron maser instability (ECMI) in strong magnetic guide field reconnection
Treumann, Rudolf A.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang
2017-08-01
The ECMI model of electromagnetic radiation from electron holes is shown to be applicable to spontaneous magnetic reconnection. We apply it to reconnection in strong current-aligned magnetic guide fields. Such guide fields participate only passively in reconnection, which occurs in the antiparallel components to both sides of the guide-field-aligned current sheets with current carried by kinetic Alfvén waves. Reconnection generates long (the order of hundreds of electron inertial scales) electron exhaust regions at the reconnection site X point, which are extended perpendicular to the current and the guide fields. Exhausts contain a strongly density-depleted hot electron component and have properties similar to electron holes. Exhaust electron momentum space distributions are highly deformed, exhibiting steep gradients transverse to both the reconnecting and guide fields. Such properties suggest application of the ECMI mechanism with the fundamental ECMI X-mode emission beneath the nonrelativistic guide field cyclotron frequency in localized source regions. An outline of the mechanism and its prospects is given. Potential applications are the kilometric radiation (AKR) in auroral physics, solar radio emissions during flares, planetary emissions and astrophysical scenarios (radiation from stars and compact objects) involving the presence of strong magnetic fields and field-aligned currents. Drift of the exhausts along the guide field maps the local field and plasma properties. Escape of radiation from the exhaust and radiation source region still poses a problem. The mechanism can be studied in 2-D particle simulations of strong guide field reconnection which favours 2-D, mapping the deformation of the electron distribution perpendicular to the guide field, and using it in the numerical calculation of the ECMI growth rate. The mechanism suggests also that reconnection in general may become a source of the ECMI with or without guide fields. This is of particular
Cell Survival and DNA Damage in Normal Prostate Cells Irradiated Out-of-Field.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Shields, L
2014-10-31
Interest in out-of-field radiation dose has been increasing with the introduction of new techniques, such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). These new techniques offer superior conformity of high-dose regions to the target compared to conventional techniques, however more normal tissue is exposed to low-dose radiation with VMAT. There is a potential increase in radiobiological effectiveness associated with lower energy photons delivered during VMAT as normal cells are exposed to a temporal change in incident photon energy spectrum. During VMAT deliveries, normal cells can be exposed to the primary radiation beam, as well as to transmission and scatter radiation. The impact of low-dose radiation, radiation-induced bystander effect and change in energy spectrum on normal cells are not well understood. The current study examined cell survival and DNA damage in normal prostate cells after exposure to out-of-field radiation both with and without the transfer of bystander factors. The effect of a change in energy spectrum out-of-field compared to in-field was also investigated. Prostate cancer (LNCaP) and normal prostate (PNT1A) cells were placed in-field and out-of-field, respectively, with the PNT1A cells being located 1 cm from the field edge when in-field cells were being irradiated with 2 Gy. Clonogenic and γ-H2AX assays were performed postirradiation to examine cell survival and DNA damage. The assays were repeated when bystander factors from the LNCaP cells were transferred to the PNT1A cells and also when the PNT1A cells were irradiated in-field to a different energy spectrum. An average out-of-field dose of 10.8 ± 4.2 cGy produced a significant reduction in colony volume and increase in the number of γ-H2AX foci\\/cell in the PNT1A cells compared to the sham-irradiated control cells. An adaptive response was observed in the PNT1A cells having first received a low out-of-field dose and then the bystander factors. The PNT1A cells showed a significant
Shian, Samuel; Kjeer, Peter; Clarke, David R.
2018-03-01
When a voltage is applied to a percolative, mechanically compliant mat of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on a smooth elastomer bilayer attached to an ITO coated glass substrate, the in-line optical transmittance decreases with increasing voltage. Two regimes of behavior have been identified based on optical scattering, bright field optical microscopy, and confocal optical microscopy. In the low field regime, the electric field produces a spatially inhomogeneous surface deformation of the elastomer that causes local variations in optical refraction and modulates the light transmittance. The spatial variation is associated with the distribution of the CNTs over the surface. At higher fields, above a threshold voltage, an array of pits in the surface form by a nucleation and growth mechanism and these also scatter light. The formation of pits, and creases, in the thickness of the elastomer, is due to a previously identified electro-mechanical surface instability. When the applied voltage is decreased from its maximum, the transmittance returns to its original value although there is a transmittance hysteresis and a complicated time response. When the applied voltage exceeds the threshold voltage, there can be remnant optical contrast associated with creasing of the elastomer and the recovery time appears to be dependent on local jamming of CNTs in areas where the pits formed. A potential application of this work as an electrically tunable privacy window or camouflaging devices is demonstrated.
Two-stream instability for a light ion beam-plasma system with external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okada, T.; Tazawa, H.
1992-12-01
For inertial confinement fusion, a focused light ion beam (LIB) is required to propagate stably through a chamber to a target. We have pointed out that the applied external magnetic field is important for LIB propagation. To investigate the influence of the external magnetic field on the LIB propagation, we analysed the electrostatic dispersion relation of magnetized light ion beam-plasma system. The particle in-cell (PIC) simulation results are presented for a light ion beam-plasma system with external magnetic field. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armstrong, W.T.; Cochrane, J.C.; Lipson, J.; Tuszewski, M.
1981-02-01
Tearing and reconnection processes during the formation and quiescent periods of a field-reversed configuration are studied with an axial array of compensated diamagnetic loops. Several representative plasma shots are documented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyerhofer, D.D.; Perkins, F.W.
1984-04-01
The kinetic Alfven wave is studied in a cylindrical force-free plasma with self-consistent magnetic fields. This equilibrium represents a reversed field pinch or a spheromak. The stability of the wave is found to depend on the ratio of the electron drift velocity to the Alfven velocity. This ratio varies inversely with the square root of the plasma line density. The critical line density using the Spitzer-Harm electron distribution function is found for reversed field pinches with deuterium plasmas to be approximately 2 x 10 18 m -1 and is 5 x 10 17 m -1 in spheromaks with hydrogen plasmas. The critical line density is in reasonable agreement with experimental data for reversed field pinches
Instability of the cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov field in backbending region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horibata, Takatoshi; Onishi, Naoki.
1981-07-01
The stability condition of the cranked HFB field is examined explicitly by solving the eigen value equation for the second order variation of the energy, which is reduced to an algebraic equation through a coupled dispersion formula. We confirm that the HFB field is unstable in the backbending region of irregular rotational band, even though the frequency of the softest RPA mode stays in positive value. We investigate properties of the softest mode in detail. (author)
Sundaram, Abayasankar; Bokor, Desmond J; Davidson, Andrew S
2011-03-01
Due to the unique demands of each position on the Rugby Union field, the likelihood of an athlete sustaining a dislocation of their shoulder joint that requires surgical reconstruction may be affected by their position on the field. 166 patients with 184 involved shoulders requiring anterior reconstruction following an on-field Rugby Union injury between January 1996 and September 2008 were analysed. The mean age at time of injury was 18 years with the mean age at time of surgery being 20 years. The most prevalent mechanism of injury was a tackle in 66.3% of players. Players were more likely to suffer injury to their non-dominant shoulder than their dominant side (McNemar's Test, prisk of injury for all player positions. Positions with significantly different risk of injury were five-eighth (increased risk) and wing (reduced risk). Although we observed an increased risk in flankers and fullbacks, and a lower risk in second row, these results did not reach statistical significance after application of the Bonferroni correction. This information can be utilized by team staff to assist in pre-season conditioning as well as the development of improved muscle co-ordination programmes for the non-dominant shoulder, and planning a graduated return to sport by the player recovering from surgical reconstruction of the shoulder for instability. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Normal Threshold Size of Stimuli in Children Using a Game-Based Visual Field Test.
Wang, Yanfang; Ali, Zaria; Subramani, Siddharth; Biswas, Susmito; Fenerty, Cecilia; Henson, David B; Aslam, Tariq
2017-06-01
The aim of this study was to demonstrate and explore the ability of novel game-based perimetry to establish normal visual field thresholds in children. One hundred and eighteen children (aged 8.0 ± 2.8 years old) with no history of visual field loss or significant medical history were recruited. Each child had one eye tested using a game-based visual field test 'Caspar's Castle' at four retinal locations 12.7° (N = 118) from fixation. Thresholds were established repeatedly using up/down staircase algorithms with stimuli of varying diameter (luminance 20 cd/m 2 , duration 200 ms, background luminance 10 cd/m 2 ). Relationships between threshold and age were determined along with measures of intra- and intersubject variability. The Game-based visual field test was able to establish threshold estimates in the full range of children tested. Threshold size reduced with increasing age in children. Intrasubject variability and intersubject variability were inversely related to age in children. Normal visual field thresholds were established for specific locations in children using a novel game-based visual field test. These could be used as a foundation for developing a game-based perimetry screening test for children.
Pandey, R. S.; Singh, Vikrant; Rani, Anju; Varughese, George; Singh, K. M.
2018-05-01
In the present paper Oblique propagating electromagnetic ion-cyclotron wave has been analyzed for anisotropic multi ion plasma (H+, He+, O+ ions) in earth magnetosphere for the Dione shell of L=7 i.e., the outer radiation belt of the magnetosphere for Loss-cone distribution function with a spectral index j in the presence of A.C. electric field. Detail for particle trajectories and dispersion relation has been derived by using the method of characteristic solution on the basis of wave particle interaction and transformation of energy. Results for the growth rate have been calculated numerically for various parameters and have been compared for different ions present in magnetosphere. It has been found that for studying the wave over wider spectrum, anisotropy for different values of j should be taken. The effect of frequency of A.C. electric field and angle which propagation vector make with magnetic field, on growth rate has been explained.
END effects on the n = 2 rotational instability in the reversed field theta-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aso, Y.; Wu, Ch.; Himeno, S.; Hirano, K.
1981-07-01
It is observed that n = 2 rotational mode which appears in the field reversed configuration created by a theta-pinch can be stabilized if the ejected plasmas from the ends are guided out to the far ends of the apparatus by long axial solenoidal fields. This is understood from the fact that endshorting becomes no longer possible before the ejecting plasma tips reach to the ends. Measurement of plasma rotations just outside the separatrix suggests that both preferential diffusion loss and endshorting play a very important role for the n = 2 mode. (author)
Instability of the cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov field in backbending region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horibata, Takatoshi; Onishi, Naoki.
1982-01-01
The stability condition of the cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov field is examined explicitly by solving the eigenvalue equation for the second order variation of the energy, which is reduced to an algebraic equation through a coupled dispersion formula. We confirm that the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov field is unstable in the backbending region of an irregular rotational band, even though the frequency of the softest random phase approximation mode always has a positive value. We investigate properties of the softest mode in detail. (author)
Jeans instability of self-gravitating magnetized strongly coupled plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prajapati, R P; Sharma, P K; Sanghvi, R K; Chhajlani, R K
2012-01-01
We investigate the Jeans instability of self-gravitating magnetized strongly coupled plasma. The equations of the problem are formulated using the generalized hydrodynamic model and a general dispersion relation is obtained using the normal mode analysis. This dispersion relation is discussed for transverse and longitudinal mode of propagations. The modified condition of Jeans instability is obtained for magnetized strongly coupled plasma. We find that strong coupling of plasma particles modify the fundamental criterion of Jeans gravitational instability. In transverse mode it is found that Jeans instability criterion gets modified due to the presence of magnetic field, shear viscosity and fluid viscosity but in longitudinal mode it is unaffected due to the presence of magnetic field. From the curves we found that all these parameters have stabilizing influence on the growth rate of Jeans instability.
A precursor to the Matuyama/Brunhes transition-field instability as recorded in pelagic sediments
Hartla, Paul; Tauxe, Lisa
1995-01-01
The period some 20-25 kyr just prior to the most recent generally recognized geomagnetic field polarity transition, the Matuyama-to-Brunhes reversal, appears to be marked by significant geomagnetic variability, manifested as pronounced oscillations in intensity. We compare several previously
Electron cyclotron instabilities of finite pressure inhomogeneous plasma in crossed fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirochkin, Yu.A.; Pokroev, A.G.; Stepanov, K.N.
1979-01-01
The stability of inhomogeneous plasma sheet with β<=1 in crossed electric and magnetic fields is investigated. The differential equation describing potential oscillations is obtained. Using the local approximation the sheet is shown to be unstable against the excitation of short wavelength electron cyclotron oscillations. The validity criterion of this method for a given type of waves is derived
Excitation of electrostatic wave instability by dc electric field in earth's magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, S.P.; Misra, K.D.; Pandey, R.P.; Singh, K.M.
1992-01-01
The dispersion relation for electrostatic wave propagation in an anisotropic warm collisionless magnetoplasma, in the presence of weak parallel (d c) electric field, has been derived analytically. An expression for the growth rate of the electrostatic wave and the marginal stability condition are also derived. The modifications introduced in the growth rate by the electric field and the temperature anisotropy are discussed using plasma parameters observed in the magnetospheric region (4 < L < 10). The effect of the electric field is to increase the growth rate of electrostatic waves at different electron cyclotron harmonics, whereas the effect of the temperature anisotropy is to decrease the growth rate. The presence of parallel electric field may excite the electrostatic emissions at different electron cyclotron harmonics. The most unstable band of wave frequencies obtained with the aid of computations lies between 5 kHz and 10 kHz. These wave frequencies are well within the experimentally observed frequencies of electrostatic emissions. Therefore such a study would not only explain the observed satellite features of the electrostatic wave emissions but would also account for the diagnostics of the magnetospheric plasma parameters
Grindedal, Eli Marie; Aarset, Harald; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Røyset, Elin; Mæhle, Lovise; Stormorken, Astrid; Heramb, Cecilie; Medvik, Heidi; Møller, Pål; Sjursen, Wenche
2014-01-01
Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) to select cases for mismatch repair (MMR) genetic testing, we failed to identify a large kindred with the deleterious PMS2 mutation c.989-1G > T. The purpose of the study was to examine the sensitivity of IHC and microsatellite instability-analysis (MSI) to identify carriers of the mutation, and to estimate its penetrance and expressions. All carriers and obligate carriers of the mutation were identified. All cancer diagnoses were confirmed. IHC and MSI-analysis were performed on available tumours. Penetrances of cancers included in the Amsterdam and the Bethesda Criteria, for MSI-high tumours and MSI-high and low tumours were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier algorithm. Probability for co-segregation of the mutation and cancers by chance was 0.000004. Fifty-six carriers or obligate carriers were identified. There was normal staining for PMS2 in 15/18 (83.3%) of tumours included in the AMS1/AMS2/Bethesda criteria. MSI-analysis showed that 15/21 (71.4%) of tumours were MSI-high and 4/21 (19.0%) were MSI-low. Penetrance at 70 years was 30.6% for AMS1 cancers (colorectal cancers), 42.8% for AMS2 cancers, 47.2% for Bethesda cancers, 55.6% for MSI-high and MSI-low cancers and 52.2% for MSI-high cancers. The mutation met class 5 criteria for pathogenicity. IHC was insensitive in detecting tumours caused by the mutation. Penetrance of cancers that displayed MSI was 56% at 70 years. Besides colorectal cancers, the most frequent expressions were carcinoma of the endometrium and breast in females and stomach and prostate in males.
Dosimetry of normal and wedge fields for a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tripathi, U.B.; Kelkar, N.Y.
1980-01-01
A simple analytical method for computation of dose distributions for normal and wedge fields is described and the use of the method in planning radiation treatment is outlined. Formulas has been given to compute: (1) depth dose along central axis of cobalt-60 beam, (2) dose to off-axis points, and (3) dose distribution for a wedge field. Good agreement has been found between theoretical and experimental values. With the help of these formulae, the dose at any point can be easily and accurately calculated and radiotherapy can be planned for tumours of very odd shape and sizes. The limitation of the method is that the formulae have been derived for 50% field definition. For cobalt-60 machine having any other field definition, appropriate correction factors have to be applied. (M.G.B.)
Normalized noise power spectrum of full field digital mammography detector system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norriza Mohd Isa; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan
2009-01-01
Full text: A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through de trending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality. (author)
Long-wave analysis and control of the viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability with electric fields
Cimpeanu, Radu; Anderson, Thomas; Petropoulos, Peter; Papageorgiou, Demetrios
2016-11-01
We investigate the electrostatic stabilization of a viscous thin film wetting the underside of a solid surface in the presence of a horizontally acting electric field. The competition between gravity, surface tension and the nonlocal effect of the applied electric field is captured analytically in the form of a nonlinear evolution equation. A semi-spectral solution strategy is employed to resolve the dynamics of the resulting partial differential equation. Furthermore, we conduct direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations and assess the accuracy of the obtained solutions when varying the electric field strength from zero up to the point when complete stabilization at the target finite wavelengths occurs. We employ DNS to examine the limitations of the asymptotically derived behavior in the context of increasing liquid film heights, with agreement found to be excellent even beyond the target lengthscales. Regimes in which the thin film assumption is no longer valid and droplet pinch-off occurs are then analyzed. Finally, the asymptotic and computational approaches are used in conjunction to identify efficient active control mechanisms allowing the manipulation of the fluid interface in light of engineering applications at small scales, such as mixing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauer, Bruno, S.; Siemon, Richard, E.
2008-10-22
We are pleased to report important progress in experimentally characterizing and numerically modeling the transformation into plasma of walls subjected to pulsed megagauss magnetic fields. Understanding this is important to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) because an important limitation to the metal liner approach to MTF comes from the strong eddy current heating on the surface of the metal liner. This has intriguing non-linear aspects when the magnetic field is in the megagauss regime as needed for MTF, and may limit the magnetic field in an MTF implosion. Many faculty, students, and staff have contributed to this work, and, implicitly or explicitly, to this report. Contributors include, in addition to the PIs, Andrey Esaulov, Stephan Fuelling, Irvin Lindemuth, Volodymyr Makhin, Ioana Paraschiv, Milena Angelova, Tom Awe, Tasha Goodrich, Arunkumar Prasadam, Andrew Oxner, Bruno Le Galloudec, Radu Presura, and Vladimir Ivanov. Highlights of the progress made during the grant include: • 12 articles published, and 44 conference and workshop presentations made, on a broad range of issues related to this project; • An ongoing experiment that uses the 1 MA, 100-ns Zebra z-pinch at UNR to apply 2 5 megagauss to a variety of metal surfaces, examining plasma formation and evolution; • Numerical simulation studies of the 1-MA Zebra, and potential Shiva Star and Atlas experiments that include realistic equations of state and radiation effects, using a variety of tables. • Collaboration with other groups doing simulations of this experiment at LANL, VNIIEF, SNL, and NumerEx leading to a successful international workshop at UNR in the spring of 2008.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, Bruno S.; Siemon, Richard E.
2008-01-01
We are pleased to report important progress in experimentally characterizing and numerically modeling the transformation into plasma of walls subjected to pulsed megagauss magnetic fields. Understanding this is important to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) because an important limitation to the metal liner approach to MTF comes from the strong eddy current heating on the surface of the metal liner. This has intriguing non-linear aspects when the magnetic field is in the megagauss regime as needed for MTF, and may limit the magnetic field in an MTF implosion. Many faculty, students, and staff have contributed to this work, and, implicitly or explicitly, to this report. Contributors include, in addition to the PIs, Andrey Esaulov, Stephan Fuelling, Irvin Lindemuth, Volodymyr Makhin, Ioana Paraschiv, Milena Angelova, Tom Awe, Tasha Goodrich, Arunkumar Prasadam, Andrew Oxner, Bruno Le Galloudec, Radu Presura, and Vladimir Ivanov. Highlights of the progress made during the grant include: (1) 12 articles published, and 44 conference and workshop presentations made, on a broad range of issues related to this project; (2) An ongoing experiment that uses the 1 MA, 100-ns Zebra z-pinch at UNR to apply 2 5 megagauss to a variety of metal surfaces, examining plasma formation and evolution; (3) Numerical simulation studies of the 1-MA Zebra, and potential Shiva Star and Atlas experiments that include realistic equations of state and radiation effects, using a variety of tables; and (4) Collaboration with other groups doing simulations of this experiment at LANL, VNIIEF, SNL, and NumerEx leading to a successful international workshop at UNR in the spring of 2008.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharov, V.U.
1993-01-01
An analytical method for the investigation of special types of dispersion relations is presented. In particular, analysis of the propagation of small-amplitude hydromagnetic waves in a collisionless plasma in a strong magnetic field leads to such dispersion relations. The fifth-degree dispersion relation corresponding to a particular case is considered. The necessary stability condition for a steady state and conditions for the degeneration of small-amplitude waves are derived. A comparison with other methods for the analysis of similar dispersion relations is also presented. (author)
MHD computation of feedback of resistive-shell instabilities in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zita, E.J.; Prager, S.C.
1992-05-01
MHD computation demonstrates that feedback can sustain reversal and reduce loop voltage in resistive-shell reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. Edge feedback on ∼2R/a tearing modes resonant near axis is found to restore plasma parameters to nearly their levels with a close-fitting conducting shell. When original dynamo modes are stabilized, neighboring tearing modes grow to maintain the RFP dynamo more efficiently. This suggests that experimentally observed limits on RFP pulselengths to the order of the shell time can be overcome by applying feedback to a few helical modes
Histopathology of normal skin and melanomas after nanosecond pulsed electric field treatment
Chen, Xinhua; Swanson, R. James; Kolb, Juergen F.; Nuccitelli, Richard; Schoenbach, Karl H.
2011-01-01
Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) can affect the intracellular structures of cells in vitro. This study shows the direct effects of nsPEFs on tumor growth, tumor volume, and histological characteristics of normal skin and B16-F10 melanoma in SKH-1 mice. A melanoma model was set up by injecting B16-F10 into female SKH-1 mice. After a 100-pulse treatment with an nsPEF (40-kV/cm field strength; 300-ns duration; 30-ns rise time; 2-Hz repetition rate), tumor growth and histology were studied using transillumination, light microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin stain and transmission electron microscopy. Melanin and iron within the melanoma tumor were also detected with specific stains. After nsPEF treatment, tumor development was inhibited with decreased volumes post-nsPEF treatment compared with control tumors (Pelectric fields surrounding the needle electrodes. PMID:19730404
Wide field of view CT and acromioclavicular joint instability: A technical innovation.
Dyer, David R; Troupis, John M; Kamali Moaveni, Afshin
2015-06-01
A 21-year-old female with a traumatic shoulder injury is investigated and managed for symptoms relating to this injury. Pathology at the acromioclavicular joint is detected clinically; however, clinical examination and multiple imaging modalities do not reach a unified diagnosis on the grading of this acromioclavicular joint injury. When management appropriate to that suggested injury grading fail to help the patient's symptoms, further investigation methods were utilised. Wide field of view, dynamic CT (4D CT) is conducted on the patient's affected shoulder using a 320 × 0.5 mm detector multislice CT. Scans were conducted with a static table as the patient completed three movements of the affected shoulder. Capturing multiple data sets per second over a z-axis of 16 cm, measurements of the acromioclavicular joint were made, to show dynamic changes at the joint. Acromioclavicular (AC) joint translations were witnessed in three planes (a previously unrecognised pathology in the grading of acromioclavicular joint injuries). Translation in multiple planes was also not evident on careful clinical examination of this patient. AC joint width, anterior-posterior translation, superior-inferior translation and coracoclavicular width were measured with planar reconstructions while volume-rendered images and dynamic sequences aiding visual understanding of the pathology. Wide field of view dynamic CT (4D CT) is an accurate and quick modality to diagnose complex acromioclavicular joint injury. It provides dynamic information that no other modality can; 4D CT shows future benefits for clinical approach to diagnosis and management of acromioclavicular joint injury, and other musculoskeletal pathologies. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.
Normal ground state of dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.
2011-01-01
The properties of the ground state of relativistic matter in a magnetic field are examined within the framework of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The main emphasis of this study is the normal ground state, which is realized at sufficiently high temperatures and/or sufficiently large chemical potentials. In contrast to the vacuum state, which is characterized by the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking, the normal state is accompanied by the dynamical generation of the chiral shift parameter Δ. In the chiral limit, the value of Δ determines a relative shift of the longitudinal momenta (along the direction of the magnetic field) in the dispersion relations of opposite chirality fermions. We argue that the chirality remains a good approximate quantum number even for massive fermions in the vicinity of the Fermi surface and, therefore, the chiral shift is expected to play an important role in many types of cold dense relativistic matter, relevant for applications in compact stars. The qualitative implications of the revealed structure of the normal ground state on the physics of protoneutron stars are discussed. A noticeable feature of the Δ parameter is that it is insensitive to temperature when T 0 , where μ 0 is the chemical potential, and increases with temperature for T>μ 0 . The latter implies that the chiral shift parameter is also generated in the regime relevant for heavy ion collisions.
Krishnamurthy, K S
2014-05-01
The Bobylev-Pikin striped-pattern state induced by a homogeneous electric field is a volume flexoelectric instability, originating in the midregion of a planarly aligned nematic liquid crystal layer. We find that the instability acquires a spatiotemporal character upon excitation by a low frequency (0.5 Hz) square wave field. This is demonstrated using a bent-core liquid crystal, initially in the 90°-twisted planar configuration. The flexoelectric modulation appears close to the cathode at each polarity reversal and, at low voltage amplitudes, decays completely as the field becomes steady. Correspondingly, at successive polarity changes, the stripe direction switches between the alignment directions at the two substrates. For large voltages, the stripes formed nearly along the alignment direction at the cathode gradually reorient toward the midplane director. These observations are generally attributed to inhomogeneous and time-dependent field conditions that come to exist after each polarity reversal. Polarity dependence of the instability is attributed to the formation of intrinsic double layers that bring about an asymmetry in surface fields. Momentary field elevation near the cathode following a voltage sign reversal and concomitant gradient flexoelectric polarization are considered the key factors in accounting for the surfacelike modulation observed at low voltages.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamazaki, Dai G.; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takahashi, Keitaro
2011-01-01
We study the effect of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We assume the spectrum of PMFs is described by log-normal distribution which has a characteristic scale, rather than power-law spectrum. This scale is expected to reflect the generation mechanisms and our analysis is complementary to previous studies with power-law spectrum. We calculate power spectra of energy density and Lorentz force of the log-normal PMFs, and then calculate CMB temperature and polarization angular power spectra from scalar, vector, and tensor modes of perturbations generated from such PMFs. By comparing these spectra with WMAP7, QUaD, CBI, Boomerang, and ACBAR data sets, we find that the current CMB data set places the strongest constraint at k≅10 -2.5 Mpc -1 with the upper limit B < or approx. 3 nG.
Balzer, Jonathan
2011-09-01
Reflections of a scene in a mirror surface contain information on its shape. This information is accessible by measurement through an optical metrology technique called deflectometry. The result is a field of normal vectors to the unknown surface having the remarkable property that it equally changes in all spatial directions, unlike normal maps occurring, e.g., in Shape from Shading. Its integration into a zero-order reconstruction of the surface thus deserves special attention. We develop a novel algorithm for this purpose which is relatively straightforward to implement yet outperforms existing ones in terms of efficiency and robustness. Experimental results on synthetic and real data complement the theoretical discussion. © 2011 IEEE.
Manoussakis, G.; Delikaraoglou, D.
2011-01-01
In this paper we form relations for the determination of the elements of the E\\"otv\\"os matrix of the Earth's normal gravity field. In addition a relation between the Gauss curvature of the normal equipotential surface and the Gauss curvature of the actual equipotential surface both passing through the point P is presented. For this purpose we use a global Cartesian system (X, Y, Z) and use the variables X, and Y to form a local parameterization a normal equipotential surface to describe its ...
Superconducting-normal phase boundary of quasicrystalline arrays in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nori, F.; Niu, Q.; Fradkin, E.; Chang, S.
1987-01-01
We study the effect of frustration, induced by a mangnetic field, on the superconducting diamagnetic properties of two-dimensional quasicrystalline arrays. In particular, we calculate the superconducting-normal phase boundary, T/sub c/(H), for several geometries with quasicrystalline order. The agreement between our theoretically obtained phase boundaries and the experimentally obtained ones is very good. We also propose a new way of analytically analyzing the overall and the fine structure of T/sub c/(H) in terms of short- and long-range correlations among tiles
Identical bands at normal deformation: Necessity of going beyond the mean-field approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Y.; Wu, C.; Feng, D.H.; Egido, J.L.; Guidry, M.
1996-01-01
The validity of BCS theory has been questioned because the appearance of normally deformed identical bands in odd and even nuclei seems to contradict the conventional understanding of the blocking effect. This problem is examined with the projected shell model (PSM), which projects good angular momentum states and includes many-body correlations in both deformation and pairing channels. Satisfactory reproduction of identical band data by the PSM suggests that it may be necessary to go beyond the mean field to obtain a quantitative account of identical bands. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Streaming gravity mode instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shui.
1989-05-01
In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, Brian A.; Cullip, Timothy J.; Rosenman, Julian G.
1995-01-01
Purpose/Objective: To demonstrate that one can obtain a homogeneous dose distribution within a specified gross tumor volume (GTV) while severely limiting the dose to a structure surrounded by that tumor volume. We present three clinical examples below. Materials and Methods: Using planning CT scans from previously treated patients, we designed variety of radiation treatment plans in which the dose-critical normal structure was blocked, even if it meant blocking some of the tumor. To deal with the resulting dose inhomogeneities within the tumor, we introduced 3D compensation. Examples presented here include (1) blocking the spinal cord segment while treating an entire vertebral body, (2) blocking both kidneys while treating the entire peritoneal cavity, and (3) blocking one parotid gland while treating the oropharynx in its entirety along with regional nodes. A series of multiple planar and non-coplanar beam templates with automatic anatomic blocking and field shaping were designed for each scenario. Three-dimensional compensators were designed that gave the most homogeneous dose-distribution for the GTV. For each beam, rays were cast from the beam source through a 2D compensator grid and out through the tumor. The average tumor dose along each ray was then used to adjust the compensator thickness over successive iterations to achieve a uniform average dose. DVH calculations for the GTV, normal structures, and the 'auto-blocked' structure were made and used for inter-plan comparisons. Results: These optimized treatment plans successfully decreased dose to the dose-limiting structure while at the same time preserving or even improving the dose distribution to the tumor volume as compared to traditional treatment plans. Conclusion: The use of 3D compensation allows one to obtain dose distributions that are, theoretically, at least, far superior to those in common clinical use. Sensible beam templates, auto-blocking, auto-field shaping, and 3D compensators form a
Normal and superconducting state properties of U6Fe at low temperatures and high magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeLong, L.E.; Crabtree, G.W.; Hall, L.N.; Kierstead, H.; Aoki, H.; Dhar, S.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Junod, A.
1985-01-01
High purity U 6 Fe polycrystals with a resistance ratio rrr=9 at T=4 K are found to exhibit a record onset temperature (T 0 >4.0 K) to superconductivity for U materials. Our measured values of the electronic coefficient of heat capacity Csup(*)=(150+-3) mJ/mol.K 2 , the mean Debye temperature THETA(T->0)=116 K and the normalized jump in heat capacity at Tsub(c), ΔC/γsup(*)Tsub(c)=2.3+-0.1, are all in good agreement with previous work, and suggest that U 6 Fe is a strong-coupled superconductor. Resistive upper critical field measurements on high purity samples revealed a pronounced S-shaped curvature of Hsub(c2)(T) and evidence for anisotropy, similar to effects seen in UPt 3 , but not observed in lower purity U 6 Fe samples. We find Hsub(c2)(0)>10 T and transition widths ΔTsub(c)proportionalHsup(1/2) at moderate fields, followed by an abrupt increase in ΔTsub(c) for H>8 T. Our Hsub(c2) data cannot be explained by existing theoretical models. Preliminary heat capacity measurements in magnetic fields 0 6 Fe at T< or approx.110 K. (orig.)
Strings, vortex rings, and modes of instability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven S. Gubser
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We treat string propagation and interaction in the presence of a background Neveu–Schwarz three-form field strength, suitable for describing vortex rings in a superfluid or low-viscosity normal fluid. A circular vortex ring exhibits instabilities which have been recognized for many years, but whose precise boundaries we determine for the first time analytically in the small core limit. Two circular vortices colliding head-on exhibit stronger instabilities which cause splitting into many small vortices at late times. We provide an approximate analytic treatment of these instabilities and show that the most unstable wavelength is parametrically larger than a dynamically generated length scale which in many hydrodynamic systems is close to the cutoff. We also summarize how the string construction we discuss can be derived from the Gross–Pitaevskii Lagrangian, and also how it compares to the action for giant gravitons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durczewski, K.; Gajek, Z.; Mucha, J. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland)
2014-11-15
A simple formula describing the influence of the crystalline electric field free-ion excitations on the temperature dependence of the contribution of the s-f scattering to the thermal resistivity of normal rare-earth metals is presented. The corresponding formula for the electrical resistivity is also given and compared to the one being currently used. Theoretical electron-phonon scattering contributions derived in earlier papers and constant impurity scattering contributions are added to the derived s-f contribution formulae in order to fit the total electrical and thermal resistivity represented as functions of the temperature to experimental dependences on the temperature for DyIn{sub 3} and in this way to manifest applicability of the derived formulae to real materials. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durczewski, K.; Gajek, Z.; Mucha, J.
2014-01-01
A simple formula describing the influence of the crystalline electric field free-ion excitations on the temperature dependence of the contribution of the s-f scattering to the thermal resistivity of normal rare-earth metals is presented. The corresponding formula for the electrical resistivity is also given and compared to the one being currently used. Theoretical electron-phonon scattering contributions derived in earlier papers and constant impurity scattering contributions are added to the derived s-f contribution formulae in order to fit the total electrical and thermal resistivity represented as functions of the temperature to experimental dependences on the temperature for DyIn 3 and in this way to manifest applicability of the derived formulae to real materials. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.; Tanner, Sharon E.; Parrott, Tony L.
1995-01-01
A propagation model method for extracting the normal incidence impedance of an acoustic material installed as a finite length segment in a wall of a duct carrying a nonprogressive wave field is presented. The method recasts the determination of the unknown impedance as the minimization of the normalized wall pressure error function. A finite element propagation model is combined with a coarse/fine grid impedance plane search technique to extract the impedance of the material. Results are presented for three different materials for which the impedance is known. For each material, the input data required for the prediction scheme was computed from modal theory and then contaminated by random error. The finite element method reproduces the known impedance of each material almost exactly for random errors typical of those found in many measurement environments. Thus, the method developed here provides a means for determining the impedance of materials in a nonprogressirve wave environment such as that usually encountered in a commercial aircraft engine and most laboratory settings.
Analysis of knee movement with low-field MR equipment. A normal volunteer study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ando, Yoko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo; Aoki, Ikuo; Yamada, Takashi.
1994-01-01
This study was performed to make a normal standard by analyzing knee movement in detail. An open low-field unit was used for 23 healthy knee joints. With three-dimensional Fourier transformation (3DFT) gradient echo sequence, 50 sagittal slices of 4.5 mm in thickness were obtained at four flexion angles: 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees (lateral position). Although the tension ratio of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL, PCL) increased during knee flexion, the change in the tension ratio was significantly different between the ACL and PCL. The femur-ACL angle and femur-PCL angle were parallel with the knee flexion angle, but the tibia-ACL angle and tibia-PCL angle changed complexly. The lateral and medial condyles rolled and slid during knee flexion, and the medial side moved more than the lateral side, consistent with rotation of the lower thigh. The difference in backward movement distance on the tibia between the two condyles was significantly larger in females than in males. This might explain the dominance of knee osteoarthritis in women. Although the lateral position is not completely physiological, we could show initial cinematic data of up to 90 degrees of knee flexion using open-type MRI, which is impossible with high- and middle-field machines. (author)
Tokluoglu, Erinc K.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Carlsson, Johan A.; Hara, Kentaro; Startsev, Edward A.
2018-05-01
Propagation of charged particle beams in background plasma as a method of space charge neutralization has been shown to achieve a high degree of charge and current neutralization and therefore enables nearly ballistic propagation and focusing of charged particle beams. Correspondingly, the use of plasmas for propagation of charged particle beams has important applications for transport and focusing of intense particle beams in inertial fusion and high energy density laboratory plasma physics. However, the streaming of beam ions through a background plasma can lead to the development of two-stream instability between the beam ions and the plasma electrons. The beam electric and magnetic fields enhanced by the two-stream instability can lead to defocusing of the ion beam. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we study the scaling of the instability-driven self-electromagnetic fields and consequent defocusing forces with the background plasma density and beam ion mass. We identify plasma parameters where the defocusing forces can be reduced.
Double Arc Instability in the Solar Corona
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishiguro, N.; Kusano, K., E-mail: n-ishiguro@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 Japan (Japan)
2017-07-10
The stability of the magnetic field in the solar corona is important for understanding the causes of solar eruptions. Although various scenarios have been suggested to date, the tether-cutting reconnection scenario proposed by Moore et al. is one of the widely accepted models to explain the onset process of solar eruptions. Although the tether-cutting reconnection scenario proposes that the sigmoidal field formed by internal reconnection is the magnetic field in the pre-eruptive state, the stability of the sigmoidal field has not yet been investigated quantitatively. In this paper, in order to elucidate the stability problem of the pre-eruptive state, we developed a simple numerical analysis in which the sigmoidal field is modeled by a double arc electric current loop and its stability is analyzed. As a result, we found that the double arc loop is more easily destabilized than the axisymmetric torus, and it becomes unstable even if the external field does not decay with altitude, which is in contrast to the axisymmetric torus instability. This suggests that tether-cutting reconnection may well work as the onset mechanism of solar eruptions, and if so, the critical condition for eruption under a certain geometry may be determined by a new type of instability rather than by the torus instability. Based on them, we propose a new type of instability called double arc instability (DAI). We discuss the critical conditions for DAI and derive a new parameter κ , defined as the product of the magnetic twist and the normalized flux of the tether-cutting reconnection.
Triclade: influence of a sinuous secondary instability on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boulet, M.; Griffond, J.
2004-01-01
Occurrence of a secondary instability developing after the Richtmyer-Meshkov (primary) instability is emphasized thanks to numerical simulations with the TRICLADE code. We are mainly considering 2D perturbations describes by trigonometric function cosine or [cosine]. However, the 3D case is also tackled. The sinuous secondary instability is characterized by the loss of the symmetries in the direction normal to the interface at its crests. It reduces the late time growing rate of the 'mushrooms' formed by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. Related simplified problems, like symmetrical Riemann problems or the Mallier-Maslowe array of counter-rotating vortices, allow us to perform 2D linear stability analysis. Thus, we show that the sinuous secondary instability is not a numerical artifact and that is comes from the continuous incompressible velocity field in the interface region. This instability implies temporal limitations for the validity of single mode simulations; therefore multimode simulations are necessary to study the ]ate-time behaviour of interfaces bitted by shocks. (authors)
Plasma instabilities multifrequency study in equatorial electrojet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanuise, C.
1983-01-01
In this thesis, multifrequential HF coherent radar results are presented, in the field plasma instabilities in equatorial electrojet. In a first part, characteristics of the irregularities observed either at the 3 meter wavelength by VHF radars, either at other wavelengths during pinpoint experiments, or in-situ by probe rockets are recalled. Theoretical studies progressed and are presented, at the same time with these experimental observations: instability linear theory, non linear theories, HF radar specificity, and problems associated to HF waves propagation and refraction in ionosphere. Original experimental results from Ethiopia are gathered in the second part. Plasma instability has been studied in different geophysical conditions and Doppler spectra characteristics are presented for each one of them. These characteristics are completely different according to the various cases; they are also different according to wether observations are made during the day in normal conditions (electric field pointed to the east at the equator) or in counter-electrojet conditions (electric field pointed to the west). The last part is concerned with theoretical interpretation of the previous results. A comprehensive view of the instability physical mechanisms, according to the geophysical conditions encountered, has been allowed by our results, VHF radar measurements at Jicamarca, or in situ probe measurements on the whole. Irregularities study has been limited to the E region [fr
Zhang, Hua; Harter, Thomas; Sivakumar, Bellie
2006-06-01
Facies-based geostatistical models have become important tools for analyzing flow and mass transport processes in heterogeneous aquifers. Yet little is known about the relationship between these latter processes and the parameters of facies-based geostatistical models. In this study, we examine the transport of a nonpoint source solute normal (perpendicular) to the major bedding plane of an alluvial aquifer medium that contains multiple geologic facies, including interconnected, high-conductivity (coarse textured) facies. We also evaluate the dependence of the transport behavior on the parameters of the constitutive facies model. A facies-based Markov chain geostatistical model is used to quantify the spatial variability of the aquifer system's hydrostratigraphy. It is integrated with a groundwater flow model and a random walk particle transport model to estimate the solute traveltime probability density function (pdf) for solute flux from the water table to the bottom boundary (the production horizon) of the aquifer. The cases examined include two-, three-, and four-facies models, with mean length anisotropy ratios for horizontal to vertical facies, ek, from 25:1 to 300:1 and with a wide range of facies volume proportions (e.g., from 5 to 95% coarse-textured facies). Predictions of traveltime pdfs are found to be significantly affected by the number of hydrostratigraphic facies identified in the aquifer. Those predictions of traveltime pdfs also are affected by the proportions of coarse-textured sediments, the mean length of the facies (particularly the ratio of length to thickness of coarse materials), and, to a lesser degree, the juxtapositional preference among the hydrostratigraphic facies. In transport normal to the sedimentary bedding plane, traveltime is not lognormally distributed as is often assumed. Also, macrodispersive behavior (variance of the traveltime) is found not to be a unique function of the conductivity variance. For the parameter range
Boucard, Christine C.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; van der Grond, Jeroen; Cornelissen, Frans W.
2007-01-01
Background. Progressive visual field defects, such as age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, prevent normal stimulation of visual cortex. We investigated whether in the case of visual field defects, concentrations of metabolites such as N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker for degenerative
Variable field-to-normal angles in the shock foreshock boundary observed by ISEE 1 and 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenstadt, E.W.; Mellot, M.M.
1985-01-01
Saturated ULF waves in the foreshock, with amplitudes comparable to the magnitude of the average field, are convected by the solar wind to the quasi-parallel shock where the average field-normal angle is less than, or about, 45 0 . Several examples from ISEE 1 and 2 magnetometer data show waves that defined local, instantaneous field-normal angles very different periodically from the average. Local geometric conditions at the nominally quasi-parallel shock varied from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular, at the periods of typical upstream waves. Clear magnetic shock transitions occurred under temporarily quasi-perpendicular geometry
A Gauss-Newton method for the integration of spatial normal fields in shape Space
Balzer, Jonathan
2011-08-09
We address the task of adjusting a surface to a vector field of desired surface normals in space. The described method is entirely geometric in the sense, that it does not depend on a particular parametrization of the surface in question. It amounts to solving a nonlinear least-squares problem in shape space. Previously, the corresponding minimization has been performed by gradient descent, which suffers from slow convergence and susceptibility to local minima. Newton-type methods, although significantly more robust and efficient, have not been attempted as they require second-order Hadamard differentials. These are difficult to compute for the problem of interest and in general fail to be positive-definite symmetric. We propose a novel approximation of the shape Hessian, which is not only rigorously justified but also leads to excellent numerical performance of the actual optimization. Moreover, a remarkable connection to Sobolev flows is exposed. Three other established algorithms from image and geometry processing turn out to be special cases of ours. Our numerical implementation founds on a fast finite-elements formulation on the minimizing sequence of triangulated shapes. A series of examples from a wide range of different applications is discussed to underline flexibility and efficiency of the approach. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Xiong, Yuan; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Min
2016-01-01
Dynamical and electrical responses of a small coflow diffusion flame were investigated by applying a high-voltage alternating current (AC), to a fuel jet nozzle. High-speed imaging and electrical diagnostics were adopted to capture flame dynamics and electrical signals, such as voltage (V ), frequency (f ) and current (I ). In the V -f domain of 0-5kV and 0-5kHz, AC-driven instabilities, resulting in various flame modes such as an oscillation, pinch-off and spinning of flames were identified. Characteristic frequency of each mode was determined and a visualization of near-nozzle flow structures suggested a close causality of initial counter-rotating vortices (inner and outer toroidal vortices - ITV and OTV), to the other observed flame. An axisymmetric ITV shedding was identified within oscillating and pinch-off modes, while asymmetric ITV shedding was identified with the spinning mode. Integrated electric power over several AC periods correlated well with variation in the flame surface area for these instabilities, demonstrating that measured electric power is a potential indicator of combustion instabilities in electric-field-assisted combustion.
Xiong, Yuan
2016-06-24
Dynamical and electrical responses of a small coflow diffusion flame were investigated by applying a high-voltage alternating current (AC), to a fuel jet nozzle. High-speed imaging and electrical diagnostics were adopted to capture flame dynamics and electrical signals, such as voltage (V ), frequency (f ) and current (I ). In the V -f domain of 0-5kV and 0-5kHz, AC-driven instabilities, resulting in various flame modes such as an oscillation, pinch-off and spinning of flames were identified. Characteristic frequency of each mode was determined and a visualization of near-nozzle flow structures suggested a close causality of initial counter-rotating vortices (inner and outer toroidal vortices - ITV and OTV), to the other observed flame. An axisymmetric ITV shedding was identified within oscillating and pinch-off modes, while asymmetric ITV shedding was identified with the spinning mode. Integrated electric power over several AC periods correlated well with variation in the flame surface area for these instabilities, demonstrating that measured electric power is a potential indicator of combustion instabilities in electric-field-assisted combustion.
Genomic instability and radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Little, John B [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)
2003-06-01
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)
Genomic instability and radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Little, John B
2003-01-01
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)
Holmes, Philip J.
1981-06-01
We study the instabilities known to aeronautical engineers as flutter and divergence. Mathematically, these states correspond to bifurcations to limit cycles and multiple equilibrium points in a differential equation. Making use of the center manifold and normal form theorems, we concentrate on the situation in which flutter and divergence become coupled, and show that there are essentially two ways in which this is likely to occur. In the first case the system can be reduced to an essential model which takes the form of a single degree of freedom nonlinear oscillator. This system, which may be analyzed by conventional phase-plane techniques, captures all the qualitative features of the full system. We discuss the reduction and show how the nonlinear terms may be simplified and put into normal form. Invariant manifold theory and the normal form theorem play a major role in this work and this paper serves as an introduction to their application in mechanics. Repeating the approach in the second case, we show that the essential model is now three dimensional and that far more complex behavior is possible, including nonperiodic and ‘chaotic’ motions. Throughout, we take a two degree of freedom system as an example, but the general methods are applicable to multi- and even infinite degree of freedom problems.
Pfaff, Robert F.; Freudenreich, H.; Rowland, D.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.
2012-01-01
The Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the C/NOFS equatorial satellite provides a unique data set which includes detailed measurements of irregularities associated with the equatorial ionosphere and in particular with spread-F depletions. We present vector AC electric field observations gathered on C/NOFS that address a variety of key questions regarding how plasma irregularities, from meter to kilometer scales, are created and evolve. The talk focuses on occasions where the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400 km as solar activity has increased. In particular, during the equinox periods of 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set: The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second result is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is near or below the F-peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field
Lamarche, Leslie J.; Makarevich, Roman A.
2017-03-01
We present observations of plasma density gradients, electric fields, and small-scale plasma irregularities near a polar cap patch made by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar at Rankin Inlet (RKN) and the northern face of Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N). RKN echo power and occurrence are analyzed in the context of gradient-drift instability (GDI) theory, with a particular focus on the previously uninvestigated 2-D dependencies on wave propagation, electric field, and gradient vectors, with the latter two quantities evaluated directly from RISR-N measurements. It is shown that higher gradient and electric field components along the wave vector generally lead to the higher observed echo occurrence, which is consistent with the expected higher GDI growth rate, but the relationship with echo power is far less straightforward. The RKN echo power increases monotonically as the predicted linear growth rate approaches zero from negative values but does not continue this trend into positive growth rate values, in contrast with GDI predictions. The observed greater consistency of echo occurrence with GDI predictions suggests that GDI operating in the linear regime can control basic plasma structuring, but measured echo strength may be affected by other processes and factors, such as multistep or nonlinear processes or a shear-driven instability.
Potential fields on the ventricular surface of the exposed dog heart during normal excitation.
Arisi, G; Macchi, E; Baruffi, S; Spaggiari, S; Taccardi, B
1983-06-01
We studied the normal spread of excitation on the anterior and posterior ventricular surface of open-chest dogs by recording unipolar electrograms from an array of 1124 electrodes spaced 2 mm apart. The array had the shape of the ventricular surface of the heart. The electrograms were processed by a computer and displayed as epicardial equipotential maps at 1-msec intervals. Isochrone maps also were drawn. Several new features of epicardial potential fields were identified: (1) a high number of breakthrough points; (2) the topography, apparent widths, velocities of the wavefronts and the related potential drop; (3) the topography of positive potential peaks in relation to the wavefronts. Fifteen to 24 breakthrough points were located on the anterior, and 10 to 13 on the posterior ventricular surface. Some were in previously described locations and many others in new locations. Specifically, 3 to 5 breakthrough points appeared close to the atrioventricular groove on the anterior right ventricle and 2 to 4 on the posterior heart aspect; these basal breakthrough points appeared when a large portion of ventricular surface was still unexcited. Due to the presence of numerous breakthrough points on the anterior and posterior aspect of the heart which had not previously been described, the spread of excitation on the ventricular surface was "mosaic-like," with activation wavefronts spreading in all directions, rather than radially from the two breakthrough points, as traditionally described. The positive potential peaks which lay ahead of the expanding wavefronts moved along preferential directions which were probably related to the myocardial fiber direction.
Ponzio, Maria; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Matasci, Battista; Jaboyedoff, Michel
2013-04-01
In Alpine areas rockslides and rock avalanches represent common gravitational hazards that potentially constitute a danger for people and infrastructures. The aim of this study is to characterize and understand the different factors influencing the distribution of large slope instabilities affecting the Val Canaria (southern Switzerland). In particular the importance of the tectonic and lithological settings as well as the impact of the groundwater circulations are investigated in detail. Val Canaria is a SW-NE trending lateral valley that displays potential large rock slope failure. Located just above one of the main N-S communication way (Highway, Railway) through the Alps, the development of large instabilities in the Val Canaria might have dramatic consequences for the main valley downstream. The dominant geological structure of the study area is the presence of a major tectonic boundary separating two basement nappes, constituted by gneissic lithologies, i.e. the Gotthard massif and the Lucomagno nappe that are located in the northern and southern part of the valley respectively. The basement units are separated by meta-sediments of Piora syncline composed by gypsum, dolomitic breccia and fractured calc-mica schists. Along with detailed geological mapping, the use of remote sensing techniques (Aerial and Terrestrial Laser Scanning) allows us to propose a multi-disciplinary approach that combines geological mapping and interpretation with periodic monitoring of the most active rockslide areas. A large array of TLS point cloud datasets (first acquisition in 2006) constitute a notable input, for monitoring purposes, and also for structural, rock mass characterization and failure mechanism interpretations. The analyses highlighted that both valley flanks are affected by deep-seated gravitational slope deformation covering a total area of about 8 km2 (corresponding to 40% of the catchment area). The most active area corresponds to the lower part of the valley
Gandikota, G; Chatain, D; Amiroudine, S; Lyubimova, T; Beysens, D
2014-01-01
The frozen-wave instability which appears at a liquid-vapor interface when a harmonic vibration is applied in a direction tangential to it has been less studied until now. The present paper reports experiments on hydrogen (H2) in order to study this instability when the temperature is varied near its critical point for various gravity levels. Close to the critical point, a liquid-vapor density difference and surface tension can be continuously varied with temperature in a scaled, universal way. The effect of gravity on the height of the frozen waves at the interface is studied by performing the experiments in a magnetic facility where effective gravity that results from the coupling of the Earth's gravity and magnetic forces can be varied. The stability diagram of the instability is obtained. The experiments show a good agreement with an inviscid model [Fluid Dyn. 21 849 (1987)], irrespective of the gravity level. It is observed in the experiments that the height of the frozen waves varies weakly with temperature and increases with a decrease in the gravity level, according to a power law with an exponent of 0.7. It is concluded that the wave height becomes of the order of the cell size as the gravity level is asymptotically decreased to zero. The interface pattern thus appears as a bandlike pattern of alternate liquid and vapor phases, a puzzling phenomenon that was observed with CO2 and H2 near their critical point in weightlessness [Acta Astron. 61 1002 (2007); Europhys. Lett. 86 16003 (2009)].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitt, R.; Froehner, S.; Coblenz, G.; Christopoulos, G.
2006-01-01
This review addresses the pathoanatomical basics as well as the clinical and radiological presentation of instability patterns of the wrist. Carpal instability mostly follows an injury; however, other diseases, like CPPD arthropathy, can be associated. Instability occurs either if the carpus is unable to sustain physiologic loads (''dyskinetics'') or suffers from abnormal motion of its bones during movement (''dyskinematics''). In the classification of carpal instability, dissociative subcategories (located within proximal carpal row) are differentiated from non-dissociative subcategories (present between the carpal rows) and combined patterns. It is essential to note that the unstable wrist initially does not cause relevant signs in standard radiograms, therefore being ''occult'' for the radiologic assessment. This paper emphasizes the high utility of kinematographic studies, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR arthrography for detecting these predynamic and dynamic instability stages. Later in the natural history of carpal instability, static malalignment of the wrist and osteoarthritis will develop, both being associated with significant morbidity and disability. To prevent individual and socio-economic implications, the handsurgeon or orthopedist, as well as the radiologist, is challenged for early and precise diagnosis. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madarame, Haruki; Okamoto, Koji; Iida, Masao
1997-03-01
Various nonlinear behaviors caused by nonlinear boundary conditions have been observed, and it is feared that in large vessels like FBRs, the instability phenomena such as self-exciting sloshing may occur in the free liquid surface of coolant. In this research, the nonlinear instability phenomena in free liquid surface were examined by the basic experiment and the analysis. As to the self-exciting oscillation 'jet flutter' of upward plane jet that collides against liquid surface, in order to know the mechanism of determining the frequency and supplying energy, the amplitude and phase relation of various variable quantities were investigated. The simplified model for calculating the displacement of jet was made, and compared with the experiment. The jet flutter phenomena are explained. The interaction of free liquid surface and turbulent flow, which is important for considering the nonlinearity in free liquid surface, was measured by LDV and visualization, and the turbulent flow phenomena in free liquid surface were investigated. In the experiment, turbulent flow energy was given to the free liquid surfaces of water and polymers, and the effect that the Toms effect exerted to interface turbulent flow was observed. The results of these studies are reported. (K.I.) studies are reported. (K.I.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Repse, Stephen E., E-mail: stephrep@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Monash Health, VIC (Australia); Koulouris, George, E-mail: GeorgeK@melbourneradiology.com.au [Melbourne Radiology Clinic, Ground Floor, 3-6/100 Victoria Parade, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Centre for Orthopaedic Research, School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Troupis, John M., E-mail: john.troupis@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Imaging & Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Monash Health and Department of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing & Health Sciences, Monash University, VIC (Australia)
2015-05-15
Highlights: • Unique insight into the assessment of mid carpal instability. • 4D CT using sagittal reconstructions along the radius–lunate–capitate axis. • 4D CT observations of vacuum phenomenon, trigger lunate and capitate subluxation. • Earlier recognition of mid carpal instability. - Abstract: Purpose: Dynamic four dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) has recently emerged as a practical method for evaluating complex functional abnormality of joints. We retrospectively analysed 4D CT studies undertaken as part of the clinical management of hand and wrist symptoms. We present our initial experience of 4D CT in the assessment of functional abnormalities of the wrist in a group of patients with mid carpal instability (MCI), specifically carpal instability non-dissociative. We aim to highlight unique features in assessment of the radius–lunate–capitate (RLC) axis which allows insight and understanding of abnormalities in function, not just morphology, which may be contributing to symptoms. Materials and methods: Wide field of view multi-detector CT scanner (320 slices, 0.5 mm detector thickness) was used to acquire bilateral continuous motion assessment in hand flexion and extension. A maximum z-axis coverage of 16 cm was available for each acquisition, and a large field of view (FOV) was used. Due to the volume acquisition during motion, reconstructions at multiple time points were undertaken. Dynamic and anatomically targeted multi-planar-reconstructions (MPRs) were then used to establish the kinematic functionality of the joint. Results: Our initial cohort of 20 patients was reviewed. Three findings were identified which were present either in isolation or in combination. These are vacuum phenomenon, triggering of the lunate and capitate subluxation. We provide 4D CT representations of each and highlight features considered of clinical importance and their significance. We also briefly discuss how the current classifications of dynamic wrist
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Repse, Stephen E.; Koulouris, George; Troupis, John M.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Unique insight into the assessment of mid carpal instability. • 4D CT using sagittal reconstructions along the radius–lunate–capitate axis. • 4D CT observations of vacuum phenomenon, trigger lunate and capitate subluxation. • Earlier recognition of mid carpal instability. - Abstract: Purpose: Dynamic four dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) has recently emerged as a practical method for evaluating complex functional abnormality of joints. We retrospectively analysed 4D CT studies undertaken as part of the clinical management of hand and wrist symptoms. We present our initial experience of 4D CT in the assessment of functional abnormalities of the wrist in a group of patients with mid carpal instability (MCI), specifically carpal instability non-dissociative. We aim to highlight unique features in assessment of the radius–lunate–capitate (RLC) axis which allows insight and understanding of abnormalities in function, not just morphology, which may be contributing to symptoms. Materials and methods: Wide field of view multi-detector CT scanner (320 slices, 0.5 mm detector thickness) was used to acquire bilateral continuous motion assessment in hand flexion and extension. A maximum z-axis coverage of 16 cm was available for each acquisition, and a large field of view (FOV) was used. Due to the volume acquisition during motion, reconstructions at multiple time points were undertaken. Dynamic and anatomically targeted multi-planar-reconstructions (MPRs) were then used to establish the kinematic functionality of the joint. Results: Our initial cohort of 20 patients was reviewed. Three findings were identified which were present either in isolation or in combination. These are vacuum phenomenon, triggering of the lunate and capitate subluxation. We provide 4D CT representations of each and highlight features considered of clinical importance and their significance. We also briefly discuss how the current classifications of dynamic wrist
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jocelyn Faubert
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We assessed temporal modulation visual fields (TMFs for 91 observers including controls, Parkinson patients and members of the James Bay Cree community of Northern Québec suspected of being chronically exposed to relatively low levels of methyl-mercury. The main goal was to establish the feasibility of using such procedures to rapidly evaluate visual function in a large field study with the James Bay Cree community. The results show clear normal aging effects on TMFs and the pattern of loss differed depending on the flicker rates used. Group data comparisons between the controls and the experimental groups showed significant effects only between the Cree and normal controls in the 40 to 49 year-old age category for the low temporal frequency condition (2 Hz. Examples of individual analysis shows a Cree observer with severe visual field constriction at the 2 Hz condition with a normal visual field at the 16 Hz condition and a reverse pattern was demonstrated for a Parkinson's patient where a visual field constriction was evident only for the 16 Hz condition. The general conclusions are: Such a technique can be used to evaluate the visual consequences of neuropathological disorders and it may lead to dissociation between certain neurotoxic and neurodegenerative effects depending on the parameters used; this technique can be used for a large field study because it is rapid and easily understood and performed by the subjects; the TMF procedure used showed good test-retest correlations; normal aging causes changes in TMF profiles but the changes will show different patterns throughout the visual field depending on the parameters used.
Instabilities in mimetic matter perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Firouzjahi, Hassan; Gorji, Mohammad Ali [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: gorji@ipm.ir, E-mail: shosseini@shahroodut.ac.ir, E-mail: shossein@ipm.ir [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161 Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-07-01
We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter scenario with a general higher derivative function. We calculate the quadratic action and show that both the kinetic term and the gradient term have the wrong sings. We perform the analysis in both comoving and Newtonian gauges and confirm that the Hamiltonians and the associated instabilities are consistent with each other in both gauges. The existence of instabilities is independent of the specific form of higher derivative function which generates gradients for mimetic field perturbations. It is verified that the ghost instability in mimetic perturbations is not associated with the higher derivative instabilities such as the Ostrogradsky ghost.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broderick, Avery E; Chang, Philip; Pfrommer, Christoph [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)
2012-06-10
Inverse Compton cascades (ICCs) initiated by energetic gamma rays (E {approx}> 100 GeV) enhance the GeV emission from bright, extragalactic TeV sources. The absence of this emission from bright TeV blazars has been used to constrain the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF), and the stringent limits placed on the unresolved extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB) by Fermi have been used to argue against a large number of such objects at high redshifts. However, these are predicated on the assumption that inverse Compton scattering is the primary energy-loss mechanism for the ultrarelativistic pairs produced by the annihilation of the energetic gamma rays on extragalactic background light photons. Here, we show that for sufficiently bright TeV sources (isotropic-equivalent luminosities {approx}> 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}) plasma beam instabilities, specifically the 'oblique' instability, present a plausible mechanism by which the energy of these pairs can be dissipated locally, heating the intergalactic medium. Since these instabilities typically grow on timescales short in comparison to the inverse Compton cooling rate, they necessarily suppress the ICCs. As a consequence, this places a severe constraint on efforts to limit the IGMF from the lack of a discernible GeV bump in TeV sources. Similarly, it considerably weakens the Fermi limits on the evolution of blazar populations. Specifically, we construct a TeV-blazar luminosity function from those objects currently observed and find that it is very well described by the quasar luminosity function at z {approx} 0.1, shifted to lower luminosities and number densities, suggesting that both classes of sources are regulated by similar processes. Extending this relationship to higher redshifts, we show that the magnitude and shape of the EGRB above {approx}10 GeV are naturally reproduced with this particular example of a rapidly evolving TeV-blazar luminosity function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dourisboure Ricardo J
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC is an autosomal dominant syndrome predisposing to the early development of various cancers including those of colon, rectum, endometrium, ovarium, small bowel, stomach and urinary tract. HNPCC is caused by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes, mostly hMSH2 or hMLH1. In this study, we report the analysis for genetic counseling of three first-degree relatives (the mother and two sisters of a male who died of colorectal adenocarcinoma at the age of 23. The family fulfilled strict Amsterdam-I criteria (AC-I with the presence of extracolonic tumors in the extended pedigree. We overcame the difficulty of having a proband post-mortem non-tumor tissue sample for MSI testing by studying the alleles carried by his progenitors. Methods Tumor MSI testing is described as initial screening in both primary and metastasis tumor tissue blocks, using the reference panel of 5 microsatellite markers standardized by the National Cancer Institute (NCI for the screening of HNPCC (BAT-25, BAT-26, D2S123, D5S346 and D17S250. Subsequent mutation analysis of the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes was performed. Results Three of five microsatellite markers (BAT-25, BAT-26 and D5S346 presented different alleles in the proband's tumor as compared to those inherited from his parents. The tumor was classified as high frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H. We identified in the HNPCC family a novel germline missense (c.1864C>A mutation in exon 12 of hMSH2 gene, leading to a proline 622 to threonine (p.Pro622Thr amino acid substitution. Conclusion This approach allowed us to establish the tumor MSI status using the NCI recommended panel in the absence of proband's non-tumor tissue and before sequencing the obligate carrier. According to the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD and the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumors (InSiGHT Database this is the first report of this mutation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan-Rong, Cao; Xiao-Hua, Ma; Yue, Hao; Shi-Gang, Hu
2010-01-01
This paper studies the effect of drain bias on ultra-short p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (PMOSFET) degradation during negative bias temperature (NBT) stress. When a relatively large gate voltage is applied, the degradation magnitude is much more than the drain voltage which is the same as the gate voltage supplied, and the time exponent gets larger than that of the NBT instability (NBTI). With decreasing drain voltage, the degradation magnitude and the time exponent all get smaller. At some values of the drain voltage, the degradation magnitude is even smaller than that of NBTI, and when the drain voltage gets small enough, the exhibition of degradation becomes very similar to the NBTI degradation. When a relatively large drain voltage is applied, with decreasing gate voltage, the degradation magnitude gets smaller. However, the time exponent becomes larger. With the help of electric field simulation, this paper concludes that the degradation magnitude is determined by the vertical electric field of the oxide, the amount of hot holes generated by the strong channel lateral electric field at the gate/drain overlap region, and the time exponent is mainly controlled by localized damage caused by the lateral electric field of the oxide in the gate/drain overlap region where hot carriers are produced. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogister, A.L.M.; Hasselberg, G.
1993-01-01
To the ionization instability described in Part I correspond odd Φ, even b r eigenfunctions leading, as for the tearing mode, to a magnetic island belt centred about the rational magnetic surface q=m a (q is the safety factor; m is the mode number). Plasma dumping on the target plates, along the island magnetic field lines, releases the neutrals, the ionization of which drives the instability. This self-consistent model of the plasma edge yields the electron temperature on the last closed equilibrium magnetic surface and the particle confinement time, which are compared with the values measured in TEXTOR and other tokamaks; interestingly, the value obtained for τ p is very reminiscent of the heuristic energy confinement time expression proposed by Kaye and Goldston. Theory also predicts an equilibrium bifurcation at high power, corresponding to a reduction, and then a collapse, of the island width. The hypothesis that the (L mode) island belt be hooked up to the machine's structure is briefly discussed. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs
Instabilities and nonequilibrium structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tirapegui, E.; Villarroel, D.
1987-01-01
Physical systems can be studied both near to and far from equilibrium where instabilities appear. The behaviour in these two regions is reviewed in this book, from both the theoretical and application points of view. The influence of noise in these situations is an essential feature which cannot be ignored. It is therefore discussed using phenomenological and theoretical approaches for the numerous problems which still remain in the field. This volume should appeal to mathematicians and physicists interested in the areas of instability, bifurcation theory, dynamical systems, pattern formation, nonequilibrium structures and statistical mechanics. (Auth.)
Seasonal Canopy Temperatures for Normal and Okra Leaf Cotton under Variable Irrigation in the Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James R. Mahan
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Temperature affects a number of physiological factors in plants and is related to water use, yield and quality in many crop species. Seasonal canopy temperature, measured with infrared thermometers, is often used in conjunction with environmental factors (e.g., air temperature, humidity, solar radiation to assess crop stress and management actions in cotton. Normal and okra leaf shapes in cotton have been associated with differences in water use and canopy temperature. The okra leaf shape in cotton is generally expected to result in lower water use and lower canopy temperatures, relative to normal leaf, under water deficits. In this study canopy temperatures were monitored in okra and normal leaf varieties for a growing season at four irrigation levels. Differences in canopy temperature (<2 °C were measured between the two leaf shapes. As irrigation levels increased, canopy temperature differences between the leaf shapes declined. At the lowest irrigation level, when differences in sensible energy exchanges due to the okra leaf shape would be enhanced, the canopy temperature of the okra leaf was warmer than the normal leaf. This suggests that varietal differences that are not related to leaf shape may have more than compensated for leaf shape differences in the canopy temperature.
Balzer, Jonathan
2011-01-01
having the remarkable property that it equally changes in all spatial directions, unlike normal maps occurring, e.g., in Shape from Shading. Its integration into a zero-order reconstruction of the surface thus deserves special attention. We develop a
Electron/electron acoustic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gary, S.P.
1987-01-01
The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma
Fingerprints of dynamical instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Ph.; Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.
1993-01-01
It is explained why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. It is shown that the introduction of this stochastic dynamics leads to a predictive theory in a statistical sens whatever the individual trajectories are characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations, instabilities or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, the spinodal instability is discussed. In such a critical situation, the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment is studied. It is shown that the fingerprints of these instabilities are kept during the evolution because of the relatively long recombination time compared with the typical time scales imposed by the Coulomb repulsion and the possible collective expansion. (author) 5 refs., 12 figs
Plasma physics and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashmore-Davies, C.N.
1981-01-01
These lectures procide an introduction to the theory of plasmas and their instabilities. Starting from the Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood, and Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy of kinetic equations, the additional concept of self-consistent fields leads to the fundamental Vlasov equation and hence to the warm two-fluid model and the one-fluid MHD, or cold, model. The properties of small-amplitude waves in magnetized (and unmagnetized) plasmas, and the instabilities to which they give rise, are described in some detail, and a complete chapter is devoted to Landau damping. The linear theory of plasma instabilities is illustrated by the current-driven electrostatic kind, with descriptions of the Penrose criterion and the energy principle of ideal MHD. There is a brief account of the application of feedback control. The non-linear theory is represented by three examples: quasi-linear velocity-space instabilities, three-wave instabilities, and the stability of an arbitrarily largeamplitude wave in a plasma. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurosawa, Ryo; Inoue, Takamitsu; Baba, Yuya; Sugioka, Ken-ichi; Kubo, Masaki; Tsukada, Takao; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki
2013-01-01
The normal spectral emissivity of molten copper was determined in the wavelength range of 780–920 nm and in the temperature range of 1288–1678 K, by directly measuring the radiance emitted by an electromagnetically levitated molten copper droplet under a static magnetic field of 1.5 T. The spectrometer for radiance measurement was calibrated using the relation between the theoretical blackbody radiance from Planck's law and the light intensity of a quasi-blackbody radiation source measured using a spectrometer at a given temperature. As a result, the normal spectral emissivity of molten copper was determined as 0.075 ± 0.011 at a wavelength of 807 nm, and it was found that its temperature dependence is negligible in the entire measurement temperature range tested. In addition, the results of the normal spectral emissivity and its wavelength dependence were discussed, in comparison with those obtained using the Drude free-electron model. (paper)
Ueda, T.; Obata, M.
2011-12-01
Plastic instability leading to rupture nucleation and propagetion (e.g. Hobbs et al.1986, Kelemen and Hirth, 2007) is an attractive hypothesis for deep earthquakes but lacked clear field evidences. 1D across-fault shear localization observed in some places (e.g. Jin et al.1998) is not clear if the deformation is directly related with seismicity. We present a clear field evidence of plastic instability as guided by pyroxenite/peridotite layering deflection structure (hereafter called LD structure, see figure) accompanied with mylonitization in spinel(Sp)-peridotite facies (P>~1GPa) in Balmuccia peridotite, Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Italy. The studied area contains abundant PST-bearing faults and N-S trending primary pyroxenite layers. Many faults in the area cut pyroxenite layers, but LD structure is found only in one place presented here. Many PSTs in the area have been (re)crystallized in Sp-peridotite facies, and have typically ultramylonitic texture (Ueda et al., 2008) with some injection veins. The fault with LD structure is situated in a fault system, which has two dominant attitudes with regional N-S extension. The shear strain of LD structure measured on outcrop surface is ~2.0. Near the fault, elongated Opx porphyroclasts (ellipses in figure) oblique to local layering are visible in peridotite. The dominant deformation textures are dynamic recrystallization in peridotite and kinking or undulatory extinction in pyroxenite. The mineral assemblages of the mylonite neoblast in the peridotite and the pyroxenite are Ol+Opx+Cpx+Sp+hornblende(Hbl), Cpx+Opx+Sp, respectively. Hbl typically occur only in neoblast. In the vicinity (several hundreds of micron) of the fault, dolomite(Dol) also occur in equilibrium with the assemblage above. The recrystallized grain sizes are 20-50 microns in peridotite and 10-30 microns in pyroxenite. The rarity of LD structure is consistent with general conception that deformation processes which lead to dynamic rupture initiation ought to be
A general approach to optomechanical parametric instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, M.; Barsotti, L.; Fritschel, P.
2010-01-01
We present a simple feedback description of parametric instabilities which can be applied to a variety of optical systems. Parametric instabilities are of particular interest to the field of gravitational-wave interferometry where high mechanical quality factors and a large amount of stored optical power have the potential for instability. In our use of Advanced LIGO as an example application, we find that parametric instabilities, if left unaddressed, present a potential threat to the stability of high-power operation.
Normalization for sparse encoding of odors by a wide-field interneuron.
Papadopoulou, Maria; Cassenaer, Stijn; Nowotny, Thomas; Laurent, Gilles
2011-05-06
Sparse coding presents practical advantages for sensory representations and memory storage. In the insect olfactory system, the representation of general odors is dense in the antennal lobes but sparse in the mushroom bodies, only one synapse downstream. In locusts, this transformation relies on the oscillatory structure of antennal lobe output, feed-forward inhibitory circuits, intrinsic properties of mushroom body neurons, and connectivity between antennal lobe and mushroom bodies. Here we show the existence of a normalizing negative-feedback loop within the mushroom body to maintain sparse output over a wide range of input conditions. This loop consists of an identifiable "giant" nonspiking inhibitory interneuron with ubiquitous connectivity and graded release properties.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyerhofer, D.D.; Perkins, F.W.
1984-01-01
The kinetic Alfven wave is studied in a cylindrical force-free plasma with self-consistent magnetic fields. This equilibrium represents a reversed field pinch or a spheromak. The stability of the wave is found to depend on the ratio of the electron drift velocity to the Alfven velocity. This ratio varies inversely with the square root of the plasma line density. The critical line density using the Spitzer--Harm electron distribution function is found for reversed field pinches with deuterium plasmas to be approximately 2 x 10 18 and is 5 x 10 17 m -1 in spheromaks with hydrogen plasmas. The critical line density is in reasonable agreement with experimental data for reversed field pinches
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the most practical forms of electric propulsion is the Hall Effect Thruster (HET), which makes use of electric and magnetic fields to create and eject a...
Comparison between Humphrey Field Analyzer and Micro Perimeter 1 in normal and glaucoma subjects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vineet Ratra
2012-01-01
Results: The mean light thresholds of 21 matching points in control group with MP1 and HFA were 14.97 ± 2.64 dB and 30.90 ± 2.08 dB, respectively. In subjects with glaucoma, the mean values were MP1: 11.73 ± 4.36 dB and HFA: 27.96 ± 5.41 dB. Mean difference of light thresholds among the two instruments was 15.86 ± 3.25 dB in normal subjects (P < 0.001 and 16.22 ± 2.77 dB in glaucoma subjects (P < 0.001. Pearson correlation analysis of the HFA and MP1 results for each test point location in both cases and control subjects showed significant positive correlation (controls, r = 0.439, P = 0.047; glaucoma subjects, r = 0.812, P < 0.001. There was no difference between nasal and temporal points but a slight vertical asymmetry was observed with MP1. Conclusion: There are significant and reproducible differences in the differential light threshold in MP1 and HFA in both normal and glaucoma subjects. We found a correction factor of 17.271 for comparison of MP1 with HFA. MP1 appeared to be more sensitive in predicting loss in glaucoma.
Hengartner, Michael P; Cohen, Lisa J; Rodgers, Stephanie; Müller, Mario; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta
2015-02-01
We assessed normal personality traits and childhood trauma in approximately 1170 subjects from a general population-based community sample. In bivariate analyses emotional abuse was most pervasively related to personality, showing significant detrimental associations with neuroticism, extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. Neuroticism was significantly related to emotional abuse and neglect, physical abuse and neglect, and sexual abuse. Emotional abuse was related to neuroticism in men more profoundly than in women (β = 0.095). Adjusting for the covariance between childhood maltreatment variables, neuroticism was mainly related to emotional abuse (β = 0.193), extraversion to emotional neglect (β = -0.259), openness to emotional abuse (β = 0.175), conscientiousness to emotional abuse (β = -0.110), and agreeableness to emotional neglect (β = -0.153). The proportion of variance explained was highest in neuroticism (5.6%) and lowest in openness (1.9%) and conscientiousness (1.8%). These findings help to understand the complex association between childhood maltreatment and both normal and pathological personality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorje Ignacio Zalles
2017-09-01
Full Text Available From a natural sciences perspective, efforts directed at the conservation of biodiversity are based upon what is known as conservation biology. Given its epistemological assumptions, conservation biology faces obstacles in the incorporation of wisdom originating in local ecological knowledge, that which a local population has gained about the local environment which it is surrounded by and due to its direct contact with this local environment, instead of the result of a product of a positivist scientific inquiry. Post-normal science has emerged in recent decades as an alternative for public management that aims to complement the search for knowledge by means of empirical approaches through the inclusion of understandings based on the everyday experiences and the subjective interpretation of natural phenomena, transcending the compartmentalization associated with scientific traditions born out of modernity. This article discusses the integration of local ecological knowledge and conservation biology from the perspective of post normal science, illustrating different forms of intercultural communication that would make the requisite dialogue of knowledges possible.
Dynamical Instability and Soliton Concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kartavenko, V.G.
1994-01-01
The problem of dynamical instability and clustering (stable fragments formation) in a breakup of excited nuclear systems are considered from the points of view of the soliton concept. It is noted that the volume (spinodal) instability can be associated with nonlinear terms, and the surface (Rayleigh-Taylor type) instability, with the dispersion terms in the evolution equations. The spinodal instability and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability may compensate each other and lead to stable quasi-soliton type objects. The simple analytical model is presented to illustrate this physical picture. The time evolution of an initially compressed cold nuclear system is analysed in the framework of the inverse mean-field method. It is demonstrated that the nonlinearity and dispersion terms of the evolution equations can lead to clusterization in the final channel. 8 p
Kuntz, M.; Van Mier, J.G.M.
1997-01-01
A series of field observations of the evolution of water runoffs over several vertical concrete walls directly exposed to rain falls is reported in this note. In all the cases, the main water flow originated from the top horizontal surface of the walls. The observations show that the gravity-driven
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michelle A.C. Reed
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Patients with Barrett's esophagus (BO are at increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC. Most Barrett's patients, however, do not develop EAC, and there is a need for markers that can identify those most at risk. This study aimed to see if a metabolic signature associated with the development of EAC existed. For this, tissue extracts from patients with EAC, BO, and normal esophagus were analyzed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. Where possible, adjacent histologically normal tissues were sampled in those with EAC and BO. The study included 46 patients with EAC, 7 patients with BO, and 68 controls who underwent endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms with normal appearances. Within the cancer cohort, 9 patients had nonneoplastic Barrett's adjacent to the cancer suitable for biopsy. It was possible to distinguish between histologically normal, BO, and EAC tissue in EAC patients [area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC 1.00, 0.86, and 0.91] and between histologically benign BO in the presence and absence of EAC (AUROC 0.79. In both these cases, sample numbers limited the power of the models. Comparison of histologically normal tissue proximal to EAC versus that from controls (AUROC 1.00 suggests a strong field effect which may develop prior to overt EAC and hence be useful for identifying patients at high risk of developing EAC. Excellent sensitivity and specificity were found for this model to distinguish histologically normal squamous esophageal mucosa in EAC patients and healthy controls, with 8 metabolites being very significantly altered. This may have potential diagnostic value if a molecular signature can detect tissue from which neoplasms subsequently arise.
Steyn-Ross, Moira L.; Steyn-Ross, D. A.; Sleigh, J. W.
2013-04-01
Electrical recordings of brain activity during the transition from wake to anesthetic coma show temporal and spectral alterations that are correlated with gross changes in the underlying brain state. Entry into anesthetic unconsciousness is signposted by the emergence of large, slow oscillations of electrical activity (≲1Hz) similar to the slow waves observed in natural sleep. Here we present a two-dimensional mean-field model of the cortex in which slow spatiotemporal oscillations arise spontaneously through a Turing (spatial) symmetry-breaking bifurcation that is modulated by a Hopf (temporal) instability. In our model, populations of neurons are densely interlinked by chemical synapses, and by interneuronal gap junctions represented as an inhibitory diffusive coupling. To demonstrate cortical behavior over a wide range of distinct brain states, we explore model dynamics in the vicinity of a general-anesthetic-induced transition from “wake” to “coma.” In this region, the system is poised at a codimension-2 point where competing Turing and Hopf instabilities coexist. We model anesthesia as a moderate reduction in inhibitory diffusion, paired with an increase in inhibitory postsynaptic response, producing a coma state that is characterized by emergent low-frequency oscillations whose dynamics is chaotic in time and space. The effect of long-range axonal white-matter connectivity is probed with the inclusion of a single idealized point-to-point connection. We find that the additional excitation from the long-range connection can provoke seizurelike bursts of cortical activity when inhibitory diffusion is weak, but has little impact on an active cortex. Our proposed dynamic mechanism for the origin of anesthetic slow waves complements—and contrasts with—conventional explanations that require cyclic modulation of ion-channel conductances. We postulate that a similar bifurcation mechanism might underpin the slow waves of natural sleep and comment on the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moira L. Steyn-Ross
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Electrical recordings of brain activity during the transition from wake to anesthetic coma show temporal and spectral alterations that are correlated with gross changes in the underlying brain state. Entry into anesthetic unconsciousness is signposted by the emergence of large, slow oscillations of electrical activity (≲1 Hz similar to the slow waves observed in natural sleep. Here we present a two-dimensional mean-field model of the cortex in which slow spatiotemporal oscillations arise spontaneously through a Turing (spatial symmetry-breaking bifurcation that is modulated by a Hopf (temporal instability. In our model, populations of neurons are densely interlinked by chemical synapses, and by interneuronal gap junctions represented as an inhibitory diffusive coupling. To demonstrate cortical behavior over a wide range of distinct brain states, we explore model dynamics in the vicinity of a general-anesthetic-induced transition from “wake” to “coma.” In this region, the system is poised at a codimension-2 point where competing Turing and Hopf instabilities coexist. We model anesthesia as a moderate reduction in inhibitory diffusion, paired with an increase in inhibitory postsynaptic response, producing a coma state that is characterized by emergent low-frequency oscillations whose dynamics is chaotic in time and space. The effect of long-range axonal white-matter connectivity is probed with the inclusion of a single idealized point-to-point connection. We find that the additional excitation from the long-range connection can provoke seizurelike bursts of cortical activity when inhibitory diffusion is weak, but has little impact on an active cortex. Our proposed dynamic mechanism for the origin of anesthetic slow waves complements—and contrasts with—conventional explanations that require cyclic modulation of ion-channel conductances. We postulate that a similar bifurcation mechanism might underpin the slow waves of natural
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Yoon Hee; Kim, Yang Jee; Lee, Joong Won; Kim, Gye Eun; Chung, Hai Won
2008-01-01
In order to determine the effect of Extremely Low Frequency ElectroMagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) on the frequency of MicroNuclei (MN), aneuploidy and chromosomal rearrangement induced by BLeoMycin (BLM) in human fibroblast cells, a 60 Hz ELF-EMF of 0.8 mT field strength was applied either alone or with BLM throughout the culture period and a micronucleus-centromere assay was performed. Our results indicate that the frequencies of MN, aneuploidy and chromosomal rearrangement induced by BLM increased in a dose-dependent manner. The exposure of cells to 0.8 mT ELF-EMF followed by BLM exposure for 3 hours led to significant increases in the frequencies of MN and aneuploidy compared to BLM treatment for 3 hours alone (p<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between field exposed and sham exposed control cells. The obtained results suggest that low density ELF-EMF could act as enhancer of the initiation process of BLM rather than as an initiator of mutagenic effects in human fibroblast
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutovyi, V.A.; Komir, A.I.
2013-01-01
The results of the frequency dependence of surface resistance of copper in diffuse and specular reflection of electrons from the conductive surface of the high-frequency resonance of the system depending on the frequency of the electromagnetic field in the normal and anomalous skin effect. Found, the surface resistance of copper is reduced by more than 10 times at the temperature of liquid helium, as compared with a surface resistivity at room temperature, at frequencies f ≤ 173 MHz, for diffuse reflection of conduction electrons from the surface of the conductive layer, and the specular reflection - at frequencies f ≤ 346 MHz
WELLBORE INSTABILITY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borivoje Pašić
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Wellbore instability is one of the main problems that engineers meet during drilling. The causes of wellbore instability are often classified into either mechanical (for example, failure of the rock around the hole because of high stresses, low rock strength, or inappropriate drilling practice or chemical effects which arise from damaging interaction between the rock, generally shale, and the drilling fluid. Often, field instances of instability are a result of a combination of both chemical and mechanical. This problem might cause serious complication in well and in some case can lead to expensive operational problems. The increasing demand for wellbore stability analyses during the planning stage of a field arise from economic considerations and the increasing use of deviated, extended reach and horizontal wells. This paper presents causes, indicators and diagnosing of wellbore instability as well as the wellbore stresses model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xi, Xi; Xiao, Zejun, E-mail: fabulous_2012@sina.com; Yan, Xiao; Li, Yongliang; Huang, Yanping
2014-10-15
Highlights: • Flow instability experiment between two heated channels with supercritical water is carried out. • Two kinds of out of phase flow instability are found and instability boundaries under different working conditions are obtained. • Dynamics characteristics of flow instability are analyzed. - Abstract: Super critical water reactor (SCWR) is the generation IV nuclear reactor in the world. Under normal operation, water enters SCWR from cold leg with a temperature of 280 °C and then leaves the core with a temperature of 500 °C. Due to the sharp change of temperature, there is a huge density change in the core, which could result in potential flow instability and the safety of reactor would be threatened consequently. So it is necessary to carry out relevant investigation in this field. An experimental investigation which concerns with out of phase flow instability between two heated parallel channels with supercritical water has been carried out in this paper. Due to two INCONEL 625 pipes with a thickness of 6.5 mm are adopted, more experimental results are attained. To find out the influence of axial power shape on the onset of flow instability, each heated channel is divided into two sections and the heating power of each section can be controlled separately. Finally the instability boundaries are obtained under different inlet temperatures, axial power shapes, total inlet mass flow rates and system pressures. The dynamics characteristics of out of phase oscillation are also analyzed.
Electromagnetic theory of the radiative Pierce instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klochkov, D.N.; Rukhadze, A.A.
1997-01-01
A study is made of the radiative Pierce instability of a relativistic electron beam propagating in a waveguide in the presence of an infinitely strong magnetic field. The perturbation theory is used to find the growth rates and conditions of instability over a broad range of the beam current. It is shown that, under the Pierce boundary conditions, the instability is Raman in nature, and there is no current threshold for the instability. This allows the instability saturation level to be accurately determined from the condition for the violation of the Cherenkov resonance and the radiation efficiency to be estimated
Aerodynamic instability: A case history
Eisenmann, R. C.
1985-01-01
The identification, diagnosis, and final correction of complex machinery malfunctions typically require the correlation of many parameters such as mechanical construction, process influence, maintenance history, and vibration response characteristics. The progression is reviewed of field testing, diagnosis, and final correction of a specific machinery instability problem. The case history presented addresses a unique low frequency instability problem on a high pressure barrel compressor. The malfunction was eventually diagnosed as a fluidic mechanism that manifested as an aerodynamic disturbance to the rotor assembly.
Willmore, Ben D.B.; Bulstrode, Harry; Tolhurst, David J.
2012-01-01
Neuronal populations in the primary visual cortex (V1) of mammals exhibit contrast normalization. Neurons that respond strongly to simple visual stimuli – such as sinusoidal gratings – respond less well to the same stimuli when they are presented as part of a more complex stimulus which also excites other, neighboring neurons. This phenomenon is generally attributed to generalized patterns of inhibitory connections between nearby V1 neurons. The Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule is a neural network learning rule that, when trained on natural images, produces model neurons which, individually, have many tuning properties in common with real V1 neurons. However, when viewed as a population, a BCM network is very different from V1 – each member of the BCM population tends to respond to the same dominant features of visual input, producing an incomplete, highly redundant code for visual information. Here, we demonstrate that, by adding contrast normalization into the BCM rule, we arrive at a neurally-plausible Hebbian learning rule that can learn an efficient sparse, overcomplete representation that is a better model for stimulus selectivity in V1. This suggests that one role of contrast normalization in V1 is to guide the neonatal development of receptive fields, so that neurons respond to different features of visual input. PMID:22230381
The Effect of Shock Stress and Field Strength on Shock-Induced Depoling of Normally Poled PZT 95/5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CHHABILDAS, LALIT C.; FURNISH, MICHAEL D.; MONTGOMERY, STEPHEN T.; SETCHELL, ROBERT E.
1999-01-01
Shock-induced depoling of the ferroelectric ceramic PZT 95/5 is utilized in a number of pulsed power devices. Several experimental and theoretical efforts are in progress in order to improve numerical simulations of these devices. In this study we have examined the shock response of normally poled PZT 95/5 under uniaxial strain conditions. On each experiment the current produced in an external circuit and the transmitted waveform at a window interface were recorded. The peak electrical field generated within the PZT sample was varied through the choice of external circuit resistance. Shock pressures were varied from 0.6 to 4.6 GPa, and peak electrical fields were varied from 0.2 to 37 kV/cm. For a 2.4 GPa shock and the lowest peak field, a nearly constant current governed simply by the remanent polarization and the shock velocity was recorded. Both decreasing the shock pressure and increasing the electrical field resulted in reduced current generation, indicating a retardation of the depoling kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.
2014-01-01
The effect of spin induced magnetization and electrical resistivity incorporating the viscosity of the medium is examined on the Jeans instability of quantum magnetoplasma. Formulation of the system is done by using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. The analysis of the problem is carried out by normal mode analysis theory. The general dispersion relation is derived from set of perturbed equations to analyse the growth rate and condition of self-gravitational Jeans instability. To discuss the influence of resistivity, magnetization, and viscosity parameters on Jeans instability, the general dispersion relation is reduced for both transverse and longitudinal mode of propagations. In the case of transverse propagation, the gravitating mode is found to be affected by the viscosity, magnetization, resistivity, and magnetic field strength whereas Jeans criterion of instability is modified by the magnetization and quantum parameter. In the longitudinal mode of propagation, the gravitating mode is found to be modified due to the viscosity and quantum correction in which the Jeans condition of instability is influenced only by quantum parameter. The other non-gravitating Alfven mode in this direction is affected by finite electrical resistivity, spin induced magnetization, and viscosity. The numerical study for the growth rate of Jeans instability is carried out for both in the transverse and longitudinal direction of propagation to the magnetic field. The effect of various parameters on the growth rate of Jeans instability in quantum plasma is analysed
Instabilities and spin-up behaviour of a rotating magnetic field driven flow in a rectangular cavity
Galindo, V.; Nauber, R.; Räbiger, D.; Franke, S.; Beyer, H.; Büttner, L.; Czarske, J.; Eckert, S.
2017-11-01
This study presents numerical simulations and experiments considering the flow of an electrically conducting fluid inside a cube driven by a rotating magnetic field (RMF). The investigations are focused on the spin-up, where a liquid metal (GaInSn) is suddenly exposed to an azimuthal body force generated by the RMF and the subsequent flow development. The numerical simulations rely on a semi-analytical expression for the induced electromagnetic force density in an electrically conducting medium inside a cuboid container with insulating walls. Velocity distributions in two perpendicular planes are measured using a novel dual-plane, two-component ultrasound array Doppler velocimeter with continuous data streaming, enabling long term measurements for investigating transient flows. This approach allows identifying the main emerging flow modes during the transition from stable to unstable flow regimes with exponentially growing velocity oscillations using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition method. Characteristic frequencies in the oscillating flow regimes are determined in the super critical range above the critical magnetic Taylor number T ac≈1.26 ×1 05, where the transition from the steady double vortex structure of the secondary flow to an unstable regime with exponentially growing oscillations is detected. The mean flow structures and the temporal evolution of the flow predicted by the numerical simulations and observed in experiments are in very good agreement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shing Lo, Tak; Karma, Alain; Plapp, Mathis
2001-01-01
During the directional solidification of peritectic alloys, two stable solid phases (parent and peritectic) grow competitively into a metastable liquid phase of larger impurity content than either solid phase. When the parent or both solid phases are morphologically unstable, i.e., for a small temperature gradient/growth rate ratio (G/v p ), one solid phase usually outgrows and covers the other phase, leading to a cellular-dendritic array structure closely analogous to the one formed during monophase solidification of a dilute binary alloy. In contrast, when G/v p is large enough for both phases to be morphologically stable, the formation of the microstructure becomes controlled by a subtle interplay between the nucleation and growth of the two solid phases. The structures that have been observed in this regime (in small samples where convection effects are suppressed) include alternate layers (bands) of the parent and peritectic phases perpendicular to the growth direction, which are formed by alternate nucleation and lateral spreading of one phase onto the other as proposed in a recent model [R. Trivedi, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 26, 1 (1995)], as well as partially filled bands (islands), where the peritectic phase does not fully cover the parent phase which grows continuously. We develop a phase-field model of peritectic solidification that incorporates nucleation processes in order to explore the formation of these structures. Simulations of this model shed light on the morphology transition from islands to bands, the dynamics of spreading of the peritectic phase on the parent phase following nucleation, which turns out to be characterized by a remarkably constant acceleration, and the types of growth morphology that one might expect to observe in large samples under purely diffusive growth conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglas, M.; Deeney, C.; Roderick, N.
1999-01-01
Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the role that magnetic field diffusion and ohmic heating have on the magnetohydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) development in fast z-pinch implosions. Previous work has indicated these terms can strongly influence the evolution of RT growth, leading to a reduction in RT amplitude, and an improvement in pinch performance. Indeed, Roderick et al have suggested that magnetic smoothing is an important mechanism in linear RT growth. To examine this in more detail, simulations are presented for a 1.4 mg, 25.0 mm diameter tungsten wire array imploded in the Saturn long pulse mode. The 130 ns implosion time of this calculation should enhance any mitigating effects that may be attributed to nonideal MHD. Calculations were performed using the 2D MHD code Mach2. The wire array was approximated by a right cylindrical slab of 1.0 mm width. Both a random density perturbation and single mode density perturbations were incorporated to initiate the instability. In the former case, a 5% cell-to-cell random perturbation was used. This allowed a range of modes to be initially present. In the single mode case, a 1.25 mm wavelength, on the order of the shell thickness, was defined. To isolate the contributions due to field diffusion, joule heating, and equation of state, simulations were run with and without ohmic heating using both constant and material-dependent spitzer resistivities. This analysis was then extended to look at the effect of such parameters on the nested shell load configuration. Detailed analysis of the simulations will be presented
Banerjee, Abhirup; Maji, Pradipta
2015-12-01
The segmentation of brain MR images into different tissue classes is an important task for automatic image analysis technique, particularly due to the presence of intensity inhomogeneity artifact in MR images. In this regard, this paper presents a novel approach for simultaneous segmentation and bias field correction in brain MR images. It integrates judiciously the concept of rough sets and the merit of a novel probability distribution, called stomped normal (SN) distribution. The intensity distribution of a tissue class is represented by SN distribution, where each tissue class consists of a crisp lower approximation and a probabilistic boundary region. The intensity distribution of brain MR image is modeled as a mixture of finite number of SN distributions and one uniform distribution. The proposed method incorporates both the expectation-maximization and hidden Markov random field frameworks to provide an accurate and robust segmentation. The performance of the proposed approach, along with a comparison with related methods, is demonstrated on a set of synthetic and real brain MR images for different bias fields and noise levels.
Gravitational instability in isotropic MHD plasma waves
Cherkos, Alemayehu Mengesha
2018-04-01
The effect of compressive viscosity, thermal conductivity and radiative heat-loss functions on the gravitational instability of infinitely extended homogeneous MHD plasma has been investigated. By taking in account these parameters we developed the six-order dispersion relation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic plasma. The general dispersion relation has been developed from set of linearized basic equations and solved analytically to analyse the conditions of instability and instability of self-gravitating plasma embedded in a constant magnetic field. Our result shows that the presence of viscosity and thermal conductivity in a strong magnetic field substantially modifies the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability.
Edge instabilities of topological superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofmann, Johannes S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Assaad, Fakher F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schnyder, Andreas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)
2016-07-01
Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground state degeneracy and a diverging density of states. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. Here, we employ Monte Carlo simulations combined with mean-field considerations to examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of d{sub xy}-wave superconductors. We find that attractive interactions induce a complex s-wave pairing instability together with a density wave instability. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism mixed with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. We discuss the implications of our findings for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.
Hagiwara, Y; Yamamoto, T; Kitazawa, Y
2000-03-01
We investigated in a prospective fashion the visual prognosis and complications in normal-tension glaucoma following unilateral trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C. Trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C was carried out unilaterally in 21 cases of normal-tension glaucoma. Intraocular pressure (IOP), visual prognosis, and complications were compared between the operated eyes and the non-operated fellow eyes. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 7 years. The IOP dropped significantly from 14.8+/-1.8 mmHg (mean +/- SD) to 9.6+/-3.9 mmHg in the operated eyes (P=0.0002, Wilcoxon signed-rank test), but did not drop in the non-operated eyes. The mean deviation (MD) was -12.69+/-6.41 dB preoperatively and -14.70+/-5.49 dB at the last clinic visit in the operated eyes, whereas in non-operated eyes it was -7.85+/-5.65 dB and -11.15+/-5.62 dB, respectively. The MD deteriorated significantly in both operated and non-operated eyes (operated eyes P=0.0239, non-operated eyes: P=0.0002; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The MD slope was -0.37+/-0.60 dB/year and -0.71+/-0.89 dB/year for the operated and non-operated eyes, respectively (P=0.5243, Mann-Whitney U-test). Visual field deterioration was more frequently observed in the non-operated eyes by a pointwise definition of the progression (Ptest). Visual acuity deteriorated in 6 of the operated eyes and in 5 of the non-operated eyes. Cataract developed in 6 (29%) of the 21 operated eyes, while among the non-operated eyes 4 (19%) developed cataract. Mitomycin C trabeculectomy is effective in delaying progression of visual field defect in normal-tension glaucoma, but complications may arise and cause some visual disturbance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Masao; Yamaguchi, Chizuru; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Uchihori, Yukio; Fujitaka, Kazunobu
2003-01-01
We studied the effect of in vitro life span in normal human fibroblasts exposed to chronically low-dose radiation in heavy-ion radiation field. Cells were cultured in a CO 2 incubator, which was set in the irradiation room for biological study of heavy ions in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), and exposed to scattered radiations produced with heavy-ion beams throughout the life span of the cell population. Absorbed dose, which was measured using a thermoluminescence dosimeter(TLD) and a Si-semiconductor detector, was to be 1.4 mGy per day when operating the HIMAC machine for biological experiments. The total population doubling number of the exposed cells reduced to 79-93% of non-exposed control cells in the three independent experiments. There is evidence that the exposure of chronically low-dose radiation in heavy-ion radiation field promotes the life-span reduction in cellular level. (author)
Ionospheric modification and parametric instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fejer, J.A.
1979-01-01
Thresholds and linear growth rates for stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering and for the parametric decay instability are derived by using arguments of energy transfer. For this purpose an expression for the ponderomotive force is derived. Conditions under which the partial pressure force due to differential dissipation exceeds the ponderomotive force are also discussed. Stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are weakly excited by existing incoherent backscatter radars. The parametric decay instability is strongly excited in ionospheric heating experiments. Saturation theories of the parametric decay instability are therefore described. After a brief discussion of the purely growing instability the effect of using several pumps is discussed as well as the effects of inhomogenicity. Turning to detailed theories of ionospheric heating, artificial spread F is discussed in terms of a purely growing instability where the nonlinearity is due to dissipation. Field-aligned short-scale striations are explained in terms of dissipation of the parametrically excited Langmuir waves (plasma oscillations): they might be further amplified by an explosive instability (except the magnetic equator). Broadband absorption is probably responsible for the 'overshoot' effect: the initially observed level of parametrically excited Langmuir waves is much higher than the steady state level
Instabilities in electromagnetic quasilevitation.
Spragg, Kirk; Letout, Sebastien; Ernst, R; Sneyd, Alfred; Fautrelle, Yves
2014-05-01
We investigate free-surface instabilities occurring in various industrial processes involving liquid metal. Of particular interest is the behavior of the free surface of a pool of liquid metal when it is submitted to an alternating magnetic field. Experimentally, we study the effect of a vertical alternating medium-frequency magnetic field on an initially circular pool. We observe various types of behavior according to magnetic field amplitude, e.g., axisymmetric deformations, azimuthal mode structures, slow radial oscillation of the pool perimeter, and random rotation of the pool around its center. Drop rotation could be attributed to nonsymmetric shape deformations. The effect of oxidation leads to drastic changes in pool behavior. The experimental results are then compared to a linear stability analysis of the free surface of a circular liquid drop.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suttatip Kamolmatyakul
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this in vitro study is to investigate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF on cellular proliferation and osteocalcin production of osteoblast-like cell line, MG-63 cells, and human normal osteoblast cells (NHOC obtained from surgical bone specimens. The cells were placed in 24-well culture plates in the amount of 3x104 cell/wells with 2 ml αMEM media supplemented with 10% FBS. The experimental plates were placed between a pair of Helmoltz coils powered by a pulse generator (PEMF, 50 Hz, 1.5 mV/cm in the upper compartment of a dual incubator (Forma. The control plates were placed in the lower compartment of the incubator without Helmotz coils. After three days, the cell proliferation was measured by the method modified from Mossman (J. Immunol Methods 1983; 65: 55-63. Other sets of plates were used for osteocalcin production assessment. Media from these sets were collected after 6 days and assessed for osteocalcin production using ELISA kits. The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results showed that MG-63 cells from the experimental group proliferated significantly more than those from the control group (20% increase, p<0.05. No significant difference in osteocalcin production was detected between the two groups. On the other hand, NHOC from the experimental group produced larger amount of osteocalcin (25% increase, p<0.05 and proliferated significantly more than those from the control group (100% increase, p<0.05. In conclusion, PEMF effect on osteoblasts might depend on their cell type of origin. For osteoblast-like cell line, MG-63 cells, PEMF increased proliferation rate but not osteocalcin production of the cells. However, PEMF stimulation effect on human normal osteoblast cells was most likely associated with enhancement of both osteocalcin production and cell proliferation.
Tao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin; Shen, Guofu; Wensveen, Janice; Smith, Earl L; Nishimoto, Shinji; Ohzawa, Izumi; Chino, Yuzo M
2014-10-08
Experiencing different quality images in the two eyes soon after birth can cause amblyopia, a developmental vision disorder. Amblyopic humans show the reduced capacity for judging the relative position of a visual target in reference to nearby stimulus elements (position uncertainty) and often experience visual image distortion. Although abnormal pooling of local stimulus information by neurons beyond striate cortex (V1) is often suggested as a neural basis of these deficits, extrastriate neurons in the amblyopic brain have rarely been studied using microelectrode recording methods. The receptive field (RF) of neurons in visual area V2 in normal monkeys is made up of multiple subfields that are thought to reflect V1 inputs and are capable of encoding the spatial relationship between local stimulus features. We created primate models of anisometropic amblyopia and analyzed the RF subfield maps for multiple nearby V2 neurons of anesthetized monkeys by using dynamic two-dimensional noise stimuli and reverse correlation methods. Unlike in normal monkeys, the subfield maps of V2 neurons in amblyopic monkeys were severely disorganized: subfield maps showed higher heterogeneity within each neuron as well as across nearby neurons. Amblyopic V2 neurons exhibited robust binocular suppression and the strength of the suppression was positively correlated with the degree of hereogeneity and the severity of amblyopia in individual monkeys. Our results suggest that the disorganized subfield maps and robust binocular suppression of amblyopic V2 neurons are likely to adversely affect the higher stages of cortical processing resulting in position uncertainty and image distortion. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413840-15$15.00/0.
Spector, Alan C; Blonde, Ginger; Garcea, Mircea; Jiang, Enshe
2010-01-15
Forty years have passed since it was demonstrated that a cross-regenerated gustatory nerve in the rat tongue adopts the stimulus-response properties of the taste receptor field it cross-reinnervates. Nevertheless, the functional consequences of channeling peripheral taste signals through inappropriate central circuits remain relatively unexplored. Here we tested whether histologically confirmed cross-regeneration of the chorda tympani nerve (CT) into the posterior tongue in the absence of the glossopharyngeal nerve (GL) (CT-PostTongue) or cross-regeneration of the GL into the anterior tongue in the absence of the CT (GL-AntTongue) would maintain presurgically trained performance in an operant NaCl vs. KCl taste discrimination task in rats. Before surgery all groups were averaging over 90% accuracy. Oral amiloride treatment dropped performance to virtually chance levels. During the first week after surgery, sham-operated rats, GL-transected rats, and rats with regenerated CTs displayed highly competent discrimination performance. In contrast, CT-transected rats were severely impaired (59% accuracy). Both the CT-PostTongue and the GL-AntTongue groups were impaired to a similar degree as CT-transected rats. These initially impaired groups improved their performance over the weeks of postsurgical testing, suggesting that the rats were capable of relearning the task with discriminable signals in the remaining taste nerves. This relearned performance was dependent on input from amiloride-sensitive receptors likely in the palate. Overall, these results suggest that normal competence in a salt discrimination task is dependent on the taste receptor field origin of the input as well as the specific nerve transmitting the signals to its associated circuits in the brain. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Electromagnetic theory of the radiative Pierce instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klochkov, D.N.; Rukhadze, A.A.
1997-01-01
The radiative Pierce instability of a relativistic electron beam in a waveguide stabilized by an infinite strong magnetic field is considered. the increment and conditions for instability development in a wide interval of the beam currents are determined on the basis of the perturbation theory. It is shown that the instability has always the Raman character and is threshold less in current for the Pierce boundary conditions. It permits sufficiently strictly to define the instability saturation level from breaking the resonance condition and to estimate the radiation efficiency
Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability.
Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M; Churkin, Dmitry V; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K
2016-08-09
Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin-Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system-spectrally dependent losses-achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin-Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering.
Hoyau, E; Cousin, E; Jaillard, A; Baciu, M
2016-12-01
We evaluated the effect of normal aging on the inter-hemispheric processing of semantic information by using the divided visual field (DVF) method, with words and pictures. Two main theoretical models have been considered, (a) the HAROLD model which posits that aging is associated with supplementary recruitment of the right hemisphere (RH) and decreased hemispheric specialization, and (b) the RH decline theory, which assumes that the RH becomes less efficient with aging, associated with increased LH specialization. Two groups of subjects were examined, a Young Group (YG) and an Old Group (OG), while participants performed a semantic categorization task (living vs. non-living) in words and pictures. The DVF was realized in two steps: (a) unilateral DVF presentation with stimuli presented separately in each visual field, left or right, allowing for their initial processing by only one hemisphere, right or left, respectively; (b) bilateral DVF presentation (BVF) with stimuli presented simultaneously in both visual fields, followed by their processing by both hemispheres. These two types of presentation permitted the evaluation of two main characteristics of the inter-hemispheric processing of information, the hemispheric specialization (HS) and the inter-hemispheric cooperation (IHC). Moreover, the BVF allowed determining the driver-hemisphere for processing information presented in BVF. Results obtained in OG indicated that: (a) semantic categorization was performed as accurately as YG, even if more slowly, (b) a non-semantic RH decline was observed, and (c) the LH controls the semantic processing during the BVF, suggesting an increased role of the LH in aging. However, despite the stronger involvement of the LH in OG, the RH is not completely devoid of semantic abilities. As discussed in the paper, neither the HAROLD nor the RH decline does fully explain this pattern of results. We rather suggest that the effect of aging on the hemispheric specialization and inter
Anisotropic gravitational instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.
1988-01-01
Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common
Instabilities of higher dimensional compactifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accetta, F.S.
1987-02-01
Various schemes for cosmological compactification of higher dimensional theories are considered. Possible instabilities which drive the ground state with static internal space to de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions are discussed. These instabilities are due to semiclassical barrier penetration and classical thermal fluctuations. For the case of the ten dimensional Chapline-Manton action, it is possible to avoid such difficulties by balancing one-loop Casimir corrections against monopole contributions from the field strength H/sub MNP/ and fermionic condensates. 10 refs
Spectrum of ballooning instabilities in a stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooper, W A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Singleton, D B [Australian National Univ., ANU Supercomputing Facility, Canberra (Australia); Dewar, R L [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences
1995-08-01
The recent revival of interest in the application of the `ballooning formalism` to low-frequency plasma instabilities has prompted a comparison of the Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WKB) ballooning approximation with an (in principle) exact normal mode calculation for a three-dimensional plasma equilibrium. Semiclassical quantization, using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning eigenvalue to provide a local dispersion relation, is applied to a ten-field period stellarator test case. Excellent qualitative agreement, and good quantitative agreement is found with predictions from the TERPSICHORE code for toroidal mode numbers from 1 to 14 and radial mode numbers from 0 to 2. The continuum bands predicted from three-dimensional WKB theory are too narrow to resolve. (author) 3 figs., 24 refs.
Spectrum of ballooning instabilities in a stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, W.A.; Singleton, D.B.; Dewar, R.L.
1995-08-01
The recent revival of interest in the application of the 'ballooning formalism' to low-frequency plasma instabilities has prompted a comparison of the Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WKB) ballooning approximation with an (in principle) exact normal mode calculation for a three-dimensional plasma equilibrium. Semiclassical quantization, using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning eigenvalue to provide a local dispersion relation, is applied to a ten-field period stellarator test case. Excellent qualitative agreement, and good quantitative agreement is found with predictions from the TERPSICHORE code for toroidal mode numbers from 1 to 14 and radial mode numbers from 0 to 2. The continuum bands predicted from three-dimensional WKB theory are too narrow to resolve. (author) 3 figs., 24 refs
Performance through Deformation and Instability
Bertoldi, Katia
2015-03-01
Materials capable of undergoing large deformations like elastomers and gels are ubiquitous in daily life and nature. An exciting field of engineering is emerging that uses these compliant materials to design active devices, such as actuators, adaptive optical systems and self-regulating fluidics. Compliant structures may significantly change their architecture in response to diverse stimuli. When excessive deformation is applied, they may eventually become unstable. Traditionally, mechanical instabilities have been viewed as an inconvenience, with research focusing on how to avoid them. Here, I will demonstrate that these instabilities can be exploited to design materials with novel, switchable functionalities. The abrupt changes introduced into the architecture of soft materials by instabilities will be used to change their shape in a sudden, but controlled manner. Possible and exciting applications include materials with unusual properties such negative Poisson's ratio, phononic crystals with tunable low-frequency acoustic band gaps and reversible encapsulation systems.
Faraday instability on patterned surfaces
Feng, Jie; Rubinstein, Gregory; Jacobi, Ian; Stone, Howard
2013-11-01
We show how micro-scale surface patterning can be used to control the onset of the Faraday instability in thin liquid films. It is well known that when a liquid film on a planar substrate is subject to sufficient vibrational accelerations, the free surface destabilizes, exhibiting a family of non-linear standing waves. This instability remains a canonical problem in the study of spontaneous pattern formation, but also has practical uses. For example, the surface waves induced by the Faraday instability have been studied as a means of enhanced damping for mechanical vibrations (Genevaux et al. 2009). Also the streaming within the unstable layer has been used as a method for distributing heterogeneous cell cultures on growth medium (Takagi et al. 2002). In each of these applications, the roughness of the substrate significantly affects the unstable flow field. We consider the effect of patterned substrates on the onset and behavior of the Faraday instability over a range of pattern geometries and feature heights where the liquid layer is thicker than the pattern height. Also, we describe a physical model for the influence of patterned roughness on the destabilization of a liquid layer in order to improve the design of practical systems which exploit the Faraday instability.
Reflex muscle contraction in anterior shoulder instability.
Wallace, D A; Beard, D J; Gill, R H; Eng, B; Carr, A J
1997-01-01
Reduced proprioception may contribute to recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Twelve patients with unilateral shoulder instability were investigated for evidence of deficient proprioception with an activated pneumatic cylinder and surface electromyography electrodes; the contralateral normal shoulder was used as a control. The latency between onset of movement and the detection of muscle contraction was used as an index of proprioception. No significant difference in muscle contraction latency was detected between the stable and unstable shoulders, suggesting that there was no significant defect in muscular reflex activity. This study does not support the use proprioception-enhancing physiotherapy in the treatment of posttraumatic anterior shoulder instability.
Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage
Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar
2015-01-01
As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carroll, Sean M.; Dulaney, Timothy R.; Gresham, Moira I.; Tam, Heywood
2009-01-01
We investigate the stability of theories in which Lorentz invariance is spontaneously broken by fixed-norm vector 'aether' fields. Models with generic kinetic terms are plagued either by ghosts or by tachyons, and are therefore physically unacceptable. There are precisely three kinetic terms that are not manifestly unstable: a sigma model (∂ μ A ν ) 2 , the Maxwell Lagrangian F μν F μν , and a scalar Lagrangian (∂ μ A μ ) 2 . The timelike sigma-model case is well defined and stable when the vector norm is fixed by a constraint; however, when it is determined by minimizing a potential there is necessarily a tachyonic ghost, and therefore an instability. In the Maxwell and scalar cases, the Hamiltonian is unbounded below, but at the level of perturbation theory there are fewer degrees of freedom and the models are stable. However, in these two theories there are obstacles to smooth evolution for certain choices of initial data.
From instabilities to multifragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, P.; Jacquot, B.; Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.
1994-01-01
The main purpose of this article is to show that, in many physical situations, the spinodal decomposition of unstable systems can be correctly described by stochastic mean-field approaches. Such theories predict that the occurrence of spinodal instability leading the multifragmentation of an expended nuclear system, can be signed through the observation of time scales for the fragment formation of the order of 100 fm/c and of typical fragment size around A=20. We will finally discuss the fact that these fragments are formed at finite temperature and so can subsequently decay in flight. Finally, we will give some hints about possible experimental signals of such first order phase transitions. (authors). 12 refs., 5 figs
From instabilities to multifragmentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chomaz, P.; Jacquot, B. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)
1994-12-31
The main purpose of this article is to show that, in many physical situations, the spinodal decomposition of unstable systems can be correctly described by stochastic mean-field approaches. Such theories predict that the occurrence of spinodal instability leading the multifragmentation of an expended nuclear system, can be signed through the observation of time scales for the fragment formation of the order of 100 fm/c and of typical fragment size around A=20. We will finally discuss the fact that these fragments are formed at finite temperature and so can subsequently decay in flight. Finally, we will give some hints about possible experimental signals of such first order phase transitions. (authors). 12 refs., 5 figs.
Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Vanhoof, Joris
2015-01-01
We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.
Gravitational instability of thermally anisotropic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, B.; Kalra, G.L.
1986-01-01
The equations of Chew, Goldberger, and Low (1956) modified to include the heat flux vector and self-gravitation are used to study the gravitational instability of unbounded plasma placed in a uniform static magnetic field. The linear stability analysis shows that some of the additional terms which arise as a result of higher moments are of the same order of magnitude as the terms in the original Chew, Goldberger, and Low theory. The influence of these terms on the gravitational instability has been specially examined. It is found that the gravitational instability sets in at a comparatively shorter wavelength and the growth rate is enhanced owing to the inclusion of these terms in the case where the propagation vector is along the magnetic field. The condition for instability is, however, unaltered when the direction of propagation is transverse to the direction of magnetic field. 19 references
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaothekar, Sachin, E-mail: sackaothekar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mahakal Institute of Technology, Ujjain-456664, Madhya Pradesh (India)
2016-08-15
I have studied the effects of finite electron inertia, finite ion Larmor radius (FLR) corrections, and radiative heat-loss function on the thermal instability of an infinite homogeneous, viscous plasma incorporating the effect of thermal conductivity for star formation in interstellar medium (ISM). A general dispersion relation is derived using the normal mode analysis method with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. The wave propagation is discussed for longitudinal and transverse directions to the external magnetic field and the conditions of modified thermal instabilities and stabilities are discussed in different cases. We find that the thermal instability criterion is get modified into radiative instability criterion by inclusion of radiative heat-loss functions with thermal conductivity. The viscosity of medium removes the effect of FLR corrections from the condition of radiative instability. Numerical calculation shows stabilizing effect of heat-loss function, viscosity and FLR corrections, and destabilizing effect of finite electron inertia on the thermal instability. Results carried out in this paper shows that stars are formed in interstellar medium mainly due to thermal instability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sachin Kaothekar
2016-08-01
Full Text Available I have studied the effects of finite electron inertia, finite ion Larmor radius (FLR corrections, and radiative heat-loss function on the thermal instability of an infinite homogeneous, viscous plasma incorporating the effect of thermal conductivity for star formation in interstellar medium (ISM. A general dispersion relation is derived using the normal mode analysis method with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. The wave propagation is discussed for longitudinal and transverse directions to the external magnetic field and the conditions of modified thermal instabilities and stabilities are discussed in different cases. We find that the thermal instability criterion is get modified into radiative instability criterion by inclusion of radiative heat-loss functions with thermal conductivity. The viscosity of medium removes the effect of FLR corrections from the condition of radiative instability. Numerical calculation shows stabilizing effect of heat-loss function, viscosity and FLR corrections, and destabilizing effect of finite electron inertia on the thermal instability. Results carried out in this paper shows that stars are formed in interstellar medium mainly due to thermal instability.
Linear Analyses of Magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability in Cylindrical Geometry
Bakhsh, Abeer
2018-05-13
We investigate the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) that occurs when an incident shock impulsively accelerates the interface between two different fluids. RMI is important in many technological applications such as Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and astrophysical phenomena such as supernovae. We consider RMI in the presence of the magnetic field in converging geometry through both simulations and analytical means in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In this thesis, we perform linear stability analyses via simulations in the cylindrical geometry, which is of relevance to ICF. In converging geometry, RMI is usually followed by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI). We show that the presence of a magnetic field suppresses the instabilities. We study the influence of the strength of the magnetic field, perturbation wavenumbers and other relevant parameters on the evolution of the RM and RT instabilities. First, we perform linear stability simulations for a single interface between two different fluids in which the magnetic field is normal to the direction of the average motion of the density interface. The suppression of the instabilities is most evident for large wavenumbers and relatively strong magnetic fields strengths. The mechanism of suppression is the transport of vorticity away from the density interface by two Alfv ́en fronts. Second, we examine the case of an azimuthal magnetic field at the density interface. The most evident suppression of the instability at the interface is for large wavenumbers and relatively strong magnetic fields strengths. After the shock interacts with the interface, the emerging vorticity breaks up into waves traveling parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field. The interference as these waves propagate with alternating phase causing the perturbation growth rate of the interface to oscillate in time. Finally, we propose incompressible models for MHD RMI in the presence of normal or azimuthal magnetic
Corona-induced electrohydrodynamic instabilities in low conducting liquids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vega, F.; Perez, A.T. [Depto. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n. 41012, Sevilla (Spain)
2003-06-01
The rose-window electrohydrodynamic (EHD) instability has been observed when a perpendicular field with an additional unipolar ion injection is applied onto a low conducting liquid surface. This instability has a characteristic pattern with cells five to 10 times greater than those observed in volume instabilities caused by unipolar injection. We have used corona discharge from a metallic point to perform some measurements of the rose-window instability in low conducting liquids. The results are compared to the linear theoretical criterion for an ohmic liquid. They confirmed that the minimum voltage for this instability is much lower than that for the interfacial instability in high conducting liquids. This was predicted theoretically in the dependence of the critical voltage as a function of the non-dimensional conductivity. It is shown that in a non-ohmic liquid the rose window appears as a secondary instability after the volume instability. (orig.)
Electron beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedrozzi, M.; Alberti, S.; Hogge, J.P.; Tran, M.Q.; Tran, T.M.
1997-10-01
Electron beam instabilities occurring in a gyrotron electron beam can induce an energy spread which might significantly deteriorate the gyrotron efficiency. Three types of instabilities are considered to explain the important discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in the case of quasi-optical gyrotrons (QOG): the electron cyclotron maser instability, the Bernstein instability and the Langmuir instability. The low magnetic field gradient in drift tubes of QOG makes that the electron cyclotron maser instability can develop in the drift tube at very low electron beam currents. Experimental measurements show that with a proper choice of absorbing structures in the beam tunnel, this instability can be suppressed. At high beam currents, the electrostatic Bernstein instability can induce a significant energy spread at the entrance of the interaction region. The induced energy spread scales approximately linearly with the electron beam density and for QOG one observes that the beam density is significantly higher than the beam density of an equivalent cylindrical cavity gyrotron. (author) figs., tabs., refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Hsi-Wen; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Ye, Yi-Han
2016-01-01
This work investigates the effect on hot carrier degradation (HCD) of doping zirconium into the hafnium oxide high-k layer in the nanoscale high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors. Previous n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistor studies demonstrated that zirconium-doped hafnium oxide reduces charge trapping and improves positive bias temperature instability. In this work, a clear reduction in HCD is observed with zirconium-doped hafnium oxide because channel hot electron (CHE) trapping in pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. However, this reduced HCD became ineffective at ultra-low temperature, since CHE traps in the deeper bulk defects at ultra-low temperature, while zirconium-doping only passivates shallow bulk defects.
Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darryl Blalock
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA. Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.
Joint instability and osteoarthritis.
Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi
2015-01-01
Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.
Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in solar spicules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Ebadi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Magneto hydrodynamic waves, propagating along spicules, may become unstable and the expected instability is of Kelvin-Helmholtz type. Such instability can trigger the onset of wave turbulence leading to an effective plasma heating and particle acceleration. In present study, two-dimensional magneto hydrodynamic simulations performed on a Cartesian grid is presented in spicules with different densities, moving at various speeds depending on their environment. Simulations being applied in this study show the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and transition to turbulent flow in spicules. Development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability leads to momentum and energy transport, dissipation, and mixing of fluids. When magnetic fields are involved, field amplification is also possible to take place
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tobi, S.E.; Itzhaki, R.F.
1993-01-01
The authors previously found that radiation-induced chromosome aberrations (dicentrics) are more numerous in lymphocytes from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients than in those from age-matched normal individuals (Tobi et al. 1990). They have examined double-strand breaks (dsb) produced by g amma - irradiation in the DNA of AD and normal lymphocytes by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The percentage of DNA migrating into the gels is an indirect measure of the number of dsb; DNA content of sequential slices of the gel was assayed by direct fluorometry and the percentage migrating was dose dependent. Results show that the level of damage is similar in AD and normal lymphocytes and preliminary assays of the rate of repair suggest that the half-time is also similar, the value being > 1 h. The latter is consistent with the known rate of rejoining of chromosome fragments in interphase lymphocytes (Pantelias and Maillie 1985). (Author)
Hydrodynamic instability of compressible fluid in porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Argal, Shraddha; Tiwari, Anita; Sharma, P K; Prajapati, R P
2014-01-01
The hydrodynamic Rayleigh -Taylor instability of two superposed compressible fluids in porous medium has been studied. The dispersion relation is derived for such a medium by using normal mode analysis. The RT instability is discussed for various simplified configuration. The effect of porosity and dynamic viscosity has been analyzed and it is observed that porosity and dynamic viscosity have stabilizing effect on the Rayleigh- Taylor instability of compressible fluids.
Jeans instability in a quantum dusty magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.; Jamil, M.; Shah, H. A.; Murtaza, G.
2009-01-01
Jeans instability in a homogeneous cold quantum dusty plasma in the presence of the ambient magnetic field and the quantum effect arising through the Bohm potential has been examined using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. It is found that the Jeans instability is significantly reduced by the presence of the dust-lower-hybrid wave and the ion quantum effect. The minimum wavenumber for Jeans stability depends clearly on ion quantum effect and the dust-lower-hybrid frequency also.
Bosonic instability of charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaina, A.B.; Ternov, I.M.
1986-01-01
The processes of spontaneous and induced production and accumulation of charged bosons on quasibound superradiant levels in the field of Kerr-Newman black hole is analysed. It is shown that bosonic instability may be caused exclusively by the rotation of the black hole. Particulary, the Reissner-Nordstrom configuration is stable. In the case of rotating and charged black hole the bosonic instability may cause an increase of charge of the black hole
MHD instability studies in ISX-B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pare, V.K.; Dunlap, J.L.; Navarro, A.P.; Burris, R.D.
1979-01-01
MHD instabilities in Ohmically and beam heated ISX-B plasmas have been studied using collimated x-ray and Mirnov loop diagnostics. The diagnostic systems will be described and the instability signals will be illustrated for a variety of discharges. The latter will include those observed in connection with low and high β operation, density clamping, pellet injection, and deliberate introduction of toroidal field ripple
Normal-Mode Splitting in a Weakly Coupled Optomechanical System
Rossi, Massimiliano; Kralj, Nenad; Zippilli, Stefano; Natali, Riccardo; Borrielli, Antonio; Pandraud, Gregory; Serra, Enrico; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Vitali, David
2018-02-01
Normal-mode splitting is the most evident signature of strong coupling between two interacting subsystems. It occurs when two subsystems exchange energy between themselves faster than they dissipate it to the environment. Here we experimentally show that a weakly coupled optomechanical system at room temperature can manifest normal-mode splitting when the pump field fluctuations are antisquashed by a phase-sensitive feedback loop operating close to its instability threshold. Under these conditions the optical cavity exhibits an effectively reduced decay rate, so that the system is effectively promoted to the strong coupling regime.
Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, N.M.
1994-01-01
This report discusses topics on hydrodynamics instabilities in inertial confinement: linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ablation-surface instability; bubble rise in late-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability; and saturation and multimode interactions in intermediate-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hellinger, Petr [Astronomical Institute, CAS, Bocni II/1401,CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic); Landi, Simone; Verdini, Andrea; Franci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Matteini, Lorenzo, E-mail: petr.hellinger@asu.cas.cz [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2017-04-01
The relationship between a decaying strong turbulence and the mirror instability in a slowly expanding plasma is investigated using two-dimensional hybrid expanding box simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box, and we start with a spectrum of large-scale, linearly polarized, random-phase Alfvénic fluctuations that have energy equipartition between kinetic and magnetic fluctuations and a vanishing correlation between the two fields. A turbulent cascade rapidly develops, magnetic field fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like power-law spectrum at large scales and a steeper spectrum at sub-ion scales. The imposed expansion (taking a strictly transverse ambient magnetic field) leads to the generation of an important perpendicular proton temperature anisotropy that eventually drives the mirror instability. This instability generates large-amplitude, nonpropagating, compressible, pressure-balanced magnetic structures in a form of magnetic enhancements/humps that reduce the perpendicular temperature anisotropy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosamond, Ben
2016-01-01
that has been read back into the past of the field of integration studies. The further effects of this settled intersubjective understanding of EU studies past include contribute to the stereotyping and simplification of neofunctionalism, the writing out the field’s key archive of other mainstream...
White-light parametric instabilities in plasmas.
Santos, J E; Silva, L O; Bingham, R
2007-06-08
Parametric instabilities driven by partially coherent radiation in plasmas are described by a generalized statistical Wigner-Moyal set of equations, formally equivalent to the full wave equation, coupled to the plasma fluid equations. A generalized dispersion relation for stimulated Raman scattering driven by a partially coherent pump field is derived, revealing a growth rate dependence, with the coherence width sigma of the radiation field, scaling with 1/sigma for backscattering (three-wave process), and with 1/sigma1/2 for direct forward scattering (four-wave process). Our results demonstrate the possibility to control the growth rates of these instabilities by properly using broadband pump radiation fields.
Fluctuations and instabilities of a holographic metal
Jokela, Niko; Järvinen, Matti; Lippert, Matthew
2013-02-01
We analyze the quasinormal modes of the D2-D8' model of 2+1-dimensional, strongly-coupled, charged fermions in a background magnetic field and at non-zero density. The model is known to include a quantum Hall phase with integer filling fraction. As expected, we find a hydrodynamical diffusion mode at small momentum and the nonzero-temperature holographic zero sound, which becomes massive above a critical magnetic field. We confirm the previously-known thermodynamic instability. In addition, we discover an instability at low temperature, large mass, and in a charge density and magnetic field range near the quantum Hall phase to an inhomogeneous striped phase.
Bhakta, S.; Prajapati, R. P.; Dolai, B.
2017-08-01
The small amplitude quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) waves and linear firehose and mirror instabilities in uniformly rotating dense quantum plasma have been investigated using generalized polytropic pressure laws. The QMHD model and Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) set of equations are used to formulate the basic equations of the problem. The general dispersion relation is derived using normal mode analysis which is discussed in parallel, transverse, and oblique wave propagations. The fast, slow, and intermediate QMHD wave modes and linear firehose and mirror instabilities are analyzed for isotropic MHD and CGL quantum fluid plasmas. The firehose instability remains unaffected while the mirror instability is modified by polytropic exponents and quantum diffraction parameter. The graphical illustrations show that quantum corrections have a stabilizing influence on the mirror instability. The presence of uniform rotation stabilizes while quantum corrections destabilize the growth rate of the system. It is also observed that the growth rate stabilizes much faster in parallel wave propagation in comparison to the transverse mode of propagation. The quantum corrections and polytropic exponents also modify the pseudo-MHD and reverse-MHD modes in dense quantum plasma. The phase speed (Friedrichs) diagrams of slow, fast, and intermediate wave modes are illustrated for isotropic MHD and double adiabatic MHD or CGL quantum plasmas, where the significant role of magnetic field and quantum diffraction parameters on the phase speed is observed.
Genomic instability following irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hacker-Klom, U.B.; Goehde, W.
2001-01-01
Ionising irradiation may induce genomic instability. The broad spectrum of stress reactions in eukaryontic cells to irradiation complicates the discovery of cellular targets and pathways inducing genomic instability. Irradiation may initiate genomic instability by deletion of genes controlling stability, by induction of genes stimulating instability and/or by activating endogeneous cellular viruses. Alternatively or additionally it is discussed that the initiation of genomic instability may be a consequence of radiation or other agents independently of DNA damage implying non nuclear targets, e.g. signal cascades. As a further mechanism possibly involved our own results may suggest radiation-induced changes in chromatin structure. Once initiated the process of genomic instability probably is perpetuated by endogeneous processes necessary for proliferation. Genomic instability may be a cause or a consequence of the neoplastic phenotype. As a conclusion from the data available up to now a new interpretation of low level radiation effects for radiation protection and in radiotherapy appears useful. The detection of the molecular mechanisms of genomic instability will be important in this context and may contribute to a better understanding of phenomenons occurring at low doses <10 cSv which are not well understood up to now. (orig.)
Experimental study on low pressure flow instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Wu Shaorong; Bo Jinhai; Zhang Youjie
1997-05-01
The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The flow behavior for a wide range of inlet subcooling, in which the flow undergoes from single phase to two phase, is described in a natural circulation system at low pressure (p = 0.1, 0.24 MPa). Several kinds of flow instability, e.g. subcooled boiling instability, subcooled boiling induced flashing instability, pure flashing instability as well as flashing coupled density wave instability and high frequency flow oscillation, are investigated. The mechanism of flashing and flashing concerned flow instability, which has never been studied well in this field, is especially interpreted. The experimental results show that, firstly, for a low pressure natural circulation system the two phase flow is unstable in most of inlet subcooling conditions, the two phase stable flow can only be reached at very low inlet subcooling; secondly, at high inlet subcooling the flow instability is dominated by subcooled boiling in the heated section, and at middle inlet subcooling is dominated by void flashing in the adiabatic long riser; thirdly, in two phase stable flow region the condition for boiling out of the core, namely, single phase flow in the heated section, two phase flow in the riser due to vapor flashing, can be realized. The experimental results are very important for the design and accident analysis of the vessel and swimming pool type natural circulation nuclear heating reactor. (7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perrow, C.
1989-01-01
The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de
Secular instabilities of Keplerian stellar discs
Kaur, Karamveer; Kazandjian, Mher V.; Sridhar, S.; Touma, Jihad R.
2018-05-01
We present idealized models of a razor-thin, axisymmetric, Keplerian stellar disc around a massive black hole, and study non-axisymmetric secular instabilities in the absence of either counter-rotation or loss cones. These discs are prograde mono-energetic waterbags, whose phase-space distribution functions are constant for orbits within a range of eccentricities (e) and zero outside this range. The linear normal modes of waterbags are composed of sinusoidal disturbances of the edges of distribution function in phase space. Waterbags that include circular orbits (polarcaps) have one stable linear normal mode for each azimuthal wavenumber m. The m = 1 mode always has positive pattern speed and, for polarcaps consisting of orbits with e normal modes for each m, which can be stable or unstable. We derive analytical expressions for the instability condition, pattern speeds, growth rates, and normal mode structure. Narrow bands are unstable to modes with a wide range in m. Numerical simulations confirm linear theory and follow the non-linear evolution of instabilities. Long-time integration suggests that instabilities of different m grow, interact non-linearly, and relax collisionlessly to a coarse-grained equilibrium with a wide range of eccentricities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boulet, M.; Griffond, J. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. Sciences de la Simulation et de l' Information, 91 (France)
2004-07-01
Occurrence of a secondary instability developing after the Richtmyer-Meshkov (primary) instability is emphasized thanks to numerical simulations with the TRICLADE code. We are mainly considering 2D perturbations describes by trigonometric function cosine or [cosine]. However, the 3D case is also tackled. The sinuous secondary instability is characterized by the loss of the symmetries in the direction normal to the interface at its crests. It reduces the late time growing rate of the 'mushrooms' formed by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. Related simplified problems, like symmetrical Riemann problems or the Mallier-Maslowe array of counter-rotating vortices, allow us to perform 2D linear stability analysis. Thus, we show that the sinuous secondary instability is not a numerical artifact and that is comes from the continuous incompressible velocity field in the interface region. This instability implies temporal limitations for the validity of single mode simulations; therefore multimode simulations are necessary to study the ]ate-time behaviour of interfaces bitted by shocks. (authors)
Huang, Ping; Shi, Yan; Wang, Xin; Liu, Mugen; Zhang, Chun
2014-09-01
To compare the interocular asymmetry of visual field loss in newly diagnosed normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) patients. Visual field results of 117 newly diagnosed, treatment-naive glaucoma patients (42 NTG, 38 POAG, and 37 CACG) were studied retrospectively. The following 3 visual field defect parameters were used to evaluate the interocular asymmetry: (1) global indices; (2) local mean deviations (MDs) of 6 predefined visual field areas; and (3) stage designated by glaucoma staging system 2. The differences of the above parameters between the trial eye (the eye with greater MDs) and the fellow eye in each subject were defined as interocular asymmetry scores. Interocular asymmetry of visual field loss was presented in all the 3 groups (all P0.05). Interocular asymmetry scores of glaucoma staging system 2 had no significant difference among the 3 groups (P=0.068). All CACG, POAG, and NTG groups presented with interocular asymmetric visual field loss at the time of diagnosis. CACG had greater interocular asymmetry compared with NTG and POAG. No significant interocular asymmetry difference was observed between NTG and POAG.
Muzalevskaya, N. I.; Uritsky, V. M.; Korolyov, E. V.; Reschikov, A. M.; Timoshinov, G. P.
1993-08-01
For the first time correcting stochastic control of physiological status of living systems by weak low-frequency fluctuating magnetic field with 1/f spectrum (1/f MF) is demonstrated experimentally. The correction was observed in all main systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, immunity systems of experimental animals. Pronounced prophylactic and therapeutic influence of 1/f MF on malignant growth and radiation disease was discovered. Theoretical interpretation of the results obtained is based upon the notion of fundamental role of 1/f fluctuations in homeostasis of living systems.
Investigation of universal plasma instabilities. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashinsky, H.
1977-01-01
This project was undertaken in order to carry out a comprehensive experimental investigation of universal plasma instabilities under a variety of conditions and a wide range of experimental parameters to scale the results appropriately to make comparisons with plasmas of thermonuclear interest. Of particular importance are the roles played by collisions and resonance particles (Landau damping and excitation) and the various stages in the development of the instabilities i.e., the linear onset of the instability, the quasilinear stage, and the transition to turbulence. General nonlinear effects such as mode locking and mode competition, and the relation of these phenomena to plasma turbulence, are also of great interest and were studied experimentally. The ultimate aim was to measure certain plasma transport coefficients in the plasma under stable and turbulent conditions with the particular view of evaluating the effect of the universal plasma instabilities of plasma confinement in a magnetic field
Adolescent patellar instability: current concepts review.
Clark, D; Metcalfe, A; Wogan, C; Mandalia, V; Eldridge, J
2017-02-01
Patellar instability most frequently presents during adolescence. Congenital and infantile dislocation of the patella is a distinct entity from adolescent instability and measurable abnormalities may be present at birth. In the normal patellofemoral joint an increase in quadriceps angle and patellar height are matched by an increase in trochlear depth as the joint matures. Adolescent instability may herald a lifelong condition leading to chronic disability and arthritis. Restoring normal anatomy by trochleoplasty, tibial tubercle transfer or medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction in the young adult prevents further instability. Although these techniques are proven in the young adult, they may cause growth arrest and deformity where the physis is open. A vigorous non-operative strategy may permit delay of surgery until growth is complete. Where non-operative treatment has failed a modified MPFL reconstruction may be performed to maintain stability until physeal closure permits anatomical reconstruction. If significant growth remains an extraosseous reconstruction of the MPFL may impart the lowest risk to the physis. If minor growth remains image intensifier guided placement of femoral intraosseous fixation may impart a small, but acceptable, risk to the physis. This paper presents and discusses the literature relating to adolescent instability and provides a framework for management of these patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:159-70. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mingalev, O. V.; Mingalev, I. V.; Malova, Kh. V.; Zelenyi, L. M.
2007-01-01
The force balance in a thin collisionless current sheet in the Earth's magnetotail with a given constant magnetic field component B z across the sheet is numerically studied for the first time in a self-consistent formulation of the problem. The current sheet is produced by oppositely directed plasma flows propagating from the periphery of the sheet toward the neutral plane. A substantially improved version of a macroparticle numerical model is used that makes it possible to simulate on the order of 10 7 macroparticles even with a personal computer and to calculate equilibrium configurations with a sufficiently low discrete noise level in the first-and second-order moments of the distribution function, which determine the stress tensor elements. Quasisteady configurations were calculated numerically for several sets of plasma parameters in some parts of the magnetotail. The force balance in the sheet was checked by calculating the longitudinal and transverse pressures as well as the elements of the full stress tensor. The stress tensor in the current sheet is found to be nondiagonal and to differ appreciably from the gyrotropic stress tensor in the Chew-Goldberger-Low model, although the Chew-Goldberger-Low theory and numerical calculations yield close results for large distances from the region of reversed magnetic field
Effect of rotation on Jeans instability of magnetized radiative quantum plasma
Joshi, H.; Pensia, R. K.
2017-03-01
The influence of rotation on the Jeans instability of homogeneous magnetized radiative quantum plasma is investigated. The basic equations of the problem are constructed and linearized by using the Quantum Magnetohydrodynamics (QMHD) model. The general dispersion relation is obtained by using the normal mode analysis technique, which is reduced for both the transverse and the longitudinal mode of propagations and further it is reduced for the axis of rotation parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. We found that the stabilizing effects of rotation are decreases for a strong magnetic field which is shown in the graphical representation. We also found that the quantum correction modified the condition of Jeans instability in both modes of propagation. The stabilizing effect of rotation is more increased in the presence of quantum correction.
Tearing instabilities in turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.
2009-01-01
Full text: Effects of micro-turbulence on tearing instabilities are investigated by numerically solving a reduced set of two-fluid equations. Micro-turbulence excites both large-scale and small-scale Fourier modes through energy transfer due to nonlinear mode coupling. The energy transfer to large scale mode does not directly excite tearing instability but it gives an initiation of tearing instability. When tearing instability starts to grow, the excited small scale mode plays an important role. The mixing of magnetic flux by micro-turbulence is the dominant factor of non-ideal MHD effect at the resonant surface and it gives rise to magnetic reconnection which causes tearing instability. Tearing instabilities were investigated against static equilibrium or flowing equilibrium so far. On the other hand, the recent progress of computer power allows us to investigate interactions between turbulence and coherent modes such as tearing instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas by means of direct numerical simulations. In order to investigate effects of turbulence on tearing instabilities we consider a situation that tearing mode is destabilized in a quasi-equilibrium including micro-turbulence. We choose an initial equilibrium that is unstable against kinetic ballooning modes and tearing instabilities. Tearing instabilities are current driven modes and thus they are unstable for large scale Fourier modes. On the other hand kinetic ballooning modes are unstable for poloidal Fourier modes that are characterized by ion Larmor radius. The energy of kinetic ballooning modes spreads over wave number space through nonlinear Fourier mode coupling. We present that micro-turbulence affects tearing instabilities in two different ways by three-dimensional numerical simulation of a reduced set of two-fluid equations. One is caused by energy transfer to large scale modes, the other is caused by energy transfer to small scale modes. The former is the excitation of initial
Testing the gravitational instability hypothesis?
Babul, Arif; Weinberg, David H.; Dekel, Avishai; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
1994-01-01
We challenge a widely accepted assumption of observational cosmology: that successful reconstruction of observed galaxy density fields from measured galaxy velocity fields (or vice versa), using the methods of gravitational instability theory, implies that the observed large-scale structures and large-scale flows were produced by the action of gravity. This assumption is false, in that there exist nongravitational theories that pass the reconstruction tests and gravitational theories with certain forms of biased galaxy formation that fail them. Gravitational instability theory predicts specific correlations between large-scale velocity and mass density fields, but the same correlations arise in any model where (a) structures in the galaxy distribution grow from homogeneous initial conditions in a way that satisfies the continuity equation, and (b) the present-day velocity field is irrotational and proportional to the time-averaged velocity field. We demonstrate these assertions using analytical arguments and N-body simulations. If large-scale structure is formed by gravitational instability, then the ratio of the galaxy density contrast to the divergence of the velocity field yields an estimate of the density parameter Omega (or, more generally, an estimate of beta identically equal to Omega(exp 0.6)/b, where b is an assumed constant of proportionality between galaxy and mass density fluctuations. In nongravitational scenarios, the values of Omega or beta estimated in this way may fail to represent the true cosmological values. However, even if nongravitational forces initiate and shape the growth of structure, gravitationally induced accelerations can dominate the velocity field at late times, long after the action of any nongravitational impulses. The estimated beta approaches the true value in such cases, and in our numerical simulations the estimated beta values are reasonably accurate for both gravitational and nongravitational models. Reconstruction tests
Self-Induced Faraday Instability Laser
Perego, A. M.; Smirnov, S. V.; Staliunas, K.; Churkin, D. V.; Wabnitz, S.
2018-05-01
We predict the onset of self-induced parametric or Faraday instabilities in a laser, spontaneously caused by the presence of pump depletion, which leads to a periodic gain landscape for light propagating in the cavity. As a result of the instability, continuous wave oscillation becomes unstable even in the normal dispersion regime of the cavity, and a periodic train of pulses with ultrahigh repetition rate is generated. Application to the case of Raman fiber lasers is described, in good quantitative agreement between our conceptual analysis and numerical modeling.
Effect of hall currents on thermal instability of dusty couple stress fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aggarwal Amrish Kumar
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, effect of Hall currents on the thermal instability of couple-stress fluid permeated with dust particles has been considered. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis, the dispersion relation is obtained. For the case of stationary convection, dust particles and Hall currents are found to have destabilizing effect while couple stresses have stabilizing effect on the system. Magnetic field induced by Hall currents has stabilizing/destabilizing effect under certain conditions. It is found that due to the presence of Hall currents (hence magnetic field, oscillatory modes are produced which were non-existent in their absence.
Light-induced ion-acoustic instability of rarefied plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnov, I.V.; Sizykh, D.V.
1987-01-01
A new method of ion-acoustic instability excitation under the effect of coherent light, resonance to ion quantum transitions on collisionless plasma, is suggested. The light-induced ion-acoustic instability (LIIAI) considered is based on the induced progressive nonequilibrium resonance particles in the field of travelling electromagnetic wave. Principal possibility to use LIIAI in high-resolution spectroscopy and in applied problems of plasma physics, related to its instability, is pointed out
Mixed-Mode Oscillations in Complex-Plasma Instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikikian, Maxime; Cavarroc, Marjorie; Coueedel, Lenaiec; Tessier, Yves; Boufendi, Laiefa
2008-01-01
Instabilities in dusty plasmas are frequent phenomena. We show that some instabilities can be described by mixed-mode oscillations often encountered in chemical systems or neuronal dynamics and studied through dynamical system theories. The time evolution of these instabilities is studied through the change in the associated waveform. Frequency and interspike interval are analyzed and compared to results obtained in other scientific fields concerned by mixed-mode oscillations
Relativistic gravitational instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schutz, B.F.
1987-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures
Character of decay instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polovin, R.V.; Demutskii, V.P.
1981-01-01
If the initial wave is unstable in the upper half plane Im ω>0 and there are no branch points of the quasiwave number, or if waves traveling in the same direction coalesce at a branch point, the instability is convective. On the other hand, if a branch point k(ω) does exist in the upper half-plane Im ω>0, and not all the waves that merge at this point travel in the same direction, the instability is absolute. A Green's function that describes the evolution of the perturbations of the initial wave in space and in time is constructed. The growth rates of the decay instability of the harmonics are determined. The produced waves are richer in harmonics than the initial waves. It is shown that the decay instability of an Alfven wave is absolute
Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D.; Simons, P.; Kuchta, J.
2009-01-01
We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI
Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D. (Privatpraxis fuer Upright MRT, Koeln (Germany)); Simons, P.; Kuchta, J. (Media Park Klinik, Koeln (Germany))
2009-04-15
We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI.
Centrifugally Driven Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
Scase, Matthew; Hill, Richard
2017-11-01
The instability that develops at the interface between two fluids of differing density due to the rapid rotation of the system may be considered as a limit of high-rotation rate Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Previously the authors have considered the effect of rotation on a gravitationally dominated Rayleigh-Taylor instability and have shown that some growth modes of instability may be suppressed completely by the stabilizing effect of rotation (Phys. Rev. Fluids 2:024801, Sci. Rep. 5:11706). Here we consider the case of very high rotation rates and a negligible gravitational field. The initial condition is of a dense inner cylinder of fluid surrounded by a lighter layer of fluid. As the system is rotated about the generating axis of the cylinder, the dense inner fluid moves away from the axis and the familiar bubbles and spikes of Rayleigh-Taylor instability develop at the interface. The system may be thought of as a ``fluid-fluid centrifuge''. By developing a model based on an Orr-Sommerfeld equation, we consider the effects of viscosity, surface tension and interface diffusion on the growth rate and modes of instability. We show that under particular circumstances some modes may be stabilized. School of Mathematical Sciences.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov
2012-01-01
Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Unger, E.; Beck, M.; Lipski, R.J.; Dreybrodt, W.; Medforth, C.J.; Smith, K.M.; Schweitzer-Stenner, R.
1999-11-11
The authors have developed a novel method for molecular mechanics calculations and normal-mode analysis. It is based on symmetry of local units that constitutes the given molecule. Compared with general valence force field calculations, the number of free parameters is reduced by 40--80% in the procedure. It was found to reproduce very well the vibrational frequencies and mode compositions of aromatic compounds and porphyrins, as shown by comparison with DFT calculations. A slightly altered force field obtained from Ni(II) porphin was then used to calculate the structure and the normal modes of several meso-substituted Ni(II) porphyrins which are known to be subject to significant ruffling and/or saddling distortions. This method satisfactorily reproduces their nonplanar structure and Raman band frequencies in the natural abundance and isotopic derivative spectra. The polarization properties of bands from out-of-plane modes are in accordance with the predicted nonplanar distortions. Moreover, some of the modes below 800 cm{sup {minus}1} which appear intense in the Raman spectra contain considerable contributions from both in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations, so that the conventional mode assignments become questionable. The authors also demonstrate that the intensity and polarization of some low-frequency Raman bands can be used as a (quantitative) marker to elucidate type and magnitude of out-of-plane distortions. These were recently shown to affect heme groups of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and, in particular, of cytochrome c.
MHD instabilities in astrophysical plasmas: very different from MHD instabilities in tokamaks!
Goedbloed, J. P.
2018-01-01
The extensive studies of MHD instabilities in thermonuclear magnetic confinement experiments, in particular of the tokamak as the most promising candidate for a future energy producing machine, have led to an ‘intuitive’ description based on the energy principle that is very misleading for most astrophysical plasmas. The ‘intuitive’ picture almost directly singles out the dominant stabilizing field line bending energy of the Alfvén waves and, consequently, concentrates on expansion schemes that minimize that contribution. This happens when the wave vector {{k}}0 of the perturbations, on average, is perpendicular to the magnetic field {B}. Hence, all macroscopic instabilities of tokamaks (kinks, interchanges, ballooning modes, ELMs, neoclassical tearing modes, etc) are characterized by satisfying the condition {{k}}0 \\perp {B}, or nearly so. In contrast, some of the major macroscopic instabilities of astrophysical plasmas (the Parker instability and the magneto-rotational instability) occur when precisely the opposite condition is satisfied: {{k}}0 \\parallel {B}. How do those instabilities escape from the dominance of the stabilizing Alfvén wave? The answer to that question involves, foremost, the recognition that MHD spectral theory of waves and instabilities of laboratory plasmas could be developed to such great depth since those plasmas are assumed to be in static equilibrium. This assumption is invalid for astrophysical plasmas where rotational and gravitational accelerations produce equilibria that are at best stationary, and the associated spectral theory is widely, and incorrectly, believed to be non-self adjoint. These complications are addressed, and cured, in the theory of the Spectral Web, recently developed by the author. Using this method, an extensive survey of instabilities of astrophysical plasmas demonstrates how the Alfvén wave is pushed into insignificance under these conditions to give rise to a host of instabilities that do not
Topographic-driven instabilities in terrestrial bodies
Vantieghem, S.; Cebron, D.; Herreman, W.; Lacaze, L.
2013-12-01
Models of internal planetary fluid layers (core flows, subsurface oceans) commonly assume that these fluid envelopes have a spherical shape. This approximation however entails a serious restriction from the fluid dynamics point of view. Indeed, in the presence of mechanical forcings (precession, libration, nutation or tides) due to gravitational interaction with orbiting partners, boundary topography (e.g. of the core-mantle boundary) may excite flow instabilities and space-filling turbulence. These phenomena may affect heat transport and dissipation at the main order. Here, we focus on instabilities driven by longitudinal libration. Using a suite of theoretical tools and numerical simulations, we are able to discern a parameter range for which instability may be excited. We thereby consider deformations of different azimuthal order. This study gives the first numerical evidence of the tripolar instability. Furthermore, we explore the non-linear regime and investigate the amplitude as well as the dissipation of the saturated instability. Indeed, these two quantities control the torques on the solid layers and the thermal transport. Furthermore, based on this results, we address the issue of magnetic field generation associated with these flows (by induction or by dynamo process). This instability mechanism applies to both synchronized as non-synchronized bodies. As such, our results show that a tripolar instability might be present in various terrestrial bodies (Early Moon, Gallilean moons, asteroids, etc.), where it could participate in dynamo action. Simulation of a libration-driven tripolar instability in a deformed spherical fluid layer: snapshot of the velocity magnitude, where a complex 3D flow pattern is established.
Single bunch instabilities in an SSC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruth, R.D.
1984-01-01
In this note coherent instability thresholds are estimated for the SSC and discuss some of the subsequent design restrictions. The various instabilities are set out in a block diagram with the essential features of each. The assumption is made that long wavelength coupled bunch effects can be cured effectively by a feedback system (both longitudinal and transverse) and that the impedance of the feedback system is such as to cancel that of the environment (at low frequency). Alternatively, the long wake field is assumed to be exactly canceled, on the average, by a feedback wake field. This leaves only single bunch effects. Thresholds for fast-blowup are discussed both in the longitudinal and transverse and the transverse mode coupling instability more familiar in electron/positron storage rings is covered. The impedances considered are a broadband impedance and the resistive wall impedance
Genome instabilities arising from ribonucleotides in DNA.
Klein, Hannah L
2017-08-01
Genomic DNA is transiently contaminated with ribonucleotide residues during the process of DNA replication through misincorporation by the replicative DNA polymerases α, δ and ε, and by the normal replication process on the lagging strand, which uses RNA primers. These ribonucleotides are efficiently removed during replication by RNase H enzymes and the lagging strand synthesis machinery. However, when ribonucleotides remain in DNA they can distort the DNA helix, affect machineries for DNA replication, transcription and repair, and can stimulate genomic instabilities which are manifest as increased mutation, recombination and chromosome alterations. The genomic instabilities associated with embedded ribonucleotides are considered here, along with a discussion of the origin of the lesions that stimulate particular classes of instabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Ahirwar
2006-08-01
Full Text Available The effect of parallel electric field on the growth rate, parallel and perpendicular resonant energy and marginal stability of the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC wave with general loss-cone distribution function in a low β homogeneous plasma is investigated by particle aspect approach. The effect of the steepness of the loss-cone distribution is investigated on the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron wave. The whole plasma is considered to consist of resonant and non-resonant particles. It is assumed that resonant particles participate in the energy exchange with the wave, whereas non-resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave. The wave is assumed to propagate parallel to the static magnetic field. The effect of the parallel electric field with the general distribution function is to control the growth rate of the EMIC waves, whereas the effect of steep loss-cone distribution is to enhance the growth rate and perpendicular heating of the ions. This study is relevant to the analysis of ion conics in the presence of an EMIC wave in the auroral acceleration region of the Earth's magnetoplasma.
Wada, Yumiko; Furuse, Tamio; Yamada, Ikuko; Masuya, Hiroshi; Kushida, Tomoko; Shibukawa, Yoko; Nakai, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kimio; Kaneda, Hideki; Gondo, Yoichi; Noda, Tetsuo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Wakana, Shigeharu
2010-01-01
To establish the cutoff values for screening ENU-induced behavioral mutations, normal variations in mouse behavioral data were examined in home-cage activity (HA), open-field (OF), and passive-avoidance (PA) tests. We defined the normal range as one that included more than 95% of the normal control values. The cutoffs were defined to identify outliers yielding values that deviated from the normal by less than 5% for C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, DBF(1), and N(2) (DXDB) progenies. Cutoff values for G1-phenodeviant (DBF(1)) identification were defined based on values over +/- 3.0 SD from the mean of DBF(1) for all parameters assessed in the HA and OF tests. For the PA test, the cutoff values were defined based on whether the mice met the learning criterion during the 2nd (at a shock intensity of 0.3 mA) or the 3rd (at a shock intensity of 0.15 mA) retention test. For several parameters, the lower outliers were undetectable as the calculated cutoffs were negative values. Based on the cutoff criteria, we identified 275 behavioral phenodeviants among 2,646 G1 progeny. Of these, 64 were crossed with wild-type DBA/2J individuals, and the phenotype transmission was examined in the G2 progeny using the cutoffs defined for N(2) mice. In the G2 mice, we identified 15 novel dominant mutants exhibiting behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity in the HA or OF tests, hypoactivity in the OF test, and PA deficits. Genetic and detailed behavioral analysis of these ENU-induced mutants will provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying behavior.
Lower hybrid parametric instabilities nonuniform pump waves and tokamak applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, R.L.; Chen, L.; Kaw, P.K.; Perkins, F.W.
1976-11-01
Electrostatic lower hybrid ''pump'' waves often launched into tokamak plasmas by structures (e.g., waveguides) whose dimensions are considerably smaller than characteristic plasma sizes. Such waves propagate in well-defined resonance cones and give rise to parametric instabilities driven by electron E x B velocities. The finite size of the resonance cone region determines the threshold for both convective quasimode decay instabilities and absolute instabilities. The excitation of absolute instabilities depends on whether a travelling or standing wave pump model is used; travelling wave pumps require the daughter waves to have a definite frequency shift. Altogether, parametric instabilities driven by E x B velocities occur for threshold fields significantly below the threshold for filamentation instabilities driven by pondermotive forces. Applications to tokamak heating show that nonlinear effects set in when a certain power-per-wave-launching port is exceeded
Impurity effects in the electrothermal instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomimura, A.; Azevedo, M.T. de
1982-01-01
A 'impure' plasma model is proposed based on the homogeneous hydrogen plasma used in the theory formulated by Tomimura and Haines to explain the electrothermal instable mode growth with the wave vector perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. The impurities are introduced implicitly in the transport coefficients of the two-fluid model through a effective charge number Z sub(eff). (Author) [pt
Instability and star evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirzoyan, L.V.
1981-01-01
The observational data are discussed which testify that the phenomena of dynamical instability of stars and stellar systems are definite manifestations of their evolution. The study of these phenomena has shown that the instability is a regular phase of stellar evolution. It has resulted in the recognition of the most important regularities of the process of star formation concerning its nature. This became possible due to the discovery in 1947 of stellar associations in our Galaxy. The results of the study of the dynamical instability of stellar associations contradict the predictions of classical hypothesis of stellar condensation. These data supplied a basis for a new hypothesis on the formation of stars and nebulae by the decay of superdense protostars [ru
Hydromagnetic instability in a stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kruskal, M D; Gottlieb, M B; Johnson, J L; Goldman, L M [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)
1958-07-01
It was noted that when there is a uniform externally imposed longitudinal field much larger than the field of the discharge current, one should expect instabilities in the form of a lateral displacement of the plasma column into a helix of large pitch. At the wavelength of fastest growth the e-folding time approximates the time it takes a sound wave in the plasma to traverse the radius of the plasma column. This problem has been re-examines under the conditions which might be expected to occur in the stellarator during ohmic heating, including the presence of external conductors. The theory is applied to the stellarator; and it is shown that the external conductors are in fact unimportant. The important effects due to the finite length of the Machine are discussed and the effects of more general current distributions are considered. The results from the experiments are given.
Filament instability under constant loads
Monastra, A. G.; Carusela, M. F.; D’Angelo, M. V.; Bruno, L.
2018-04-01
Buckling of semi-flexible filaments appears in different systems and scales. Some examples are: fibers in geophysical applications, microtubules in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and deformation of polymers freely suspended in a flow. In these examples, instabilities arise when a system’s parameter exceeds a critical value, being the Euler force the most known. However, the complete time evolution and wavelength of buckling processes are not fully understood. In this work we solve analytically the time evolution of a filament under a constant compressive force in the small amplitude approximation. This gives an insight into the variable force scenario in terms of normal modes. The evolution is highly sensitive to the initial configuration and to the magnitude of the compressive load. This model can be a suitable approach to many different real situations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel
2015-01-01
function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make......Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus...
RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: INSTABILITIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)
2016-04-01
We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.
Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial confinement fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, N.M.
1995-01-01
The focus of these (two) lectures is on buoyancy-driven instabilities of the Rayleigh-Taylor type, which are commonly regarded as the most important kind of hydrodynamic instability in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions. The paper is intended to be pedagogical rather than research-oriented, and so is by no means a comprehensive review of work in this field. Rather, it is hoped that the student will find here a foundation on which to build an understanding of current research, and the experienced researcher will find a compilation of useful results. (author)
Efficiency Versus Instability in Plasma Accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Burov, Alexey [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermilab
2017-01-05
Plasma wake-field acceleration in a strongly nonlinear (a.k.a. the blowout) regime is one of the main candidates for future high-energy colliders. For this case, we derive a universal efficiency-instability relation, between the power efficiency and the key instability parameter of the witness bunch. We also show that in order to stabilize the witness bunch in a regime with high power efficiency, the bunch needs to have high energy spread, which is not presently compatible with collider-quality beam properties. It is unclear how such limitations could be overcome for high-luminosity linear colliders.
Anisotropic instability in a laser heated plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sangam, A.; Morreeuw, J.-P.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.
2007-01-01
The theory of the Weibel instability induced by the inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption of a laser light in an underdense plasma is revisited. It is shown that previous analyses have strongly overestimated the effect by neglecting the stabilizing term related to the interaction of the generated quasistatic magnetic field with the laser-heated electrons. The revised model leads to a reduction of the growth rate by more than a factor of 10, to strong reduction of the domain of unstable modes and to inversion of the direction of the unstable wave vectors in the long wavelength limit. The consequences of this instability on the laser plasma interaction are also discussed
Qing-Wen, Song; Xiao-Yan, Tang; Yan-Jing, He; Guan-Nan, Tang; Yue-Hu, Wang; Yi-Meng, Zhang; Hui, Guo; Ren-Xu, Jia; Hong-Liang, Lv; Yi-Men, Zhang; Yu-Ming, Zhang
2016-03-01
In this paper, the normally-off N-channel lateral 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFFETs) have been fabricated and characterized. A sandwich- (nitridation-oxidation-nitridation) type process was used to grow the gate dielectric film to obtain high channel mobility. The interface properties of 4H-SiC/SiO2 were examined by the measurement of HF I-V, G-V, and C-V over a range of frequencies. The ideal C-V curve with little hysteresis and the frequency dispersion were observed. As a result, the interface state density near the conduction band edge of 4H-SiC was reduced to 2 × 1011 eV-1·cm-2, the breakdown field of the grown oxides was about 9.8 MV/cm, the median peak field-effect mobility is about 32.5 cm2·V-1·s-1, and the maximum peak field-effect mobility of 38 cm2·V-1·s-1 was achieved in fabricated lateral 4H-SiC MOSFFETs. Projcet supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61404098, 61176070, and 61274079), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 20110203110010 and 20130203120017), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB759600), and the Key Specific Projects of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 625010101).
A free boundary approach to the Rosensweig instability of ferrofluids
Parini, Enea; Stylianou, Athanasios
2018-04-01
We establish the existence of saddle points for a free boundary problem describing the two-dimensional free surface of a ferrofluid undergoing normal field instability. The starting point is the ferrohydrostatic equations for the magnetic potentials in the ferrofluid and air, and the function describing their interface. These constitute the strong form for the Euler-Lagrange equations of a convex-concave functional, which we extend to include interfaces that are not necessarily graphs of functions. Saddle points are then found by iterating the direct method of the calculus of variations and applying classical results of convex analysis. For the existence part, we assume a general nonlinear magnetization law; for a linear law, we also show, via convex duality, that the saddle point is a constrained minimizer of the relevant energy functional.
Wakefields and Instabilities in Linear Accelerators
Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.
2014-12-19
When a charged particle travels across the vacuum chamber of an accelerator, it induces electromagnetic fields, which are left mainly behind the generating particle. These electromagnetic fields act back on the beam and influence its motion. Such an interaction of the beam with its surro undings results in beam energy losses, alters the shape of the bunches, and shifts the betatron and synchrotron frequencies. At high beam current the fields can even lead to instabilities, thus limiting the performance of the accelerator in terms of beam quality and current intensity. We discuss in this lecture the general features of the electromagnetic fields, introducing the concepts of wakefields and giving a few simple examples in cylindrical geometry. We then show the effect of the wakefields on the dynamics of a beam in a linac, dealing in particular with the beam breakup instability and how to cure it.
POD analysis of the instability mode of a low-speed streak in a laminar boundary layer
Deng, Si-Chao; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jin-Jun; Rinoshika, Akira
2017-12-01
The instability of one single low-speed streak in a zero-pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer is investigated experimentally via both hydrogen bubble visualization and planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement. A single low-speed streak is generated and destabilized by the wake of an interference wire positioned normal to the wall and in the upstream. The downstream development of the streak includes secondary instability and self-reproduction process, which leads to the generation of two additional streaks appearing on either side of the primary one. A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis of PIV measured velocity field is used to identify the components of the streak instability in the POD mode space: for a sinuous/varicose type of POD mode, its basis functions present anti-symmetric/symmetric distributions about the streak centerline in the streamwise component, and the symmetry condition reverses in the spanwise component. It is further shown that sinuous mode dominates the turbulent kinematic energy (TKE) through the whole streak evolution process, the TKE content first increases along the streamwise direction to a saturation value and then decays slowly. In contrast, varicose mode exhibits a sustained growth of the TKE content, suggesting an increasing competition of varicose instability against sinuous instability.
Role of parametric decay instabilities in generating ionospheric irregularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuo, S.P.; Cheo, B.R.; Lee, M.C.
1983-01-01
We show that purely growing instabilities driven by the saturation spectrum of parametric decay instabilities can produce a broad spectrum of ionospheric irregularities. The threshold field Vertical BarE/sub th/Vertical Bar of the instabilities decreases with the scale lengths lambda of the ionospheric irregularities as Vertical BarE/sub th/Vertical Barproportionallambda -2 in the small-scale range ( -2 with scale lengths larger than a few kilometers. The excitation of kilometer-scale irregularities is strictly restricted by the instabilities themselves and by the spatial inhomogeneity of the medium. These results are drawn from the analyses of four-wave interaction. Ion-neutral collisions impose no net effect on the instabilities when the excited ionospheric irregularities have a field-aligned nature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boisneau, O.; Lecourt, R.; Grisch, F.; Orain, M.
2002-07-01
A setup has been developed at ONERA in the scope of studying interaction between calibrated droplets and a transversal acoustic wave in the scope of high frequency instabilities in liquid rocket engines. First, the setup has been checked acoustically by hot-wire anemometer and microphone. We present an analytical solution of the Stokes' droplet motion equation in an acoustic field. The trajectory equation can be split into three different parts: a sinusoidal part (negligible in liquid rocket engines), a transient part and a final mean position (only function of the loudspeaker characteristics but never reached). Some kind of vibrational breakup at low Weber's number has been observed using line-of-sight visualization of acoustic/droplet interactions. However, preponderant phenomena observed were jet oscillations and droplet coalescence. For ambient temperature, PLIF visualization has shown a coupling between the created vapor cylinder and the acoustic induced jet position. For hot temperature, some unsteady phenomena seem to appear but further processing are needed. (authors)
Coherent instabilities of a relativistic bunched beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao, A.W.
1982-06-01
A charge-particle beam contained in an accelerator vacuum chamber interacts electromagnetically with its environment to create a wake field. This field than acts back on the beam, perturbing the particle motion. If the beam intensity is high enough, this beam-environment interaction may lead to an instability and to subsequent beam loss. The beam and its environment form a dynamical system, and it is this system that will be studied. 84 references
Coherent instabilities of a relativistic bunched beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chao, A.W.
1982-06-01
A charge-particle beam contained in an accelerator vacuum chamber interacts electromagnetically with its environment to create a wake field. This field than acts back on the beam, perturbing the particle motion. If the beam intensity is high enough, this beam-environment interaction may lead to an instability and to subsequent beam loss. The beam and its environment form a dynamical system, and it is this system that will be studied. 84 references.
Buneman instability and Pierce instability in a collisionless bounded plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iizuka, Satoru; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi; Hatta, Yoshisuke
1983-01-01
A systematic experiment is performed on the Buneman instability and the Pierce instability in a bounded plasma consisting of beam electrons and stationary ions. Current fluctuations are confirmed to be induced by the Buneman instability. On the other hand, the Pierce instability gives rise to a current limitation. The phenomena are well explained by Mikhailovskii's theory taking account of ion motion in a bounded plasma. (author)
The coalescence instability in solar flares
Tajima, T.; Brunel, F.; Sakai, J.-I.; Vlahos, L.; Kundu, M. R.
1985-01-01
The nonlinear coalescence instability of current carrying solar loops can explain many of the characteristics of the solar flares such as their impulsive nature, heating and high energy particle acceleration, amplitude oscillations of electromagnetic and emission as well as the characteristics of two-dimensional microwave images obtained during a flare. The plasma compressibility leads to the explosive phase of loop coalescence and its overshoot results in amplitude oscillations in temperatures by adiabatic compression and decompression. It is noted that the presence of strong electric fields and super-Alfvenic flows during the course of the instability play an important role in the production of nonthermal particles. A qualitative explanation on the physical processes taking place during the nonlinear stages of the instability is given.
Two-stream instability in pulsar magnetospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Usov, V.V.
1987-01-01
If the electron-positron plasma flow from the pulsar environment is stationary, the two-stream instability does not have enough time to develop in the pulsar magnetosphere. In that case the outflowing electron-positron plasma gathers into separate clouds. The clouds move along magnetic field lines and disperse as they go farther from the pulsar. At a distance of about 10 to the 8th cm from the pulsar surface, the high-energy particles of a given cloud catch up with the low-energy particles that belong to the cloud going ahead of it. In this region of a pulsar magnetosphere, the energy distribution of plasma particles is two-humped, and a two-stream instability may develop. The growth rate of the instability is quite sufficient for its development. 17 references
Instability limits for spontaneous double layer formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, J. Jr.; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S.; VanDervort, R. W.; Magee, R. M.; Reynolds, E.
2013-01-01
We present time-resolved measurements that demonstrate that large amplitude electrostatic instabilities appear in pulsed, expanding helicon plasmas at the same time as particularly strong double layers appear in the expansion region. A significant cross-correlation between the electrostatic fluctuations and fluctuations in the number of ions accelerated by the double layer electric field is observed. No correlation is observed between the electrostatic fluctuations and ions that have not passed through the double layer. These measurements confirm that the simultaneous appearance of the electrostatic fluctuations and the double layer is not simple coincidence. In fact, the accelerated ion population is responsible for the growth of the instability. The double layer strength, and therefore, the velocity of the accelerated ions, is limited by the appearance of the electrostatic instability
Carpenter, Donald A.
2008-01-01
Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole
1994-01-01
The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...
Structural and Material Instability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cifuentes, Gustavo Cifuentes
This work is a small contribution to the general problem of structural and material instability. In this work, the main subject is the analysis of cracking and failure of structural elements made from quasi-brittle materials like concrete. The analysis is made using the finite element method. Three...
Agricultural Markets Instability
Garrido, A.; Brümmer, B.; M'Barek, R.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Morales-Opazo, C.
2016-01-01
Since the financial and food price crises of 2007, market instability has been a topic of major concern to agricultural economists and policy professionals. This volume provides an overview of the key issues surrounding food prices volatility, focusing primarily on drivers, long-term implications of
Comment on critical instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, S.F.; Suzuki, Mahiko
1992-01-01
We discuss the problem of the mass splitting between top and bottom quarks, within the context of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type models involving top and bottom quark condensates. We interpret the phenomenon of 'critical instability' recently proposed to account for such a mass splitting as the fine-tuning of two vacuum expectation values in a composite two-Higgs doublet model. (orig.)
Magnetohydrodynamic instability in annular linear induction pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araseki, Hideo; Kirillov, Igor R.; Preslitsky, Gennady V.; Ogorodnikov, Anatoly P.
2006-01-01
In the previous work, the authors showed some detailed aspects of the magnetohydrodynamic instability arising in an annular linear induction pump: the instability is accompanied with a low frequency pressure pulsation in the range of 0-10 Hz when the magnetic Reynolds number is larger than unity; the low frequency pressure pulsation is produced by the sodium vortices that come from some azimuthal non-uniformity of the applied magnetic field or of the sodium inlet velocity. In the present work, an experiment and a numerical analysis are carried out to verify the pump winding phase shift that is expected as an effective way to suppress the instability. The experimental data shows that the phase shift suppresses the instability unless the slip value is so high, but brings about a decrease of the developed pressure. The numerical results indicate that the phase shift causes a local decrease of the electromagnetic force, which results in the suppression of the instability and the decrease of the developed pressure. In addition, it is exhibited that the intensity of the double-supply-frequency pressure pulsation is in nearly the same level in the case with and without the phase shift
Parametric instabilities excited by localized pumps near the lower-hybrid frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuo, Y.Y.; Chen, L.
1976-04-01
Parametric instabilities excited in non-uniform plasmas by spatially localized pump fields oscillating near the local lower-hybrid frequency are analytically investigated. Corresponding threshold conditions, temporal growth rates, and spatial amplification factors are obtained for the oscillating-two-stream instability and the decay instabilities due to nonlinear electron and ion Landau dampings
Relativistic Buneman instability in the laser breakout afterburner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albright, B. J.; Yin, L.; Bowers, Kevin J.; Hegelich, B. M.; Flippo, K. A.; Kwan, T. J. T.; Fernandez, J. C.
2007-01-01
A new laser-driven ion acceleration mechanism has been identified in particle-in-cell simulations of high-contrast-ratio ultraintense lasers with very thin (10 s of nm) solid targets [Yin et al., Laser and Particle Beams 24, 291 (2006); Yin et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 072701 (2007)]. After a brief period of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA), 'enhanced' TNSA follows. In this stage, the laser rapidly heats all the electrons in the target as the target thickness becomes comparable to the skin depth and enhanced acceleration of the ions results. Then, concomitant with the laser penetrating the target, a large accelerating longitudinal electric field is generated that co-moves with the ions. This last phase has been termed the laser 'breakout afterburner' (BOA). Earlier work suggested that the BOA was associated with the Buneman instability that efficiently converts energy from the drift of the electrons into the ions. In this Brief Communication, this conjecture is found to be consistent with particle-in-cell simulation data and the analytic dispersion relation for the relativistic Buneman instability
Scaling of plasma turbulence resulting from parametric instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ott, E.
1976-01-01
Dimensional analysis is used to obtain results on the turbulent state resulting from parametric instabilities of an initially cold plasma. The results include the possibility of an applied magnetic field, multiple ion species, and arbitrary dimensionality
Coherent betatron instability in the Tevatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogacz, S.A.; Harrison, M.; Ng, K.Y.
1988-01-01
The coherent betatron instability was first observed during the recent 1987-88 Tevatron fixed target run. In this operating mode 1000 consecutive bunches are loaded into the machine at 150 GeV with a bunch spacing of 18.8 /times/ 10 -9 sec (53 MHz). The normalized transverse emittance is typically 15 π /times/ 10 -6 m rad in each plane with a longitudinal emittance of about 1.5 eV-sec. The beam is accelerated to 800 GeV in 13 sec. and then it is resonantly extracted during a 23 sec flat top. As the run progressed the bunch intensities were increased until at about 1.4 /times/ 10 10 ppb (protons per bunch) we experienced the onset of a coherent horizontal oscillation taking place in the later stages of the acceleration cycle (>600 GeV). This rapidly developing coherent instability results in a significant emittance growth, which limits machine performance and in a catastrophic scenario it even prevents extraction of the beam. In this paper we will present a simple analytic description of the observed instability. We will show that a combination of a resistive wall coupled bunch effect and a single bunch slow head-tail instability is consistent with the above observations. Finally, a systematic numerical analysis of our model (growth-time vs chromaticity plots) points to the existence of the ≥1 slow head-tail modes as a plausible mechanism for the observed coherent instability. This last claim, as mentioned before, does not have conclusive experimental evidence, although it is based on a very good agreement between the measured values of the instability growth-time and the ones calculated on the basis of our model. 4 refs., 3 figs
Tracking Code for Microwave Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heifets, S.; SLAC
2006-01-01
To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability
Instabilities in thin tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konkin, M.K.; Adler, J.G.
1978-01-01
Tunnel junctions prepared for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy are often plagued by instabilities in the 0-500-meV range. This paper relates the bias at which the instability occurs to the barrier thickness
Instabilities in the plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaeppeler, H.J.
1975-03-01
The plasma focus was studied by many research teams in view of a possible approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Though it is questionable whether the plasma focus will ever lead to a fusion reactor, it nevertheless constitutes a strong source of neutron, X- and gamma radiation for simulating fusion reactor conditions. Furthermore, the plasma focus yields very high temperatures (10 7 K) and densities (> 10 19 cm -3 ) and thus provides interesting conditions for the study of high density plasmas. This review paper starts with a description of the compression stage of the focussing plasma, using a snow-plough model. It is shown that sophisticated MHD calculations substantiate the snowplough theory, but are not suited to describe the phenomena in the final compressed stage. For this purpose, a particle-in-cell calculation is employed, yielding a beam-beam collision model for the neutron production. Experimental evidence indicates that neutron production is associated with the appearence of m = O instabilities and is the direct result of collisions between anomalously accelerated ions. One of the mechanisms of ion acceleration are strong local electric fields. Another possible mechanism can bee seen in beam-plasma instabilities caused by runaway electrons. The analytical derivation of the dispersion relation for plasma focus conditions including runaway effect is discussed (orig.) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nassim Calixto
2006-10-01
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the values in decibels of retinal sensitivity within the central 26 degrees of the visual field of normal subjects divided into homogenous age groups using the Octopus 1-2-3; to compare the values of retinal sensitivity we have found with those considered normal in the statistical package obtained by a multicenter study performed in 1994 with Octopus 201. METHODS: 181 subjects divided into 6 homogeneous age groups (10 to 19 yr; 20 to 29 yr; 30 to 39 yr; 40 to 49 yr; 50 to 59 yr and 60 year-old or older were evaluated. Data on visual sensitivity and age, average sensitivity of central and paracentral regions and eccentricity were calculated. RESULTS: The average visual sensitivity of all groups was 26.77 ± 1.74 dB. Correlation between visual sensitivity and age evaluated by linear regression was 28.4 - 0.040 x (age for the whole sample and 28.7 - 0.050 x (age for subjects aged 20 or more. Sensitivity reduction by eccentricity was -0.30 dB/degree for the whole sample and for subjects aged 20 or more. CONCLUSIONS: Correlation between retinal sensitivity values and age based on the autoperimeter Octopus 201 (average sensitivity of 31.2 - 0.064 x age is different from that found in this study: average sensitivity of 28.4 - 0.040 x (age for the whole sample; 28.7 - 0.050 x (age for subjects aged 20 or more. Values obtained with the Octopus 1-2-3 autoperimeter cannot be compared with those by other Octopus models (101, 201 and 500 due to their distinct features.OBJETIVO: Determinar, utilizando o autoperímetro Octopus 1-2-3, os valores da sensibilidade retiniana em dB, nos 26 graus centrais do campo visual, em voluntários normais, distribuídos em grupos etários homogêneos. Comparar os valores da sensibilidade retiniana com aqueles considerados normais no pacote estatístico do programa do autoperímetro Octopus 1-2-3 obtidos por estudo multicêntrico realizado em 1994. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 181 voluntários, distribuídos em
Model of E-Cloud Instability in the Fermilab Recycler
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2015-06-24
Simple model of electron cloud is developed in the paper to explain e-cloud instability of bunched proton beam in the Fermilab Recycler. The cloud is presented as an immobile snake in strong vertical magnetic field. The instability is treated as an amplification of the bunch injection errors from the batch head to its tail. Nonlinearity of the e-cloud field is taken into account. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data demonstrating good correlation.
Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.; Dory, R.A.
1975-01-01
A 3-D nonlinear MHD computer code was used to study the time evolution of internal instabilities. Velocity vortex cells are observed to persist into the nonlinear evolution. Pressure and density profiles convect around these cells for a weak localized instability, or convect into the wall for a strong instability. (U.S.)
Instabilities excited by head-on collisions of two relativistic electron beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kou Shu-Ying
1982-02-01
In this paper, we studied the instabilities excited by head-on collision of two relativistic electron beams in transporting, taking account of the magnetic field B/sub 0/ and the thermal pressure delp of the beams. The conditions under which the instabilities occur and the growth rate of instabilities are obtained. The results show that these instabilities can be excited or inhibited by controlling the velocity of the beams.
Lehmer, B. D.; Basu-Zych, A. R.; Mineo, S.; Brandt, W. N.; Eurfrasio, R. T.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lou, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Bauer, F. E.;
2016-01-01
We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from z (is) approx. 0-7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the approx. 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed-frame (is) less than 1 keV emission at z (is) less than 1. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity (L(sub x)) and star-formation rate (SFR) literature, is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. We establish that scaling relations involving not only SFR, but also stellar mass and redshift, provide significantly improved characterizations of the average X-ray emission from normal galaxy populations at z (is) approx. 0-7. We further provide the first empirical constraints on the redshift evolution of X-ray emission from both low-mass XRB (LMXB) and high-mass XRB (HMXB) populations and their scalings with stellar mass and SFR, respectively. We find L2 -10 keV(LMXB)/stellar mass alpha (1+z)(sub 2-3) and L2 -10 keV(HMXB)/SFR alpha (1+z), and show that these relations are consistent with XRB population-synthesis model predictions, which attribute the increase in LMXB and HMXB scaling relations with redshift as being due to declining host galaxy stellar ages and metallicities, respectively. We discuss how emission from XRBs could provide an important source of heating to the intergalactic medium in the early universe, exceeding that of active galactic nuclei.
Electroacoustic control of Rijke tube instability
Zhang, Yumin; Huang, Lixi
2017-11-01
Unsteady heat release coupled with pressure fluctuation triggers the thermoacoustic instability which may damage a combustion chamber severely. This study demonstrates an electroacoustic control approach of suppressing the thermoacoustic instability in a Rijke tube by altering the wall boundary condition. An electrically shunted loudspeaker driver device is connected as a side-branch to the main tube via a small aperture. Tests in an impedance tube show that this device has sound absorption coefficient up to 40% under normal incidence from 100 Hz to 400 Hz, namely over two octaves. Experimental result demonstrates that such a broadband acoustic performance can effectively eliminate the Rijke-tube instability from 94 Hz to 378 Hz (when the tube length varies from 1.8 m to 0.9 m, the first mode frequency for the former is 94 Hz and the second mode frequency for the latter is 378 Hz). Theoretical investigation reveals that the devices act as a damper draining out sound energy through a tiny hole to eliminate the instability. Finally, it is also estimated based on the experimental data that small amount of sound energy is actually absorbed when the system undergoes a transition from the unstable to stable state if the contrpaol is activated. When the system is actually stabilized, no sound is radiated so no sound energy needs to be absorbed by the control device.
RADIATIVE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacquet, Emmanuel; Krumholz, Mark R.
2011-01-01
We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g., at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H II region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick a diabaticregime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved, for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state and derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability condition.
Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas
Kalman, G J
2003-01-01
The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.
Orphans and political instability.
Breuning, Marijke; Ishiyama, John
2011-01-01
This study investigates the security implications of growing orphan populations, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Little has been written about the security implications of this especially vulnerable group of children. Are growing orphan populations associated with increases in political instability as has been suggested? Using data from several sources, we employ regression analysis to test whether Sub-Saharan African countries with larger proportions of orphans and those with increasing orphan populations experience higher rates of political instability. We find that the increase in the orphan population is related to an increasing incidence of civil conflict, but do not find a similar relationship for the proportion of orphans. In addition, we find that the causes of orphanhood matter. We conclude that increases in orphan populations (rather than simple proportions) are destabilizing. We suggest possible avenues for mediating the security risks posed by growing orphan populations.
Bossa, Benjamin
2005-11-01
We address the problem of the free fall of a long, horizontal and narrow liquid layer squeezed in a vertical open Hele-Shaw cell. The layer destabilizes as it falls down, evolving into a series of liquid blobs linked together by thin bridges, which ultimately break, leaving the initially connex fluid layer as a set a disjointed drops. The mechanism of this instability is the onset of a vertical pressure gradient due to the curvature difference of the moving contact line between the advancing interface and the rear interface. This instability, whose growth rate scales with a non-trivial power of the capillary number, amplifies indifferently a broad band of wavenumbers because of the flat shape of its dispersion relation in the thin layer limit. We will finally comment on the nature of the final fragmentation process and drop size distributions.
Instability and internet design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Braman
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Instability - unpredictable but constant change in one’s environment and the means with which one deals with it - has replaced convergence as the focal problem for telecommunications policy in general and internet policy in particular. Those who designed what we now call the internet during the first decade of the effort (1969-1979, who in essence served simultaneously as its policy-makers, developed techniques for coping with instability of value for network designers today and for those involved with any kind of large-scale sociotechnical infrastructure. Analysis of the technical document series that was medium for and record of that design process reveals coping techniques that began with defining the problem and went on to include conceptual labour, social practices, and technical approaches.
Imaging of patellofemoral instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waldt, S.; Rummeny, E.J.
2012-01-01
Patellofemoral instability remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to its multifactorial genesis. The purpose of imaging is to systematically analyze predisposing factors, such as trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance, rotational deformities of the lower limb and patellar tilt. In order to evaluate anatomical abnormalities with a sufficient diagnostic accuracy, standardized measurement methods and implementation of various imaging modalities are necessary. Diagnosis of acute and often overlooked lateral patellar dislocation can be established with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) because of its characteristic patterns of injury. Damage to the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has a significance just as high as the predisposing risk factors in relation to the cause of chronic instability. (orig.) [de
Linear waves and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bers, A.
1975-01-01
The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorfi, E.A.; Drury, L.O.
1985-01-01
The interaction between energetic charged particles and thermal plasma, which forms the basis of diffusive shock acceleration, leads also to interesting dynamical phenomena. For a compressional mode propagating in a system with homoeneous energetic particle pressure it is well known that friction with the energetic particles leads to damping. The linear theory of this effect has been analyzed in detail by Ptuskin. Not so obvious is that a non-uniform energetic particle pressure can in addition amplify compressional disturbances. If the pressure gradient is sufficiently steep this growth can dominate the frictional damping and lead to an instability. It is important to not that this effect results from the collective nature of the interaction between the energetic particles and the gas and is not connected with the Parker instability, nor with the resonant amplification of Alfven waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koh, Eng-Siew; Paul, Narinder; Hodgson, David C; Tran, Tu Huan; Heydarian, Mostafa; Sachs, Rainer K; Tsang, Richard W; Brenner, David J; Pintilie, Melania; Xu, Tony; Chung, June
2007-01-01
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) survivors who undergo radiotherapy experience increased risks of second cancers (SC) and cardiac sequelae. To reduce such risks, extended-field radiotherapy (RT) for HL has largely been replaced by involved field radiotherapy (IFRT). While it has generally been assumed that IFRT will reduce SC risks, there are few data that quantify the reduction in dose to normal tissues associated with modern RT practice for patients with mediastinal HL, and no estimates of the expected reduction in SC risk. Organ-specific dose-volume histograms (DVH) were generated for 41 patients receiving 35 Gy mantle RT, 35 Gy IFRT, or 20 Gy IFRT, and integrated organ mean doses were compared for the three protocols. Organ-specific SC risk estimates were estimated using a dosimetric risk-modeling approach, analyzing DVH data with quantitative, mechanistic models of radiation-induced cancer. Dose reductions resulted in corresponding reductions in predicted excess relative risks (ERR) for SC induction. Moving from 35 Gy mantle RT to 35 Gy IFRT reduces predicted ERR for female breast and lung cancer by approximately 65%, and for male lung cancer by approximately 35%; moving from 35 Gy IFRT to 20 Gy IFRT reduces predicted ERRs approximately 40% more. The median reduction in integral dose to the whole heart with the transition to 35 Gy IFRT was 35%, with a smaller (2%) reduction in dose to proximal coronary arteries. There was no significant reduction in thyroid dose. The significant decreases estimated for radiation-induced SC risks associated with modern IFRT provide strong support for the use of IFRT to reduce the late effects of treatment. The approach employed here can provide new insight into the risks associated with contemporary IFRT for HL, and may facilitate the counseling of patients regarding the risks associated with this treatment
Instability in dynamic fracture
Fineberg, J.; Marder, M.
1999-05-01
The fracture of brittle amorphous materials is an especially challenging problem, because the way a large object shatters is intimately tied to details of cohesion at microscopic scales. This subject has been plagued by conceptual puzzles, and to make matters worse, experiments seemed to contradict the most firmly established theories. In this review, we will show that the theory and experiments fit within a coherent picture where dynamic instabilities of a crack tip play a crucial role. To accomplish this task, we first summarize the central results of linear elastic dynamic fracture mechanics, an elegant and powerful description of crack motion from the continuum perspective. We point out that this theory is unable to make predictions without additional input, information that must come either from experiment, or from other types of theories. We then proceed to discuss some of the most important experimental observations, and the methods that were used to obtain the them. Once the flux of energy to a crack tip passes a critical value, the crack becomes unstable, and it propagates in increasingly complicated ways. As a result, the crack cannot travel as quickly as theory had supposed, fracture surfaces become rough, it begins to branch and radiate sound, and the energy cost for crack motion increases considerably. All these phenomena are perfectly consistent with the continuum theory, but are not described by it. Therefore, we close the review with an account of theoretical and numerical work that attempts to explain the instabilities. Currently, the experimental understanding of crack tip instabilities in brittle amorphous materials is fairly detailed. We also have a detailed theoretical understanding of crack tip instabilities in crystals, reproducing qualitatively many features of the experiments, while numerical work is beginning to make the missing connections between experiment and theory.
Relativistic centrifugal instability
Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Komissarov, Serguei S.
2018-03-01
Near the central engine, many astrophysical jets are expected to rotate about their axis. Further out they are expected to go through the processes of reconfinement and recollimation. In both these cases, the flow streams along a concave surface and hence, it is subject to the centrifugal force. It is well known that such flows may experience the centrifugal instability (CFI), to which there are many laboratory examples. The recent computer simulations of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei undergoing the process of reconfinement show that in such jets CFI may dominate over the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with velocity shear (Gourgouliatos & Komissarov). In this letter, we generalize the Rayleigh criterion for CFI in rotating fluids to relativistic flows using a heuristic analysis. We also present the results of computer simulations which support our analytic criterion for the case of an interface separating two uniformly rotating cylindrical flows. We discuss the difference between CFI and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in flows with curved streamlines.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Tatsuoki
1985-01-01
In this article analyses of the MHD stabilities which govern the global behavior of a fusion plasma are described from the viewpoint of the numerical computation. First, we describe the high accuracy calculation of the MHD equilibrium and then the analysis of the linear MHD instability. The former is the basis of the stability analysis and the latter is closely related to the limiting beta value which is a very important theoretical issue of the tokamak research. To attain a stable tokamak plasma with good confinement property it is necessary to control or suppress disruptive instabilities. We, next, describe the nonlinear MHD instabilities which relate with the disruption phenomena. Lastly, we describe vectorization of the MHD codes. The above MHD codes for fusion plasma analyses are relatively simple though very time-consuming and parts of the codes which need a lot of CPU time concentrate on a small portion of the codes, moreover, the codes are usually used by the developers of the codes themselves, which make it comparatively easy to attain a high performance ratio on the vector processor. (author)
Ion temperature gradient instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
Anomalous ion thermal conductivity remains an open physics issue for the present generation of high temperature Tokamaks. It is generally believed to be due to Ion Temperature Gradient Instability (η i mode). However, it has been difficult, if not impossible to identify this instability and study the anomalous transport due to it, directly. Therefore the production and identification of the mode is pursued in the simpler and experimentally convenient configuration of the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM). CLM is a steady state machine which already has all the appropriate parameters, except η i . This parameter is being increased to the appropriate value of the order of 1 by 'feathering' a tungsten screen located between the plasma source and the experimental cell to flatten the density profile and appropriate redesign of heating antennas to steepen the ion temperature profile. Once the instability is produced and identified, a thorough study of the characteristics of the mode can be done via a wide range of variation of all the critical parameters: η i , parallel wavelength, etc
Oblique Alfvén instabilities driven by compensated currents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malovichko, P. [Main Astronomical Observatory, NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J., E-mail: voitenko@oma.be [Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence, Space Physics Division, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Ringlaan-3-Avenue Circulaire, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)
2014-01-10
Compensated-current systems created by energetic ion beams are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas. The well-known examples are foreshock regions in the solar wind and around supernova remnants. We found a new oblique Alfvénic instability driven by compensated currents flowing along the background magnetic field. Because of the vastly different electron and ion gyroradii, oblique Alfvénic perturbations react differently on the currents carried by the hot ion beams and the return electron currents. Ultimately, this difference leads to a non-resonant aperiodic instability at perpendicular wavelengths close to the beam ion gyroradius. The instability growth rate increases with increasing beam current and temperature. In the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock, the instability growth time can drop below 10 proton cyclotron periods. Our results suggest that this instability can contribute to the turbulence and ion acceleration in space and astrophysical foreshocks.
Oblique Alfvén instabilities driven by compensated currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malovichko, P.; Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J.
2014-01-01
Compensated-current systems created by energetic ion beams are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas. The well-known examples are foreshock regions in the solar wind and around supernova remnants. We found a new oblique Alfvénic instability driven by compensated currents flowing along the background magnetic field. Because of the vastly different electron and ion gyroradii, oblique Alfvénic perturbations react differently on the currents carried by the hot ion beams and the return electron currents. Ultimately, this difference leads to a non-resonant aperiodic instability at perpendicular wavelengths close to the beam ion gyroradius. The instability growth rate increases with increasing beam current and temperature. In the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock, the instability growth time can drop below 10 proton cyclotron periods. Our results suggest that this instability can contribute to the turbulence and ion acceleration in space and astrophysical foreshocks.
Adiabatic instability in coupled dark energy/dark matter models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bean, Rachel; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Trodden, Mark
2008-01-01
We consider theories in which there exists a nontrivial coupling between the dark matter sector and the sector responsible for the acceleration of the Universe. Such theories can possess an adiabatic regime in which the quintessence field always sits at the minimum of its effective potential, which is set by the local dark matter density. We show that if the coupling strength is much larger than gravitational, then the adiabatic regime is always subject to an instability. The instability, which can also be thought of as a type of Jeans instability, is characterized by a negative sound speed squared of an effective coupled dark matter/dark energy fluid, and results in the exponential growth of small scale modes. We discuss the role of the instability in specific coupled cold dark matter and mass varying neutrino models of dark energy and clarify for these theories the regimes in which the instability can be evaded due to nonadiabaticity or weak coupling.
Anomalous plasma transport due to electron temperature gradient instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, Sinji; Ito, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Tetsuo.
1979-01-01
The collisionless drift wave instability driven by an electron temperature inhomogeneity (electron temperature gradient instability) and the enhanced transport processes associated with it are studied using a two-and-a-half dimensional particle simulation code. The simulation results show that quasilinear diffusion in phase space is an important mechanism for the saturation of the electron temperature gradient instability. Also, the instability yields particle fluxes toward the hot plasma regions. The heat conductivity of the electron temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field, T sub(e'), is not reduced by magnetic shear but remains high, whereas the heat conductivity of the parallel temperature, T sub(e''), is effectively reduced, and the instability stabilized. (author)
Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.
2003-01-01
The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for
Delayed chromosomal instability caused by large deletion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ojima, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kodama, S.; Watanabe, M.
2003-01-01
Full text: There is accumulating evidence that genomic instability, manifested by the expression of delayed phenotypes, is induced by X-irradiation but not by ultraviolet (UV) light. It is well known that ionizing radiation, such as X-rays, induces DNA double strand breaks, but UV-light mainly causes base damage like pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts. Although the mechanism of radiation-induced genomic instability has not been thoroughly explained, it is suggested that DNA double strand breaks contribute the induction of genomic instability. We examined here whether X-ray induced gene deletion at the hprt locus induces delayed instability in chromosome X. SV40-immortalized normal human fibroblasts, GM638, were irradiated with X-rays (3, 6 Gy), and the hprt mutants were isolated in the presence of 6-thioguanine (6-TG). A 2-fold and a 60-fold increase in mutation frequency were found by 3 Gy and 6 Gy irradiation, respectively. The molecular structure of the hprt mutations was determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction of nine exons. Approximately 60% of 3 Gy mutants lost a part or the entire hprt gene, and the other mutants showed point mutations like spontaneous mutants. All 6 Gy mutants show total gene deletion. The chromosomes of the hprt mutants were analyzed by Whole Human Chromosome X Paint FISH or Xq telomere FISH. None of the point or partial gene deletion mutants showed aberrations of X-chromosome, however total gene deletion mutants induced translocations and dicentrics involving chromosome X. These results suggest that large deletion caused by DNA double strand breaks destabilizes chromosome structure, which may be involved in an induction of radiation-induced genomic instability
Longwave instabilities and patterns in fluids
Shklyaev, Sergey
2017-01-01
This book summarizes the main advances in the field of nonlinear evolution and pattern formation caused by longwave instabilities in fluids. It will allow readers to master the multiscale asymptotic methods and become familiar with applications of these methods in a variety of physical problems. Longwave instabilities are inherent to a variety of systems in fluid dynamics, geophysics, electrodynamics, biophysics, and many others. The techniques of the derivation of longwave amplitude equations, as well as the analysis of numerous nonlinear equations, are discussed throughout. This book will be of value to researchers and graduate students in applied mathematics, physics, and engineering, in particular within the fields of fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer theory, and nonlinear dynamics. .
Dissipative drift instability in dusty plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nilakshi Das
2012-03-01
Full Text Available An investigation has been done on the very low-frequency electrostatic drift waves in a collisional dusty plasma. The dust density gradient is taken perpendicular to the magnetic field B0⃗, which causes the drift wave. In this case, low-frequency drift instabilities can be driven by E1⃗×B0⃗ and diamagnetic drifts, where E1⃗ is the perturbed electric field. Dust charge fluctuation is also taken into consideration for our study. The dust- neutral and ion-neutral collision terms have been included in equations of motion. It is seen that the low-frequency drift instability gets damped in such a system. Both dust charging and collision of plasma particles with the neutrals may be responsible for the damping of the wave. Both analytical and numerical techniques have been used while developing the theory.
Pump instability phenomena generated by fluid forces
Gopalakrishnan, S.
1985-01-01
Rotor dynamic behavior of high energy centrifugal pumps is significantly affected by two types of fluid forces; one due to the hydraulic interaction of the impeller with the surrounding volute or diffuser and the other due to the effect of the wear rings. The available data on these forces is first reviewed. A simple one degree-of-freedom system containing these forces is analytically solved to exhibit the rotor dynamic effects. To illustrate the relative magnitude of these phenomena, an example of a multistage boiler feed pump is worked out. It is shown that the wear ring effects tend to suppress critical speed and postpone instability onset. But the volute-impeller forces tend to lower the critical speed and the instability onset speed. However, for typical boiler feed pumps under normal running clearances, the wear ring effects are much more significant than the destabilizing hydraulic interaction effects.
Increased particle confinement with the use of external dc bias field in the CTX spheromak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, C.W.; Hoida, H.W.; Henins, I.; Fernandez, J.C.; Jarboe, T.R.; Marklin, G.J.
1985-01-01
Spheromaks are formed in a mesh flux conserver in the presence of an external dc bias field. The spheromaks remain stable to tilt instabilities with ratios of bias-to-spheromak flux of up to 47 +- 7%. Normally applied bias flux puts the spheromak separatrix inside the metal mesh and improves the particle confinement
Internal wave attractors: different scenarios of instability
Brouzet, Christophe; Ermanyuk, E. V.; Joubaud, Sylvain; Pillet, Grimaud; Dauxois, Thierry
2017-01-01
International audience; This paper presents an experimental study of different instability scenarios in a parallelogram-shaped internal wave attractor in a trapezoidal domain filled with a uniformly stratified fluid.Energy is injected into the system via the oscillatory motion of a vertical wall of the trapezoidal domain. Whole-field velocity measurements are performed with the conventional PIV technique. In the linear regime, the total kinetic energyof the fluid system is used to quantify th...
Studies of intense-laser plasma instabilities
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Láska, Leoš; Krása, Josef; Badziak, J.; Jungwirth, Karel; Krouský, Eduard; Margarone, Daniele; Parys, P.
2013-01-01
Roč. 272, May (2013), 94-98 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA AV ČR IAA100100715 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser plasma instabilities * self-generated magnetic field * longitudinal structure of the expanding plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.538, year: 2013
Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids
Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier
2016-07-01
Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced
Hydrodynamic instability experiments on the Nova laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kalantar, D.H.
1996-08-01
Hydrodynamic instabilities in compressible plasmas play a critical role in the fields of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), astrophysics, and high energy-density physics. We are, investigating hydrodynamic instabilities such as the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability, at high compression at the Nova laser in a series of experiments, both in planar and in spherical geometry. In the indirect drive approach, a thermal x-ray drive is generated by focusing the Nova laser beams into a Au cylindrical radiation cavity (hohlraum). Issues in the instability evolution that we are examining are shock propagation and foil compression, RT growth of 2D versus 3D single-mode perturbations, drive pulse shape, perturbation location at the ablation front versus at an embedded interface, and multimode perturbation growth and nonlinear saturation. The effects of convergence on RT growth are being investigated both with hemispherical implosions of packages mounted on the hohlraum wall and with spherical implosions of capsules at the center of the hohlraum. Single-mode perturbations are pre-imposed at the ablation front of these capsules as a seed for the RT growth. In our direct drive experiments, we are investigating the effect of laser imprinting and subsequent RT growth on planar foils, both at λ Laser = 1/3 μm and 1/2 μm. An overview is given describing recent progress in each of these areas
Doǧan, S.; Nixon, C. J.; King, A. R.; Pringle, J. E.
2018-05-01
Accretion discs are generally warped. If a warp in a disc is too large, the disc can `break' apart into two or more distinct planes, with only tenuous connections between them. Further, if an initially planar disc is subject to a strong differential precession, then it can be torn apart into discrete annuli that precess effectively independently. In previous investigations, torque-balance formulae have been used to predict where and when the disc breaks into distinct parts. In this work, focusing on discs with Keplerian rotation and where the shearing motions driving the radial communication of the warp are damped locally by turbulence (the `diffusive' regime), we investigate the stability of warped discs to determine the precise criterion for an isolated warped disc to break. We find and solve the dispersion relation, which, in general, yields three roots. We provide a comprehensive analysis of this viscous-warp instability and the emergent growth rates and their dependence on disc parameters. The physics of the instability can be understood as a combination of (1) a term that would generally encapsulate the classical Lightman-Eardley instability in planar discs (given by ∂(νΣ)/∂Σ < 0) but is here modified by the warp to include ∂(ν1|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0, and (2) a similar condition acting on the diffusion of the warp amplitude given in simplified form by ∂(ν2|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0. We discuss our findings in the context of discs with an imposed precession, and comment on the implications for different astrophysical systems.
System Detects Vibrational Instabilities
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.
1990-01-01
Sustained vibrations at two critical frequencies trigger diagnostic response or shutdown. Vibration-analyzing electronic system detects instabilities of combustion in rocket engine. Controls pulse-mode firing of engine and identifies vibrations above threshold amplitude at 5.9 and/or 12kHz. Adapted to other detection and/or control schemes involving simultaneous real-time detection of signals above or below preset amplitudes at two or more specified frequencies. Potential applications include rotating machinery and encoders and decoders in security systems.
Evaporation and Antievaporation Instabilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Addazi
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We review (antievaporation phenomena within the context of quantum gravity and extended theories of gravity. The (antievaporation effect is an instability of the black hole horizon discovered in many different scenarios: quantum dilaton-gravity, f ( R -gravity, f ( T -gravity, string-inspired black holes, and brane-world cosmology. Evaporating and antievaporating black holes seem to have completely different thermodynamical features compared to standard semiclassical black holes. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to conceptual and technical aspects of (antievaporation effects, while discussing problems that are still open.
FAST MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE MEDIATED BY THE PLASMOID INSTABILITY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ni, Lei; Kliem, Bernhard; Lin, Jun; Wu, Ning
2015-01-01
Magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized solar chromosphere is studied in 2.5 dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations including radiative cooling and ambipolar diffusion. A Harris current sheet with and without a guide field is considered. Characteristic values of the parameters in the middle chromosphere imply a high magnetic Reynolds number of ∼10 6 -10 7 in the present simulations. Fast magnetic reconnection then develops as a consequence of the plasmoid instability without the need to invoke anomalous resistivity enhancements. Multiple levels of the instability are followed as it cascades to smaller scales, which approach the ion inertial length. The reconnection rate, normalized to the asymptotic values of magnetic field and Alfvén velocity in the inflow region, reaches values in the range ∼0.01-0.03 throughout the cascading plasmoid formation and for zero as well as for strong guide field. The outflow velocity reaches ≈40 km s –1 . Slow-mode shocks extend from the X-points, heating the plasmoids up to ∼8 × 10 4 K. In the case of zero guide field, the inclusion of both ambipolar diffusion and radiative cooling causes a rapid thinning of the current sheet (down to ∼30 m) and early formation of secondary islands. Both of these processes have very little effect on the plasmoid instability for a strong guide field. The reconnection rates, temperature enhancements, and upward outflow velocities from the vertical current sheet correspond well to their characteristic values in chromospheric jets
FAST MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE MEDIATED BY THE PLASMOID INSTABILITY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ni, Lei; Kliem, Bernhard; Lin, Jun [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Wu, Ning, E-mail: leini@ynao.ac.cn [School of Tourism and Geography, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650031 (China)
2015-01-20
Magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized solar chromosphere is studied in 2.5 dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations including radiative cooling and ambipolar diffusion. A Harris current sheet with and without a guide field is considered. Characteristic values of the parameters in the middle chromosphere imply a high magnetic Reynolds number of ∼10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} in the present simulations. Fast magnetic reconnection then develops as a consequence of the plasmoid instability without the need to invoke anomalous resistivity enhancements. Multiple levels of the instability are followed as it cascades to smaller scales, which approach the ion inertial length. The reconnection rate, normalized to the asymptotic values of magnetic field and Alfvén velocity in the inflow region, reaches values in the range ∼0.01-0.03 throughout the cascading plasmoid formation and for zero as well as for strong guide field. The outflow velocity reaches ≈40 km s{sup –1}. Slow-mode shocks extend from the X-points, heating the plasmoids up to ∼8 × 10{sup 4} K. In the case of zero guide field, the inclusion of both ambipolar diffusion and radiative cooling causes a rapid thinning of the current sheet (down to ∼30 m) and early formation of secondary islands. Both of these processes have very little effect on the plasmoid instability for a strong guide field. The reconnection rates, temperature enhancements, and upward outflow velocities from the vertical current sheet correspond well to their characteristic values in chromospheric jets.
Gravitomagnetic Instabilities in Anisotropically Expanding Fluids
Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios B.; Vlahos, Loukas
Gravitational instabilities in a magnetized Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe, in which the magnetic field was assumed to be too weak to destroy the isotropy of the model, are known and have been studied in the past. Accordingly, it became evident that the external magnetic field disfavors the perturbations' growth, suppressing the corresponding rate by an amount proportional to its strength. However, the spatial isotropy of the FRW universe is not compatible with the presence of large-scale magnetic fields. Therefore, in this paper we use the general-relativistic version of the (linearized) perturbed magnetohydrodynamic equations with and without resistivity, to discuss a generalized Jeans criterion and the potential formation of density condensations within a class of homogeneous and anisotropically expanding, self-gravitating, magnetized fluids in curved space-time. We find that, for a wide variety of anisotropic cosmological models, gravitomagnetic instabilities can lead to subhorizontal, magnetized condensations. In the nonresistive case, the power spectrum of the unstable cosmological perturbations suggests that most of the power is concentrated on large scales (small k), very close to the horizon. On the other hand, in a resistive medium, the critical wave-numbers so obtained, exhibit a delicate dependence on resistivity, resulting in the reduction of the corresponding Jeans lengths to smaller scales (well bellow the horizon) than the nonresistive ones, while increasing the range of cosmological models which admit such an instability.
Azimuthal magnetorotational instability with super-rotation
Rüdiger, G.; Schultz, M.; Gellert, M.; Stefani, F.
2018-02-01
It is demonstrated that the azimuthal magnetorotational instability (AMRI) also works with radially increasing rotation rates contrary to the standard magnetorotational instability for axial fields which requires negative shear. The stability against non-axisymmetric perturbations of a conducting Taylor-Couette flow with positive shear under the influence of a toroidal magnetic field is considered if the background field between the cylinders is current free. For small magnetic Prandtl number the curves of neutral stability converge in the (Hartmann number,Reynolds number) plane approximating the stability curve obtained in the inductionless limit . The numerical solutions for indicate the existence of a lower limit of the shear rate. For large the curves scale with the magnetic Reynolds number of the outer cylinder but the flow is always stable for magnetic Prandtl number unity as is typical for double-diffusive instabilities. We are particularly interested to know the minimum Hartmann number for neutral stability. For models with resting or almost resting inner cylinder and with perfectly conducting cylinder material the minimum Hartmann number occurs for a radius ratio of \\text{in}=0.9$ . The corresponding critical Reynolds numbers are smaller than 4$ .
Convective instability of RCP modes for a magnetized chiral plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres-Silva, Hector; Sakanaka, P.H.; Reggiani, N.
1998-01-01
Using the Maxwell's equations and the proposed constitutive relations for a chiral plasma medium, the dispersion relations for right circularly polarized waves, (RCP), depending on the characteristics of the distribution, a new mode conversion and instabilities are found due to the chiral effect. From the dispersion relations and considering that the chirowave magnetic field may be important when the condition of velocity isotropy is dropped, we find that growing modes (instabilities) can occur at resonance and for frequencies below the electron gyrofrequency. We study, in this paper, the convective instability of RCP waves in a two-component bi-Lorentzian chiroplasma which can model the solar wind particle distributions. (author)
Temperature-gradient instability induced by conducting end walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Ryutov, D.D.; Tsidulko, Yu.A.
1990-04-01
A new rapidly growing electron temperature gradient instability is found for a plasma in contact with a conducting wall. The linear instability analysis is presented and speculations are given for its nonlinear consequences. This instability illustrates that conducting walls can produce effects that are detrimental to plasma confinement. This mode should be of importance in open-ended systems including astrophysical plasmas, mirror machines and at the edge of tokamaks where field lines are open and are connected to limiters or divertors. 16 refs., 2 figs
Electromagnetic ion beam instability upstream of the earth's bow shock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gary, S.P.; Gosling, J.T.; Forslund, D.W.
1981-01-01
The linear theory of the electromagnetic ion beam instability for arbitrary angles of propagation has been studied. The parameters considered in the theory are typical of the solar wind upstream of the earth's bow shock when a 'reflected' proton beam is present. Maximum growth occurs for propagation parallel to the ambient field B, but this instability also displays significant growth at wave-vectors oblique to B, Oblique, unstable modes seem to be the likely source of the compressive magnetic fluctuations recently observed in conjunction with 'diffuse' ion population. An energetic ion beam does not directly give rise to linear growth of either ion acoustic or whistler mode instabilities
Instability of equatorial protons in Jupiter's mid-magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Northrop, T.G.; Schardt, A.W.
1980-01-01
Two different models for the distribution function are fit to the Jovian protons seen by Pioneer 10 inbound. The models reproduce the observed energy and angular distributions. These models are then used to assess the collisionless mirror instability. Because of the pancake proton angular distributions in the equatorial ring current region, the ring current particle population appears to be mirror unstable at times, with instability growth rates of approx.10 min. Such a time is consistent with observed proton flux autocorrelation times. An instability such as this (there are other candidates) may be responsible for the previously established proton flux flowing parallel to the magnetic field away from the equatorial region
The superradiant instability regime of the spinning Kerr black hole
Hod, Shahar
2016-07-01
Spinning Kerr black holes are known to be superradiantly unstable to massive scalar perturbations. We here prove that the instability regime of the composed Kerr-black-hole-massive-scalar-field system is bounded from above by the dimensionless inequality Mμ r+ is the dimensionless ratio between the horizon radii of the black hole. It is further shown that this analytically derived upper bound on the superradiant instability regime of the spinning Kerr black hole agrees with recent numerical computations of the instability resonance spectrum.
Suppression of electromechanical instability in fiber-reinforced dielectric elastomers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rui Xiao
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The electromechanical instability of dielectric elastomers has been a major challenge for the application of this class of active materials. In this work, we demonstrate that dielectric elastomers filled with soft fiber can suppress the electromechanical instability and achieve large deformation. Specifically, we developed a constitutive model to describe the dielectric and mechanical behaviors of fiber-reinforced elastomers. The model was applied to study the influence of stiffness, nonlinearity properties and the distribution of fiber on the instability of dielectric membrane under an electric field. The results show that there exists an optimal fiber distribution condition to achieve the maximum deformation before failure.
Squire, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip F.
2018-04-01
We identify and study a number of new, rapidly growing instabilities of dust grains in protoplanetary disks, which may be important for planetesimal formation. The study is based on the recognition that dust-gas mixtures are generically unstable to a Resonant Drag Instability (RDI), whenever the gas, absent dust, supports undamped linear modes. We show that the "streaming instability" is an RDI associated with epicyclic oscillations; this provides simple interpretations for its mechanisms and accurate analytic expressions for its growth rates and fastest-growing wavelengths. We extend this analysis to more general dust streaming motions and other waves, including buoyancy and magnetohydrodynamic oscillations, finding various new instabilities. Most importantly, we identify the disk "settling instability," which occurs as dust settles vertically into the midplane of a rotating disk. For small grains, this instability grows many orders of magnitude faster than the standard streaming instability, with a growth rate that is independent of grain size. Growth timescales for realistic dust-to-gas ratios are comparable to the disk orbital period, and the characteristic wavelengths are more than an order of magnitude larger than the streaming instability (allowing the instability to concentrate larger masses). This suggests that in the process of settling, dust will band into rings then filaments or clumps, potentially seeding dust traps, high-metallicity regions that in turn seed the streaming instability, or even overdensities that coagulate or directly collapse to planetesimals.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability of cylindrical jets with radial motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Xiang M. [GE Nuclear, Wilmington, NC (United States); Schrock, V.E.; Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1995-09-01
Rayleigh-Taylor instability of an interface between fluids with different densities subjected to accelleration normal to itself has interested researchers for almost a century. The classic analyses of a flat interface by Rayleigh and Taylor have shown that this type of instability depends on the direction of acceleration and the density differences of the two fluids. Plesset later analyzed the stability of a spherically symmetric flows (and a spherical interface) and concluded that the instability also depends on the velocity of the interface as well as the direction and magnitude of radial acceleration. The instability induced by radial motion in cylindrical systems seems to have been neglected by previous researchers. This paper analyzes the Rayleigh-Taylor type of the spherical case, the radial velocity also plays an important role. As an application, the example of a liquid jet surface in an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) reactor design is analyzed.
Mizuno, Yosuke; Lyubarsky, Yuri; ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hardee, Philip E.
2010-01-01
We have investigated the development of current-driven (CD) kink instability through three-dimensional relativistic MHD simulations. A static force-free equilibrium helical magnetic configuration is considered in order to study the influence of the initial configuration on the linear and nonlinear evolution of the instability. We found that the initial configuration is strongly distorted but not disrupted by the kink instability. The instability develops as predicted by linear theory. In the non-linear regime the kink amplitude continues to increase up to the terminal simulation time, albeit at different rates, for all but one simulation. The growth rate and nonlinear evolution of the CD kink instability depends moderately on the density profile and strongly on the magnetic pitch profile. The growth rate of the kink mode is reduced in the linear regime by an increase in the magnetic pitch with radius and the non-linear regime is reached at a later time than for constant helical pitch. On the other hand, the growth rate of the kink mode is increased in the linear regime by a decrease in the magnetic pitch with radius and reaches the non-linear regime sooner than the case with constant magnetic pitch. Kink amplitude growth in the non-linear regime for decreasing magnetic pitch leads to a slender helically twisted column wrapped by magnetic field. On the other hand, kink amplitude growth in the non-linear regime nearly ceases for increasing magnetic pitch.
Feedback stabilization of plasma instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cap, F.F.
1977-01-01
This paper reviews the theoretical and experimental aspects of feedback stabilization. After giving an outline of a general theoretical model for electrostatic instabilities the author provides a theoretical analysis of the suppression of various types of instability. Experiments which have been carried out on the feedback stabilization of various types of plasma instability are reported. An extensive list of references is given. (B.R.H.)
Thermal Shrinkage for Shoulder Instability
Toth, Alison P.; Warren, Russell F.; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Doward, David A.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Altchek, David W.; O’Brien, Stephen J.
2010-01-01
Thermal capsular shrinkage was popular for the treatment of shoulder instability, despite a paucity of outcomes data in the literature defining the indications for this procedure or supporting its long-term efficacy. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical evaluation of radiofrequency thermal capsular shrinkage for the treatment of shoulder instability, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From 1999 to 2001, 101 consecutive patients with mild to moderate shoulder instability underwent...
Political Instability and Economic Growth
Alberto Alesina; Sule Ozler; Nouriel Roubini; Phillip Swagel
1992-01-01
This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950-1982. We define ?political instability? as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower than otherwise. This ef...
Unified formulation for inhomogeneity-driven instabilities in the lower-hybrid range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silveira, O.J.G.; Ziebell, L.F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, Peter H.
2002-01-01
A local dispersion relation that describes inhomogeneity-driven instabilities in the lower-hybrid range is derived following a procedure that correctly describes energy exchange between waves and particles in inhomogeneous media, correcting some inherent ambiguities associated with the standard formalism found in the literature. Numerical solutions of this improved dispersion relation show that it constitutes a unified formulation for the instabilities in the lower-hybrid range, describing the so-called modified two-stream instability, excited by the ion cross-field drift, including the ion Weibel instability, and also describing the lower-hybrid drift instability, which is due to inhomogeneity effects on the electron population
Width of electromagnetic wave instability spectrum in tungsten plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rinkevich, A.B.
1995-01-01
Based on the study of high-frequency signal modulation and spectrum analysis of the envelope a measurement of spectrum width for electromagnetic wave instability was carried out under conditions of current pulse action on tungsten plate in magnetic field. The existence of amplitude-frequency wave modulation was revealed. The width of current disturbance spectrum in a specimen was evaluated. Current disturbances are shown to cause the instability of electromagnetic wave. 11 refs.; 6 figs
Long-wavelength negative mass instabilities in high current betatrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godfrey, B.B.; Hughes, T.P.
1985-01-01
Growth rates of negative mass instabilities in conventional and modified betatrons are calculated by analytic methods and by performing three-dimensional particle simulations. In contrast to earlier work, toroidal corrections to the field equations are included in the analytic model. As a result, good agreement with numerical simulations is obtained. The simulations show that the nonlinear development of the instabilities can seriously disrupt the beam
Instability characteristics of fluidelastic instability of tube rows in crossflow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.
1986-04-01
An experimental study is reported to investigate the jump phenomenon in critical flow velocities for tube rows with different pitch-to-diameter ratios and the excited and intrinsic instabilities for a tube row with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.75. The experimental data provide additional insights into the instability phenomena of tube arrays in crossflow. 9 refs., 10 figs
Kinetic instabilities in relativistic plasmas: the Harris instability revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tautz, R.C.
2008-01-01
Plasma instabilities that generate aperiodic fluctuations are of outstanding importance in the astrophysical context. Two prominent examples are the electromagnetic Weibel instability and the electrostatic Harris instability, which operate in initially non-magnetized and magnetized plasmas, respectively. In this talk, the original formulation of the Harris instability will be reviewed and generalizations will be presented such as the inclusion of (1) relativistic effects, (2) ion effects, and (3) mode coupling. It will be shown that, with these modifications, a powerful method has been developed for the determination of both the existence and the growth rate of low-frequency instabilities. Applications can be found in astrophysical jets, where the rest frame can be used and so no parallel motion is present. At the end of the talk, how the particle composition of gamma-ray burst jets can be predicted using the Harris technique. (author)
Particle acceleration by inverse-Weibel instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawata, S [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
1997-12-31
A high demagnetization rate delta B/delta t can be obtained through fast decoupling of a magnetic field from an electric circuit which generates the magnetic field. Nowadays fast decoupling is possible by present switching technologies. A high particle-acceleration gradient can be obtained in an inductive acceleration system compared with that in a conventional induction accelerator. Based on this new proposal, inductive ion and electron accelerations were investigated numerically. The mechanism presented can be considered as pseudo-inverse Weibel instability. (author). 3 figs., 7 refs.
Particle acceleration by inverse-Weibel instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawata, S.
1996-01-01
A high demagnetization rate delta B/delta t can be obtained through fast decoupling of a magnetic field from an electric circuit which generates the magnetic field. Nowadays fast decoupling is possible by present switching technologies. A high particle-acceleration gradient can be obtained in an inductive acceleration system compared with that in a conventional induction accelerator. Based on this new proposal, inductive ion and electron accelerations were investigated numerically. The mechanism presented can be considered as pseudo-inverse Weibel instability. (author). 3 figs., 7 refs
Off-equatorial current-driven instabilities ahead of approaching dipolarization fronts
Zhang, Xu; Angelopoulos, V.; Pritchett, P. L.; Liu, Jiang
2017-05-01
Recent kinetic simulations have revealed that electromagnetic instabilities near the ion gyrofrequency and slightly away from the equatorial plane can be driven by a current parallel to the magnetic field prior to the arrival of dipolarization fronts. Such instabilities are important because of their potential contribution to global electromagnetic energy conversion near dipolarization fronts. Of the several instabilities that may be consistent with such waves, the most notable are the current-driven electromagnetic ion cyclotron instability and the current-driven kink-like instability. To confirm the existence and characteristics of these instabilities, we used observations by two Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites, one near the neutral sheet observing dipolarization fronts and the other at the boundary layer observing precursor waves and currents. We found that such instabilities with monochromatic signatures are rare, but one of the few cases was selected for further study. Two different instabilities, one at about 0.3 Hz and the other at a much lower frequency, 0.02 Hz, were seen in the data from the off-equatorial spacecraft. A parallel current attributed to an electron beam coexisted with the waves. Our instability analysis attributes the higher-frequency instability to a current-driven ion cyclotron instability and the lower frequency instability to a kink-like instability. The current-driven kink-like instability we observed is consistent with the instabilities observed in the simulation. We suggest that the currents needed to excite these low-frequency instabilities are so intense that the associated electron beams are easily thermalized and hence difficult to observe.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Nykyri
2006-10-01
Full Text Available On 3 July 2001, the four Cluster satellites traversed along the dawnside magnetospheric flank and observed large variations in all plasma parameters. The estimated magnetopause boundary normals were oscillating in the z-direction and the normal component of the magnetic field showed systematic 2–3 min bipolar variations for 1 h when the IMF had a small positive b_{z}-component and a Parker-spiral orientation in the x,y-plane. Brief 33 s intervals with excellent deHoffman Teller frames were observed satisfying the Walén relation. Detailed comparisons with 2-D MHD simulations indicate that Cluster encountered rotational discontinuities generated by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We estimate a wave length of 6 R_{E} and a wave vector with a significant z-component.
Can Chronic Ankle Instability be Prevented? Rethinking Management of Lateral Ankle Sprains.
Denegar, Craig R.; Miller, Sayers J., III
2002-01-01
Investigates whether chronic ankle instability can be prevented, discussing: the relationship between mechanical and functional instability; normal ankle mechanics, sequelae to lateral ankle sprains, and abnormal ankle mechanics; and tissue healing, joint dysfunction, and acute lateral ankle sprain management. The paper describes a treatment model…
Posterolateral elbow joint instability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole; Nielsen, K K
1998-01-01
Thirty-five osteoligamentous elbows were included in a study on the kinematics of posterolateral elbow joint instability during the pivot shift test (PST) before and after separate ligament cuttings in the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC). Division of the annular ligament or the lateral...... ulnar collateral ligament caused no laxity during the PST. Division of the lateral collateral ligament caused maximal laxity of 4 degrees and 23 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. Cutting of the LCLC at the ulnar or the humeral insertion was necessary...... for any PST stressed elbow joint laxity to occur. Total division of the LCLC induced a maximal laxity of 7.9 degrees and 37 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. This study suggests the lateral collateral ligament to be the primary soft tissue constraint...
Saturation of equatorial inertial instability
Kloosterziel, R.C.; Orlandi, P.; Carnevale, G.F.
2015-01-01
Inertial instability in parallel shear flows and circular vortices in a uniformly rotating system ( $f$f-plane) redistributes absolute linear momentum or absolute angular momentum in such a way as to neutralize the instability. In previous studies we showed that, in the absence of other
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brad J. Arnold
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.
Internal rotor friction instability
Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.
1990-01-01
The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.
Nonideal magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and toroidal magnetic confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furth, H.P.
1985-05-01
The marked divergence of experimentally observed plasma instability phenomena from the predictions of ideal magnetohydrodynamics led in the early 1960s to the formulations of finite-resistivity stability theory. Beginning in the 1970s, advanced plasma diagnostics have served to establish a detailed correspondence between the predictions of the finite-resistivity theory and experimental plasma behavior - particularly in the case of the resistive kink mode and the tokamak plasma. Nonlinear resistive-kink phenomena have been found to govern the transport of magnetic flux and plasma energy in the reversed-field pinch. The other predicted finite-resistivity instability modes have been more difficult to identify directly and their implications for toroidal magnetic confinement are still unresolved
The coalescence instability in solar flares
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, T.; Brunel, F.; Sakai, J.I.; Vlahos, L.; Kundu, M.R.
1984-01-01
The non-linear coalescence instability of current carrying solar loops can explain many of the characteristics of the solar flares such as their impulsive nature, heating and high energy particle acceleration, amplitude oscillations of electromagnetic emission as well as the characteristics of 2-D microwave images obtained during a flare. The plasma compressibility leads to the explosive phase of loop coalescence and its overshoot results in amplitude oscillations in temperatures by adiabatic compression and decompression. We note that the presence of strong electric fields and super-Alfvenic flows during the course of the instabilty paly an important role in the production of non-thermal particles. A qualitative explanation on the physical processes taking place during the non-linear stages of the instability is given. (author)
Feedback control of coupled-bunch instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fox, J.D.; Eisen, N.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.; Oxoby, G.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Serio, M.
1993-05-01
The next generation of synchrotron light sources and particle accelerators will require active feedback systems to control multi-bunch instabilities. Stabilizing hundreds or thousands of potentially unstable modes in these accelerator designs presents many technical challenges. Feedback systems to stabilize coupled-bunch instabilities may be understood in the frequency domain (mode-based feedback) or in the time domain (bunch-by-bunch feedback). In both approaches an external amplifier system is used to create damping fields that prevent coupled-bunch oscillations from growing without bound. The system requirements for transverse (betatron) and longitudinal (synchrotron) feedback are presented, and possible implementation options developed. Feedback system designs based on digital signal-processing techniques are described. Experimental results are shown from a synchrotron oscillation damper in the SSRL/SLAC storage ring SPEAR that uses digital signal-processing techniques
Selected Topics in Microwave Instabilities and Linacs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ng, K. Y. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2013-06-01
The Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP) is embarking on its first X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) project. It is a cascading high-gain harmonic generation FEL. Microwave instabilities driven by various effects, especially the space-charge force, will degrade the qual- ity of the electron beam before entering into the undulator. However, inside the undulator, the occurrence of microbunching becomes an ut- most important ingredient for the generation of coherent radiation. In short, controlled and uncontrolled microwave instabilities must be fully understood in such a project. These are the slides of a series of eight-hour lectures given at the SINAP in June of 2013, with the intention of a fully understanding of the microbunching phenomenon. The sections of wake field and impedance theory are added as an in- troduction for those who are not familiar with the subject.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahsa Mansourian
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Background: According to the increasing development of home and business electronic equipment in today's world, the biological effects of ELF magnetic fields have been studied at two molecular-cellular and animal- human levels. Considering the therapeutic viewpoint of this study regarding the effects of low-frequency fields of mobile phone, the effect of acute exposure to this field on chemotherapy will be studied.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, based on measurement of the intensity of the magnetic fields from mobile phones in another research, flux densities of magnetic field of 159.44, 93.25 and 120µ tesla with frequency of 217Hz was generated in magnetic field generator system, and the apoptosis level in K562 cancer cells and healthy cells of lymphocytes was assessed after exposure to field using flow cytometry method. This evaluation method was also performed for the cells treated with bleomycin after exposure to this field.Results: 217 Hz magnetic field exposure significantly increases the rate of apoptosis percentage (p > 0.05 in K562 cancer cells and in two intensities of 120 and 159.44µ tesla compared to the control group, but such effect is not observed in lymphocyte cells. Bleomycin-induced apoptosis percentage following exposure to the mentioned magnetic field shows no significant difference compared to the group of treatment with drug and without field exposure. This lack of significant difference is observed between the groups of drug after field exposure and field alone as well as between groups exposed to field and groups treated with bleomycin.Conclusion: Study results showed that 217 Hz magnetic field of mobile phone can induce apoptosis on cancer cells, but it has no effect on healthy cells. Thus, in order to use mobile phone as an effective factor in their treatment, some studies should be conducted at animal-human level.
Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2001-01-01
The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions
Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-07-01
The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions.
Jeans Instability of the Self Gravitating Viscoelastic Ferromagnetic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
67
neutron stars, white dwarf stars and supernovae. The instability problems in astrophysical domain are generally investigated by considering the uniform character of magnetic field and rotation. Larson (2003) in the study related to the star formation revealed that this idealization of uniform character of magnetic field and ...
Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is ...
Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is considered.
Ion acoustic instability of HPT particles, FAC density, anomalous ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
electromagnetic field grow at the expense of the electron kinetic energy and as a result, vari- ous instabilities set in. The magnetometer data indicate that these waves are spatially corre- lated with perturbations; we interpret them as field aligned current (FAC) layers directed into and out of the auroral ionosphere. Kinetic the-.
Parametric decay instabilities in ECR heated plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porkolab, M.
1982-01-01
The possibility of parametric excitation of electron Bernstein waves and low frequency ion oscillations during ECR heating at omega/sub o/ approx. = l omega/sub ce/, l = 1,2 is examined. In particular, the thresholds for such instabilities are calculated. It is found that Bernstein waves and lower hybrid quasi-modes have relatively low homogeneous where T/sub e/ approx. = T/sub i/. Thus, these processes may lead to nonlinear absorption and/or scattering of the incident pump wave. The resulting Bernstein waves may lead to either more effective heating (especially during the start-up phase) or to loss of microwave energy if the decay waves propagate out of the system before their energy is absorbed by particles. While at omega/sub o/ = omega/sub UH/ the threshold is reduced due to the WKB enhancement of the pump wave, (and this instability may be important in tokamaks) in EBT's and tandem mirrors the instability at omega /sub o/ greater than or equal to 2 omega/sub ce/ may be important. The instability may persist even if omega > 2 omega/sub ce/ and this may be the case during finite beta depression of the magnetic field in which case the decay waves may be trapped in the local magnetic well so that convective losses are minimized. The excited fluctuations may lead to additional scattering of the ring electrons and the incident microwave fields. Application of these calculations to ECR heating of tokamaks, tandem mirrors, and EBT's will be examined
Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks
Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe
2016-09-01
Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular
Thermal shrinkage for shoulder instability.
Toth, Alison P; Warren, Russell F; Petrigliano, Frank A; Doward, David A; Cordasco, Frank A; Altchek, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J
2011-07-01
Thermal capsular shrinkage was popular for the treatment of shoulder instability, despite a paucity of outcomes data in the literature defining the indications for this procedure or supporting its long-term efficacy. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical evaluation of radiofrequency thermal capsular shrinkage for the treatment of shoulder instability, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From 1999 to 2001, 101 consecutive patients with mild to moderate shoulder instability underwent shoulder stabilization surgery with thermal capsular shrinkage using a monopolar radiofrequency device. Follow-up included a subjective outcome questionnaire, discussion of pain, instability, and activity level. Mean follow-up was 3.3 years (range 2.0-4.7 years). The thermal capsular shrinkage procedure failed due to instability and/or pain in 31% of shoulders at a mean time of 39 months. In patients with unidirectional anterior instability and those with concomitant labral repair, the procedure proved effective. Patients with multidirectional instability had moderate success. In contrast, four of five patients with isolated posterior instability failed. Thermal capsular shrinkage has been advocated for the treatment of shoulder instability, particularly mild to moderate capsular laxity. The ease of the procedure makes it attractive. However, our retrospective review revealed an overall failure rate of 31% in 80 patients with 2-year minimum follow-up. This mid- to long-term cohort study adds to the literature lacking support for thermal capsulorrhaphy in general, particularly posterior instability. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11420-010-9187-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut
2005-01-01
Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...
Polarization modulational instability in a birefringent optical ﬁber ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We obtain conditions for the occurrence of polarization modulational instability in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes for the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation modelling fourth order dispersion effects when the linearly polarized pump is oriented at arbitrary angles with respect to the slow and fast axes of ...
Instability timescale for the inclination instability in the solar system
Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob
2018-04-01
The gravitational influence of small bodies is often neglected in the study of solar system dynamics. However, this is not always an appropriate assumption. For example, mutual secular torques between low mass particles on eccentric orbits can result in a self-gravity instability (`inclination instability'; Madigan & McCourt 2016). During the instability, inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities decrease (detachment), and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. In the solar system, the orbits of the most distant objects show all three of these characteristics (high inclination: Volk & Malhotra (2017), detachment: Delsanti & Jewitt (2006), and argument of perihelion clustering: Trujillo & Sheppard (2014)). The inclination instability is a natural explanation for these phenomena.Unfortunately, full N-body simulations of the solar system are unfeasible (N ≈ O(1012)), and the behavior of the instability depends on N, prohibiting the direct application of lower N simulations. Here we present the instability timescale's functional dependence on N, allowing us to extrapolate our simulation results to that appropriate for the solar system. We show that ~5 MEarth of small icy bodies in the Sedna region is sufficient for the inclination instability to occur in the outer solar system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Ye; Cabot, William H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Thornber, Ben [The University of Sydney, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, New South Wales 2006, Sydney (Australia)
2016-05-15
Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) and Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) are serious practical issues in inertial confinement fusion research, and also have relevance to many cases of astrophysical fluid dynamics. So far, much of the attention has been paid to the late-time scaling of the mixed width, which is used as a surrogate to how well the fluids have been mixed. Yet, the actual amount of mixed mass could be viewed as a more direct indicator on the evolution of the mixing layers due to hydrodynamic instabilities. Despite its importance, there is no systematic study as yet on the scaling of the mixed mass for either the RTI or the RMI induced flow. In this article, the normalized mixed mass (Ψ) is introduced for measuring the efficiency of the mixed mass. Six large numerical simulation databases have been employed: the RTI cases with heavy-to-light fluid density ratios of 1.5, 3, and 9; the single shock RMI cases with density ratios of 3 and 20; and a reshock RMI case with density ratio of 3. Using simulated flow fields, the normalized mixed mass Ψ is shown to be more sensitive in discriminating the variation with Atwood number for the RTI flows. Moreover, Ψ is demonstrated to provide more consistent results for both the RTI and RMI flows when compared with the traditional mixedness parameters, Ξ and Θ.
Inhomogeneity driven by Higgs instability in a gapless superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giannakis, Ioannis; Hou Defu; Huang Mei; Ren Haicang
2007-01-01
The fluctuations of the Higgs and pseudo Nambu-Goldstone fields in the 2-flavor color superconductivity (2SC) phase with mismatched pairing are described in the nonlinear realization framework of the gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In the gapless 2SC phase, not only Nambu-Goldstone currents can be spontaneously generated, but also the Higgs field exhibits instablity. The Nambu-Goldstone currents generation indicates the formation of the single plane wave Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrel state and breaks rotation symmetry, while the Higgs instability favors spatial inhomogeneity and breaks translation invariance. In this paper, we focus on the Higgs instability which has not drawn much attention yet. The Higgs instability cannot be removed without a long range force, thus it persists in the gapless superfluidity and induces phase separation. In the case of gapless 2-flavor color superconductivity state, the Higgs instability can only be partially removed by the electric Coulomb energy. However, it is not excluded that the Higgs instability might be completely removed in the charge neutral gapless color-flavor locked phase by the color Coulomb energy
Functional Instability of the Ankle Joint: Etiopathogenesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aydan ÖRSÇELİK
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Ankle sprain is one of the most common sports injuries. Chronic ankle instability is a common complication of ankle sprains. Two causes of chronic ankle instability are mechanical instability and functional instability. It is important to understand functional instability etiopathogenesis of the ankle joint in order to guide diagnosis and treatment. This article aims to understand the etiopathogenesis of functional ankle instability.
The thermo magnetic instability in hot viscose plasmas
Haghani, A.; Khosravi, A.; Khesali, A.
2017-10-01
Magnetic Rotational Instability (MRI) can not performed well in accretion disks with strong magnetic field. Studies have indicated a new type of instability called thermomagnetic instability (TMI) in systems where Nernst coefficient and gradient temperature were considered. Nernst coefficient would appear if Boltzman equation could be expanded through ω_{Be} (cyclotron frequency). However, the growth rate of this instability was two magnitude orders below MRI growth (Ωk), which could not act the same as MRI. Therefor, a higher growth rate of unstable modes was needed. In this paper, rotating viscid hot plasma with strong magnetic filed was studied. Firstly, a constant alpha viscosity was studied and then a temperature sensitive viscosity. The results showed that the temperature sensitive viscosity would be able to increase the growth rate of TMI modes significantly, hence capable of acting similar to MRI.
Higher-order modulation instability in nonlinear fiber optics.
Erkintalo, Miro; Hammani, Kamal; Kibler, Bertrand; Finot, Christophe; Akhmediev, Nail; Dudley, John M; Genty, Goëry
2011-12-16
We report theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of higher-order modulation instability in the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This higher-order instability arises from the nonlinear superposition of elementary instabilities, associated with initial single breather evolution followed by a regime of complex, yet deterministic, pulse splitting. We analytically describe the process using the Darboux transformation and compare with experiments in optical fiber. We show how a suitably low frequency modulation on a continuous wave field induces higher-order modulation instability splitting with the pulse characteristics at different phases of evolution related by a simple scaling relationship. We anticipate that similar processes are likely to be observed in many other systems including plasmas, Bose-Einstein condensates, and deep water waves. © 2011 American Physical Society
Janus faces of Jeans instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verheest, Frank; Jacobs, Gerald; Cadez, Vladimir M.
2000-01-01
Self-gravitating clouds have been shown by Jeans to be unstable to harmonic perturbations whose wavelength exceeds some critical value involving the mass density and some thermal velocity or equivalent information. Based upon the assumption that the unperturbed cloud is initially uniform, the Jeans instability is non-oscillatory and purely growing. However, Newtonian gravitation precludes strictly homogeneous equilibria, but a way out is offered, in theory, by considering local perturbations, small compared to the inhomogeneity scale lengths. While in itself plausible, this procedure can in most cases not be tested for internal consistency, because real knowledge about the equilibrium is lacking, and is therefore called the Jeans swindle. The severe limitations of such an approach lead to an unavoidable dichotomy, and an example of a plasma will be discussed where the computations can be done explicitly, both for the stationary as well as for the perturbed state, showing that the system is stable at all wavelengths compatible with the equilibrium inhomogeneity. Nevertheless, the present state of affairs does not allow self-consistent equilibria to be worked out in more complicated configurations, like in dusty plasmas with external magnetic fields. This typically leads to the Jeans swindle being used a little longer than desirable
Linear instability and nonlinear motion of rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, J.
1985-01-01
Two coupled nonlinear equations describing the flute dynamics of the magnetically confined low-β collisionless rotating plasma are derived. The linear instability and nonlinear dynamics of the rotating column are analyzed theoretically. In the linear stability analysis, a new sufficient condition of stability is obtained. From the exact solution of eigenvalue equation for Gaussian density profile and uniform rotation of the plasma, the stability of the system strongly depends on the direction of plasma rotation, FLR effect and the location of the conducting wall. An analytic expression showing the finite wall effect on different normal modes is obtained and it explains the different behavior of (1,0) normal mode from other modes. The sheared rotation driven instability is investigated by using three model equilibrium profiles, and the analytic expressions of eigenvalues which includes the wall effect are obtained. The analogy between shear rotation driven instability and the instability driven by sheared plane parallel flow in the inviscid fluid is analyzed. Applying the linear analysis to the central cell of tandem mirror system, the trapped particle instability with only passing electronics is analyzed. For uniform rotation and Gaussian density profile, an analytic expression that determines the stability boundary is found. The nonlinear analysis shows that the nonlinear equations have a solitary vortex solution which is very similar to the vortex solution of nonlinear Rossby wave equation
Resistive instabilities of current sheets in the solar wind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobrowolny, M [CNR, Laboratorio per il Plasma nello Spazio, Frascati, Italy; Trussoni, E [CNR, Laboratorio di Cosmo-Geofisica, Turin, Italy
1979-03-01
Resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities are investigated numerically for non-antisymmetric magnetic field profiles similar to those indicated in spacecraft data on solar wind discontinuities. The eigenvalue problem derived for the growth rate of possible instabilities from dimensionless equations for velocity and magnetic field perturbations is solved starting from the outer regions where the plasma is frozen to the magnetic field. For an antisymmetric magnetic profile, calculations show only tearing modes to be present, with instabilities occurring only at long wavelengths, while for a non-antisymmetric magnetic profile resembling the observed solar wind, calculations indicate the presence of rippling modes driven by resistivity gradients, in addition to the tearing modes. Calculations of the scale lengths of variation of the reversing component based on a scaling law relating the maximum growth rate to the magnetic Reynolds number are found to agree with observed solar current sheet scale lengths.
Dynamical instabilities in magnetohydrodynamic wind-cloud interactions
Banda-Barragan, Wladimir Eduardo; Parkin, Elliot Ross; Crocker, Roland M.; Federrath, Christoph; Bicknell, Geoffrey Vincent
2015-08-01
We report the results from a comprehensive numerical study that investigates the role of dynamical instabilities in magnetohydrodynamic interactions between winds and spherical clouds in the interstellar medium. The growth of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at interfaces between wind and cloud material is responsible for the disruption of clouds and the formation of filamentary tails. We show how different strengths and orientations of the initial magnetic field affect the development of unstable modes and the ultimate morphology of these filaments. In the weak field limit, for example, KH instabilities developing at the flanks of clouds are dominant, whilst they are suppressed when stronger fields are considered. On the other hand, perturbations that originate RT instabilities at the leading edge of clouds are enhanced when fields are locally stronger. The orientation of the field lines also plays an important role in the structure of filaments. Magnetic ropes are key features of systems in which fields are aligned with the wind velocity, whilst current sheets are favoured when the initial field is preferentially transverse to the wind velocity. We compare our findings with analytical predictions obtained from the linear theory of hydromagnetic stability and provide a classification of filamentary tails based on their morphology.
Nonlinear electron magnetohydrodynamics physics. IV. Whistler instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.; Strohmaier, K. D.
2008-01-01
A very large low-frequency whistler mode is excited with magnetic loop antennas in a uniform laboratory plasma. The wave magnetic field exceeds the ambient field causing in one polarity a field reversal, and a magnetic topology resembling that of spheromaks in the other polarity. These propagating ''whistler spheromaks'' strongly accelerate the electrons and create non-Maxwellian distributions in their toroidal current ring. It is observed that the locally energized electrons in the current ring excite new electromagnetic instabilities and emit whistler modes with frequencies unrelated to the applied frequency. Emissions are also observed from electrons excited in X-type neutral lines around the antenna. The properties of the excited waves such as amplitudes, frequency spectra, field topologies, propagation, polarization, growth, and damping have been investigated. The waves remain linear (B wave 0 ) and convert a small part of the electron kinetic energy into wave magnetic energy (B wave 2 /2μ 0 e )
On the instability of a spatially confined electron beam in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strangeway, R.J.
1980-01-01
The instability of a field-aligned electron beam of finite width streaming through a uniform magnetized plasma is investigated. The nature of the normal modes, and the wave field variation within the beam region are studied. It is found that an electrostatic approximation is useful in describing the general form of the dispersion relation, specifically showing how the beam width controls the range of allowed solutions. The electrostatic approximation is shown to be good for most of the range of frequencies considered. When the electron gyrofrequency is greater than the electron plasma frequency, the theory predicts that the cold plasma upper-hybrid resonance (Z mode) is stable to negative Landau damping. A criterion for applying this result to beam-plasma systems other than the ones investigated here is developed, and it is found that the effect should be more readily observable in laboratory experiments than in space plasmas. (author)
Beta-limiting MHD instabilities in improved performance NSTX spherical torus plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menard, J.E.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.
2003-01-01
Global magnetohydrodynamic stability limits in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have increased significantly recently due to a combination of device and operational improvements. First, more routine H-mode operation with broadened pressure profiles allows access to higher normalized beta and lower internal inductance. Second, the correction of a poloidal field coil induced error-field has largely eliminated locked tearing modes during nor- mal operation and increased the maximum achievable beta. As a result of these improvements, peak beta values have reached (not simultaneously) β t = 35%, β N 6.5, N > = 4.5, β / l i =10, and β= 1.4. High β P operation with reduced tearing activity has allowed a doubling of discharge pulse-length to just over 1 second with sustained periods of β N ∼ 6. Details of the β limit scalings and β-limiting instabilities in various operating regimes are described. (author)
Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.
2011-01-01
The Impact Factors (IFs) of the Institute for Scientific Information suffer from a number of drawbacks, among them the statistics—Why should one use the mean and not the median?—and the incomparability among fields of science because of systematic differences in citation behavior among fields. Can
Field-induced magnetic phases in the normal and superconducting states of ErNi_{2}B_{2}C
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, A.; Toft, K.N.; Abrahamsen, A.B.
2004-01-01
We present a comprehensive neutron-diffraction study of the magnetic structures of ErNi2B2C in the presence of a magnetic field applied along [010], [110], or [001]. In zero field, the antiferromagnetic structure is transversely polarized with Qapproximate to0.55a* and the moments along the b...
Kang, Chang Ho; Kim, Hee Kyung; Shiraj, Sahar; Anton, Christopher; Kim, Dong Hoon; Horn, Paul S
2016-07-01
Patellofemoral instability is one of the most common causes of cartilage damage in teenagers. To quantitatively evaluate the patellar cartilage in patients with patellofemoral instability using T2 relaxation time maps (T2 maps), compare the values to those in patients without patellofemoral instability and correlate them with morphological grades in patients with patellofemoral instability. Fifty-three patients with patellofemoral instability (mean age: 15.9 ± 2.4 years) and 53 age- and gender-matched patients without patellofemoral instability were included. Knee MR with axial T2 map was performed. Mean T2 relaxation times were obtained at the medial, central and lateral zones of the patellar cartilage and compared between the two groups. In the patellofemoral instability group, morphological grading of the patellar cartilage (0-4) was performed and correlated with T2 relaxation times. Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer in the group with patellofemoral instability as compared to those of the control group across the patellar cartilage (Student's t-test, Ppatellofemoral instability, patellar cartilage damage occurs across the entire cartilage with the highest T2 values at the apex. T2 relaxation times directly reflect the severity in low-grade cartilage damage, which implies an important role for T2 maps in differentiating between normal and low-grade cartilage damage.
Size effects on cavitation instabilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo
2006-01-01
growth is here analyzed for such cases. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is applied for a power-law hardening material, and the numerical analyses are carried out for an axisymmetric unit cell containing a spherical void. In the range of high stress...... triaxiality, where cavitation instabilities are predicted by conventional plasticity theory, such instabilities are also found for the nonlocal theory, but the effects of gradient hardening delay the onset of the instability. Furthermore, in some cases the cavitation stress reaches a maximum and then decays...... as the void grows to a size well above the characteristic material length....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G Rana
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The thermosolutal instability of compressible Walters' (model B' elastico-viscous rotating fluid permeated with suspended particles (fine dust in the presence of vertical magnetic field in porous medium is considered. By applying normal mode analysis method, the dispersion relation has been derived and solved analytically. It is observed that the rotation, magnetic field, suspended particles and viscoelasticity introduce oscillatory modes. For stationary convection the Walters' (model B' fluid behaves like an ordinary Newtonian fluid and it is observed that the rotation and stable solute gradient has stabilizing effects and suspended particles are found to have destabilizing effect on the system, whereas the medium permeability has stabilizing or destabilizing effect on the system under certain conditions. The magnetic field has destabilizing effect in the absence of rotation, whereas in the presence of rotation, magnetic field has stabilizing or destabilizing effect under certain conditions.
Computer simulations of electromagnetic cool ion beam instabilities. [in near earth space
Gary, S. P.; Madland, C. D.; Schriver, D.; Winske, D.
1986-01-01
Electromagnetic ion beam instabilities driven by cool ion beams at propagation parallel or antiparallel to a uniform magnetic field are studied using computer simulations. The elements of linear theory applicable to electromagnetic ion beam instabilities and the simulations derived from a one-dimensional hybrid computer code are described. The quasi-linear regime of the right-hand resonant ion beam instability, and the gyrophase bunching of the nonlinear regime of the right-hand resonant and nonresonant instabilities are examined. It is detected that in the quasi-linear regime the instability saturation is due to a reduction in the beam core relative drift speed and an increase in the perpendicular-to-parallel beam temperature; in the nonlinear regime the instabilities saturate when half the initial beam drift kinetic energy density is converted to fluctuating magnetic field energy density.
Resistive instabilities in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutherford, P.H.
1985-10-01
Low-m tearing modes constitute the dominant instability problem in present-day tokamaks. In this lecture, the stability criteria for representative current profiles with q(0)-values slightly less than unit are reviewed; ''sawtooth'' reconnection to q(0)-values just at, or slightly exceeding, unity is generally destabilizing to the m = 2, n = 1 and m = 3, n = 2 modes, and severely limits the range of stable profile shapes. Feedback stabilization of m greater than or equal to 2 modes by rf heating or current drive, applied locally at the magnetic islands, appears feasible; feedback by island current drive is much more efficient, in terms of the radio-frequency power required, then feedback by island heating. Feedback stabilization of the m = 1 mode - although yielding particularly beneficial effects for resistive-tearing and high-beta stability by allowing q(0)-values substantially below unity - is more problematical, unless the m = 1 ideal-MHD mode can be made positively stable by strong triangular shaping of the central flux surfaces. Feedback techniques require a detectable, rotating MHD-like signal; the slowing of mode rotation - or the excitation of non-rotating modes - by an imperfectly conducting wall is also discussed
Sheared Electroconvective Instability
Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon
2012-11-01
Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (φ2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.
Fan, X; Wu, L L; Xiao, G G; Ma, Z Z; Liu, F
2018-03-11
Objective: To analyze potentials of frequency-doubling technology perimetry (FDP) for diagnosing open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in perimetrically normal eyes of OAG patients diagnosed with standard automated perimetry (SAP) and relating factors from abnormalities on FDP to visual field loss on SAP. Methods: A prospective cohort study. Sixty-eight eyes of 68 OAG patients visiting the ophthalmic clinic of Peking University Third Hospital during November 2003 and October 2007 [32 primary open-angle glaucoma patients and 36 normal tension glaucoma patients, 32 males and 36 females, with an average age of (59±13) years] with unilateral field loss detected by SAP (Octopus101 tG2 program) were examined with the FDP N-30 threshold program (Humphrey Instruments) at baseline. Two groups, FDP positive group and FDP negative group, were divided based on the FDP results, and visual field examinations were followed by a series of SAP examinations for the perimetrically normal eyes over 8 years. During the follow-up, the difference of the converting rate of SAP tests between the two groups was analyzed. Differences between "convertors" and "non-convertors" of SAP tests in the FDP positive group, such as the cup-to-disk ratio and glaucomatous optic neuropathy rate, were also compared with the independent-sample t test or Wilcoxon two-sample test for continuous variable data and the χ(2) test or Fisher exact test for classified variable data and rates. Results: Forty-eight perimetrically normal eyes of 48 participants had complete data and a qualifying follow-up. Baseline FDP results were positive in 33 eyes and negative in 15 eyes. Of the eyes with positive FDP results, 22 eyes developed abnormal SAP results after 4.0 to 90.0 months (median 14.5 months) , whereas none of the eyes with negative FDP results developed abnormal SAP results. For perimetrically normal eyes in the FDP positive group, "converters" showed a greater cup-to-disk ratio (0.73±0.09 vs . 0.63±0.14, Wilcoxon two
Simple lecture demonstrations of instability and self-organization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayer, V V; Varaksina, E I; Saranin, V A
2014-01-01
A dielectric liquid layer with an electric field created inside it is proposed as a means for demonstrating the phenomenon of self-organization. The field is produced by the distributed charge transferred by a corona discharge from the tip to the liquid surface. The theory of the phenomenon is presented. An analogy with the Rayleigh – Taylor instability is drawn and a comparison with the Benard instability is given. The practicality of the method for both natural sciences and the humanities is discussed. (methodological notes)
Jeans instability of rotating magnetized quantum plasma: Influence of radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joshi, H., E-mail: hjoshi8525@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Mewar University, Chittorgarh (Raj.) India (India); Pensia, R. K. [Department of Physics, Govt. Girls College, Neemuch (M.P.) India (India)
2015-07-31
The effect of radiative heat-loss function and rotation on the Jeans instability of quantum plasma is investigated. The basic set of equations for this problem is constructed by considering quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model. Using normal mode analysis, the general dispersion relation is obtained. This dispersion relation is studied in both, longitudinal and transverse direction of propagations. In both case of longitudinal and transverse direction of propagation, the Jeans instability criterion is modified due to presence of radiative heat-loss function and quantum correction.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte
2018-01-01
implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...
Tunnelling instability via perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graffi, S. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Grecchi, V. (Moderna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Jona-Lasinio, G. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies)
1984-10-21
The semiclassical limit of low lying states in a multiwell potential is studied by rigorous perturbative techniques. In particular tunnelling instability and localisation of wave functions is obtained in a simple way under small deformations of symmetric potentials.